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Sample records for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency

  1. Development of a fast and economical genotyping protocol for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in cattle.

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    Alyethodi, Rafeeque R; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil; Deb, Rajib; Alex, Rani; Sharma, Sheetal; Sengar, Gyanendra S; Prakash, B

    2016-01-01

    Fast and economical means of assaying SNP's are important in diagnostic assays, especially when a large number of animals have to be screened for a genetic disease. This study was aimed at the development of a fast and economical screening assay for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) which is an important genetic disease of cattle industry. Four primers were designed where the outer primers amplify a 354 bp amplicon of CD18 gene carrying the polymorphism responsible for BLAD. The specifically designed inner primers in conjunction with the modified reaction mixture and cyclic conditions ensured amplification of either of wild or mutated alleles. Together with outer primers, the inner primers generated typical banding pattern in agarose gel which discriminated the normal animal against the carrier. We successfully used this protocol in 200 bulls for genotyping the BLAD allele which confirmed by sequencing, showing a cent percentage concordance. With the developed assay the need for restriction digestion or use of costly equipment viz. real time PCR was eliminated. This genotyping assay ensured fast and economical genotyping and could be adopted in every laboratory with a minimum equipment requirement of thermocycler and gel documentation system.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1

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    ... Health Conditions Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 Printable PDF Open All Close ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 is a disorder that causes ...

  3. PCR screening and allele frequency estimation of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein and Gir cattle in Brazil

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    Luciana A. Ribeiro

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD is a disease known to affect the Holstein cattle breed throughout the world. Eighty-eight Holstein dairy cows and 88 Gir dairy bulls were genotyped by PCR for the CD18 BLAD alelle. The frequency of the BLAD mutant allele and the BLAD-carrier prevalence in Brazilian Holstein cows were 2.8 and 5.7%, respectively. No mutant allele was found in any of the 88 Gir animals. We conclude that the CD18 gene mutation is prevalent in Brazilian Holstein cattle and absent or present at a very low frequency in Gir cattle.Oitenta e oito vacas da raça Holandesa e 88 touros da raça Gir foram genotipados através da PCR para o gene CD18 da deficiência de adesão de leucócitos em bovinos (BLAD. As freqüências do alelo mutante BLAD e de vacas heterozigotas da raça Holandesa foram 2,8 e 5,7%, respectivamente. Por outro lado, todos animais Gir foram identificados como homozigotos normais, ou seja, nenhum alelo mutante BLAD foi encontrado. Estes resultados sugerem que a mutação no gene CD18 é prevalente em bovinos brasileiros da raça Holandesa e ausente ou presente numa freqüência muito baixa em animais Gir.

  4. A novel method for rapid and reliable detection of complex vertebral malformation and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein cattle

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    Zhang Yi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD are two autosomal recessive lethal genetic defects frequently occurring in Holstein cattle, identifiable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable genotyping assay to screen the active Holstein sires and determine the carrier frequency of CVM and BLAD in Chinese dairy cattle population. Results We developed real-time PCR-based assays for discrimination of wild-type and defective alleles, so that carriers can be detected. Only one step was required after the DNA extraction from the sample and time consumption was about 2 hours. A total of 587 Chinese Holstein bulls were assayed, and fifty-six CVM-carriers and eight BLAD-carriers were identified, corresponding to heterozygote carrier frequencies of 9.54% and 1.36%, respectively. The pedigree analysis showed that most of the carriers could be traced back to the common ancestry, Osborndale Ivanhoe for BLAD and Pennstate Ivanhoe Star for CVM. Conclusions These results demonstrate that real-time PCR is a simple, rapid and reliable assay for BLAD and CVM defective allele detection. The high frequency of the CVM allele suggests that implementing a routine testing system is necessary to gradually eradicate the deleterious gene from the Chinese Holstein population.

  5. Identification of a null allele in genetic tests for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Pakistani Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle.

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    Nasreen, Fozia; Malik, Naveed A; Qureshi, Javed A; Raadsma, Herman W; Tammen, Imke

    2012-12-01

    Two clinically healthy mature Pakistani Bos indicus × Bos taurus cattle were genotyped as homozygous affected for the lethal immunodeficiency disorder bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) using previously described PCR-RFLP based DNA tests which was confirmed by sequencing. Sequencing of Bos taurus and B. indicus × B. taurus genomic DNA surrounding the disease causing mutation (c.383A > G) in the ITGB2 gene identified numerous variations in exonic and intronic regions within and between species, including substantial variation in primer annealing sites for three PCR-RFLP tests for one of the B. indicus allelic variants. These variations in the primer annealing sites resulted in a null allele in the DNA tests causing the misdiagnosis of some heterozygous B. taurus × B. indicus cattle to be classified as homozygous affected. New primers were designed and a modified test was developed which simultaneously identified the disease mutation and the Pakistani B. indicus allelic variant associated with the null allele in the previous test. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Osteomyelitis in leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 syndrome

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    Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Ardalan, Maryam; H.Rafati, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1) is a rare, inherited immunodeficiency that affects one per million people yearly and usually presents with recurrent, indolent bacterial infections of the skin, mouth, and respiratory tract and impaired pus formation and wound healing. A 13-year-old girl...

  7. Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency: Report of Two Family Related Newborn Infants

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    Zohreh Kavehmanesh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD 1 is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder resulting from deficiency of CD18, characterized by recurrent bacterial infections. We report two consanguineous patients with Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1( LAD1. These two infant boy patients were referred to us, within a short period of time, with the complaints of recurrent infections at the age of 38 and 75 days -old, respectively. Parents of two patients were first cousins and their grandmothers also were first cousins. The history of delayed umbilical cord separation was shown in both patients. Patient 1 had history of omphalitis, conjunctivitis, skin lesion of groin area and abscess formation of vaccination site, and had infective wound of eye-lid at the last admission. Patient 2 had history of omphalitis and soft tissue infection of right wrist at the last admission. Laboratory findings showed marked leukocytosis and low CD18 levels (6.6% in Patient 1 and 2.4 % in Patient 2. In Patient 1 recurrent infections were treated with antibiotic regimens and received bone marrow transplantation but Patient 2 died because of septicemia, generalized edema, ascites and progression to acute renal failure at 4 months of age. Due to considerable rate of consanguineous marriages in parents of Leukocyte adhesion deficiency patients, sequence analysis especially for prenatal diagnosis in subsequent pregnancies and genetic counseling is recommended.

  8. Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency: Report of Two Family Related Newborn Infants

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    Zohreh Kavehmanesh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nLeukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD 1 is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder resulting from deficiency of CD18, characterized by recurrent bacterial infections. We report two consanguineous patients with Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1( LAD1. These two infant boy patients were referred to us, within a short period of time, with the complaints of recurrent infections at the age of 38 and 75 days -old, respectively. Parents of two patients were first cousins and their grandmothers also were first cousins. The history of delayed umbilical cord separation was shown in both patients. Patient 1 had history of omphalitis, conjunctivitis, skin lesion of groin area and abscess formation of vaccination site, and had infective wound of eye-lid at the last admission. Patient 2 had history of omphalitis and soft tissue infection of right wrist at the last admission. Laboratory findings showed marked leukocytosis and low CD18 levels (6.6% in Patient 1 and 2.4 % in Patient 2. In Patient 1 recurrent infections were treated with antibiotic regimens and received bone marrow transplantation but Patient 2 died because of septicemia, generalized edema, ascites and progression to acute renal failure at 4 months of age. Due to considerable rate of consanguineous marriages in parents of Leukocyte adhesion deficiency patients, sequence analysis especially for prenatal diagnosis in subsequent pregnancies and genetic counseling is recommended.

  9. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for leukocyte adhesion deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qasim, Waseem; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Davies, E Graham

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency is a rare primary immune disorder caused by defects of the CD18 beta-integrin molecule on immune cells. The condition usually presents in early infancy and is characterized by deep tissue infections, leukocytosis with impaired formation of pus, and delayed...... wound healing. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation offers the possibility of curative therapy, and with patient numbers at any individual center being limited, we surveyed the transplant experience at 14 centers worldwide. METHODS: The course of 36 children with a confirmed diagnosis...... of leukocyte adhesion deficiency who underwent hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation between 1993 and 2007 was retrospectively analyzed. Data were collected by the registries of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies/European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, and the Center for International...

  10. Role of bacteria in leukocyte adhesion deficiency-associated periodontitis.

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    Hajishengallis, George; Moutsopoulos, Niki M

    2016-05-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency Type I (LAD-I)-associated periodontitis is an aggressive form of inflammatory bone loss that has been historically attributed to lack of neutrophil surveillance of the periodontal infection. However, this form of periodontitis has proven unresponsive to antibiotics and/or mechanical removal of the tooth-associated biofilm. Recent studies in LAD-I patients and relevant animal models have shown that the fundamental cause of LAD-I periodontitis involves dysregulation of a granulopoietic cytokine cascade. This cascade includes interleukin IL-23 (IL-23) and IL-17 that drive inflammatory bone loss in LAD-I patients and animal models and, moreover, foster a nutritionally favorable environment for bacterial growth and development of a compositionally unique microbiome. Although the lack of neutrophil surveillance in the periodontal pockets might be expected to lead to uncontrolled bacterial invasion of the underlying connective tissue, microbiological analyses of gingival biopsies from LAD-I patients did not reveal tissue-invasive infection. However, bacterial lipopolysaccharide was shown to translocate into the lesions of LAD-I periodontitis. It is concluded that the bacteria serve as initial triggers for local immunopathology through translocation of bacterial products into the underlying tissues where they unleash the dysregulated IL-23-IL-17 axis. Subsequently, the IL-23/IL-17 inflammatory response sustains and shapes a unique local microbiome which, in turn, can further exacerbate inflammation and bone loss in the susceptible host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Rare Association Between Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Type I and Psoriasis in Humans

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    El-Sayed, Zeinab A.; El-Ghoneimy, Dalia H.; Abd-Allah, Heba; Afifi, Hanaa M

    2011-01-01

    The β2 integrins are expressed exclusively on leukocytes and participate in many immune and inflammatory processes. This subfamily comprises four heterodimeric glycoproteins with a common β-subunit, designated β2 (CD18). Spontaneous mutations of the CD18 gene result in leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I (LAD-I). Low level of CD18 expression has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. We here describe a child with recurrent skin infections without pus formation, persistent gin...

  12. Preclinical studies for the gene therapy of leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I

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    Leon Rico, D.

    2015-07-01

    Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Type I (LAD-I) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in ITGB2 gene, encoding for CD18 protein (also known as 2 subunit). This protein binds to different CD11 subunits to form 2 integrins, which are expressed in the leukocyte membrane and allow leukocytes to firmly adhere to the endothelium as a previous step to the extravasation. In LAD-I patients, ITGB2 mutations lead to absent, low or aberrant CD18 expression, which results in absent or low 2 integrin expression on the leukocyte membrane. CD18 deficient leukocytes, especially neutrophils, fail to extravasate from the bloodstream to infected tissues. LAD-I patients suffer from recurrent and severe infections leading normally to death. (Author)

  13. Antigen-specific immune responsiveness and lymphocyte recruitment in leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II

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    Kuijpers, T. W.; Etzioni, A.; Pollack, S.; Pals, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    The leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome type II (LAD-II) is caused by a general defect in fucose metabolism, which leads to the absence of fucosylated sugar determinants such as the selectin ligand SLe(x). In view of the important role of selectins in lymphocyte migration and homing, we have

  14. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type III: clinical features and treatment with stem cell transplantation.

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    Stepensky, Polina Y; Wolach, Baruch; Gavrieli, Ronit; Rousso, Sharon; Ben Ami, Tal; Goldman, Vladimir; Rozovsky, Katya; Hanna, Suhair; Etzioni, Amos; Weintraub, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type III (LADIII) is an autosomal recessive disorder that presents with a severe leukocyte adhesion defect and a Glanzmann-type thrombocytopathy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)--the only definitive treatment for LADIII--appears to have a high rate of complications. In this study, we describe a new group of patients with LADIII, highlighting further clinical and immunologic aspects of this disease, and reevaluating the effectiveness of HSCT for its treatment. The patients had clinical and laboratory findings consistent with LADIII. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of a mutation in the kindlin-3 gene. HSCT was carried out in 3 patients and was successful in 2. The diagnosis of LADIII should be considered in all patients who present with recurrent infections and a bleeding diathesis, regardless of the leukocyte count. LADIII is a primary immune deficiency, which can be successfully corrected by bone marrow transplantation if applied early in the course of the disease using appropriate conditioning.

  15. Successful adjunctive immunoglobulin treatment in patients affected by leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1).

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    Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Marco; Maravillas-Montero, José L; Berrón-Ruiz, Laura; López-Ortega, Orestes; Ramírez-Alejo, Noé; Acevedo-Ochoa, Ernesto; Rivas-Larrauri, Francisco; Llamas-Guillén, Beatriz; Blancas-Galicia, Lizbeth; Scheffler-Mendoza, Selma; Olaya-Vargas, Alberto; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo

    2015-03-01

    Two patients with a severe leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1) phenotype were analyzed by flow cytometry and functional assays to demonstrate the improper adhesive and phagocytic responses of their leukocytes. A single homozygous defect that involves a missense mutation (c.817G>A) that encodes for a G273R substitution in CD18 was identified in both patients. The adhesion and phagocytosis assays demonstrated the inability of patients' leukocytes to perform these functions. Expression of the LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) on the co-transfected HEK 293 cells with the mutated form of CD18 was not detected. Finally, both patients have been treated with immunoglobulin as an adjunctive therapy with positive results. We propose that intravenous immunoglobulin treatment is safe and efficacious in LAD-1 patients before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and helpful in controlling severe infections. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin appeared to help wound healing in refractory ulcers in these patients.

  16. Necrotizing Ulcer After BCG Vaccination in a Girl With Leukocyte-adhesion Deficiency Type 1.

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    Kurosawa, Hidemitsu; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Nunoi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masaya; Sato, Yuya; Okuya, Mayuko; Fukushima, Keitaro; Katsuyama, Yoshihiko; Arisaka, Osamu

    2018-01-01

    Leukocyte-adhesion deficiency-1 is a recessively inherited disorder associated with recurrent bacterial infections, severe periodontitis, peripheral leukocytosis, and impaired wound healing. We diagnosed moderate-type leukocyte-adhesion deficiency-1 in a 7-year-old girl who developed a necrotizing ulcer after Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination. The patient showed moderate expression of CD18 in neutrophils with a homozygous splice mutation with c.41_c.58+2dup20 of ITGB2 and experienced recurrent severe infections complicated with systemic lupus erythematosus. She received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a matched elder brother with heterozygous mutation of ITGB2, and has since remained free of infection and systemic lupus erythematosus symptoms without immunosuppression therapy.

  17. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome: report on the first case in Chile and South America

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    Rodrigo Vásquez-De Kartzow

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Adhesion molecule deficiency type 1 is a rare disease that should be suspected in any patient whose umbilical cord presents delay in falling off, and who presents recurrent severe infections. Early diagnostic suspicion and early treatment improve the prognosis. CASE REPORT: The case of a four-month-old boy with recurrent hospitalizations because of severe bronchopneumonia and several episodes of acute otitis media with non-purulent drainage of mucus and positive bacterial cultures is presented. His medical history included neonatal sepsis and delayed umbilical cord detachment. Laboratory studies showed marked leukocytosis with predominance of neutrophils and decreased CD11b and CD18. These were all compatible with a diagnosis of leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I [LAD type 1].

  18. A rare association between leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I and psoriasis in humans.

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    El-Sayed, Zeinab A; El-Ghoneimy, Dalia H; Abd-Allah, Heba; Afifi, Hanaa M

    2011-04-01

    The β2 integrins are expressed exclusively on leukocytes and participate in many immune and inflammatory processes. This subfamily comprises four heterodimeric glycoproteins with a common β-subunit, designated β2 (CD18). Spontaneous mutations of the CD18 gene result in leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I (LAD-I). Low level of CD18 expression has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. We here describe a child with recurrent skin infections without pus formation, persistent gingivitis and periodontitis. His blood counts showed persistent leukocytosis (neutrophilia). CD11b expression was defective on neutrophils, while that of CD18 was normal. So, our patient represents a mild variant of LAD-I with possible dysfunctional CD18. Moreover, he developed psoriasis with reduced CD18 expression on CD4(+) T-cells. Psoriasiform dermatitis has been described before in association with LAD-I, however, clinically and histologically confirmed psoriasis in association with LAD-I has been described only in CD18 hypomorphic mice. Therefore, our patient represents the first clinically and histopathologically documented association between LAD-I and psoriasis in humans. It lends support to the role of β2 integrins in the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis.

  19. Reversion mutations in patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency type-1 (LAD-1)

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    Tng, Emilia; Rosenzweig, Sergio D.; Hsu, Amy P.; Shaw, Jacqueline M.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Linton, Gilda F.; Anderson, Stacie M.; Kirby, Martha R.; Oliveira, Jaõ B.; Brown, Margaret R.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Law, S. K. Alex

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type-1 (LAD-1) is an autosomal recessive immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the β2 integrin, CD18, that impair CD11/CD18 heterodimer surface expression and/or function. Absence of functional CD11/CD18 integrins on leukocytes, particularly neutrophils, leads to their incapacity to adhere to the endothelium and migrate to sites of infection. We studied 3 LAD-1 patients with markedly diminished neutrophil CD18 expression, each of whom had a small population of lymphocytes with normal CD18 expression (CD18+). These CD18+ lymphocytes were predominantly cytotoxic T cells, with a memory/effector phenotype. Microsatellite analyses proved patient origin of these cells. Sequencing of T-cell subsets showed that in each patient one CD18 allele had undergone further mutation. Interestingly, all 3 patients were young adults with inflammatory bowel disease. Somatic reversions of inherited mutations in primary T-cell immunodeficiencies are typically associated with milder clinical phenotypes. We hypothesize that these somatic revertant CD18+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) may have altered immune regulation. The discovery of 3 cases of reversion mutations in LAD-1 at one center suggests that this may be a relatively common event in this rare disease. PMID:17875809

  20. A Case Report of a Patient with Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Type I Syndrome and Normal Time of Umbilical Cord Detachment

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    M. Safari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 is a rare disorder of function of neutrophils which presents with recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. The patients usually have a history of delayed umbilical cord detachment. Case Report: The patient was a fourteen-month-old boy with recurrent bronchopneumonia, skin abscess and oral candidiasis. There was a history of abscess formation in site of vaccine injection in two and four months of age. The umbilical cord detachment was occurred in the 6th day of birth. Laboratory studies showed marked leukocytosis and neutrophilia .Flowcytometry showed low amount of CD18. These were all compatible with a diagnosis of leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I (LADs1. Conclusions: The patients die in the event of a delay in diagnosis because of recurrent severe infections. Early diagnosis and treatment of these diseases by stem cell transplantation improve the survival of the patient. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (1:88-92

  1. Subgingival Microbial Communities in Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency and Their Relationship with Local Immunopathology

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    Moutsopoulos, Niki M.; Abusleme, Loreto; Greenwell-Wild, Teresa; Dutzan, Nicolas; Paster, Bruce J.; Munson, Peter J.; Fine, Daniel H.; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency I (LAD-I) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by single gene mutations in the CD18 subunit of β2 integrins which result in defective transmigration of neutrophils into the tissues. Affected patients suffer from recurrent life threatening infections and severe oral disease (periodontitis). Microbial communities in the local environment (subgingival plaque) are thought to be the triggers for inflammatory periodontitis, yet little is known regarding the microbial communities associated with LAD-I periodontitis. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of the subgingival communities in LAD-I, using a 16S rRNA gene-based microarray, and investigate the relationship of this tooth adherent microbiome to the local immunopathology of periodontitis. We show that the LAD subgingival microbiome is distinct from that of health and Localized Aggressive Periodontitits. Select periodontitis-associated species in the LAD microbiome included Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Eubacterium brachy and Treponema species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium not typically found in subgingival plaque is detected in LAD-I. We suggest that microbial products from LAD-associated communities may have a role in stimulating the local inflammatory response. We demonstrate that bacterial LPS translocates into the lesions of LAD-periodontitis potentially triggering immunopathology. We also show in in vitro assays with human macrophages and in vivo in animal models that microbial products from LAD-associated subgingival plaque trigger IL-23-related immune responses, which have been shown to dominate in patient lesions. In conclusion, our current study characterizes the subgingival microbial communities in LAD-periodontitis and supports their role as triggers of disease pathogenesis. PMID:25741691

  2. Leukocyte adhesion and recruitment, and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency: a report from ATS 2001, May 18-23, San Francisco

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    Woolhouse Ian

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The program at this year's American Thoracic Society international conference included over 300 scientific and clinical symposia. In this report I have reviewed the data presented on two important areas of lung inflammation, namely leukocyte recruitment and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Highlights included work from a number of groups identifying the contribution of specific leukocyte adhesion molecules (CD18, CD11a and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 which varied according to the site and nature of the initial inflammatory stimulus. In addition work was presented examining the contribution of various chemoattractants to the process of leukocyte recruitment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with leukotriene B4 in particular appearing to play a major role. In alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency other molecules may also be important and work was presented demonstrating the pro-inflammatory potential of alpha-1-antitrypsin polymers in the lungs of these patients. These advances in the understanding of the basic mechanisms of inflammation will, in the future, allow the development of novel anti-inflammatory therapies for a variety of lung diseases.

  3. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome: report on the first case in Chile and South America

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez-De Kartzow, Rodrigo; Jesam, Cristian; Nehgme, Valentina; Várgas, Francisco; Sepúlveda, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Adhesion molecule deficiency type 1 is a rare disease that should be suspected in any patient whose umbilical cord presents delay in falling off, and who presents recurrent severe infections. Early diagnostic suspicion and early treatment improve the prognosis. CASE REPORT: The case of a four-month-old boy with recurrent hospitalizations because of severe bronchopneumonia and several episodes of acute otitis media with non-purulent drainage of mucus and positive bacterial cultures is...

  4. The effect of gentamicin-induced readthrough on a novel premature termination codon of CD18 leukocyte adhesion deficiency patients.

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    Amos J Simon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency 1 (LAD1 is an inherited disorder of neutrophil function. Nonsense mutations in the affected CD18 (ITB2 gene have rarely been described. In other genes containing such mutations, treatments with aminoglycoside types of antibiotics (e.g., gentamicin were reported to partially correct the premature protein termination, by induction of readthrough mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic analysis was performed on 2 LAD1 patients. Expression, functional and immunofluorescence assays of CD18 in the patients were used to determine the in-vivo and in-vitro effects of gentamicin-induced readthrough. A theoretical modeling of the corrected CD18 protein was developed to predict the protein function. RESULTS: We found a novel premature termination codon, C562T (R188X, in exon 6 of the CD18 gene that caused a severe LAD1 phenotype in two unrelated Palestinian children. In-vivo studies on these patients' cells after gentamicin treatment showed abnormal adhesion and chemotactic functions, while in-vitro studies showed mislocalization of the corrected protein to the cytoplasm and not to the cell surface. A theoretical modeling of the corrected CD18 protein suggested that the replacement of the wild type arginine by gentamicin induced tryptophan at the position of the nonsense mutation, although enabled the expression of the entire CD18 protein, this was not sufficient to stabilize the CD18/11 heterodimer at the cell surface. CONCLUSION: A novel nonsense mutation in the CD18 gene causing a complete absence of CD18 protein and severe LAD1 clinical phenotype is reported. Both in vivo and in vitro treatments with gentamicin resulted in the expression of a corrected full-length dysfunctional or mislocalized CD18 protein. However, while the use of gentamicin increased the expression of CD18, it did not improve leukocyte adhesion and chemotaxis. Moreover, the integrity of the CD18/CD11 complex at the cell surface was

  5. Production and purification of high-titer foamy virus vector for the treatment of leukocyte adhesion deficiency

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    Md Nasimuzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to other integrating viral vectors, foamy virus (FV vectors have distinct advantages as a gene transfer tool, including their nonpathogenicity, the ability to carry larger transgene cassettes, and increased stability of virus particles due to DNA genome formation within the virions. Proof of principle of its therapeutic utility was provided with the correction of canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency using autologous CD34+ cells transduced with FV vector carrying the canine CD18 gene, demonstrating its long-term safety and efficacy. However, infectious titers of FV-human(hCD18 were low and not suitable for manufacturing of clinical-grade product. Herein, we developed a scalable production and purification process that resulted in 60-fold higher FV-hCD18 titers from ∼1.7 × 104 to 1.0 × 106 infectious units (IU/ml. Process development improvements included use of polyethylenimine-based transfection, use of a codon-optimized gag, heparin affinity chromatography, tangential flow filtration, and ultracentrifugation, which reproducibly resulted in 5,000-fold concentrated and purified virus, an overall yield of 19 ± 3%, and final titers of 1–2 × 109 IU/ml. Highly concentrated vector allowed reduction of final dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO concentration, thereby avoiding DMSO-induced toxicity to CD34+ cells while maintaining high transduction efficiencies. This process development results in clinically relevant, high titer FV which can be scaled up for clinical grade production.

  6. Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD)

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  7. Towards a computational model of leukocyte adhesion cascade: Leukocyte rolling

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    Khismatullin, Damir

    2005-11-01

    Recruitment of leukocytes into sites of acute and chronic inflammation is a vital component of the innate immune response in humans and plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury and atherosclerosis. Leukocytes extravasate into the inflamed tissue through a multi-step process called "leukocyte adhesion cascade", which involves initial contact of a leukocyte with activated endothelium (tethering), leukocyte rolling, firm adhesion, and transendothelial migration. Recently we developed a fully three-dimensional CFD model of receptor-mediated leukocyte adhesion to endothelium in a parallel-plate flow chamber. The model treats the leukocyte as a viscoelastic cell with the nucleus located in the intracellular space and cylindrical microvilli distributed over the cell membrane. Leukocyte-endothelial adhesion is assumed to be mediated by adhesion molecules expressed on the tips of cell microvilli and on endothelium. We show that the model can predict both shape changes and velocities of rolling leukocytes under physiological flow conditions. Results of this study also indicate that viscosity of the cytoplasm is a critical parameter of leukocyte adhesion, affecting the cell's ability to roll on endothelium. This work is supported by NIH Grant HL- 57446 and NCSA Grant BCS040006 and utilized the NCSA IBM p690.

  8. The molecular basis of leukocyte recruitment and its deficiencies.

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    Schmidt, Sarah; Moser, Markus; Sperandio, Markus

    2013-08-01

    The innate immune system responds to inflammation, infection and injury by recruiting neutrophils and other leukocytes. These cells are able to leave the intravascular compartment in a process called leukocyte recruitment. This process involves several distinct steps: selectin-mediated rolling, firm adhesion via integrins, postarrest modifications including adhesion strengthening and leukocyte crawling and finally transmigration into tissue. Genetic defects affecting the different steps of the cascade can result in severe impairment in leukocyte recruitment. So far, three leukocyte adhesion deficiencies (LAD I-III) have been described in humans. These LADs are rare autosomal recessive inherited disorders and, although clinically distinct, exhibit several common features including recurrent bacterial infections and leukocytosis. In LAD-I, mutations within the β2-integrin gene result in a severe defect in β2 integrin-mediated firm leukocyte adhesion. Defects in the posttranslational fucosylation of selectin ligands dramatically reduce leukocyte rolling and lead to LAD-II. Finally, LAD-III, also known as LAD-I variant, is caused by impaired integrin activation due to mutations within the kindlin-3 gene. This review provides an overview on the molecular basis of leukocyte adhesion and its deficiencies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptive Immune Response to Model Antigens Is Impaired in Murine Leukocyte-Adhesion Deficiency-1 Revealing Elevated Activation Thresholds In Vivo

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    Thorsten Peters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Absence of β2 integrins (CD11/CD18 leads to leukocyte-adhesion deficiency-1 (LAD1, a rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome. Although extensive in vitro work has established an essential function of β2 integrins in adhesive and signaling properties for cells of the innate and adaptive immune system, their respective participation in an altered adaptive immunity in LAD1 patients are complex and only partly understood in vivo. Therefore, we investigated adaptive immune responses towards different T-dependent antigens in a murine LAD1 model of β2 integrin-deficiency (CD18−/−. CD18−/− mice generated only weak IgG responses after immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT. In contrast, robust hapten- and protein-specific immune responses were observed after immunization with highly haptenated antigens such as (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl21 acetyl chicken γ globulin (NP21-CG, even though regularly structured germinal centers with specificity for the defined antigens/haptens in CD18−/− mice remained absent. However, a decrease in the hapten/protein ratio lowered the efficacy of immune responses in CD18−/− mice, whereas a mere reduction of the antigen dose was less crucial. Importantly, haptenation of TT with NP (NP-TT efficiently restored a robust IgG response also to TT. Our findings may stimulate further studies on a modification of vaccination strategies using highly haptenated antigens in individuals suffering from LAD1.

  10. Novel aspects in the regulation of the leukocyte adhesion cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Chavakis, Emmanouil; Choi, Eun Young; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2009-01-01

    Leukocyte recruitment plays a major role in the immune response to infectious pathogens and during inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. The process of leukocyte extravasation from the blood into the inflamed tissue requires a complex cascade of adhesive events between the leukocytes and the endothelium including leukocyte rolling, adhesion and transendothelial migration. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions are mediated by tightly regulated binding interactions between adhesion receptors on b...

  11. Canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency: presence of the Cys36Ser beta-2 integrin mutation in an affected US Irish Setter cross-breed dog and in US Irish Red and White Setters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foureman, Polly; Whiteley, Mary; Giger, Urs

    2002-01-01

    Canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (CLAD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by recurrent bacterial infections in the presence of marked leukocytosis. The disease was 1st described in the mid-1980s in a cross-breed Irish Setter Dog in the United States. It results from a defective beta-2 subunit of heterodimeric leukocyte adhesion proteins. The causative mutation for CLAD in Irish Setter Dogs from Europe has been identified as a missense mutation at base pair position 107 in the beta-2 integrin subunit gene (ITGB2) that results in an amino acid change from cysteine to serine at amino acid 36 (Cys36Ser) in the beta-2 integrin subunit protein. In the current work, the originally described dog with CLAD has been genetically tested and shown to have the same mutation as the European Irish Setters. This suggests that the mutation has been in the Irish Setter population for many generations spanning more than 2 decades. A related breed, the Irish Red and White Setter, has a history of interbreeding with Irish Setters and shares a common ancestry with the Irish Setter breed. DNA from Irish Red and White Setters residing in the United States was screened either by sequencing or by the newly developed restriction enzyme test for the Irish Setter Cys36Ser CLAD mutation. Seven of 54 dogs tested (13%) were found to be carriers of the Irish Setter CLAD mutation. Five of these were directly related to a sire from the UK, demonstrating the importation of an allele from another continent and establishing the need for genetic testing in this breed in the United States.

  12. The tripeptide feG inhibits leukocyte adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Joseph S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tripeptide feG (D-Phe-D-Glu-Gly is a potent anti-inflammatory peptide that reduces the severity of type I immediate hypersensitivity reactions, and inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion to tissues. feG also reduces the expression of β1-integrin on circulating neutrophils, but the counter ligands involved in the anti-adhesive actions of the peptide are not known. In this study the effects of feG on the adhesion of rat peritoneal leukocytes and extravasated neutrophils to several different integrin selective substrates were evaluated. Results The adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes and extravasated neutrophils from rats to adhesive proteins coated to 96-well plates was dependent upon magnesium (Mg2+ ion, suggestive of integrin-mediated adhesion. feG inhibited leukocyte adhesion, but only if the cells were stimulated with PAF (10-9M, indicating that feG's actions in vitro require cell activation. In the dose range of 10-10M to 10-12M feG inhibited the adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes to fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not IgG, vitronectin or ICAM-1. feG inhibited the binding of extravasated neutrophils to heparin, IgG, fibronectin and CD16 antibody. Antigen-challenge of sensitized rats reduced the adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes to most substrates and abolished the inhibitory effects of feG. However, pretreating the animals with intraperitoneal feG (100 μg/kg 18 h before collecting the cells from the antigen-challenged animal restored the inhibition of adhesion by in vitro feG of peritoneal leukocytes and extravasated neutrophils to fibronectin. Conclusion The modulation of leukocyte adhesion by feG appears to involve actions on αMβ2 integrin, with a possible interaction with the low affinity FcγRIII receptor (CD16. The modulation of cell adhesion by feG is dual in nature. When administered in vivo, feG prevents inflammation-induced reductions in cell adhesion, as well as restoring its inhibitory effect in vitro

  13. Regulation of leukocyte migration by activation of the leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1) selectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spertini, O; Kansas, G S; Munro, J M; Griffin, J D; Tedder, T F

    1991-02-21

    A central feature of host defence is the ability of leukocytes to enter tissues in response to immune or inflammatory stimuli. The leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1) regulates the migration of human leukocytes by mediating the binding both of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules of peripheral lymph nodes and of neutrophils to endothelium at inflammatory sites. As lymphocytes and neutrophils express the same LAM-1 protein, it is not clear how lineage-specific differences in leukocyte migration are controlled. We now report that the affinity of LAM-1 for a carbohydrate-based ligand, PPME, is dramatically increased following lymphocyte and neutrophil activation by lineage-specific stimuli. In addition, activation of lymphocytes by physiological stimuli enhanced LAM-1-dependent binding to high endothelial venules. Thus, transient changes in LAM-1 affinity after leukocyte stimulation probably directly influence leukocyte migration.

  14. Post-translational modification-regulated leukocyte adhesion and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Jia Tong; Su, I-Hsin

    2016-06-14

    Leukocytes undergo frequent phenotypic changes and rapidly infiltrate peripheral and lymphoid tissues in order to carry out immune responses. The recruitment of circulating leukocytes into inflamed tissues depends on integrin-mediated tethering and rolling of these cells on the vascular endothelium, followed by transmigration into the tissues. This dynamic process of migration requires the coordination of large numbers of cytosolic and transmembrane proteins whose functional activities are typically regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs). Our recent studies have shown that the lysine methyltransferase, Ezh2, critically regulates integrin signalling and governs the adhesion dynamics of leukocytes via direct methylation of talin, a key molecule that controls these processes by linking integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, we will discuss the various modes of leukocyte migration and examine how PTMs of cytoskeletal/adhesion associated proteins play fundamental roles in the dynamic regulation of leukocyte migration. Furthermore, we will discuss molecular details of the adhesion dynamics controlled by Ezh2-mediated talin methylation and the potential implications of this novel regulatory mechanism for leukocyte migration, immune responses, and pathogenic processes, such as allergic contact dermatitis and tumorigenesis.

  15. Inhibition of Leukocyte Adhesion by Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1)

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun Young

    2009-01-01

    The leukocyte adhesion to endothelium is pivotal in leukocyte recruitment which takes place during inflammatory, autoimmune and infectious conditions. The interaction between leukocytes and endothelium requires an array of adhesion molecules expressed on leukocytes and endothelial cells, thereby promoting leukocyte recruitment into sites of inflammation and tissue injury. Intervention with the adhesion molecules provides a platform for development of anti-inflammatory therapeutics. This revie...

  16. Genetic variation is the major determinant of individual differences in leukocyte endothelial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Michael A; Rao, Vidhya; Winkler, Kathryn P; Zhang, Wei; Bogaard, Joseph D; Chen, Siquan; LaCroix, Bonnie; Lenkala, Divya; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B; Cox, Nancy J; Huang, R Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    To determine the genetic contribution to leukocyte endothelial adhesion. Leukocyte endothelial adhesion was assessed through a novel cell-based assay using human lymphoblastoid cell lines. A high-throughput screening method was developed to evaluate the inter-individual variability in leukocyte endothelial adhesion using lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from different donors. To assess heritability, ninety-two lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from twenty-three monozygotic twin pairs and twenty-three sibling pairs were compared. These lymphoblastoid cell lines were plated with the endothelial cell line EA.hy926 and labeled with Calcein AM dye. Fluorescence was assessed to determine endothelial cell adhesion to each lymphoblastoid cell line. Intra-pair similarity was determined for monozygotic twins and siblings using Pearson pairwise correlation coefficients. A leukocyte endothelial adhesion assay for lymphoblastoid cell lines was developed and optimized (CV = 8.68, Z'-factor = 0.67, SNR = 18.41). A higher adhesion correlation was found between the twins than that between the siblings. Intra-pair similarity for leukocyte endothelial adhesion in monozygotic twins was 0.60 compared to 0.25 in the siblings. The extent to which these differences are attributable to underlying genetic factors was quantified and the heritability of leukocyte endothelial adhesion was calculated to be 69.66% (p-valuegenetic predisposition plays a significant role in inter-individual variability of leukocyte endothelial adhesion.

  17. Endothelial CD2AP Binds the Receptor ICAM-1 To Control Mechanosignaling, Leukocyte Adhesion, and the Route of Leukocyte Diapedesis In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Antje; van Duijn, Trynette J.; Majolee, Jisca; Burridge, Keith; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is driven by excessive transmigration (diapedesis) of leukocytes from the blood to the tissue across the endothelial cell monolayer that lines blood vessels. Leukocyte adhesion, crawling, and transmigration are regulated by clustering of the endothelial mechanosensitive receptor

  18. Identifying the rules of engagement enabling leukocyte rolling, activation, and adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The LFA-1 integrin plays a pivotal role in sustained leukocyte adhesion to the endothelial surface, which is a precondition for leukocyte recruitment into inflammation sites. Strong correlative evidence implicates LFA-1 clustering as being essential for sustained adhesion, and it may also facilitate rebinding events with its ligand ICAM-1. We cannot challenge those hypotheses directly because it is infeasible to measure either process during leukocyte adhesion following rolling. The alternative approach undertaken was to challenge the hypothesized mechanisms by experimenting on validated, working counterparts: simulations in which diffusible, LFA1 objects on the surfaces of quasi-autonomous leukocytes interact with simulated, diffusible, ICAM1 objects on endothelial surfaces during simulated adhesion following rolling. We used object-oriented, agent-based methods to build and execute multi-level, multi-attribute analogues of leukocytes and endothelial surfaces. Validation was achieved across different experimental conditions, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, at both the individual cell and population levels. Because those mechanisms exhibit all of the characteristics of biological mechanisms, they can stand as a concrete, working theory about detailed events occurring at the leukocyte-surface interface during leukocyte rolling and adhesion experiments. We challenged mechanistic hypotheses by conducting experiments in which the consequences of multiple mechanistic events were tracked. We quantified rebinding events between individual components under different conditions, and the role of LFA1 clustering in sustaining leukocyte-surface adhesion and in improving adhesion efficiency. Early during simulations ICAM1 rebinding (to LFA1 but not LFA1 rebinding (to ICAM1 was enhanced by clustering. Later, clustering caused both types of rebinding events to increase. We discovered that clustering was not necessary to achieve adhesion as long as LFA1 and

  19. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule and prognosis in acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedbakken, Linda; Jensen, Jesper K; Hallén, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Biomarkers predicting mortality and functional outcome in stroke may be clinically helpful in identification of patients likely to benefit from intervention. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is upregulated during neuroinflammation; we investigated whether ALCAM concentrations ar...

  20. Glycocalyx Degradation Induces a Proinflammatory Phenotype and Increased Leukocyte Adhesion in Cultured Endothelial Cells under Flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karli K McDonald

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium is an early step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Effective adhesion requires the binding of leukocytes to their cognate receptors on the surface of endothelial cells. The glycocalyx covers the surface of endothelial cells and is important in the mechanotransduction of shear stress. This study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of the glycocalyx in leukocyte adhesion under flow. We performed experiments using 3-D cell culture models, exposing human abdominal aortic endothelial cells to steady laminar shear stress (10 dynes/cm2 for 24 hours. We found that with the enzymatic degradation of the glycocalyx, endothelial cells developed a proinflammatory phenotype when exposed to uniform steady shear stress leading to an increase in leukocyte adhesion. Our results show an up-regulation of ICAM-1 with degradation compared to non-degraded controls (3-fold increase, p<0.05 and we attribute this effect to a de-regulation in NF-κB activity in response to flow. These results suggest that the glycocalyx is not solely a physical barrier to adhesion but rather plays an important role in governing the phenotype of endothelial cells, a key determinant in leukocyte adhesion. We provide evidence for how the destabilization of this structure may be an early and defining feature in the initiation of atherosclerosis.

  1. Endothelial endoglin is involved in inflammation: role in leukocyte adhesion and transmigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elisa; Sanz-Rodriguez, Francisco; Eleno, Nelida; Düwell, Annette; Blanco, Francisco J; Langa, Carmen; Botella, Luisa M; Cabañas, Carlos; Lopez-Novoa, José M; Bernabeu, Carmelo

    2013-01-10

    Human endoglin is an RGD-containing transmembrane glycoprotein identified in vascular endothelial cells. Although endoglin is essential for angiogenesis and its expression is up-regulated in inflammation and at sites of leukocyte extravasation, its role in leukocyte trafficking is unknown. This function was tested in endoglin heterozygous mice (Eng(+/-)) and their wild-type siblings Eng(+/+) treated with carrageenan or LPS as inflammatory agents. Both stimuli showed that inflammation-induced leukocyte transendothelial migration to peritoneum or lungs was significantly lower in Eng(+/-) than in Eng(+/+) mice. Leukocyte transmigration through cell monolayers of endoglin transfectants was clearly enhanced in the presence of endoglin. Coating transwells with the RGD-containing extracellular domain of endoglin, enhanced leukocyte transmigration, and this increased motility was inhibited by soluble endoglin. Leukocytes stimulated with CXCL12, a chemokine involved in inflammation, strongly adhered to endoglin-coated plates and to endoglin-expressing endothelial cells. This endoglin-dependent adhesion was abolished by soluble endoglin, RGD peptides, the anti-integrin α5β1 inhibitory antibody LIA1/2 and the chemokine receptor inhibitor AMD3100. These results demonstrate for the first time that endothelial endoglin interacts with leukocyte integrin α5β1 via its RGD motif, and this adhesion process is stimulated by the inflammatory chemokine CXCL12, suggesting a regulatory role for endoglin in transendothelial leukocyte trafficking.

  2. Sera from dams of calves with bovine neonatal pancytopenia contain alloimmune antibodies directed against calf leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Bart; Stuyven, Edith; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Hostens, Miel; Dewulf, Jeroen; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Cox, Eric; Deprez, Piet

    2011-06-15

    Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) is a bleeding and pancytopenic syndrome in neonatal calves, which recently emerged all over Europe. The present study tested whether antibodies directed against calf leukocytes are present in sera from known BNP dams. Sera from BNP dams (n=11) were combined with leukocytes from 11 calves (5 BNP survivors and 6 controls). After adding a fluorescein conjugated F(ab')(2) fragment of rabbit anti-bovine IgG (H&L) the level of antibody binding was measured by flow cytometry. As control groups both sera from dams from BNP affected (n=48) as from unaffected (n=54) herds were combined with leukocytes from the same calves. With sera from BNP dams, antibody binding could be visualised by immunofluoresence in both peripheral blood as in bone marrow smears. Mean fluoresence intensity values of all leukocyte subpopulations were significantly higher for the BNP dams compared to both control groups (P<0.01). BNP dams showed significantly more antibody binding on multiple leukocyte subpopulations of both BNP survivors and control calves and this from cut off values of MFI 100 onwards (P<0.01). The BNP survivor calves reacted significantly more often with sera from the BNP dams than the control calves (P<0.01). In conclusion the present study supports the hypothesis that BNP is an immune-mediated disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A monoclonal-antibody-defined adhesion-related antigen on bovine neutrophils is required for neutrophil aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochsler, P N; Doré, M; Neilsen, N R; Slauson, D O

    1990-10-01

    Surface adhesion molecules present on human leukocytes are known to regulate certain adhesion-related events, such as adhesion to endothelium, extravasation, and aggregation. We have used a mouse anti-human monoclonal antibody designated 60.3 (MAb 60.3) and indirect immunofluorescence technique to identify an antigen on bovine neutrophils (PMNs). MAb 60.3 bound to resting and stimulated bovine PMN in a surface-oriented pattern. Immunofluorescence flow cytometric analysis indicated that warming the PMNs from 4 degrees C to 37 degrees C slightly increased (13.9%) expression of the antigen recognized by MAb 60.3. Zymosan-activated serum (ZAS, 10%) increased antigen expression by 12.4% over those PMNs in buffer alone, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 100 ng/ml) by 65.6%. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 micrograms/ml) from E. coli 0111:B4 did not enhance antigen expression. The functional nature of this antigen was demonstrated by use of MAb 60.3 and PMN aggregation. Preincubation of bovine PMN with MAb 60.3 for 10 min resulted in nearly complete inhibition of PMN-PMN aggregation upon subsequent stimulation with PMA (100 ng/ml); preincubation with a control antibody did not inhibit aggregation. These results indicate that bovine PMNs possess surface molecule(s) that may function in adhesion-related events, and surface expression may be enhanced by PMN stimulation.

  4. Cellular pathology of atherosclerosis: smooth muscle cells prime cocultured endothelial cells for enhanced leukocyte adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainger, G E; Nash, G B

    2001-03-30

    During the development of an atherosclerotic plaque, mononuclear leukocytes infiltrate the artery wall through vascular endothelial cells (ECs). At the same time, arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) change from the physiological contractile phenotype to the secretory phenotype and migrate into the plaque. We investigated whether secretory SMCs released cytokines that stimulated ECs in a manner leading to increased leukocyte recruitment and thus might accelerate atheroma formation. SMCs and ECs were established in coculture on the opposite sides of a porous membrane, and the cocultured cells were incorporated into a flow-based assay for studying leukocyte adhesion. We found that coculture primed ECs so that their response to the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha was amplified. ECs cocultured with SMCs supported greatly increased adhesion of flowing leukocytes and were sensitized to respond to tumor necrosis factor-alpha at concentrations 10 000 times lower than ECs cultured alone. In addition, coculture altered the endothelial selectin adhesion molecules used for leukocyte capture. EC priming was attributable to the cytokine transforming growth factor-beta(1), which was proteolytically activated to a biologically active form by the serine protease plasmin. These results suggest a new role for secretory SMCs in the development of atheromatous plaque. We propose that paracrine interaction between ECs and SMCs has the potential to amplify leukocyte recruitment to sites of atheroma and exacerbate the inflammatory processes believed to be at the heart of disease progression.

  5. Antibiotics commonly used to treat mastitis and respiratory burst of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeben, Dagmar; Burvenich, Christian; Heyneman, Roger

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro effects of six doses (2 x 10(-3) to 2 x 10(-8) M) of antimicrobial drugs that are frequently used in udder infusions on the capacity of bovine blood polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes to generate reactive oxygen species were studied by the measurement of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence after stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. All drugs, except cloxacillin, significantly decreased chemiluminescence at the highest dose. Doxycyline induced the most severe i...

  6. Using milk leukocyte differentials for diagnosis of subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Lyman, Roberta L; Hockett, Mitchell; Rodriguez, Rudy; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga; Anderson, Kevin L

    2017-08-01

    This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml. Quarter milk samples from 78 cows meeting study criteria were analysed by MLD and aseptically collected milk samples were subjected to microbiological culture (MC). Based upon automated instrument evaluation of the number and percentage of inflammatory cells in milk, samples were designated as either MLD-positive or - negative for subclinicial mastitis. Positive MC were obtained from 102/156 (65·4%) of MLD-positive milk samples, and 28/135 (20·7%) of MLD-negative milk samples were MC-positive. When MC was considered the gold standard for mastitis diagnosis, the calculated diagnostic Se of the MLD was 65·4% (IC95% = 57·4 to 72·8%) and the Sp was 79·3% (IC95% = 71·4 to 85·7%). Quarter milks positive on MC had higher absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, with higher neutrophils% and lymphocytes% but lower macrophages%. The Log10 (N/L) ratios were the most useful ratio to differentiate specific subclinical mastitis quarters from healthy quarters. Use of the MLD on cows with monthly composite SCC > 200 × 103 cells/ml for screening at quarter level identified quarters more likely to be culture-positive. In conclusion, the MLD can provide an analysis of mammary quarter status more detailed than provided by SCC alone; however, the MLD response to subclinical mastitis was not found useful to specifically identify the causative pathogen.

  7. Adhesion to bovine dentin: Surface characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruse, N.D.; Smith, D.C. (Centre for Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-06-01

    x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (xPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were used to characterize the dentin surface, to determine the effects of different pre-conditioning procedures on the elemental composition of the dentin surface, and to investigate the interaction between dentin and a dentin bonding agent (ScotchBond) by studying the changes in the elemental composition of dentin as a result of the interaction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize sample surface morphology, which was then correlated with surface elemental composition. The results showed that: (a) the elemental composition of the smear layer was similar to that of the underlying dentin; (b) cleaning with hydrogen-peroxide did not produce any modification in the elemental composition of the dentin surface; and (c) acid-etching led to an almost complete demineralization of the dentin, leaving behind an organic-rich surface. The results suggest that bonding systems that use acid-etching as a pre-conditioning procedure should be based on agents able to interact with the organic components of dentin, since bonding agents that rely on a chelation-to-calcium reaction are unlikely to be successful. The investigation of the interaction between the bonding agent and dentin led to a postulated adhesive-bonding reaction mechanism and suggested a partially cohesive failure in the bonding agent during fracturing of a dentin-bonding-agent-bonded assembly.

  8. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Diederik; Mars, Monica; Oosterink, Els; Stalmach, Angelique; Müller, Michael; Afman, Lydia A

    2014-03-01

    Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We investigated whether consumption of regular dark chocolate also affects other markers of endothelial health, and whether chocolate enrichment with flavanols has additional benefits. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, the effects of acute and of 4 wk daily consumption of high flavanol chocolate (HFC) and normal flavanol chocolate (NFC) on FMD, augmentation index (AIX), leukocyte count, plasma cytokines, and leukocyte cell surface molecules in overweight men (age 45-70 yr) were investigated. Sensory profiles and motivation scores to eat chocolate were also collected. Findings showed that a 4 wk chocolate intake increased FMD by 1%, which was paralleled by a decreased AIX of 1%, decreased leukocyte cell count, decreased plasma sICAM1 and sICAM3, and decreased leukocyte adhesion marker expression (Pchocolate. This study provides new insights on how chocolate affects endothelial health by demonstrating that chocolate consumption, besides improving vascular function, also lowers the adherence capacity of leukocytes in the circulation.

  9. Attenuation of melanoma invasion by a secreted variant of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilsdonk, J.W.J. van; Wilting, R.H.; Bergers, M.; Muijen, G.N.P. van; Schalkwijk, J.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van; Swart, G.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166/MEMD), a marker of various cancers and mesenchymal stem cells, is involved in melanoma metastasis. We have exploited a secreted NH(2)-terminal fragment, sALCAM, to test the hypothesis that ALCAM coordinates tissue growth and cell migration.

  10. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, D.; Mars, M.; Oosterink, E.; Stalmach, A.; Müller, M.R.; Afman, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We

  11. Brief Report: Endothelial-Specific X-Box Binding Protein 1 Deficiency Limits Tumor Necrosis Factor-Induced Leukocyte Recruitment and Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziogas, Athanasios; Muders, Michael H; Economopoulou, Matina; Sprott, David; Grossklaus, Sylvia; Siegert, Gabriele; Baretton, Gustavo B; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial cell activation by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and associated leukocyte infiltration are hallmarks of vasculitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of the cellular stress-associated endothelial X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) transcription factor in TNF-induced endothelial cell inflammation and vasculitis. Mice with an endothelial cell-specific XBP-1 deficiency were used in a modified local Shwartzman reaction (LSR) model of TNF-induced small vessel vasculitis. To address the contribution of XBP-1 to the TNF-mediated inflammatory response in endothelial cells, we examined the activation of XBP-1 expression by TNF as well as the effect of XBP-1 knockdown in endothelial cells on TNF-induced signaling, proinflammatory gene expression, and leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. The active spliced form of XBP-1 in endothelial cells was triggered by TNF. In addition, endothelial XBP-1 contributed to the sustained TNF-triggered NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activation of proinflammatory molecules, which was associated with leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. In the LSR model, endothelial cell-specific XBP-1-deficient mice displayed significantly less vascular damage, accompanied by reduced perivascular neutrophil infiltration, as compared with wild-type mice. Endothelial XBP-1 is activated by TNF and regulates leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion in vitro as well as neutrophil infiltration and vascular damage in murine vasculitis. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Endothelial adhesion molecules and leukocyte integrins in preeclamptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, H; Ziegler, E M; Homuth, V; Drab, M; Eichhorn, J; Nagy, Z; Busjahn, A; Vetter, K; Luft, F C

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cell activation is important in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia; however, the nature of the activation is unknown. We investigated 22 patients with preeclampsia. 29 normotensive pregnancies, and 18 nonpregnant women to test the hypothesis that serum from preeclamptic patients induces expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and stimulates intracellular free calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i in cultured endothelial cells. We then asked whether the corresponding integrin adhesive counter receptors lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (CD11a/CD18), macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b/CD18), p150,95 (CD11c/CD18), and very late activation antigen-4 (CD49/CD29) are increased in patients with preeclampsia. In the pregnant women, the measurements were conducted both before and after delivery. Integrin expression was measured by fluorescent antibody cell sorting analysis using monoclonal antibodies. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were analyzed on endothelial cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura 2. Serum from preeclamptic patients increased endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression but not VCAM-1 expression. Preeclamptic patients' serum also increased [Ca2+]i in endothelial cells compared with serum from normal nonpregnant or normal pregnant women. Endothelial cell [Ca2+]i concentrations were correlated with the ICAM-1 expression in preeclamptic patients (r = .80, P preclampsia and normal pregnancy compared with the nonpregnant state. The expression decreased significantly after delivery in both groups. Our results demonstrate that serum from preeclamptic women induces increased ICAM-1 surface expression on endothelial cells, while the expression of the integrin counterreceptors was not different. The effect on endothelial cells may be related to an increase in [Ca2+]i. The effect on cultured endothelial cells and the rapid decrease after delivery suggests the presence of a circulating serum

  13. Flaxseed Prevents Leukocyte and Platelet Adhesion to Endothelial Cells in Experimental Atherosclerosis by Reducing sVCAM-1 and vWF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Ecaterina Haliga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the possible effect of flaxseed to prevent leukocytes and platelets adhesion to endothelial cells and to reduce soluble adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1 and endothelial integrity markers (vWF in ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-two female Wistar rats were either sham-operated or ovariectomized and randomly assigned for 36 weeks to three different diets: (1 low-fat diet (8% energy as fat; (2 high-fat diet (40% energy as fat, lard based, lard group; (3 high-fat diet enriched with ground flaxseed 15 g/100 g of food (40% energy as fat, lard + flaxseed group. The ovariectomized rats fed with lard + flaxseeds had significantly lower serum concentrations of sVCAM and vWF, reduced platelet adhesiveness, and lower extent of platelet and leukocyte adherence to endothelium in the histological evaluation of the aorta as compared to Ovx + lard group. In our study, high dose of ground flaxseed incorporated to lard-based diet prevented the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in estrogen deficiency rats by decreasing platelet and endothelium reactivity. Assessment of platelet adhesion, serum soluble adhesion molecule sVCAM, and endothelium integrity molecule vWF could be useful to detect the risk for atherosclerotic lesions in estrogen deficiency states and to estimate the effect of flaxseed supplementation.

  14. Adhesion of leukocytes under oscillating stagnation point conditions: a numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, P G; Alshorman, A A; Westwood, S; David, T

    2002-01-01

    Leukocyte recruitment from blood to the endothelium plays an important role in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Cells show a primary and secondary adhesive process with primary bonds responsible for capture and rolling and secondary bonds for arrest. Our objective was to investigate the role played by this process on the adhesion of leukocytes in complex flow. Cells were modelled as rigid spheres with spring like adhesion molecules which formed bonds with endothelial receptors. Models of bond kinetics and Newton's laws of motion were solved numerically to determine cell motion. Fluid force was obtained from the local shear rate obtained from a CFD simulation of the flow over a backward facing step.In stagnation point flow the shear rate near the stagnation point has a large gradient such that adherent cells in this region roll to a high shear region preventing permanent adhesion. This is enhanced if a small time dependent perturbation is imposed upon the stagnation point. For lower shear rates the cell rolling velocity may be such that secondary bonds have time to form. These bonds resist the lower fluid forces and consequently there is a relatively large permanent adhesion region.

  15. Rosiglitazone Influences the Expression of Leukocyte Adhesion Molecules and CD14 Receptor in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T Stulc; H Svobodová; Z Krupicková; R Dolezalová; I Marinov; R Ceska

    2014-01-01

    .... We therefore studied the effect of rosiglitazone treatment on leukocyte surface expression of adhesion molecules in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and compared our results with findings in healthy subjects...

  16. A computational study of leukocyte adhesion and its effect on flow pattern in microvessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, Vijay; Doddi, Sai K; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2008-09-21

    Three-dimensional computational modeling and simulation are presented on the adhesive rolling of deformable leukocytes over a P-selectin coated surface in parabolic shear flow in microchannels. The computational model is based on the immersed boundary method for cell deformation and Monte Carlo simulation for receptor/ligand interaction. The simulations are continued for at least 1s of leukocyte rolling during which the instantaneous quantities such as cell deformation index, cell/substrate contact area, and fluid drag remain statistically stationary. The characteristic 'stop-and-go' motion of rolling leukocytes, and the 'tear-drop' shape of adherent leukocytes as observed in experiments are reproduced by the simulations. We first consider the role of cell deformation and cell concentration on rolling characteristics. We observe that compliant cells roll slower and more stably than rigid cells. Our simulations agree with previous in vivo observation that the hydrodynamic interactions between nearby leukocytes affect cell rolling, and that the rolling velocity decreases inversely with the separation distance, irrespective of cell deformability. We also find that cell deformation decreases, and the cells roll more stably with reduced velocity fluctuation, as the cell concentration is increased. However, the effect of nearby cells on the rolling characteristics is found to be more significant for rigid cells than compliant cells. We then address the effect of cell deformability and rolling velocity on the flow resistance due to, and the fluid drag on, adherent leukocytes. While several earlier computational works have addressed this problem, two key features of leukocyte adhesion, such as cell deformation and rolling, were often neglected. Our results suggest that neglecting cell deformability and rolling velocity may significantly overpredict the flow resistance and drag force. Increasing the cell concentration is shown to increase the flow resistance and reduce the

  17. Insulin Resistance in PCOS Patients Enhances Oxidative Stress and Leukocyte Adhesion: Role of Myeloperoxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Victor M.; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Bañuls, Celia; Diaz-Morales, Noelia; Martinez de Marañon, Arantxa; Rios-Navarro, Cesar; Alvarez, Angeles; Gomez, Marcelino; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases and oxidative stress are related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and insulin resistance (IR). We have evaluated the relationship between myeloperoxidase (MPO) and leukocyte activation in PCOS patients according to homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), and have explored a possible correlation between these factors and endocrine and inflammatory parameters. This was a prospective controlled study conducted in an academic medical center. The study population consisted of 101 PCOS subjects and 105 control subjects. We divided PCOS subjects into PCOS non-IR (HOMA-IRPCOS IR (HOMA-IR>2.5). Metabolic and anthropometric parameters, total and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, MPO levels, interactions between human umbilical vein endothelial cells and leukocytes, adhesion molecules (E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) were evaluated. Oxidative stress was observed in PCOS patients, in whom there was an increase in total and mitochondrial ROS production and MPO levels. Enhanced rolling flux and adhesion, and a decrease in polymorphonuclear cell rolling velocity were also detected in PCOS subjects. Increases in IL-6 and TNF-α and adhesion molecules (E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) were also observed, particularly in the PCOS IR group, providing evidence that inflammation and oxidative stress are related in PCOS patients. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with hsCRP (pPCOS patients in general, and particularly in those with IR. Inflammation in PCOS induces leukocyte-endothelium interactions and a simultaneous increase in IL-6, TNF-α, E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. These conditions are aggravated by the presence of IR. PMID:27007571

  18. 3D computational modeling and simulation of leukocyte rolling adhesion and deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, Vijay; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2008-06-01

    A 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model is presented to simulate transient rolling adhesion and deformation of leukocytes over a P-selectin coated surface in shear flow. The computational model is based on immersed boundary method for cell deformation, and stochastic Monte Carlo simulation for receptor/ligand interaction. The model is shown to predict the characteristic 'stop-and-go' motion of rolling leukocytes. Here we examine the effect of cell deformation, shear rate, and microvilli distribution on the rolling characteristics. Comparison with experimental measurements is presented throughout the article. We observe that compliant cells roll more stably, and have longer pause times due to reduced bond force and increased bond lifetime. Microvilli presentation is shown to affect rolling characteristics by altering the step size, but not pause times. Our simulations predict a significant sideway motion of the cell arising purely due to receptor/ligand interaction, and discrete nature of microvilli distribution. Adhesion is seen to occur via multiple tethers, each of which forms multiple selectin bonds, but often one tether is sufficient to support rolling. The adhesion force is concentrated in only 1-3 tethered microvilli in the rear-most part of a cell. We also observe that the number of selectin bonds that hold the cell effectively against hydrodynamic shear is significantly less than the total adhesion bonds formed between a cell and the substrate. The force loading on individual microvillus and selectin bond is not continuous, rather occurs in steps. Further, we find that the peak force on a tethered microvillus is much higher than that measured to cause tether extrusion.

  19. CD31/PECAM-1 is a ligand for alpha v beta 3 integrin involved in adhesion of leukocytes to endothelium

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    To protect the body efficiently from infectious organisms, leukocytes circulate as nonadherent cells in the blood and lymph, and migrate as adherent cells into tissues. Circulating leukocytes in the blood have first to adhere to and then to cross the endothelial lining. CD31/PECAM- 1 is an adhesion molecule expressed by vascular endothelial cells, platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and naive T lymphocytes. It is a transmembrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily (IgSF), with ...

  20. Role of H1 receptors and P-selectin in histamine-induced leukocyte rolling and adhesion in postcapillary venules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asako, H; Kurose, I; Wolf, R; DeFrees, S; Zheng, Z L; Phillips, M L; Paulson, J C; Granger, D N

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this study was to define the nature, magnitude, and mechanisms of histamine-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in postcapillary venules of the rat mesentery using intravital microscopic techniques. Superfusion of the mesentery with histamine (10(-7)-10(-5) M) resulted in a dose-related increase in the number of rolling leukocytes, a reduction in rolling velocity, and an increased clearance of FITC-labeled rat albumin from blood to superfusate. The histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes and increased albumin clearance were prevented by histamine H1 (hydroxyzine, diphenhydramine) but not H2 (cimetidine) receptor antagonists. Because histamine induces expression of the adhesion molecule P-selectin in cultured endothelial cells, a monoclonal antibody directed against rat P-selectin and soluble sialyl-LewisX oligosaccharide (the carbohydrate ligand to P-selectin) were also tested as inhibitors. Both were effective in preventing the histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes, but neither agent attenuated the increased albumin clearance. These observations suggest that (a) histamine recruits rolling leukocytes and increases albumin leakage in postcapillary venules via H1 receptor activation, (b) histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes is mediated in part by P-selectin expressed on the endothelial cell surface, and (c) the histamine-induced vascular albumin leakage is unrelated to leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Our results are consistent with the view that histamine may act as a mediator of acute inflammatory reactions.

  1. The recognition of adsorbed and denatured proteins of different topographies by β2 integrins and effects on leukocyte adhesion and activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brevig, T.; Holst, B.; Ademovic, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Leukocyte beta(2) integrins Mac-1 and p150,95 are promiscuous cell-surface receptors that recognise and mediate cell adhesion to a variety of adsorbed and denatured proteins. We used albumin as a model protein to study whether leukocyte adhesion and activation depended on the nm-scale topography...

  2. Antibiotics commonly used to treat mastitis and respiratory burst of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeben, D; Burvenich, C; Heyneman, R

    1998-02-01

    The in vitro effects of six doses (2 x 10(-3) to 2 x 10(-8) M) of antimicrobial drugs that are frequently used in udder infusions on the capacity of bovine blood polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes to generate reactive oxygen species were studied by the measurement of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence after stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. All drugs, except cloxacillin, significantly decreased chemiluminescence at the highest dose. Doxycyline induced the most severe inhibition, followed by neomycin and dihydrostreptomycin. The effect of ampicillin was due to the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and interactions with luminol. The inhibition observed with oleandomycin, neomycin, lincomycin, and dihydrostreptomycin was not due to direct effects on the production of oxidative metabolites but rather to interference with other components involved in the production of light, such as interference with the interaction between luminol and the myeloper-oxidase-H2O2-halide system. The deleterious effects of doxycycline can be explained by several factors: decreased production of superoxide, yellow color, the scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and Ca2+ chelating effect. In conclusion, the results of this study show that antibiotics may affect neutrophil function at concentrations that are reached in the mammary gland after local and repeated administration.

  3. Rosiglitazone influences the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules and CD14 receptor in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štulc, T; Svobodová, H; Krupičková, Z; Doležalová, R; Marinov, I; Češka, R

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased inflammatory response, which may contribute to atherosclerosis progression. Experimental results demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity of glitazones; their effect on leukocyte adhesion molecules has not been studied to date. We therefore studied the effect of rosiglitazone treatment on leukocyte surface expression of adhesion molecules in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and compared our results with findings in healthy subjects. 33 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 32 healthy controls were included; patients were examined at baseline and after 5 months of rosiglitazone treatment (4 mg/d). Leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules LFA-1, CD18 and ICAM-1 was quantified using flow cytometry; in addition, CD14 (lipopolysaccharide receptor) expression was analyzed as a marker of nonspecific immunity. The expression of examined molecules at baseline was higher in patients compared to controls. Despite only mild decrease in blood glucose, rosiglitazone treatment induced substantial decrease of CD18 and CD14 expression and borderline decrease of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expression (on monocytes only). We thus observed improvement in the expression of leukocyte inflammatory markers after rosiglitazone treatment. This effect is supposed to be mediated by direct effect of rosiglitazone on PPAR-gamma receptors on leukocytes.

  4. Effect of fibrinogen on leukocyte margination and adhesion in postcapillary venules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark J; Lipowsky, Herbert H

    2004-01-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the role of fibrinogen (Fb) as a determinant of leukocyte (WBC) margination in postcapillary venules in light of its ability to induce red blood cell (RBC) aggregation with reductions in shear rate (gamma) and increase adhesiveness of WBCs to endothelium (EC). Red cell aggregation (RCA), WBC margination (flux at the EC), rolling velocity, and adhesion to the EC were measured in rat mesenteric postcapillary venules upon reducing gamma, prior to and following systemic infusion of Fb. Proximal occlusion of feeding microvessels with a blunted probe facilitated reductions in gamma from 600 to 50 s(-1). An index of aggregation (G) was derived from light-scattering properties of RBCs, where G was proportional to the number of RBCs per aggregate. WBC margination was measured as the percentage of total luminal WBC flux that rolled on the EC, F*(WBC). For normal levels of Fb (0.07 g%), reductions in gamma resulted in a 4-fold rise in F*(WBC) and no change in G as gamma was reduced to 50 s(-1). Infusion of Fb to achieve a plasma concentration to 0.7 g% caused a modest 20% increase in G and a 2.5-fold increase in F*(WBC) at gamma = 50 s(-1). WBC-EC adhesion appeared to increase significantly, but much less than with infusion of high molecular weight dextran (Dx). With Dx, G increased 3-fold, with reductions in gamma, but F*(WBC) increased only half the amount incurred with Fb at low shear. The greater margination in the presence of Fb results from RBC rouleaux that promote radial migration of WBCs. In contrast, clumps of RBCs resulting from high molecular weight Dx entrain WBCs within plasma gaps along the vessel centerline. In the presence of Fb, margination of WBCs increases dramatically at low shear due to rouleaux formation, which enhances radial migration of WBCs. This effect is much greater than with Dx because disruption of the much weaker Fb induced rouleaux precludes reductions in H(MICRO), whereas clumping aggregates induced by Dx form

  5. Platelet adhesion on endothelium early after vein grafting mediates leukocyte recruitment and intimal hyperplasia in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chi-Nan; Chang, Ya-Ting; Lengquist, Mariette; Kronqvist, Malin; Hedin, Ulf; Eriksson, Einar E

    2015-04-01

    Intimal hyperplasia (IH) is the substrate for accelerated atherosclerosis and limited patency of vein grafts. However, there is still no specific treatment targeting IH following graft surgery. In this study, we used a mouse model of vein grafting to investigate the potential for early intervention with platelet function for later development of graft IH. We transferred the inferior vena cava (IVC) from donor C57BL/6 mice to the carotid artery in recipients using a cuff technique. We found extensive endothelial injury and platelet adhesion one hour following grafting. Adhesion of leukocytes was distinct in areas of platelet adhesion. Platelet and leukocyte adhesion was strongly reduced in mice receiving a function-blocking antibody against the integrin αIIbβ3. This was followed by a reduction of IH one month following grafting. Depletion of platelets using antiserum also reduced IH at later time points. These findings indicate platelets as pivotal to leukocyte recruitment to the wall of vein grafts. In conclusion, the data also highlight early intervention of platelets and inflammation as potential treatment for later formation of IH and accelerated atherosclerosis following bypass surgery.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma concentration of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule1, vascular cell adhesion molecule1 and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule in patients with acute ischemic b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selaković Vesna M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leukocyte migration into the ischemic area is a complex process controlled by adhesion molecules (AM in leukocytes and endothelium, by migratory capacity of leukocytes and the presence of hemotaxic agents in the tissue. In this research it was supposed that in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients in the acute phase of ischemic brain disease (IBD there were relevant changes in the concentration of soluble AM (sICAM-1 sVCAM-1 and sE-selectin, that could have been the indicators of the intensity of damaging processes in central nervous system (CNS. Methods. The study included 45 IBD patients, 15 with transient ischemic attack (TIA 15 with reversible ischemic attack (RIA, and 15 with brain infarction (BI of both sexes, mean age 66±7. Control group consisted of 15 patients with radicular lesions of discal origin, subjected to diagnostic radiculography without the signs of interruption in the passage of CSF. Changes of selected biochemical parameters were determined in all patients in frame 72 hours since the occurence of an ischemic episode. Concentrations of soluble AM were determined in plasma and CSF by ELISA. Total number of leukocytes (TNL in peripheral blood was determined by hematological analyzer. Results. The results showed that during the first 72 hrs of IBD significant increases occured in TNL and that the increase was progressive compared to the severeness of the disease. Significant increase of soluble AM concentration was shown in plasma of IBD patients. The increase was highest in BI somewhat lower in RIA and the lowest in TIA patients compared to the control. In CSF concentrations of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and sE-selectin demonstrated similar increasing trend as in plasma. Conclusion. TNL, as well as the soluble AM concentrations in plasma and CSF, were increased during the acute IBD phase and progressive in relation to the severeness of the disease, so that they might have been the indicators of CNS inflammatory

  7. Various sulfatase activities in leukocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts from heterozygotes for the multiple sulfatase deficiency (mukosulfatidosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Y; Tahara, T; Tokoro, T; Maekawa, K

    1983-02-01

    In heterozygotes for multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), several sulfatase activities including arylsulfatases A, B1, B2, and C, and cholesterol sulfatase were 40-50% of normals in cultured skin fibroblasts and 70-80% of normals in leukocytes. In MSD patients, these enzyme activities were deficient or reduced. DEAE-Sepharose column chromatographic patterns of 4-methylumbelliferyl sulfatases A, B1, and B2 in leukocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts from MSD patients and heterozygotes were also consistent with the above data. These data indicate that several sulfatase activities in heterozygotes of MSD exhibited intermediate activities as observed in the heterozygote state of other autosomal recessive inherited diseases.

  8. Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule: a Novel Biomarker for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulasingam, Vathany; Zheng, Yingye; Soosaipillai, Antoninus; Leon, Antonette E.; Gion, Massimo; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2013-01-01

    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) has been implicated in tumorigenesis. Our goal was to examine the levels of ALCAM, in addition to the classical breast cancer tumor markers carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), in serum by quantitative ELISA for diagnosis in breast cancer patients. The three proteins were measured in serum of 100 healthy women, 50 healthy men and 150 breast carcinoma patients. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the tests were calculated and the association of serum marker concentrations with various clinicopathologic variables was examined using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the biomarkers. ALCAM, with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78 [95% CI: 0.73, 0.84] outperformed CA15-3 (AUC= 0.70 [95% CI: 0.64, 0.76]) and CEA (AUC= 0.63 [95% CI: 0.56, 0.70]). The incremental values of AUC for ALCAM over that for CA15-3 were statistically significant (Delong test, p breast cancer and may have value for disease diagnosis. PMID:19322904

  9. Gingipains of Porphyromonas gingivalis Modulate Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule Expression Induced in Human Endothelial Cells by Ligation of CD99

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Peter L. W.; Decarlo, Arthur A.; Hunter, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as a key etiologic agent in the pathogenesis of destructive chronic periodontitis. Among virulence factors of this organism are cysteine proteinases, or gingipains, that have the capacity to modulate host inflammatory defenses. Intercellular adhesion molecule expression by vascular endothelium represents a crucial process for leukocyte transendothelial migration into inflamed tissue. Ligation of CD99 on endothelial cells was shown to induce express...

  10. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule regulates the interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Geng, Chang-Xin; Sun, Xin; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Jörg; Xie, Xiang-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is involved in tumor progression and metastasis. In the present study, the expression and functional role of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) was investigated. Tissue specimens were obtained from patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n=56) or chronic pancreatitis (CP; n=10), who underwent pancreatic resection, and from normal pancreatic tissue samples (n=10). Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the localization and expression of ALCAM in pancreatic tissues. Subsequently, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting were applied to assess the expression of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer Panc‑1 and T3M4 cells, as well as in PSCs. An enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure ALCAM levels in cell culture medium stimulated by hypoxia, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and transforming growth factor‑β. Silencing of ALCAM was performed using ALCAM small interfering (si)RNA and immunocytochemistry was used to analyze the inhibition efficiency. An invasion assay and a cell interaction assay were performed to assess the invasive ability and co‑cultured adhesive potential of Panc‑1 and T3M4 cells, as well as PSCs. Histologically, ALCAM expression was generally weak or absent in pancreatic cancer cells, but was markedly upregulated in PSCs in pancreatic cancer tissues. ALCAM was highly expressed in PSCs from CP tissues and PSCs surrounding pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, as well as in pancreatic cancer cells. ALCAM mRNA was highly expressed in PSCs, with a low to moderate expression in T3M4 and Panc‑1 cells. Similar to the mRNA expression, immunoblotting demonstrated that ALCAM protein levels were high in PSCs and T3M4 cells, but low in Panc‑1 cells. The expression of TNF‑α increased, while hypoxia decreased the secretion of ALCAM in pancreatic cancer Panc

  11. Rivaroxaban attenuates leukocyte adhesion in the microvasculature and thrombus formation in an experimental mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iba, Toshiaki; Aihara, Koichiro; Yamada, Atushi; Nagayama, Masataka; Tabe, Yoko; Ohsaka, Akimichi

    2014-02-01

    Thrombosis is a major complication in diabetes mellitus. Since Factor Xa inhibitors are not only inhibit the coagulation system but also attenuate the leukocyte-endothelial interaction in acute inflammation models, the purpose of this study is to confirm the similar effects of rivaroxaban in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the treatment groups, either 5 or 10mg/kg of rivaroxaban dissolved in DMSO was orally given to KK-A(y) mice for 7 weeks (n=6 in each group). KK-A(y) mice fed by chow containing DMSO without rivaroxaban for 7 weeks were served for the control group (n=6). Following clamping of the mesenteric vein for 20 minutes, intravital microscopic observation of the intestinal microcirculation and the measurement of bleeding time after the needle puncture were carried-out. In another series, the calculation for blood cell counts and the measurement of blood fluidity using micro channel array flow analyzer (MC-FAN) were performed. The initial event in the microvasculature is the leukocyte adhesion on endothelium. Then, the leukocytes make clusters and the platelets are involved in. These leukocyte-platelet conjugates aggregate and form thrombus. The leukocyte adherence and the microthrombus formation was significantly suppressed with the treatment of 10 mg/kg of rivaroxaban compared to the control group (Ptreatment with 10mg/kg of rivaroxaban (Ptreatment of 10 mg/kg rivaroxaban. Rivaroxaban attenuates the leukocyte-platelet-endothelial interaction, which leads to the attenuation of microthrombus formation in a mouse model of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Calcium dobesilate inhibits the alterations in tight junction proteins and leukocyte adhesion to retinal endothelial cells induced by diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Ermelindo C; Martins, João; Voabil, Paula; Liberal, Joana; Chiavaroli, Carlo; Bauer, Jacques; Cunha-Vaz, José; Ambrósio, António F

    2010-10-01

    Calcium dobesilate (CaD) has been used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in the last decades, but its mechanisms of action are not elucidated. CaD is able to correct the excessive vascular permeability in the retina of diabetic patients and in experimental diabetes. We investigated the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of CaD against the increase in blood-retinal barrier (BRB) permeability induced by diabetes. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: controls, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with CaD. The BRB breakdown was evaluated using Evans blue. The content or distribution of tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin-5, and zonula occluden-1 [ZO-1]), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) was evaluated by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Leukocyte adhesion was evaluated in retinal vessels and in vitro. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the detection of oxidized carbonyls and tyrosine nitration. NF-κB activation was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Diabetes increased the BRB permeability and retinal thickness. Diabetes also decreased occludin and claudin-5 levels and altered the distribution of ZO-1 and occludin in retinal vessels. These changes were inhibited by CaD treatment. CaD also inhibited the increase in leukocyte adhesion to retinal vessels or endothelial cells and in ICAM-1 levels, induced by diabetes or elevated glucose. Moreover, CaD decreased oxidative stress and p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation caused by diabetes. CaD prevents the BRB breakdown induced by diabetes, by restoring tight junction protein levels and organization and decreasing leukocyte adhesion to retinal vessels. The protective effects of CaD are likely to involve the inhibition of p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation, possibly through the inhibition of oxidative/nitrosative stress.

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of the stress response to weaning at housing in bovine leukocytes using RNA-seq technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Loughlin Aran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weaning of beef calves is a necessary husbandry practice and involves separating the calf from its mother, resulting in numerous stressful events including dietary change, social reorganisation and the cessation of the maternal-offspring bond and is often accompanied by housing. While much recent research has focused on the physiological response of the bovine immune system to stress in recent years, little is known about the molecular mechanisms modulating the immune response. Therefore, the objective of this study was to provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological response to weaning at housing in beef calves using Illumina RNA-seq. Results The leukocyte transcriptome was significantly altered for at least 7 days following either housing or weaning at housing. Analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that four main pathways, cytokine signalling, transmembrane transport, haemostasis and G-protein-coupled receptor (GPRC signalling were differentially regulated between control and weaned calves and underwent significant transcriptomic alterations in response to weaning stress on day 1, 2 and 7. Of particular note, chemokines, cytokines and integrins were consistently found to be up-regulated on each day following weaning. Evidence for alternative splicing of genes was also detected, indicating a number of genes involved in the innate and adaptive immune response may be alternatively transcribed, including those responsible for toll receptor cascades and T cell receptor signalling. Conclusions This study represents the first application of RNA-Seq technology for genomic studies in bovine leukocytes in response to weaning stress. Weaning stress induces the activation of a number of cytokine, chemokine and integrin transcripts and may alter the immune system whereby the ability of a number of cells of the innate and adaptive immune system to locate and destroy pathogens is

  14. Biofilm mediates Enterococcus faecalis adhesion, invasion and survival into bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadidy, M; Zahran, E

    2014-03-01

    We proposed in this study that during intramammary infection, biofilm formation may facilitate adherence and colonization of Enterococcus faecalis to mammary gland epithelium. This was established by comparing six different Ent. faecalis isolates with different biofilm-forming profiles for their adhesive, invasive and survival capabilities to bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T). Our results showed increased ability of the biofilm-producer Ent. faecalis strains to adhere, invade and survive inside MAC-T cells rather than nonbiofilm-producer strains. We showed that growth of bacteria in bovine milk significantly augmented the adherence and invasion of all tested strains, and this feature was abolished again when strains were subcultured in brain heart infusion broth. Moreover, growth in bovine milk significantly increased biofilm formation by all tested strains. These results indicated that biofilm formation by Ent. faecalis, especially after expressing milk-dependent induction, may have special relevance in the pathogenesis of Ent. faecalis mastitis during intramammary infection by enhancing bovine mammary epithelial adhesion and colonization. Results obtained from current work highlighted the role of biofilm in the pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecalis mastitis. Those biofilm-forming strains might be substantial as useful antigens in diagnostic assays and as future vaccine candidates to control Ent. faecalis mastitis. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Bond durability of universal adhesive to bovine enamel using self-etch mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Soshi; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Imai, Arisa; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Sai, Keiichi; Takimoto, Masayuki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2017-08-31

    The purpose of this study was to examine the enamel bond durability of universal adhesives in the self-etch mode under 2-year water storage and thermal cycling conditions. Three commercially available universal adhesives and a gold standard two-step self-etch adhesive were used. Ten specimens of bovine enamel were prepared per test group, and shear bond strength (SBS) was measured to determine the bonding durability after thermal cycling (TC) or long-term water storage (WS). The bonded specimens were divided into three groups: (1) specimens subjected to TC, where the bonded specimens were stored in 37 °C distilled water for 24 h before being subjected to 3000, 10,000, 20,000 or 30,000 TC; (2) specimens stored in 37 °C distilled water for 3 months, 6 months, 1 year or 2 year; and (3) specimens stored in 37 °C distilled water for 24 h, serving as a baseline. The two-step self-etch adhesive showed significantly higher SBS than the universal adhesives tested, regardless of the type of degradation method. All universal adhesives showed no significant enamel SBS reductions in TC and WS, when compared to baseline and the other degradation conditions. Compared to the bond strengths obtained with the two-step self-etch adhesive, significantly lower bond strengths were obtained with universal adhesives. However, the enamel bond durability of universal adhesives was relatively stable under both degradation conditions tested. The present data indicate that the enamel bond durability of universal adhesives in the self-etch mode might be sufficient for clinical use.

  16. The relationship of leukocyte anisocytosis to holotranscobalamin, a marker of cobalamin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, C; Medina, P; Nydegger, U E; Bahador, Z; Brinkmann, T; Von Landenberg, P; Risch, M; Risch, L

    2012-04-01

    After measurement of the mean volumes of leukocyte subpopulations as well as the distribution widths (DW) of these volumes has become available, we investigated whether such morphometric leukocyte parameters are associated with a commonly used marker of cobalamin deficiency, i.e., holotranscobalamin (HoloTC). Further, we determined reference intervals for these parameters in an elderly population. Consecutive subjectively healthy and volunteering individuals ≥60 years were included. Using the UniCel DxH 800 Coulter Cellular Analysis System MoMV, mean neutrophil volume (NeMV), mean lymphocyte volume (LyMV), monocyte anisocytosis (MoV-DW), neutrophil anisocytosis (NeV-DW), and lymphocyte anisocytosis (LyV-DW) were assessed together with other parameters including HoloTC. A total of 150 individuals were included in the study. Reference intervals were not dependent on age and gender. MoV-DW (P = 0.002) and NeV-DW (P = 0.02) were significantly lower, and LyMV was significantly higher (P = 0.04) in participants with a HoloTC concentration <28 pm. In contrast, MCV, MoMV, NeMV, and LyV-DW were not associated with HoloTC concentrations. The area under the curve (AUC) in the receiver operating characteristic analysis for detecting a HoloTC <28 pm was 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI) (0.73, 0.87)] for MoV-DW and 0.73 (0.66, 0.80) for NeV-DW. In this collective of subjectively healthy elderly individuals, monocyte anisocytosis, neutrophil anisocytosis and mean lymphocyte volume were associated with decreased HoloTC. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. In Vivo Chemoprotective Activity of Bovine Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract in Mouse Bone Marrow Cells against Damage Induced by 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Evangelina Coronado-Cerda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy treatments induce a number of side effects, such as leukopenia neutropenia, peripheral erythropenia, and thrombocytopenia, affecting the quality of life for cancer patients. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU is wieldy used as myeloablative model in mice. The bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract (bDLE or IMMUNEPOTENT CRP® (ICRP is an immunomodulatory compound that has antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. In order to investigate the chemoprotection effect of ICRP on bone marrow cells in 5-FU treated mice, total bone marrow (BM cell count, bone marrow colony forming units-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM, cell cycle, immunophenotypification, ROS/superoxide and Nrf2 by flow cytometry, and histological and hematological analyses were performed. Our results demonstrated that ICRP increased BM cell count and CFU-GM number, arrested BM cells in G0/G1 phase, increased the percentage of leukocyte, granulocytic, and erythroid populations, reduced ROS/superoxide formation and Nrf2 activation, and also improved hematological levels and weight gain in 5-FU treated mice. These results suggest that ICRP has a chemoprotective effect against 5-FU in BM cells that can be used in cancer patients.

  18. In Vivo Chemoprotective Activity of Bovine Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract in Mouse Bone Marrow Cells against Damage Induced by 5-Fluorouracil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado-Cerda, Erika Evangelina; Franco-Molina, Moisés Armides; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Prado-García, Heriberto; Rivera-Morales, Lydia Guadalupe; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Rodríguez-Salazar, María del Carmen; Caballero-Hernandez, Diana; Tamez-Guerra, Reyes Silvestre; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy treatments induce a number of side effects, such as leukopenia neutropenia, peripheral erythropenia, and thrombocytopenia, affecting the quality of life for cancer patients. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is wieldy used as myeloablative model in mice. The bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract (bDLE) or IMMUNEPOTENT CRP® (ICRP) is an immunomodulatory compound that has antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. In order to investigate the chemoprotection effect of ICRP on bone marrow cells in 5-FU treated mice, total bone marrow (BM) cell count, bone marrow colony forming units-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), cell cycle, immunophenotypification, ROS/superoxide and Nrf2 by flow cytometry, and histological and hematological analyses were performed. Our results demonstrated that ICRP increased BM cell count and CFU-GM number, arrested BM cells in G0/G1 phase, increased the percentage of leukocyte, granulocytic, and erythroid populations, reduced ROS/superoxide formation and Nrf2 activation, and also improved hematological levels and weight gain in 5-FU treated mice. These results suggest that ICRP has a chemoprotective effect against 5-FU in BM cells that can be used in cancer patients. PMID:27191003

  19. Absence of PAF receptor alters cellular infiltrate but not rolling and adhesion of leukocytes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, David Henrique; Lacerda-Queiroz, Norinne; de Miranda, Aline Silva; Fagundes, Caio Tavares; Campos, Roberta Dayrell de Lima; Arantes, Rosa Esteves; Vilela, Márcia de Carvalho; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2011-04-18

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a condition induced in some susceptible species to the study of multiple sclerosis (MS). The platelet activating factor (PAF) is an important mediator of immune responses and seems to be involved in MS. However, the participation of PAF in EAE and MS remains controversial. Thus, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of PAF receptor in the pathogenesis of EAE. EAE was induced using an emulsion containing MOG(35-55). EAE-induced PAF receptor knock out (PAFR(-/-)) mice presented milder disease when compared to C57BL/6 wild type (WT) animals. PAFR(-/-) animals had lower inflammatory infiltrates in central nervous system (CNS) tissue when compared to WT mice. However, intravital microscopy in cerebral microvasculature revealed similar levels of rolling and adhering leukocytes in both WT and PAFR(-/-) mice. Interleukine (IL)-17 and chemokines C-C motif legends (CCL)2 and CCL5 were significantly lower in PAFR(-/-) mice when compared to WT mice. Brain infiltrating cluster of differentiation (CD)4(+) leukocytes and IL-17(+) leukocytes was diminished in PAFR(-/-) when compared to WT mice. Taken together, our results suggest that PAF receptor is important in the induction and development of EAE, although it has no influence in rolling and adhesion steps of cell recruitment. The absence of PAF receptor results in milder disease by altering the type of inflammatory mediators and cells that are present in CNS tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sequential adhesion of platelets and leukocytes from flowing whole blood onto a collagen-coated surface: requirement for a GpVI-binding site in collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lynn M; Metson-Scott, Tom; Felix, Jo; Abhyankar, Anita; Rainger, G Ed; Farndale, Richard W; Watson, Stephen P; Nash, Gerard B

    2007-05-01

    The adhesion of leukocytes to immobilised platelets may contribute to inflammatory and thrombotic responses in damaged tissue. To investigate the conditions under which platelets and leukocytes might be deposited together in vessels, we perfused fluorescently-labelled whole blood through glass capillaries coated with various collagen preparations. Video-microscopic observations of the surface showed that platelets formed numerous, individual, rolling and stationary attachments to surfaces coated with acid-soluble, monomeric collagen. However, leukocyte interactions with the deposited platelets were rare. If the blood was washed out, the adherent platelets became more activated, and many rolling adherent leukocytes were observed if a second bolus of blood was perfused over them. This suggested that platelet activation had initially been inadequate to support leukocyte capture. Next, fibrillar collagen was adsorbed to the capillaries to present an ordered array of peptide motifs to platelet receptor glycoprotein (Gp)VI and transduce an activating signal. In this case, platelets were deposited in discrete, stable aggregates and the bound platelets captured many flowing leukocytes. Alternatively, acid-soluble collagen was seeded with collagen-related peptide (CRP) known to contain a GpVI-binding motif. Again, platelet adhesion became stable, and numerous flowing leukocytes were captured. Addition of antibody against GpVI or against P-selectin greatly reduced leukocyte adhesion to the platelets. Thus, in whole blood, platelets binding to exposed collagen need to be activated through GpVI in order to expose sufficient P-selectin to allow efficient capture of flowing leukocytes to take place.

  1. Induced changes of leukocyte slow rolling in an in flow pharmacological model of adhesion to endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, M; Heutte, F; Boutherin-Falson, O; Finet, M; Boisseau, M R

    2003-01-01

    Rolling of leukocytes at the surface of the vascular endothelium is a prerequisite for a subsequent firm adhesion, particularly the slow rolling appearing on ELAM CD62E. Therefore, it may be considered that increasing the rolling velocities should be a precise therapeutic target in clinical situations where leukocytes accumulate, mainly venous and arterial ischaemia. Human neutrophils were allowed to flow on endothelial HUVECs, with and without 4 hours interleukin-1alpha activation, the cells having or not been incubated with INO5042 anti-inflammatory drug. Under a mean shear-stress of 2 dyn/cm(2), rollers and stickers were identified and quantified, using a video-camera and picture analysing software. When the drug had been added to endothelial cells a shift of velocities was observed towards fast speeds (from 3-5 to 7-11 microm/sec). The same results was significantly found when neutrophils, alone or along with endothelium, had been submitted to the drug, the number of stickers and rollers beeing reduced as well. Finally, such a precise pharmacological method proved efficient to detect the exact mechanism of INO5042 on white cell adhesion.

  2. Increased DC trafficking to lymph nodes and contact hypersensitivity in junctional adhesion molecule-A–deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cera, Maria Rosaria; Del Prete, Annalisa; Vecchi, Annunciata; Corada, Monica; Martin-Padura, Ines; Motoike, Toshiyuki; Tonetti, Paolo; Bazzoni, Gianfranco; Vermi, William; Gentili, Francesca; Bernasconi, Sergio; Sato, Thomas N.; Mantovani, Alberto; Dejana, Elisabetta

    2004-01-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is a transmembrane adhesive protein expressed at endothelial junctions and in leukocytes. In the present work, we found that DCs also express JAM-A. To evaluate the biological relevance of this observation, Jam-A–/– mice were generated and the functional behavior of DCs in vitro and in vivo was studied. In vitro, Jam-A–/– DCs showed a selective increase in random motility and in the capacity to transmigrate across lymphatic endothelial cells. In vivo, Jam-A–/– mice showed enhanced DC migration to lymph nodes, which was not observed in mice with endothelium-restricted deficiency of the protein. Furthermore, increased DC migration to lymph nodes was associated with enhanced contact hypersensitivity (CHS). Adoptive transfer experiments showed that JAM-A–deficient DCs elicited increased CHS in Jam-A+/+ mice, further supporting the concept of a DC-specific effect. Thus, we identified here a novel, non-redundant role of JAM-A in controlling DC motility, trafficking to lymph nodes, and activation of specific immunity. PMID:15343392

  3. Shear bond strength of two 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesives when bonding ceramic brackets to bovine enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Marion; Deuve, Benjamin; Lopez, Isabelle; Hippolyte, Marie-Pascale; Barthélemi, Stéphane

    2017-09-01

    The present study assessed a fracture analysis and compared the shear bond strength (SBS) of two 2-step etch-and-rinse (E&R) adhesives when bonding ceramic orthodontic brackets to bovine enamel. Thirty healthy bovine mandibular incisors were selected and were equally and randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups. Ceramic brackets (FLI Signature Clear®, RMO) were bonded onto bovine enamel using an adhesive system. In group 1 (n=15), the conventional E&R adhesive (OrthoSolo®+Enlight®, Ormco) was used, and in group 2 (n=15), the new E&R adhesive limited to ceramic bracket bonding (FLI ceramic adhesive®: FLI sealant resin®+FLI adhesive paste®, RMO) was used. In order to obtain appropriate enamel surfaces, the vestibular surfaces of mandibular bovine incisors were flat ground. After bonding, all the samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 21 days and subsequently tested for SBS, using the Instron® universal testing machine. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) scores were evaluated. Failure modes were assessed using optical microscopy at magnification ×40. A statistic data analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test (Padhesive interface. A statistically significant difference was found for the ARI scores between the two groups (P=0.00996). Only two fractured brackets, which remained bonded onto the bovine enamel, were reported. Both occurred in group 1. When bonded to ceramic brackets, FLI ceramic adhesive® (RMO) was demonstrated to be very predictable and safe for clinical application in enamel bonding, whereas the results obtained with the conventional adhesive system (OrthoSolo®+Enlight®, Ormco) were less reproducible and revealed slightly excessive shear bond strength values. Copyright © 2017 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of cannabinoids and cannabispiro compounds on Escherichia coli adhesion to tissue culture cells and on leukocyte functions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, J; Petri, I; Berek, I; Shoyama, Y; Nishioka, I

    1987-01-01

    delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid, tetrahydrocannabidiolic acid, cannabispirol, acetylcannabispirol, cannabispirone, and cannabispirenone in a low concentration did not affect the adhesion of Escherichia coli on cultured HEp-2 cells. Cannabinoids at 10(-6) M increased the chemiluminescence of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, while the cannabispiro compounds failed to enhance the oxidative burst of leukocytes. In lymphocyte and granulocyte function tests (E- and EA-rosette formation, blast transformation of T-lymphocytes in the presence of phytohaemagglutinin and concanavalin-A, ADCC and phagocytosis) all compounds displayed immunosuppressive effect at 1.5 X 10(-5) M. Tetrahydrocannabidiolic acid exerted the weakest immunosuppression on human leukocyte functions.

  5. Functional groups grafted nonwoven fabrics for blood filtration-The effects of functional groups and wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Cao, Ye; Sun, Kang; Liu, Jiaxin; Wang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the effects of grafted functional groups and surface wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet were investigated by the method of blood filtration. The filter materials, poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven fabrics bearing different functional groups including hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), sulfonic acid group (SO3H) and zwitterionic sulfobetaine group (⊕N((CH3)2)(CH2)3SO3⊖) with controllable wettability were prepared by UV radiation grafting vinyl monomers with these functional groups. Our results emphasized that both surface functional groups and surface wettability had significant effects on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet. In the case of filter materials with the same wettability, leukocytes adhering to filter materials decreased in the order: the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group > the surface bearing SO3H, while platelets adhering to filter materials decreased as the following order: the surface bearing SO3H > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group. As the wettability of filter materials increased, both leukocyte and platelet adhesion to filter materials declined, except that leukocyte adhesion to the surface bearing OH only remained unchanged.

  6. Functional groups grafted nonwoven fabrics for blood filtration-The effects of functional groups and wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Chao [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cao Ye [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610081 (China); Sun Kang, E-mail: ksun@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu Jiaxin; Wang Hong [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610081 (China)

    2011-01-15

    In this work, the effects of grafted functional groups and surface wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet were investigated by the method of blood filtration. The filter materials, poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven fabrics bearing different functional groups including hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), sulfonic acid group (SO{sub 3}H) and zwitterionic sulfobetaine group ({sup +}N((CH{sub 3}){sub 2})(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup Circled-Minus }) with controllable wettability were prepared by UV radiation grafting vinyl monomers with these functional groups. Our results emphasized that both surface functional groups and surface wettability had significant effects on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet. In the case of filter materials with the same wettability, leukocytes adhering to filter materials decreased in the order: the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group > the surface bearing SO{sub 3}H, while platelets adhering to filter materials decreased as the following order: the surface bearing SO{sub 3}H > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group. As the wettability of filter materials increased, both leukocyte and platelet adhesion to filter materials declined, except that leukocyte adhesion to the surface bearing OH only remained unchanged.

  7. Recombinant human interferon-gamma treatment in severe leucocyte adhesion deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weening, R. S.; Bredius, R. G.; Vomberg, P. P.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Hoogerwerf, M.; Roos, D.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a patient with leucocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD). Clinically, the patient had delayed umbilical cord detachment, omphalitis, impaired wound healing and persistent leucocytosis. The patient had the severe form of LAD, with a total absence of leucocyte cell adhesion molecules (LeuCAMs)

  8. Identification of bovine leukocyte antigen class II haplotypes associated with variations in bovine leukemia virus proviral load in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, T; Takeshima, S-n; Jimba, M; Matsumoto, Y; Kobayashi, N; Matsuhashi, T; Sentsui, H; Aida, Y

    2013-02-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. Bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) is strongly involved in the subclinical progression of BLV infections. Recent studies show that the BoLA-DRB3 gene might play a direct role in controlling the number of BLV-infected peripheral B lymphocytes in vivo in Holstein cattle. However, the specific BoLA class II allele and DRB3-DQA1 haplotypes determining the BLV proviral load in Japanese Black cattle are yet to be identified. In this study, we focused on the association of BLV proviral load and polymorphism of BoLA class II in Japanese Black cattle. We genotyped 186 BLV-infected, clinically normal cattle for BoLA-DRB3 and BoLA-DQA1 using a polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing method. BoLA-DRB3*0902 and BoLA-DRB3*1101 were associated with a low proviral load (LPVL), and BoLA-DRB3*1601 was associated with a high proviral load (HPVL). Furthermore, BoLA-DQA1*0204 and BoLA-DQA1*10012 were related to LPVL and HPVL, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed the correlation between the DRB3-DQA1 haplotype and BLV proviral load. Two haplotypes, namely 0902B or C (DRB3*0902-DQA1*0204) and 1101A (DRB3*1101-DQA1*10011), were associated with a low BLV proviral load, whereas one haplotype 1601B (DRB3*1601-DQA1*10012) was associated with a high BLV proviral load. We conclude that resistance is a dominant trait and susceptibility is a recessive trait. Additionally, resistant alleles were common between Japanese Black and Holstein cattle, and susceptible alleles differed. This is the first report to identify an association between the DRB3-DQA1 haplotype and variations in BLV proviral load. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Effects of fluorescent dyes on selectin and integrin-mediated stages of adhesion and migration of flowing leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbitt, K B; Rainger, G E; Nash, G B

    2000-05-26

    Fluorescent dyes assist visualisation of leukocytes for intravital studies of adhesion or for in vitro studies utilising whole blood. We have used in vitro flow-based assays to investigate the effects of three fluorescent dyes (acridine orange, AO, 5-100 microg/ml; calcein-AM, C-AM, 5-20 microg/ml; rhodamine 6G, R6G, 10-100 microg/ml) on adhesion and migration of isolated neutrophils and mononuclear cells. AO had little effect on the number or velocity of neutrophils rolling on P-selectin presented by a surface coated with platelets. However, AO did cause a dose- and time-dependent conversion of rolling to immobilisation. Pretreatment of neutrophils with an antibody against CD18 prevented this conversion to stationary adhesion, indicating that beta(2) integrins were activated by AO. C-AM had little effect on neutrophil behaviour, but tended to cause some immobilisation at the highest concentration. R6G did not affect the number of neutrophils that bound to the platelet monolayer or the percentage rolling, but the rolling velocity of the neutrophils was increased in a dose-dependent manner. None of the dyes impaired the ability of neutrophils to respond to formyl peptide by converting from rolling to stationary adhesion. Neither C-AM nor R-6G reduced the number of flowing neutrophils or mononuclear cells binding to endothelial cells stimulated with tumour necrosis factor. Interestingly, R-6G inhibited transendothelial migration of mononuclear cells but not neutrophils, while C-AM did not affect transmigration of either cell type. The dose-dependent effects of dyes should be taken into consideration when designing any experimental protocol. AO does not appear to be a suitable dye for adhesion studies. R6G and C-AM can be used at approximately 10 microg/ml (a concentration at which cells can be clearly visualised) although R-6G specifically inhibits the migratory response of mononuclear cells.

  10. Development of an autoimmune syndrome affecting the skin and internal organs in P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 leukocyte receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Frías, A; González-Tajuelo, R; Núñez-Andrade, N; Tejedor, R; García-Blanco, M J; Vicente-Rabaneda, E; Castañeda, S; Gamallo, C; Silván, J; Esteban-Villafruela, A; Cubero-Rueda, L; García-García, C; Muñoz-Calleja, C; García-Diez, A; Urzainqui, A

    2014-11-01

    To define and characterize the progression of the spontaneous autoimmune disease that develops in mice in the absence of the leukocyte adhesion receptor P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1). Skin-resident immune cells from PSGL-1-deficient mice and C57BL/6 control mice of different ages were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry. Biochemical parameters were analyzed in mouse serum and urine, and the presence of serum autoantibodies was investigated. Skin and internal organs were extracted, and their structure was analyzed histologically. Skin-resident innate and adaptive immune cells from PSGL-1(-/-) mice had a proinflammatory phenotype with an imbalanced T effector cell:Treg cell ratio. Sera from PSGL-1(-/-) mice had circulating autoantibodies commonly detected in connective tissue-related human autoimmune diseases. Biochemical and histologic analysis of skin and internal organs revealed skin fibrosis and structural and functional abnormalities in the lungs and kidneys. Furthermore, PSGL-1(-/-) mice exhibited vascular alterations, showing loss of dermal vessels, small vessel medial layer remodeling in the lungs and kidneys, and ischemic processes in the kidney that promote renal infarcts. Our study demonstrates that immune system overactivation due to PSGL-1 deficiency triggers an autoimmune syndrome with characteristics similar to systemic sclerosis, including skin fibrosis, vascular alterations, and systemic organ involvement. These results suggest that PSGL-1 expression contributes to the maintenance of the homeostasis of the immune system and could act as a barrier for autoimmunity in mice. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Lateral mobility of individual integrin nanoclusters orchestrates the onset for leukocyte adhesion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, G.J.; Eich, C.; Torreno-Pina, J.A.; Diez-Ahedo, R.; Perez-Samper, G.; Zanten, T.S. van; Figdor, C.G.; Cambi, A.; Garcia-Parajo, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Integrins are cell membrane adhesion receptors involved in morphogenesis, immunity, tissue healing, and metastasis. A central, yet unresolved question regarding the function of integrins is how these receptors regulate both their conformation and dynamic nanoscale organization on the membrane to

  12. CD166/activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule is expressed on glioblastoma progenitor cells and involved in the regulation of tumor cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Noriyuki; Hosen, Naoki; Kagawa, Naoki; Hashimoto, Naoya; Nakano, Akiko; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Kinoshita, Manabu; Sugiyama, Haruo; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2012-10-01

    For improvement of prognosis for glioblastoma patients, which remains poor, identification and targeting of glioblastoma progenitor cells are crucial. In this study, we found that the cluster of differentiation (CD)166/activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) was highly expressed on CD133+ glioblastoma progenitor cells. ALCAM+ CD133+ cells were highly enriched with tumor sphere-initiating cells in vitro. Among gliomas with isocitrate dehydrogenase-1/R132H mutation, the frequencies of ALCAM+ cells were significantly higher for glioblastomas than for World Health Organization grade II or III gliomas. The function of ALCAM in glioblastoma was then investigated. An in vitro invasion assay showed that transfection of ALCAM small interfering RNA or small hairpin RNA into glioblastoma cells significantly increased cell invasion without affecting cell proliferation. A soluble isoform of ALCAM (sALCAM) was also expressed in all glioblastoma samples and at levels that correlated well with ALCAM expression levels. In vitro invasion of glioblastoma cells was significantly enhanced by administration of purified sALCAM. Furthermore, overexpression of sALCAM in U87MG glioblastoma cells promoted tumor progression in i.c. transplants into immune-deficient mice. In summary, we were able to show that ALCAM constitutes a novel glioblastoma progenitor cell marker. We could also demonstrate that ALCAM and its soluble isoform are involved in the regulation of glioblastoma invasion and progression.

  13. Enzymatic activities of bovine peripheral blood leukocytes and milk polymorphonuclear neutrophils during intramammary inflammation caused by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prin-Mathieu, C; Le Roux, Y; Faure, G C; Laurent, F; Béné, M C; Moussaoui, F

    2002-07-01

    Leukocytes are recruited from peripheral blood into milk as part of the inflammatory response to mastitis. However, excessive accumulation of inflammatory cells alters the quality of milk and the proteases produced by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and macrophages may lead to mammary tissue damage. To investigate PMN recruitment and the kinetics of their intracytoplasmic enzymes in inflammation, we generated mastitis in six cows by intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Clinical signs of acute mastitis were observed in all of the cows, and normal status was resumed by 316 h. Intracytoplasmic elastase, collagenase, and cathepsin activities were measured within live cells by flow cytometry in peripheral blood leukocytes and milk PMNs before and during the inflammatory process (at 10 time points between 4 and 316 h). The proportion of immature PMNs was appreciated by CD33 surface labeling measured in flow cytometry. Leukopenia was observed in the peripheral blood 4 h postinfusion, concomitant to an increase in somatic cell counts in milk. CD33(+) PMNs were preferentially recruited from the peripheral blood to milk. Enzymatic activities were detected in PMNs, lymphocytes, and monocytes at levels depending on the cell type, sample nature, and time of collection. Milk PMNs had lower enzymatic activities than peripheral blood PMNs. This study showed that milk PMNs recruited during LPS-induced experimental mastitis have an immature phenotype and significantly lower enzymatic activities than peripheral blood PMNs. This suggests that CD33, an adhesion molecule, may be involved in the egress from blood to milk and that the enzymatic contents of PMNs are partly used during this process.

  14. Enzymatic Activities of Bovine Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Milk Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils during Intramammary Inflammation Caused by Lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prin-Mathieu, C.; Le Roux, Y.; Faure, G. C.; Laurent, F.; Béné, M. C.; Moussaoui, F.

    2002-01-01

    Leukocytes are recruited from peripheral blood into milk as part of the inflammatory response to mastitis. However, excessive accumulation of inflammatory cells alters the quality of milk and the proteases produced by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and macrophages may lead to mammary tissue damage. To investigate PMN recruitment and the kinetics of their intracytoplasmic enzymes in inflammation, we generated mastitis in six cows by intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Clinical signs of acute mastitis were observed in all of the cows, and normal status was resumed by 316 h. Intracytoplasmic elastase, collagenase, and cathepsin activities were measured within live cells by flow cytometry in peripheral blood leukocytes and milk PMNs before and during the inflammatory process (at 10 time points between 4 and 316 h). The proportion of immature PMNs was appreciated by CD33 surface labeling measured in flow cytometry. Leukopenia was observed in the peripheral blood 4 h postinfusion, concomitant to an increase in somatic cell counts in milk. CD33+ PMNs were preferentially recruited from the peripheral blood to milk. Enzymatic activities were detected in PMNs, lymphocytes, and monocytes at levels depending on the cell type, sample nature, and time of collection. Milk PMNs had lower enzymatic activities than peripheral blood PMNs. This study showed that milk PMNs recruited during LPS-induced experimental mastitis have an immature phenotype and significantly lower enzymatic activities than peripheral blood PMNs. This suggests that CD33, an adhesion molecule, may be involved in the egress from blood to milk and that the enzymatic contents of PMNs are partly used during this process. PMID:12093678

  15. Measuring Leukocyte Adhesion to (Primary Endothelial Cells after Photon and Charged Particle Exposure with a Dedicated Laminar Flow Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Erbeldinger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The vascular endothelium interacts with all types of blood cells and is a key modulator of local and systemic inflammatory processes, for example, in the adhesion of blood leukocytes to endothelial cells (EC and the following extravasation into the injured tissue. The endothelium is constantly exposed to mechanical forces caused by blood flow, and the resulting shear stress is essential for the maintenance of endothelial function. Changes in local hemodynamics are sensed by EC, leading to acute or persistent changes. Therefore, in vitro assessment of EC functionality should include shear stress as an essential parameter. Parallel-plate flow chambers with adjustable shear stress can be used to study EC properties. However, commercially available systems are not suitable for radiation experiments, especially with charged particles, which are increasingly used in radiotherapy of tumors. Therefore, research on charged-particle-induced vascular side effects is needed. In addition, α-particle emitters (e.g., radon are used to treat inflammatory diseases at low doses. In the present study, we established a flow chamber system, applicable for the investigation of radiation induced changes in the adhesion of lymphocytes to EC as readout for the onset of an inflammatory reaction or the modification of a pre-existing inflammatory state. In this system, primary human EC are cultured under physiological laminar shear stress, subjected to a proinflammatory treatment and/or irradiation with X-rays or charged particles, followed by a coincubation with primary human lymphocytes (peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL. Analysis is performed by semiautomated quantification of fluorescent staining in microscopic pictures. First results obtained after irradiation with X-rays or helium ions indicate decreased adhesion of PBL to EC under laminar conditions for both radiation qualities, whereas adhesion of PBL under static conditions is not clearly affected by irradiation

  16. West Nile virus-induced cell adhesion molecules on human brain microvascular endothelial cells regulate leukocyte adhesion and modulate permeability of the in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Roe

    Full Text Available Characterizing the mechanisms by which West Nile virus (WNV causes blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, leukocyte infiltration into the brain and neuroinflammation is important to understand the pathogenesis of WNV encephalitis. Here, we examined the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs in mediating the adhesion and transendothelial migration of leukocytes across human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVE. Infection with WNV (NY99 strain significantly induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in human endothelial cells and infected mice brain, although the levels of their ligands on leukocytes (VLA-4, LFA-1and MAC-1 did not alter. The permeability of the in vitro BBB model increased dramatically following the transmigration of monocytes and lymphocytes across the models infected with WNV, which was reversed in the presence of a cocktail of blocking antibodies against ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. Further, WNV infection of HBMVE significantly increased leukocyte adhesion to the HBMVE monolayer and transmigration across the infected BBB model. The blockade of these CAMs reduced the adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes across the infected BBB model. Further, comparison of infection with highly neuroinvasive NY99 and non-lethal (Eg101 strain of WNV demonstrated similar level of virus replication and fold-increase of CAMs in HBMVE cells suggesting that the non-neuropathogenic response of Eg101 is not because of its inability to infect HBMVE cells. Collectively, these results suggest that increased expression of specific CAMs is a pathological event associated with WNV infection and may contribute to leukocyte infiltration and BBB disruption in vivo. Our data further implicate that strategies to block CAMs to reduce BBB disruption may limit neuroinflammation and virus-CNS entry via 'Trojan horse' route, and improve WNV disease outcome.

  17. West Nile virus-induced cell adhesion molecules on human brain microvascular endothelial cells regulate leukocyte adhesion and modulate permeability of the in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Kelsey; Orillo, Beverly; Verma, Saguna

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the mechanisms by which West Nile virus (WNV) causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, leukocyte infiltration into the brain and neuroinflammation is important to understand the pathogenesis of WNV encephalitis. Here, we examined the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in mediating the adhesion and transendothelial migration of leukocytes across human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVE). Infection with WNV (NY99 strain) significantly induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in human endothelial cells and infected mice brain, although the levels of their ligands on leukocytes (VLA-4, LFA-1and MAC-1) did not alter. The permeability of the in vitro BBB model increased dramatically following the transmigration of monocytes and lymphocytes across the models infected with WNV, which was reversed in the presence of a cocktail of blocking antibodies against ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. Further, WNV infection of HBMVE significantly increased leukocyte adhesion to the HBMVE monolayer and transmigration across the infected BBB model. The blockade of these CAMs reduced the adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes across the infected BBB model. Further, comparison of infection with highly neuroinvasive NY99 and non-lethal (Eg101) strain of WNV demonstrated similar level of virus replication and fold-increase of CAMs in HBMVE cells suggesting that the non-neuropathogenic response of Eg101 is not because of its inability to infect HBMVE cells. Collectively, these results suggest that increased expression of specific CAMs is a pathological event associated with WNV infection and may contribute to leukocyte infiltration and BBB disruption in vivo. Our data further implicate that strategies to block CAMs to reduce BBB disruption may limit neuroinflammation and virus-CNS entry via 'Trojan horse' route, and improve WNV disease outcome.

  18. A novel system for investigating the ability of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to regulate adhesion of flowing leukocytes to endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainger, G E; Stone, P; Morland, C M; Nash, G B

    2001-09-01

    Stromal cells may contribute to the inflammatory processes which lead to the recruitment of circulating leukocytes. Here, we describe a multicellular model in which chosen cellular elements of tissue can be cocultured with endothelial cells (EC). Cocultures can be incorporated into a novel parallel plate flow chamber to determine if stromal cells influence the patterns of leukocyte adhesion to the EC. As an example relevant to the pathology of atherosclerosis, EC were cultured with arterial smooth muscle cells (SMC) of the 'secretory' phenotype. EC and secretory SMC were cultured on the opposite faces of commercially available porous polyethylene terepthalate (PET) culture inserts, which fitted into a parallel plate flow chamber. Binding of flowing purified lymphocytes, labelled with the fluorochrome calcein-AM, to cocultured EC was assessed by fluorescence microscopy. Lymphocyte adhesion was negligible on unstimulated EC cultured alone or cocultured with SMC. However, when tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) was added to cocultures, the EC supported greatly increased levels of lymphocyte adhesion compared to TNF-treated EC cultured alone. Additionally, cocultured EC responded to TNF at concentrations far below those at which EC cultured alone responded. This priming was specific in that skin fibroblasts cocultured with EC did not modify lymphocyte adhesion induced by TNF. Thus, we have developed a coculture model to determine the ability of tissue stromal cells to modify leukocyte recruitment. This may have wide applications in the study of the cellular pathology of inflammation by allowing the contribution of the local microenvironment to be assessed.

  19. Resin Bonding of Self-Etch Adhesives to Bovine Dentin Bleached from Pulp Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, Akiko; Kameyama, Atsushi; Kato, Junji; Takemoto, Shinji; Oda, Yutaka; Kawada, Eiji; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Furusawa, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of 1-step self-etch adhesives (1-SEAs) and 2-step self-etch adhesives (2-SEAs) to pulp chamber dentin immediately after bleaching with 2 types of common bleaching techniques. Pulp chamber dentin of bovine teeth was bleached using 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution with quartz-tungsten-halogen light-curing unit (Group 1) and 3.5% H2O2-containing titanium dioxide (TiO2) (Pyrenees®) activated with 405-nm violet diode laser for 15 min (Group 2). Unbleached specimens were placed in distilled water for 15 min and used as controls. After treatment, dentin was bonded with resin composite using 1-SEA or 2-SEA and stored in water at 37°C for 24 h. Each specimen was sectioned and trimmed to an hourglass-shape and μTBS was measured. Fractured specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope to determine fracture modes. All specimens in Group 1 failed before proper bonding tests. In Group 2, the μTBS of 2-SEA was significantly greater (with no failed specimens) than 1-SEA (where 21 out of 36 failed). These results indicate that 2-SEA is a better adhesive system than 1-SEA on bleached dentin. Our results also demonstrated that application of H2O2 significantly decreases bond strength of resin to dentin; however, in the case of nonvital tooth bleaching, Pyrenees® is a better alternative to the conventional 30% H2O2 bleaching.

  20. Resin Bonding of Self-Etch Adhesives to Bovine Dentin Bleached from Pulp Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Haruyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the microtensile bond strength (μTBS of 1-step self-etch adhesives (1-SEAs and 2-step self-etch adhesives (2-SEAs to pulp chamber dentin immediately after bleaching with 2 types of common bleaching techniques. Pulp chamber dentin of bovine teeth was bleached using 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 solution with quartz-tungsten-halogen light-curing unit (Group 1 and 3.5% H2O2-containing titanium dioxide (TiO2 (Pyrenees® activated with 405-nm violet diode laser for 15 min (Group 2. Unbleached specimens were placed in distilled water for 15 min and used as controls. After treatment, dentin was bonded with resin composite using 1-SEA or 2-SEA and stored in water at 37°C for 24 h. Each specimen was sectioned and trimmed to an hourglass-shape and μTBS was measured. Fractured specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope to determine fracture modes. All specimens in Group 1 failed before proper bonding tests. In Group 2, the μTBS of 2-SEA was significantly greater (with no failed specimens than 1-SEA (where 21 out of 36 failed. These results indicate that 2-SEA is a better adhesive system than 1-SEA on bleached dentin. Our results also demonstrated that application of H2O2 significantly decreases bond strength of resin to dentin; however, in the case of nonvital tooth bleaching, Pyrenees® is a better alternative to the conventional 30% H2O2 bleaching.

  1. Influence of endodontic sealer composition and time of fiber post cementation on sealer adhesiveness to bovine root dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; Moraes, Rafael do Amaral; Broch, Juliana; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of the type of endodontic sealer (salicylate resin-based sealer vs. two endodontic sealers) and the time of fiber post cementation after root filling on the post adhesion to bovine root dentin. Sixty bovine roots were assigned to six groups (n=10), considering an experimental design with two factors (factorial 3x2): endodontic sealer factor in three levels [epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus), eugenol-based sealer (Endofill), and salicylate resin-based sealer plus mineral trioxide aggregate - MTA (MTA Fillapex)] and time for post cementation factor in two levels (immediate post cementation or 15 days after root canal filling). After post cementation, 2-mm-thick slices were produced and submitted to push-out test. The failure modes were analyzed under a 40× stereomicroscope and scored as: adhesive at cement/dentin interface; adhesive at cement/post interface; cement cohesive; post cohesive; dentin cohesive; or mixed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (α=0.05). When the fiber posts were cemented immediately after the root canal filling, the bond strengths were similar, independent of the endodontic sealer type. However, after 15 days, the epoxy resin-based sealer presented higher bond strength than the other sealers (ppost cementation has no influence on post/root dentin adhesion. On the contrary, the type of endodontic sealer can influence the adhesion between fiber posts and root dentin.

  2. Preclinical studies for the gene therapy of leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1

    OpenAIRE

    León Rico, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Bioquímica. Fecha de lectura: 25-02-2015 La Deficiencia de Adhesión Leucocitaria Tipo I (DAL-I) es una inmunodeficiencia primaria producida por mutaciones en el gen ITGB2, que codifica para la proteína CD18 o subunidad β2. Esta proteína se asocia con diferentes subunidades CD11 para formar las integrinas β2, las cuales se expresan en la membrana de los leucocitos y les permiten...

  3. Expression and distribution of cell adhesion-related proteins in bovine parthenogenetic embryos: The effects of oocyte vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Fu, Xiangwei; Zhou, Guangbin; Yue, Mingxing; Zhou, Yanhua; Zhu, Shien

    2013-07-01

    The objective was to investigate expression of cell adhesion-related proteins (E-cadherin, β-catenin, and the cytoskeletal protein F-actin) in bovine parthenogenetic embryos derived from vitrified-warmed oocytes. Bovine oocytes at metaphase II were randomly allocated into three groups: (1) untreated (control); (2) exposed to vitrification solution without freezing (toxicity); and (3) vitrified and warmed by the open-pulled straw method (vitrification). After parthenogenetic activation, in the vitrification group compared with the control, the timing of compaction was delayed in (108-120 vs. 96-108 hours, respectively), and the percentage of blastocysts that developed from eight-cell embryos was lower (32.08% vs. 61.03%; P vitrification delayed embryo compaction by affecting adhesion junction formation and function, immunostaining and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were done to characterize distribution patterns (E-cadherin, β-catenin, and the cytoskeletal protein F-actin) and expression levels of cell adhesion-related proteins (β-catenin). Distribution of β-catenin in eight-cell embryos from the vitrification group changed dramatically compared with the control and toxicity groups. Relative expression of β-catenin at the mRNA and protein levels was lower (P bovine parthenogenetic eight-cell embryos derived from vitrified-warmed oocytes were associated with embryo compaction and reduced competence for subsequent embryo development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in some Blood Micronutrients, Leukocytes and Neutrophil Expression of Adhesion Molecules in Periparturient Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersson L

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows are highly susceptible to infectious diseases, like mastitis, during the period around calving. Although factors contributing to increased susceptibility to infection have not been fully elucidated, impaired neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection and changes in the concentrations of some micronutrients related with the function of the immune defence has been implicated. Most of the current information is based on studies outside the Nordic countries where the conditions for dairy cows are different. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate changes in blood concentrations of the vitamins A and E, the minerals calcium (Ca, phosphorous (P, and magnesium (Mg, the electrolytes potassium (K and sodium (Na and the trace elements selenium (Se, copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, as well as changes in total and differential white blood cell counts (WBC and expression of the adhesion molecules CD62L and CD18 on blood neutrophils in Swedish dairy cows during the period around calving. Blood samples were taken from 10 cows one month before expected calving, at calving and one month after calving. The results were mainly in line with reports from other countries. The concentrations of vitamins A and E, and of Zn, Ca and P decreased significantly at calving, while Se, Cu, and Na increased. Leukocytosis was detected at calving, mainly explained by neutrophilia, but also by monocytosis. The numbers of lymphocytes tended to decrease at the same time. The mean fluorescent intensity (MFI of CD62L and CD18 molecules on blood neutrophils remained constant over time. The proportion of CD62L+ neutrophils decreased significantly at calving. The animals were fed according to, or above, their requirements. Therefore, changes in blood levels of vitamins, minerals and trace elements were mainly in response to colostrum formation, changes in dry matter intake, and ruminal metabolism around calving. Decreased levels of vitamins A and E, and of Zn at calving

  5. Myeloid IκBα deficiency promotes atherogenesis by enhancing leukocyte recruitment to the plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Goossens (Pieter); Y. Vergouwe (Yvonne); M. Gijbels (Marion); D.M.J. Curfs (Danielle M.); J.H.G. van Woezik (Johannes H.); M.A. Hoeksema (Marten); S. Xanthoulea (Sofia); P.J. Leenen (Pieter); R.A. Rupec (Rudolf); M.A. Hofker (Marten); M.P.J. de Winther (Menno P.)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractActivation of the transcription factor NF-κB appears to be involved in different stages of atherogenesis. In this paper we investigate the role of NF-κB inhibitor IκBα in atherosclerosis. Myeloid-specific deletion of IκBα results in larger and more advanced lesions in LDL-R-deficient

  6. Myeloid IκBα deficiency promotes atherogenesis by enhancing leukocyte recruitment to the plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Pieter; Vergouwe, Monique N.; Gijbels, Marion J. J.; Curfs, Danielle M. J.; van Woezik, Johannes H. G.; Hoeksema, Marten A.; Xanthoulea, Sofia; Leenen, Pieter J. M.; Rupec, Rudolf A.; Hofker, Marten H.; de Winther, Menno P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of the transcription factor NF-κB appears to be involved in different stages of atherogenesis. In this paper we investigate the role of NF-κB inhibitor IκBα in atherosclerosis. Myeloid-specific deletion of IκBα results in larger and more advanced lesions in LDL-R-deficient mice without

  7. Peripheral leukocyte anomaly detected with routine automated hematology analyzer sensitive to adipose triglyceride lipase deficiency manifesting neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy/triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akira; Nagasaka, Hironori; Ochi, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Daisaku; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yamaki, Shinobu; Wada, Atsushi; Shirata, Yoshihisa; Hui, Shu-Ping; Toda, Tatsushi; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Chiba, Hitoshi; Hirano, Ken-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) deficiency manifesting neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy/triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy presents distinct fat-containing vacuoles known as Jordans' anomaly in peripheral leucocytes. To develop an automatic notification system for Jordans' anomaly in ATGL-deficient patients, we analyzed circulatory leukocyte scattergrams on automated hematology analyzer XE-5000. The BASO-WX and BASO-WY values were found to be significantly higher in patients than those in non-affected subjects. The two parameters measured by automated hematology analyzer may be expected to provide an important diagnostic clue for homozygous ATGL deficiency.

  8. Besnoitia besnoiti infections activate primary bovine endothelial cells and promote PMN adhesion and NET formation under physiological flow condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, P; Hermosilla, C; Kleinertz, S; Hirzmann, J; Taubert, A

    2016-05-01

    Besnoitia besnoiti is an obligate intracellular and emerging coccidian parasite of cattle that mainly infects host endothelial cells during acute infection. We here analyzed early innate immune reactions of B. besnoiti-infected primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVEC). B. besnoiti infections significantly activated BUVEC since the gene transcripts of several adhesion molecules (P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1(ICAM-1)), chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL8, CCL5), and of COX-2 were significantly upregulated during in vitro infection. Overall, the highest upregulation of most transcripts was observed at 24 or 48 h post infection (p.i.). Enhanced adhesion molecule expression in infected host cells was confirmed by PMN adhesion assays being performed under physiological flow conditions revealing a significantly increased PMN adhesion on B. besnoiti-infected BUVEC layers at 24 h p.i. Furthermore, we were able to illustrate neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) being released by PMN under physiological flow conditions after adhesion to B. besnoiti-infected BUVEC layers. The present study shows that B. besnoiti infections of primary BUVEC induce a cascade of pro-inflammatory reactions and triggers early innate immune responses.

  9. Effects of the AT1 receptor antagonist on adhesion molecule expression in leukocytes and brain microvessels of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemori, K; Ito, H; Suzuki, T

    2000-11-01

    To elucidate the possible involvement of angiotensin II (AII) in the pathogenesis of microvascular changes in severe hypertension, we investigated the effects of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) on the expression of adhesion molecules of leukocytes and brain microvessels. Male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) at 19 weeks of age were divided into three groups and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were used as the control group. AT1 receptor antagonist (TCV-116, 0.5 mg/kg/day) and ACEI (captopril, 20 mg/kg/day) were administered to SHRSP for 4 weeks. Mac-1 expression in leukocytes was investigated by flow cytometric analysis. For endothelial cells, we examined the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), the AT1 receptor, and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1, a marker of the blood-brain barrier) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The blood pressure of AT1 receptor antagonist and ACEI-treated groups was slightly lower than that of the control, but was still greater than 220 mm Hg. Mac-1 expression, as well as ICAM-1 expression, was higher in control SHRSP than in WKY. Such enhanced expression of adhesion molecules in SHRSP was ameliorated by the administration of AT1 receptor antagonist or ACEI, the former being more effective. AT1 receptor expression was higher in control SHRSP than in WKY, and was lower in the AT1 receptor antagonist group, whereas no difference was found in the ACEI group. No significant differences were found in GLUT-1 expression among all groups. In the case of hypertensive cerebral injuries in SHRSP, leukocytes may have an important role for initiation via adhesion to endothelial cells. AT1 receptor antagonist showed a beneficial effect for the amelioration of enhanced expression of adhesion molecule in both leukocytes and endothelial cells. Thus, AII seems to be an important mediator for the hypertensive

  10. Phosphatidylethanolamine Deficiency Impairs Escherichia coli Adhesion by Downregulating Lipopolysaccharide Synthesis, Which is Reversible by High Galactose/Lactose Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuan; Li, Ming; Sun, Yanan; Wang, Xingguo; Chen, Yong

    2017-12-01

    As the initiation step of bacterial infection or biofouling, bacterial adhesion on cells or substrates is generally an optimal target for antibacterial design. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is the principal phospholipid in bacteria, and its function in bacterial adhesion remains unclear. In this study, four E. coli strains including two PE-deficient mutants (PE(-)PC(-) and PE(-)PC(+ )strains) and two PE-containing wild-type controls (PE (+) PC(-) strains) were recruited to investigate the influence of PE deficiency on bacterial adhesion. We found that PE deficiency could impair E. coli adhesion on macrophages (human THP-1-derived and mouse RAW264.7 macrophages) or glass coverslips by downregulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, which could be reversible by high galactose/lactose but not glucose cultivation. The data imply that PE play important role in bacterial adhesion probably via affecting LPS biosynthesis and suggest that targeting PE biosynthesis is also a potential antibacterial strategy.

  11. A modern approach for epitope prediction: identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus peptides binding bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) class I molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandya, Mital; Rasmussen, Michael; Hansen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules regulate adaptive immune responses through the presentation of antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells. Polymorphisms in the peptide binding region of class I molecules determine peptide binding affinity and stability during antigen presentation......, and different antigen peptide motifs are associated with specific genetic sequences of class I molecules. Understanding bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA), peptide-MHC class I binding specificities may facilitate development of vaccines or reagents for quantifying the adaptive immune response to intracellular....... The results of these analyses showed that BoLA alleles cluster into three distinct groups with the potential to define “BoLA supertypes.” This streamlined approach identifies potential T cell epitopes from pathogens, such as FMDV, and provides insight into T cell immunity following infection or vaccination....

  12. Beta(2) integrin Mac-1 is a receptor for Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin on bovine and ovine leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica is an important disease of cattle (BO), domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries) and bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis). Leukotoxin (Lkt) produced by M. haemolytica is cytolytic to all leukocyte subsets of these three species. Although it is certain that CD18, the...

  13. Compound 21 prevents endothelial inflammation and leukocyte adhesion in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampson, Amanda K; Irvine, Jennifer C; Shihata, Waled A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The angiotensin AT2 (AT2R) is upregulated in disease states such as atherosclerosis; with blockade of the AT2R shown to exacerbate plaque formation. Direct stimulation of the AT2R has been shown to be anti-atherogenic but the mechanisms and pathways involved remain unknown. PURPOSE...... TNFα and IL-6 mRNA expression in M1 macrophages. The effects of C21 on TNFα-induced endothelial activation were abolished in the presence of the AT2R antagonist PD 123319 confirming the effects of C21 are AT2R-mediated. In addition, we observed high fat diet (HFD)-induced leukocyte adhesion...

  14. Integrin activation by P-Rex1 is required for selectin-mediated slow leukocyte rolling and intravascular crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Jan M; Rossaint, Jan; Block, Helena; Welch, Heidi; Zarbock, Alexander

    2013-03-21

    Integrin activation is essential for the function of leukocytes. Impaired integrin activation on leukocytes is the hallmark of the leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome in humans, characterized by impaired leukocyte recruitment and recurrent infections. In inflammation, leukocytes collect different signals during the contact with the microvasculature, which activate signaling pathways leading to integrin activation and leukocyte recruitment. We report the role of P-Rex1, a Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchanging factor, in integrin activation and leukocyte recruitment. We find that P-Rex1 is required for inducing selectin-mediated lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) extension that corresponds to intermediate affinity and induces slow leukocyte rolling, whereas P-Rex1 is not involved in the induction of the high-affinity conformation of LFA-1 obligatory for leukocyte arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrate that P-Rex1 is involved in Mac-1-dependent intravascular crawling. In vivo, both LFA-1-dependent slow rolling and Mac-1-dependent crawling are defective in P-Rex1(-/-) leukocytes, whereas chemokine-induced arrest and postadhesion strengthening remain intact in P-Rex1-deficient leukocytes. Rac1 is involved in E-selectin-mediated slow rolling and crawling. In vivo, in an ischemia-reperfusion-induced model of acute kidney injury, abolished selectin-mediated integrin activation contributed to decreased neutrophil recruitment and reduced kidney damage in P-Rex1-deficient mice. We conclude that P-Rex1 serves distinct functions in LFA-1 and Mac-1 activation.

  15. Regulatory peptides modulate adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to bronchial epithelial cells through regulation of interleukins, ICAM-1 and NF-kappaB/IkappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Song; Tan, Yu-Rong; Xiang, Yang; Luo, Zi-Qiang; Qin, Xiao-Qun

    2006-02-01

    A complex network of regulatory neuropeptides controls airway inflammation reaction, in which airway epithelial cells adhering to and activating leukocytes is a critical step. To study the effect of intrapulmonary regulatory peptides on adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) and its mechanism, several regulatory peptides including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), epidermal growth factor (EGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), were investigated. The results demonstrated that VIP and EGF showed inhibitory effects both on the secretion of IL-1, IL-8 and the adhesion of PMNs to BECs, whereas ET-1 and CGRP had the opposite effect. Anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) antibody could block the adhesion of PMNs to ozone-stressed BECs. Using immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), it was shown that VIP and EGF down-regulated the expression of ICAM-1 in BECs, while ET-1 and CGRP up-regulated ICAM-1 expression. NF-kappaB inhibitor MG132 blocked ICAM-1 expression induced by ET-1 and CGRP. Furthermore, in electric mobility shift assay (EMSA), VIP and EGF restrained the binding activity of NF-kappaB to the NF-kappaB binding site within the ICAM-1 promoter in ozone-stressed BECs, while CGRP and ET-1 promoted this binding activity. IkappaB degradation was consistent with NF-kappaB activation. These observations indicate that VIP and EGF inhibit inflammation, while ET-1 and CGRP enhance the inflammation reaction.

  16. Loss of Cell Adhesion Increases Tumorigenic Potential of Polarity Deficient Scribble Mutant Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrayani Waghmare

    Full Text Available Epithelial polarity genes are important for maintaining tissue architecture, and regulating growth. The Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressor gene scribble (scrib belongs to the basolateral polarity complex. Loss of scrib results in disruption of its growth regulatory functions, and downregulation or mislocalization of Scrib is correlated to tumor growth. Somatic scribble mutant cells (scrib- surrounded by wild-type cells undergo apoptosis, which can be prevented by introduction of secondary mutations that provide a growth advantage. Using genetic tools in Drosophila, we analyzed the phenotypic effects of loss of scrib in different growth promoting backgrounds. We investigated if a central mechanism that regulates cell adhesion governs the growth and invasive potential of scrib mutant cells. Here we show that increased proliferation, and survival abilities of scrib- cells in different genetic backgrounds affect their differentiation, and intercellular adhesion. Further, loss of scrib is sufficient to cause reduced cell survival, activation of the JNK pathway and a mild reduction of cell adhesion. Our data show that for scrib cells to induce aggressive tumor growth characterized by loss of differentiation, cell adhesion, increased proliferation and invasion, cooperative interactions that derail signaling pathways play an essential role in the mechanisms leading to tumorigenesis. Thus, our study provides new insights on the effects of loss of scrib and the modification of these effects via cooperative interactions that enhance the overall tumorigenic potential of scrib deficient cells.

  17. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of various breeds under local conditions of management. (Hale, 1974b). AdditionaIly, this procedure has been used to assess the production of LH by the bovine anterior pituitary in vitro and to study the relationships between this production and the activity of the pineal- hypothalamic axis (Hayes, Knight & Symington, 1974;.

  18. Laser-Raman spectroscopic study of the adhesive interface; analysis between 4-META/MMA-TBB resin and bovine or human dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, M; Suzuki, M; Itoh, K; Wakumoto, S; Hisamitsu, H

    1992-06-01

    A study of the adhesive interface between 4-MET/MMA-TBB resin and hydroxyapatite or bovine enamel was reported. The present report is a continuation of that study. The possible chemical interaction between 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic acid (4-MET) and bovine or human dentin was examined by laser Raman spectroscopy. A 4-MET monomer solution was prepared by evaporating two thirds of the methyl methacrylate (MMA) in a commercial dentin adhesive. The solution was then applied to a dentin surface after treating the surface with an aqueous solution of 10% citric acid containing 3% ferric chloride. A salt formed on both bovine and human dentin surfaces. This salt was formed by the process we previously reported in which 4-MET formed a salt on the hydroxyapatite and bovine enamel. No evidence was observed of chemical reaction between 4-MET and any organic component in the dentin.

  19. FRET based quantification and screening technology platform for the interactions of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1 with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The interaction between leukocyte function-associated antigen-1(LFA-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 plays a pivotal role in cellular adhesion including the extravasation and inflammatory response of leukocytes, and also in the formation of immunological synapse. However, irregular expressions of LFA-1 or ICAM-1 or both may lead to autoimmune diseases, metastasis cancer, etc. Thus, the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases. Here, we developed one simple 'in solution' steady state fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET technique to obtain the dissociation constant (Kd of the interaction between LFA-1 and ICAM-1. Moreover, we developed the assay into a screening platform to identify peptides and small molecules that inhibit the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. For the FRET pair, we used Alexa Fluor 488-LFA-1 conjugate as donor and Alexa Fluor 555-human recombinant ICAM-1 (D1-D2-Fc as acceptor. From our quantitative FRET analysis, the Kd between LFA-1 and D1-D2-Fc was determined to be 17.93±1.34 nM. Both the Kd determination and screening assay were performed in a 96-well plate platform, providing the opportunity to develop it into a high-throughput assay. This is the first reported work which applies FRET based technique to determine Kd as well as classifying inhibitors of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction.

  20. Mesothelium regeneration on acellular bovine pericardia loaded with an angiogenic agent (ginsenoside Rg1) successfully reduces postsurgical pericardial adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen; Lai, Po-Hong; Wang, Chung-Chi; Chen, Sung-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chun; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2006-10-01

    Our objective was to reduce postsurgical pericardial adhesions with porous acellular bovine pericardia loaded with ginsenoside Rg1, an angiogenic agent isolated from Panax ginseng (the Acellular/Rg1 patch). The acellular/Rg1 patch was used as a substitute to repair a defect created in the pericardium of a rabbit model. A commercially available expanded polytetrafluoroethylene patch, the cellular pericardium (the cellular patch), and the acellular pericardium without loading Rg1 (the acellular patch) were used as controls. The implanted samples were retrieved at 1 and 3 months after surgery (n = 5 per group at each time point). It was found that each side of the implanted patch could be remesothelialized provided that regeneration of neo-tissue fibrils occurred initially on its surfaces. Because remesothelialization did not take place on the surfaces of the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene and cellular patches, moderate to severe adhesions to the lung and epicardium were clearly observed. As compared with the cellular patch, the acellular patch significantly reduced postsurgical pericardial adhesions, especially on its lung side, as a result of remesothelialization. In the presence of Rg1, a faster remesothelialization was observed on each side of the acellular/Rg1 patch. Therefore, the acellular/Rg1 patch was free of any adhesions to the lung; however, there was still a filmy adhesion to the epicardium observed in 3 of the 5 studied animals at 3 months after surgery, due to incomplete remesothelialization. The acellular/Rg1 patch effectively repaired pericardial defects in rabbits and successfully reduced the formation of pericardial adhesions.

  1. The metalloproteinase ADAM8 promotes leukocyte recruitment in vitro and in acute lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreymueller, Daniela; Pruessmeyer, Jessica; Schumacher, Julian; Fellendorf, Sandra; Hess, Franz Martin; Seifert, Anke; Babendreyer, Aaron; Bartsch, Jörg W; Ludwig, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Alveolar leukocyte recruitment is a hallmark of acute lung inflammation and involves transmigration of leukocytes through endothelial and epithelial layers. The disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 8 is expressed on human isolated leukocytic cells and can be further upregulated on cultured endothelial and epithelial cells by proinflammatory cytokines. By shRNA-mediated knockdown we show that leukocytic ADAM8 is required on monocytic THP-1 cells for chemokine-induced chemotaxis as well as transendothelial and transepithelial migration. Furthermore, ADAM8 promotes αL-integrin upregulation and THP-1 cell adhesion to endothelial cells. On endothelial cells ADAM8 enhances transendothelial migration and increases cytokine-induced permeability. On epithelial cells the protease facilitates migration in a wound closure assay but does not affect transepithelial leukocyte migration. Blood leukocytes and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from ADAM8-deficient mice show suppressed chemotactic response. Intranasal application of LPS to mice is accompanied with ADAM8 upregulation in the lung. In this model of acute lung inflammation ADAM8-deficient mice are protected against leukocyte infiltration. Finally, transfer experiments of BMDM in mice indicate that ADAM8 exerts a promigratory function predominantly on leukocytes. Our study provides in vitro and in vivo evidence that ADAM8 on leukocytes holds a proinflammatory function in acute lung inflammation by promoting alveolar leukocyte recruitment. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Effect of contamination and decontamination on adhesion of a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement to bovine dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangpermtam, Pitsapaporn; Botelho, Michael G; Dyson, John E

    2011-10-01

    To determine the adhesion of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement to bovine dentin under contaminated and decontaminated conditions. Forty-five bovine mandibular incisors were used. The surfaces of bovine dentin specimens were subjected to Temp-bond, dental handpiece lubricant (contamination), Hibiscrub, chlorhexidine or pumice (decontamination), as well as contamination followed by decontamination. From these, 14 test groups were created to investigate the effects of these variables on the microtensile bond strength of a resin-modified glassionomer cement to dentin. In addition, scanning electron microscopy was performed to examine the effects of contamination and decontamination procedures on the dentin surfaces. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests. SEM examination showed visible differences between the control group and dentin contaminated with Temp-bond or handpiece lubricant. All the contamination and decontamination test agents when used alone - except Hibiscrub - showed significant reductions in bond strength when compared to the control (p bond strength (p bond, handpiece lubricant, chlorhexidine, and pumice may have an adverse effect on the bonding of resin-modified glass ionomer to dentin. Hibiscrub was effective in decontaminating handpiece lubricant but not Temp-bond.

  3. Multilink stent promotes less platelet and leukocyte adhesion than a traditional stainless steel stent : An in vitro experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amoroso, G; van Boven, AJ; Volkers, C; Crijns, HJGM; van Oeveren, W

    Background: Platelet and Leukocyte deposition onto metallic struts can be a crucial factor in the outcome of a coronary stenting procedure. By means of an in vitro, closed-loop circulation model, me aimed to assess blood-stent interaction patterns for a new stainless steel stent (MultiLink, Guidant

  4. Interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor alpha induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and transendothelial migration in vitro: the effect of apical versus basal monolayer stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzycki, W; Sadowska, J; Issekutz, A C

    1990-09-01

    The cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) enhance polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) adhesion to vascular endothelium by an endothelial cell dependent mechanism in vitro and induce PMNL infiltration in vivo In this study, we employed human umbilical vein endothelium (HUVE) cultured on microporous membrane filters to form a monolayer, a system in which PMNL adherence and PMNL transendothelial migration could be measured using 51Cr-labelled human PMNL. In this system, it was found that PMNL adhesion and migration were dependent on prior treatment of the HUVE monolayer with IL-1 or TNF alpha for at least 2 h and that cytokine could be removed prior to the addition of PMNL without any effect on the response. PMNL adherence to the HUVE was maximal by 30 min and was followed by progressive migration of PMNL across the monolayer and the membrane filter into the lower chamber. The effect of apical surface versus basal surface exposure of the HUVE monolayer to IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha on subsequent PMNL interaction with the HUVE monolayer in the absence of cytokine was examined. Apical or basal stimulation induced comparable PMNL adherence at 30 min following addition of PMNL (35.5% and 43.1%). However, basal (i.e., abluminal) exposure to IL-1 or TNF alpha of the HUVE induced significantly greater PMNL transendothelial migration (e.g., 27.8% vs. 15.4%; P less than 0.01). The expression of endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules ELAM-1 and ICAM-1 following apical versus basal stimulation was determined by ELISA on viable cells. These adhesion molecules were upregulated to a similar extent under both conditions. These observations suggest that spacial localization or orientation of adhesion molecules may be influenced by basal versus apical cytokine stimulation or that other mechanisms are responsible for the preferential PMNL migration with basal stimulation. These findings may have implications for the in vivo interactions of PMNL with

  5. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166): signaling at the divide of melanoma cell clustering and cell migration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, G.W.M.; Lunter, P.C.; Kilsdonk, J.W.J. van; Kempen, L.C. van

    2005-01-01

    Orchestrated modulation of cell adhesion is essential for development and homeostasis in multicellular organisms. It optimizes embedding of the cell in its dynamic environment and facilitates appropriate cell responses and intercellular communication. Chronic disturbance of this delicate equilibrium

  6. Leukocyte integrins: role in leukocyte recruitment and as therapeutic targets in inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroulis, Ioannis; Alexaki, Vasileia I; Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Ziogas, Athanassios; Hajishengallis, George; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2015-03-01

    Infection or sterile inflammation triggers site-specific attraction of leukocytes. Leukocyte recruitment is a process comprising several steps orchestrated by adhesion molecules, chemokines, cytokines and endogenous regulatory molecules. Distinct adhesive interactions between endothelial cells and leukocytes and signaling mechanisms contribute to the temporal and spatial fine-tuning of the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Central players in the leukocyte adhesion cascade include the leukocyte adhesion receptors of the β2-integrin family, such as the αLβ2 and αMβ2 integrins, or of the β1-integrin family, such as the α4β1-integrin. Given the central involvement of leukocyte recruitment in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, the leukocyte adhesion cascade in general, and leukocyte integrins in particular, represent key therapeutic targets. In this context, the present review focuses on the role of leukocyte integrins in the leukocyte adhesion cascade. Experimental evidence that has implicated leukocyte integrins as targets in animal models of inflammatory disorders, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, psoriasis, inflammatory bone loss and inflammatory bowel disease as well as preclinical and clinical therapeutic applications of antibodies that target leukocyte integrins in various inflammatory disorders are presented. Finally, we review recent findings on endogenous inhibitors that modify leukocyte integrin function, which could emerge as promising therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. In vivo confocal microscopy: increased conjunctival or episcleral leukocyte adhesion in patients who wear contact lenses with lower oxygen permeability (Dk) values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy H; Dudek, Lara T; Krisciunas, Tammie C; Matiaco, Paul; Planck, Stephen R; Mathers, William D; Rosenbaum, James T

    2004-10-01

    Contact lens wear is known to threaten the health of the ocular surface. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) to visualize leukocyte rolling and extravasation in inflammation was recently described. We tested the hypothesis that contact lens wear is associated with measurable inflammation in superficial vessels. Leukocyte rolling and sticking (hallmarks of the inflammatory process) were recorded by IVCM. IVCM was performed on conjunctival or episcleral blood vessels bilaterally on 55 contact lens wearers (15 male, 40 female) and 22 non-contact lens wearers (8 male, 14 female). Data were analyzed in 2 ways. Considering each vessel as an independent variable resulted in 132 analyzable vessel segments (13 daily disposable contact lenses, 67 traditional contact lenses, 14 rigid gas-permeable lenses, and 38 controls). Considering each subject as an independent variable resulted in analyzable data for 47 subjects (5 daily disposable contact lens wearers, 22 traditional contact lens wearers, 5 rigid contact lens wearers, and 15 control patients). Free-flowing, sticking, and rolling cells were counted in the vessels. Multiple parameters including mean flow velocity, shear rate, rolling cells/mm/min, and sticking cells/mm were calculated. We found no significant difference in leukocyte adhesion between control patients and patients wearing daily disposable, traditional disposable, or rigid gas-permeable lenses in both types of statistical analyses. However, the data regarding vessel segments as an independent variable show that there were more rolling cells in patients who wore contact lenses with oxygen permeability values (Dk) less than 10 as compared to those who wore contact lenses with oxygen permeability values greater than 16 (P oxygen permeability.

  8. Potent arylsulfonamide inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme able to reduce activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule shedding in cancer cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Elisa; Casalini, Francesca; Avramova, Stanislava I; Santamaria, Salvatore; Fabbi, Marina; Ferrini, Silvano; Marinelli, Luciana; La Pietra, Valeria; Limongelli, Vittorio; Novellino, Ettore; Cercignani, Giovanni; Orlandini, Elisabetta; Nencetti, Susanna; Rossello, Armando

    2010-03-25

    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) plays a relevant role in tumor biology and progression. Our previous studies showed that ALCAM is expressed at the surface of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells and is released in a soluble form by ADAM-17-mediated shedding. This process is relevant to EOC cell motility and invasiveness, which is reduced by nonspecific inhibitors of ADAM-17. For this reason, ADAM-17 may represent a new useful target in anticancer therapy. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of new ADAM-17 inhibitors containing an arylsulfonamidic scaffold. Among the new potential inhibitors, two very promising compounds 17 and 18 were discovered, with a nanomolar activity for ADAM-17 isolated enzyme. These compounds proved to be also the most potent in inhibiting soluble ALCAM release in cancer cells, showing a nanomolar activity on A2774 and SKOV3 cell lines.

  9. Adhesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhesions are bands of scar-like tissue. Normally, internal tissues and organs have slippery surfaces so they can shift easily as the body moves. Adhesions cause tissues and organs to stick together. They ...

  10. Fibrinogen modulates leukocyte recruitment in vivo during the acute inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino de Almeida, V; Silva-Herdade, A; Calado, A; Rosário, H S; Saldanha, C

    2015-01-01

    Besides playing an important role in blood hemostases, fibrinogen also regulates leukocyte function in inflammation. Our previous in vitro studies showed that the adhesive behaviour of the neutrophil is modulated by soluble fibrinogen when present at a physiological concentration. This led us to propose that this plasma glycoprotein might further influence leukocyte recruitment in vivo and thus contribute to the inflammatory response. To address this in vivo, leukocyte recruitment was here investigated under acute inflammatory conditions in the absence of soluble fibrinogen in the blood circulation. For such, intravital microscopy on mesentery post-capillary venules was performed on homozygous fibrinogen α chain-deficient mice ((α-/-) mice). Acute inflammatory states were induced by perfusing platelet activating factor (PAF) over the exposed tissue. As control animals, two groups of mice expressing soluble fibrinogen in circulation were used, namely, C57BL/6 wild type animals and heterozygous fibrinogen α chain-deficient mice ((α+/-) mice). Under acute inflammatory conditions, an abnormal pattern of recruitment was observed for leukocytes in homozygous (α-/-) mice in comparison to both control groups. In fact, the former exhibited a significantly decreased number of rolling leukocytes that nevertheless, migrated with increased rolling velocities when compared to leukocytes from control animals. Consistently, homozygous mice further displayed a diminished number of adherent leukocytes than the other groups. Altogether our observations led us to conclude that leukocyte recruitment in homozygous (α-/-) mice is compromised what strongly suggests a role for soluble fibrinogen in leukocyte recruitment in inflammation.

  11. Interleukin-19 decreases leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions by reduction in endothelial cell adhesion molecule mRNA stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Ross N.; Preston, Kyle J.; Scalia, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cell (EC) inflammation is a key event in the pathogenesis of multiple vascular diseases. We tested the hypothesis that interleukin-19 (IL-19), an anti-inflammatory Th2 interleukin, could have a direct anti-inflammatory effect on ECs to decrease inflammation. IL-19 can significantly decrease tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-driven intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 mRNA and protein abundance in cultured human coronary artery ECs (P adhesion to EC monolayers (P adhesion in wild-type mice as assayed by intravital microscopy (P cell adhesion and the first to propose reduction in HuR-mediated mRNA stability of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 as a mechanism. Expression of IL-19 by ECs may represent a protective mechanism to promote resolution of the vascular response to inflammation. Function of IL-19 outside of the immune system is a novel concept, suggesting that resident vascular cells can adopt a Th2 phenotype, and has important ramifications for numerous inflammatory diseases. PMID:23596173

  12. Intermolecular forces and enthalpies in the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and antigen I/II deficient mutant to laminin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, H.J.; Belt-Gritter, van de B.; Dijkstra, R.J.B.; Norde, W.; Mei, van der H.C.

    2007-01-01

    The antigen I/II family of surface proteins is expressed by most oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans, and mediates specific adhesion to, among other things, salivary films and extracellular matrix proteins. In this study we showed that antigen I/II-deficient S. mutans isogenic mutant

  13. Effect of air-blowing variables on bond strength of all-in-one adhesives to bovine dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkai, Koichi; Suzuki, Shiro; Katoh, Yoshiroh

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of air-blowing variables on the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) of two all-in-one adhesives. A bonding agent was applied to the flat dentin surface of extracted bovine teeth, and the surface left undisturbed for 20 seconds. Gentle or intensive air-blowing was applied for five seconds, and the adhesive photopolymerized for 10 seconds. Resin composite paste was placed and cured after each bonding treatment. Specimens were subjected to microTBS test with a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, followed by Bonferroni post hoc test. When Clearfil tri-S Bond was bonded to dentin, the microTBS value of specimens applied with intensive air-blowing was significantly higher than that applied with gentle air-blowing (pBond Shake One, the microTBS value of specimens applied with intensive air-blowing was significantly lower than that applied with gentle air-blowing (p<0.01).

  14. Evaluation of tensile strength of tissue adhesives and sutures for clear corneal incisions using porcine and bovine eyes, with a novel standardized testing platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Simon Kaja, Daryl L Goad, Fatima Ali, Ashley Abraham, R Luke Rebenitsch, Savak Teymoorian, Rohit Krishna, Peter KoulenVision Research Center and Department of Ophthalmology, University of Missouri-Kansas City, School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USABackground: Tissue adhesives for ophthalmologic applications were proposed almost 50 years ago, yet to date no adequate tissue glues have been identified that combine strong sealing properties with adequate safety and absence of postsurgical side effects. In recent years, cataract surgeries and Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty procedures have significantly increased the number of clear corneal incisions performed. One of the obstacles to discovery and development of novel tissue adhesives has been the result of nonstandardized testing of potential tissue glues.Methods: We developed an instrument capable of controlling intraocular pressure in explanted porcine and bovine eyes in order to evaluate sealants, adhesives, and surgical closure methods used in ophthalmic surgery in a controlled, repeatable, and validated fashion. We herein developed and validated our instrument by testing the adhesive properties of cyanoacrylate glue in both porcine and bovine explant eyes.Results: The instrument applied and maintained intraocular pressure through a broad range of physiological intraocular pressures. Cyanoacrylate-based glues showed significantly enhanced sealing properties of clear corneal incisions compared with sutured wounds.Conclusion: This study shows the feasibility of our instrument for reliable and standardized testing of tissue adhesive for ophthalmological surgery.Keywords: manometer, intraocular pressure, applanation tonometry, clear corneal incision, tissue adhesive, ocular surgery

  15. The Spontaneously Adhesive Leukocyte Function-associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1) Integrin in Effector T Cells Mediates Rapid Actin- and Calmodulin-dependent Adhesion Strengthening to Ligand under Shear Flow*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lek, Hwee San; Morrison, Vicky L.; Conneely, Michael; Campbell, Paul A.; McGloin, David; Kliche, Stefanie; Watts, Colin; Prescott, Alan; Fagerholm, Susanna C.

    2013-01-01

    Integrins in effector T cells are highly expressed and important for trafficking of these cells and for their effector functions. However, how integrins are regulated in effector T cells remains poorly characterized. Here, we have investigated effector T cell leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) regulation in primary murine effector T cells. These cells have high LFA-1 integrin expression and display high spontaneous binding to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) ligand under static conditions. In addition, these cells are able to migrate spontaneously on ICAM-1. Atomic force microscopy measurements showed that the force required for unbinding of integrin-ligand interactions increases over time (0.5–20-s contact time). The maximum unbinding force for this interaction was ∼140 piconewtons at 0.5-s contact time, increasing to 580 piconewtons at 20-s contact time. Also, the total work required to disrupt the interaction increased over the 20-s contact time, indicating LFA-1-mediated adhesion strengthening in primary effector T cells over a very quick time frame. Effector T cells adhered spontaneously to ICAM-1 under conditions of shear flow, in the absence of chemokine stimulation, and this binding was independent of protein kinase B/Akt and protein kinase C kinase activity, but dependent on calcium/calmodulin signaling and an intact actin cytoskeleton. These results indicate that effector T cell integrins are highly expressed and spontaneously adhesive in the absence of inside-out integrin signaling but that LFA-1-mediated firm adhesion under conditions of shear flow requires downstream integrin signaling, which is dependent on calcium/calmodulin and the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:23585567

  16. Evaluation of tensile strength of tissue adhesives and sutures for clear corneal incisions using porcine and bovine eyes, with a novel standardized testing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaja, Simon; Goad, Daryl L; Ali, Fatima; Abraham, Ashley; Rebenitsch, R Luke; Teymoorian, Savak; Krishna, Rohit; Koulen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Tissue adhesives for ophthalmologic applications were proposed almost 50 years ago, yet to date no adequate tissue glues have been identified that combine strong sealing properties with adequate safety and absence of postsurgical side effects. In recent years, cataract surgeries and Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty procedures have significantly increased the number of clear corneal incisions performed. One of the obstacles to discovery and development of novel tissue adhesives has been the result of nonstandardized testing of potential tissue glues. We developed an instrument capable of controlling intraocular pressure in explanted porcine and bovine eyes in order to evaluate sealants, adhesives, and surgical closure methods used in ophthalmic surgery in a controlled, repeatable, and validated fashion. We herein developed and validated our instrument by testing the adhesive properties of cyanoacrylate glue in both porcine and bovine explant eyes. The instrument applied and maintained intraocular pressure through a broad range of physiological intraocular pressures. Cyanoacrylate-based glues showed significantly enhanced sealing properties of clear corneal incisions compared with sutured wounds. This study shows the feasibility of our instrument for reliable and standardized testing of tissue adhesive for ophthalmological surgery.

  17. Copper deficiency induced emphysema is associated with focal adhesion kinase inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Mizuno

    Full Text Available Copper is an important regulator of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α dependent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression, and is also required for the activity of lysyl oxidase (LOX to effect matrix protein cross-linking. Cell detachment from the extracellular matrix can induce apoptosis (anoikis via inactivation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK.To examine the molecular mechanisms whereby copper depletion causes the destruction of the normal alveolar architecture via anoikis, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper deficient diet for 6 weeks while being treated with the copper chelator, tetrathiomolybdate. Other groups of rats were treated with the inhibitor of auto-phosphorylation of FAK, 1,2,4,5-benzenetetraamine tetrahydrochloride (1,2,4,5-BT or FAK small interfering RNA (siRNA.Copper depletion caused emphysematous changes, decreased HIF-1α activity, and downregulated VEGF expression in the rat lungs. Cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8 and Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim expression was increased, and the phosphorylation of FAK was decreased in copper depleted rat lungs. Administration of 1,2,4,5-BT and FAK siRNA caused emphysematous lung destruction associated with increased expression of cleaved capase-3, caspase-8 and Bim.These data indicate that copper-dependent mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis of emphysema, which may be associated with decreased HIF-1α and FAK activity in the lung.

  18. Prognostic Significance of Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM in Association with Promoter Methylation of the ALCAM Gene in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ju Jeong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM has been implicated in tumorigenesis. In this study, we studied DNA methylation status of the ALCAM gene using pyrosequencing in breast cancer tissues. We analyzed the association between the methylation status of the ALCAM gene and its expression. Also, the effects of inflammation on the ALCAM gene methylation and its expression were investigated. The ALCAM gene methylation was associated with the ALCAM transcripts in tumor tissues. The methylation status of the ALCAM gene was not significantly different between tumor and normal tissues. The level of ALCAM transcripts was associated with the expression of TNFα, NF-κB p50, IL-4, and intratumoral inflammation. The IHC expression of ALCAM was associated with histologic grade, HER2 overexpression and molecular subtype. The expression of TNFα, NF-κB p50, and IL-4 showed significant association with the clinicopathologic characteristics. In conclusion, the ALCAM gene methylation was related to the level of ALCAM transcripts. Also, the level of ALCAM transcripts was associated with the inflammatory markers in breast cancer. Our results suggest that the methylation of the ALCAM gene contributes to the decreased expression of ALCAM. Also, ALCAM is linked to the inflammatory response in breast cancer.

  19. Differentiation of MCF-7 tumor cells from leukocytes and fibroblast cells using epithelial cell adhesion molecule targeted multicore surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Isabel; Matthäus, Christian; Csaki, Andrea; Clement, Joachim H; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    Identification of tumor and normal cells is a promising application of Raman spectroscopy. The throughput of Raman-assisted cell sorting is limited by low sensitivity. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a well-recognized candidate to increase the intensity of Raman signals of cells. First, different strategies are summarized to detect tumor cells using targeted SERS probes. Then, a protocol is described to prepare multicore-SERS-labels (MSLs) by aggregating gold nanoparticles, coating with a reporter molecule and a thin silver shell to further boost enhancement, encapsulating with a stable silica layer, and functionalizing by epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibodies. Raman, dark field and fluorescence microscopy proved the specific and nonspecific binding of functionalized and nonfunctionalized MSLs to MCF-7 tumor cells, leukocytes from blood, and nontransformed human foreskin fibroblasts. Raman imaging and dark field microscopy indicated no uptake of MSLs, yet binding to the cellular membrane. Viability tests were performed with living tumor cells to demonstrate the low toxicity of MSL-EpCAM. The SERS signatures were detected from cells with exposure times down to 25 ms at 785-nm laser excitation. The prospects of these MSLs in multiplex assays, for enumeration and sorting of circulating tumor cells in microfluidic chips, are discussed.

  20. Differentiation of MCF-7 tumor cells from leukocytes and fibroblast cells using epithelial cell adhesion molecule targeted multicore surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Isabel; Matthäus, Christian; Csaki, Andrea; Clement, Joachim H.; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    Identification of tumor and normal cells is a promising application of Raman spectroscopy. The throughput of Raman-assisted cell sorting is limited by low sensitivity. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a well-recognized candidate to increase the intensity of Raman signals of cells. First, different strategies are summarized to detect tumor cells using targeted SERS probes. Then, a protocol is described to prepare multicore-SERS-labels (MSLs) by aggregating gold nanoparticles, coating with a reporter molecule and a thin silver shell to further boost enhancement, encapsulating with a stable silica layer, and functionalizing by epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibodies. Raman, dark field and fluorescence microscopy proved the specific and nonspecific binding of functionalized and nonfunctionalized MSLs to MCF-7 tumor cells, leukocytes from blood, and nontransformed human foreskin fibroblasts. Raman imaging and dark field microscopy indicated no uptake of MSLs, yet binding to the cellular membrane. Viability tests were performed with living tumor cells to demonstrate the low toxicity of MSL-EpCAM. The SERS signatures were detected from cells with exposure times down to 25 ms at 785-nm laser excitation. The prospects of these MSLs in multiplex assays, for enumeration and sorting of circulating tumor cells in microfluidic chips, are discussed.

  1. Leukocyte-epithelial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Ke; Parkos, Charles A

    2003-10-01

    As a 'double-edged sword', neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte) migration across epithelial-lined organs is an important component of host defense, but it also results in epithelial pathophysiology and disease symptoms. There have been significant advances in better understanding the mechanisms of how leukocytes cross the vascular endothelium to exit the bloodstream; however, many of the mechanisms that govern polymorphonuclear leukocyte transepithelial migration are different and we are only just beginning to understand them. Recent findings include new junctional adhesion molecules and carbohydrate moieties as receptors for migrating neutrophils. In addition, new insights into leukocyte-epithelial signaling events have emerged that are beginning to shed light on the role of SIRP-CD47 interactions in regulating the rate of neutrophil transepithelial migration and how neutrophils modulate epithelial barrier function.

  2. Maxillary sinus augmentation with leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin and deproteinized bovine bone mineral: A split-mouth histological and histomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizam, Nejat; Eren, Gülnihal; Akcalı, Aliye; Donos, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) in combination with deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) on bone regeneration in maxillary sinus augmentation. Thirteen patients (nine males and four females, mean age ± SD; 49.92 ± 10.37) were enrolled to the study. 26 maxillary sinus augmentation procedures were randomly performed using DBBM and L-PRF mixture (test) or DBBM alone (control) in a split-mouth design. The same surgical procedures were performed in both groups, and bone biopsies were harvested from the implant sites 6 months postoperatively for histological and histomorphometric evaluations as the primary outcome of the study. Implants were placed and then loaded in the augmented sites after 6 months. The secondary outcomes included clinical and radiographic data and were obtained pre- and postoperatively. There was no qualitative difference in histological analyses among the groups. In all samples, a newly formed bone was in direct contact with the residual material. The percentages of newly formed bone (test; 21.38 ± 8.78% and control; 21.25 ± 5.59%), residual bone graft (test; 25.95 ± 9.54% and control; 32.79 ± 5.89%), bone graft in contact with the newly formed bone (test; 47.33 ± 12.33% and control; 54.04 ± 8.36%), and soft tissue (test; 52.67 ± 12.53% and control; 45.96 ± 8.36%) were similar among the groups (p L-PRF in DBBM did not improve the amount of regenerated bone or the amount of the graft integrated into the newly formed bone under histological and histomorphometric evaluation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effect of bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract on induction of cell differentiation and death in K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Rivera, Crystel A; Franco-Molina, Moisés A; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Santaolalla-Tapia, Jesús; Coronado-Cerda, Erika E; Tamez-Guerra, Reyes S; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2016-12-01

    Differentiation induction therapy is an attractive approach in leukemia treatment due to the fact that in blast crisis stage, leukemic cells lose their differentiation capacity. Therefore, it has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to induce terminal differentiation of leukemic blast cells into a specific lineage, leading to prevention of high proliferation rates. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the potential of cell differentiation and death induced by bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract (bDLE) in the K562 cell line. For this purpose K562 and MOLT-3 human leukemic cell lines and primary human monocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages were exposed to bDLE, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and dimethyl sulfoxide for 96 h, and the viability, proliferation and cell cycle were evaluated. To determine the lineage that led to cell differentiation, Romanowsky staining was performed to observe the morphological changes following the treatments, and the expression of the surface markers cluster of differentiation (CD)14(+), CD68(+), CD163(+) and CD42a(+), as well as the phagocytic activity, and the production of nitric oxide (NO) (assessed by colorimetric assay), cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α] and chemokines [chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2, CCL5 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8] in cell supernatants was assessed by flow cytometry. The results of the present study reveal that high doses of bDLE increase the cell death in K562 and MOLT-3 lines, without affecting the viability of human monocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, low doses of bDLE induce differentiation in K562 cells towards a monocyte/macrophage lineage with an M2 phenotype, and induced moderately upregulated expression of CD42(+), a megakaryocytic marker. Cell cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phases was observed in bDLE-treated K562 cells, which demonstrated similar phagocytic activity, NO levels and cytokine and chemokine

  4. Studying leukocyte recruitment under flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sean A; Jurzinsky, Christophe; Cuvelier, Susan L; Patel, Kamala D

    2013-01-01

    Leukocyte recruitment from the vasculature occurs under conditions of haemodynamic shear stress. The parallel plate flow chamber apparatus is an in vitro system that is widely used to study leukocyte recruitment under shear conditions. The flow chamber is a versatile tool for examining adhesive interactions, as it can be used to study a variety of adhesive substrates, ranging from monolayers of primary cells to isolated adhesion molecules, and a variety of adhesive particles, ranging from leukocytes in whole blood to antibody-coated latex beads. We describe here methods for studying leukocyte recruitment to cytokine-stimulated, transfected or transduced endothelial cells using both whole blood and isolated leukocyte suspensions. These methods enable multiple parameters to be measured, including the total number of recruited leukocytes, the percentage of leukocytes that are rolling or firmly adherent, and the percentage of leukocytes that have transmigrated. Although these methods are described for interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells, they are broadly applicable to the study of interactions between many combinations of adhesive substrates and adhesive particles.

  5. Clinically distinct presentations of copper deficiency myeloneuropathy and cytopenias in a patient using excessive zinc-containing denture adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Sahara J; Sofronescu, Alina G

    2017-08-01

    While copper deficiency has long been known to cause cytopenias, copper deficiency myeloneuropathy is a more recently described entity. Here, we present the case of two clinically distinct presentations of acquired copper deficiency syndromes secondary to excessive use of zinc-containing denture adhesive over five years: myeloneuropathy and severe macrocytic anemia and neutropenia. Extensive laboratory testing and histologic evaluation of the liver and bone marrow, were necessary to rule out other disease processes and establish the diagnosis of copper deficiency. The initial presentation consisted of a myelopathy involving the posterior columns. Serum and urine copper were significantly decreased, and serum zinc was elevated. On second presentation (five years later), multiple hematological abnormalities were detected. Serum copper was again decreased, while serum zinc was elevated. Zinc overload is a preventable cause of copper deficiency syndromes. This rare entity presented herein highlights the importance of patient, as well as provider, education. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Annexin A8 controls leukocyte recruitment to activated endothelial cells via cell surface delivery of CD63

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeter, Michaela; Brandherm, Ines; Rossaint, Jan; Rosso, Gonzalo; Shahin, Victor; Skryabin, Boris V.; Zarbock, Alexander; Gerke, Volker; Rescher, Ursula

    2014-04-01

    To enable leukocyte adhesion to activated endothelium, the leukocyte receptor P-selectin is released from Weibel-Palade bodies (WPB) to the endothelial cell surface where it is stabilized by CD63. Here we report that loss of annexin A8 (anxA8) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) strongly decreases cell surface presentation of CD63 and P-selectin, with a concomitant reduction in leukocyte rolling and adhesion. We confirm the compromised leukocyte adhesiveness in inflammatory-activated endothelial venules of anxA8-deficient mice. We find that WPB of anxA8-deficient HUVEC contain less CD63, and that this is caused by improper transport of CD63 from late multivesicular endosomes to WPB, with CD63 being retained in intraluminal vesicles. Consequently, reduced CD63 cell surface levels are seen following WPB exocytosis, resulting in enhanced P-selectin re-internalization. Our data support a model in which anxA8 affects leukocyte recruitment to activated endothelial cells by supplying WPB with sufficient amounts of the P-selectin regulator CD63.

  7. Enhanced Production of Bovine Chymosin by Autophagy Deficiency in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has been utilized as a host for heterologous protein production because of its high protein secretory capacity and food-safety properties. However, A. oryzae often produces lower-than-expected yields of target heterologous proteins due to various underlying mechanisms, including degradation processes such as autophagy, which may be a significant bottleneck for protein production. In the present study, we examined the production of heterologous protein in several autophagy (Aoatg) gene disruptants of A. oryzae. We transformed A. oryzae gene disruptants of Aoatg1, Aoatg13, Aoatg4, Aoatg8, or Aoatg15, with a bovine chymosin (CHY) expression construct and found that the production levels of CHY increased up to three fold compared to the control strain. Notably, however, conidia formation by the Aoatg gene disruptants was significantly reduced. As large amounts of conidia are necessary for inoculating large-scale cultures, we also constructed Aoatg gene-conditional expression strains in which the promoter region of the Aoatg gene was replaced with the thiamine-controllable thiA promoter. Conidiation by the resultant transformants was clearly enhanced in the absence of thiamine, while autophagy remained repressed in the presence of thiamine. Moreover, these transformants displayed increased CHY productivity, which was comparable to that of the Aoatg gene disruptants. Consequently, we succeeded in the construction of A. oryzae strains capable of producing high levels of CHY due to defects in autophagy. Our finding suggests that the conditional regulation of autophagy is an effective method for increasing heterologous protein production in A. oryzae. PMID:23658635

  8. Src homology 2-domain containing leukocyte-specific phosphoprotein of 76 kDa is mandatory for TCR-mediated inside-out signaling, but dispensable for CXCR4-mediated LFA-1 activation, adhesion, and migration of T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Jessica; Wang, Xiaoqian; Reichardt, Peter; Stradal, Theresia E; Warnecke, Nicole; Simeoni, Luca; Gunzer, Matthias; Yablonski, Deborah; Schraven, Burkhart; Kliche, Stefanie

    2009-11-01

    Engagement of the TCR or of chemokine receptors such as CXCR4 induces adhesion and migration of T cells via so-called inside-out signaling pathways. The molecular processes underlying inside-out signaling events are as yet not completely understood. In this study, we show that TCR- and CXCR4-mediated activation of integrins critically depends on the membrane recruitment of the adhesion- and degranulation-promoting adapter protein (ADAP)/Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein of 55 kDa (SKAP55)/Rap1-interacting adapter protein (RIAM)/Rap1 module. We further demonstrate that the Src homology 2 domain containing leukocyte-specific phosphoprotein of 76 kDa (SLP76) is crucial for TCR-mediated inside-out signaling and T cell/APC interaction. Besides facilitating membrane recruitment of ADAP, SKAP55, and RIAM, SLP76 regulates TCR-mediated inside-out signaling by controlling the activation of Rap1 as well as Rac-mediated actin polymerization. Surprisingly, however, SLP76 is not mandatory for CXCR4-mediated inside-out signaling. Indeed, both CXCR4-induced T cell adhesion and migration are not affected by loss of SLP76. Moreover, after CXCR4 stimulation, the ADAP/SKAP55/RIAM/Rap1 module is recruited to the plasma membrane independently of SLP76. Collectively, our data indicate a differential requirement for SLP76 in TCR- vs CXCR4-mediated inside-out signaling pathways regulating T cell adhesion and migration.

  9. Coronin 1 is dispensable for leukocyte recruitment and liver injury in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Kerstin; Lee, Woo-Yong; Tchang, Vincent S; Stiess, Michael; Terracciano, Luigi; Kubes, Paul; Pieters, Jean

    2013-06-01

    Coronin 1, a member of the evolutionary conserved coronin protein family, is highly expressed in all leukocytes. In mice and human, genetic inactivation of coronin 1 results in immuno-deficiencies that are linked to a strong reduction of naïve T cell numbers in peripheral organs, while memory/effector T cells, B cells, monocytes and neutrophils are less or not at all affected. Whether or not coronin 1 is important for leukocyte functions such as migration and phagocytosis has been a matter of debate. The current work addresses coronin 1-dependent leukocyte function by analyzing the response of coronin 1-deficient mice in a model of concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver injury. Histological evaluation and determination of serum liver enzyme levels showed that coronin 1-deficient mice develop signs of acute hepatitis similar to Con A-treated wild type mice despite a reduced activation of T cells in the absence of coronin 1. Furthermore, analysis by intravital microscopy following Con A stimulation revealed that Gr-1+ neutrophils and CD4+ T cell adhesion in the post-sinusoidal venules increased in wild type as well as in coronin 1-deficient mice. These results suggest that coronin 1, while important for naïve T cell survival, is dispensable for other leukocyte function under inflammatory conditions in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transient adhesion of neutrophils to endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, S K; Detmers, P A; Levin, S M; Wright, S D

    1989-05-01

    Fluorescently labeled polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were used to measure adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EC) cultured in vitro. Stimulation of PMN with phorbol dibutyrate (PDB), TNF, or C5a caused an increase in adhesion followed by a return to prestimulation levels of adhesion of longer times of incubation. Maximal adhesion of PMN to EC occurred rapidly in response to C5a (5 min) and more slowly with TNF or PDB (15 min). PMN stimulated to adhere with C5a detached from EC by 15 min. PMN from CD11/CD18-deficient patients and PMN incubated with anti-CD18 mAbs failed to bind to EC despite maximal stimulation. Anti-CD11a/CD18 and anti-CD11b/CD18 each partially inhibited adhesion, and a combination of these two reagents completely blocked adhesion. The adhesion we measured was therefore completely dependent on CD11/CD18, and CD11a/CD18 and CD11b/CD18 each contributed to adhesion. Stimuli that enhanced adhesion of PMN to EC also enhanced expression of CD11b/CD18 on the cell surface, but the time course of expression correlated poorly with changes in adhesivity. To determine if changes in the expression of CD11b/CD18 are necessary for the changes in adhesivity, we used enucleate cytoplasts that did not increase expression of CD11b/CD18. Cytoplasts showed a normal rise and fall in adhesivity in response to PDB. We conclude that the transient adhesion of stimulated PMN to naive EC is regulated by changes in the nature of existing CD11/CD18 molecules on the PMN surface. Changes in expression of CD11b/CD18 may contribute to enhancement of adhesivity, but a definite role for this phenomenon has yet to be established.

  11. Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  12. Mice lacking leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR) protein tyrosine phosphatase domains demonstrate spatial learning impairment in the two-trial water maze and hyperactivity in multiple behavioural tests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, M.J.M.; Streijger, F.; Linkels, M.; Bloemen, M.; Heeren, D.J.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Zee, C.E.E.M. van der

    2004-01-01

    Leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR) protein is a cell adhesion molecule-like receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase. We previously reported that in LAR tyrosine phosphatase-deficient (LAR-Delta P) mice the number and size of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons as well as their innervation of

  13. Depression-like behaviour in neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-deficient mice and its reversal by an NCAM-derived peptide, FGL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Jurgenson, Monika; Zharkovsky, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays a pivotal role in brain plasticity. Brain plasticity itself has a crucial role in the development of depression. The aim of this study was to analyze whether NCAM-deficient (NCAM(-/-)) mice exhibit depression-like behaviour and whether a peptide termed...

  14. Intermolecular forces and enthalpies in the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and an antigen I/II-deficient mutant to laminin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Henk J.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Dijkstra, Rene J. B.; Norde, Willem; Petersen, Fernanda C.; Scheie, Anne A.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    The antigen I/II family of surface proteins is expressed by most oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans, and mediates specific adhesion to, among other things, salivary films and extracellular matrix proteins. In this study we showed that antigen I/II-deficient S. mutans isogenic mutant

  15. Shear stress-dependent downregulation of the adhesion-G protein-coupled receptor CD97 on circulating leukocytes upon contact with its ligand CD55

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpus, Olga N.; Veninga, Henrike; Hoek, Robert M.; Flierman, Dennis; van Buul, Jaap D.; Vandenakker, Corianne C.; VanBavel, Ed; Medof, M. Edward; van Lier, René A. W.; Reedquist, Kris A.; Hamann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) are two-subunit molecules, consisting of an adhesive extracellular α subunit that couples noncovalently to a seven-transmembrane β subunit. The cooperation between the two subunits and the effect of endogenous ligands on the functioning of aGPCRs is

  16. Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM-C deficient C57BL/6 mice develop a severe hydrocephalus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Wyss

    Full Text Available The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM-C is a widely expressed adhesion molecule regulating cell adhesion, cell polarity and inflammation. JAM-C expression and function in the central nervous system (CNS has been poorly characterized to date. Here we show that JAM-C(-/- mice backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 genetic background developed a severe hydrocephalus. An in depth immunohistochemical study revealed specific immunostaining for JAM-C in vascular endothelial cells in the CNS parenchyma, the meninges and in the choroid plexus of healthy C57BL/6 mice. Additional JAM-C immunostaining was detected on ependymal cells lining the ventricles and on choroid plexus epithelial cells. Despite the presence of hemorrhages in the brains of JAM-C(-/- mice, our study demonstrates that development of the hydrocephalus was not due to a vascular function of JAM-C as endothelial re-expression of JAM-C failed to rescue the hydrocephalus phenotype of JAM-C(-/- C57BL/6 mice. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF circulation within the ventricular system of JAM-C(-/- mice excluded occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct as the cause of hydrocephalus development but showed the acquisition of a block or reduction of CSF drainage from the lateral to the 3(rd ventricle in JAM-C(-/- C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study suggests that JAM-C(-/- C57BL/6 mice model the important role for JAM-C in brain development and CSF homeostasis as recently observed in humans with a loss-of-function mutation in JAM-C.

  17. Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C deficient C57BL/6 mice develop a severe hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Lena; Schäfer, Julia; Liebner, Stefan; Mittelbronn, Michel; Deutsch, Urban; Enzmann, Gaby; Adams, Ralf H; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Plate, Karl H; Imhof, Beat A; Engelhardt, Britta

    2012-01-01

    The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C is a widely expressed adhesion molecule regulating cell adhesion, cell polarity and inflammation. JAM-C expression and function in the central nervous system (CNS) has been poorly characterized to date. Here we show that JAM-C(-/-) mice backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 genetic background developed a severe hydrocephalus. An in depth immunohistochemical study revealed specific immunostaining for JAM-C in vascular endothelial cells in the CNS parenchyma, the meninges and in the choroid plexus of healthy C57BL/6 mice. Additional JAM-C immunostaining was detected on ependymal cells lining the ventricles and on choroid plexus epithelial cells. Despite the presence of hemorrhages in the brains of JAM-C(-/-) mice, our study demonstrates that development of the hydrocephalus was not due to a vascular function of JAM-C as endothelial re-expression of JAM-C failed to rescue the hydrocephalus phenotype of JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation within the ventricular system of JAM-C(-/-) mice excluded occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct as the cause of hydrocephalus development but showed the acquisition of a block or reduction of CSF drainage from the lateral to the 3(rd) ventricle in JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study suggests that JAM-C(-/-) C57BL/6 mice model the important role for JAM-C in brain development and CSF homeostasis as recently observed in humans with a loss-of-function mutation in JAM-C.

  18. Transit time of leukocytes rolling through venules controls cytokine-induced inflammatory cell recruitment in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, U; Norman, K E; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K; Beaudet, A L; Ley, K

    1998-01-01

    Leukocyte recruitment requires leukocyte rolling, activation, firm adhesion, and transmigration. Injection of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha induces expression of E-selectin, interleukin-8, and other adhesion molecules and chemoattractants on the endothelial surface. TNF-alpha- treated CD18 null mouse cremaster muscle venules show increased leukocyte rolling velocity and reduced leukocyte recruitment efficiency. Leukocyte recruitment in CD18 null but not wild-type mice is significantl...

  19. Integrin Regulation during Leukocyte Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Jan; Zarbock, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    Integrins are recognized as vital players in leukocyte recruitment. Integrin malfunction causes severe disease patterns characterized by the inability to fight pathogens. Although inflammatory reactions are beneficial and necessary for host defense, these reactions have to be controlled to prevent tissue destruction and harmful sequelae. In this review, we discuss the different signaling pathways leading to the change of integrin adhesiveness in neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. We thereby focus on the importance of integrin activation for the different steps of the leukocyte recruitment cascade, including rolling, adhesion, postadhesion strengthening, intravascular crawling, and transmigration, as each step necessitates the proper functioning of a distinct set of integrin molecules that has to be activated specifically. Additionally, we discuss endogenous mechanisms that balance and counteract integrin activation and limit leukocyte recruitment at the site of inflammation. Further insight into these complex mechanisms may provide new approaches for developing new anti-inflammatory therapies.

  20. CD97 IN LEUKOCYTE TRAFFICKING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamann, Jorg; Veninga, Henrike; de Groot, Dorien M.; Visser, Lizette; Hofstra, Claudia L.; Tak, Paul P.; Laman, Jon D.; Boots, Annemieke M.; van Eenennaam, Hans; Yona, S; Stacey, M

    2010-01-01

    CD97 is a member of the EGF-TM7 family of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) broadly expressed on leukocytes. CD97 interacts with several cellular ligands via its N-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains. To understand the biological function of CD97, monoclonal antibodies

  1. MHC class II ligation induces CD58 (LFA-3)-mediated adhesion in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Gerwien, J; Geisler, C

    1998-01-01

    MHC class II positive T cells found in areas of inflammation are believed to play an important pathogenetic role in autoimmunity. In experimental models , class II molecules have been shown to regulate adhesion between human T cells. It is, however, not known in detail how class II molecules...... are functionally linked to adhesion molecules. Some data suggest that beta2 integrin (CD11a/CD18) molecules play a role in class-II-induced homotypic adhesion in B cells, monocytes, and virus-transformed or neoplastic cell lines. We have previously obtained evidence that adhesion molecules other than beta2...... integrins might play a role in class-II-mediated adhesion in T cells. To study further class-II-mediated adhesion in T cells, we have taken advantage of (allo)antigen-specific beta2-integrin-negative, CD4-positive T cell lines obtained from a leukocyte adhesion deficiency patient. We show that class II...

  2. A bovine papillomavirus-1 based vector restores the function of the low-density lipoprotein receptor in the receptor-deficient CHO-ldlA7 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustav Mart

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rationale of using bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1 derived vectors in gene therapy protocols lies in their episomal maintenance at intermediate to high copy number, and stable, high-level expression of the gene products. We constructed the BPV-1 based vector harbouring the human low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR gene cDNA and tested its ability to restore the function of the LDLR in the receptor-deficient cell line CHO-ldlA7. Results The introduced vector p3.7LDL produced functionally active LDL receptors in the receptor-deficient cell line CHO-ldlA7 during the 32-week period of observation as determined by the internalisation assay with the labelled LDL particles. Conclusion Bovine papillomavirus type-1 (BPV-1-derived vectors could be suitable for gene therapy due to their episomal maintenance at intermediate to high copy number and stable, high-level expression of the gene products. The constructed BPV-1 based vector p3.7LDL produced functionally active LDL receptors in the LDLR-deficient cell line CHO-ldlA7 during the 32-week period of observation. In vivo experiments should reveal, whether 1–5% transfection efficiency obtained in the current work is sufficient to bring about detectable and clinically significant lowering of the amount of circulating LDL cholesterol particles.

  3. Molecular mechanisms underlying synergistic adhesion of sickle red blood cells by hypoxia and low nitric oxide bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsaeva, Diana R; Montero-Huerta, Pedro; Parkerson, James B; Yerigenahally, Shobha D; Ikuta, Tohru; Head, C Alvin

    2014-03-20

    The molecular mechanisms by which nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability modulates the clinical expression of sickle cell disease (SCD) remain elusive. We investigated the effect of hypoxia and NO bioavailability on sickle red blood cell (sRBC) adhesion using mice deficient for endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) because their NO metabolite levels are similar to those of SCD mice but without hypoxemia. Whereas sRBC adhesion to endothelial cells in eNOS-deficient mice was synergistically upregulated at the onset of hypoxia, leukocyte adhesion was unaffected. Restoring NO metabolite levels to physiological levels markedly reduced sRBC adhesion to levels seen under normoxia. These results indicate that sRBC adherence to endothelial cells increases in response to hypoxia prior to leukocyte adherence, and that low NO bioavailability synergistically upregulates sRBC adhesion under hypoxia. Although multiple adhesion molecules mediate sRBC adhesion, we found a central role for P-selectin in sRBC adhesion. Hypoxia and low NO bioavailability upregulated P-selectin expression in endothelial cells in an additive manner through p38 kinase pathways. These results demonstrate novel cellular and signaling mechanisms that regulate sRBC adhesion under hypoxia and low NO bioavailability. Importantly, these findings point us toward new molecular targets to inhibit cell adhesion in SCD.

  4. On leukocyte recruitment in colonic ischemia-reperfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Santén, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte recruitment is a rate-limiting step in inflammatory disease. Tissue accumulation of leukocytes is a multi-step process comprising leukocyte rolling, adhesion and transmigration across the vascular endothelium. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the mechanisms underlying ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in the colon. For this purpose, intravital microscopy of the colonic microcirculation was adopted. It was found that CXC chemokine and...

  5. Role of β1 integrins and bacterial adhesins for Yop injection into leukocytes in Yersinia enterocolitica systemic mouse infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschle, Eva; Keller, Birgit; Siegfried, Alexandra; Manncke, Birgit; Spaeth, Tanja; Köberle, Martin; Drechsler-Hake, Doreen; Reber, Julia; Böttcher, Ralph T; Autenrieth, Stella E; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Bohn, Erwin; Schütz, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into host cells by a type III secretion system is an important immune evasion mechanism of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye). In this process Ye invasin (Inv) binds directly while Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) binds indirectly via extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to β1 integrins on host cells. Although leukocytes turned out to be an important target of Yop injection by Ye, it was unclear which Ye adhesins and which leukocyte receptors are required for Yop injection. To explain this, we investigated the role of YadA, Inv and β1 integrins for Yop injection into leukocytes and their impact on the course of systemic Ye infection in mice. Ex vivo infection experiments revealed that adhesion of Ye via Inv or YadA is sufficient to promote Yop injection into leukocytes as revealed by a β-lactamase reporter assay. Serum factors inhibit YadA- but not Inv-mediated Yop injection into B and T cells, shifting YadA-mediated Yop injection in the direction of neutrophils and other myeloid cells. Systemic Ye mouse infection experiments demonstrated that YadA is essential for Ye virulence and Yop injection into leukocytes, while Inv is dispensable for virulence and plays only a transient and minor role for Yop injection in the early phase of infection. Ye infection of mice with β1 integrin-depleted leukocytes demonstrated that β1 integrins are dispensable for YadA-mediated Yop injection into leukocytes, but contribute to Inv-mediated Yop injection. Despite reduced Yop injection into leukocytes, β1 integrin-deficient mice exhibited an increased susceptibility for Ye infection, suggesting an important role of β1 integrins in immune defense against Ye. This study demonstrates that Yop injection into leukocytes by Ye is largely mediated by YadA exploiting, as yet unknown, leukocyte receptors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Factors involved in the early pathogenesis of bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis with emphasis on bacterial adhesion and invasion. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerro Dego, O; van Dijk, J E; Nederbragt, H

    2002-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most important and prevalent contagious mammary pathogen; it causes clinical and subclinical intramammary infection with serious economic loss and herd management problems in dairy cows. In vitro studies have shown that Staphylococcus aureus adheres to mammary epithelial cells and extracellular matrix components and invades into mammary epithelial as well as other mammary cells. Staphylococcus aureus strains from intramammary infection produce several cell surface-associated and extracellular secretory products. The exact pathogenic roles of most of the products and their effects on adhesion and invasion are not well evaluated. It is also known that mammary epithelial cell-associated molecules and extracellular matrix components interact with S. aureus during the pathogenesis of mastitis, but their roles on adhesion and invasion have not been characterized. The adhesion of S. aureus to epithelial cells may involve non-specific physicochemical interactions and/or specific interactions between bacterial cell-associated ligands and host cell surface receptors. In vitro adhesion depends on the S. aureus strain, the growth phase of the bacteria, the growth medium and the origin of the epithelial cells. Adhesion is hypothesized to be a prerequisite and crucial early step for mammary gland infection. Staphylococcus aureus invades mammary epithelial cells. It also invades other cells such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Bacteria are found enclosed in membrane bound vacuoles in the cytoplasm of mammary epithelial cells. Recent observations indicate that S. aureus escapes from the phagosome into the cytoplasm and induces apoptosis. The invasion into mammary epithelial cells may occur through an endocytic process that requires involvement of elements of the cytoskeleton or by direct binding of bacteria to epithelial cells through a process mediated by specific receptors that needs de novo protein synthesis by both cells. Thus, the recurrent

  7. Effects of babassu nut oil on ischemia/reperfusion-induced leukocyte adhesion and macromolecular leakage in the microcirculation: observation in the hamster cheek pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria do Carmo L; Bouskela, Eliete; Cyrino, Fátima Z G A; Azevedo, Ana Paula S; Costa, Maria Célia P; de Souza, Maria das Graças C; Santos, Debora S; Barbosa, Felipe L; Guerra, Luiz Felipe A; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro S B

    2012-11-16

    The babassu palm tree is native to Brazil and is most densely distributed in the Cocais region of the state of Maranhão, in northeastern Brazil. In addition to the industrial use of refined babassu oil, the milk, the unrefined oil and the nuts in natura are used by families from several communities of African descendants as one of the principal sources of food energy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of babassu oil on microvascular permeability and leukocyte-endothelial interactions induced by ischemia/reperfusion using the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation as experimental model. Twice a day for 14 days, male hamsters received unrefined babassu oil (0.02 ml/dose [BO-2 group], 0.06 ml/dose [BO-6 group], 0.18 ml/dose [BO-18 group]) or mineral oil (0.18 ml/dose [MO group]). Observations were made in the cheek pouch and macromolecular permeability increase induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or topical application of histamine, as well as leukocyte-endothelial interaction after I/R were evaluated. The mean value of I/R-induced microvascular leakage, determined during reperfusion, was significantly lower in the BO-6 and BO-18 groups than in the MO one (P nut and its oil might be secure sources of food energy.

  8. Mice deficient for the close homologue of the neural adhesion cell L1 (CHL1) display alterations in emotional reactivity and motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, M; Rougon, G; Schachner, M; Jamon, M

    2003-12-17

    Motor and cognitive phenotypes were assessed in mice deficient for the close homologue of the L1 adhesion molecule (CHL1). The CHL1-deficient mice displayed signs of decreased stress and a modification of exploratory behaviour. The mice also showed motor impairments on the Rotarod, but they were able to move as fast as controls in the alleys of a T-maze. The observed changes were assumed to be related to a deficit in attention. In addition, gender differences in CHL1 deficits were found and are discussed in view of a possible interaction with other cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) during development. The results are discussed in relation with motor and cognitive deficits in the human, caused by mutations of the distal part of the chromosome 3 which contains the CHL1 orthologue.

  9. Leukocyte-borne α(1,3)-fucose is a negative regulator of β2-integrin-dependent recruitment in lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffone, Alexander; Nasirikenari, Mehrab; Manhardt, Charles T; Lugade, Amit; Bogner, Paul N; Sackstein, Robert; Thanavala, Yasmin; Neelamegham, Sriram; Lau, Joseph T Y

    2017-02-01

    Leukocyte recruitment in inflammation is a multistep, sequential cascade where the initial step is the selectin-dependent tethering, followed by the formation of firmer integrin-mediated adhesive forces leading to extravasation. The α(1,3)-fucose-containing sialyl-Lewis X (sLeX) is the archetypical ligand on leukocyte surfaces mediating selectin interactions. Canonically, disruption of α(1,3)-fucose formation ablates selectin-mediated adhesion, dramatically reducing trafficking. We report a paradoxical response to α(1,3)-fucose deficiency in which the loss exacerbated rather than attenuated leukocyte recruitment in a murine model of acute airway inflammation. The architecture of the capillary-dominated vasculature in the lung minimized the importance of the selectin dependent step, and we observed that α(1,3)-fucose deficiency augmented CXCR2-mediated Rap1-GTP signaling to enhance the β2-integrin-ICAM-1-binding axis. The data disclose a previously unknown function for α(1,3)-fucose, in which this structure negatively regulates the integrin activation step in leukocyte recruitment. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  10. Effects of babassu nut oil on ischemia/reperfusion-induced leukocyte adhesion and macromolecular leakage in the microcirculation: Observation in the hamster cheek pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Maria do

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The babassu palm tree is native to Brazil and is most densely distributed in the Cocais region of the state of Maranhão, in northeastern Brazil. In addition to the industrial use of refined babassu oil, the milk, the unrefined oil and the nuts in natura are used by families from several communities of African descendants as one of the principal sources of food energy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of babassu oil on microvascular permeability and leukocyte-endothelial interactions induced by ischemia/reperfusion using the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation as experimental model. Methods Twice a day for 14 days, male hamsters received unrefined babassu oil (0.02 ml/dose [BO-2 group], 0.06 ml/dose [BO-6 group], 0.18 ml/dose [BO-18 group] or mineral oil (0.18 ml/dose [MO group]. Observations were made in the cheek pouch and macromolecular permeability increase induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R or topical application of histamine, as well as leukocyte-endothelial interaction after I/R were evaluated. Results The mean value of I/R-induced microvascular leakage, determined during reperfusion, was significantly lower in the BO-6 and BO-18 groups than in the MO one (P Conclusions Our findings suggest that unrefined babassu oil reduced microvascular leakage and protected against histamine-induced effects in postcapillary venules and highlights that these almost unexploited nut and its oil might be secure sources of food energy.

  11. Involvement of NO in the inhibitory effect of Calotropis procera latex protein fractions on leukocyte rolling, adhesion and infiltration in rat peritonitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Márcio V; Oliveira, Jefferson S; Figueiredo, Jozy G; Figueiredo, Ingrid S T; Kumar, Vijay L; Bitencourt, Flávio S; Cunha, F Q; Oliveira, Raquel S B; Bomfim, Liezelotte R; Vitor Lima-Filho, José; Alencar, Nylane M N

    2009-09-25

    The latex of Calotropis procera has been used in the traditional medicinal system for the treatment of leprosy, ulcers, tumors, piles and diseases of liver, spleen, abdomen and toothache. It comprises of a non-dialyzable protein fraction (LP) that exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and a dialyzable fraction (DF) exhibiting pro-inflammatory properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of LP sub-fractions on neutrophil functions and nociception in rodent models and to elucidate the mediatory role of nitric oxide (NO). The LP was subjected to ion exchange chromatography and the effect of its three sub-fractions (LP(PI), LP(PII) and LP(PIII)) thus obtained was evaluated on leukocyte functions in the rat peritonitis model and on nociception in the mouse model. LP sub-fractions exhibit distinct protein profile and produce a significant decrease in the carrageenan and DF induced neutrophil influx and exhibit anti-nociceptive property. The LP and its sub-fractions produced a marked reduction in the number of rolling and adherent leukocytes in the mesenteric microvasculature as revealed by intravital microscopy. The anti-inflammatory effect of LP(PI), the most potent anti-inflammatory fraction of LP, was accompanied by an increase in the serum levels of NO. Further, our study shows that NO is also involved in the inhibitory effect of LP(PI) on neutrophil influx. Our study shows that LP fraction of Calotropis procera comprises of three distinct sets of proteins exhibiting anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of which LP(PI) was most potent in inhibiting neutrophil functions and its effects are mediated through NO production.

  12. Change in platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus in gerbils fed a folate-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Young Sup; Kwon, Dae Young; Won, Moo Ho

    2008-02-01

    Folate deficiency increases stroke risk. We examined whether folate deficiency affects platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), which is an immunoglobulin-associated cell adhesion molecule and mediates the final common pathway of neutrophil transendothelial migration, in blood vessels in the gerbil dentate gyrus after transient forebrain ischemia. Gerbils were exposed to a folic acid-deficient diet (FAD) for 3 months and then subjected to common carotid artery occlusion for 5 min. In the control diet (CD)- and FAD-treated sham-operated groups, weak PECAM-1 immunoreactivity was detected in the blood vessels located in the dentate gyrus. PECAM-1 immunoreactivity in both groups was increased by 4 days after ischemic insult. PECAM-1 immunoreactivity in the FAD-treated group was twice as high that in the CD-treated-sham-operated group 4 days after ischemic insult. Western blot analyses showed that the change patterns in PECAM-1 protein levels in the dentate gyrus in both groups after ischemic insult were similar to changes in PECAM-1 immunohistochemistry in the ischemic dentate gyrus. Our results suggest that folate deficiency enhances PECAM-1 in the dentate gyrus induced by transient ischemia.

  13. Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) and the testing of three different adhesives for bonding bovine teeth with optical poly-(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshuhn, K; Berg, I; Tinner, D; Kunz, C; Bornstein, M M; Steineck, M; Hille, K; Goldblum, D

    2014-07-01

    Preparation of the lamina during osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) design is complex, and its longevity and watertightness important. To date, only acrylic bone cements have been used for bonding the optical cylinder to the tooth dentine. Our aim was to evaluate different dental adhesives for OOKP preparation. Specimens of bovine teeth were produced by preparing 1.5-mm thick dentine slices with holes having a diameter of 3.5 mm. Each group (n=10 per group) was luted with either classic poly-(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement, universal resin cement or glass ionomer cement. All specimens underwent force measurement using a uniaxial traction machine. The highest mean force required to break the bond was measured for PMMA bone cement (128.2 N) followed by universal resin cement (127.9 N), with no statistically significant difference. Glass ionomer cement showed significantly lower force resistance (78.1 N). Excellent bonding strength combined with easy application was found for universal resin cement, and thus, it is a potential alternative to acrylic bone cement in OOKP preparation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. NCAM-mimetic, FGL peptide, restores disrupted fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) phosphorylation and FGFR mediated signaling in neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    ), a member of Src family of tyrosine kinases, Fyn and Raf1 kinase which all activate different intracellular signaling pathways. The objective was to clarify, which signaling pathways are being disrupted in NCAM knockout mice and whether FGL peptide is able to restore observed disruptions. Therefore we...... in all isoforms of NCAM have decreased basal phosphorylation levels of FGFR1 and CaMKII and CaMKIV. Furthermore, NCAM-mimetic, FGL peptide, is found to be able to restore FGFR1, CaMKII and CaMKIV phosphorylation levels and thereby mimic the interactions of NCAM at this receptor in NCAM deficient mice....... Also, we found that Fyn(Tyr530), Raf1, MAP kinases and Akt kinase phosphorylation in adult animals is not affected by NCAM deficiency but interestingly, we found an over-expression of another cell adhesion molecule L1. We conclude that in NCAM deficient mice FGFR1-dependent signaling is disrupted...

  15. Endothelial cell PTP1B regulates leukocyte recruitment during allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Cook-Mills, Joan M

    2013-02-15

    Pulmonary eosinophilia is a consistent hallmark of allergic lung inflammation. Infiltration of eosinophils into ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged lungs is dependent on the adhesion molecule vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells. Ligation of VCAM-1 activates endothelial cell protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which is required for VCAM-1-dependent leukocyte migration in vitro. To examine whether nonhematopoietic PTP1B modulates eosinophil recruitment in vivo, mice deficient in PTP1B were irradiated and received wild-type hematopoietic cells to generate chimeric PTP1B-/- mice. In response to OVA challenge, the chimeric PTP1B-/- mice had reduced eosinophilia in the lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage, indicating a role for PTP1B in nonhematopoietic cells during leukocyte recruitment. To determine whether endothelial cell PTP1B modulates eosinophil recruitment, mice with an inducible endothelial cell-specific PTP1B deletion (iePTP1B mice) were generated and the PTP1B deletion was induced after antigen sensitization before antigen challenge. In response to OVA challenge, the iePTP1B mice with the endothelial cell PTP1B deletion had an increased accumulation of eosinophils bound to the luminal surface of the endothelium in the lung vasculature and had a decrease in leukocyte recruitment into the lung tissue. In the iePTP1B mice, expression of adhesion molecules, cytokines, or chemokines that regulate leukocyte recruitment during inflammation was not altered, consistent with other studies that deletion of endothelial adhesion molecule signals does not alter lung cytokines and chemokines. In summary, these data suggest that VCAM-1 activation of PTP1B in the endothelium is necessary for eosinophil recruitment during allergic inflammation. Moreover, these studies provide a basis for targeting VCAM-1-dependent signaling pathways in allergy therapies.

  16. VEGF₁₆₄ differentially regulates neutrophil and T cell adhesion through ItgaL- and ItgaM-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidlow, John H; Glawe, John D; Alexander, J Steven; Kevil, Christopher G

    2010-12-01

    Leukocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues is the cornerstone of inflammatory responses and the driving force behind the establishment of inflammatory bowel disease, consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. It has been reported that angiogenic cytokines contribute to this inflammatory response that facilitates the chronic nature of disease. We have previously reported (Goebel S, Huang M, Davis WC, Jennings M, Siahaan TJ, Alexander JS, Kevil CG. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 290: G648-G654, 2006) that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A can stimulate neutrophil adhesion to colon microvascular endothelial cells in a β₂-integrin (Itgb2)-dependent manner. However, it is not known which of the specific leukocyte integrins are critical for VEGF-A-dependent neutrophil and T cell recruitment. Here we examine the differential importance of either α-integrin (Itga)L or ItgaM in governing neutrophil and T cell adhesion to VEGF-A-activated colonic endothelium. Using an in vitro parallel-plate flow chamber model, we found that genetic deficiency of ItgaM completely blunted neutrophil adhesion to VEGF-A-stimulated endothelium, whereas ItgaL deficiency only partly blocked neutrophil adhesion. Deficiency of ItgaM did significantly decrease neutrophil rolling, whereas deficiency of ItgaL did not. We found that genetic deficiency of either ItgaL or ItgaM did significantly blunt T cell adhesion to VEGF-A-stimulated colon endothelium. We also found that genetic deficiency of these Itgas significantly attenuated T cell rolling behavior. Lastly, we examined whether VEGF-A-mediated leukocyte recruitment occurred through different VEGF receptor (VEGFR) pathways and found that VEGFR2 activation regulates neutrophil recruitment, whereas both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 modulate T cell recruitment. Together, these data identify differential molecular mechanisms of VEGF-A-mediated leukocyte recruitment.

  17. Inflammatory Markers: C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, and Leukocyte Count in Vitamin D Deficient Patients with and without Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Yildirim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although some studies revealed a positive relationship between vitamin D3 deficiency and inflammatory markers, there have been also many studies that failed to find this relationship. The aim of this large scaled study is to determine the association between the level of plasma 25 hydroxy vitamin D3 [25-(OH D3] and inflammatory markers in the general population without chronic kidney disease (CKD and in patients with CKD. Participants with simultaneously measured inflammatory markers and 25-(OH D3 levels were retrospectively analyzed (n=1897. The incidence of all-cause inflammation infection, hospitalization, chronic renal failure, and vitamin B12 deficiency was evaluated. The medians of serum creatinine levels in subjects without renal failure were lower in 25-(OH D3 deficient group. Patients with CKD were more likely to have vitamin D3 deficiency compared with normal GFR. 25-(OH D3 levels were associated with a greater incidence of all-cause hospitalization, hypoalbuminemia, and vitamin B12 deficiency. However, there was no relationship between inflammatory markers and vitamin D3 levels. In 25-(OH D3 deficient patients, inflammatory markers can be related to other inflammatory and infectious status such as malnutrition and cachexia. We believed that there must be a relationship between vitamin deficiency and inflammatory markers due to other causes than low 25-(OH D3 status.

  18. Effects of asymmetric dimethylarginine on bovine retinal capillary endothelial cell proliferation, reactive oxygen species production, permeability, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and occludin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hui; Xu, Xun; Sheng, Min-Jie; Zheng, Zhi; Gu, Qing

    2011-02-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is associated with impaired endothelial dysfunction, such as chronic heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, and pulmonary hypertension. The effects of ADMA on cell proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell permeability, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and tight-junction protein occludin levels in bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells (BRCECs) were investigated. A cell proliferation assay was performed using the novel tetrazolium compound 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium and an electron coupling reagent. Intracellular ROS levels were determined using the fluorescent probe CM-H(2)DCFDA. Horseradish peroxidase was used for a permeability assay. ICAM-1 and tight-junction protein occludin were assessed by western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by ADMA. ADMA increased intracellular ROS generation in BRCECs. The increased ROS production induced by ADMA was markedly inhibited by the angiotensin II receptor-blocker telmisartan, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril, the reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor diphenyliodonium (DPI), or the antioxidant and free-radical scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). ADMA significantly increased horseradish peroxidase (HRP) permeability in BRCECs. Benazepril, telmisartan, DPI, and NAC downregulated cell permeability. ADMA markedly upregulated ICAM-1 expression in BRCECs, which were downregulated by telmisartan, DPI, and NAC. ADMA significantly downregulated occludin expression in BRCECs. Benazepril and telmisartan upregulated occludin expression in BRCECs exposed to ADMA. Our results provide the first reported evidence that ADMA has potent adverse effects on cell proliferation, intracellular ROS generation, cell permeability

  19. The role of N-glycosylation in high glucose-induced upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on bovine retinal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Liu, Haiyun; Zhang, Zhihua; Ye, Wen; Xu, Xun

    2016-06-01

    The development of diabetic retinopathy has been implicated as a consequence of chronic inflammation. Given the role of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in inflammation, the potential effect of N-glycosylation on the upregulated expression of ICAM-1 at the surface of bovine retinal endothelial cells (BRECs) induced by high glucose concentrations was investigated. Gene and protein expression of ICAM-1 in primary BRECs cultured in medium containing increasing concentrations of mannose or glucose in the presence or absence of tunicamycin were studied with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, and the expression level of ICAM-1 at the surface of BRECs was examined with an immunofluorescence analysis. A lectin blot assay with PHA-L was performed to explore the level of N-glycans on cell total proteins or immunoprecipitated ICAM-1 from cells treated or untreated with high glucose. Both the mRNA and protein levels of ICAM-1, as well as the level of ICAM-1 on the cell surface, were significantly upregulated by increasing the concentration of glucose in the culture medium, with a peak concentration of 20 mm. Consistent with these results, a dramatic increase in the N-glycosylation of ICAM-1 in BRECs cultured with a high concentration of glucose was observed, which could be partially attenuated by tunicamycin treatment. High glucose-induced upregulation of ICAM-1 on the surface of BRECs could be ascribed to the alterations in its N-glycosylation at least in part, indicating that interference with the glycosylation of ICAM-1 may contribute to improving the efficiency of current therapies with diabetic retinopathy. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The use of bovine serum albumin-glutaraldehyde tissue adhesive (BioGlue®) for tumor bed closure following open partial nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahouth, Z; Halachmi, S; Shprits, S; Burbara, Y; Avitan, O; Masarwa, I; Moskovitz, B; Nativ, O

    2017-10-01

    To report the results of the use of Bovine Serum Albumin-Glutaraldehyde tissue adhesive (BioGlue®) for tumor bed closure in open nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). The cohort included 255 patients with enhancing renal mass who underwent open NSS. We used open flank approach, with in-situ hypothermia and enucleation of the tumor. For tumor bed closure, we used the BioGlue ® sealant for tumor bed filling, without suturing the edges. Mean patients' age was 65.4 years. 5.1% of patients had pre-operative chronic renal failure. Mean renal mass diameter was 4.2±1.6cm and mean R.E.N.A.L nephrometry score was 8.0±1.6. Mean ischemia time was 21.8±7.6. Mean estimated blood loss was 42±82ml and only two patients required blood transfusion. Urine leak and pseudo-aneurysm were recorded in two and one patient, respectively. None of the operations were converted to radical nephrectomy. The average change between post-operative and pre-operative eGFR (Δ=-1.7ml/min) was insignificant in a mean follow-up of 30.1±29.6 months. The 10-year recurrence-free survival rate was 99% and the 10-year overall survival rate was 85%. The use of BioGlue ® alone for hemostasis after NSS is a feasible and safe alternative to classical suturing. Its use enables satisfactory functional outcome and could potentially reduce ischemia time. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Leukocyte recruitment and ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Gokhan; Granger, D Neil

    2010-06-01

    Leukocytes are recruited into the cerebral microcirculation following an ischemic insult. The leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion manifested within a few hours after ischemia (followed by reperfusion, I/R) largely reflects an infiltration of neutrophils, while other leukocyte populations appear to dominate the adhesive interactions with the vessel wall at 24 h of reperfusion. The influx of rolling and adherent leukocytes is accompanied by the recruitment of adherent platelets, which likely enhances the cytotoxic potential of the leukocytes to which they are attached. The recruitment of leukocytes and platelets in the postischemic brain is mediated by specific adhesion glycoproteins expressed by the activated blood cells and on cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. This process is also modulated by different signaling pathways (e.g., CD40/CD40L, Notch) and cytokines (e.g., RANTES) that are activated/released following I/R. Some of the known risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including hypercholesterolemia and obesity appear to exacerbate the leukocyte and platelet recruitment elicited by brain I/R. Although lymphocyte-endothelial cell and -platelet interactions in the postischemic cerebral microcirculation have not been evaluated to date, recent evidence in experimental animals implicate both CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the cerebral microvascular dysfunction, inflammation, and tissue injury associated with brain I/R. Evidence implicating regulatory T-cells as cerebroprotective modulators of the inflammatory and tissue injury responses to brain I/R support a continued focus on leukocytes as a target for therapeutic intervention in ischemic stroke.

  2. Monoclonal B-cell hyperplasia and leukocyte imbalance precede development of B-cell malignancies in uracil-DNA glycosylase deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sonja; Ericsson, Madelene; Dai, Hong Yan

    2005-01-01

    Ung-deficient mice have reduced class switch recombination, skewed somatic hypermutation, lymphatic hyperplasia and a 22-fold increased risk of developing B-cell lymphomas. We find that lymphomas are of follicular (FL) and diffuse large B-cell type (DLBCL). All FLs and 75% of the DLBCLs were...... monoclonal while 25% were biclonal. Monoclonality was also observed in hyperplasia, and could represent an early stage of lymphoma development. Lymphoid hyperplasia occurs very early in otherwise healthy Ung-deficient mice, observed as a significant increase of splenic B-cells. Furthermore, loss of Ung also....... The immunological imbalances shown here in the Ung-deficient mice may be central in the development of lymphomas in a background of generalised lymphoid hyperplasia....

  3. CXCR2 is essential for cerebral endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment during neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengjiao; Zhao, Yawei; Jiao, Tian; Shi, Dongyan; Zhu, Xingxing; Zhang, Mingshun; Shi, Meiqing; Zhou, Hong

    2015-05-21

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors cooperate to promote immune cell recruitment to the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we investigated the roles of CXCR2 and CXCL1 in leukocyte recruitment to the CNS using a murine model of neuroinflammation. Wild-type (WT), CXCL1(-/-), and CXCR2(-/-) mice each received an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Esterase staining and intravital microscopy were performed to examine neutrophil recruitment to the brain. To assess endothelial activation in these mice, the expression of adhesion molecules was measured via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting. To identify the cellular source of functional CXCR2, chimeric mice were generated by transferring bone marrow cells between the WT and CXCR2(-/-) mice. Expression levels of the chemokines CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL5 were significantly increased in the brain following the i.c.v. injection of LPS. CXCR2 or CXCL1 deficiency blocked neutrophil infiltration and leukocyte recruitment in the cerebral microvessels. In the CXCR2(-/-) and CXCL1(-/-) mice, the cerebral endothelial expression of adhesion molecules such as P-selectin and VCAM-1 was dramatically reduced. Furthermore, the bone marrow transfer experiments demonstrated that CXCR2 expression on CNS-residing cells is essential for cerebral endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment. Compared with microglia, cultured astrocytes secreted a much higher level of CXCL1 in vitro. Astrocyte culture conditioned medium significantly increased the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in cerebral endothelial cells in a CXCR2-dependent manner. Additionally, CXCR2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in cerebral endothelial cells but not in microglia or astrocytes was increased following tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulation. The intravenous injection of the CXCR2 antagonist SB225002 significantly inhibited endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment to

  4. The use of leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) to facilitate implant placement in bone-deficient sites: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, M T; Marnewick, J; Stephen, L X G; Singh, A; Patel, N; Majeed, A

    2012-03-01

    Successful dental implant treatment usually requires that the implant be placed in the ideal anatomic position, so that it will readily facilitate the placement of a functional and aesthetically acceptable restoration. However, this is not always possible, and in many cases augmentation procedures may be required to compensate for lost tissue structures. These interventions often require more complex surgery, as well as the use of graft material derived from animal sources. Leukocyte- and patelet-rich fibrin (LPRF) is a newly developed platelet concentrate that has successfully been used in a number of surgical procedures to optimise wound healing. Several studies indicate that it may also have the ability to stimulate bone formation. In this article we present two cases where L-PRF was used to stimulate bone formation to facilitate ideal placement of implants.

  5. Regulate Globally, Act Locally: Adrenergic Nerves Promote Leukocyte Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, William A.

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of Immunity, Scheiermann et al. (2012) demonstrate that circadian regulation of the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules via adrenergic innervation of local vasculature promotes clinically significant changes in leukocyte homing and bone marrow engraftment.

  6. Crossing the Vascular Wall: Common and Unique Mechanisms Exploited by Different Leukocyte Subsets during Extravasation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schnoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte extravasation is one of the essential and first steps during the initiation of inflammation. Therefore, a better understanding of the key molecules that regulate this process may help to develop novel therapeutics for treatment of inflammation-based diseases such as atherosclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis. The endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are known as the central mediators of leukocyte adhesion to and transmigration across the endothelium. Engagement of these molecules by their leukocyte integrin receptors initiates the activation of several signaling pathways within both leukocytes and endothelium. Several of such events have been described to occur during transendothelial migration of all leukocyte subsets, whereas other mechanisms are known only for a single leukocyte subset. Here, we summarize current knowledge on regulatory mechanisms of leukocyte extravasation from a leukocyte and endothelial point of view, respectively. Specifically, we will focus on highlighting common and unique mechanisms that specific leukocyte subsets exploit to succeed in crossing endothelial monolayers.

  7. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is a marker of recurrence and promotes cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in early-stage endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devis, Laura; Moiola, Cristian P; Masia, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Elena; Santacana, Maria; Stirbat, Tomita Vasilica; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise; García, Ángel; Alameda, Francesc; Cabrera, Silvia; Palacios, Jose; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Abal, Miguel; Thomas, William; Dufour, Sylvie; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Santamaria, Anna; Reventos, Jaume; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Colas, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in western countries, being the most common subtype of endometrioid tumours. Most patients are diagnosed at an early stage and present an excellent prognosis. However, a number of those continue to suffer recurrence, without means of identification by risk classification systems. Thus, finding a reliable marker to predict recurrence becomes an important unmet clinical issue. ALCAM is a cell-cell adhesion molecule and member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that has been associated with the genesis of many cancers. Here, we first determined the value of ALCAM as a marker of recurrence in endometrioid endometrial cancer by conducting a retrospective multicentre study of 174 primary tumours. In early-stage patients (N = 134), recurrence-free survival was poorer in patients with ALCAM-positive compared to ALCAM-negative tumours (HR 4.237; 95% CI 1.01-17.76). This difference was more significant in patients with early-stage moderately-poorly differentiated tumours (HR 9.259; 95% CI 2.12-53.47). In multivariate analysis, ALCAM positivity was an independent prognostic factor in early-stage disease (HR 6.027; 95% CI 1.41-25.74). Then we demonstrated in vitro a role for ALCAM in cell migration and invasion by using a loss-of-function model in two endometrial cancer cell lines. ALCAM depletion resulted in a reduced primary tumour size and reduced metastatic local spread in an orthotopic murine model. Gene expression analysis of ALCAM-depleted cell lines pointed to motility, invasiveness, cellular assembly, and organization as the most deregulated functions. Finally, we assessed some of the downstream effector genes that are involved in ALCAM-mediated cell migration; specifically FLNB, TXNRD1, and LAMC2 were validated at the mRNA and protein level. In conclusion, our results highlight the potential of ALCAM as a recurrent biomarker in early-stage endometrioid endometrial cancer and point to ALCAM as an important

  8. Chemokines in the corpus luteum: Implications of leukocyte chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liptak Amy R

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chemokines are small molecular weight peptides responsible for adhesion, activation, and recruitment of leukocytes into tissues. Leukocytes are thought to influence follicular atresia, ovulation, and luteal function. Many studies in recent years have focused attention on the characterization of leukocyte populations within the ovary, the importance of leukocyte-ovarian cell interactions, and more recently, the mechanisms of ovarian leukocyte recruitment. Information about the role of chemokines and leukocyte trafficking (chemotaxis during ovarian function is important to understanding paracrine-autocrine relationships shared between reproductive and immune systems. Recent advances regarding chemokine expression and leukocyte accumulation within the ovulatory follicle and the corpus luteum are the subject of this mini-review.

  9. Complement component C3a plays a critical role in endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment into the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengjiao; Zou, Qiang; Ding, Xiaodan; Shi, Dongyan; Zhu, Xingxing; Hu, Weiguo; Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-28

    The complement system is becoming increasingly recognized as a key participant in many neurodegenerative diseases of the brain. Complement-deficient animals exhibit reduced neuroinflammation. In the present study, we administered intracerebroventricularly lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic local infection of the brain and investigated the role of key complement component C3 in brain vasculature endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment. The degree of neutrophil infiltration was determined by esterase staining. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were measured using intravital microscopy. Cerebral endothelial activation was evaluated using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Neutrophil infiltration into the brain cortex and hippocampus was significantly reduced in C3(-/-) mice and C3aR(-/-) mice but not in C6(-/-) mice. We detected markedly attenuated leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the brain microvasculature of C3(-/-) mice. Accordingly, in response to LPS administration, the brain microvasculature in these mice had decreased expression of P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Depletion of C3 from the circulation also caused reduction in VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression and leukocyte recruitment, suggesting that C3 in the circulation contributed to brain endothelial activation. Furthermore, C3(-/-) mice exhibited decreased leukocyte recruitment into the brain upon tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulation. C3a activated the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and induced the upregulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in murine primary cerebral endothelial cells in vitro. Our study provides the first evidence that C3a plays a critical role in cerebral endothelial activation and leukocyte recruitment during inflammation in the brain.

  10. Leukocyte recruitment in preterm and term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenberg, Katinka; Hudalla, Hannes; Frommhold, David

    2016-12-01

    Impaired cellular innate immune defense accounts for susceptibility to sepsis and its high morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Leukocyte recruitment is an integral part of the cellular immune response and follows a well-defined cascade of events from rolling of leukocytes along the endothelium to firm adhesion and finally transmigration which is concerted by a variety of adhesion molecules. Recent analytical advances such as fetal intravital microscopy have granted new insights into ontogenetic regulation and maturation of fetal immune cell recruitment. Understanding the fetal innate immune system is essential for targeted prevention and therapy of premature infants with severe infections or disorders of the immune system. This review gives an overview of the basic principles of leukocyte recruitment, particularly neutrophil trafficking, and its development during early life and highlights technical limitations to our current knowledge.

  11. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1b calf: Effects on health, performance, BVDV type 1a titers, and circulating leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a major culprit in the development of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) either directly via acute clinical illness or indirect effects of immunosuppression. Calves born persistently infected (PI) with BVDV are the primary transmission source of the virus; however...

  12. Recombinant lectin-like domain of thrombomodulin suppresses vascular inflammation by reducing leukocyte recruitment via interacting with Lewis Y on endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Ling; Chang, Chuan-Fa; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Shi, Guey-Yueh; Wu, Hua-Lin

    2013-10-01

    The N-terminal lectin-like domain (domain 1 [D1]) of thrombomodulin (TM) is known to have an anti-inflammatory function. We previously showed that recombinant TM domain 1 (rTMD1) interacts with a carbohydrate molecule, Lewis Y (Le(y)), which is found to be expressed on adhesion molecules and involved in cell adhesion. Here, we tested the effect of rTMD1/Le(y) interaction on leukocyte recruitment in inflammation. The expression of Le(y) on the surface of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was increased by tumor necrosis factor-α stimulation. Direct binding of rTMD1 to Le(y) on the cell surface was observed. rTMD1 inhibited Le(y)-mediated leukocyte adhesion on the Le(y)-immobilized flow chamber and activated endothelium under a shear flow. The following leukocyte transmigration to endothelium was also reduced by rTMD1 through binding Le(y). In vivo, treatment of rTMD1 reduced leukocyte recruitment to the inflammatory sites in carotid ligation injury and thioglycollate-induced peritonitis. rTMD1 administration in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice effectively suppressed atherosclerotic plaque formation and macrophage infiltration in atherosclerotic lesions. Increased Le(y) expression, as well as administered rTMD1, was observed in inflamed vessels. rTMD1 suppresses vascular inflammation by inhibiting leukocyte recruitment to endothelium through attenuating Le(y)-mediated adhesion and further protects against atherosclerosis progression. The present study provides a mechanism showing that rTMD1 can inhibit inflammation by binding to its carbohydrate ligand Le(y).

  13. Folic acid deficiency increases delayed neuronal death, DNA damage, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 immunoreactivity, and gliosis in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Koo; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Suh, Hong-Won; Kim, Young Sup; Kwon, Dae Young; Kwon, Young-Guen; Yoo, Jun-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho

    2008-07-01

    Folic acid deficiency increases stroke risk. In the present study, we examined whether folic acid deficiency enhances neuronal damage and gliosis via oxidative stress in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia. Animals were exposed to a folic acid-deficient diet (FAD) for 3 months and then subjected to occlusion of both common carotid arteries for 5 min. Exposure to an FAD increased plasma homocysteine levels by five- to eightfold compared with those of animals fed with a control diet (CD). In CD-treated animals, most neurons were dead in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia/reperfusion, whereas, in FAD-treated animals, this occurred 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion. Immunostaining for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was performed to examine DNA damage in CA1 neurons in both groups after ischemia, and it was found that 8-OHdG immunoreactivity in both FAD and CD groups peaked at 12 hr after reperfusion, although the immunoreactivity in the FAD group was much greater than that in the CD group. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1; a final mediator of neutrophil transendothelial migration) immunoreactivity in both groups increased with time after ischemia/reperfusion: Its immunoreactivity in the FAD group was much higher than that in the CD group 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion. In addition, reactive gliosis in the ischemic CA1 region increased with time after ischemia in both groups, but astrocytosis and microgliosis in the FAD group were more severe than in the CD group at all times after ischemia. Our results suggest that folic acid deficiency enhances neuronal damage induced by ischemia. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003584.htm Leukocyte esterase urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for ...

  15. The role of the tumor endothelium in leukocyte recruitment in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jan; Mocevicius, Paulius; Werner, Jens; Ryschich, Eduard

    2012-09-01

    Although pancreatic cancer tissue frequently induces an immune reaction, immunocompetent cells are not able to eliminate the tumor. One potential cause for this ineffective immune response is that a number of active, tumor-cytotoxic T cells are not able to invade into the tumor. A potential barrier for invading leukocytes can be the tumor endothelium, which controls recruitment of leukocytes from circulating blood into the tissue. Although attenuated expression of adhesion molecules on the tumor endothelium has been proposed as a mechanism which suppresses intratumoral leukocyte infiltration, the relevance of adhesion molecules for leukocyte recruitment in tumor tissue is poorly understood. The leukocyte extravasation in normal pancreas during acute pancreatitis follows the "classic" leukocyte recruitment cascade and is controlled by the overexpression of endothelial adhesion molecules, such as selectins, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1. In contrast to acute inflammation in normal pancreas, leukocyte recruitment in pancreatic cancer is a slow process, which does not show a strong dependence on intracellular adhesion molecule-1. In addition, pancreatic cancer has a high degree of heterogeneity of both immunogenic properties and the distribution of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes, such as CD8(+), CD4(+), or regulatory T cells. Additional studies may clarify whether T cell recruitment and their activity in pancreatic cancer can be enhanced by modulation of endothelial adhesion molecules. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CD18 deficiency improves liver injury in the MCD model of steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Andrew A; Duwaerts, Caroline C; Siao, Kevin; Mattis, Aras N; Goodsell, Amanda; Baron, Jody L; Maher, Jacquelyn J

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils and macrophages are important constituents of the hepatic inflammatory infiltrate in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. These innate immune cells express CD18, an adhesion molecule that facilitates leukocyte activation. In the context of fatty liver, activation of infiltrated leukocytes is believed to enhance hepatocellular injury. The objective of this study was to determine the degree to which activated innate immune cells promote steatohepatitis by comparing hepatic outcomes in wild-type and CD18-mutant mice fed a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet. After 3 weeks of MCD feeding, hepatocyte injury, based on serum ALT elevation, was 40% lower in CD18-mutant than wild-type mice. Leukocyte infiltration into the liver was not impaired in CD18-mutant mice, but leukocyte activation was markedly reduced, as shown by the lack of evidence of oxidant production. Despite having reduced hepatocellular injury, CD18-mutant mice developed significantly more hepatic steatosis than wild-type mice after MCD feeding. This coincided with greater hepatic induction of pro-inflammatory and lipogenic genes as well as a modest reduction in hepatic expression of adipose triglyceride lipase. Overall, the data indicate that CD18 deficiency curbs MCD-mediated liver injury by limiting the activation of innate immune cells in the liver without compromising intrahepatic cytokine activation. Reduced liver injury occurs at the expense of increased hepatic steatosis, which suggests that in addition to damaging hepatocytes, infiltrating leukocytes may influence lipid homeostasis in the liver.

  17. Evaluation of a synthetic peptide from the Taenia saginata 18kDa surface/secreted oncospheral adhesion protein for serological diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-Peixoto, Rafaella Paola Meneguete; Pinto, Paulo Sérgio Arruda; Santos, Marcus Rebouças; Polêto, Marcelo Depólo; Silva, Letícia Ferreira; Silva-Júnior, Abelardo

    2016-12-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic infection widely spread throughout Brazil, creating a burden on hygiene maintenance and the economy. Diagnosis of cysticercosis usually relies on post mortem inspection of carcasses in slaughterhouses. This detection method provides only low sensitivity. Recent advancements have improved the performance of serologic tests, such as ELISA, providing greater sensitivity and specificity. The objective of the current study was to identify and evaluate a synthetic peptide derived from the Taenia saginata 18kDa oncospheric surface protein for the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in ELISA. Test performance of the identified peptide was compared to an ELISA based on a heterologous crude Taenia crassiceps antigen (Tcra), widely used for the sero-diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis. Based on the primary sequence of an in silico structural model of the 18kDa protein, an epitope region designated EP1 was selected (46-WDTKDMAGYGVKKIEV-61). The peptide derived from this region yielded 91.6% (CI=80-96%) sensitivity and 90% (CI=82-95%) specificity when used in an ELISA, whereas the crude antigen yielded 70% (CI=56-8%) sensitivity and 82% (CI=73-89%) specificity. Thus, we conclude that EP1 has higher diagnostic potential for detecting bovine cysticercosis than the crude antigen Tcra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Adhesion Molecules in CNS Disorders: Biomarker and Therapeutic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingyi; Chen, Sheng; Klebe, Damon; Zhang, John H.; Tang, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence has been provided regarding the crucial role of leukocyte extravasation and subsequent inflammatory response in several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The infiltrated leukocytes release pro-inflammatory mediators and activate resident cells, leading to tissue injury. Leukocyte-endothelia interaction is critical for leukocyte extravasation and migration from the intravascular space into the tissue during inflammation. The basic physiology of leukocyte-endothelia interaction has been investigated extensively. Traditionally, three kinds of adhesion molecules, selectin, integrin, and immunoglobulin families, are responsible for this multiple-step interaction. Furthermore, blocking adhesion molecule function by genetic knockout, antagonizing antibodies, or inhibitory pharmacological drugs provides neuroprotection, which is associated with a reduction in leukocyte accumulation with in the tissue. Detection of the soluble form of adhesion molecules has also been proven to predict outcomes in CNS disorders. Lately, vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1), a novel adhesion molecule and endothelial cell surface enzyme, has been implicated as a brake during leukocyte extravasation. In this review, we summarize the functions of traditional adhesion molecules as well as VAP-1 in the leukocyte adhesion cascade. We also discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of adhesion molecules in CNS disorders. PMID:23469854

  19. Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecules in biliary atresia.

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, P.; Belchis, D.; Tracy, T.; Cilley, R.; Hafer, L.; Krummel, T

    1994-01-01

    The expression of the inflammatory adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1, was studied in six infants with biliary atresia using an immunoperoxidase technique on frozen sections. Controls consisted of five patients with various conditions including total parenteral nutrition-induced cholestasis, choledochal cyst, viral hepatitis, metastatic carcinoma, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. None o...

  20. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: Effects on rectal temperature, peripheral blood leukocytes and serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation in cohorts. It is hypothesized that the extent of modulation differs for preconditioned (PC) vs. auction market (AM) cattle. Our objective was to compare immune responses of PC or AM ca...

  1. Pre-Arrival Management of Newly Received Beef Calves With or Without Exposure to a Persistently Infected Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type I Calf Affects Health, Performance, BVDV Type I Titers, and Circulating Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a major culprit in the development of BRD either directly via acute clinical disease or through indirect effects of immunosuppression. Calves born persistently infected (PI) with BVDV are the primary vector for introduction of the virus into herds or productio...

  2. Leukocyte migration in experimental inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Van Rees

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Emigration of leukocytes from the circulation into tissue by transendothelial migration, is mediated subsequently by adhesion molecules such as selectins, chemokines and integrins. This multistep paradigm, with multiple molecular choices at each step, provides a diversity in signals. The influx of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes into inflamed tissue is important in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The importance of each of these groups of adhesion molecules in chronic inflammatory bowel disease, either in human disease or in animal models, will be discussed below. Furthermore, the possibilities of blocking these different steps in the process of leukocyte extravasation in an attempt to prevent further tissue damage, will be taken into account.

  3. Disrupted compartmental organization of axons and dendrites within olfactory glomeruli of mice deficient in the olfactory cell adhesion molecule, OCAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Andreas; Mombaerts, Peter; Greer, Charles A; Treloar, Helen B

    2006-01-01

    There is an overall topographic connectivity in the axonal projections of olfactory sensory neurons from the olfactory epithelium (OE) to the olfactory bulb (OB). The molecular determinants of this overall topographic OE-OB connectivity are not known. For 20 years, the intriguing expression pattern of the olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM) has made it the leading candidate as determinant of overall topographic OE-OB connectivity. Here, we have generated a strain of OCAM knockout mice by gene targeting. There were no obvious alterations in the distribution of olfactory sensory neurons within the OE or in the coalescence of axons into specific glomeruli. However, the compartmental organization of dendrites and axons within the glomeruli was disrupted. Surprisingly, the mutant mice exhibited an increase in olfactory acuity; they appeared to have a better sense of smell. Thus, despite its striking expression pattern, OCAM is not essential for overall topographic OE-OB connectivity. Instead, OCAM is required for establishing or maintaining the compartmental organization and the segregation of axodendritic and dendrodendritic synapses within glomeruli.

  4. Activation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte oxygen radical production during acute lung rejection in dogs: inhibition by an antiadhesion molecule monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, A R; Katzmann, J A; Tazelaar, H D; Miller, V M; McGregor, C G

    1993-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against leukocyte adhesion molecules reduce the severity of reperfusion injury and, in some cases, prevent acute allograft rejection. These effects are assumed to be due to prevention of leukocyte-endothelial adhesion. Experiments were designed to study activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes during acute rejection of canine single lung allografts and to test the ability of an anti-beta 2-integrin monoclonal antibody (R15.7/H4) to regulate leukocyte metabolism independent of leukocyte-endothelial adhesion. Peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes were obtained by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation from unoperated control dogs (n = 10), from dogs with a single lung autotransplant (n = 4), and from dogs after single lung allotransplantation during unmodified rejection (n = 12). Oxygen radicals were measured with luminal-enhanced chemiluminescence of unstimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by opsonized-zymosan, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes incubated with anti-beta 2-integrin beta-chain (CD18) monoclonal antibodies before exposure to opsonized zymosan. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte viability was unaffected by the monoclonal antibodies. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes from unoperated and autotransplant dogs did not produce oxygen radicals unless stimulated by opsonized zymosan. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes from rejecting animals produced oxygen radicals in the absence of zymosan, and when stimulated, production of oxygen radicals was significantly greater than that of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from unoperated and autotransplant dogs. Production of oxygen radicals was inhibited significantly by the monoclonal antibodies in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from all three groups. This study shows that rejection activates polymorphonuclear leukocytes and increases the potential to produce activated oxygen species. In addition to inhibiting leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, anti-beta 2-integrin

  5. A novel method to analyze leukocyte rolling behavior in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunne Jessica L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte endothelial cell interaction is a fundamentally important process in many disease states. Current methods to analyze such interactions include the parallel-plate flow chamber and intravital microscopy. Here, we present an improvement of the traditional intravital microscopy that allows leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction to be studied from the time the leukocyte makes its initial contact with the endothelium until it adheres to or detaches from the endothelium. The leukocyte is tracked throughout the venular tree with the aid of a motorized stage and the rolling and adhesive behavior is measured off-line. Because this method can involve human error, methods to automate the tracking procedure have been developed. This novel tracking method allows for a more detailed examination of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions.

  6. Intravital microscopy to study leukocyte recruitment in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Vanessa; Coelho, Fernanda Matos; Menezes, Gustavo Batista; Cara, Denise Carmona

    2011-01-01

    The intravital microscopy is a valuable tool to capture images of cells in living organisms and to make studies of molecular determinants of leukocyte trafficking easier. Using this technique, we can directly visualize and measure each step of the leukocyte recruitment paradigm, including leukocyte rolling flux, rolling velocity, adhesion, and emigration. Thus, it is possible to understand the process involved in leukocyte homing as well as the cell recruitment to inflammatory tissues. Nowadays, two types of intravital microscopy are used routinely. The light microscopy is used to assess migration of intravascular cells in thin, tissues which must be sufficiently translucent. Epifluorescence microscopy allows the visualization of the microcirculation while permitting the distinction of leukocyte subpopulations in solid organs.

  7. Ontogenetic regulation of leukocyte recruitment in mouse yolk sac vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Markus; Quackenbush, Elizabeth J; Sushkova, Natalia; Altstätter, Johannes; Nussbaum, Claudia; Schmid, Stephan; Pruenster, Monika; Kurz, Angela; Margraf, Andreas; Steppner, Alina; Schweiger, Natalie; Borsig, Lubor; Boros, Ildiko; Krajewski, Nele; Genzel-Boroviczeny, Orsolya; Jeschke, Udo; Frommhold, David; von Andrian, Ulrich H

    2013-05-23

    In adult mammals, leukocyte recruitment follows a well-defined cascade of adhesion events enabling leukocytes to leave the circulatory system and transmigrate into tissue. Currently, it is unclear whether leukocyte recruitment proceeds in a similar fashion during fetal development. Considering the fact that the incidence of neonatal sepsis increases dramatically with decreasing gestational age in humans, we hypothesized that leukocyte recruitment may be acquired only late during fetal ontogeny. To test this, we developed a fetal intravital microscopy model in pregnant mice and, using LysEGFP (neutrophil reporter) mice, investigated leukocyte recruitment during fetal development. We show that fetal blood neutrophils acquire the ability to roll and adhere on inflamed yolk sac vessels during late fetal development, whereas at earlier embryonic stages (before day E15), rolling and adhesion were essentially absent. Accordingly, flow chamber experiments showed that fetal EGFP(+) blood cells underwent efficient adhesion only when they were harvested on or after E15. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis on EGFP(+) fetal blood cells revealed that surface expression of CXCR2 and less pronounced P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) begin to increase only late in fetal life. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that inflammation-induced leukocyte recruitment is ontogenetically regulated and enables efficient neutrophil trafficking only during late fetal life.

  8. Leukodepletion blood filters: filter design and mechanisms of leukocyte removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, S

    1993-04-01

    Modern leukocyte removal filters have been developed after years of refinement in design. Current filters are composite filters in which synthetic microfiber material is prepared as a nonwoven web. The filter material may be surface modified to alter surface tension or charge to improve performance. The housing design promotes effective contact of blood with the filter material and decreases shear forces. The exact mechanisms by which these filters remove leukocytes from blood components are uncertain, but likely represent a combination of both physical and biological processes whose contributions to leukocyte removal are interdependent. Small-pore microfiber webs result in barrier phenomena that permit retention of individual cells and increase the total adsorptive area of the filter. Modifications in surface charge can increase or decrease cell attraction to the fibers. Optimum interfacial surface tensions between blood cells, plasma, and filter fibers not only permit effective blood flow through small fiber pores, but also facilitate cell contact with the material. Barrier retention is a common mechanism for all modern leukocyte-removal filters and applies to all leukocyte subtypes. Because barrier retention does not depend on cell viability, it is operative for cells of any age and will retain any nondeformable cell, including whole nuclei from lymphocytes or monocytes. Barrier retention is supplemented by retention by adhesion. RBCs, lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, and platelets differ in their relative adhesiveness to filter fibers. Different adhesive mechanisms are used in filters designed for RBCs compared with filters designed for platelets. Although lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes can adhere directly to filter fibers, the biological mechanisms underlying cell adhesion may differ for these cell types. These differences may depend on expression of cell adhesion molecules. In the case of filtration of fresh RBCs, platelet-leukocyte interaction

  9. Laser-Raman Spectroscopic study of the adhesive interface between 4-MET/MMA-TBB resin and hydroxyapatite or bovine enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, M; Suzuki, M; Itoh, K; Wakumoto, S

    1991-12-01

    The possible chemical interaction between synthetic hydroxyapatite or bovine enamel and a functional monomer of 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic acid (4-MET) diluted in methyl methacrylate (MMA) was examined by measuring the Raman spectra. It was concluded that the carboxyl group of 4-MET reacted with the calcium in the substrate to form a salt that was detected by the Raman band at around 1,380 cm-1. However, formation of the salt on the surface of the hydroxyapatite (HAP) with the carboxyl group, and polymerization of the 4-MET in the methacryl group near the surface were mutually exclusive reactions for the same 4-MET molecule.

  10. Role of CXCL5 in leukocyte recruitment to the lungs during secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamayooran, Gayathriy; Batra, Sanjay; Cai, Shanshan; Mei, Junjie; Worthen, G Scott; Penn, Arthur L; Jeyaseelan, Samithamby

    2012-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of mortality in the United States. The major cause of COPD is cigarette smoking. Extensive leukocyte influx into the lungs, mediated by chemokines, is a critical event leading to COPD. Although both resident and myeloid cells secrete chemokines in response to inflammatory stimuli, little is known about the role of epithelial-derived chemokines, such as CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)5, in the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke-induced inflammation. To explore the role of CXCL5, we generated CXCL5 gene-deficient mice and exposed them to secondhand smoke (SHS) for 5 hours/day for 5 days/week up to 3 weeks (subacute exposure). We observed a reduced recruitment of leukocytes to the lungs of CXCL5(-/-) mice compared with their wild-type (WT) counterparts, and noted that macrophages comprised the predominant leukocytes recruited to the lungs. Irradiation experiments performed on CXCL5(-/-) or WT mice transplanted with WT or CXCL5(-/-) bone marrow revealed that resident but not hematopoietic cell-driven CXCL5 is important for mediating SHS-induced lung inflammation. Interestingly, we observed a significant reduction of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CC chemokine ligand 2) concentrations in the lungs of CXCL5(-/-) mice. The instillation of recombinant MCP-1 in CXCL5(-/-) mice reversed macrophage recruitment. Our results also show the reduced activation of NF-κB/p65 in the lungs, as well as the attenuated activation of C-Jun N-terminal kinase, p42/44, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the lungs of SHS-exposed CXCL5(-/-) mice. Our findings suggest an important role for CXCL5 in augmenting leukocyte recruitment in SHS-induced lung inflammation, and provide novel insights into CXCL5-driven pathogenesis.

  11. Monocyte Adhesion and Plaque Recruitment During Atherosclerosis Development Is Regulated by the Adapter Protein Chat-H/SHEP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbin, Olivier; Regelmann, Adam G; Ramkhelawon, Bhama; Weinstein, Erica G; Moore, Kathryn J; Alexandropoulos, Konstantina

    2016-09-01

    The chronic inflammation associated with atherosclerosis is caused by lipid deposition followed by leukocyte recruitment to the arterial wall. We previously showed that the hematopoietic cell-specific adaptor protein Cas- and Hef1-associated signal transducer hematopoietic isoform (Chat-H)/SHEP1 regulated lymphocyte adhesion and migration. In this study, we analyzed the role of Chat-H in atherosclerosis development. Using Chat-H-deficient bone marrow transplantation in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice, we found that Chat-H regulated atherosclerotic plaque formation. Chat-H deficiency in hematopoietic cells associated with lower plaque complexity and fewer leukocytes in the lesions, whereas myeloid-specific deletion of Chat-H was sufficient for conferring atheroprotection. Chat-H deficiency resulted in reduced recruitment of classical Ly6c(high) and nonclassical Ly6c(low) monocytes to the plaques, which was accompanied by increased numbers of both monocyte subsets in the blood. This associated with defective adhesion of Chat-H-deficient Ly6c(high) and Ly6c(low) monocytes to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in vitro and impaired infiltration of fluorescent bead-loaded monocytes to atherosclerotic plaques. In contrast, Chat-H was dispensable for CX3CL1 and CCR1/CCR5-dependent migration of monocytes. Our findings highlight Chat-H as a key protein that regulates atherosclerosis development by controlling monocyte adhesion and recruitment to the plaques and identify a novel target that may be exploited for treating atherosclerosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Glutathione peroxidase-1 modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells by altering CD14 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubos, Edith; Mahoney, Christopher E; Leopold, Jane A; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Loscalzo, Joseph; Handy, Diane E

    2010-07-01

    CD14 contributes to LPS signaling in leukocytes through formation of toll-like receptor 4/CD14 receptor complexes; however, a specific role for endogenous cell-surface CD14 in endothelial cells is unclear. We have found that suppression of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) in human microvascular endothelial cells increases CD14 gene expression compared to untreated or siControl (siCtrl)-treated conditions. Following LPS treatment, GPx-1 deficiency augmented LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, CD14 expression, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and protein expression compared to LPS-treated control cells. GPx-1 deficiency also transiently augmented LPS-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression. Adenoviral overexpression of GPx-1 significantly diminished LPS-mediated responses in adhesion molecule expression. Consistent with these findings, LPS responses were also greater in endothelial cells derived from GPx-1-knockout mice, whereas adhesion molecule expression was decreased in cells from GPx-1-overexpressing transgenic mice. Knockdown of CD14 attenuated LPS-mediated up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA and protein, and it mitigated the effects of GPx-1 deficiency on LPS-induced adhesion molecule expression. Taken together, these data suggest that GPx-1 modulates the endothelial cell response to LPS, in part, by altering CD14-mediated effects.

  13. Impaired Vitamin D Signaling in Endothelial Cell Leads to an Enhanced Leukocyte-Endothelium Interplay: Implications for Atherosclerosis Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Bozic

    Full Text Available Endothelial cell activation leading to leukocyte recruitment and adhesion plays an essential role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Vitamin D has cardioprotective actions, while its deficiency is a risk factor for the progression of cardiovascular damage. Our aim was to assess the role of basal levels of vitamin D receptor (VDR on the early leukocyte recruitment and related endothelial cell-adhesion-molecule expression, as essential prerequisites for the onset of atherosclerosis. Knockdown of VDR in endothelial cells (shVDR led to endothelial cell activation, characterized by upregulation of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and IL-6, decreased peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC rolling velocity and increased PBMC rolling flux and adhesion to the endothelium. shVDR cells showed decreased IκBα levels and accumulation of p65 in the nucleus compared to shRNA controls. Inhibition of NF-κB activation with super-repressor IκBα blunted all signs of endothelial cell activation caused by downregulation of VDR in endothelial cells. In vivo, deletion of VDR led to significantly larger aortic arch and aortic root lesions in apoE-/- mice, with higher macrophage content. apoE-/-VDR-/-mice showed higher aortic expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and IL-6 when compared to apoE-/-VDR+/+ mice. Our data demonstrate that lack of VDR signaling in endothelial cells leads to a state of endothelial activation with increased leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions that may contribute to the more severe plaque accumulation observed in apoE-/-VDR-/- mice. The results reveal an important role for basal levels of endothelial VDR in limiting endothelial cell inflammation and atherosclerosis.

  14. Single Cell Force Spectroscopy for Quantification of Cellular Adhesion on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Wayne B.

    Cell adhesion is an important aspect of many biological processes. The atomic force microscope (AFM) has made it possible to quantify the forces involved in cellular adhesion using a technique called single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS). AFM based SCFS offers versatile control over experimental conditions for probing directly the interaction between specific cell types and specific proteins, surfaces, or other cells. Transmembrane integrins are the primary proteins involved in cellular adhesion to the extra cellular matix (ECM). One of the chief integrins involved in the adhesion of leukocyte cells is alpha Mbeta2 (Mac-1). The experiments in this dissertation quantify the adhesion of Mac-1 expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK Mac-1), platelets, and neutrophils cells on substrates with different concentrations of fibrinogen and on fibrin gels and multi-layered fibrinogen coated fibrin gels. It was shown that multi-layered fibrinogen reduces the adhesion force of these cells considerably. A novel method was developed as part of this research combining total internal reflection microscopy (TIRFM) with SCFS allowing for optical microscopy of HEK Mac-1 cells interacting with bovine serum albumin (BSA) coated glass after interacting with multi-layered fibrinogen. HEK Mac-1 cells are able to remove fibrinogen molecules from the multi-layered fibrinogen matrix. An analysis methodology for quantifying the kinetic parameters of integrin-ligand interactions from SCFS experiments is proposed, and the kinetic parameters of the Mac-1 fibrinogen bond are quantified. Additional SCFS experiments quantify the adhesion of macrophages and HEK Mac-1 cells on functionalized glass surfaces and normal glass surfaces. Both cell types show highest adhesion on a novel functionalized glass surface that was prepared to induce macrophage fusion. These experiments demonstrate the versatility of AFM based SCFS, and how it can be applied to address many questions in cellular biology offering

  15. α4 integrin is a regulator of leukocyte recruitment after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Ambler, William G; Ai, Youxi; Sansing, Lauren H

    2014-08-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is swiftly followed by an inflammatory response. A key component of this response is the recruitment of leukocytes into the brain, which promotes neurological injury in rodent models. However, the mechanisms by which leukocytes transmigrate across the endothelium into the injured brain are unclear. The present study examines leukocyte adhesion molecules (α4 integrin, L-selectin, and αLβ2 integrin) on 4 leukocyte subtypes to determine which are important for leukocyte recruitment after ICH. We used the blood injection mouse model of ICH, whereby 25 μL of blood was injected into the striatum. Flow cytometry was used to quantify leukocyte populations and adhesion molecule expression in brain and blood. An α4 integrin-blocking antibody was administered to evaluate the contribution of α4 integrin in leukocyte migration and neurological injury. α4 integrin was elevated on all leukocyte populations in brain after ICH, whereas L-selectin was unchanged and αLβ2 was increased only on T cells. Antagonism of α4 resulted in decreased leukocyte transmigration and lessened neurobehavioral disability. α4 integrin is an important cell adhesion molecule involved in neuroinflammation after ICH. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Distinct patterns of leukocyte recruitment in the pulmonary microvasculature in response to local and systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongzhi; Roller, Jonas; Slotta, Jan E; Zhang, Su; Luo, Lingtao; Rahman, Milladur; Syk, Ingvar; Menger, Michael D; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2013-02-15

    The mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment in the pulmonary microvasculature in response to local and systemic inflammation remain elusive. Male C57BL/6 mice received lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intrapulmonary (intratracheally, it) or systemically (intravenously, iv) for 1-18 h. Leukocyte responses in lung were analyzed by use of intravital fluorescence microscopy. Plasma and lung levels of CXC chemokines as well as Mac-1 and F-actin expression in leukocytes and bronchoalveolar leukocytes were quantified. Venular leukocyte rolling was markedly increased in response to local LPS but only marginally after systemic LPS. Leukocyte adhesion in venules was enhanced in both groups although adhesion was higher in mice receiving LPS intratracheally compared with LPS intravenously. Systemic LPS caused more leukocytes trapping in capillaries compared with local LPS. The ratio of adherent leukocytes in venules compared with capillaries was higher in response to local LPS, suggesting that leukocytes were more prone to accumulate in venules in local inflammation and in capillaries in systemic inflammation. Systemic LPS triggered higher F-actin formation and Mac-1 expression in leukocytes compared with local LPS. Local and systemic LPS caused similar increases in CXC chemokines in the lung whereas intravenous endotoxin provoked higher levels of CXC chemokines in the circulation. Interestingly, intratracheal LPS increased recruitment of leukocytes in the alveolar space whereas intravenous LPS was ineffective in promoting leukocyte accumulation in the bronchoalveolar space. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that pulmonary microvascular recruitment of leukocytes differs in local and systemic inflammation, which might be related to premature activation and stiffening of circulating leukocytes in endotoxemia.

  17. Bayesian data analysis of the dynamics of rolling leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskopp, Mats Leif; Preuss, Roland; Deussen, Andreas; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Dieterich, Peter

    2013-08-01

    The coordinated recruitment of leukocytes to sites of infection and inflammation is a central process of the immune system and proceeds in several steps. Here we focus on the dynamics of rolling leukocytes obtained from in vitro experiments. Trajectories of rolling leukocytes in small flow chambers are acquired with phase contrast microscopy under different levels of fluid shear stress and a variation of protein coatings of the (adhesive) surfaces. Bayesian data analysis of a random walk model including drift is applied to individual trajectories of leukocytes. The analysis allows the estimation of drift velocities and diffusion coefficients within an uncertainty of about 10% and shows a certain homogeneity of the cell groups. Drift velocities of cells saturate in spite of increasing fluid flow. In addition, the analysis reveals some correlated fluctuations of cells' translocations requiring a refinement of the stochastic model.

  18. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trend, Stephanie; de Jong, Emma; Lloyd, Megan L; Kok, Chooi Heen; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A; Simmer, Karen; Kakulas, Foteini; Strunk, Tobias; Currie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood. Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (mature milk (d26-30) samples were collected, cells isolated, and leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry. The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed. Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk.

  19. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trend, Stephanie; de Jong, Emma; Lloyd, Megan L.; Kok, Chooi Heen; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A.; Simmer, Karen; Kakulas, Foteini; Strunk, Tobias; Currie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood. Methods Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry. Results The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed. Conclusions Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk. PMID:26288195

  20. Leukocyte accumulation promoting fibrin deposition is mediated in vivo by P-selectin on adherent platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palabrica, T; Lobb, R; Furie, B C; Aronovitz, M; Benjamin, C; Hsu, Y M; Sajer, S A; Furie, B

    1992-10-29

    The glycoprotein P-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule of stimulated platelets and endothelial cells, which mediates the interaction of these cells with neutrophils and monocytes. It is a membrane component of cell storage granules, and is a member of the selectin family which includes E-selectin and L-selectin. P-selectin recognizes both lineage-specific carbohydrate ligands on monocytes and neutrophils, including the Lewis x antigen, sialic acid, and a protein component. In inflammation and thrombosis, P-selectin may mediate the interaction of leukocytes with platelets bound in the region of tissue injury and with stimulated endothelium. To evaluate the role of P-selectin in platelet-leukocyte adhesion in vivo, the accumulation of leukocytes within an experimental thrombus was explored in an arteriovenous shunt model in baboons. A Dacron graft implanted within an arteriovenous shunt is thrombogenic, accumulating platelets and fibrin within its lumen. These bound platelets express P-selectin. Here we show that antibody inhibition of leukocyte binding to P-selectin expressed on platelets immobilized on the graft blocks leukocyte accumulation and inhibits the deposition of fibrin within the thrombus. These results indicate that P-selectin is an important adhesion molecule on platelets, mediating platelet-leukocyte binding in vivo, that the presence of leukocytes in thrombi is mediated by P-selectin, and that these leukocytes promote fibrin deposition.

  1. Ischemia-reperfusion injury in the isolated rat lung. Role of flow and endogenous leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, A F; Haynes, J; Taylor, A

    1993-02-01

    Microvascular lung injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) may occur via leukocyte-dependent and leukocyte-independent pathways. Leukocyte-endothelial adhesion may be a rate-limiting step in IR lung injury. Leukocyte adhesion to microvascular endothelium occurs when the attractant forces between leukocyte and endothelium are greater than the kinetic energy of the leukocyte and the vascular wall shear rate. We hypothesized (1) that isolated, buffer-perfused rat lungs are not free of endogenous leukocytes, (2) that endogenous leukocytes contribute to IR-induced microvascular injury as measured by the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and (3) that a reduction of perfusate flow rate would potentiate leukocyte-dependent IR injury. Sixty lungs were divided into four groups: (1) low-flow controls, (2) high-flow controls, (3) low-flow IR, and (4) high-flow IR. Microvascular injury was linearly related to baseline perfusate leukocyte concentrations at both low (r = 0.78) and high (r = 0.82) flow rates. Kfc in the high-flow IR group (0.58 +/- 0.03 ml/min/cm H2O/100 g) was less (p Kfc in the low-flow IR group (0.82 +/- 0.07), and in both groups Kfc values were significantly greater than low-flow (0.34 +/- 0.03) and high-flow (0.31 +/- 0.01) control Kfc values after 75 min. Retention of leukocytes in the lung, evaluated by a tissue myeloperoxidase assay, was greatest in the low-flow IR group. We conclude (1) that isolated, buffer-perfused rat lungs contain significant quantities of leukocytes and that these leukocytes contribute to IR lung injury, and (2) that IR-induced microvascular injury is potentiated by low flow.

  2. Endogenous testosterone increases leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, F P; Lobato, N S; DosSantos, R A; Oliveira, M A; Akamine, E H; Tostes, R C; Fortes, Z B; Carvalho, M H C

    2012-05-15

    Inflammation may have an important role in the beginning and in the progress of cardiovascular diseases. Testosterone exerts important effects on vascular function, which is altered in arterial hypertension. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of endogenous testosterone on leukocyte behavior in post-capillary venules of the mesenteric bed of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). 18 week-old intact SHR, castrated SHR and normotensive rats (intact Wistar) were used. Blood pressure was measured by tail plethysmography and serum testosterone levels by ELISA. Leukocyte rolling, adhesion and migration were evaluated in vivo in situ by intravital microscopy. Castration significantly reduced blood pressure and reversed the increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion observed in SHRs. Leukocyte counts and other hemodynamic parameters did not differ among groups. SHRs displayed increased protein expression of P-selectin and ICAM-1 in mesenteric venules when compared to intact Wistar. Castration of SHRs restored the protein expression of the cell adhesion molecules. The findings of the present study demonstrate the critical role of endogenous testosterone mediating the effects of hypertension increasing leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction. Increased expression of cell adhesion molecules contribute to the effects of endogenous testosterone promoting increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion in SHRs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other

  4. Exogenous stromal cell-derived factor-1 induces modest leukocyte recruitment in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Steven M; Andonegui, Graciela; Bonder, Claudine S; Liu, Lixin

    2008-06-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1; CXCL12), a CXC chemokine, has been found to be involved in inflammation models in vivo and in cell adhesion, migration, and chemotaxis in vitro. This study aimed to determine whether exogenous SDF-1 induces leukocyte recruitment in mice. After systemic administration of SDF-1alpha, expression of the adhesion molecules P-selectin and VCAM-1 in mice was measured using a quantitative dual-radiolabeled Ab assay and leukocyte recruitment in various tissues was evaluated using intravital microscopy. The effect of local SDF-1alpha on leukocyte recruitment was also determined in cremaster muscle and compared with the effect of the cytokine TNFalpha and the CXC chemokine keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC; CXCL1). Systemic administration of SDF-1alpha (10 microg, 4-5 h) induced upregulation of P-selectin, but not VCAM-1, in most tissues in mice. It caused modest leukocyte recruitment responses in microvasculature of cremaster muscle, intestine, and brain, i.e., an increase in flux of rolling leukocytes in cremaster muscle and intestines, leukocyte adhesion in all three tissues, and emigration in cremaster muscle. Local treatment with SDF-1alpha (1 microg, 4-5 h) reduced leukocyte rolling velocity and increased leukocyte adhesion and emigration in cremasteric venules, but the responses were much less profound than those elicited by KC or TNFalpha. SDF-1alpha-induced recruitment was dependent on endothelial P-selectin, but not P-selectin on platelets. We conclude that the exogenous SDF-1alpha enhances leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and induces modest and endothelial P-selectin-dependent leukocyte recruitment.

  5. RAGE and ICAM-1 differentially control leukocyte recruitment during acute inflammation in a stimulus-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawroth Peter P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts, RAGE, is involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory conditions, which is mostly related to its strong activation of NF-κB but also due to its function as ligand for the β2-integrin Mac-1. To further dissect the stimulus-dependent role of RAGE on leukocyte recruitment during inflammation, we investigated β2-integrin-dependent leukocyte adhesion in RAGE-/- and Icam1-/- mice in different cremaster muscle models of inflammation using intravital microscopy. Results We demonstrate that RAGE, but not ICAM-1 substantially contributes to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP-induced leukocyte adhesion in TNF-α-pretreated cremaster muscle venules in a Mac-1-dependent manner. In contrast, fMLP-stimulated leukocyte adhesion in unstimulated cremaster muscle venules is independent of RAGE, but dependent on ICAM-1 and its interaction with LFA-1. Furthermore, chemokine CXCL1-stimulated leukocyte adhesion in surgically prepared cremaster muscle venules was independent of RAGE but strongly dependent on ICAM-1 and LFA-1 suggesting a differential and stimulus-dependent regulation of leukocyte adhesion during inflammation in vivo. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that RAGE and ICAM-1 differentially regulate leukocyte adhesion in vivo in a stimulus-dependent manner.

  6. RAGE and ICAM-1 differentially control leukocyte recruitment during acute inflammation in a stimulus-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommhold, David; Kamphues, Anna; Dannenberg, Susanne; Buschmann, Kirsten; Zablotskaya, Victoria; Tschada, Raphaela; Lange-Sperandio, Baerbel; Nawroth, Peter P; Poeschl, Johannes; Bierhaus, Angelika; Sperandio, Markus

    2011-10-04

    The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts, RAGE, is involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory conditions, which is mostly related to its strong activation of NF-κB but also due to its function as ligand for the β2-integrin Mac-1. To further dissect the stimulus-dependent role of RAGE on leukocyte recruitment during inflammation, we investigated β2-integrin-dependent leukocyte adhesion in RAGE-/- and Icam1-/- mice in different cremaster muscle models of inflammation using intravital microscopy. We demonstrate that RAGE, but not ICAM-1 substantially contributes to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced leukocyte adhesion in TNF-α-pretreated cremaster muscle venules in a Mac-1-dependent manner. In contrast, fMLP-stimulated leukocyte adhesion in unstimulated cremaster muscle venules is independent of RAGE, but dependent on ICAM-1 and its interaction with LFA-1. Furthermore, chemokine CXCL1-stimulated leukocyte adhesion in surgically prepared cremaster muscle venules was independent of RAGE but strongly dependent on ICAM-1 and LFA-1 suggesting a differential and stimulus-dependent regulation of leukocyte adhesion during inflammation in vivo. Our results demonstrate that RAGE and ICAM-1 differentially regulate leukocyte adhesion in vivo in a stimulus-dependent manner.

  7. Diurnal fluctuation of leukocyte G6PD activity. A possible explanation for the normal neutrophil bactericidal activity and the low incidence of pyogenic infections in patients with severe G6PD deficiency in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolach, Baruch; Ashkenazi, Meir; Grossmann, Rami; Gavrieli, Ronit; Friedman, Ziva; Bashan, Nava; Roos, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    Acute hemolytic anemia associated with red blood cell (RBC) glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly encountered in the Mediterranean basin. Nevertheless, concomitant clinical evidence of white blood cell G6PD deficiency is extremely rare in Israel. This study sought to assess

  8. Adrenergic nerves govern circadian leukocyte recruitment to tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiermann, Christoph; Kunisaki, Yuya; Lucas, Daniel; Chow, Andrew; Jang, Jung-Eun; Zhang, Dachuan; Hashimoto, Daigo; Merad, Miriam; Frenette, Paul S

    2012-08-24

    The multistep sequence leading to leukocyte migration is thought to be locally regulated at the inflammatory site. Here, we show that broad systemic programs involving long-range signals from the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) delivered by adrenergic nerves regulate rhythmic recruitment of leukocytes in tissues. Constitutive leukocyte adhesion and migration in murine bone marrow (BM) and skeletal-muscle microvasculature fluctuated with circadian peak values at night. Migratory oscillations, altered by experimental jet lag, were implemented by perivascular SNS fibers acting on β-adrenoreceptors expressed on nonhematopoietic cells and leading to tissue-specific, differential circadian oscillations in the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules and chemokines. We showed that these rhythms have physiological consequences through alteration of hematopoietic cell recruitment and overall survival in models of septic shock, sickle cell vaso-occlusion, and BM transplantation. These data provide unique insights in the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the potential for time-based therapeutics for transplantation and inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Monocytes initiate a cycle of leukocyte recruitment when cocultured with endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouknos, Andreas; Nash, Gerard B; Rainger, G Ed

    2003-09-01

    During the development of atherosclerotic plaque, monocytes and T-lymphocytes are recruited to the arterial intima by endothelial cells (EC) lining the vessel. This process is associated with chronic arterial inflammation and requires the activation-dependent expression of adhesion receptors and chemokines on EC. Here we show that monocytes can activate cocultured EC so that they support the adhesion, activation and transmigration of a secondary bolus of flowing peripheral blood monocytes or lymphocytes. The number of adherent leukocytes and their behaviour was comparable to that seen on EC activated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Depending upon the duration of endothelial cell/monocyte coculture different patterns of adhesion receptors were utilised by leukocytes. After 4 h coculture, antibodies against E-selectin, P-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) reduced mononuclear leukocyte adhesion. After 24 h coculture, antibodies against E-selectin and VCAM-1 but not P-selectin were effective. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that monocyte coculture induced endothelial expression of E-selectin and VCAM-1, while P-selectin was at the limit of detection. We conclude that EC stimulated by monocytes can support the adhesion of flowing mononuclear leukocytes. We hypothesise that this mode of EC activation and leukocyte recruitment could initiate a self-perpetuating cycle of inflammation that could be relevant to atherogenesis and other chronic inflammatory disease states.

  10. Heparan sulphate as a regulator of leukocyte recruitment in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Archana V; Katakam, Sampath K; Urbanowitz, Ann-Kathrin; Gotte, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A key event in inflammatory disease is the transendothelial recruitment of leukocytes from the circulation to the site of inflammation. Intense research in the past decades indicates that the polyanionic carbohydrate heparan sulphate (HS) modulates multiple steps in the leukocyte recruitment cascade. Leukocyte recruitment is initiated by endothelial cell activation and presentation of chemokines to rolling leukocytes, which, via integrin activation, results in adhesion and diapedesis through the vessel wall. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) immobilize the chemokines on the luminal endothelial cells, rendering them more robust against mechanical or hydrodynamic perturbations. During inflammation, endothelial HSPGs serve as ligands to L-selectin on leukocytes, transport chemokines in a basolateral to apical direction across the endothelium, and present chemokines at the luminal surface of the endothelium to circulating cells. HSPGs also promote chemokine oligomerization, which influences chemokine receptor signaling. Furthermore, proteoglycans of the syndecan family are involved in modulating integrin-mediated tight adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium. Creation of a chemokine gradient by a localized chemokine release influences the speed of leukocyte recruitment from the blood to the tissue by attracting crawling neutrophils to optimal sites for transmigration. The directionality of intraluminal crawling is thought to be influenced by both mechanotactic and haptotactic signals, which are modulated by HS-dependent signaling processes. Finally, diapedesis is influenced by HS regarding transendothelial chemokine gradient formation and integrin- CAM interactions, and further enhanced by heparanase-mediated degradation of the endothelial basement membrane. Overall, the multifunctional role of HS in inflammation marks it as a potential target of glycan-centered therapeutic approaches.

  11. Magnesium deficiency and increased inflammation: current perspectives

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    Nielsen FH

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Forrest H Nielsen Research Nutritionist Consultant, Grand Forks, ND, USA Abstract: Animal studies have shown that magnesium deficiency induces an inflammatory response that results in leukocyte and macrophage activation, release of inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins, and excessive production of free radicals. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that the primary mechanism through which magnesium deficiency has this effect is through increasing cellular Ca2+, which is the signal that results in the priming of cells to give the inflammatory response. Primary pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL-1; the messenger cytokine IL-6; cytokine responders E-selectin, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; and acute-phase reactants C-reactive protein and fibrinogen have been determined to associate magnesium deficiency with chronic low-grade inflammation (inflammatory stress. When magnesium dietary intake, supplementation, and/or serum concentration suggest/s the presence of magnesium deficiency, it often is associated with low-grade inflammation and/or with pathological conditions for which inflammatory stress is considered a risk factor. When magnesium intake, supplementation, and/or serum concentration suggest/s an adequate status, magnesium generally has not been found to significantly affect markers of chronic low-grade inflammation or chronic disease. The consistency of these findings can be modified by other nutritional and metabolic factors that affect inflammatory and oxidative stress. In spite of this, findings to date provide convincing evidence that magnesium deficiency is a significant contributor to chronic low-grade inflammation that is a risk factor for a variety of pathological conditions such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Because magnesium deficiency commonly occurs in countries where foods rich in magnesium are not consumed in

  12. MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38) and AKT can be phosphorylated by shear stress independently of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31) in vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpio, Bauer E; Yun, Sangseob; Cordova, Alfredo C; Haga, Masae; Zhang, Jin; Koh, Yongbok; Madri, Joseph A

    2005-03-25

    PECAM-1 (CD31) is a member of the Ig superfamily of cell adhesion molecules and is expressed on endothelial cells (EC) as several circulating blood elements including platelets, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation has been observed following mechanical stimulation of EC but its role in mechanosensing is still incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of PECAM-1 in signaling cascades in response to fluid shear stress (SS) in vascular ECs. PECAM-1-deficient (KO) and PECAM-reconstituted murine microvascular ECs, 50 and 100% confluent bovine aortic EC (BAEC), and human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC) transfected with antisense PECAM-1 oligonucleotides were exposed to oscillatory SS (14 dynes/cm2) for 0, 5, 10, 30 or 60 min. The tyrosine phosphorylation level of PECAM-1 immunoprecipitated from SS-stimulated PECAM-reconstituted, but not PECAM-1-KO, murine ECs increased. Although PECAM-1 was phosphorylated in 100% confluent BAEC and HUVEC, its phosphorylation level in 50% confluent BAECs or HUVEC was not detected by SS. Likewise PECAM-1 phosphorylation was robust in the wild type and scrambled-transfected HUVEC but not in the PECAM-1 antisense-HUVEC. ERK(1/2), p38 MAPK, and AKT were activated by SS in all cell types tested, including the PECAM-1-KO murine ECs, 50% confluent BAECs, and HUVEC transfected with antisense PECAM-1. This suggests that PECAM-1 may not function as a major mechanoreceptor for activation of MAPK and AKT in ECs and that there are likely to be other mechanoreceptors in ECs functioning to detect shear stress and trigger intercellular signals.

  13. The CXCR1/2 ligand NAP-2 promotes directed intravascular leukocyte migration through platelet thrombi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Mehran; Kaplan, Zane S; Alwis, Imala; Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Ashworth, Katrina J; Westein, Erik; Hosseini, Ehteramolsadat; Salem, Hatem H; Slattery, Robyn; McColl, Shaun R; Hickey, Michael J; Ruggeri, Zaverio M; Yuan, Yuping; Jackson, Shaun P

    2013-05-30

    Thrombosis promotes leukocyte infiltration into inflamed tissues, leading to organ injury in a broad range of diseases; however, the mechanisms by which thrombi guide leukocytes to sites of vascular injury remain ill-defined. Using mouse models of endothelial injury (traumatic or ischemia reperfusion), we demonstrate a distinct process of leukocyte recruitment, termed "directed intravascular migration," specifically mediated by platelet thrombi. Single adherent platelets and platelet aggregates stimulated leukocyte shape change at sites of endothelial injury; however, only thrombi were capable of inducing directed intravascular leukocyte migration. Leukocyte recruitment and migration induced by platelet thrombi occurred most prominently in veins but could also occur in arteries following ischemia-reperfusion injury. In vitro studies demonstrated a major role for platelet-derived NAP-2 (CXCL-7) and its CXCR1/2 receptor in regulating leukocyte polarization and motility. In vivo studies demonstrated the presence of an NAP-2 chemotactic gradient within the thrombus body. Pharmacologic blockade of CXCR1/2 as well as genetic deletion of NAP-2 markedly reduced leukocyte shape change and intrathrombus migration. These studies define a distinct process of leukocyte migration that is initiated by homotypic adhesive interactions between platelets, leading to the development of an NAP-2 chemotactic gradient within the thrombus body that guides leukocytes to sites of vascular injury.

  14. The CXCR1/2 ligand NAP-2 promotes directed intravascular leukocyte migration through platelet thrombi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Mehran; Kaplan, Zane S.; Alwis, Imala; Schoenwaelder, Simone M.; Ashworth, Katrina J.; Westein, Erik; Hosseini, Ehteramolsadat; Salem, Hatem H.; Slattery, Robyn; McColl, Shaun R.; Hickey, Michael J.; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.; Yuan, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis promotes leukocyte infiltration into inflamed tissues, leading to organ injury in a broad range of diseases; however, the mechanisms by which thrombi guide leukocytes to sites of vascular injury remain ill-defined. Using mouse models of endothelial injury (traumatic or ischemia reperfusion), we demonstrate a distinct process of leukocyte recruitment, termed “directed intravascular migration,” specifically mediated by platelet thrombi. Single adherent platelets and platelet aggregates stimulated leukocyte shape change at sites of endothelial injury; however, only thrombi were capable of inducing directed intravascular leukocyte migration. Leukocyte recruitment and migration induced by platelet thrombi occurred most prominently in veins but could also occur in arteries following ischemia-reperfusion injury. In vitro studies demonstrated a major role for platelet-derived NAP-2 (CXCL-7) and its CXCR1/2 receptor in regulating leukocyte polarization and motility. In vivo studies demonstrated the presence of an NAP-2 chemotactic gradient within the thrombus body. Pharmacologic blockade of CXCR1/2 as well as genetic deletion of NAP-2 markedly reduced leukocyte shape change and intrathrombus migration. These studies define a distinct process of leukocyte migration that is initiated by homotypic adhesive interactions between platelets, leading to the development of an NAP-2 chemotactic gradient within the thrombus body that guides leukocytes to sites of vascular injury. PMID:23550035

  15. The Kindlin 3 Pleckstrin Homology Domain Has an Essential Role in Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen 1 (LFA-1) Integrin-mediated B Cell Adhesion and Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Rosie; Stanley, Paula; Chakravarty, Probir; Hogg, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The protein kindlin 3 is mutated in the leukocyte adhesion deficiency III (LAD-III) disorder, leading to widespread infection due to the failure of leukocytes to migrate into infected tissue sites. To gain understanding of how kindlin 3 controls leukocyte function, we have focused on its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and find that deletion of this domain eliminates the ability of kindlin 3 to participate in adhesion and migration of B cells mediated by the leukocyte integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1). PH domains are often involved in membrane localization of proteins through binding to phosphoinositides. We show that the kindlin 3 PH domain has binding affinity for phosphoinositide PI(3,4,5)P3 over PI(4,5)P2. It has a major role in membrane association of kindlin 3 that is enhanced by the binding of LFA-1 to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). A splice variant, kindlin 3-IPRR, has a four-residue insert in the PH domain at a critical site that influences phosphoinositide binding by enhancing binding to PI(4,5)P2 as well as by binding to PI(3,4,5)P3. However kindlin 3-IPRR is unable to restore the ability of LAD-III B cells to adhere to and migrate on LFA-1 ligand ICAM-1, potentially by altering the dynamics or PI specificity of binding to the membrane. Thus, the correct functioning of the kindlin 3 PH domain is central to the role that kindlin 3 performs in guiding lymphocyte adhesion and motility behavior, which in turn is required for a successful immune response. PMID:23595985

  16. The influence of tobacco smoking on adhesion molecule profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer RM

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sequential interactions between several adhesion molecules and their ligands regulate lymphocyte circulation and leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory foci. Adhesion molecules are, therefore, central and critical components of the immune and inflammatory system. We review the evidence that tobacco smoking dysregulates specific components of the adhesion cascade, which may be a common factor in several smoking-induced diseases. Smoking causes inappropriate leukocyte activation, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, and neutrophil entrapment in the microvasculature, which may help initiate local tissue destruction. Appropriate inflammatory reactions may thus be compromised. In addition to smoke-induced alterations to membrane bound endothelial and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, which may help explain the above phenomena, smoking has a profound influence on circulating adhesion molecule profiles, most notably sICAM-1 and specific sCD44 variants. Elevated concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules may simply reflect ongoing inflammatory processes. However, increasing evidence suggests that specific soluble adhesion molecules are immunomodulatory, and that alterations to soluble adhesion molecule profiles may represent a significant risk factor for several diverse diseases. This evidence is discussed herein.

  17. The influence of tobacco smoking on adhesion molecule profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer RM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sequential interactions between several adhesion molecules and their ligands regulate lymphocyte circulation and leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory foci. Adhesion molecules are, therefore, central and critical components of the immune and inflammatory system. We review the evidence that tobacco smoking dysregulates specific components of the adhesion cascade, which may be a common factor in several smoking-induced diseases. Smoking causes inappropriate leukocyte activation, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, and neutrophil entrapment in the microvasculature, which may help initiate local tissue destruction. Appropriate inflammatory reactions may thus be compromised. In addition to smoke-induced alterations to membrane bound endothelial and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, which may help explain the above phenomena, smoking has a profound influence on circulating adhesion molecule profiles, most notably sICAM-1 and specific sCD44 variants. Elevated concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules may simply reflect ongoing inflammatory processes. However, increasing evidence suggests that specific soluble adhesion molecules are immunomodulatory, and that alterations to soluble adhesion molecule profiles may represent a significant risk factor for several diverse diseases. This evidence is discussed herein.

  18. Selective suppression of leukocyte recruitment in allergic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CL Weller

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases result in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The incidence of allergic diseases, notably allergic asthma, has risen to high levels for reasons that are not entirely understood. With an increasing knowledge of underlying mechanisms, there is now more potential to target the inflammatory process rather than the overt symptoms. This focuses attention on the role of leukocytes especially Th2 lymphocytes that regulate allergic inflammation and effector cells where eosinophils have received much attention. Eosinophils are thought to be important based on the high numbers that are recruited to sites of allergic inflammation and the potential of these cells to effect both tissue injury and remodelling. It is hoped that future therapy will be directed towards specific leukocyte types, without overtly compromising essential host defence responses. One obvious target is leukocyte recruitment. This necessitates a detailed understanding of underlying mechanisms, particularly those involving soluble che-moattractants signals and cell-cell adhesion molecules.

  19. Characterization of VAR2CSA-deficient Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes selected for adhesion to the BeWo placental cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Graham V

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in pregnancy is characterized by accumulation of infected erythrocytes (IE in the placenta. The key ligand identified as mediating this process is a Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 family member, termed VAR2CSA. VAR2CSA appears to be the main ligand responsible for adhesion to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA. Whether other PfEMP1 molecules can also mediate placental adhesion, independent of CSA binding, is unclear. Methods The parasite line CS2 carrying a disrupted var2csa gene (CS2KO was selected for adhesion to the BeWo choriocarcinoma cell line, which has been proposed as a model for placental malaria. The selected and control IE were tested for adhesion to placental sections and flow cytometry was used to measure recognition of IE by three serum sets from malaria-exposed men and women. Results Wild-type CS2 adhere to BeWo and placental tissue via CSA. CS2KO IE were successfully selected for adhesion to BeWo, and adhered by a CSA-independent mechanism. They bound to immobilized ICAM-1 and CD36. BeWo-selected CS2KO bound at moderate levels to placental sections, but most binding was to placental villi rather than to the syncytiotrophoblast to which IE adherence occurs in vivo. This binding was inhibited by a blocking antibody to CD36 but not to ICAM-1. As expected, sera from malaria-exposed adults recognized CS2 IE in a gender and parity dependent manner. In one serum set, there was a similar but less pronounced pattern of antibody binding to selected CS2KO IE, but this was not seen in two others. One var gene, It4var19, was particularly abundant in the selected line and was detected as full length transcripts in BeWo-selected IE, but not unselected CS2KO. Conclusion This study suggests that IE with characteristics similar to the CS2KO have a limited role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria. VAR2CSA appear to be the major ligand for placental adhesion, and could be the basis for a vaccine

  20. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1-compromised human bone marrow endothelial cells exhibit decreased adhesion molecule expression and CD34+ hematopoietic cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongfei; Dehn, Donna; Kepa, Jadwiga K; Siegel, David; Scott, Devon E; Tan, Wei; Ross, David

    2010-07-01

    NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) deficiency resulting from a homozygous NQO1*2 polymorphism has been associated with an increased risk of benzene-induced myeloid toxicity and a variety of de novo and therapy-induced leukemias. Endothelial cells in human bone marrow form one of the two known hematopoietic stem cell microenvironments and are one of the major cell types that express NQO1 in bone marrow. We have used a transformed human bone marrow endothelial cell (TrHBMEC) line to study the potential impact of a lack of NQO1 activity on adhesion molecule [endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (E-selectin), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1] expression and functional adhesion to bone marrow progenitor cells. We used both 5-methoxy-1,2-dimethyl-3-[(4-nitrophenoxy)methyl]indole-4,7-dione (ES936), a mechanism-based inhibitor of NQO1, and anti-NQO1 small interfering RNA to abrogate NQO1 activity. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction data demonstrated a significant inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha-induced E-selectin mRNA levels after ES936 pretreatment. Immunoblot assays demonstrated a significant reduction in TNFalpha-stimulated E-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 proteins after inhibition or knockdown of NQO1. The mechanisms underlying this effect remain undefined, but modulation of nuclear factor-kappaB (p65), c-Jun, and activating transcription factor 2, transcriptional regulators of adhesion molecules, were observed after inhibition or knockdown of NQO1. Decreased level of E-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 also resulted in a functional deficit in adhesion. A parallel plate flow chamber study demonstrated a marked reduction in CD34(+) cell (KG1a) adhesion to NQO1-deficient TrHBMECs relative to controls. The reduced adhesive ability of TrHBMECs may affect the function of the vascular stem cell niche and also may contribute to the increased susceptibility of polymorphic individuals

  1. Effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect of enzootic bovine leukosis in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Saepulloh M; Sendow I

    2015-01-01

    Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) is one of viral diseases in cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV), from Retroviridae. The virus can be detected using severals methods such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), while antibody can be detected using Agar Gel Immunodifussion (AGID). The aim of this experiment was to study the effectivity of PCR and AGID methods to detect enzootic bovine leukosis virus in Indonesia. Samples of peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) were collected from cattles those ...

  2. Analyzing the Effects of Stromal Cells on the Recruitment of Leukocytes from Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Munir, Hafsa; Rainger, G.Ed; Nash, Gerard B; McGettrick, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Stromal cells regulate the recruitment of circulating leukocytes during inflammation through cross-talk with neighboring endothelial cells. Here we describe two in vitro “vascular” models for studying the recruitment of circulating neutrophils from flow by inflamed endothelial cells. A major advantage of these models is the ability to analyze each step in the leukocyte adhesion cascade in order, as would occur in vivo. We also describe how both models can be adapted to study the role of strom...

  3. The anti-inflammatory effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors are independent of leukocyte recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin B; Liu, Jun-Yan; Tancredi, Daniel J; Wang, Lei; Simon, Scott I; Hammock, Bruce D; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2011-07-08

    Excess leukocyte recruitment to the lung plays a central role in the development or exacerbation of several lung inflammatory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid reported to have multiple biological functions, including blocking of leukocyte recruitment to inflamed endothelium in cell culture through reduction of adhesion molecule expression. Inhibition of the EET regulatory enzyme, soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) also has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in vivo including reduced leukocyte recruitment to the lung. We tested the hypothesis that the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of sEH inhibitors act through the same mechanisms as the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of EETs in a rat model of acute inflammation following exposure to tobacco smoke. Contrary to previously published data, we found that sEH inhibition did not reduce tobacco smoke-induced leukocyte recruitment to the lung. Furthermore, sEH inhibition did not reduce tobacco smoke-induced adhesion molecule expression in the lung vasculature. Similarly, concentrations of EETs greater than or equal to their reported effective dose did not reduce TNFα induced expression of the adhesion molecules. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of sEH inhibitors are independent of leukocyte recruitment and EETs do not reduce the adhesion molecules responsible for leukocyte recruitment in vitro. This demonstrates that the widely held belief that sEH inhibition prevents leukocyte recruitment via EET prevention of adhesion molecule expression is not consistently reproducible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of platelets in the recruitment of leukocytes during vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ed Rainger, G; Chimen, Myriam; Harrison, Matthew J; Yates, Clara M; Harrison, Paul; Watson, Stephen P; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Nash, Gerard B

    2015-01-01

    Besides their role in the formation of thrombus during haemostasis, it is becoming clear that platelets contribute to a number of other processes within the vasculature. Indeed, the integrated function of the thrombotic and inflammatory systems, which results in platelet-mediated recruitment of leukocytes, is now considered to be of great importance in the propagation, progression and pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease of the arteries. There are three scenarios by which platelets can interact with leukocytes: (1) during haemostasis, when platelets adhere to and are activated on sub-endothelial matrix proteins exposed by vascular damage and then recruit leukocytes to a growing thrombus. (2) Platelets adhere to and are activated on stimulated endothelial cells and then bridge blood borne leukocytes to the vessel wall and. (3) Adhesion between platelets and leukocytes occurs in the blood leading to formation of heterotypic aggregates prior to contact with endothelial cells. In the following review we will not discuss leukocyte recruitment during haemostasis, as this represents a physiological response to tissue trauma that can progress, at least in its early stages, in the absence of inflammation. Rather we will deal with scenarios 2 and 3, as these pathways of platelet-leukocyte interactions are important during inflammation and in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Indeed, these interactions mean that leukocytes possess means of adhesion to the vessel wall under conditions that may not normally be permissive of leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion, meaning that the disease process may be able to bypass the regulatory pathways which would ordinarily moderate the inflammatory response.

  5. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Hughes

    Full Text Available Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible.To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension.Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  6. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sean M; Shu, Zhiquan; Levy, Claire N; Ferre, April L; Hartig, Heather; Fang, Cifeng; Lentz, Gretchen; Fialkow, Michael; Kirby, Anna C; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M; Veazey, Ronald S; Germann, Anja; von Briesen, Hagen; McElrath, M Juliana; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Baker, Chris A R; Shacklett, Barbara L; Gao, Dayong; Hladik, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible. To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension. Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  7. In vivo imaging of leukocyte recruitment to glomeruli in mice using intravital microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, A Richard; Kuligowski, Michael P; Hickey, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Leukocytes mediate some forms of glomerulonephritis, particularly severe proliferative and crescentic forms. The renal glomerulus is one of the few sites within the microvasculature in which leukocyte recruitment occurs in capillaries. However, due to the difficulty of directly visualising the glomerulus, the mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment to glomerular capillaries are poorly understood. To overcome this, a murine kidney can be rendered hydronephrotic, by ligating one ureter, and allowing the mouse to rest for 12 weeks. This allows the visualisation of the glomerular microvasculature during inflammatory responses. In inflammation, in this example induced by anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody, leukocytes can be observed undergoing adhesion in glomerular capillaries using intravital microscopy. Leukocyte adhesion can be quantitated using this approach. An observation protocol involving few, limited periods of epifluorescence avoids phototoxicity-induced leukocyte recruitment. The process of hydronephrosis does not alter the ability of anti-GBM-antibody to induce a glomerular inflammatory response. This approach allows detailed investigation of the mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment within glomeruli.

  8. C-peptide inhibits leukocyte-endothelium interaction in the microcirculation during acute endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, R; Coyle, K M; Levine, B J; Booth, G; Lefer, A M

    2000-11-01

    C-peptide is a cleavage product that comes from processing proinsulin to insulin that induces nitric oxide (NO) -mediated vasodilation. NO modulates leukocyte-endothelium interaction. We hypothesized that C-peptide might inhibit leukocyte-endothelium interaction via increased release of endothelial NO. Using intravital microscopy of the rat mesentery, we measured leukocyte-endothelium interactions after administration of C-peptide to the rat. Superfusion of the rat mesentery with either thrombin or L-NAME consistently and significantly increased the number of rolling, adhering, and transmigrated leukocytes. C-peptide significantly attenuated either thrombin- or L-NAME-induced leukocyte-endothelium interactions in rat mesenteric venules. A control scrambled sequence of C-peptide characterized by the same amino acid composition in a randomized sequence failed to inhibit leukocyte-endothelium interactions. These effects of C-peptide were associated with decreased surface expression of the cell adhesion molecules P-selectin and ICAM-1 on the microvascular endothelium. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA levels were increased in rats injected with C-peptide. This enhanced eNOS expression was associated with a marked increase in basal NO release from the aorta of C-peptide-treated rats. We conclude that C-peptide is a potent inhibitor of leukocyte-endothelium interaction and that this effect is specifically related to inhibition of endothelial cell adhesion molecules via maintenance of NO release from the vascular endothelium.

  9. Direct Leukocyte Migration across Pulmonary Arterioles and Venules into the Perivascular Interstitium of Murine Lungs during Bleomycin Injury and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping M.; Kachel, Diane L.; Cesta, Mark F.; Martin, William J.

    2011-01-01

    During acute lung injury and repair, leukocytes are thought to enter the lung primarily across alveolar capillaries and postcapillary venules. We hypothesized that leukocytes also migrate across pulmonary arterioles and venules, which serve as alternative sites for leukocyte influx into the lung during acute lung injury and repair. Lung sections from C57BL/6J mice up to 14 days after intratracheal bleomycin (3.33 U/kg) or saline instillation were assessed by light, fluorescence, confocal, and transmission electron microscopy for evidence of inflammatory cell sequestration and transmigration at these sites. After bleomycin treatment, large numbers of leukocytes (including neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes) were present in the vascular lumina and in perivascular interstitia of pulmonary arterioles and venules, as well as within the vascular walls. Leukocytes were observed within well-defined pathways in arteriolar walls and much less structured pathways in venular walls, apparently in the process of transmigration. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were expressed at sites of leukocyte interaction with the luminal surface, especially in arterioles. Leukocytes appeared to exit from the vessels near collagen fibers into the perivascular interstitium. Results indicate that leukocytes can directly migrate across arteriolar and venular walls into the perivascular interstitium, which may represent an important but under-recognized pathway for leukocyte influx into the lung during injury and repair. PMID:21641381

  10. Multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, B W; Casamassima, A C; Fink, J K; Constantopoulos, G; Horwitz, A L

    1988-08-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency is an inherited disorder characterized by a deficiency of several sulfatases and the accumulation of sulfatides, glycosaminoglycans, sphingolipids, and steroid sulfates in tissues and body fluids. The clinical manifestations represent the summation of two diseases: late infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy and mucopolysaccharidosis. We present a 9-year-old girl with a phenotype similar to a mucopolysaccharidosis: short stature, microcephaly, and mild facial dysmorphism, along with dysphagia, retinal degeneration, developmental arrest, and ataxia. We discuss the importance of measuring the sulfatase activities in the leukocytes, and the instability of sulfatases in the cultured skin fibroblasts.

  11. Metallothionein mediates leukocyte chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynes Michael A

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metallothionein (MT is a cysteine-rich, metal-binding protein that can be induced by a variety of agents. Modulation of MT levels has also been shown to alter specific immune functions. We have noticed that the MT genes map close to the chemokines Ccl17 and Cx3cl1. Cysteine motifs that characterize these chemokines are also found in the MT sequence suggesting that MT might also act as a chemotactic factor. Results In the experiments reported here, we show that immune cells migrate chemotactically in the presence of a gradient of MT. This response can be specifically blocked by two different monoclonal anti-MT antibodies. Exposure of cells to MT also leads to a rapid increase in F-actin content. Incubation of Jurkat T cells with cholera toxin or pertussis toxin completely abrogates the chemotactic response to MT. Thus MT may act via G-protein coupled receptors and through the cyclic AMP signaling pathway to initiate chemotaxis. Conclusion These results suggest that, under inflammatory conditions, metallothionein in the extracellular environment may support the beneficial movement of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. MT may therefore represent a "danger signal"; modifying the character of the immune response when cells sense cellular stress. Elevated metallothionein produced in the context of exposure to environmental toxicants, or as a result of chronic inflammatory disease, may alter the normal chemotactic responses that regulate leukocyte trafficking. Thus, MT synthesis may represent an important factor in immunomodulation that is associated with autoimmune disease and toxicant exposure.

  12. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  13. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  14. Extracellular RNA promotes leukocyte recruitment in the vascular system by mobilising proinflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Silvia; Grantzow, Tobias; Pagel, Judith I; Tschernatsch, Marlene; Sperandio, Markus; Preissner, Klaus T; Deindl, Elisabeth

    2012-10-01

    Extracellular RNA (eRNA), released from cells under conditions of injury or vascular disease, acts as potent prothrombotic factor and promotes vascular hyperpermeability related to oedema formation in vivo. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism by which eRNA triggers inflammatory processes, particularly associated with different steps of leukocyte recruitment. Using intravital microscopy of murine cremaster muscle venules, eRNA (but not DNA) significantly induced leukocyte adhesion and transmigration in vivo, which was comparable in its effects to the function of tumour-necrosis-factor-α (TNF-α). In vitro, eRNA promoted adhesion and transmigration of monocytic cells on and across endothelial cell monolayers. eRNA-induced monocyte adhesion in vitro was mediated by activation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF-receptor-2 system and was abolished by neutralising antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 or the β2-integrin Mac-1. Additionally, eRNA induced the release of TNF-α from monocytic cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, which involved activation of TNF-α-converting enzyme (TACE) as well as the nuclear factor κB signalling machinery. In vivo, inhibiton of TACE significantly reduced eRNA-induced leukocyte adhesion. Our findings present evidence that eRNA in connection with tissue/vascular damage provokes a potent inflammatory response by inducing leukocyte recruitment and by mobilising proinflammatory cytokines from monocytes.

  15. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Trend

    Full Text Available Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood.Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestational age, very preterm (28-31 wk, and moderately preterm (32-36 wk, as well as term (37-41 wk infants were recruited. Colostrum (d2-5, transitional (d8-12 and mature milk (d26-30 samples were collected, cells isolated, and leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry.The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed.Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk.

  16. The role of platelets in the recruitment of leukocytes during vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ed Rainger, G.; Chimen, Myriam; Harrison, Matthew J.; Yates, Clara M.; Harrison, Paul; Watson, Stephen P.; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Nash, Gerard B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Besides their role in the formation of thrombus during haemostasis, it is becoming clear that platelets contribute to a number of other processes within the vasculature. Indeed, the integrated function of the thrombotic and inflammatory systems, which results in platelet-mediated recruitment of leukocytes, is now considered to be of great importance in the propagation, progression and pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease of the arteries. There are three scenarios by which platelets can interact with leukocytes: (1) during haemostasis, when platelets adhere to and are activated on sub-endothelial matrix proteins exposed by vascular damage and then recruit leukocytes to a growing thrombus. (2) Platelets adhere to and are activated on stimulated endothelial cells and then bridge blood borne leukocytes to the vessel wall and. (3) Adhesion between platelets and leukocytes occurs in the blood leading to formation of heterotypic aggregates prior to contact with endothelial cells. In the following review we will not discuss leukocyte recruitment during haemostasis, as this represents a physiological response to tissue trauma that can progress, at least in its early stages, in the absence of inflammation. Rather we will deal with scenarios 2 and 3, as these pathways of platelet–leukocyte interactions are important during inflammation and in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Indeed, these interactions mean that leukocytes possess means of adhesion to the vessel wall under conditions that may not normally be permissive of leukocyte–endothelial cell adhesion, meaning that the disease process may be able to bypass the regulatory pathways which would ordinarily moderate the inflammatory response. PMID:26196409

  17. CD63 is an essential cofactor to leukocyte recruitment by endothelial P-selectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Emily L; Ridger, Victoria; Ferraro, Francesco; Turmaine, Mark; Saftig, Paul; Cutler, Daniel F

    2011-10-13

    The activation of endothelial cells is critical to initiating an inflammatory response. Activation induces the fusion of Weibel-Palade Bodies (WPB) with the plasma membrane, thus transferring P-selectin and VWF to the cell surface, where they act in the recruitment of leukocytes and platelets, respectively. CD63 has long been an established component of WPB, but the functional significance of its presence within an organelle that acts in inflammation and hemostasis was unknown. We find that ablating CD63 expression leads to a loss of P-selectin-dependent function: CD63-deficient HUVECs fail to recruit leukocytes, CD63-deficient mice exhibit a significant reduction in both leukocyte rolling and recruitment and we show a failure of leukocyte extravasation in a peritonitis model. Loss of CD63 has a similar phenotype to loss of P-selectin itself, thus CD63 is an essential cofactor to P-selectin.

  18. Clinical interpretation of leukocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, K S; Rakich, P M

    1989-07-01

    Basic information has been presented concerning leukocyte (neutrophil, monocyte, lymphocyte, eosinophil, and basophil) function, production, kinetics, and response to various physiological and disease states. Using this information, veterinary practitioners should be able to interpret leukogram data from sick and healthy dogs and cats. Specifically, characteristic leukogram patterns such as physiological leukocytosis, corticosteroid-associated changes, and the presence of infection or severe inflammation should be recognized. In addition, interpretation of individual leukocyte responses should be possible. Several tables have been provided to assist in constructing a differential diagnosis to explain increases or decreases in absolute leukocyte numbers that lie outside of expected reference intervals.

  19. Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins Stimulate Crosstalk between Leukocytes and Vessel Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Griet; Schepers, Eva; Cohen, Gerald; Gondouin, Bertrand; Van Landschoot, Maria; Eloot, Sunny; Rops, Angelique; Van de Voorde, Johan; De Vriese, An; van der Vlag, Johan; Brunet, Philippe; Van Biesen, Wim; Vanholder, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Leukocyte activation and endothelial damage both contribute to cardiovascular disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CKD. Experimental in vitro data link several protein-bound uremic retention solutes to the modulation of inflammatory stimuli, including endothelium and leukocyte responses and cardiovascular damage, corroborating observational in vivo data. However, the impact of these uremic toxins on the crosstalk between endothelium and leukocytes has not been assessed. This study evaluated the effects of acute and continuous exposure to uremic levels of indoxylsulfate (IS), p-cresylsulfate (pCS), and p-cresylglucuronide (pCG) on the recruitment of circulating leukocytes in the rat peritoneal vascular bed using intravital microscopy. Superfusion with IS induced strong leukocyte adhesion, enhanced extravasation, and interrupted blood flow, whereas pCS caused a rapid increase in leukocyte rolling. Superfusion with pCS and pCG combined caused impaired blood flow and vascular leakage but did not further enhance leukocyte rolling over pCS alone. Intravenous infusion with IS confirmed the superfusion results and caused shedding of heparan sulfate, pointing to disruption of the glycocalyx as the mechanism likely mediating IS-induced flow stagnation. These results provide the first clear in vivo evidence that IS, pCS, and pCG exert proinflammatory effects that contribute to vascular damage by stimulating crosstalk between leukocytes and vessels. PMID:24009240

  20. Signaling through MyD88 regulates leukocyte recruitment after brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babcock, Alicia A; Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Owens, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    Injury to the CNS provokes an innate inflammatory reaction that engages infiltrating leukocytes with the capacity to repair and/or exacerbate tissue damage. The initial cues that orchestrate leukocyte entry remain poorly defined. We have used flow cytometry to investigate whether MyD88, an adaptor...... protein that transmits signals from TLRs and receptors for IL-1 and IL-18, regulates leukocyte infiltration into the stab-injured entorhinal cortex (EC) and into sites of axonal degeneration in the denervated hippocampus. We have previously established the kinetics of leukocyte entry into the denervated...... hippocampus. We now show that significant leukocyte entry into the EC occurs within 3-12 h of stab injury. Whereas T cells showed small, gradual increases over 8 days, macrophage infiltration was pronounced and peaked within 12-24 h. MyD88 deficiency significantly reduced macrophage and T cell recruitment...

  1. Chemokine expression by glial cells directs leukocytes to sites of axonal injury in the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babcock, Alicia A; Kuziel, William A; Rivest, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Innate responses in the CNS are critical to first line defense against infection and injury. Leukocytes migrate to inflammatory sites in response to chemokines. We studied leukocyte migration and glial chemokine expression within the denervated hippocampus in response to axonal injury caused...... hr after axotomy, whereas MCP-1/CCL2 was significantly induced before leukocyte infiltration occurred. Neither T cells nor macrophages infiltrated the denervated hippocampus of CCR2-deficient mice, arguing for a critical role for the CCR2 ligand MCP-1/CCL2 in leukocyte migration. Both T cells......+ microglia and GFAP+ astrocytes as major sources of MCP-1/CCL2 within the lesion-reactive hippocampus. We conclude that leukocyte responses to CNS axonal injury are directed via innate glial production of chemokines....

  2. In vitro evaluation of marginal microleakage in class V restorations with composite resin in bovine teeth. Laser irradiation influences and the adhesive system in the dentin pre-treatment; Avaliacao in vitro da microinfiltracao marginal em restauracoes de classe V com resina composta em dentes bovinos. Influencia da irradiacao laser e sistema adesivo no pre-tratamento dentinario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Wendell Lima de

    2003-07-01

    Microleakage is one of the most important reasons to restorations failure, it is the responsible for marginal colors changing, new caries, hipersensibility and pulpar diseases. Several techniques and materials have been studied to eliminate or, at least, to decrease microleakage. The cavities preparation with Er:YAG laser and autoconditioning adhesive are some of these techniques and materials. This research has the objective to compare, in vitro, microleakage in class V cavities, prepared with high rotation (conventional treatment), Er:YAG laser (Enamel-400 mj/2 Hz/128,38 J/Cm{sup 2}, Dentin 250 mJ/ 2 Hz/ 80,24 J/Cm{sup 2}) and the treatment made at dentin with autoconditioning adhesive (Clerafil SE Bond) using Er:YAG laser (with water or not water) or not using Er:YAG laser. It was used 48 bovines teeth with cavities prepared in vestibular face and gingival wall on cement enamel junction and oclusal wall on enamel. The materials used were autoconditioning adhesive (Clerafil SE Bond) and composite resin Z250. Teeth were divided into four groups of twelve samples each one, according to dentin treatment. Group 1 - Conventional cavity and autoconditioning adhesive. Group 2- Cavity prepared with Er: YAG laser and autoconditioning adhesive. Group 3 - Cavity prepared with Er:YAG laser and dentin conditioning with Er:YAG laser associated to water and autoconditioning adhesive. Group 4 - Cavity prepared with Er:YAG laser and dentin conditioning with Er: YAG laser without water and associated to autoconditioning adhesive. Teeth were restored and stocked at 37 deg C, thermocycled and placed into a 50% silver nitrate solution. Right after, teeth were sliced and evaluated on a stereo microscopic magnifying glass in order to see microleakage degree trying to follow a score from 0 to 3. The findings were submitted to Fisher, Anderson-Darling tests and to the not parametric Sen and Puri test. The results indicated that in gingival edge, the Group 2 showed less microleakage than

  3. Applicability of the leukocyte migration inhibition test in the clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, L; Dumitrescu, D; Radu, D

    1990-01-01

    The leukocyte migration inhibition test reveals in vitro the presence of lymphocyte sensitivity and, consequently, of cell-mediated immunity, to a given antigen. Applied in a variety of immune and allergic cases it proved to be useful for the positive diagnosis of the disease and/or for the detection of cell-mediated immune deficiency. The results obtained recommend the leukocyte migration inhibition test in the clinical practice.

  4. Platelet CD40 Mediates Leukocyte Recruitment and Neointima Formation after Arterial Denudation Injury in Atherosclerosis-Prone Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rong; Xiao, Adam Y; Song, Zifang; Yu, Shiyong; Li, Jarvis; Cui, Mei-Zhen; Li, Guohong

    2018-01-01

    The role of platelets in the development of thrombosis and abrupt closure after angioplasty is well recognized. However, the direct impact of platelets on neointima formation after arterial injury remains undetermined. Herein, we show that neointima formation after carotid artery wire injury reduces markedly in CD40-/- apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mice but only slightly in CD40 ligand-/-apoE-/- mice, compared with apoE-/- mice. Wild-type and CD40-deficient platelets were isolated from blood of apoE-/- and CD40-/-apoE-/- mice, respectively. The i.v. injection of thrombin-activated platelets into CD40-/-apoE-/- mice was performed every 5 days, starting at 2 days before wire injury. Injection of wild-type platelets promoted neointima formation, which was associated with increased inflammation by stimulating leukocyte recruitment via up-regulation of circulating platelet surface P-selectin expression and the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates. It was also associated with further promoting the luminal deposition of platelet-derived regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted/chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 and expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 in wire-injured carotid arteries. Remarkably, all these inflammatory actions by activated platelets were abrogated by lack of CD40 on injected platelets. Moreover, injection of wild-type platelets inhibited endothelial recovery in wire-injured carotid arteries, but this effect was also abrogated by lack of CD40 on injected platelets. Results suggest that platelet CD40 plays a pivotal role in neointima formation after arterial injury and might represent an attractive target to prevent restenosis after vascular interventions. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... products to revise the conditions for the importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines...

  6. Inflammation, leukocytes and menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jemma; Salamonsen, Lois A

    2012-12-01

    Menstruation has many of the features of an inflammatory process. The complexity and sequence of inflammatory-type events leading to the final tissue breakdown and bleeding are slowly being unravelled. Progesterone has anti-inflammatory properties, and its rapidly declining levels (along with those of estrogen) in the late secretory phase of each non-conception cycle, initiates a sequence of interdependent events of an inflammatory nature involving local inter-cellular interactions within the endometrium. Intracellular responses to loss of progesterone (in decidualized stromal, vascular and epithelial cells) lead to decreased prostaglandin metabolism and loss of protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS results in release of NFκB from suppression with activation of target gene transcription and increased synthesis of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins, cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). The resultant leukocyte recruitment, with changing phenotypes and activation, provide further degradative enzymes and MMP activators, which together with a hypoxic environment induced by prostaglandin actions, lead to the tissue breakdown and bleeding characteristic of menstruation. In parallel, at sites where shedding is complete, microenvironmentally-induced changes in phenotypes of neutrophils and macrophages from pro- to anti-inflammatory, in addition to induction of growth factors, contribute to the very rapid re-epithelialization and restoration of tissue integrity.

  7. Magnolol reduced TNF-α-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in endothelial cells via JNK/p38 and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chan-Jung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Sung, Hsin-Ching; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Wang, Shu-Huei; Wu, Pei-Jhen; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Wu, Chau-Chung; Li, Chi-Yuan; Chen, Yuh-Lien

    2014-01-01

    Expression of cell adhesion molecules by the endothelium and the attachment of leukocytes to these cells play major roles in inflammation and cardiovascular disorders. Magnolol, a major active component of Magnolia officinalis, has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, the effects of magnolol on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and the related mechanisms were investigated. TNF-α induced VCAM-1 protein expression and mRNA stability were significantly decreased in HAECs pre-treated with magnolol. Magnolol significantly reduced the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 in TNF-α-treated HAECs. The decrease in VCAM-1 expression in response to TNF-α treatment was affected by JNK and p38 inhibitors, not by an ERK inhibitor. Magnolol also attenuates NF-κB activation and the translocation of HuR (an RNA binding protein) in TNF-α-stimulated HAECs. The VCAM-1 expression was weaker in the aortas of TNF-α-treated apo-E deficient mice with magnolol treatment. These data demonstrate that magnolol inhibits TNF-α-induced JNK/p38 phosphorylation, HuR translocation, NF-κB activation, and thereby suppresses VCAM-1 expression resulting in reduced leukocyte adhesion. Taken together, these results suggest that magnolol has an anti-inflammatory property and may play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis and inflammatory responses.

  8. Protein C concentrate controls leukocyte recruitment during inflammation and improves survival during endotoxemia after efficient in vivo activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommhold, David; Tschada, Julia; Braach, Natascha; Buschmann, Kirsten; Doerner, Axel; Pflaum, Johanna; Stahl, Marie-Sophie; Wang, Hongjie; Koch, Lutz; Sperandio, Markus; Bierhaus, Angelika; Isermann, Berend; Poeschl, Johannes

    2011-11-01

    Anti-inflammatory properties of protein C (PC) concentrate are poorly studied compared to activated protein C, although PC is suggested to be safer in clinical use. We investigated how PC interferes with the leukocyte recruitment cascade during acute inflammation and its efficacy during murine endotoxemia. We found that similar to activated protein infusion, intravenous PC application reduced leukocyte recruitment in inflamed tissues in a dose- and time-dependent manner. During both tumor necrosis factor-α induced and trauma-induced inflammation of the cremaster muscle, intravital microscopy revealed that leukocyte adhesion and transmigration, but not rolling, were profoundly inhibited by 100 U/kg PC. Moreover, PC blocked leukocyte emigration into the bronchoalveolar space during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury. PC was efficiently activated in a murine endotoxemia model, which reduced leukocyte infiltration of organs and strongly improved survival (75% versus 25% of control mice). Dependent on the inflammatory model, PC provoked a significant inhibition of leukocyte recruitment as early as 1 hour after administration. PC-induced inhibition of leukocyte recruitment during acute inflammation critically involves thrombomodulin-mediated PC activation, subsequent endothelial PC receptor and protease-activated receptor-1-dependent signaling, and down-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 leading to reduced endothelial inflammatory response. We conclude that during acute inflammation and sepsis, PC is a fast acting and effective therapeutic approach to block leukocyte recruitment and improve survival. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging inflammatory leukocyte recruitment in kidney, lung and liver--challenges to the multi-step paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Michael J; Westhorpe, Clare L V

    2013-04-01

    Intravital microscopy has been essential in establishing the multi-step paradigm that describes how leukocytes in the bloodstream interact with the blood vessel wall during the process of leukocyte recruitment. Much of this work has been performed in readily-visualized tissues such as the mesentery and the cremaster muscle, where leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions are restricted to postcapillary venules. However, the microvasculatures of the liver, lung and renal glomerulus differ markedly from these conventionally structured microvascular beds. Moreover, the liver, lung and kidney can be the target of life-threatening leukocyte-mediated inflammation. Therefore, a clear understanding of the mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment to these sites is critical. In this review, we examine the advances made in the understanding of leukocyte recruitment in the liver, lung and glomerulus, as determined using intravital microscopy. We describe how leukocyte recruitment to these sites occurs via mechanisms distinct from the conventional rolling/adhesion/transmigration paradigm, and in some cases involves adhesion molecules with minimal roles in conventional postcapillary venules. In addition, we describe how advanced forms of in vivo imaging in combination with novel approaches for labeling immune cell subsets is revealing new complexities in leukocyte function and immune cell interactions in these specialized microvascular beds.

  10. Spontaneous and cytokine induced basophil adhesion evaluated by microtiter assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Sha; Poulsen, Lars K; Reimert, Claus Michael

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a microtiter assay for evaluating basophil spontaneous adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins exemplified by fibronectin and cytokine induced basophil adhesion to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The percentage of basophils adhering to either ECM or BSA was quantified...

  11. Poly(ethyleneimine) modified filters for the removal of leukocytes from blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruil, A.; Bruil, Anton; Oosterom, Hieke A.; Steneker, Ingeborg; Beugeling, T.; van Aken, W.G.; Feijen, Jan

    1993-01-01

    Polyurethane membrane filters and filters coated with poly(ethyleneimine) were used to investigate the influence of leukocyte adhesion during filtration. Treatment of the filters with an aqueous solution of 1% (w/v) poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) led to the introduction of amine groups at the filter

  12. Epigenetic regulation of tumor endothelial cell anergy : Silencing of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 by histone modifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellebrekers, Debby M. E. I.; Castermans, Karolien; Vire, Emmanuelle; Dings, Ruud P. M.; Hoebers, Nicole T. H.; Mayos, Kevin H.; Egbrink, Mirjam G. A. Oude; Molema, Grietje; Fuks, Francois; Griffloen, Arjan W.

    2006-01-01

    Tumors can escape from immunity by repressing leukocyte adhesion molecule expression on tumor endothelial cells and by rendering endothelial cells unresponsive to inflammatory activation. This endothelial cell anergy is induced by angiogenic growth factors and results in reduced leukocyte-vessel

  13. Derivation of Cinnamon Blocks Leukocyte Attachment by Interacting with Sialosides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ling Lin

    Full Text Available Molecules derived from cinnamon have demonstrated diverse pharmacological activities against infectious pathogens, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the cinnamon-derived molecule IND02 on the adhesion of leukocytes to host cells. The anti-inflammatory ability of IND02, a pentameric procyanidin type A polyphenol polymer isolated from cinnamon alcohol extract, was examined. Pretreatment with IND02 significantly reduced the attachment of THP-1 cells or neutrophils to TNF-α-activated HUVECs or E-selectin/ICAM-1, respectively. IND02 also reduced the binding of E-, L- and P-selectins with sialosides. Furthermore, IND02 could agglutinate human red blood cells (RBC, and the agglutination could be disrupted by sialylated glycoprotein. Our findings demonstrate that IND02, a cinnamon-derived compound, can interact with sialosides and block the binding of selectins and leukocytes with sialic acids.

  14. Derivation of Cinnamon Blocks Leukocyte Attachment by Interacting with Sialosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Ling; Guu, Shih-Yun; Tsai, Chan-Chuan; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Viswaraman, Mohan; Chen, Hsing-Bao; Chang, Chuan-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Molecules derived from cinnamon have demonstrated diverse pharmacological activities against infectious pathogens, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the cinnamon-derived molecule IND02 on the adhesion of leukocytes to host cells. The anti-inflammatory ability of IND02, a pentameric procyanidin type A polyphenol polymer isolated from cinnamon alcohol extract, was examined. Pretreatment with IND02 significantly reduced the attachment of THP-1 cells or neutrophils to TNF-α-activated HUVECs or E-selectin/ICAM-1, respectively. IND02 also reduced the binding of E-, L- and P-selectins with sialosides. Furthermore, IND02 could agglutinate human red blood cells (RBC), and the agglutination could be disrupted by sialylated glycoprotein. Our findings demonstrate that IND02, a cinnamon-derived compound, can interact with sialosides and block the binding of selectins and leukocytes with sialic acids.

  15. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  16. Cellular Adhesion and Adhesion Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    SELLER, Zerrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, cell adhesion and cell adhesion molecules have been shown to be important for many normal biological processes, including embryonic cell migration, immune system functions and wound healing. It has also been shown that they contribute to the pathogenesis of a large number of common human disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and tumor cell metastasis in cancer. In this review, the basic mechanisms of cellular adhesion and the structural and functional features of adhes...

  17. Analyzing the effects of stromal cells on the recruitment of leukocytes from flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Hafsa; Rainger, G Ed; Nash, Gerard B; McGettrick, Helen

    2015-01-07

    Stromal cells regulate the recruitment of circulating leukocytes during inflammation through cross-talk with neighboring endothelial cells. Here we describe two in vitro "vascular" models for studying the recruitment of circulating neutrophils from flow by inflamed endothelial cells. A major advantage of these models is the ability to analyze each step in the leukocyte adhesion cascade in order, as would occur in vivo. We also describe how both models can be adapted to study the role of stromal cells, in this case mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), in regulating leukocyte recruitment. Primary endothelial cells were cultured alone or together with human MSC in direct contact on Ibidi microslides or on opposite sides of a Transwell filter for 24 hr. Cultures were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) for 4 hr and incorporated into a flow-based adhesion assay. A bolus of neutrophils was perfused over the endothelium for 4 min. The capture of flowing neutrophils and their interactions with the endothelium was visualized by phase-contrast microscopy. In both models, cytokine-stimulation increased endothelial recruitment of flowing neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of the behavior of recruited neutrophils showed a dose-dependent decrease in rolling and a dose-dependent increase in transmigration through the endothelium. In co-culture, MSC suppressed neutrophil adhesion to TNFα-stimulated endothelium. Our flow based-adhesion models mimic the initial phases of leukocyte recruitment from the circulation. In addition to leukocytes, they can be used to examine the recruitment of other cell types, such as therapeutically administered MSC or circulating tumor cells. Our multi-layered co-culture models have shown that MSC communicate with endothelium to modify their response to pro-inflammatory cytokines, altering the recruitment of neutrophils. Further research using such models is required to fully understand how stromal cells from different tissues

  18. Interleukin-2 induces beta2-integrin-dependent signal transduction involving the focal adhesion kinase-related protein B (fakB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockdorff, J; Kanner, S B; Nielsen, M

    1998-01-01

    beta2 integrin molecules are involved in a multitude of cellular events, including adhesion, migration, and cellular activation. Here, we studied the influence of beta2 integrins on interleukin-2 (IL-2)-mediated signal transduction in human CD4(+) T cell lines obtained from healthy donors...... and a leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) patient. We show that IL-2 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125-kDa protein and homotypic adhesion in beta2 integrin (CD18)-positive but not in beta2-integrin-negative T cells. EDTA, an inhibitor of integrin adhesion, blocks IL-2-induced tyrosine phosphorylation...... experiments indicate that the IL-2-induced 125-kDa phosphotyrosine protein is the focal adhesion kinase-related protein B (fakB). Thus, IL-2 induces strong tyrosine phosphorylation of fakB in beta2-integrin-positive but not in beta2-integrin-negative T cells, and CD18 mAb selectively blocks IL-2-induced fak...

  19. Bacterial adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosdrecht, van M.C.M.

    1988-01-01

    As mentioned in the introduction of this thesis bacterial adhesion has been studied from a variety of (mostly practice oriented) starting points. This has resulted in a range of widely divergent approaches. In order to elucidate general principles in bacterial adhesion phenomena, we felt it

  20. Denture Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Home Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Denture Adhesives Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Manufacturers (February 23, 2011) (PDF - 22KB) More in Dental Devices Denture Adhesives Multiple-Use Dental Dispenser Devices Dental Amalgam About ...

  1. Fish Oil and Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis: Inhibitory Effect on Leukocyte Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevão-Silva, Camila Fernanda; Ames, Franciele Queiroz; Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria de Souza; Kummer, Raquel; Tronco, Rafael Prizon; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2016-02-01

    Fish oil, a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, has been studied for its beneficial effects in many diseases. Recent studies have shown the robust anti-inflammatory activity of fish oil (FO), when administered orally to rats, in models of acute inflammation. Herein, we investigated if treatment with fish oil preparation (FOP) could interfere with the recruitment of leukocytes into the joint cavity of arthritic rats. We also evaluated the effect of treatment on rolling behavior and leukocyte adhesion in vivo and on leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro. Treatment with FOP (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) initiated on the day of induction of arthritis (day 0) and maintained for 21 days reduced the total number of leukocytes recruited into the joint cavity, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in arthritic rats, and leukocyte migration in response to stimulation with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Together, our data provide evidence that FOP plays an important inhibitory role in the recruitment of leukocytes into the joint cavity of arthritic rats.

  2. Focal Adhesion Induction at the Tip of a Functionalized Nanoelectrode

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Daniela E.; Bae, Chilman; Butler, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Cells dynamically interact with their physical micro-environment through the assembly of nascent focal contacts and focal adhesions. The dynamics and mechanics of these contact points are controlled by transmembrane integrins and an array of intracellular adaptor proteins. In order to study the mechanics and dynamics of focal adhesion assembly, we have developed a technique for the timed induction of a nascent focal adhesion. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were approached at the apical surfa...

  3. Leukocyte recruitment in inflammation: basic concepts and new mechanistic insights based on new models and microscopic imaging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leick, Marion; Azcutia, Veronica; Newton, Gail; Luscinskas, Francis W

    2014-03-01

    The immune cell system is a critical component of host defense. Recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection, immune reaction, or injury is complex and involves coordinated adhesive interactions between the leukocyte and the endothelial cell monolayer that lines blood vessels. This article reviews basic mechanisms in the recruitment of leukocytes to tissues and then selectively reviews new concepts that are emerging based on advances in live cell imaging microscopy and mouse strains. These emerging concepts are altering the conventional paradigms of inflammatory leukocyte recruitment established in the early 1990s. Indeed, recent publications have identified previously unrecognized contributions from pericytes and interstitial leukocytes and their secreted products that guide leukocytes to their targets. Investigators have also begun to design organs on a chip. Recent reports indicate that this avenue of research holds much promise.

  4. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Signaling During Disease: Regulation by Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Michelle E.; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The endothelium is immunoregulatory in that inhibiting the function of vascular adhesion molecules blocks leukocyte recruitment and thus tissue inflammation. The function of endothelial cells during leukocyte recruitment is regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants. In inflammatory sites and lymph nodes, the endothelium is stimulated to express adhesion molecules that mediate leukocyte binding. Upon leukocyte binding, these adhesion molecules activate endothelial cell signal transduction that then alters endothelial cell shape for the opening of passageways through which leukocytes can migrate. If the stimulation of this opening is blocked, inflammation is blocked. In this review, we focus on the endothelial cell adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Expression of VCAM-1 is induced on endothelial cells during inflammatory diseases by several mediators, including ROS. Then, VCAM-1 on the endothelium functions as both a scaffold for leukocyte migration and a trigger of endothelial signaling through NADPH oxidase-generated ROS. These ROS induce signals for the opening of intercellular passageways through which leukocytes migrate. In several inflammatory diseases, inflammation is blocked by inhibition of leukocyte binding to VCAM-1 or by inhibition of VCAM-1 signal transduction. VCAM-1 signal transduction and VCAM-1-dependent inflammation are blocked by antioxidants. Thus, VCAM-1 signaling is a target for intervention by pharmacological agents and by antioxidants during inflammatory diseases. This review discusses ROS and antioxidant functions during activation of VCAM-1 expression and VCAM-1 signaling in inflammatory diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1607–1638. PMID:21050132

  5. CXCL1-triggered interaction of LFA1 and ICAM1 control glucose-induced leukocyte recruitment during inflammation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Kirsten; Koch, Lutz; Braach, Natascha; Mueller, Hanna; Frommhold, David; Poeschl, Johannes; Ruef, Peter

    2012-01-01

    It is well acknowledged that proinflammatory stimulation during acute hyperglycemia is able to aggravate inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms of proinflammatory effects of glucose are controversially discussed. We investigated leukocyte recruitment after intravenous injection of glucose in different inflammatory models using intravital microscopy. Flow chamber experiments, expression analysis, functional depletion, and knockout of key adhesion molecules gave mechanistic insight in involved pathways. We demonstrated that a single injection of glucose rapidly increased blood glucose levels in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, during tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α-induced inflammation leukocyte recruitment was not further enhanced by glucose administration, whereas glucose injection profoundly augmented leukocyte adhesion and transmigration into inflamed tissue in the trauma model, indicating that proinflammatory properties of glucose are stimulus dependent. Experiments with functional or genetic inhibition of the chemokine receptor CXCR2, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), and lymphocyte function antigen 1 (LFA1) suggest that keratino-derived-chemokine CXCL1-triggered interactions of ICAM1 and LFA1 are crucially involved in the trauma model of inflammation. The lacking effect of glucose on β(2) integrin expression and on leukocyte adhesion in dynamic flow chamber experiments argues against leukocyte-driven underlying mechanisms and favours an endothelial pathway since endothelial ICAM1 expression was significantly upregulated in response to glucose.

  6. CXCL1-Triggered Interaction of LFA1 and ICAM1 Control Glucose-Induced Leukocyte Recruitment during Inflammation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Buschmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well acknowledged that proinflammatory stimulation during acute hyperglycemia is able to aggravate inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms of proinflammatory effects of glucose are controversially discussed. We investigated leukocyte recruitment after intravenous injection of glucose in different inflammatory models using intravital microscopy. Flow chamber experiments, expression analysis, functional depletion, and knockout of key adhesion molecules gave mechanistic insight in involved pathways. We demonstrated that a single injection of glucose rapidly increased blood glucose levels in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, during tumor necrosis factor (TNF α-induced inflammation leukocyte recruitment was not further enhanced by glucose administration, whereas glucose injection profoundly augmented leukocyte adhesion and transmigration into inflamed tissue in the trauma model, indicating that proinflammatory properties of glucose are stimulus dependent. Experiments with functional or genetic inhibition of the chemokine receptor CXCR2, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1, and lymphocyte function antigen 1 (LFA1 suggest that keratino-derived-chemokine CXCL1-triggered interactions of ICAM1 and LFA1 are crucially involved in the trauma model of inflammation. The lacking effect of glucose on β2 integrin expression and on leukocyte adhesion in dynamic flow chamber experiments argues against leukocyte-driven underlying mechanisms and favours an endothelial pathway since endothelial ICAM1 expression was significantly upregulated in response to glucose.

  7. Leukocyte rolling on P-selectin: a three-dimensional numerical study of the effect of cytoplasmic viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khismatullin, Damir B; Truskey, George A

    2012-04-18

    Rolling leukocytes deform and show a large area of contact with endothelium under physiological flow conditions. We studied the effect of cytoplasmic viscosity on leukocyte rolling using our three-dimensional numerical algorithm that treats leukocyte as a compound droplet in which the core phase (nucleus) and the shell phase (cytoplasm) are viscoelastic fluids. The algorithm includes the mechanical properties of the cell cortex by cortical tension and considers leukocyte microvilli that deform viscoelastically and form viscous tethers at supercritical force. Stochastic binding kinetics describes binding of adhesion molecules. The leukocyte cytoplasmic viscosity plays a critical role in leukocyte rolling on an adhesive substrate. High-viscosity cells are characterized by high mean rolling velocities, increased temporal fluctuations in the instantaneous velocity, and a high probability for detachment from the substrate. A decrease in the rolling velocity, drag, and torque with the formation of a large, flat contact area in low-viscosity cells leads to a dramatic decrease in the bond force and stable rolling. Using values of viscosity consistent with step aspiration studies of human neutrophils (5-30 Pa·s), our computational model predicts the velocities and shape changes of rolling leukocytes as observed in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Leukocyte Rolling on P-Selectin: A Three-Dimensional Numerical Study of the Effect of Cytoplasmic Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khismatullin, Damir B.; Truskey, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Rolling leukocytes deform and show a large area of contact with endothelium under physiological flow conditions. We studied the effect of cytoplasmic viscosity on leukocyte rolling using our three-dimensional numerical algorithm that treats leukocyte as a compound droplet in which the core phase (nucleus) and the shell phase (cytoplasm) are viscoelastic fluids. The algorithm includes the mechanical properties of the cell cortex by cortical tension and considers leukocyte microvilli that deform viscoelastically and form viscous tethers at supercritical force. Stochastic binding kinetics describes binding of adhesion molecules. The leukocyte cytoplasmic viscosity plays a critical role in leukocyte rolling on an adhesive substrate. High-viscosity cells are characterized by high mean rolling velocities, increased temporal fluctuations in the instantaneous velocity, and a high probability for detachment from the substrate. A decrease in the rolling velocity, drag, and torque with the formation of a large, flat contact area in low-viscosity cells leads to a dramatic decrease in the bond force and stable rolling. Using values of viscosity consistent with step aspiration studies of human neutrophils (5–30 Pa·s), our computational model predicts the velocities and shape changes of rolling leukocytes as observed in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22768931

  9. Microfluidics to define leukocyte migration patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boneschansker, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Leukocyte migration into tissues is characteristic of inflammation. In this thesis, we design and validate microfluidic devices that allow for precise quantification of leukocyte migration patterns. Our microfluidic platform can quantify migration patterns using single-cell quantitative metrics that

  10. Leukocyte trafficking and vascular integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, N.

    2017-01-01

    The endothelial cells that pave the inner lining of blood vessels maintain a tight barrier between the vasculature and the underlying tissues. However, disruptive stressors, such as transmigrating leukocytes and inflammatory mediators challenge blood vessel integrity every day. In this thesis, we

  11. BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF LEUKOCYTE REMOVAL FILTERS DURING BEDSIDE LEUKOCYTE FILTRATION OF RED-CELL CONCENTRATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GU, YJ; OBSTER, R; DEHAAN, J; HUET, RCGG; VANOEVEREN, W

    1992-01-01

    The biocompatibility of leukocyte removal filters was evaluated in four different types of leukocyte filters made from different materials during bedside leukocyte filtration of red cell concentrates (RCC). Two units of banked RCC were filtrated through each leukocyte filter inserted into the

  12. Acute fluoxetine treatment induces slow rolling of leukocytes on endothelium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Nadine; Mauler, Maximilian; Witsch, Thilo; Stallmann, Daniela; Schmitt, Stefanie; Mezger, Julius; Bode, Christoph; Duerschmied, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Activated platelets release serotonin at sites of inflammation where it acts as inflammatory mediator and enhances recruitment of neutrophils. Chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) depletes the serotonin storage pool in platelets, leading to reduced leukocyte recruitment in murine experiments. Here, we examined the direct and acute effects of SSRI on leukocyte recruitment in murine peritonitis. C57Bl/6 and Tph1-/- (Tryptophan hydroxylase1) mice underwent acute treatment with the SSRI fluoxetine or vehicle. Serotonin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Leukocyte rolling and adhesion on endothelium was analyzed by intravital microscopy in mesentery venules with and without lipopolysaccharide challenge. Leukocyte extravasation in sterile peritonitis was measured by flow cytometry of abdominal lavage fluid. Plasma serotonin levels were elevated 2 hours after fluoxetine treatment (0.70 ± 0.1 µg/ml versus 0.27 ± 0.1, p = 0.03, n = 14), while serum serotonin did not change. Without further stimulation, acute fluoxetine treatment increased the number of rolling leukocytes (63 ± 8 versus 165 ± 17/0.04 mm(2) min(-1)) and decreased their velocity (61 ± 6 versus 28 ± 1 µm/s, both pleukocyte rolling was not significantly influenced by acute fluoxetine treatment. Stimulation with lipopolysaccharide decreased rolling velocity and induced leukocyte adhesion, which was enhanced after fluoxetine pretreatment (27 ± 3 versus 36 ± 2/0.04 mm(2), p = 0.008, n = 10). Leukocyte extravasation in sterile peritonitis, however, was not affected by acute fluoxetine treatment. Acute fluoxetine treatment increased plasma serotonin concentrations and promoted leukocyte-endothelial interactions in-vivo, suggesting that serotonin is a promoter of acute inflammation. E-selectin was upregulated on endothelial cells in the presence of serotonin, possibly explaining the observed increase in leukocyte-endothelial interactions. However transmigration of

  13. Effect of freezing treatment on colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Toru; Ishihara, Ryoko; Hatama, Shinichi; Oue, Yasuhiro; Edamatsu, Hiroki; Konno, Yasuhiro; Tachibana, Satoshi; Murakami, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    Here, we used a sheep bioassay to determine the effect of freezing colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) among neonatal calves. Leukocytes were isolated from the colostrum of a BLV-infected Holstein cow and were then either left untreated (control) or freeze-thawed. A sheep inoculated intraperitoneally with the untreated leukocytes was infected with BLV at 3 weeks after inoculation, whereas the sheep inoculated with treated leukocytes did not become infected. The uninfected sheep was inoculated again with leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another BLV-infected Holstein cow after freezing treatment, and again it did not become infected with BLV. Finally, this sheep was inoculated with the leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another virus-infected cow without freezing treatment, and it became infected with BLV at 4 weeks after inoculation. The results indicate that colostrum should be frozen as a useful means of inactivating the infectivity of BLV-infected lymphocytes.

  14. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is caused by a number of Mycobacterium species, of which Mycobacterium bovis, causing 'bovine tuberculosis' is ... KEY WORDS: Mycobacterium bovis, Zoonosis, Holeta, Ethiopia causing 'bovine tuberculosis ..... isolation of infected animals in which communal grazing and watering practiced.

  15. Increased endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction in murine schistosomiasis: possible priming of endothelial cells by the disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen D S Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Schistosomiasis is an intravascular parasitic disease associated with inflammation. Endothelial cells control leukocyte transmigration and vascular permeability being modulated by pro-inflammatory mediators. Recent data have shown that endothelial cells primed in vivo in the course of a disease keep the information in culture. Herein, we evaluated the impact of schistosomiasis on endothelial cell-regulated events in vivo and in vitro. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The experimental groups consisted of Schistosoma mansoni-infected and age-matched control mice. In vivo infection caused a marked influx of leukocytes and an increased protein leakage in the peritoneal cavity, characterizing an inflamed vascular and cellular profile. In vitro leukocyte-mesenteric endothelial cell adhesion was higher in cultured cells from infected mice as compared to controls, either in the basal condition or after treatment with the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF. Nitric oxide (NO donation reduced leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells from control and infected groups; however, in the later group the effect was more pronounced, probably due to a reduced NO production. Inhibition of control endothelial NO synthase (eNOS increased leukocyte adhesion to a level similar to the one observed in the infected group. Besides, the adhesion of control leukocytes to endothelial cells from infected animals is similar to the result of infected animals, confirming that schistosomiasis alters endothelial cells function. Furthermore, NO production as well as the expression of eNOS were reduced in cultured endothelial cells from infected animals. On the other hand, the expression of its repressor protein, namely caveolin-1, was similar in both control and infected groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Schistosomiasis increases vascular permeability and endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction in vivo and in vitro. These effects are partially

  16. Human peripheral blood leukocyte engraftment into SCID mice: critical role of CD4(+) T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchosal, M. A.; Mauray, S.; Rüegg, M.; Trouillet, P.; Vallet, V.; Aarden, L.; Tissot, J. D.; Schapira, M.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the influence of donor T lymphocytes on human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) engraftment into severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice. Mice were injected with unfractionated or subset-depleted human PBL, and treated at various times with OKT3, a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody

  17. 4-dimensional intravital microscopy: a new model for studies of leukocyte recruitment and migration in hepatocellular cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeichi, Takayuki; Engelmann, Guido; Mocevicius, Paulius; Schmidt, Jan; Ryschich, Eduard

    2010-05-01

    Although it is accepted that the immune system plays a role in the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the exact mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment into HCC are poorly understood. Progress in the study of this aspect has been hindered by technical limitations. In the present study, we describe the use of 4D intravital microscopy which represents an advantageous technology for the investigation of the microvascular system and leukocyte migration in HCC. To establish 4D intravital microscopy, we used a HCC tumor model in transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in specific leukocyte subpopulations and combined digital time-lapse recording, laser scanning confocal microscopy, and 3D reconstruction. Using this technology, we studied the intra- and extravascular leukocyte adhesion and migration in HCC in vivo at the single-cell level. We showed that although vessel density in HCC was lower than in normal liver, tumor tissue was moderately infiltrated with leukocytes of lymphoid and myeloid origin. Most tumor-infiltrating leukocytes migrated in a random manner frequently changing direction of migration in the tumor tissue. The migration velocity of myeloid and lymphoid leukocytes in HCC tissue was not different. These results demonstrated that 4D intravital microscopy has potential to be a powerful tool in the study of mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment and intratumoral migration in HCC.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF STRUCTURAL ADHESIVES,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: (A) Structural adhesives for metals; development of better adhesives; development of heat resistance adhesives; development of room...temperature setting adhesives; recent investigations of metal-bonding adhesives; development of production processes and design criteria for metal adhesives... development of non-destructive inspection methods for adhesive bonded structures. (B) European papers; British developments in the field of

  19. Type 1 diabetes predisposes to enhanced gingival leukocyte margination and macromolecule extravasation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, C; Rhourida, K; Van Dyke, T E; Gyurko, R

    2010-12-01

    Diabetes predisposes to periodontal disease. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms linking the two conditions are not clear. The impact of chronic hyperglycemia on leukocyte margination and macromolecule extravasation was determined in gingival vessels in vivo. Gingival intravital microscopy was employed to measure extravasation of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran in diabetic Akita and healthy wild-type (WT) mice. Rhodamine 6G and FITC-LY6G were injected for nonspecific and polymorphonuclear-specific leukocyte labeling, respectively. Surface expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules was determined with flow cytometry and western blotting. Vascular permeability was significantly increased in Akita gingival vessels compared with WT [permeability index (PI): WT, 0.75 ± 0.05; Akita, 1.1 ± 0.03: p gingival vessels reached comparable permeability 2 h after intragingival injection of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), used here as positive control (PI, 1.17 ± 0.16). The number of rolling leukocytes was significantly elevated in diabetic gingiva (WT, 25 ± 3.7 cells/min; Akita, 42 ± 8.5 cells/min; p gingival tissues was elevated compared with that of WT. Chronic hyperglycemia induces a proinflammatory state in the gingival microcirculation characterized by increased vascular permeability, and leukocyte and endothelial cell activation. Leukocyte-induced microvascular damage, in turn, may contribute to periodontal tissue damage in diabetes. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Leukocyte trafficking in tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Annalisa; Schioppa, Tiziana; Tiberio, Laura; Stabile, Helena; Sozzani, Silvano

    2017-08-01

    The tumor microenvironment consists of both malignant and non-malignant cells and a plethora of soluble mediators. Different types of tumors have specific tumor microenvironments characterized by distinct chemokines and chemotactic factors that influence leukocyte recruitment. The immune cell infiltrate continuously interacts with stroma cells and influence tumor growth. Emerging evidence suggests that the regulation of the composition and the metabolic state of tumor-associated leukocytes may represent a new promising intervention strategy. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the role of tumor-associated immune cells in tumor growth and dissemination, with a specific focus on the nature of the chemotactic factors responsible for their accumulation and activation in tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Olive Oil-Based Lipid Clinoleic Blocks Leukocyte Recruitment and Improves Survival during Systemic Inflammation: A Comparative In Vivo Study of Different Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Buschmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although fish oil-based and olive oil-based lipid emulsions have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory functions, the immunomodulating properties of lipids are still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of three different parenterally administered lipid emulsions in vivo: olive oil-based Clinoleic, fish oil-based Smoflipid, and soybean oil-based Lipofundin. We observed leukocyte recruitment in inflamed murine cremaster muscle using intravital microscopy and survival in a murine model of LPS-induced systemic inflammation and analyzed expression of leukocyte and endothelial adhesion molecules. Olive oil-based Clinoleic and fish oil-based Smoflipid profoundly inhibited leukocyte adhesion compared to Lipofundin during LPS-induced inflammation of the murine cremaster muscle. In the trauma model of cremaster muscle inflammation, Lipofundin was the only lipid emulsion that even augmented leukocyte adhesion. In contrast to Smoflipid and Lipofundin, Clinoleic effectively blocked leukocyte recruitment and increased survival during lethal endotoxemia. Flow chamber experiments and analysis of adhesion molecule expression suggest that both endothelial and leukocyte driven mechanisms might contribute to anti-inflammatory effects of Clinoleic. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory properties of Clinoleic are superior to those of Smoflipid and Lipofundin even during systemic inflammation. Thus, these results should stimulate further studies investigating parenteral lipids as an anti-inflammatory strategy in critically ill patients.

  2. The olive oil-based lipid clinoleic blocks leukocyte recruitment and improves survival during systemic inflammation: a comparative in vivo study of different parenteral lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Kirsten; Poeschl, Johannes; Braach, Natascha; Hudalla, Hannes; Kuss, Navina; Frommhold, David

    2015-01-01

    Although fish oil-based and olive oil-based lipid emulsions have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory functions, the immunomodulating properties of lipids are still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of three different parenterally administered lipid emulsions in vivo: olive oil-based Clinoleic, fish oil-based Smoflipid, and soybean oil-based Lipofundin. We observed leukocyte recruitment in inflamed murine cremaster muscle using intravital microscopy and survival in a murine model of LPS-induced systemic inflammation and analyzed expression of leukocyte and endothelial adhesion molecules. Olive oil-based Clinoleic and fish oil-based Smoflipid profoundly inhibited leukocyte adhesion compared to Lipofundin during LPS-induced inflammation of the murine cremaster muscle. In the trauma model of cremaster muscle inflammation, Lipofundin was the only lipid emulsion that even augmented leukocyte adhesion. In contrast to Smoflipid and Lipofundin, Clinoleic effectively blocked leukocyte recruitment and increased survival during lethal endotoxemia. Flow chamber experiments and analysis of adhesion molecule expression suggest that both endothelial and leukocyte driven mechanisms might contribute to anti-inflammatory effects of Clinoleic. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory properties of Clinoleic are superior to those of Smoflipid and Lipofundin even during systemic inflammation. Thus, these results should stimulate further studies investigating parenteral lipids as an anti-inflammatory strategy in critically ill patients.

  3. The relation between oxidative stress and adhesion molecules in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antioxidant potential decreases while plasma lipid peroxidation products increase in type1 diabetes mellitus. The vascular endothelium is a major target of oxidative stress (OS). Reactive oxygen species signal events leading to impairment of endothelial function and promotion of leukocyte adhesion to the ...

  4. In vivo imaging and quantitative analysis of leukocyte directional migration and polarization in inflamed tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Georg Khandoga

    Full Text Available Directional migration of transmigrated leukocytes to the site of injury is a central event in the inflammatory response. Here, we present an in vivo chemotaxis assay enabling the visualization and quantitative analysis of subtype-specific directional motility and polarization of leukocytes in their natural 3D microenvironment. Our technique comprises the combination of i semi-automated in situ microinjection of chemoattractants or bacteria as local chemotactic stimulus, ii in vivo near-infrared reflected-light oblique transillumination (RLOT microscopy for the visualization of leukocyte motility and morphology, and iii in vivo fluorescence microscopy for the visualization of different leukocyte subpopulations or fluorescence-labeled bacteria. Leukocyte motility parameters are quantified off-line in digitized video sequences using computer-assisted single cell tracking. Here, we show that perivenular microinjection of chemoattractants [macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha/Ccl3, platelet-activating factor (PAF] or E. coli into the murine cremaster muscle induces target-oriented intravascular adhesion and transmigration as well as polarization and directional interstitial migration of leukocytes towards the locally administered stimuli. Moreover, we describe a crucial role of Rho kinase for the regulation of directional motility and polarization of transmigrated leukocytes in vivo. Finally, combining in vivo RLOT and fluorescence microscopy in Cx3CR1(gfp/gfp mice (mice exhibiting green fluorescent protein-labeled monocytes, we are able to demonstrate differences in the migratory behavior of monocytes and neutrophils.Taken together, we propose a novel approach for investigating the mechanisms and spatiotemporal dynamics of subtype-specific motility and polarization of leukocytes during their directional interstitial migration in vivo.

  5. Leukocytes require ADAM10 but not ADAM17 for their migration and inflammatory recruitment into the alveolar space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruessmeyer, Jessica; Hess, Franz Martin; Alert, Henriette; Groth, Esther; Pasqualon, Tobias; Schwarz, Nicole; Nyamoya, Stella; Kollert, Jos; van der Vorst, Emiel; Donners, Marjo; Martin, Christian; Uhlig, Stefan; Saftig, Paul; Dreymueller, Daniela; Ludwig, Andreas

    2014-06-26

    Inflammation is a key process in various diseases, characterized by leukocyte recruitment to the inflammatory site. This study investigates the role of a disintegrin and a metalloproteinase (ADAM) 10 and ADAM17 for leukocyte migration in vitro and in a murine model of acute pulmonary inflammation. Inhibition experiments or RNA knockdown indicated that monocytic THP-1 cells and primary human neutrophils require ADAM10 but not ADAM17 for efficient chemokine-induced cell migration. Signaling and adhesion events that are linked to cell migration such as p38 and ρ GTPase-family activation, F-actin polymerization, adhesion to fibronectin, and up-regulation of α5 integrin were also dependent on ADAM10 but not ADAM17. This was confirmed with leukocytes isolated from mice lacking either ADAM10 or ADAM17 in all hematopoietic cells (vav 1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor [Vav]-Adam10(-/-) or Vav-Adam17(-/-) mice). In lipopolysaccharide-induced acute pulmonary inflammation, alveolar recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes was transiently increased in Vav-Adam17(-/-) but steadily reduced in Vav-Adam10(-/-) mice. This deficit in alveolar leukocyte recruitment was also observed in LysM-Adam10(-/-) mice lacking ADAM10 in myeloid cells and correlated with protection against edema formation. Thus, with regard to leukocyte migration, leukocyte-expressed ADAM10 but not ADAM17 displays proinflammatory activities and may therefore serve as a target to limit inflammatory cell recruitment. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  6. A hot water extract of Curcuma longa inhibits adhesion molecule protein expression and monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kengo; Muroyama, Koutarou; Yamamoto, Norio; Murosaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of arterial leukocytes to endothelial cells is an important step in the progression of various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, its modulation is thought to be a prospective target for the prevention or treatment of such diseases. Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells are induced by proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and contribute to the recruitment of leukocytes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hot water extract of Curcuma longa (WEC) on the protein expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion induced by TNF-α in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment of HUVECs with WEC significantly suppressed both TNF-α-induced protein expression of adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion. WEC also suppressed phosphorylation and degradation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) induced by TNF-α in HUVECs, suggesting that WEC inhibits the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  7. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was implicated...

  8. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  9. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  10. Rho-kinase signalling regulates CXC chemokine formation and leukocyte recruitment in colonic ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santen, Stefan; Wang, Yusheng; Laschke, Matthias W; Menger, Michael D; Jeppsson, Bengt; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2010-09-01

    Leukocyte recruitment is a key feature in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced tissue injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Rho-kinase inhibition on I/R-provoked leukocyte recruitment in the colon. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 30 min of ischemia by clamping of the superior mesenteric artery followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Intraperitoneal pretreatment with the selective Rho-kinase inhibitors fasudil (4-40 mg/kg) and Y-27632 (1-10 mg/kg) was administered prior to induction of colonic I/R. Leukocyte-endothelium interactions were analyzed by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Colonic content of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and the CXC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC) were determined by ELISA. Additionally, colonic activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a marker of leukocyte infiltration, and malondialdehyde (MDA), were quantified. Fasudil and Y-27632 pretreatment decreased I/R-induced leukocyte rolling and adhesion by 76% and 96%, respectively. Moreover, Rho-kinase interference reduced formation of TNF-alpha, MIP-2 and KC by more than 68% in the reperfused colon. Additionally, the reperfusion-provoked increase in the levels of MPO and MDA in the colon decreased after Rho-kinase inhibition by 69% and 42%, respectively. Our data demonstrate that inhibition of Rho-kinase activity decrease I/R-induced leukocyte rolling, adhesion and recruitment in the colon. Moreover, these findings show that Rho-kinase signalling regulates TNF-alpha and CXC chemokine formation as well as lipid peroxidation in the reperfused colon. Thus, targeting Rho-kinase signalling may be a useful strategy in order to protect against pathological inflammation in the colon.

  11. Cardiopulmonary bypass during cardiac surgery modulates systemic inflammation by affecting different steps of the leukocyte recruitment cascade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rossaint

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that the use of a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB during cardiac surgery leads to leukocyte activation and may, among other causes, induce organ dysfunction due to increased leukocyte recruitment into different organs. Leukocyte extravasation occurs in a cascade-like fashion, including capturing, rolling, adhesion, and transmigration. However, the molecular mechanisms of increased leukocyte recruitment caused by CPB are not known. This clinical study was undertaken in order to investigate which steps of the leukocyte recruitment cascade are affected by the systemic inflammation during CPB. METHODS: We investigated the effects of CPB on the different steps of the leukocyte recruitment cascade in whole blood from healthy volunteers (n = 9 and patients undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 7 or in off-pump coronary artery bypass-technique (OPCAB, n = 9 by using flow chamber experiments, transmigration assays, and biochemical analysis. RESULTS: CPB abrogated selectin-induced slow leukocyte rolling on E-selectin/ICAM-1 and P-selectin/ICAM-1. In contrast, chemokine-induced arrest and transmigration was significantly increased by CPB. Mechanistically, the abolishment of slow leukocyte rolling was due to disturbances in intracellular signaling with reduced phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC γ2, Akt, and p38 MAP kinase. Furthermore, CPB induced an elevated transmigration which was caused by upregulation of Mac-1 on neutrophils. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that CPB abrogates selectin-mediated slow leukocyte rolling by disturbing intracellular signaling, but that the clinically observed increased leukocyte recruitment caused by CPB is due to increased chemokine-induced arrest and transmigration. A better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms causing systemic inflammation after CPB may aid in the development of new therapeutic approaches.

  12. Cardiopulmonary bypass during cardiac surgery modulates systemic inflammation by affecting different steps of the leukocyte recruitment cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossaint, Jan; Berger, Christian; Van Aken, Hugo; Scheld, Hans H; Zahn, Peter K; Rukosujew, Andreas; Zarbock, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    It is known that the use of a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery leads to leukocyte activation and may, among other causes, induce organ dysfunction due to increased leukocyte recruitment into different organs. Leukocyte extravasation occurs in a cascade-like fashion, including capturing, rolling, adhesion, and transmigration. However, the molecular mechanisms of increased leukocyte recruitment caused by CPB are not known. This clinical study was undertaken in order to investigate which steps of the leukocyte recruitment cascade are affected by the systemic inflammation during CPB. We investigated the effects of CPB on the different steps of the leukocyte recruitment cascade in whole blood from healthy volunteers (n = 9) and patients undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 7) or in off-pump coronary artery bypass-technique (OPCAB, n = 9) by using flow chamber experiments, transmigration assays, and biochemical analysis. CPB abrogated selectin-induced slow leukocyte rolling on E-selectin/ICAM-1 and P-selectin/ICAM-1. In contrast, chemokine-induced arrest and transmigration was significantly increased by CPB. Mechanistically, the abolishment of slow leukocyte rolling was due to disturbances in intracellular signaling with reduced phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC) γ2, Akt, and p38 MAP kinase. Furthermore, CPB induced an elevated transmigration which was caused by upregulation of Mac-1 on neutrophils. These data suggest that CPB abrogates selectin-mediated slow leukocyte rolling by disturbing intracellular signaling, but that the clinically observed increased leukocyte recruitment caused by CPB is due to increased chemokine-induced arrest and transmigration. A better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms causing systemic inflammation after CPB may aid in the development of new therapeutic approaches.

  13. Fibrinogen matrix deposited on the surface of biomaterials acts as a natural anti-adhesive coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiullin, Roman; Christenson, Wayne; Owaynat, Hadil; Yermolenko, Ivan S; Kadirov, Marsil K; Ros, Robert; Ugarova, Tatiana P

    2015-10-01

    Adsorption of fibrinogen on the luminal surface of biomaterials is a critical early event during the interaction of blood with implanted vascular graft prostheses which determines their thrombogenicity. We have recently identified a nanoscale process by which fibrinogen modifies the adhesive properties of various surfaces for platelets and leukocytes. In particular, adsorption of fibrinogen at low density promotes cell adhesion while its adsorption at high density results in the formation of an extensible multilayer matrix, which dramatically reduces cell adhesion. It remains unknown whether deposition of fibrinogen on the surface of vascular graft materials produces this anti-adhesive effect. Using atomic force spectroscopy, single cell force spectroscopy, and standard adhesion assays with platelets and leukocytes, we have characterized the adhesive and physical properties of the contemporary biomaterials, before and after coating with fibrinogen. We found that uncoated PET, PTFE and ePTFE exhibited high adhesion forces developed between the AFM tip or cells and the surfaces. Adsorption of fibrinogen at the increasing concentrations progressively reduced adhesion forces, and at ≥2 μg/ml all surfaces were virtually nonadhesive. Standard adhesion assays performed with platelets and leukocytes confirmed this dependence. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular events underlying thrombogenicity of vascular grafts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Apicobasal Polarity Controls Lymphocyte Adhesion to Hepatic Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Reglero-Real

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Loss of apicobasal polarity is a hallmark of epithelial pathologies. Leukocyte infiltration and crosstalk with dysfunctional epithelial barriers are crucial for the inflammatory response. Here, we show that apicobasal architecture regulates the adhesion between hepatic epithelial cells and lymphocytes. Polarized hepatocytes and epithelium from bile ducts segregate the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 adhesion receptor onto their apical, microvilli-rich membranes, which are less accessible by circulating immune cells. Upon cell depolarization, hepatic ICAM-1 becomes exposed and increases lymphocyte binding. Polarized hepatic cells prevent ICAM-1 exposure to lymphocytes by redirecting basolateral ICAM-1 to apical domains. Loss of ICAM-1 polarity occurs in human inflammatory liver diseases and can be induced by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. We propose that adhesion receptor polarization is a parenchymal immune checkpoint that allows functional epithelium to hamper leukocyte binding. This contributes to the haptotactic guidance of leukocytes toward neighboring damaged or chronically inflamed epithelial cells that expose their adhesion machinery.

  15. How tetraspanins shape endothelial and leukocyte nano-architecture during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Jonas; Tarantola, Marco; Riethmüller, Christoph

    2017-08-15

    Tetraspanins are ubiquitous membrane proteins that induce local membrane curvature and hence co-ordinate cell-to-cell contacts. This review highlights their role in inflammation, which requires control of the nano-architecture of attachment sites between endothelial cells and leukocytes. The active role of endothelial cells in preparing for transmigration of leukocytes and determining the severity of an inflammation is often underscored. A clear hint to endothelial pre-activation is their ability to protrude clustered adhesion proteins upward prior to leukocyte contact. The elevation of molecular adhesive platforms toward the blood stream is crucially dependent on tetraspanins. In addition, leukocytes require tetraspanins for their activation. The example of the B-cell receptor is referenced in some detail here, since it provides deeper insights into the receptor-coreceptor interplay. To lift the role of tetraspanins from an abstract model of inflammation toward a player of clinical significance, two pathologies are analyzed for the known contributions of tetraspanins. The recent publication of the first crystal structure of a full-length tetraspanin revealed a cholesterol-binding site, which provides a strong link to the pathophysiological condition of atherosclerosis. Dysregulation of the inflammatory cascade in autoimmune diseases by endothelial cells is exemplified by the involvement of tetraspanins in multiple sclerosis. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. Endothelial plasticity governs the site-specific leukocyte recruitment in hepatocellular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salnikova, Olga; Breuhahn, Kai; Hartmann, Natalie; Schmidt, Jan; Ryschich, Eduard

    2013-11-15

    The correct programming of the endothelial cell phenotype is crucial for efficient leukocyte recruitment to tumor tissue. It has been previously described that T cells infiltrated hepatocellular cancer (HCC) tissue mainly in peritumoral, stromal and tumor border areas. In the current study, phenotype features of tumor endothelial cells and their potential impact on leukocyte recruitment were analyzed in murine tissue of HCC. In the murine model, proinflammatory stimulation with IL-1β induced leukocyte recruitment in the blood vessels of peripheral tumor areas and in nonmalignant liver tissue, but not in deeper tumor blood vessels. Furthermore, peripheral tumor endothelium, but not deeper tumor blood vessels exhibited a "normalized" hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cell (HSEC)-like phenotype with regard to the expression of adhesion molecules and liver sinusoidal endothelial markers. When tumor endothelial cells were isolated and incubated in vitro, their phenotype rapidly changed and became almost identical to normal hepatic endothelial cells. Interestingly, cytokine production in HCC was strongly dysregulated as compared to normal liver, with IL-1RN exhibiting the most prominent elevation. Experiments with isolated hepatic endothelial cells showed that IL-1RN effectively antagonized the activating action of IL-1β on the expression of adhesion molecules and T cell attachment. These novel insights indicate that tumor endothelium of HCC represents a plastic system that is susceptible to microenvironmental changes. The peritumoral and tumor border areas have distinct endothelial cell phenotype, which promotes leukocyte recruitment to HCC tissue. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  17. Adhesive plasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Swain, Ronald L.; Banker, John G.; Edwards, Charlene C.

    1978-01-01

    Adhesive plaster compositions are provided by treating particles of Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, Eu.sub.2 O.sub.3, Gd.sub.2 O.sub.3 or Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3 with dilute acid solutions. The resulting compositions have been found to spontaneously harden into rigid reticulated masses resembling plaster of Paris. Upon heating, the hardened material is decomposed into the oxide, yet retains the reticulated rigid structure.

  18. Group V secreted phospholipase A2 contributes to LPS-induced leukocyte recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Stéphanie; Brkovic, Alexandre; Cloutier, Isabelle; Tanguay, Jean-François; Arm, Jonathan P; Sirois, Martin G

    2010-07-01

    Secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s) are well known for their contribution in the biosynthesis of inflammatory eicosanoids. These enzymes also participate in the inflammatory process by regulating chemokine production and protein expression of adhesion molecules. The majority of sPLA(2) isoforms are up-regulated by proinflammatory stimuli such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which predominantly increases the expression of group V sPLA(2) (sPLA(2)-V). Furthermore, it has recently been shown that sPLA(2)-V is a critical messenger in the regulation of cell migration during allergic airway responsiveness. Herein, we investigated the effect of sPLA(2)-V on LPS-mediated leukocyte recruitment and its capacity to modulate adhesion molecule expression. We conducted our study in the murine air pouch model, using sPLA(2)-V null mice (sPLA(2)-V(-/-)) and control wild-type (WT) littermates. We observed that LPS (1 microg/ml)-mediated leukocyte emigration in sPLA(2)-V(-/-) was attenuated by 52% and 86% upon 6 and 12 h of treatment respectively, as compared to WT mice. In WT mice, treatment with the cell-permeable sPLA(2) inhibitor (12-epi-scalaradial; SLD) reduced LPS-mediated leukocyte recruitment by 67%, but had no additional inhibitory effect in sPLA(2)-V(-/-) mice. Protein analyses from the air pouch skin were carried out upon LPS-challenge, and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were both significantly reduced in sPLA(2)-V(-/-) mice as compared to control WT mice. Together, our data demonstrate the role of sPLA(2)-V in LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 protein overexpression and leukocyte recruitment, supporting the contribution of sPLA(2)-V in the development of inflammatory innate immune responses. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Influence of dentin pretreatment on bond strength of universal adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco; Scribante, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare bond strength of different universal adhesives under three different testing conditions: when no pretreatment was applied, after 37% phosphoric acid etching and after glycine application. Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty bovine permanent mandibular incisors were used as a substitute for human teeth. Five different universal adhesives were tested: Futurabond M+, Scotchbond Universal, Clearfil Universal Bond, G-Prem...

  20. Uropod elongation is a common final step in leukocyte extravasation through inflamed vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Young-Min; Sumagin, Ronen; Sarangi, Pranita P.; Lomakina, Elena; Overstreet, Michael G.; Baker, Christina M.; Fowell, Deborah J.; Waugh, Richard E.; Sarelius, Ingrid H.

    2012-01-01

    The efficient trafficking of immune cells into peripheral nonlymphoid tissues is key to enact their protective functions. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of cell migration in secondary lymphoid organs, real-time leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissues is not well characterized. The conventional multistep paradigm of leukocyte extravasation depends on CD18 integrin–mediated events such as rapid arrest and crawling on the surface of the endothelium and transmigration through the endothelial layer. Using enhanced three-dimensional detection of fluorescent CD18 fusion proteins in a newly developed knockin mouse, we report that extravasating leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, and T cells) show delayed uropod detachment and become extremely elongated before complete transmigration across the endothelium. Additionally, these cells deposit CD18+ microparticles at the subendothelial layer before retracting the stretched uropod. Experiments with knockout mice and blocking antibodies reveal that the uropod elongation and microparticle formation are the result of LFA-1–mediated adhesion and VLA-3–mediated cell migration through the vascular basement membrane. These findings suggest that uropod elongation is a final step in the leukocyte extravasation cascade, which may be important for precise regulation of leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissues. PMID:22711877

  1. Spontaneous and cytokine induced basophil adhesion evaluated by microtiter assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Sha; Poulsen, Lars K; Reimert, Claus Michael

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a microtiter assay for evaluating basophil spontaneous adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins exemplified by fibronectin and cytokine induced basophil adhesion to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The percentage of basophils adhering to either ECM or BSA was quantified...... by the histamine content of the adhering basophils. The spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin was higher than to laminin and collagen type I. Both spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin and interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-5 (IL-5), granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced adhesion to BSA...... increased with time between 5 and 45 min. The histamine release in both spontaneous and induced basophil adhesion was lower than 3.1%. This microtiter assay is simple and reproducible and can be applied for basic and clinical studies using a limited number of partially purified basophils....

  2. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing on...

  3. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule document...

  4. Leukocyte activation by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alipour (Arash); A.J.H.H.M. van Oostrom; A. Izraeljan (Alisa); C. Verseyden; J.M. Collins (Jennifer); K.N. Frayn (Keith); T.W.M. Plokker (Thijs); J.W.F. Elte (Jan Willem); M. Castro Cabezas (Manuel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE - Postprandial lipemia has been linked to atherosclerosis and inflammation. Because leukocyte activation is obligatory for atherogenesis, leukocyte activation by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) was investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS - The expression of CD11b and CD66b

  5. Leukocyte changes in pregnant Yankasa ewes experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy and trypanosomosis are associated with leukocyte changes. The leukocyte response of pregnant Yankasa ewes during experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection was determined using twenty pregnant ewes. They ewes were divided into 3 groups with 6 ewes in group A, while groups B and C were made up of ...

  6. Osteopontin reduces the adhesion force of dental bacteria without blocking bacterial cell surface glycoconjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mathilde Frost; Zeng, Guanghong; Neu, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The bovine milk protein osteopontin (OPN) has been shown to reduce the adhesion of oral bacteria to saliva-coated surfaces, which reduces biofilm formation and may contribute to caries control. We now quantified the effect of OPN (Lacprodan OPN-10) treatment on the adhesion force of Lactobacillus...

  7. Adhesion and Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anthony von Fraunhofer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of adhesion and cohesion are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to dentistry. This review considers the forces involved in cohesion and adhesion together with the mechanisms of adhesion and the underlying molecular processes involved in bonding of dissimilar materials. The forces involved in surface tension, surface wetting, chemical adhesion, dispersive adhesion, diffusive adhesion, and mechanical adhesion are reviewed in detail and examples relevant to adhesive dentistry and bonding are given. Substrate surface chemistry and its influence on adhesion, together with the properties of adhesive materials, are evaluated. The underlying mechanisms involved in adhesion failure are covered. The relevance of the adhesion zone and its importance with regard to adhesive dentistry and bonding to enamel and dentin is discussed.

  8. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2006-08-31

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. Although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable N. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.

  9. Leukocyte subsets and neutrophil function after short-term spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C. F.; Mehta, S. K.; Kaur, I.; Jones, M. L.; Feeback, D. L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in leukocyte subpopulations and function after spaceflight have been observed but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not well defined. This study investigated the effects of short-term spaceflight (8-15 days) on circulating leukocyte subsets, stress hormones, immunoglobulin levels, and neutrophil function. At landing, a 1.5-fold increase in neutrophils was observed compared with preflight values; lymphocytes were slightly decreased, whereas the results were variable for monocytes. No significant changes were observed in plasma levels of immunoglobulins, cortisol, or adrenocorticotropic hormone. In contrast, urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were significantly elevated at landing. Band neutrophils were observed in 9 of 16 astronauts. Neutrophil chemotactic assays showed a 10-fold decrease in the optimal dose response after landing. Neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells was increased both before and after spaceflight. At landing, the expression of MAC-1 was significantly decreased while L-selectin was significantly increased. These functional alterations may be of clinical significance on long-duration space missions.

  10. Shear bond strength and fracture analysis of human vs. bovine teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rüttermann

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate if bovine enamel and dentin are appropriate substitutes for the respective human hard tooth tissues to test shear bond strength (SBS and fracture analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 sound and caries-free human erupted third molars and 80 freshly extracted bovine permanent central incisors (10 specimens for each group were used to investigate enamel and dentine adhesion of one 2-step self-etch (SE and one 3-step etch and rinse (E&R product. To test SBS the buccal or labial areas were ground plane to obtain appropriate enamel or dentine areas. SE and E&R were applied and SBS was measured prior to and after 500 thermocycles between +5 and +55°C. Fracture analysis was performed for all debonded areas. RESULTS: ANOVA revealed significant differences of enamel and dentin SBS prior to and after thermocycling for both of the adhesives. SBS- of E&R-bonded human enamel increased after thermocycling but SE-bonded did not. Bovine enamel SE-bonded showed higher SBS after TC but E&R-bonded had lower SBS. No differences were found for human dentin SE- or E&R-bonded prior to or after thermocycling but bovine dentin SE-bonded increased whereas bovine dentine E&R-bonded decreased. Considering the totalized and adhesive failures, fracture analysis did not show significances between the adhesives or the respective tooth tissues prior to or after thermocycling. CONCLUSION: Although SBS was different on human and bovine teeth, no differences were found for fracture analysis. This indicates that solely conducted SBS on bovine substrate are not sufficient to judge the perfomance of adhesives, thus bovine teeth are questionnable as a substrate for shear bond testing.

  11. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes of several species can be divided into different subpopulations with distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Herein, we aim at reviewing published work regarding the heterogeneity of the recently characterized bovine monocyte subsets. As the heterogeneity of human blood monocytes was widely studied and reviewed, this work focuses on comparing bovine monocyte subsets with their human counterparts regarding their phenotype, adhesion and migration properties, inflammatory and antimicrobial functions, and their ability to interact with neutrophilic granulocytes. In addition, the differentiation of monocyte subsets into functionally polarized macrophages is discussed. Regarding phenotype and distribution in blood, bovine monocyte subsets share similarities with their human counterparts. However, many functional differences exist between monocyte subsets from the two species. In contrast to their pro-inflammatory functions in human, bovine non-classical monocytes show the lowest phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation capacity, an absent ability to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β after inflammasome activation, and do not have a role in the early recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. Classical and intermediate monocytes of both species also differ in their response toward major monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5 and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP in vitro. Such differences between homologous monocyte subsets also extend to the development of monocyte-derived macrophages under the influence of chemokines like CCL5 and neutrophil DGP. Whereas the latter induce the differentiation of M1-polarized macrophages in human, bovine monocyte-derived macrophages develop a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. Although only a few bovine clinical trials analyzed the correlation between changes in monocyte composition and disease, they suggest that functional differences between

  12. Niacin decreases leukocyte myeloperoxidase: mechanistic role of redox agents and Src/p38MAP kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Shobha H; Kamanna, Vaijinath S; Kashyap, Moti L

    2014-08-01

    Leukocyte myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a major player in the pathogenesis of various chronic diseases including atherosclerosis. This study proposes the novel concept that niacin, through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling, decreases neutrophil MPO release and its activity, protects apolipoprotein-AI (apo-AI) modification and improves HDL function. Human blood leukocytes and leukocytic cell line HL-60 cells were treated with niacin, and stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Cellular and released MPO activity in the medium was measured by assessing chlorination of MPO-specific substrate. MPO protein release in the medium and apo-AI degradation was measured by Western blot analysis. Monocyte adhesion to human aortic primary endothelial cells was measured to assess biological function of HDL/apo-AI. PMA significantly increased leukocyte MPO activity in both intracellular extract and medium. Niacin (0.25-0.5 mM) decreased PMA-induced MPO activity (cellular and released in the media). Niacin also decreased MPO protein mass in the medium without affecting its mRNA expression. Increased NADPH oxidase and ROS production by PMA were also significantly inhibited by niacin. Studies with specific inhibitors suggest that ROS-dependent Src and p38MAP kinase mediate decreased MPO activity by niacin. Niacin blocked apo-AI degradation, and apo-AI from niacin treated cells decreased monocyte adhesion to aortic endothelial cells. These findings identify niacin as a potent inhibitor of leukocyte MPO release and MPO-mediated formation of dysfunctional HDL. Niacin and niacin-related chemical entities may form important therapeutic agents for MPO-mediated inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Osteopontin adsorption to Gram-positive cells reduces adhesion forces and attachment to surfaces under flow

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, M. F.; G. Zeng; T. R. Neu; Meyer, Rikke L.; Baelum, V.; Schlafer, S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The bovine milk protein osteopontin (OPN) may be an efficient means to prevent bacterial adhesion to dental tissues and control biofilm formation. This study sought to determine to what extent OPN impacts adhesion forces and surface attachment of different bacterial strains involved in dental caries or medical device–related infections. It further investigated if OPN’s effect on adhesion is caused by blocking the accessibility of glycoconjugates on bacterial surfaces. Bacterial adhes...

  14. Interaction between total-etch and self-etch adhesives and conventional and self-adhesive resin cements

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes [UNESP; Pinto, Léia Quintanilha [UNESP; Leonel, André Gilberto [UNESP; Pucci, César Rogério [UNESP; Borges, Alessandra Bühler [UNESP

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the bond strength to enamel between resin cements combined with total-etch and self-etch adhesive systems and a self-adhesive cement. Eighty bovine incisors had their buccal surface ground flat exposing a plane area in the enamel. Eighty Artglass resin cylinders measuring 3 mm in diameter and 4 mm in height were fabricated. The teeth were divided into eight groups of 10 teeth each and the resin cylinders were cemented with different adhesive systems and re...

  15. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  16. Leukocyte telomere dynamics in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Troels; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2013-01-01

    Limited data suggest that leukocytes of the elderly display ultra-short telomeres. It was reported that in some elderly persons leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shows age-dependent elongation. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal models, we characterized LTL dynamics in participants......, assuming a 340 bp attrition during this period. This was not significantly different from the empirical observation of 7.5 % of individuals showing LTL elongation. We conclude that accumulation of ultra-short telomeres in leukocytes of the elderly reflects a shift toward shorter telomeres in the entire...

  17. Use of fibrin adhesive to reduce post-surgical adhesion reformation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, H; Minai, M; Yoshida, T; Satoh, K

    1999-01-01

    Following surgery on fallopian tubes, the development of adhesions is a natural consequence of wound healing and may result in infertility. Using a rabbit model, we evaluated the anti-adhesive properties of a sponge-like equine collagen sheet (TachoComb), which is coated on one side with human fibrinogen and bovine thrombin. TachoComb is applied by affixing the sheet over the area of perforation or bleeding and acts as a haemostatic agent, capable of sealing perforations to prevent leakage. In our rabbit model, adhesions were induced by mechanical and chemical irritants during laparotomy. After a 1-month recovery period, adhesions were lysed using microsurgical techniques and TachoComb, or physiological saline applied. Evaluation of adhesion reformation was determined after a minimum of 10 days. TachoComb significantly reduced the area of adhesion reformation compared with rabbits treated using physiological saline only. Our study demonstrated that TachoComb is effective not only as a haemostatic agent, but is also capable of reducing adhesion reformation.

  18. Initial afferent lymphatic vessels controlling outbound leukocyte traffic from skin to lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio eMelero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue drains fluid and macromolecules through lymphatic vessels, which are lined by a specialized endothelium that expresses peculiar differentiation proteins, not found in blood vessels (i.e: LYVE-1, Podoplanin, PROX-1 and VEGFR-3. Lymphatic capillaries are characteristically devoid of a continuous basal membrane and are anchored to the ECM by elastic fibers that act as pulling ropes which open the vessel to avoid oedema if tissue volume increases, as it occurs upon inflammation. Lymphatic vessels are also crucial for the transit of T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells from tissue to draining lymph nodes. Importantly, cell traffic control across lymphatic endothelium is differently regulated under resting and inflammatory conditions. Under steady-state non-inflammatory conditions, leukocytes enter into the lymphatic capillaries through basal membrane gaps (portals. This entrance is integrin-independent and seems to be mainly guided by CCL21 chemokine gradients acting on leukocytes expressing CCR7. In contrast, inflammatory processes in lymphatic capillaries involve a plethora of cytokines, chemokines, leukocyte integrins and other adhesion molecules. Importantly, under inflammation a role for integrins and their ligands becomes apparent and, as a consequence, the number of leukocytes entering the lymphatic capillaries multiplies several-fold. Enhancing transmigration of dendritic cells en route to lymph nodes is conceivably useful for vaccination and cancer immunotherapy, whereas interference with such key mechanisms may ameliorate autoimmunity or excessive inflammation. Recent findings illustrate how, transient cell-to-cell interactions between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes contribute to shape the subsequent behaviour of leukocytes and condition the lymphatic vessel for subsequent trans-migratory events.

  19. A mathematical model for the leukocyte filtration process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruil, A.; Bruil, Anton; Beugeling, T.; Beugeling, Tom; Feijen, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Leukocyte filters are applied clinically to remove leukocytes from blood. In order to optimize leukocyte filters, a mathematical model to describe the leukocyte filtration process was developed by modification of a general theoretical model for depth filtration. The model presented here can be used

  20. Estimation of malaria parasite density using leukocyte counts as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leukocyte counts and screening for malaria parasites were carried out on 252 apparently healthy blood donors attending a transfusion centre in Ibadan. The leukocyte count range for the donors was 2.5-9.6 x 109 /l; the mean leukocyte count being 4.98 x 109 /l. 193 (76.6%) had leukocyte count less than 6.0 x 109 /l.

  1. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes (granular...

  2. Metabolism of phospholipids by polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsbach, P.; Berg, J.W.O. van den; Bosch, H. van den; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1965-01-01

    By incubating homogenates of polymorphonuclear leukocytes obtained from rabbit-peritoneal exudates with various 32P-labeled phosphoglycerides the following reactions were identified: Lecithin → Lysolecithin and fatty acid (1) Lysolecithin → Glycerylphosphorylcholine and fatty acid (2) Lysolecithin →

  3. Targeting Endothelial Adhesion Molecule Transcription for Treatment of Inflammatory Disease: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashander, Liam M; Appukuttan, Binoy; Ma, Yuefang; Gardner-Stephen, Dione; Smith, Justine R

    2016-01-01

    Targeting the endothelial adhesion molecules that control leukocyte trafficking into a tissue has been explored as a biological therapy for inflammatory diseases. However, these molecules also participate in leukocyte migration for immune surveillance, and inhibiting the physiological level of an adhesion molecule might promote infection or malignancy. We explored the concept of targeting endothelial adhesion molecule transcription during inflammation in a human system. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) mediates leukocyte migration across the retinal endothelium in noninfectious posterior uveitis. We observed an increase in the transcription factor, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NF-κB1), in parallel with ICAM-1, in human retinal endothelial cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and identified putative binding sites for NF-κB1 within the ICAM-1 regulatory region. We targeted induced NF-κB1 expression in endothelial cells with small interfering (si)RNA. Knockdown of NF-κB1 significantly decreased cell surface expression of ICAM-1 protein induced by TNF-α but did not reduce constitutive ICAM-1 expression. Consistently, NF-κB1 knockdown significantly reduced leukocyte binding to cell monolayers in the presence of TNF-α but did not impact baseline binding. Findings of this proof-of-concept study indicate that induced transcription of endothelial adhesion molecules might be targeted therapeutically for inflammatory disease in humans.

  4. Targeting Endothelial Adhesion Molecule Transcription for Treatment of Inflammatory Disease: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam M. Ashander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting the endothelial adhesion molecules that control leukocyte trafficking into a tissue has been explored as a biological therapy for inflammatory diseases. However, these molecules also participate in leukocyte migration for immune surveillance, and inhibiting the physiological level of an adhesion molecule might promote infection or malignancy. We explored the concept of targeting endothelial adhesion molecule transcription during inflammation in a human system. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 mediates leukocyte migration across the retinal endothelium in noninfectious posterior uveitis. We observed an increase in the transcription factor, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NF-κB1, in parallel with ICAM-1, in human retinal endothelial cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and identified putative binding sites for NF-κB1 within the ICAM-1 regulatory region. We targeted induced NF-κB1 expression in endothelial cells with small interfering (siRNA. Knockdown of NF-κB1 significantly decreased cell surface expression of ICAM-1 protein induced by TNF-α but did not reduce constitutive ICAM-1 expression. Consistently, NF-κB1 knockdown significantly reduced leukocyte binding to cell monolayers in the presence of TNF-α but did not impact baseline binding. Findings of this proof-of-concept study indicate that induced transcription of endothelial adhesion molecules might be targeted therapeutically for inflammatory disease in humans.

  5. DEFICIÊNCIA DE COBALTO EM BOVINOS EM BARRA DO GARÇA – ESTADO DO MATO GROSSO COBALT DEFICIENCY IN BOVINES IN BARRA DO GARÇA, MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Melgaço da Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho relata o diagnóstico da deficiência de cobalto em 2 bezerros mestiços de nelore, provenientes de Barra do Garça, Distrito de Xavantina—MT. As alterações clínicas e resultados laboratoriais encontrados permitiram o diagnóstico que foi confirmado pelo resultado do tratamento empregado com sulfato de cobalto e Vitamina B12. Alterações macro e microscópicas foram determinadas em um dos animais.

    This paper describes the diagnosis of cobalt deficiency in two Nelore claves from Barra do Garça, district of Xavantina - MT. The diagnosis was possible through clinical and laboratory results, and was confirmed by the treatment with cobalt sulphate and B12 vitamin. The macro and microscopical changes presented in the dead animal are also described in this paper.

  6. Effects of ochratoxin a on broiler leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Moura

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated alterations in the qualitative cellular profile of leukocytes caused by the administration of low doses of ochratoxin-A (OTA in poultry. Sixty chicks were separated in three experimental groups: control, PBS-treated and OTA-treated. Blood smears from all birds were analyzed three and six hours post-treatment. Differential leukocyte counting demonstrated that OTA reduced the percentage of lymphocytes and eosinophils and significantly increased the number of heterophils and monocytes.

  7. Effects of disturbed flow on endothelial cell function: Pathogenic implications of modified leukocyte recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Nick M; Rainger, G Ed; Vohra, Rajiv; Nash, Gerard B

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that intracellular signalling, transcription factor activation and gene expression in endothelial cells are modulated by the magnitude and patterns of shear stress to which they are exposed. Although these responses suggest that the haemodynamic environment will consequently modulate the ability of the endothelial cells to support leukocyte recruitment as part of an inflammatory response, direct evidence is quite sparse. It seems that disturbances of flow (such as local spatial or temporal variation or sudden cessation) are likely to be pathogenic co-factors, combined with mediators such as cytokines, oxidised lipids or hypoxia, in conditions such as atherosclerosis, post-surgical intimal hyperplasia and ischaemia/reperfusion injury. In fact there have been few experimental investigations of these scenarios that include measurement of leukocyte adhesion and migration. We recently demonstrated that the level of steady shear to which EC are exposed has a powerful effect on their ability to support cytokine-induced leukocyte adhesion and migration. However, more combined studies of flow and agonist-mediated responses, with functional readouts, appear necessary if we are to develop a better understanding of the mechanisms pre-disposing to vascular inflammatory responses and pathology.

  8. Metabolic syndrome enhances endoplasmic reticulum, oxidative stress and leukocyte-endothelium interactions in PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, Celia; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Martinez de Marañon, Aranzazu; Veses, Silvia; Jover, Ana; Gomez, Marcelino; Rocha, Milagros; Hernandez-Mijares, Antonio; Victor, Victor M

    2017-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance, which can lead to metabolic syndrome (MetS). Oxidative stress and leukocyte-endothelium interactions are related to PCOS. Our aim was to evaluate whether the presence of MetS in PCOS patients can influence endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress and leukocyte-endothelium interactions. This was a prospective controlled study conducted in an academic medical center. The study population consisted of 148 PCOS women (116 without/32 with MetS) and 112 control subjects (87 without / 25 with MetS). Metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, ER stress markers (GRP78, sXBP1, ATF6), leukocyte-endothelium interactions, adhesion molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-Selectin), TNF-α and IL-6 were determined. Total ROS, inflammatory parameters and adhesion molecules were enhanced in the presence of MetS (pPCOS+MetS group showed higher levels of IL-6 and ICAM-1 than controls (pPCOS and PCOS+MetS groups vs their respective controls (pPCOS groups (pPCOS+MetS patients exhibited higher GRP78 and ATF6 levels than controls and PCOS patients without MetS (pPCOS women, HOMA-IR was positively correlated with ICAM-1 (r=0.501; pPCOS, all of which are related to vascular complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidemiology, pathology, immunology and diagnosis of bovine farcy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Mohamed E

    2012-06-01

    Bovine farcy (which is caused by Mycobacterium farcinogenes and Mycobacterium senegalense) is a chronic suppurative granulomatous inflammation of the skin and lymphatics of cattle and is seen mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is not yet certain whether Nocardia farcinica causes cutaneous nocardiosis (farcy) in animals that mimics bovine farcy. Epidemiological data have steadily reported finding bovine farcy in adult cattle of the transhumance pastoralist tribes of the Sahel and the Sudanian savannah zones. M. farcinogenes and or M. senegalense do not affect other domestic or non-domestic animals; it is not known whether these bacteria are zoonotic. The disease--once widespread in many regions--has disappeared from some countries historically known to have it. Reports of bovine farcy prevalence seem to be linked to the existence of survey initiatives by governments and diagnostic capabilities in each country. Farcy causes economic loss due to damaged hides and also is a public-health burden (because the lymphadenitis due to farcy resembles the lesions of bovine tuberculosis in carcasses and the meat is considered inappropriate for human consumption). The current literature is deficient in establishing definitely the prevalence, transmission patterns, and risk factors of bovine farcy. Ixodid ticks transmit other skin diseases (such as dermatophilosis) and might play a role in bovine farcy (given the similarity in the bio-physiology and geographic distribution of the disease). In addition, the tick-resistance of cattle breeds such as the N'Dama, Fulani or the Nilotic might explain their resistance to bovine farcy. Apart from the judicious use of conventional smear-and-culture methods, few diagnostic tests have been developed; the molecular and serological tests have not been evaluated for reproducibility and accuracy. This review points out aspects of bovine farcy that need further research and updates available data on the prevalence, distribution, risk factors

  10. Fingolimod targets cerebral endothelial activation to block leukocyte recruitment in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yawei; Shi, Dongyan; Cao, Kelei; Wu, Fengjiao; Zhu, Xingxing; Wen, Shuang; You, Qiang; Zhang, Keqi; Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720), an immunomodulator, is approved as an oral treatment for patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Its effects are largely attributed to its mechanism of selectively retaining lymphocytes in the lymph nodes to reduce autoreactive T-cell recruitment in the CNS. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of FTY720 on an animal model of CNS inflammation induced by intracerebral ventricle LPS injection. We found that FTY720 treatment significantly prevented LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment in the CNS by inhibiting leukocyte recruitment in cerebral microvessels. Furthermore, FTY720 also inhibited the expressions of adhesion molecules on the cerebral endothelium, but did not affect the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokines (CXCL1 and CXCL2) in the CNS parenchyma. The inhibition of endothelial activation was accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of signaling molecules, including serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (Akt), STAT6, and nuclear factor-κB. This FTY720-attenuated inhibition of leukocyte recruitment and endothelial activation was reversed by blocking the functions of sphingosine kinase 2 or sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1. Our study demonstrated, for the first time, that FTY720 directly inhibits the phosphorylation of multiple signaling molecules in endothelial cells, thereby effectively blocking leukocyte recruitment in the CNS. ©2017 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  11. Galectin-3: A Positive Regulator of Leukocyte Recruitment in the Inflamed Microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittens, Beatrice R; Bodkin, Jennifer V; Nourshargh, Sussan; Perretti, Mauro; Cooper, Dianne

    2017-06-01

    In vivo and ex vivo imaging were used to investigate the function of galectin-3 (Gal-3) during the process of leukocyte recruitment to the inflamed microcirculation. The cremasteric microcirculation of wild-type (C57BL/6), Gal-3-/-, and CX3CR1gfp/+ mice were assessed by intravital microscopy after PBS, IL-1β, TNF-α, or recombinant Gal-3 treatment. These cellular responses were investigated further using flow-chamber assays, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, PCR analysis, and proteome array. We show that mechanisms mediating leukocyte slow rolling and emigration are impaired in Gal-3-/- mice, which could be because of impaired expression of cell adhesion molecules and an altered cell surface glycoproteome. Local (intrascrotal) administration of recombinant Gal-3 to wild-type mice resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in rolling velocity associated with increased numbers of adherent and emigrated leukocytes, ∼50% of which were Ly6G+ neutrophils. Intrascrotal administration of Gal-3 to CX3CR1gfp/+ mice confirmed that approximately equal numbers of monocytes are also recruited in response to this lectin. Exogenous Gal-3 treatment was accompanied by increased proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines within the local tissue. In conclusion, this study unveils novel biology for both exogenous and endogenous Gal-3 in promoting leukocyte recruitment during acute inflammation. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9 Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Leukocyte Recruitment to the Vascular Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Sarah L; Mitrofan, Claudia-Gabriela; Crosby, Alexi; Hoenderdos, Kim; Lodge, Katharine; Upton, Paul D; Yates, Clara M; Nash, Gerard B; Chilvers, Edwin R; Morrell, Nicholas W

    2016-10-15

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)9 is a circulating growth factor that is part of the TGF-β superfamily and is an essential regulator of vascular endothelial homeostasis. Previous studies have suggested a role for BMP9 signaling in leukocyte recruitment to the endothelium, but the directionality of this effect and underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this study, we report that BMP9 upregulates TLR4 expression in human endothelial cells and that BMP9 pretreatment synergistically increases human neutrophil recruitment to LPS-stimulated human endothelial monolayers in an in vitro flow adhesion assay. BMP9 alone did not induce neutrophil recruitment to the endothelium. We also show that E-selectin and VCAM-1, but not ICAM-1, are upregulated in response to BMP9 in LPS-stimulated human endothelial cells. Small interfering RNA knockdown of activin receptor-like kinase 1 inhibited the BMP9-induced expression of TLR4 and VCAM-1 and inhibited BMP9-induced human neutrophil recruitment to LPS-stimulated human endothelial cells. BMP9 treatment also increased leukocyte recruitment within the pulmonary circulation in a mouse acute endotoxemia model. These results demonstrate that although BMP9 alone does not influence leukocyte recruitment, it primes the vascular endothelium to mount a more intense response when challenged with LPS through an increase in TLR4, E-selectin, and VCAM-1 and ultimately through enhanced leukocyte recruitment. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Galectin-3: a positive regulator of leukocyte recruitment in the inflamed microcirculation.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittens, Beatrice R.; Bodkin, Jennifer V.; Nourshargh, Sussan; Perretti, Mauro; Cooper, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    In vivo and ex vivo imaging was used to investigate the function of galectin-3 (Gal-3) during the process of leukocyte recruitment to the inflamed microcirculation. The cremasteric microcirculation of wild-type (C57BL/6), Gal-3-/- and CX3CR1gfp/+ mice was assessed by intravital microscopy following PBS, IL-1β, TNF-α or recombinant Gal-3 treatment. These cellular responses were investigated further using flow-chamber assays, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, PCR analysis and proteome array. We show that mechanisms mediating leukocyte slow rolling and emigration are impaired in Gal-3-/- mice, which could be due to impaired expression of cell adhesion molecules and an altered cell surface glycoproteome. Local (intrascrotal) administration of recombinant Gal-3 to wild-type mice resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in rolling velocity associated with increased numbers of adherent and emigrated leukocytes, approximately 50% of which were Ly6G-positive neutrophils. Intrascrotal administration of Gal-3 to CX3CR1gfp/+ mice confirmed that approximately equal numbers of monocytes are also recruited in response to this lectin. Exogenous Gal-3 treatment was accompanied by increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines within the local tissue. In conclusion, this study unveils novel biology for both exogenous and endogenous Gal-3 in promoting leukocyte recruitment during acute inflammation. PMID:28438899

  14. Priming by Chemokines Restricts Lateral Mobility of the Adhesion Receptor LFA-1 and Restores Adhesion to ICAM-1 Nano-Aggregates on Human Mature Dendritic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgman, K.J.; Zanten, T.S. van; Manzo, C.; Cabezon, R.; Cambi, A.; Benitez-Ribas, D.; Garcia-Parajo, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    LFA-1 is a leukocyte specific beta2 integrin that plays a major role in regulating adhesion and migration of different immune cells. Recent data suggest that LFA-1 on mature dendritic cells (mDCs) may function as a chemokine-inducible anchor during homing of DCs through the afferent lymphatics into

  15. Priming by Chemokines Restricts Lateral Mobility of the Adhesion Receptor LFA-1 and Restores Adhesion to ICAM-1 Nano-Aggregates on Human Mature Dendritic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgman, K.J.; van Zanten, T.S.; Manzo, C.; Cabezon, R.; Cambi, A.; Benitez-Ribas, D.; Garcia Parajo, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    LFA-1 is a leukocyte specific β2 integrin that plays a major role in regulating adhesion and migration of different immune cells. Recent data suggest that LFA-1 on mature dendritic cells (mDCs) may function as a chemokine-inducible anchor during homing of DCs through the afferent lymphatics into the

  16. Adhesion in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive book will provide both fundamental and applied aspects of adhesion pertaining to microelectronics in a single and easily accessible source. Among the topics to be covered include; Various theories or mechanisms of adhesionSurface (physical or chemical) characterization of materials as it pertains to adhesionSurface cleaning as it pertains to adhesionWays to improve adhesionUnraveling of interfacial interactions using an array of pertinent techniquesCharacterization of interfaces / interphasesPolymer-polymer adhesionMetal-polymer adhesion  (metallized polymers)Polymer adhesi

  17. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Guhathakurta, Soma [Departmet of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen [Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Verma, Rama Shanker, E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2013-04-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  18. Leukocyte chemoattractant activity of diacylglycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, T.M.; Hoffman, R.D.; Nishijima, J.; Shin, H.S.

    1986-03-05

    Phosphatidylinositol breakdown with the generation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DG) and inositol phosphates occurs in response to receptor mediated stimulation of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). In the authors attempt to demonstrate the direct role of 1,2-DG in cell migration, they have found 1,2 dioctanoyl glycerol (1,2-C8DG) to be a chemoattractant for 6C3HED, a mouse thymic lymphoma, and human peripheral blood PMN's. The chemoattractant activity for both cell types was observed at concentrations from 0.5 to 10mM in an under agarose assay. The maximum effect of 1,2-C8DG on 6C3HED cells was similar to that of 1mM lysophosphatidylcholine and the maximum effect of 1,2-C8DG on PMN's was similar to that of 10/sup -7/M f-met-leu-phe. Other 1,2-DG's with acyl chains ranging from 6 to 18 carbons in length and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol were also chemoattractants for 6C3HED, although their activities were less than 1,2-C8DG. In addition, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), another activator of protein kinase C, was a chemoattractant for 6C3HED and human PMN's. PMA was more potent than 1,2-C8DG for both 6C3HED and PMN's with chemoattractant activity in the range of 30nM to 1..mu..M. These studies support the direct role of 1,2-DG in the transduction of chemotactic stimuli in leukocytes and further suggest that the formation of diacylglycerol represents a common step in the migratory responses of lymphoid and myeloid cells.

  19. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  20. Transformation by Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Requires Paxillin▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Ramon; Brimer, Nicole; Vande Pol, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Papillomavirus E6 proteins are adapters that change the function of cellular regulatory proteins. The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E6 (BE6) binds to LXXLL peptide sequences termed LD motifs (consensus sequence LDXLLXXL) on the cellular protein paxillin that is a substrate of Src and focal adhesion kinases. Anchorage-independent transformation induced by BE6 required both paxillin and BE6-binding LD motifs on paxillin but was independent of the major tyrosine phosphorylation sites of paxillin....

  1. Angiotensin 1-7 significantly reduces diabetes-induced leukocyte recruitment both in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Fleur; Bernardi, Stella; De Nardo, Daniele; Bramante, Alessandra; Candido, Riccardo; Carretta, Renzo; Fischetti, Fabio; Fabris, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that Ang1-7 has anti-inflammatory effects. Since the formation of Ang1-7 is significantly altered in the setting of diabetes, here we aimed to evaluate whether Ang1-7 infusion could ameliorate diabetes-induced leukocyte recruitment. Wild-type male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to the following groups: control + saline, control + Ang1-7, diabetes + saline, diabetes + Ang1-7. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. Saline and Ang1-7 (576 μg/kg/day) were injected intraperitoneally daily. After 4 weeks leukocyte trafficking was studied in vivo by intravital microscopy in the mesenteric bed, where the expression of pro-oxidative, proinflammatory, and profibrotic molecules was also assessed. In parallel in vitro studies, HUVEC were grown in 5 mM, 22 mM, 30 mM, 40 mM, 50 mM, and 75 mM glucose media for 48 h, 72 h and 6 days and were treated either with placebo, or with Ang1-7, or with Ang1-7 and its inhibitor A779 in order to evaluate the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. We further studied leukocytes recruitment in vitro by evaluating PMN-HUVEC adhesion. Ang1-7 prevented in vivo diabetes-induced leukocyte adhesion and extravasation, and it significantly reduced vascular hypertrophy and the other molecular changes due to diabetes. Ang 1-7 prevented also in vitro the hyperglycemia-induced increase of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 as well as the hyperglycemia-induced PMN adhesion. A779 inhibited Ang 1-7 effects. Ang1-7 significantly reduced diabetes-induced leukocyte recruitment both in vivo and in vitro. These findings emphasize the potential utility of ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas repletion as a strategy to reduce diabetes-induced atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fibrinogen Matrix Deposited on the Surface of Biomaterials Acts as a Natural Anti-Adhesive Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Safiullin, Roman; Christenson, Wayne; Owaynat, Hadil; Yermolenko, Ivan S.; Kadirov, Marsil K.; Ros, Robert; Ugarova, Tatiana P.

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption of fibrinogen on the luminal surface of biomaterials is a critical early event during the interaction of blood with implanted vascular graft prostheses which determines their thrombogenicity. We have recently identified a nanoscale process by which fibrinogen modifies the adhesive properties of various surfaces for platelets and leukocytes. In particular, adsorption of fibrinogen at low density promotes cell adhesion while its adsorption at high density results in the formation of ...

  3. PLATELET ADHESION TO POLYURETHANE UREA UNDER PULSATILE FLOW CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navitsky, Michael A.; Taylor, Joshua O.; Smith, Alexander B.; Slattery, Margaret J.; Deutsch, Steven; Siedlecki, Christopher A.; Manning, Keefe B.

    2014-01-01

    Platelet adhesion to a polyurethane urea surface is a precursor to thrombus formation within blood-contacting cardiovascular devices, and platelets have been found to adhere strongly to polyurethane surfaces below a shear rate of approximately 500 s−1. The aim of the current work is to determine platelet adhesion properties to the polyurethane urea surface as a function of time varying shear exposure. A rotating disk system is used to study the influence of steady and pulsatile flow conditions (e.g. cardiac inflow and sawtooth waveforms) for platelet adhesion to the biomaterial surface. All experiments retain the same root mean square angular rotation velocity (29.63 rad/s) and waveform period. The disk is rotated in platelet rich bovine plasma for two hours with adhesion quantified by confocal microscopy measurements of immunofluorescently labeled bovine platelets. Platelet adhesion under pulsating flow is found to exponentially decay with increasing shear rate. Adhesion levels are found to depend upon peak platelet flux and shear rate regardless of rotational waveform. In combination with flow measurements, these results may be useful for predicting regions susceptible to thrombus formation within ventricular assist devices. PMID:24721222

  4. Infection of human keratinocytes by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae isolated from milk of the bovine udder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Alves-Barroco, Cynthia; Raposo, Luís R; Costa, Mafalda N; Fortunato, Elvira; Baptista, Pedro Viana; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Santos-Sanches, Ilda

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD) are considered exclusive animal pathogens; however, a putative zoonotic upper limb cellulitis, a prosthetic joint infection and an infective endocarditis were described in humans. To unravel if bovine SDSD isolates are able to infect human cells, the adherence and internalization to human primary keratinocytes of two bovine SDSD strains isolated from milk collected from udder were analyzed. Bacterial adhesion assays and confocal microscopy indicate a high adherence and internalization of SDSD isolates to human cells, suggesting for the first time the ability of bovine isolates to infect human cells. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of microtensile bond strength to enamel and dentin of human, bovine, and porcine teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, AF; Giannini, M; Kavaguchi, A; Soares, CJ; Line, SRP

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the bond strengths promoted by an adhesive system to human, bovine, and porcine enamel and dentin, and compare their etched micromorphology by scanning electron microscopy. Materials and Methods: Thirty sound freshly extracted teeth were used in this study: ten human third molars, ten bovine incisors, and ten porcine molars. The crowns of human (H), bovine (B), and porcine (P) teeth were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose either enamel (E) or mid-depth dentin (D) s...

  6. Adhesion of dendritic cells to endothelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alun Brown, K

    2001-01-01

    Many of the interdigitating dendritic cells (DC) that reside in lymph nodes arise from the migration of tissue interstitial DC such as Langerhans cells in the skin (1). Although this migration appears to be stimulated by cytokines (2), relatively little is known of the mechanisms underlying the maintenance and expansion of DC in the skin. Langerhans cells are bone-marrow derived (3), and their replacement in the epidermis following transportation of antigen to lymphoid tissue is likely to depend upon the tissue extravasation of circulating DC. Moreover, the continuous passage of DC across blood vessel walls could be responsible for the increase in DC numbers in tumors (4) and sites of chronic inflammation (5,6). Thus, germane to both homeostasis and pathological disturbance would be the interaction of circulating DC with blood vessel walls, and their subsequent entry into the surrounding tissue. The first stage in leukocyte migration across blood vessel walls is binding to vascular endothelium, and for lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils this event is governed by adhesion molecules on their surface recognizing corresponding endothelial ligands commonly referred to as vascular adhesion molecules (7). Despite the plethora of information concerning the molecular nature of the attachment of the major leukocyte subpopulations to endothelium, relatively few studies have been undertaken with DC. Understanding the controlling features of DC-endo-thelial cell interaction would be relevant to the clinical application of DC in immunodeficient disorders and malignancies (8,9) and to antagonizing their entry into sites of chronic inflammatory lesions.

  7. Effects of simvastatin, ezetimibe and simvastatin/ezetimibe on mitochondrial function and leukocyte/endothelial cell interactions in patients with hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Mijares, Antonio; Bañuls, Celia; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Diaz-Morales, Noelia; Escribano-Lopez, Irene; de Pablo, Carmen; Alvarez, Angeles; Veses, Silvia; Rocha, Milagros; Victor, Victor M

    2016-04-01

    Cholesterol-lowering therapy has been related with several beneficial effects; however, its influence on oxidative stress and endothelial function is not fully elucidated. To investigate the effect of simvastatin and ezetimibe on mitochondrial function and leukocyte-endothelium interactions in polymorphonuclear cells of hyperlipidemic patients. Thirty-nine hyperlipidemic patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: one received simvastatin (40 mg/day) and the other received ezetimibe (10 mg/day) for 4 weeks, after which both groups were administered combined therapy for an additional 4-week period. Lipid profile, mitochondrial parameters (oxygen consumption, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and membrane potential), glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity and leukocyte/endothelial cell interactions and adhesion molecules -VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, were evaluated. An improvement in lipid profile was observed after administration of simvastatin or ezetimibe alone (LDLc: -40.2 vs -19.6%, respectively), though this effect was stronger with the former (p < 0.001), and a further reduction was registered when the two were combined (LDLc: -50.7% vs -56.8%, respectively). In addition to this, simvastatin, ezetimibe and simvastatin + ezetimibe significantly increased oxygen consumption, membrane potential and glutathione content, and decreased levels of ROS, thereby improving mitochondrial function. Furthermore, simvastatin + ezetimibe increased catalase activity. In addition, simvastatin and simvastatin/ezetimibe improved leukocyte/endothelium interactions by decreasing leukocyte rolling and adhesion and increasing leukocyte rolling velocity. Finally, simvastatin, ezetimibe and simvastatin + ezetimibe reduced levels of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and ezetimibe + simvastatin significantly decreased levels of E-selectin. Co-administration of simvastatin and ezetimibe has an additive cholesterol-lowering effect and beneficial consequences

  8. Disintegrins: integrin selective ligands which activate integrin-coupled signaling and modulate leukocyte functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barja-Fidalgo C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix proteins and cell adhesion receptors (integrins play essential roles in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. Interactions of integrins with the extracellular matrix proteins lead to phosphorylation of several intracellular proteins such as focal adhesion kinase, activating different signaling pathways responsible for the regulation of a variety of cell functions, including cytoskeleton mobilization. Once leukocytes are guided to sites of infection, inflammation, or antigen presentation, integrins can participate in the initiation, maintenance, or termination of the immune and inflammatory responses. The modulation of neutrophil activation through integrin-mediated pathways is important in the homeostatic control of the resolution of inflammatory states. In addition, during recirculation, T lymphocyte movement through distinct microenvironments is mediated by integrins, which are critical for cell cycle, differentiation and gene expression. Disintegrins are a family of low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich peptides first identified in snake venom, usually containing an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp motif, which confers the ability to selectively bind to integrins, inhibiting integrin-related functions in different cell systems. In this review we show that, depending on the cell type and the microenvironment, disintegrins are able to antagonize the effects of integrins or to act agonistically by activating integrin-mediated signaling. Disintegrins have proven useful as tools to improve the understanding of the molecular events regulated by integrin signaling in leukocytes and prototypes in order to design therapies able to interfere with integrin-mediated effects.

  9. Development of drugs to target interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells and treatment algorithms for inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Silvio; Panés, Julián

    2014-11-01

    Increased understanding of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) has led to new therapeutic strategies. One of these is to target the molecules that regulate interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells at sites of inflammation (mainly leukocyte integrins and endothelial cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily). These molecules have been validated as therapeutic targets for IBD; several have shown efficacy, and 2 have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of IBD. Natalizumab, the first anti-integrin antibody tested for treatment of IBD, blocks the α4 subunit. Although it is effective, its clinical use has been limited by its association with risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Other, allegedly more selective drugs that affect leukocyte recruitment in the gastrointestinal tract have been developed or are under investigation and could increase safety. These include vedolizumab and AMG 181 (antibodies against α4β7), etrolizumab (anti-β7), and PF-00547659 (anti-mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1). Other agents have been developed to block α4 (the small molecule AJM300), CCR9 (the small molecule CCX282-B), and CXCL10 (the antibody eldelumab). We review the scientific rationale for inhibiting interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells to reduce intestinal inflammation and analyze the clinical studies that have been performed to test these new molecules, with particular attention to safety. We propose an evidence-based clinical positioning of this class of drugs. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Característica leucocitária, relação albumina/globulina, proteína plasmática e fibrinogênio de bovinos da raça Nelore, confinados e terminados a pasto Leukocyte characteristic, albumin/globulin relation, plasmatic protein and fibrinogen of bovines of the Nelore race confined and grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediane Batista da Silva

    2008-11-01

    .This research aimed to evaluate the changes in the white blood cell count and some serum proteins of confined cattle (CC and grass cattle (GC. From the 120 blood samples collected, 60 were obtained from confined Nelore male bovines and 60 from animals with the same characteristics but managed extensively. Samples were obtained at the moment of slaughter. Parameters studied were the white blood cell count, serum albumin/globulin ratio and concentration of plasma fibrinogen. Descriptive statistics was used in the analysis of the data, and the averages, standard deviation and coefficient of variation calculated for all parameters evaluated. The comparisons between averages were made by non-parametric test. The grazing cattle showed higher levels of globulin and fibrinogen when compared to the confined ones (globulin: GC=3.29g dL-1±0.76; CC=2.99g dL-1±0.60 and Fibrinogen: GC=872mg dL-1±610; CC=633mg dL-1±319. The total number of white blood cells mL-1 was 7.64±2.15 in confined cattle and 7.72±1.84 in grazing cattle. There was no significant difference between this variable and differential white blood cell count as well as the total serum protein (g dL-1 from grazing cattle (6.10±0.53 and confined cattle (5.96±0.49. The level of albumin from confined cattle (3.01g dL-1± 0.43 and the A/G ratio (1.07±8.91 were greater when compared to the grazing bovines (2.82g dL-1±0.45 and (0.95±0.38 respectively. The higher serum levels of albumin found in confined herd suggest that they were subjected to a more adequate nutritional diet. The constant immunological challenge suffered by the GC could be responsible for the elevated serum levels of globulin and fibrinogen. These results showed that although feedlots present a stressful environment they did not show any blood alterations correlated to this fact.

  11. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  12. Surfactant functionalization induces robust, differential adhesion of tumor cells and blood cells to charged nanotube-coated biomaterials under flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael J; Castellanos, Carlos A; King, Michael R

    2015-07-01

    The metastatic spread of cancer cells from the primary tumor to distant sites leads to a poor prognosis in cancers originating from multiple organs. Increasing evidence has linked selectin-based adhesion between circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and endothelial cells of the microvasculature to metastatic dissemination, in a manner similar to leukocyte adhesion during inflammation. Functionalized biomaterial surfaces hold promise as a diagnostic tool to separate CTCs and potentially treat metastasis, utilizing antibody and selectin-mediated interactions for cell capture under flow. However, capture at high purity levels is challenged by the fact that CTCs and leukocytes both possess selectin ligands. Here, a straightforward technique to functionalize and alter the charge of naturally occurring halloysite nanotubes using surfactants is reported to induce robust, differential adhesion of tumor cells and blood cells to nanotube-coated surfaces under flow. Negatively charged sodium dodecanoate-functionalized nanotubes simultaneously enhanced tumor cell capture while negating leukocyte adhesion, both in the presence and absence of adhesion proteins, and can be utilized to isolate circulating tumor cells regardless of biomarker expression. Conversely, diminishing nanotube charge via functionalization with decyltrimethylammonium bromide both abolished tumor cell capture while promoting leukocyte adhesion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipid Raft is required for PSGL-1 ligation induced HL-60 cell adhesion on ICAM-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingshuang Xu

    Full Text Available P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1 and integrins are adhesion molecules that play critical roles in host defense and innate immunity. PSGL-1 mediates leukocyte rolling and primes leukocytes for integrin-mediated adhesion. However, the mechanism that PSGL-1 as a rolling receptor in regulating integrin activation has not been well characterized. Here, we investigate the function of lipid raft in regulating PSGL-1 induced β2 integrin-mediated HL-60 cells adhesion. PSGL-1 ligation with antibody enhances the β2 integrin activation and β2 integrin-dependent adhesion to ICAM-1. Importantly, with the treatment of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD, we confirm the role of lipid raft in regulating the activation of β2 integrin. Furthermore, we find that the protein level of PSGL-1 decreased in raft fractions in MβCD treated cells. PSGL-1 ligation induces the recruitment of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk, a tyrosine kinase and Vav1 (the pivotal downstream effector of Syk signaling pathway involved in cytoskeleton regulation to lipid raft. Inhibition of Syk activity with pharmacologic inhibitor strongly reduces HL-60 cells adhesion, implicating Syk is crucial for PSGL-1 mediated β2 integrin activation. Taken together, we report that ligation of PSGL-1 on HL-60 cells activates β2 integrin, for which lipid raft integrity and Syk activation are responsible. These findings have shed new light on the mechanisms that connect leukocyte initial rolling with subsequent adhesion.

  14. Transmigrated neutrophils down-regulate the expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells and inhibit the adhesion of flowing lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Philip C W; Lally, Frank; Rahman, Mahbub; Smith, Emily; Buckley, Christopher D; Nash, Gerard B; Rainger, G Ed

    2005-01-01

    As the first leukocytes recruited during inflammation, neutrophils are ideally situated to regulate the subsequent recruitment of mononuclear leukocytes. Here, we found that human neutrophils recruited by endothelial cells (EC), which had been stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha for 4 h, inhibited the adhesion of flowing, mixed mononuclear cells or purified lymphocytes over the subsequent 20 h but did not affect the adhesion of a secondary bolus of neutrophils. The degree of inhibition of lymphocyte adhesion increased with the duration of neutrophil-EC contact and with the number of recruited neutrophils. Antibody-blocking studies showed that lymphocyte adhesion was mediated predominantly by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Recruited neutrophils reduced the EC expression of VCAM-1 but not intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) or E-selectin in a manner that mirrored the time- and number-dependent reduction in lymphocyte adhesion. VCAM-1 was not shed into the culture supernatant, and a panel of protease inhibitors was unable to reverse its down-regulation, indicating that it was not proteolytically degraded by neutrophils. In EC that had been in contact with neutrophils, the mRNA message for VCAM-1 but not ICAM-1 was down-regulated, indicating that alterations in transcriptional activity were responsible for the reduction in VCAM-1. Thus, under some inflammatory milieu, neutrophils may delay the recruitment of mononuclear leukocytes by regulating the expression of EC adhesion receptors.

  15. Imaging Leukocyte Responses in the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterbusch, Michaela; Kitching, A Richard; Hickey, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    The kidney can be negatively affected by a range of innate and adaptive immune responses, resulting in alterations in the functions of the kidney and, in some cases, progression to renal failure. In many of these responses, infiltration of blood-borne leukocytes into the kidney is central to the response. In addition, a large population of mononuclear phagocytes resident in the kidney can modulate these responses. A great deal of research has investigated both the mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment to the kidney and the actions of immune cells resident within the kidney. Because of the dynamic nature of the processes whereby leukocytes enter sites of inflammation, in vivo imaging has been one of the key approaches used for understanding leukocyte recruitment as it occurs throughout the body, and this is also true for kidney. However, imaging this organ and its complicated microvasculature during different forms of renal pathology presents a unique set of challenges. In this review, we examine the approaches used for intravital imaging of the kidney and summarize the insights gained from these studies regarding the mechanisms of leukocyte entry into the kidney during inflammation and the actions of immune cells within this organ.

  16. Delayed-onset enzootic bovine leukosis possibly caused by superinfection with bovine leukemia virus mutated in the pol gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tadaaki; Inoue, Emi; Mori, Hiroshi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2015-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL), to which animals are most susceptible at 4-8 years of age. In this study, we examined tumor cells associated with EBL in an 18-year-old cow to reveal that the cells carried at least two different copies of the virus, one of which was predicted to encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) lacking ribonuclease H activity and no integrase. Such a deficient enzyme may exhibit a dominant negative effect on the wild-type RT and cause insufficient viral replication, resulting in delayed tumor development in this cow.

  17. Steroid sulfatase of human leukocytes and epidermis and the diagnosis of recessive X-linked ichthyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, E H; Leventhal, M E

    1981-01-01

    Patients with recessive X-linked ichthyosis, one of the inherited types of excessive stratum corneum cohesion, have deficient steroid sulfatase in fibroblasts grown from their dermis. Because of the expense and long period required to grow such cells, we have assayed this enzyme in peripheral blood leukocytes and found it to be undetectable in those from patients with this type of ichthyosis, but normal in those from patients with other hereditary or acquired types of ichthyosis. In addition, steroid sulfatase activity is less in leukocytes from women who are carriers of this disease than normal women, and this assay can be used to detect such carriers. Despite previous studies demonstrating that the gene for this enzyme escapes the inactivation of other x-chromosome genes, normal women have leukocyte steroid sulfatase activity only 1.3 times that of normal men, suggesting that some gene dosage compensation occurs. Normal human epidermis, the tissue most affected clinically, also expresses steroid sulfatase activity. The epidermal enzyme is similar in its subcellular localization, its molecular size, and kinetically to that of placenta, leukocytes, and fibroblasts. PMID:6939689

  18. The infarcted myocardium solicits GM-CSF for the detrimental oversupply of inflammatory leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Atsushi; Choi, Jennifer L; He, Shun; Fenn, Ashley M; Nairz, Manfred; Rattik, Sara; McAlpine, Cameron S; Mindur, John E; Chan, Christopher T; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Tricot, Benoit; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Weissleder, Ralph; Libby, Peter; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Stone, James R; Becher, Burkhard; Swirski, Filip K

    2017-11-06

    Myocardial infarction (MI) elicits massive inflammatory leukocyte recruitment to the heart. Here, we hypothesized that excessive leukocyte invasion leads to heart failure and death during acute myocardial ischemia. We found that shortly and transiently after onset of ischemia, human and mouse cardiac fibroblasts produce granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) that acts locally and distally to generate and recruit inflammatory and proteolytic cells. In the heart, fibroblast-derived GM-CSF alerts its neighboring myeloid cells to attract neutrophils and monocytes. The growth factor also reaches the bone marrow, where it stimulates a distinct myeloid-biased progenitor subset. Consequently, hearts of mice deficient in either GM-CSF or its receptor recruit fewer leukocytes and function relatively well, whereas mice producing GM-CSF can succumb from left ventricular rupture, a complication mitigated by anti-GM-CSF therapy. These results identify GM-CSF as both a key contributor to the pathogenesis of MI and a potential therapeutic target, bolstering the idea that GM-CSF is a major orchestrator of the leukocyte supply chain during inflammation. © 2017 Anzai et al.

  19. Enzootic bovine leucosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, L

    1978-09-02

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is associated with infection by bovine leucosis virus. The incubation period is measured in years and a minority of infected animals develop clinical signs. The disease is widespread in Europe and elsewhere and can cause significant economic loss. The epidemiology is incompletely understood and findings from one cattle production system may not be directly applicable to another. Major control programmes exist in Denmark and West Germany and control schemes are being developed elsewhere. Eradication of enzootic bovine leucosis has been established as a goal in the EEC and research is revealing the ways in which this goal may be attained. To be effective, control and epidemiological monitoring must be interactive. Recently introduced serological tests, of improved sensitivity, provide a valuable tool.

  20. Significance of leukocyte scanning in infected endoprostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W.; Pasurka, B.; Boerner, W.

    1989-03-01

    31 patients with suspected septic loosening of an endoprosthesis (hip endoprosthesis n=30; knee endoprosthesis n=1) were examined with leukocyte scans (10 MBq /sup 111/In-oxine: n=22; 300 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO: n=9). The results were compared with results of the bacterial growth (n=22), the histology (n=12) and of the bone scans (/sup 99m/Tc-MDP: n=20) which were performed within 4 days. The sensitivity of the bone scan was 100%, the specificity 30% and the diagnostic accuracy regarding a septic loosening of the arthroplasty was 55%. For the leukocyte scans a comparable sensitivity of 100%, but a higher specificity (86%) and accuracy (91%) could be calculated. A false positive leukocyte scan could be observed in a periprosthetic granuloma, an ossifying periarthritis and in a patient with negative bacterial growth with the histological proof of an inflammation.

  1. CD13 is a novel mediator of monocytic/endothelial cell adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mina-Osorio, Paola; Winnicka, Beata; O'Conor, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    During inflammation, cell surface adhesion molecules guide the adhesion and migration of circulating leukocytes across the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels to access the site of injury. The transmembrane molecule CD13 is expressed on monocytes and endothelial cells and has been shown...... to mediate homotypic cell adhesion, which may imply a role for CD13 in inflammatory monocyte trafficking. Here, we show that ligation and clustering of CD13 by mAb or viral ligands potently induce myeloid cell/endothelial adhesion in a signal transduction-dependent manner involving monocytic cytoskeletal...... rearrangement and filopodia formation. Treatment with soluble recombinant (r)CD13 blocks this CD13-dependent adhesion, and CD13 molecules from monocytic and endothelial cells are present in the same immunocomplex, suggesting a direct participation of CD13 in the adhesive interaction. This concept...

  2. Leukocytic promotion of prostate cellular proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Kristy L; Begley, Lesa A; Mor-Vaknin, Nirit; Markovitz, David M; Macoska, Jill A

    2010-03-01

    Histological evidence of pervasive inflammatory infiltrate has been noted in both benign prostatic hyperplasia/hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Cytokines known to attract particular leukocyte subsets are secreted from prostatic stroma consequent to aging and also from malignant prostate epithelium. Therefore, we hypothesized that leukocytes associated with either acute or chronic inflammation attracted to the prostate consequent to aging or tumorigenesis may promote the abnormal cellular proliferation associated with BPH and PCa. An in vitro system designed to mimic the human prostatic microenvironment incorporating prostatic stroma (primary and immortalized prostate stromal fibroblasts), epithelium (N15C6, BPH-1, LNCaP, and PC3 cells), and inflammatory infiltrate (HL-60 cells, HH, and Molt-3 T-lymphocytes) was developed. Modified Boyden chamber assays were used to test the ability of prostate stromal and epithelial cells to attract leukocytes and to test the effect of leukocytes on prostate cellular proliferation. Antibody arrays were used to identify leukocyte-secreted cytokines mediating prostate cellular proliferation. Leukocytic cells migrated towards both prostate stromal and epithelial cells. CD4+ T-lymphocytes promoted the proliferation of both transformed and non-transformed prostate epithelial cell lines tested, whereas CD8+ T-lymphocytes as well as dHL-60M macrophagic and dHL-60N neutrophilic cells selectively promoted the proliferation of PCa cells. The results of these studies show that inflammatory cells can be attracted to the prostate tissue microenvironment and can selectively promote the proliferation of non-transformed or transformed prostate epithelial cells, and are consistent with differential role(s) for inflammatory infiltrate in the etiologies of benign and malignant proliferative disease in the prostate. Prostate 70: 377-389, 2010. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Intravascular leukocyte migration through platelet thrombi: directing leukocytes to sites of vascular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Mehran; Hosseini, Ehteramolsadat

    2015-06-01

    Leukocytes recruitment to thrombi supports an intimate cellular interaction leading to the enhancement of pro-coagulant functions and pro-inflammatory responses at site of vascular injury. Recent observations of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation and its mutual reactions with platelet thrombi adds more clinical interest to the growing body of knowledge in the field of platelet-leukocyte cross-talk. However, having considered thrombus as a barrier between leukocytes and injured endothelium, the full inflammatory roles of these cells during thrombosis is still ill defined. The most recent observation of neutrophils migration into the thrombi is a phenomenon that highlights the inflammatory functions of leukocytes at the site of injury. It has been hypothesised that leukocytes migration might be associated with the conveyance of highly reactive pro-inflammatory and/or pro-coagulant mediators to sites of vascular injury. In addition, the evidence of neutrophils migration into arterial thrombi following traumatic and ischaemia-reperfusion injury highlights the already described role of these cells in atherosclerosis. Regardless of the mechanisms behind leukocyte migration, whether these migrated cells benefit normal homeostasis by their involvement in wound healing and vascular rebuilding or they increase unwilling inflammatory responses, could be of interest for future researches that provide new insight into biological importance of leukocyte recruitment to thrombi.

  4. Chapter 9:Wood Adhesion and Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2013-01-01

    The recorded history of bonding wood dates back at least 3000 years to the Egyptians (Skeist and Miron 1990, River 1994a), and adhesive bonding goes back to early mankind (Keimel 2003). Although wood and paper bonding are the largest applications for adhesives, some of the fundamental aspects leading to good bonds are not fully understood. Better understanding of these...

  5. Endothelial Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 participates in redox-sensitive leukocyte recruitment triggered by methylglyoxal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Syed M; Su, Yang; Cayabyab, Francisco S; Liu, Lixin

    2014-09-30

    Excessive levels of methylglyoxal (MG) encountered in diabetes foster enhanced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, mechanisms of which are incompletely understood. MG genomically upregulates endothelial serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) which orchestrates leukocyte recruitment by regulating the activation and expression of transcription factors and adhesion molecules. SGK1 regulates a myriad of ion channels and carriers including the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1. Here, we explored the effect of MG on SGK1-dependent NHE1 activation and the putative role of NHE1 activation in MG-induced leukocyte recruitment and microvascular hyperpermeability. Using RT-PCR and immunoblotting, we analyzed NHE1 mRNA and protein levels in murine microvascular SVEC4-10EE2 endothelial cells (EE2 ECs). NHE1 phosphorylation was detected using a specific antibody against the 14-3-3 binding motif at phospho-Ser703. SGK in EE2 ECs was silenced using targeted siRNA. ROS production was determined using DCF-dependent fluorescence. Leukocyte recruitment and microvascular permeability in murine cremasteric microvasculature were measured using intravital microscopy. The expression of endothelial adhesion molecules was determined by immunoblotting and confocal imaging analysis. MG treatment significantly upregulated NHE1 mRNA and dose-dependently increased total- and phospho-NHE1. Treatment with SGK1 inhibitor GSK650394, antioxidant Tempol and silencing SGK all blunted MG-triggered phospho-NHE1 upregulation in EE2 ECs. NHE1 inhibitor cariporide attenuated MG-triggered ROS production, leukocyte adhesion and emigration and microvascular hyperpermeability, without affecting leukocyte rolling. Cariporide treatment did not alter MG-triggered upregulation of P- and E-selectins, but reduced endothelial ICAM-1 expression. MG elicits SGK1-dependent activation of endothelial Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 which participates in MG-induced ROS production, upregulation of endothelial ICAM-1, leukocyte

  6. Thrombin Cleavage of Inter-α-inhibitor Heavy Chain 1 Regulates Leukocyte Binding to an Inflammatory Hyaluronan Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrey, Aaron C; de la Motte, Carol A

    2016-11-18

    Dynamic alterations of the extracellular matrix in response to injury directly modulate inflammation and consequently the promotion and resolution of disease. During inflammation, hyaluronan (HA) is increased at sites of inflammation where it may be covalently modified with the heavy chains (HC) of inter-α-trypsin inhibitor. Deposition of this unique, pathological form of HA (HC-HA) leads to the formation of cable-like structures that promote adhesion of leukocytes. Naive mononuclear leukocytes bind specifically to inflammation-associated HA matrices but do not adhere to HA constitutively expressed under homeostatic conditions. In this study, we have directly investigated a role for the blood-coagulation protease thrombin in regulating the adhesion of monocytic cells to smooth muscle cells producing an inflammatory matrix. Our data demonstrate that the proteolytic activity of thrombin negatively regulates the adhesion of monocytes to an inflammatory HC-HA complex. This effect is independent of protease-activated receptor activation but requires proteolytic activity toward a novel substrate. Components of HC-HA complexes were predicted to contain conserved thrombin-susceptible cleavage sites based on sequence analysis, and heavy chain 1 (HC1) was confirmed to be a substrate of thrombin. Thrombin treatment is sufficient to cleave HC1 associated with either cell-surface HA or serum inter-α-trypsin inhibitor. Furthermore, thrombin treatment of the inflammatory matrix leads to dissolution of HC-HA cable structures and abolishes leukocyte adhesion. These data establish a novel mechanism whereby thrombin cleavage of HC1 regulates the adhesive properties of an inflammatory HA matrix. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  8. cAMP signaling in leukocyte transendothelial migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenowicz, Magdalena J.; Fernandez-Borja, Mar; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2007-01-01

    The migration of leukocytes across the vascular endothelium is crucial for immunosurveillance as well as for inflammatory responses. Uncontrolled leukocyte transendothelial migration results in pathologies such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. The molecular mechanisms that

  9. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The

  10. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  11. Microhemorrhage is an Early Event in the Pulmonary Fibrotic Disease of PECAM-1 Deficient FVB/n Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lena C.; Woods, Steven J.; Groshong, Steven D.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Gilchrist, John M.; Higgins, David M.; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Bass, Todd A.; Muller, William A.; Schenkel, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (PECAM-1) deficient mice in the FVB/n strain exhibit fatal chronic pulmonary fibrotic disease. The illness occurs in the absence of a detectable pro-inflammatory event. PECAM-1 is vital to the stability of vascular permeability, leukocyte extravasation, clotting of platelets, and clearance of apoptotic cells. We show here that the spontaneous development of fibrotic disease in PECAM-1 deficient FVB/n mice is characterized by early loss of vascular integrity in pulmonary capillaries, resulting in spontaneous microbleeds. Hemosiderin-positive macrophages were found in interstitial spaces and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in relatively healthy animals. We also observed a gradually increasing presence of hemosiderin-positive macrophages and fibrin deposition in the advanced stages of disease, corresponding to the accumulation of collagen, IL-10 expression, and myofibroblasts expressing alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA). Together with the growing evidence that pulmonary microbleeds and coagulation play an active part in human pulmonary fibrosis, this data further supports our hypothesis that PECAM-1 expression is necessary for vascular barrier function control and regulation of homeostasis specifically, in the pulmonary environment. PMID:24972347

  12. Relationship between C-reactive protein and early activation of leukocytes indicated by leukocyte antisedimentation rate (LAR) in patients with acute cerebrovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Tihamer; Papp, Viktoria; Banati, Miklos; Szereday, Laszlo; Pusch, Gabriella; Szapary, Laszlo; Bogar, Lajos; Illes, Zsolt

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and leukocyte antisedimentation rate (LAR) as a specific test to detect early activation of leukocytes providing the first line of defence against infections in ischemic stroke. In 49 patients with acute ischemic events and 61 healthy subjects (HS), we examined LAR, astroglia specific S100B indicating the extent of brain tissue damage and hsCRP within 6 hours, as well as 24 and 72 hours after onset of symptoms. Serum levels of hsCRP on admission was significantly higher in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) compared to HS and were higher in patients with recurrent to first ever ischemic stroke. Increased basal levels of hsCRP also correlated with severity of stroke and extent of infarct reflected by S100B levels in sera, but did not correlate with post-stroke infections. However, a higher rate of infection was observed among patients, in whom hsCRP was elevated at 72 hours but LAR did not increase. Therefore, such late elevation of hsCRP may indicate pre-clinical infections due to deficient leukocyte activation. Simple tests like LAR and hsCRP may help in predicting outcome and high risk of infectious complications.

  13. Effect of Clozapine on DNA Methylation in Peripheral Leukocytes from Patients with Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Makoto; Numata, Shusuke; Tajima, Atsushi; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Watanabe, Shinya; Umehara, Hidehiro; Shimodera, Shinji; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Kikuchi, Masataka; Nakaya, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Imoto, Issei; Hashimoto, Ryota; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2017-03-14

    Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic, that is established as the treatment of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (SCZ). To date, no study investigating comprehensive DNA methylation changes in SCZ patients treated with chronic clozapine has been reported. The purpose of the present study is to reveal the effects of clozapine on DNA methylation in treatment-resistant SCZ. We conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in peripheral leukocytes (485,764 CpG dinucleotides) from treatment-resistant SCZ patients treated with clozapine (n = 21) in a longitudinal study. Significant changes in DNA methylation were observed at 29,134 sites after one year of treatment with clozapine, and these genes were enriched for "cell substrate adhesion" and "cell matrix adhesion" gene ontology (GO) terms. Furthermore, DNA methylation changes in the CREBBP (CREB binding protein) gene were significantly correlated with the clinical improvements. Our findings provide insights into the action of clozapine in treatment-resistant SCZ.

  14. Epac inhibits apoptosis of human leukocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grandoch, M.; Bujok, V.; Fleckenstein, D.; Schmidt, M.; Fischer, J. W.; Weber, A. -A.

    2009-01-01

    cAMP is known to participate in the regulation of apoptosis in leukocytes. Depending on the cell type, pro- and antiapoptotic effects of cAMP have been described. Thus far, most of the cAMP-dependent effects have been attributed to the activation of PKA. However, Epac proteins (direct cAMP targets

  15. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. *Corresponding author (Fax, 972-4-8542092; Email, erica@rambam.health.gov.il). Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from healthy donors were tested for stimulated release of superoxide anions after being incubated with serum of welders and of a group of unexposed individuals.

  16. x ORIGINAL ARTICLE ASSESSMENT OF LEUKOCYTE ESTERASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    ABSTRACT. This is a prospective study of urinary tract infection in 65 children (38 males and 27 females, M: F ratio 1: 0.7). Urine samples were evaluated by culture, microscopy and leukocyte esterase dipstick test. Positive urine culture, with significant bacteriuria was found in 19(29.2%). Urine microscopy for leukocyturia ...

  17. expression on polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reading 5

    To establish a foundation for further researches on the improvement of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) functions in dairy cow during perinatal period, the counting of PMN, as well as the. mRNA and protein expression of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) on PMN was studied during this critical period.

  18. (TLR-4) expression on polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To establish a foundation for further researches on the improvement of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) functions in dairy cow during perinatal period, the counting of PMN, as well as the mRNA and protein expression of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) on PMN was studied during this critical period.

  19. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from healthy donors were tested for stimulated release of superoxide anions after being incubated with serum of welders and of a group of unexposed individuals. These two groups were further subdivided either according to age or to smoking habits. The experiments showed that ...

  20. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte peroxidase test. 864.7675 Section 864...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7675 Leukocyte peroxidase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte peroxidase test is a device used to distinguish certain...

  1. Particle adhesion and removal

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal.  The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments.  Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal.2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal.3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand  particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions.4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and  n

  2. Comparative genome analysis of three eukaryotic parasites with differing abilities to transform leukocytes reveals key mediators of theileria-induced leukocyte transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Hayashida, Kyoko

    2012-09-04

    We sequenced the genome of Theileria orientalis, a tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan parasite of cattle. The focus of this study was a comparative genome analysis of T. orientalis relative to other highly pathogenic Theileria species, T. parva and T. annulata. T. parva and T. annulata induce transformation of infected cells of lymphocyte or macrophage/monocyte lineages; in contrast, T. orientalis does not induce uncontrolled proliferation of infected leukocytes and multiplies predominantly within infected erythrocytes. While synteny across homologous chromosomes of the three Theileria species was found to be well conserved overall, subtelomeric structures were found to differ substantially, as T. orientalis lacks the large tandemly arrayed subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein-encoding gene family. Moreover, expansion of particular gene families by gene duplication was found in the genomes of the two transforming Theileria species, most notably, the TashAT/TpHN and Tar/Tpr gene families. Gene families that are present only in T. parva and T. annulata and not in T. orientalis, Babesia bovis, or Plasmo-dium were also identified. Identification of differences between the genome sequences of Theileria species with different abilities to transform and immortalize bovine leukocytes will provide insight into proteins and mechanisms that have evolved to induce and regulate this process. The T. orientalis genome database is available at http://totdb.czc.hokudai.ac.jp/. 2012 Hayashida et al. T.

  3. TNF-alpha promotes LPA1- and LPA3-mediated recruitment of leukocytes in vivo through CXCR2 ligand chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenqi; Sardella, Anne; Chun, Jerold; Poubelle, Patrice E; Fernandes, Maria J; Bourgoin, Sylvain G

    2011-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lysophospholipid present in low concentrations in serum and biological fluids but in high concentrations at sites of inflammation. LPA evokes a variety of cellular responses via binding to and activation of its specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), namely LPA(1-6). Even though LPA is a chemoattractant for inflammatory cells in vitro, such a role for LPA in vivo remains largely unexplored. In the present study, we used the murine air pouch model to study LPA-mediated leukocyte recruitment in vivo using selective LPA receptor agonist/antagonist and LPA(3)-deficient mice. We report that 1) LPA injection into the air pouch induced leukocyte recruitment and that both LPA(1) and LPA(3) were involved in this process; 2) LPA stimulated the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokines keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) and interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) in the air pouch; 3) tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) injected into the air pouch prior to LPA strongly potentiated LPA-mediated secretion of cytokines/chemokines, including KC, IL-6, and IP-10, which preceded the enhanced leukocyte influx; and 4) blocking CXCR2 significantly reduced leukocyte infiltration. We suggest that LPA, via LPA(1) and LPA(3) receptors, may play a significant role in inducing and/or sustaining the massive infiltration of leukocytes during inflammation.

  4. Affinity-tuning leukocyte integrin for development of safe therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Spencer

    Much attention has been given to the molecular and cellular pathways linking inflammation with cancer and the local tumor environment to identify new target molecules that could lead to improved diagnosis and treatment. Among the many molecular players involved in the complex response, central to the induction of inflammation is intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, which is of particular interest for its highly sensitive and localized expression in response to inflammatory signals. ICAM-1, which has been implicated to play a critical role in tumor progression in various types of cancer, has also been linked to cancer metastases, where ICAM-1 facilitates the spread of metastatic cancer cells to secondary sites. This unique expression profile of ICAM-1 throughout solid tumor microenvironment makes ICAM-1 an intriguing molecular target, which holds great potential as an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Herein, we have engineered the ligand binding domain, or the inserted (I) domain of a leukocyte integrin, to exhibit a wide range of monovalent affinities to the natural ligand, ICAM-1. Using the resulting I domain variants, we have created drug and gene delivery nanoparticles, as well as targeted immunotherapeutics that have the ability to bind and migrate to inflammatory sites prevalent in tumors and the associated microenvironment. Through the delivery of diagnostic agents, chemotherapeutics, and immunotherapeutics, the following chapters demonstrate that the affinity enhancements achieved by directed evolution bring the affinity of I domains into the range optimal for numerous applications.

  5. Biomaterial-associated thrombosis: roles of coagulation factors, complement, platelets and leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbet, Maud B; Sefton, Michael V

    2004-11-01

    Our failure to produce truly non-thrombogenic materials may reflect a failure to fully understand the mechanisms of biomaterial-associated thrombosis. The community has focused on minimizing coagulation or minimizing platelet adhesion and activation. We have infrequently considered the interactions between the two although we are generally familiar with these interactions. However, we have rarely considered in the context of biomaterial-associated thrombosis the other major players in blood: complement and leukocytes. Biomaterials are known agonists of complement and leukocyte activation, but this is frequently studied only in the context of inflammation. For us, thrombosis is a special case of inflammation. Here we summarize current perspectives on all four of these components in thrombosis and with biomaterials and cardiovascular devices. We also briefly highlight a few features of biomaterial-associated thrombosis that are not often considered in the biomaterials literature: The importance of tissue factor and the extrinsic coagulation system. Complement activation as a prelude to platelet activation and its role in thrombosis. The role of leukocytes in thrombin formation. The differing time scales of these contributions.

  6. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A

    2010-11-01

    Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI(3)V) is a long-recognized, currently underappreciated, endemic infection in cattle populations. Clinical disease is most common in calves with poor passive transfer or decayed maternal antibodies. It is usually mild, consisting of fever, nasal discharge, and dry cough. Caused at least partly by local immunosuppressive effects, bPI(3)V infection is often complicated by coinfection with other respiratory viruses and bacteria, and is therefore an important component of enzootic pneumonia in calves and bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle. Active infection can be diagnosed by virus isolation from nasal swabs, or IF testing on smears made from nasal swabs. Timing of sampling is critical in obtaining definitive diagnostic test results. Parenteral and intranasal modified live vaccine combination vaccines are available. Priming early in calfhood with intranasal vaccine, followed by boosting with parenteral vaccine, may be the best immunoprophylactic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  8. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Díaz Ismael Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  9. Differential inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment in vivo by dextran sulphate and fucoidan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Van Osselaer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The selectin-mediated rolling of leukocytes along the endothelial cells is a prerequisite step followed by firm adhesion and extravasation into the inflamed tissue. This initial contact can be suppressed by sulphated polysaccharides. We have studied the effect of sulphated polysaccharides on the ultimate polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN recruitment and plasma leakage in rabbit skin in response to intradermal injection of various inflammatory mediators. PMN infiltration evoked by various PMN chemoattractants (FMLP, C5a desArg, LTB4 and IL-8 was significantly inhibited after intravenous injection of dextran sulphate (25 mg/kg, heparin (2 × 90 mg/kg or fucoidan (1 mg/kg. PMN-dependent plasma leakage was equally well reduced by the different sulphated polymers. Vascular permeability induced by histamine or thrombin acting via a PMN-independent mechanism was not reduced. Fucoidan was the only polysaccharide able to suppress IL-1-induced PMN infiltration for 60–70%. Local administration of dextran sulphate had no effect on PMN-dependent plasma leakage. Differential inhibition of PMN recruitment was determined after injection of dextran sulphate or fucoidan depending on the type of insult. Therefore, these results suggest that different adhesion pathways are utilized during PMN recruitment in vivo in response to chemoattractants and IL-1.

  10. Platelet-activating factor receptor plays a role in the pathogenesis of graft-versus-host disease by regulating leukocyte recruitment, tissue injury, and lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor, Marina G M; Rezende, Bárbara M; Resende, Carolina B; Bernardes, Priscila T T; Cisalpino, Daniel; Vieira, Angélica T; Souza, Danielle G; Silva, Tarcília A; Teixeira, Mauro M; Pinho, Vanessa

    2012-04-01

    PAF is a potent lipid mediator involved in several manifestations of acute inflammation, including leukocyte influx, leukocyte interaction with endothelium, and production of inflammatory cytokines. The present study evaluated the relevance of PAFR for the pathogenesis of acute GVHD using a model of adoptive transfer of splenocytes from WT or PAFR(-/-) C57BL/6J to B6D2F1 mice. Mice, which received PAFR(-/-) splenocytes or treatment with the PAFR antagonist, showed reduced clinical signs of disease and no mortality. In GVHD mice receiving PAFR(-/-) splenocytes, there was deceased bacterial translocation and tissue injury. Furthermore, production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, CCL2, CCL3, and CCL5) and accumulation of CD8(+) cells in intestine and liver were reduced in mice transplanted with the PAFR(-/-) splenocyte. Mechanistically, an absence or pharmacological blockade of PAFR was associated with decreased rolling and adhesion of leukocytes to the mesenteric microcirculation, as assessed by intravital microscopy. Despite decreased GVHD, there was maintained GVL activity when PAFR(-/-) leukocytes were transferred into WT mice. In conclusion, PAFR on donor leukocytes plays a critical role in GVHD by mediating leukocyte influx and cytokine production in target tissues. PAFR antagonist may potentially be useful in the treatment of GVHD in bone marrow-transplanted patients.

  11. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1–Dependent Leukocytic Infiltrates Are Responsible for Autoimmune Disease in Mrl-Faslpr Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tesch, Gregory H.; Maifert, Stefanie; Schwarting, Andreas; Rollins, Barrett J.; Kelley, Vicki Rubin

    1999-01-01

    Infiltrating leukocytes may be responsible for autoimmune disease. We hypothesized that the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 recruits macrophages and T cells into tissues that, in turn, are required for autoimmune disease. Using the MRL-Faslpr strain with spontaneous, fatal autoimmune disease, we constructed MCP-1–deficient MRL-Faslpr mice. In MCP-1–intact MRL-Faslpr mice, macrophages and T cells accumulate at sites (kidney tubules, glomeruli, pulmonary bronchioli, lymph nod...

  12. Loss of p27 phosphorylation at Ser10 accelerates early atherogenesis by promoting leukocyte recruitment via RhoA/ROCK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Sánchez, P; Chèvre, R; Rius, C; Fuster, J J; Andrés, V

    2015-07-01

    Reduced phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor p27(Kip1) (p27) at serine 10 (Ser10) is a hallmark of advanced human and mouse atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E-null mice defective for this posttranslational modification (apoE(-/-)p27Ser10Ala) exhibited increased atherosclerosis burden at late disease states. Here, we investigated the regulation of p27 phosphorylation in Ser10 at the very initial stages of atherosclerosis and its impact on endothelial-leukocyte interaction and early plaque formation. Hypercholesterolemia in fat-fed apoE(-/-) mice is associated with a rapid downregulation of p27-phospho-Ser10 in primary endothelial cells (ECs) and in aorta prior to the development of macroscopically-visible lesions. We find that lack of p27 phosphorylation at Ser10 enhances the expression of adhesion molecules in aorta of apoE(-/-) mice and ECs, and augments endothelial-leukocyte interactions and leukocyte recruitment in vivo. These effects correlated with increased RhoA/Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) signaling in ECs, and inhibition of this pathway with fasudil reduced leukocyte-EC interactions to control levels in the microvasculature of p27Ser10Ala mice. Moreover, apoE(-/-)p27Ser10Ala mice displayed increased leukocyte recruitment and homing to atherosusceptible arteries and augmented early plaque development, which could be blunted with fasudil. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate a very rapid reduction in p27-phospho-Ser10 levels at the onset of atherogenesis, which contributes to early plaque build-up through RhoA/ROCK-induced integrin expression in ECs and enhanced leukocyte recruitment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pilot study on binding of bovine salivary proteins to grit silicates and plant phytoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Marcus; M Kaiser, Thomas; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2013-06-01

    Mostly fed with grass in fresh or conserved form, cattle and other livestock have to cope with silicate defence bodies from plants (phytoliths) and environmental silicates (grit), which abrade tooth enamel and could additionally interact with various salivary proteins. To detect potential candidates for silicate-binding proteins, bovine whole saliva was incubated with grass-derived phytoliths and silicates. Interactions of salivary proteins with pulverized bovine dental enamel and dentine were additionally analysed. After intense washing, the powder fractions were loaded onto 1D-polyacrylamide gels, most prominent adhesive protein bands were cut out and proteins were identified by mass spectrometry within three independent replicates. All materials were mainly bound by bovine odorant-binding protein, bovine salivary protein 30×10(3) and carbonic anhydrase VI. The phytolith/silicate fraction showed additional stronger interaction with haemoglobin β and lactoperoxidase. Conceivably, the binding of these proteins to the surfaces may contribute to biological processes occurring on them.

  14. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  15. Evaluation of bond strength of self-adhesive cements to dentin with or without application of adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, Daphne Câmara; Batista, Graziela Ribeiro; Silva, Melissa Aline; Rangel, Patrícia Maria; Torres, Carlos Rocha; Fava, Marcelo

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the bond strength of indirect restorations to dentin using self-adhesive cements with and without the application of adhesive systems. Seventy-two bovine incisors were used, in which the buccal surfaces were ground down to expose an area of dentin measuring a minimum of 4 x 4 mm. The indirect resin composite Resilab was used to make 72 blocks, which were cemented onto the dentin surface of the teeth and divided into 4 groups (n = 18): group 1: self-adhesive resin cement BiFix SE, applied according to manufacturer's recommendations; group 2: self-adhesive resin cement RelyX Unicem, used according to manufacturer's recommendations; group 3: etch-and-rinse Solobond M adhesive system + BiFix SE; group 4: etch-and-rinse Single Bond 2 adhesive system + RelyX Unicem. The specimens were sectioned into sticks and subjected to microtensile testing in a universal testing machine (EMIC DL- 200 MF). Data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 5%). The mean values (± standard deviation) obtained for the groups were: group 1: 15.28 (± 8.17)a, group 2: 14.60 (± 5.21)a, group 3: 39.20 (± 9.98)c, group 4: 27.59 (± 6.57)b. Different letters indicate significant differences (ANOVA; p = 0.0000). The application of adhesive systems before self-adhesive cements significantly increased the bond strength to dentin. In group 2, RelyX Unicem associated with the adhesive system Single Bond 2 showed significantly lower mean tensile bond strengths than group 3 (BiFix SE associated with the etch-and-rinse Solobond M adhesive system).

  16. The adhesive strength and initial viscosity of denture adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-Min; Hong, Guang; Dilinuer, Maimaitishawuti; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Gang; Wang, Xin-Zhi; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    To examine the initial viscosity and adhesive strength of modern denture adhesives in vitro. Three cream-type denture adhesives (Poligrip S, Corect Cream, Liodent Cream; PGS, CRC, LDC) and three powder-type denture adhesives (Poligrip Powder, New Faston, Zanfton; PGP, FSN, ZFN) were used in this study. The initial viscosity was measured using a controlled-stress rheometer. The adhesive strength was measured according to ISO-10873 recommended procedures. All data were analyzed independently by one-way analysis of variance combined with a Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test at a 5% level of significance. The initial viscosity of all the cream-type denture adhesives was lower than the powder-type adhesives. Before immersion in water, all the powder-type adhesives exhibited higher adhesive strength than the cream-type adhesives. However, the adhesive strength of cream-type denture adhesives increased significantly and exceeded the powder-type denture adhesives after immersion in water. For powder-type adhesives, the adhesive strength significantly decreased after immersion in water for 60 min, while the adhesive strength of the cream-type adhesives significantly decreased after immersion in water for 180 min. Cream-type denture adhesives have lower initial viscosity and higher adhesive strength than powder type adhesives, which may offer better manipulation properties and greater efficacy during application.

  17. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemiluminescence by polymorphonuclear leukocytes adhering to surfaces.

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, M.; Quie, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    Stimulation of the plasma membranes of granulocytes results in an oxidative metabolic response. This response can be measured by measuring the reduction of oxidizable substrates, such as Nitro Blue Tetrazolium, as well as by measuring the energy released as light (chemiluminescence). While investigating the oxidative response of human granulocytes, we observed a marked variation in the chemiluminescence response when leukocytes were suspended in a balanced salt solution without gelatin or any...

  19. A leukocyte cryopreservation technique for cytogenetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte José Maurício Barbanti

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Several culture, cryopreservation, freezing and thawing methods were tested to develop an efficient technique for storing cervid and ovine leukocytes. The best results were obtained with McCoy or Vega y Martinez (VYM solution with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, horse serum and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP as cryopreservatives. The best protocol for freezing was 4°C for 30 min followed by 15 min in liquid nitrogen vapor. To thaw, the still frozen material was placed onto cultivation medium for propagation.

  20. [Adhesion molecules and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierres, A; Benoliel, A M; Bongrand, P

    1999-12-01

    This review was aimed at summarizing recent advances in the understanding of cell adhesion in order to discuss the possible relevance of new knowledge to the exploration of cancer patients and elaboration of therapeutic strategies. During the last 10 years, many adhesion molecules were identified, thus allowing to determine their tissue distribution and functional regulation. The concept of adhesiveness was refined. It is now well known that adhesive rate (i.e., the minimal contact time required for bond formation) and binding strength (i.e., the minimal force required to detach bound cells) are distinct parameters. They may be regulated independently, and influence the cell behavior in different ways. It is now possible to achieve accurate control of tumor cell adhesiveness, either by inhibiting an adhesive mechanism (through monoclonal antibodies, competitive ligands, or inhibition of receptor expression with antisense strategy or gene knock-out) or by promoting a binding mechanism (with receptor transfection or pro-inflammatory stimulation). Recent progress opens new possibilities for diagnosis and treatment. First, the interpretation of experimental data may be improved. Cell adhesive behavior is not entirely accounted for by the density of membrane adhesion receptors. Indeed, adhesion is influenced by receptor connection to the cytoskeleton and structure of the cell coat. An adhesion receptor may be anti-metastatic through an increase in tumor cohesion and cell differentiation, or pro-metastatic, through facilitation of cell migration towards a target tissue. New therapeutic strategies may include anti-adhesive procedure aimed at preventing metastasis formation. The potential importance of a better control of inflammatory processes is also emphasized in view of the influence of these processes on the expression of adhesion molecules.

  1. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  2. Adhesion at metal interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A basic adhesion process is defined, the theory of the properties influencing metallic adhesion is outlined, and theoretical approaches to the interface problem are presented, with emphasis on first-principle calculations as well as jellium-model calculations. The computation of the energies of adhesion as a function of the interfacial separation is performed; fully three-dimensional calculations are presented, and universality in the shapes of the binding energy curves is considered. An embedded-atom method and equivalent-crystal theory are covered in the framework of issues involved in practical adhesion.

  3. Gecko adhesion: evolutionary nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autumn, Kellar; Gravish, Nick

    2008-05-13

    If geckos had not evolved, it is possible that humans would never have invented adhesive nanostructures. Geckos use millions of adhesive setae on their toes to climb vertical surfaces at speeds of over 1ms-1. Climbing presents a significant challenge for an adhesive in requiring both strong attachment and easy rapid removal. Conventional pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are either strong and difficult to remove (e.g. duct tape) or weak and easy to remove (e.g. sticky notes). The gecko adhesive differs dramatically from conventional adhesives. Conventional PSAs are soft viscoelastic polymers that degrade, foul, self-adhere and attach accidentally to inappropriate surfaces. In contrast, gecko toes bear angled arrays of branched, hair-like setae formed from stiff, hydrophobic keratin that act as a bed of angled springs with similar effective elastic modulus to that of PSAs. Setae are self-cleaning and maintain function for months during repeated use in dirty conditions. Setae are an anisotropic 'frictional adhesive' in that adhesion requires maintenance of a proximally directed shear load, enabling either a tough bond or spontaneous detachment. Gecko-like synthetic adhesives may become the glue of the future-and perhaps the screw of the future as well.

  4. Bovine CCL28 Mediates Chemotaxis via CCR10 and Demonstrates Direct Antimicrobial Activity against Mastitis Causing Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyler B Pallister

    Full Text Available In addition to the well characterized function of chemokines in mediating the homing and accumulation of leukocytes to tissues, some chemokines also exhibit potent antimicrobial activity. Little is known of the potential role of chemokines in bovine mammary gland health and disease. The chemokine CCL28 has previously been shown to play a key role in the homing and accumulation of IgA antibody secreting cells to the lactating murine mammary gland. CCL28 has also been shown to act as an antimicrobial peptide with activity demonstrated against a wide range of pathogens including bacteria, fungi and protozoans. Here we describe the cloning and function of bovine CCL28 and document the concentration of this chemokine in bovine milk. Bovine CCL28 was shown to mediate cellular chemotaxis via the CCR10 chemokine receptor and exhibited antimicrobial activity against a variety of bovine mastitis causing organisms. The concentration of bovine CCL28 in milk was found to be highly correlated with the lactation cycle. Highest concentrations of CCL28 were observed soon after parturition, with levels decreasing over time. These results suggest a potential role for CCL28 in the prevention/resolution of bovine mastitis.

  5. Identification and characterisation of human Junctional Adhesion Molecule (JAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L A; Martin-Padura, I; Dejana, E; Hogg, N; Simmons, D L

    1999-12-01

    It is widely believed that migrating immune cells utilise the intercellular junctions as routes of passage, and in doing so cause the transient disruption of junctional structures. Thus there is much interest in the molecules that have been identified at cell-cell contact points and their potential involvement in the control of leukocyte diapedesis. In this report we describe the human orthologue to Junctional Adhesion Molecule (JAM), a recently identified member of the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed at intercellular junctions (Martin-Padura et al., 1998). The human protein shares a highly conserved structure and sequence with the murine protein. However it is distinct in that it is constitutively expressed on circulating neutrophils, monocytes, platelets and lymphocyte subsets. This broad expression pattern is similar to another IgSF molecule, CD31, expressed at intercellular junctions, and may indicate further complexities in the control of leukocyte/ endothelial interactions.

  6. β-Galactosidase Deficiency in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Uribe PhD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available β-Galactosidase (BGal is the first enzyme involved in the catabolism of sphingolipids. Two pathologies have been directly associated with its deficiency: GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio B. Morquio B is among the rarest types of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS. We aim to document the β-galactosidase deficiency in Colombia. We evaluated leukocytes from 1492 healthy Colombian individuals and 923 patients, referred between 2005 and August 2014. Dried blood spot (DBS samples from the same number of patients were evaluated. β-Galactosidase was measured with 4-methylumbelliferyl-β- d -galactoside. As a control enzyme, the total hexosaminidase activity was also evaluated. We identified 14 patients with GM1 gangliosidosis, 5 patients with Morquio B, and 1 patient with I-cell disease. We could establish a reference value for Bgal in Colombian leukocyte samples. GM1 gangliosidosis is the main pathology associated with a direct deficiency of BGal. The high number of patients found with MPS IVB indicates that there are patients who could be misdiagnosed due to an unawareness of the disease.

  7. In Vivo Imaging of Leukocyte Recruitment to the Atheroprone Femoral Artery Reveals Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rosuvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Mizuko; Hagita, Sumihiko; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To monitor the anti-inflammatory effect of rosuvastatin in leukocyte endothelial interactions in the atheroprone femoral artery in vivo. Methods and Results. Male Apolipoprotein E null mice (ApoE−/− mice, 6 weeks old) were fed a high-fat diet (20% fat, 1.25% cholesterol) with or without the HMG CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks. Significant leukocyte adhesion was observed in the femoral artery of ApoE−/− mice, but not of wild type mice, in the absence of rosuvastatin. Interestingly, no obvious plaque formation was observed in the artery at this time point. The number of adherent leukocytes was dramatically diminished in ApoE−/− mice treated with rosuvastatin. DHE-associated oxidative stress and the expression of gp91-phox, a component of NADPH oxidase, were induced in ApoE−/− mice and were abolished by rosuvastatin treatment. Conclusion. Our data documented leukocyte recruitment prior to lipid accumulation and subsequent inhibition by rosuvastatin. The underlying mechanism seemed to involve oxidative stress and an anti-inflammatory effect on the endothelium of atheroprone vessels. PMID:23509822

  8. Rapid neutrophil adhesion to activated endothelium mediated by GMP-140.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, J G; Bevilacqua, M P; Moore, K L; McIntyre, T M; Prescott, S M; Kim, J M; Bliss, G A; Zimmerman, G A; McEver, R P

    1990-02-22

    Granule membrane protein-140 (GMP-140), a membrane glycoprotein of platelet and endothelial cell secretory granules, is rapidly redistributed to the plasma membrane during cellular activation and degranulation. Also known as PADGEM protein, GMP-140 is structurally related to two molecules involved in leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium: ELAM-1, a cytokine-inducible endothelial cell receptor for neutrophils, and the MEL-14 lymphocyte homing receptor. These three proteins define a new gene family, termed selectins, each of which contains an N-terminal lectin domain, followed by an epidermal growth factor-like module, a variable number of repeating units related to those in complement-binding proteins, a transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. Here we demonstrate that GMP-140 can mediate leukocyte adhesion, thus establishing a functional similarity with the other selectins. Human neutrophils and promyelocytic HL-60 cells bind specifically to COS cells transfected with GMP-140 complementary DNA and to microtitre wells coated with purified GMP-140. Cell binding does not require active neutrophil metabolism but is dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Within minutes after stimulation with phorbol esters or histamine, human endothelial cells become adhesive for neutrophils; this interaction is inhibited by antibodies to GMP-140. Thus, GMP-140 expressed by activated endothelium might promote rapid neutrophil targeting to sites of acute inflammation.

  9. Real-time imaging reveals the dynamics of leukocyte behaviour during experimental cerebral malaria pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saparna Pai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During experimental cerebral malaria (ECM mice develop a lethal neuropathological syndrome associated with microcirculatory dysfunction and intravascular leukocyte sequestration. The precise spatio-temporal context in which the intravascular immune response unfolds is incompletely understood. We developed a 2-photon intravital microscopy (2P-IVM-based brain-imaging model to monitor the real-time behaviour of leukocytes directly within the brain vasculature during ECM. Ly6C(hi monocytes, but not neutrophils, started to accumulate in the blood vessels of Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA-infected MacGreen mice, in which myeloid cells express GFP, one to two days prior to the onset of the neurological signs (NS. A decrease in the rolling speed of monocytes, a measure of endothelial cell activation, was associated with progressive worsening of clinical symptoms. Adoptive transfer experiments with defined immune cell subsets in recombinase activating gene (RAG-1-deficient mice showed that these changes were mediated by Plasmodium-specific CD8(+ T lymphocytes. A critical number of CD8(+ T effectors was required to induce disease and monocyte adherence to the vasculature. Depletion of monocytes at the onset of disease symptoms resulted in decreased lymphocyte accumulation, suggesting reciprocal effects of monocytes and T cells on their recruitment within the brain. Together, our studies define the real-time kinetics of leukocyte behaviour in the central nervous system during ECM, and reveal a significant role for Plasmodium-specific CD8(+ T lymphocytes in regulating vascular pathology in this disease.

  10. Real-Time Imaging Reveals the Dynamics of Leukocyte Behaviour during Experimental Cerebral Malaria Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Saparna; Qin, Jim; Cavanagh, Lois; Mitchell, Andrew; El-Assaad, Fatima; Jain, Rohit; Combes, Valery; Hunt, Nicholas H.; Grau, Georges E. R.; Weninger, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    During experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) mice develop a lethal neuropathological syndrome associated with microcirculatory dysfunction and intravascular leukocyte sequestration. The precise spatio-temporal context in which the intravascular immune response unfolds is incompletely understood. We developed a 2-photon intravital microscopy (2P-IVM)-based brain-imaging model to monitor the real-time behaviour of leukocytes directly within the brain vasculature during ECM. Ly6Chi monocytes, but not neutrophils, started to accumulate in the blood vessels of Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-infected MacGreen mice, in which myeloid cells express GFP, one to two days prior to the onset of the neurological signs (NS). A decrease in the rolling speed of monocytes, a measure of endothelial cell activation, was associated with progressive worsening of clinical symptoms. Adoptive transfer experiments with defined immune cell subsets in recombinase activating gene (RAG)-1-deficient mice showed that these changes were mediated by Plasmodium-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes. A critical number of CD8+ T effectors was required to induce disease and monocyte adherence to the vasculature. Depletion of monocytes at the onset of disease symptoms resulted in decreased lymphocyte accumulation, suggesting reciprocal effects of monocytes and T cells on their recruitment within the brain. Together, our studies define the real-time kinetics of leukocyte behaviour in the central nervous system during ECM, and reveal a significant role for Plasmodium-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in regulating vascular pathology in this disease. PMID:25033406

  11. Fibronectin connecting segment-1 peptide inhibits pathogenic leukocyte trafficking and inflammatory demyelination in experimental models of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chaoling; Greathouse, Kelsey M; Beacham, Rebecca L; Palladino, Steven P; Helton, E Scott; Ubogu, Eroboghene E

    2017-06-01

    The molecular determinants of pathogenic leukocyte migration across the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) are unknown. Specific disease modifying therapies for CIDP are also lacking. Fibronectin connecting segment-1 (FNCS1), an alternatively spliced fibronectin variant expressed by microvascular endothelial cells at sites of inflammation in vitro and in situ, is a counterligand for leukocyte α4 integrin (also known as CD49d) implicated in pathogenic leukocyte trafficking in multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. We sought to determine the role of FNCS1 in CIDP patient leukocyte trafficking across the BNB in vitro and in severe chronic demyelinating neuritis in vivo using a representative spontaneous murine CIDP model. Peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from 7 untreated CIDP patients were independently infused into a cytokine-treated, flow-dependent in vitro BNB model system. Time-lapse digital video microscopy was performed to visualize and quantify leukocyte trafficking, comparing FNCS1 peptide blockade to relevant controls. Fifty 24-week old female B7-2 deficient non-obese diabetic mice with spontaneous autoimmune peripheral polyneuropathy (SAPP) were treated daily with 2mg/kg FNCS1 peptide for 5days via intraperitoneal injection with appropriate controls. Neurobehavioral measures of disease severity, motor nerve electrophysiology assessments and histopathological quantification of inflammation and morphometric assessment of demyelination were performed to determine in vivo efficacy. The biological relevance of FNCS1 and CD49d in CIDP was evaluated by immunohistochemical detection in affected patient sural nerve biopsies. 25μM FNCS1 peptide maximally inhibited CIDP leukocyte trafficking at the human BNB in vitro. FNCS1 peptide treatment resulted in significant improvements in disease severity, motor electrophysiological parameters of demyelination and histological measures of

  12. Blood leukocyte and spleen lymphocyte immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.A.; Sothmann, M.; Wehrenberg, W.B. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic physical activity on the immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters. Animals were kept sedentary or allowed to exercise spontaneously on running wheels for eight weeks. Physically active animals averaged 12 kilometers per day. The immune response of spleen lymphocytes whole blood leukocytes was evaluated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in response to Concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. There was no treatment effect between physically active and sedentary hamster in response of spleen lymphocytes. The immune response of whole blood leukocytes to these mitogens was significantly greater in physically active vs. sedentary hamsters. These results demonstrate that chronic physical activity has the capacity to modulate immunoresponses.

  13. RNA-seq Transcriptional Profiling of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes from Cattle Infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Kirsten E.; Nalpas, Nicolas C.; Rue-Albrecht, Kévin; Browne, John A.; Magee, David A.; Killick, Kate E.; Park, Stephen D. E.; Hokamp, Karsten; Meade, Kieran G.; O’Farrelly, Cliona; Gormley, Eamonn; Gordon, Stephen V.; MacHugh, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis, is a major endemic disease affecting cattle populations worldwide, despite the implementation of stringent surveillance and control programs in many countries. The development of high-throughput functional genomics technologies, including gene expression microarrays and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), has enabled detailed analysis of the host transcriptome to M. bovis infection, particularly at the macrophage and peripheral blood level. In the present study, we have analyzed the peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) transcriptome of eight natural M. bovis-infected and eight age- and sex-matched non-infected control Holstein-Friesian animals using RNA-seq. In addition, we compared gene expression profiles generated using RNA-seq with those previously generated using the high-density Affymetrix® GeneChip® Bovine Genome Array platform from the same PBL-extracted RNA. A total of 3,250 differentially expressed (DE) annotated genes were detected in the M. bovis-infected samples relative to the controls (adjusted P-value ≤0.05), with the number of genes displaying decreased relative expression (1,671) exceeding those with increased relative expression (1,579). Ingenuity® Systems Pathway Analysis (IPA) of all DE genes revealed enrichment for genes with immune function. Notably, transcriptional suppression was observed among several of the top-ranking canonical pathways including Leukocyte Extravasation Signaling. Comparative platform analysis demonstrated that RNA-seq detected a larger number of annotated DE genes (3,250) relative to the microarray (1,398), of which 917 genes were common to both technologies and displayed the same direction of expression. Finally, we show that RNA-seq had an increased dynamic range compared to the microarray for estimating differential gene expression. PMID:25206354

  14. A New Approach to Determining the Rates of Recruitment of Circulating Leukocytes into Tissues: Application to the Measurement of Leukocyte Recruitment into Atherosclerotic Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Daniel; Khoo, John C.; Glass, Christopher K.; Palinski, Wulf; Almazan, Felicidad

    1997-04-01

    Recruitment of circulating monocytes into the artery wall is an important feature of early atherogenesis. In vitro studies have identified a number of adhesion molecules and chemokines that may control this process but very little work has been done to evaluate their relative importance in vivo, in part because there have been no methods available of sufficient sensitivity and reliability. This paper proposes a new approach in which advantage is taken of naturally occurring or transgenically induced mutations to ``mark'' donor cells and to follow their fate in recipient animals using highly sensitive PCR methods. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by preliminary studies of monocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions. However, the method should in principle be applicable to the study of any of the circulating leukocytes and their rate of entry into any tissue or tissues of interest.

  15. The leukocyte-stiffening property of plasma in early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) revealed by a microfluidic single-cell study: the role of cytokines and protection with antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preira, Pascal; Forel, Jean-Marie; Robert, Philippe; Nègre, Paulin; Biarnes-Pelicot, Martine; Xeridat, Francois; Bongrand, Pierre; Papazian, Laurent; Theodoly, Olivier

    2016-01-12

    Leukocyte-mediated pulmonary inflammation is a key pathophysiological mechanism involved in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Massive sequestration of leukocytes in the pulmonary microvasculature is a major triggering event of the syndrome. We therefore investigated the potential role of leukocyte stiffness and adhesiveness in the sequestration of leukocytes in microvessels. This study was based on in vitro microfluidic assays using patient sera. Cell stiffness was assessed by measuring the entry time (ET) of a single cell into a microchannel with a 6 × 9-μm cross-section under a constant pressure drop (ΔP = 160 Pa). Primary neutrophils and monocytes, as well as the monocytic THP-1 cell line, were used. Cellular adhesiveness to human umbilical vein endothelial cells was examined using the laminar flow chamber method. We compared the properties of cells incubated with the sera of healthy volunteers (n = 5), patients presenting with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE; n = 6), and patients with ARDS (n = 22), of whom 13 were classified as having moderate to severe disease and the remaining 9 as having mild disease. Rapid and strong stiffening of primary neutrophils and monocytes was induced within 30 minutes (mean ET >50 seconds) by sera from the ARDS group compared with both the healthy subjects and the ACPE groups (mean ET respiratory status (mean ET 0.82 ± 0.08 seconds for healthy subjects, 1.6 ± 1.0 seconds for ACPE groups, 10.5 ± 6.1 seconds for mild ARDS, and 20.0 ± 8.1 seconds for moderate to severe ARDS; p < 0.05). Stiffening correlated with the cytokines interleukin IL-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor TNF-α, and IL-10 but not with interferon-γ, transforming growth factor-β, IL-6, or IL-17. Strong stiffening was induced by IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α but not by IL-10, and incubations with sera and blocking antibodies against IL-1β, IL-8, or TNF-α significantly diminished the stiffening effect of serum. In contrast, the measurements of

  16. Single Cell Adhesion Assay Using Computer Controlled Micropipette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salánki, Rita; Hős, Csaba; Orgovan, Norbert; Péter, Beatrix; Sándor, Noémi; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna; Horvath, Robert; Szabó, Bálint

    2014-01-01

    Cell adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon vital for all multicellular organisms. Recognition of and adhesion to specific macromolecules is a crucial task of leukocytes to initiate the immune response. To gain statistically reliable information of cell adhesion, large numbers of cells should be measured. However, direct measurement of the adhesion force of single cells is still challenging and today’s techniques typically have an extremely low throughput (5–10 cells per day). Here, we introduce a computer controlled micropipette mounted onto a normal inverted microscope for probing single cell interactions with specific macromolecules. We calculated the estimated hydrodynamic lifting force acting on target cells by the numerical simulation of the flow at the micropipette tip. The adhesion force of surface attached cells could be accurately probed by repeating the pick-up process with increasing vacuum applied in the pipette positioned above the cell under investigation. Using the introduced methodology hundreds of cells adhered to specific macromolecules were measured one by one in a relatively short period of time (∼30 min). We blocked nonspecific cell adhesion by the protein non-adhesive PLL-g-PEG polymer. We found that human primary monocytes are less adherent to fibrinogen than their in vitro differentiated descendants: macrophages and dendritic cells, the latter producing the highest average adhesion force. Validation of the here introduced method was achieved by the hydrostatic step-pressure micropipette manipulation technique. Additionally the result was reinforced in standard microfluidic shear stress channels. Nevertheless, automated micropipette gave higher sensitivity and less side-effect than the shear stress channel. Using our technique, the probed single cells can be easily picked up and further investigated by other techniques; a definite advantage of the computer controlled micropipette. Our experiments revealed the existence of a sub

  17. Single cell adhesion assay using computer controlled micropipette.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Salánki

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon vital for all multicellular organisms. Recognition of and adhesion to specific macromolecules is a crucial task of leukocytes to initiate the immune response. To gain statistically reliable information of cell adhesion, large numbers of cells should be measured. However, direct measurement of the adhesion force of single cells is still challenging and today's techniques typically have an extremely low throughput (5-10 cells per day. Here, we introduce a computer controlled micropipette mounted onto a normal inverted microscope for probing single cell interactions with specific macromolecules. We calculated the estimated hydrodynamic lifting force acting on target cells by the numerical simulation of the flow at the micropipette tip. The adhesion force of surface attached cells could be accurately probed by repeating the pick-up process with increasing vacuum applied in the pipette positioned above the cell under investigation. Using the introduced methodology hundreds of cells adhered to specific macromolecules were measured one by one in a relatively short period of time (∼30 min. We blocked nonspecific cell adhesion by the protein non-adhesive PLL-g-PEG polymer. We found that human primary monocytes are less adherent to fibrinogen than their in vitro differentiated descendants: macrophages and dendritic cells, the latter producing the highest average adhesion force. Validation of the here introduced method was achieved by the hydrostatic step-pressure micropipette manipulation technique. Additionally the result was reinforced in standard microfluidic shear stress channels. Nevertheless, automated micropipette gave higher sensitivity and less side-effect than the shear stress channel. Using our technique, the probed single cells can be easily picked up and further investigated by other techniques; a definite advantage of the computer controlled micropipette. Our experiments revealed the existence of a

  18. Effect of pre-etching enamel on fatigue of self-etch adhesive bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erickson, R.L.; de Gee, A.J.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. A previous study found that the shear bond strength (SBS) to bovine enamel for the self-etching adhesive Adper Prompt-L-Pop (PLP) was 75% of that found with the etch-and-rinse material SingleBond, while the comparative value for the shear fatigue limit (SFL) was only 58% at 10(5) load

  19. Mutation in the CD45 inhibitory wedge modulates integrin activation and leukocyte recruitment during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germena, Giulia; Volmering, Stephanie; Sohlbach, Charlotte; Zarbock, Alexander

    2015-01-15

    Neutrophil recruitment to the site of inflammation plays a pivotal role in host defense. Src family kinases (SFKs) activation is required for integrin and chemokine signaling as well as immune cell function. The receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 positively regulates chemoattractant signaling acting on SFK activity. To further investigate the role of CD45 in neutrophil recruitment and function, we analyzed transgenic mice carrying a single point mutation (CD45E613R), which constitutively activates CD45. By using intravital microscopy experiments, we demonstrated that different steps of the leukocyte recruitment cascade were affected in CD45E613R mutant mice. The rolling velocity of CD45E613R mutant neutrophils was decreased compared with wild-type neutrophils that subsequently resulted in an increased number of adherent cells. The analysis of β2 integrins LFA-1 and macrophage-1 Ag (Mac-1) showed that in CD45E613R mutant neutrophils LFA-1 adhesiveness was impaired, and avidity was enhanced, whereas Mac-1 adhesiveness was increased. Because of the increased Mac-1 adhesiveness, neutrophil crawling was impaired in CD45E613R mutant compared with wild-type neutrophils. In an Escherichia coli lung infection model, CD45E613R mice displayed a decreased neutrophil recruitment into the alveolar compartment, which resulted in an increased number of CFUs in the lung. Our data demonstrate that the CD45E613R mutation modulates integrin activation and leukocyte recruitment during inflammation. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Regulation of Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule Expression by Mast Cells, Macrophages, and Neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Alcaide, Pilar; Liu, Li; Sun, Jiusong; He, Aina; Luscinskas, Francis W.; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium and subsequent transendothelial migration play essential roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The leukocyte adhesion is mediated by localized activation of the endothelium through the action of inflammatory cytokines. The exact proinflammatory factors, however, that activate the endothelium and their cellular sources remain incompletely defined. Methods and Results Using bone marrow-derived mast cells from wild-type, Tnf−/−, Ifng−/−, Il6−/− mice, we demonstrated that all three of these pro-inflammatory cytokines from mast cells induced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), P-selectin, and E-selectin in murine heart endothelial cells (MHEC) at both mRNA and protein levels. Compared with TNF-α and IL6, IFN-γ appeared weaker in the induction of the mRNA levels, but at protein levels, both IL6 and IFN-γ were weaker inducers than TNF-α. Under physiological shear flow conditions, mast cell-derived TNF-α and IL6 were more potent than IFN-γ in activating MHEC and in promoting neutrophil adhesion. Similar observations were made when neutrophils or macrophages were used. Neutrophils and macrophages produced the same sets of pro-inflammatory cytokines as did mast cells to induce MHEC adhesion molecule expression, with the exception that macrophage-derived IFN-γ showed negligible effect in inducing VCAM-1 expression in MHEC. Conclusion Mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages release pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL6 that induce expression of adhesion molecules in endothelium and recruit of leukocytes, which is essential to the pathogenesis of vascular inflammatory diseases. PMID:21264293

  1. Regulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression by mast cells, macrophages, and neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium and subsequent transendothelial migration play essential roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The leukocyte adhesion is mediated by localized activation of the endothelium through the action of inflammatory cytokines. The exact proinflammatory factors, however, that activate the endothelium and their cellular sources remain incompletely defined.Using bone marrow-derived mast cells from wild-type, Tnf(-/-, Ifng(-/-, Il6(-/- mice, we demonstrated that all three of these pro-inflammatory cytokines from mast cells induced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, P-selectin, and E-selectin in murine heart endothelial cells (MHEC at both mRNA and protein levels. Compared with TNF-α and IL6, IFN-γ appeared weaker in the induction of the mRNA levels, but at protein levels, both IL6 and IFN-γ were weaker inducers than TNF-α. Under physiological shear flow conditions, mast cell-derived TNF-α and IL6 were more potent than IFN-γ in activating MHEC and in promoting neutrophil adhesion. Similar observations were made when neutrophils or macrophages were used. Neutrophils and macrophages produced the same sets of pro-inflammatory cytokines as did mast cells to induce MHEC adhesion molecule expression, with the exception that macrophage-derived IFN-γ showed negligible effect in inducing VCAM-1 expression in MHEC.Mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages release pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL6 that induce expression of adhesion molecules in endothelium and recruit of leukocytes, which is essential to the pathogenesis of vascular inflammatory diseases.

  2. Adhesive compositions and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Sendijarevic, Vahid; O' Connor, James

    2017-12-05

    The present invention encompasses polyurethane adhesive compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane adhesives derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure:. In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive polyurethane compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.

  3. adhesive intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... ABSTRACT. Background: Adhesions after abdominal and pelvic surgery are a major cause of intestinal obstruction in the western world and the pathology is steadily gaining prominence in our practice. Objective: To determine the magnitude of adhesive intestinal obstruction; to determine the types.

  4. Functionally Graded Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    commonly used fillers (6). Titanium dioxide is used to add pigment to an adhesive (7). Fumed silica is employed as a rheology modifier (8). The goal of...provide pigment , increase volume, lower cost, modify 2 strength, and alter adhesive properties (3). Calcium carbonate and talc are inexpensive

  5. Soy protein adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2010-01-01

    In the quest to manufacture and use building materials that are more environmentally friendly, soy adhesives can be an important component. Trees fix and store carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. After the trees are harvested, machinery converts the wood into strands, which are then bonded together with adhesives to form strandboard, used in constructing long-lasting...

  6. Low-Cost Chemical-Responsive Adhesive Sensing Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Weirui; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Wei

    2017-11-20

    Chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chip is a new low-cost analytical platform that uses adhesive tape loaded with indicator reagents to detect or quantify the target analytes by directly sticking the tape to the samples of interest. The chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chips can be used with paper to analyze aqueous samples; they can also be used to detect and quantify solid, particulate, and powder analytes. The colorimetric indicators become immediately visible as the contact between the functionalized adhesives and target samples is made. The chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chip expands the capability of paper-based analytical devices to analyze solid, particulate, or powder materials via one-step operation. It is also a simpler alternative way, to the covalent chemical modification of paper, to eliminate indicator leaching from the dipstick-style paper sensors. Chemical-responsive adhesive chips can display analytical results in the form of colorimetric dot patterns, symbols, and texts, enabling clear understanding of assay results by even nonprofessional users. In this work, we demonstrate the analyses of heavy metal salts in silica powder matrix, heavy metal ions in water, and bovine serum albumin in an aqueous solution. The detection is one-step, specific, sensitive, and easy-to-operate.

  7. Shear bond strength of two adhesive materials to eroded enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Tathiane; Hesse, Daniela; Guglielmi, Camila; Anacleto, Ketlin; Raggio, Daniela Procida

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the bond strength of one etch-and-rinse adhesive system and one resin-modified glass ionomer cement to sound and eroded enamel. Forty-eight bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal enamel surfaces. Half of the specimens were submitted to erosion challenge with pH-cycling model (3x/cola drink for 7 days) to induce eroded enamel. After that, all specimens were randomly assigned according to adhesive material: etch-andrinse adhesive system (Adper Single Bond 2 - 3M ESPE, USA) or resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitro Fil LC - DFL, Brazil). The shear bond testing was performed after 24 hours water storage (0.5 mm/min). Shear bond strength means were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests (p Bond 2 showed the highest bond strength value to eroded enamel (p 0.05). Bond strength of etch-and-rinse adhesive system increases in eroded enamel, while no difference is verified to resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Adhesive materials may be used in eroded enamel without jeopardizing the bonding quality; however it is preferable to use etch-and-rinse adhesive system.

  8. Influence of dentin pretreatment on bond strength of universal adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco; Scribante, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare bond strength of different universal adhesives under three different testing conditions: when no pretreatment was applied, after 37% phosphoric acid etching and after glycine application. Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty bovine permanent mandibular incisors were used as a substitute for human teeth. Five different universal adhesives were tested: Futurabond M+, Scotchbond Universal, Clearfil Universal Bond, G-Premio BOND, Peak Universal Bond. The adhesive systems were applied following each manufacturer's instructions. The teeth were randomly assigned to three different dentin surface pretreatments: no pretreatment agent (control), 37% phosphoric acid etching, glycine pretreatment. The specimens were placed in a universal testing machine in order to measure and compare bond strength values. Results: The Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney test were applied to assess significant differences among the groups. Dentin pretreatments provided different bond strength values for the adhesives tested, while similar values were registered in groups without dentin pretreatment. Conclusions: In the present report, dentin surface pretreatment did not provide significant differences in shear bond strength values of almost all groups. Acid pretreatment lowered bond strength values of Futurabond and Peak Universal Adhesives, whereas glycine pretreatment increased bond strength values of G Praemio Bond adhesive system.

  9. The host defense proteome of human and bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinga, Kasper; van Valenberg, Hein; de Vries, Sacco; Boeren, Sjef; van Hooijdonk, Toon; van Arendonk, Johan; Vervoort, Jacques

    2011-04-27

    Milk is the single source of nutrients for the newborn mammal. The composition of milk of different mammals has been adapted during evolution of the species to fulfill the needs of the offspring. Milk not only provides nutrients, but it also serves as a medium for transfer of host defense components to the offspring. The host defense proteins in the milk of different mammalian species are expected to reveal signatures of evolution. The aim of this study is therefore to study the difference in the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk. We analyzed human and bovine milk using a shot-gun proteomics approach focusing on host defense-related proteins. In total, 268 proteins in human milk and 269 proteins in bovine milk were identified. Of these, 44 from human milk and 51 from bovine milk are related to the host defense system. Of these proteins, 33 were found in both species but with significantly different quantities. High concentrations of proteins involved in the mucosal immune system, immunoglobulin A, CD14, lactoferrin, and lysozyme, were present in human milk. The human newborn is known to be deficient for at least two of these proteins (immunoglobulin A and CD14). On the other hand, antimicrobial proteins (5 cathelicidins and lactoperoxidase) were abundant in bovine milk. The high concentration of lactoperoxidase is probably linked to the high amount of thiocyanate in the plant-based diet of cows. This first detailed analysis of host defense proteins in human and bovine milk is an important step in understanding the function of milk in the development of the immune system of these two mammals.

  10. IL-4 increases human endothelial cell adhesiveness for T cells but not for neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, M H; Kyan-Aung, U; Haskard, D O

    1990-04-15

    The adhesion of leukocytes to vascular endothelium is the first step in their passage from the blood into inflammatory tissues. By modulating endothelial cell (EC) adhesiveness for leukocytes, cytokines may regulate leukocyte accumulation and hence the nature and progression of inflammatory responses. We have found that the T cell cytokine IL-4 increases the adhesion of T cells, but not neutrophils, to human umbilical vein EC monolayers. The increase in T cell adhesion induced by IL-4 was dose dependent (ED50 = 5 U/ml) and peaked around 33 U/ml. No increase in adhesion of neutrophils was observed at concentrations of IL-4 up to 1000 U/ml. The kinetic of the increase in T cell adhesion exhibited a steady rise peaking between 18 and 24 h before returning to basal levels by 72 h. The IL-4 specificity of the effect was confirmed by the ability of neutralizing anti-IL-4, but not anti-TNF, antibodies to abolish the effect. The increase in T cell-EC adhesion was due to an effect of IL-4 on EC inasmuch as preincubation of the T cells with IL-4 did not increase T cell binding. Furthermore, preincubation of A549 epithelial cell line monolayers with IL-4 caused no increase in T cell binding whereas A549 cells and EC showed a similarly enhanced adhesiveness for T cells after preincubation with IL-1, TNF, or IFN-gamma. EC treated with IL-4 retained their increased adhesiveness for T cells after light fixation, suggesting that IL-4 up-regulates binding by increasing the expression or accessibility of EC surface receptors for lymphocytes. Although antibodies to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (CD54) and the beta-chain (CD18) of lymphocyte function-associated Ag-1 (CD11a/CD18) partially inhibited T cell adhesion to unstimulated EC, they did not affect the increase in adhesion due to IL-4 stimulation, indicating that the increased binding resulted from the generation of an alternative binding receptor(s) on the EC membrane. These findings suggest that IL-4 may play a role in the

  11. Delayed phase of hematoporphyrin-induced phototoxicity: modulation by complement, leukocytes, and antihistamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, H.W.; Young, L.; Hagan, M.; Gigli, I.

    1985-02-01

    The role of complement, leukocytes, and histamine was investigated in the delayed phase of hematoporphyrin-induced phototoxicity in guinea pigs. The phototoxic response was quantified by the accumulation of intravenously injected (/sup 125/I)bovine serum albumin in the skin. There was a greater than 6-fold increase in the vascular response at the completion of irradiation, which subsided partially to reach a plateau of twice the preirradiation level between 0.5 h and 12 h. At 18 h, the vascular responsiveness returned to the baseline value. The 7 h timepoint was selected in this study to evaluate the modulation of the delayed phase. In complement-depleted guinea pigs, as well as in leukopenic animals, the enhancement in the vascular response was significantly suppressed (p vs control, less than 0.0001 and 0.0022, respectively). Cimetidine, when administered prior to irradiation, significantly suppressed the phototoxic response (p vs control, 0.0365). The combination of diphenhydramine and cimetidine, administered 6 h after the induction of phototoxicity, also suppressed the vascular response (p vs control, less than 0.0001). These data indicate that the expression of the delayed phase of hematoporphyrin-induced phototoxicity, similar to the early phase, requires the presence of an intact complement system, leukocytes, and histamine.

  12. Carbohydrate mediated bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Roland J

    2011-01-01

    In the process of adhesion, bacteria often carry proteins on their surface, adhesins, that bind to specific components of tissue cells or the extracellular matrix. In many cases these components are carbohydrate structures. The carbohydrate binding specificities of many bacteria have been uncovered over the years. The design and synthesis of inhibitors of bacterial adhesion has the potential to create new therapeutics for the prevention and possibly treatment of bacterial infections. Unfortunately, the carbohydrate structures often bind only weakly to the adhesion proteins, although drug design approaches can improve the situation. Furthermore, in some cases linking carbohydrates covalently together, to create so-called multivalent systems, can also significantly enhance the inhibitory potency. Besides adhesion inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy, the adhesion proteins can also be used for detection. Novel methods to do this are being developed. These include the use of microarrays and glyconanoparticles. New developments in these areas are discussed.

  13. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach...... that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  14. Biophysics of cadherin adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckband, Deborah; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi

    2012-01-01

    Since the identification of cadherins and the publication of the first crystal structures, the mechanism of cadherin adhesion, and the underlying structural basis have been studied with a number of different experimental techniques, different classical cadherin subtypes, and cadherin fragments. Earlier studies based on biophysical measurements and structure determinations resulted in seemingly contradictory findings regarding cadherin adhesion. However, recent experimental data increasingly reveal parallels between structures, solution binding data, and adhesion-based biophysical measurements that are beginning to both reconcile apparent differences and generate a more comprehensive model of cadherin-mediated cell adhesion. This chapter summarizes the functional, structural, and biophysical findings relevant to cadherin junction assembly and adhesion. We emphasize emerging parallels between findings obtained with different experimental approaches. Although none of the current models accounts for all of the available experimental and structural data, this chapter discusses possible origins of apparent discrepancies, highlights remaining gaps in current knowledge, and proposes challenges for further study.

  15. Ultramorphology of pre-treated adhesive interfaces between self-adhesive resin cement and tooth structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Nemesio de Barros PEREIRA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Convencional resin cements can be used in combination with a total-etch system in a conventional mode or as self-adhesive resin cements. The latter are less technique sensitive and able to bond to dental tissues without previous treatment or adhesive layer and requires only a single step to be applied to dental structures. Objective To compare qualitatively the adhesive interfaces of two self-adhesive resin cements and one conventional resin cement after different tooth surface treatments under scanning electron microscopy. Material and method 42 crowns of bovine incisors were sectioned and flattened exposing enamel (E or dentine (D substrate. Subgroups were defined according to conditioning type and time: E1—no treatment, E2—37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds, E3—37% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds; D1—no treatment, D2—37% phosphoric acid for 5 seconds; D3—11.5% polyacrylic acid for 15 seconds. A resin block was bonded to each substrate using the self-adhesive resin cements RelyX U100 (3M ESPE and RelyX U200 (3M ESPE. As a reference hybrid layer, six resin blocks were luted with RelyX ARC and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive system (3M ESPE (enamel—EA; dentine—DA. After aging for 7 days in a moist environment at 37±1°C, samples were prepared for microscopy analysis. Result and Discussion In the ARC specimens, there was hybrid layer formation in both EA and DA. U100 E1 showed gaps at the adhesive interface, while E2 and E3 showed interaction for both self-adhesive cements. There was superficial interaction with bothU100 and U200 in D1, while in D2 and D3, resin tags were only observed in the case of U100. Conclusion It was concluded that substrate conditioning may enhance the interaction between self-adhesive resin cements and dental tissues, although this is not the case for RelyX U200 and dentine.

  16. Defects in CD4+ T cell LFA-1 integrin-dependent adhesion and proliferation protect Cd47-/- mice from EAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcutia, Veronica; Bassil, Ribal; Herter, Jan M; Engelbertsen, Daniel; Newton, Gail; Autio, Anu; Mayadas, Tanya; Lichtman, Andrew H; Khoury, Samia J; Parkos, Charles A; Elyaman, Wassim; Luscinskas, Francis W

    2017-02-01

    CD47 is known to play an important role in CD4+ T cell homeostasis. We recently reported a reduction in mice deficient in the Cd47 gene (Cd47-/-) CD4+ T cell adhesion and transendothelial migration (TEM) in vivo and in vitro as a result of impaired expression of high-affinity forms of LFA-1 and VLA-4 integrins. A prior study concluded that Cd47-/- mice were resistant to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a result of complete failure in CD4+ T cell activation after myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55 aa (MOG35-55) immunization. As the prior EAE study was published before our report, authors could not have accounted for defects in T cell integrin function as a mechanism to protect Cd47-/- in EAE. Thus, we hypothesized that failure of T cell activation involved defects in LFA-1 and VLA-4 integrins. We confirmed that Cd47-/- mice were resistant to MOG35-55-induced EAE. Our data, however, supported a different mechanism that was not a result of failure of CD4+ T cell activation. Instead, we found that CD4+ T cells in MOG35-55-immunized Cd47-/- mice were activated, but clonal expansion contracted within 72 h after immunization. We used TCR crosslinking and mitogen activation in vitro to investigate the underlying mechanism. We found that naïve Cd47-/- CD4+ T cells exhibited a premature block in proliferation and survival because of impaired activation of LFA-1, despite effective TCR-induced activation. These results identify CD47 as an important regulator of LFA-1 and VLA-4 integrin-adhesive functions in T cell proliferation, as well as recruitment, and clarify the roles played by CD47 in MOG35-55-induced EAE. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  17. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  18. Transformation by Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Requires Paxillin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ramon; Brimer, Nicole; Vande Pol, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Papillomavirus E6 proteins are adapters that change the function of cellular regulatory proteins. The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E6 (BE6) binds to LXXLL peptide sequences termed LD motifs (consensus sequence LDXLLXXL) on the cellular protein paxillin that is a substrate of Src and focal adhesion kinases. Anchorage-independent transformation induced by BE6 required both paxillin and BE6-binding LD motifs on paxillin but was independent of the major tyrosine phosphorylation sites of paxillin. The essential role of paxillin in transformation by BE6 highlights the role of paxillin in the transduction of cellular signals that result in anchorage-independent cell proliferation. PMID:18385245

  19. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on leukocyte inflammatory gene expression in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perandini, L A; Sales-de-Oliveira, D; Almeida, D C; Azevedo, H; Moreira-Filho, C A; Cenedeze, M A; Benatti, F B; Lima, F R; Borba, E; Bonfa, E; Sa-Pinto, A L; Roschel, H; Camara, N O S; Gualano, B

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a persistent systemic inflammation. Exercise induced inflammatory response in SLE remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of acuteexercise on leukocyte gene expression in active (SLEACTIVE) and inactive SLE (SLEINACTIVE) patients and healthy controls(HC). All subjects (n = 4 per group) performed a 30-min single bout of acute aerobic exercise (~70% of VO2peak) on a treadmill, and blood samples were collected for RNA extraction from circulating leukocyte at baseline, at the end of exercise, and after three hours of recovery. The expression of a panel of immune-related genes was evaluated by a quantitative PCR array assay. Moreover, network-based analyses were performed to interpret transcriptional changes occurring after the exercise challenge. In all groups, a single bout of acute exercise led to the down-regulation of the gene expression of innate and adaptive immunity at the end of exercise (e.g., TLR3, IFNG, GATA3, FOXP3, STAT4) with a subsequent up-regulation occurring upon recovery. Exercise regulated the expression of inflammatory genes in the blood leukocytes of the SLE patients and HC, although the SLE groups exhibited fewer modulated genes and less densely connected networks (number of nodes: 29, 40 and 58; number of edges: 29, 60 and 195; network density: 0.07, 0.08 and 0.12, for SLEACTIVE, SLEINACTIVE and HC, respectively). The leukocytes from the SLE patients, irrespective of disease activity, showed a down-regulated inflammatory geneexpression immediately after acute aerobic exercise, followed by an up-regulation at recovery. Furthermore, less organized gene networks were observed in the SLE patients, suggesting that they may be deficient in triggering a normal exercised-induced immune transcriptional response. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Exercise and Immunology. All rights reserved.

  20. [Relationship between leukocyte count and risk of hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Lu; Hao, Yongchen; Liu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Wang, Miao; Qi, Yue; Zhao, Fan; Xie, Wuxiang; Li, Yan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Jiayi; Qin, Lanping; Zhao, Dong

    2015-04-01

    To observe the association between the leukocyte count and blood pressure value and hypertension risk in a Chinese community-based population. A total of 4 188 participants who took part in the baseline examination in 1992 and the follow-up survey in 2007 from the Chinese Multi-Provincial Cohort Study were included in this study. The relationship of leukocyte and blood pressure value and hypertension risk were evaluated by cross-sectional analyses.The prospective association between baseline leukocyte count and blood pressure changes and risk of hypertension were analyzed in 2 954 normotensive individuals at baseline examination.The associations between leukocyte count and blood pressure was evaluated with Spearman's rank correlation analyses and linear regression models,and the associations between leukocyte count and risk of hypertension was evaluated with logistic regression models. (1) The cross-sectional study results showed that the correlation coefficient of leukocyte count and systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was 0.208 and 0.154 (both P leukocyte count was associated with 1.41 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa) systolic blood pressure increase (95% CI: 1.20-1.63 mmHg, P leukocyte count was associated with a 15% increased risk of hypertension (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.12-1.19, P leukocyte count and systolic blood pressure change and diastolic blood pressure change was 0.062 (P = 0.003) and 0.102 (P leukocyte count was associated with 1.03 mmHg systolic blood pressure increase (95% CI: 0.74-1.32 mmHg, P leukocyte count was associated with a 9% increased risk of incident hypertension (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.06-1.13, P leukocyte count is associated with increased blood pressure value and hypertension among Chinese community-based population, suggesting that inflammation may participate in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  1. Metformin modulates human leukocyte/endothelial cell interactions and proinflammatory cytokines in polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Victor M; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Bañuls, Celia; Diaz-Morales, Noelia; Lopez-Domenech, Sandra; Escribano-López, Irene; Rios-Navarro, Cesar; Alvarez, Angeles; Gomez, Marcelino; Rocha, Milagros; Hernandez-Mijares, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    We aim to assess the effect of metformin treatment on metabolic parameters, endothelial function and inflammatory markers in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) subjects. The study population consisted of 40 reproductive-age women with PCOS, who underwent treatment with metformin during a 12-week period, and their corresponding matched controls (n = 44). We evaluated endocrinological parameters, adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin) and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)) in serum. In addition, interactions between human umbilical vein endothelial cells and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells were assessed by flow chamber microscopy. In addition, a group of type 2 diabetes patients who underwent treatment with metformin during a 12-week period was incorporated into the study. Metformin produced beneficial effects on PCOS patients by decreasing polymorphonuclear (PMN) rolling flux and adhesion. It also decreased levels of ICAM-1, E-selectin, IL-6 and ΤΝFα. In addition, metformin induced an improvement of endocrine and anthropometric parameters in PCOS subjects by reducing glucose, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and androstendione, and by increasing dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S). Metformin also had beneficial effects in type 2 diabetic subjects by reducing body weight, waist circumference and PMN adhesion, and by increasing PMN rolling velocity. Our results highlight the modulating effect of metformin on leukocyte/endothelium interactions. These findings may explain the potential beneficial effect of metformin in reducing the risk of vascular events in PCOS patients and in insulin resistance conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral administration of bovine milk derived extracellular vesicles attenuates arthritis in two mouse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntz, O.J.; Pieters, B.C.; Oliveira, M.C.; Broeren, M.G.A.; Bennink, M.B.; Vries, M. de; Lent, P.L.E.M. van; Koenders, M.I.; Berg, W.B. van den; Kraan, P.M. van der; Loo, F.A.J. van de

    2015-01-01

    SCOPE: This study shows the effect of bovine milk derived extracellular vesicles (BMEVs) on spontaneous polyarthritis in IL-1Ra-deficient mice and collagen-induced arthritis. METHODS AND RESULTS: BMEVs were isolated from semi-skimmed milk by ultracentrifugation and the particle size was around 100

  3. Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein modulates activation of human leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Spirig

    Full Text Available An anti-inflammatory effect of reconstituted High Density Lipoprotein (rHDL has been demonstrated in atherosclerosis and in sepsis models. An increase of adhesion molecules as well as tissue factor expression on endothelial cells in response to inflammatory or danger signals are attenuated by the treatment with rHDL. Here we show the inhibitory effect of rHDL on the activation of human leukocytes in a whole blood assay as well as on monocyte-derived human dendritic cells (DC. Multiplex analysis of human whole blood showed that phytohaemagglutinin (PHA-induced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12(p40, IL-15 and IFN-α was inhibited. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect on the production of the chemokines CCL-2, CCL-4, CCL-5, CXCL-9 and CXCL-10 was observed. Activation of granulocytes and CD14+ monocytes by PHA is inhibited dose-dependently by rHDL shown as decreased up-regulation of ICAM-1 surface expression. In addition, we found a strong inhibitory effect of rHDL on toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2- and TLR4-mediated maturation of DC. Treatment of DC with rHDL prevented the up-regulation of cell surface molecules CD80, CD83 and CD86 and it inhibited the TLR-driven activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. These findings suggest that rHDL prevents activation of crucial cellular players of cellular immunity and could therefore be a useful reagent to impede inflammation as well as the link between innate and adaptive immunity.

  4. Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein modulates activation of human leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Rolf; Schaub, Alexander; Kropf, Alain; Miescher, Sylvia; Spycher, Martin O; Rieben, Robert

    2013-01-01

    An anti-inflammatory effect of reconstituted High Density Lipoprotein (rHDL) has been demonstrated in atherosclerosis and in sepsis models. An increase of adhesion molecules as well as tissue factor expression on endothelial cells in response to inflammatory or danger signals are attenuated by the treatment with rHDL. Here we show the inhibitory effect of rHDL on the activation of human leukocytes in a whole blood assay as well as on monocyte-derived human dendritic cells (DC). Multiplex analysis of human whole blood showed that phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12(p40), IL-15 and IFN-α was inhibited. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect on the production of the chemokines CCL-2, CCL-4, CCL-5, CXCL-9 and CXCL-10 was observed. Activation of granulocytes and CD14+ monocytes by PHA is inhibited dose-dependently by rHDL shown as decreased up-regulation of ICAM-1 surface expression. In addition, we found a strong inhibitory effect of rHDL on toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)- and TLR4-mediated maturation of DC. Treatment of DC with rHDL prevented the up-regulation of cell surface molecules CD80, CD83 and CD86 and it inhibited the TLR-driven activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. These findings suggest that rHDL prevents activation of crucial cellular players of cellular immunity and could therefore be a useful reagent to impede inflammation as well as the link between innate and adaptive immunity.

  5. Mussel adhesion - essential footwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, J Herbert

    2017-02-15

    Robust adhesion to wet, salt-encrusted, corroded and slimy surfaces has been an essential adaptation in the life histories of sessile marine organisms for hundreds of millions of years, but it remains a major impasse for technology. Mussel adhesion has served as one of many model systems providing a fundamental understanding of what is required for attachment to wet surfaces. Most polymer engineers have focused on the use of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (Dopa), a peculiar but abundant catecholic amino acid in mussel adhesive proteins. The premise of this Review is that although Dopa does have the potential for diverse cohesive and adhesive interactions, these will be difficult to achieve in synthetic homologs without a deeper knowledge of mussel biology; that is, how, at different length and time scales, mussels regulate the reactivity of their adhesive proteins. To deposit adhesive proteins onto target surfaces, the mussel foot creates an insulated reaction chamber with extreme reaction conditions such as low pH, low ionic strength and high reducing poise. These conditions enable adhesive proteins to undergo controlled fluid-fluid phase separation, surface adsorption and spreading, microstructure formation and, finally, solidification. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  7. Handbook of adhesion

    CERN Document Server

    Packham, D E

    2006-01-01

    This second edition of the successful Handbook of Adhesion provides concise and authoritative articles covering many aspects of the science and technology associated with adhesion and adhesives. It is intended to fill a gap between the necessarily simplified treatment of the student textbook and the full and thorough treatment of the research monograph and review article. The articles are structured in such a way, with internal cross-referencing and external literature references, that the reader can build up a broader and deeper understanding, as their needs require.This second edition includ

  8. VLCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boneh, A; Andresen, B S; Gregersen, N

    2006-01-01

    We diagnosed six newborn babies with very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) through newborn screening in three years in Victoria (prevalence rate: 1:31,500). We identified seven known and two new mutations in our patients (2/6 homozygotes; 4/6 compound heterozygotes). Blood...... samples taken at age 48-72 h were diagnostic whereas repeat samples at an older age were normal in 4/6 babies. Urine analysis was normal in 5/5. We conclude that the timing of blood sampling for newborn screening is important and that it is important to perform mutation analysis to avoid false......-negative diagnoses of VLCADD in asymptomatic newborn babies. In view of the emerging genotype-phenotype correlation in this disorder, the information derived from mutational analysis can be helpful in designing the appropriate follow-up and therapeutic regime for these patients....

  9. Uncoupling of eNOS contributes to redox-sensitive leukocyte recruitment and microvascular leakage elicited by methylglyoxal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang; Qadri, Syed M; Hossain, Mokarram; Wu, Lingyun; Liu, Lixin

    2013-12-15

    Elevated levels of the glycolysis metabolite methylglyoxal (MG) have been implicated in impaired leukocyte-endothelial interactions and vascular complications in diabetes, putative mechanisms of which remain elusive. Uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was shown to be involved in endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Whether MG contributes to these effects has not been elucidated. By using intravital microscopy in vivo, we demonstrate that MG-triggered reduction in leukocyte rolling velocity and increases in rolling flux, adhesion, emigration and microvascular permeability were significantly abated by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). In murine cremaster muscle, MG treatment reduced tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)/total biopterin ratio, increased arginase expression and stimulated ROS and superoxide production. The latter was significantly blunted by ROS scavengers Tempol (300μM) or MnTBAP (300μM), by BH4 supplementation (100μM) or by NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 20μM). In these tissues and cultured murine and human primary endothelial cells, MG increased eNOS monomerization and decreased BH4/total biopterin ratio, effects that were significantly mitigated by supplementation of BH4 or its precursor sepiapterin but not by L-NAME or tetrahydroneopterin, indicative of MG-triggered eNOS uncoupling. MG treatment further decreased the expression of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I in murine primary endothelial cells. MG-induced leukocyte recruitment was significantly attenuated by supplementation of BH4 or sepiapterin or suppression of superoxide by L-NAME confirming the role of eNOS uncoupling in MG-elicited leukocyte recruitment. Together, our study uncovers eNOS uncoupling as a pivotal mechanism in MG-induced oxidative stress, microvascular hyperpermeability and leukocyte recruitment in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Carnitine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Răşanu, T; Mehedinţi-Hâncu, Mihaela; Alexianu, Marilena; Mehedinţi, T; Gheorghe, Emma; Damian, Irene

    2012-01-01

    We present the case of a female patient, aged 12 years, with fatigability and exertional myalgias, progressively developed within the last two years. Negative family history, as well as negative personal medical history, were found. At physical examination, short stature, proximal muscle weakness and mild hepatomegaly were noted. Urine ketones level was slightly decreased, serum transaminases, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were increased. Electromyographical examination showed a myopathic non-specific pattern. Deltoid muscle biopsy revealed: small, clear vesicles are present on Hematoxylin-Eosin and modified Gömöri trichrome stains; modified Gömöri trichrome stain also revealed muscle fibers (especially type I of muscle fibers) having mild to moderate mitochondrial proliferation (red rim and speckled sarcoplasm). The lipid storage has been well demonstrated by Sudan Black stain, which revealed small lipid droplets in type I muscle fibers. Abnormal internal architecture with a punctate pattern was showed by adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase and succinate dehydrogenase stains. Electron microscopy showed small inter-myofibrillar accumulations of round, amorphous, homogeneous acellular substances that are not membrane bounded. These features indicate that these are neutral fat (lipid) droplets. Subsarcolemmal accumulations of mitochondria were also revealed. The differential diagnosis of this case is discussed, and the up to date general data concerning carnitine deficiency are presented. The aim of our case-report is to emphasize the role of muscle biopsy in carnitine deficiency, as well as to remind the necessity of keeping in mind such metabolic disorders when doing the differential diagnostic of a muscular weakness.

  11. Aberrant leukocyte telomere length in Birdshot Uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vazirpanah

    Full Text Available Birdshot Uveitis (BU is an archetypical chronic inflammatory eye disease, with poor visual prognosis, that provides an excellent model for studying chronic inflammation. BU typically affects patients in the fifth decade of life. This suggests that it may represent an age-related chronic inflammatory disease, which has been linked to increased erosion of telomere length of leukocytes.To study this in detail, we exploited a sensitive standardized quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length (LTL in 91 genotyped Dutch BU patients and 150 unaffected Dutch controls.Although LTL erosion rates were very similar between BU patients and healthy controls, we observed that BU patients displayed longer LTL, with a median of log (LTL = 4.87 (= 74131 base pair compared to 4.31 (= 20417 base pair in unaffected controls (P<0.0001. The cause underpinning the difference in LTL could not be explained by clinical parameters, immune cell-subtype distribution, nor genetic predisposition based upon the computed weighted genetic risk score of genotyped validated variants in TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1.These findings suggest that BU is accompanied by significantly longer LTL.

  12. Comparison of PTFE, pericardium bovine and fascia lata for repair of incisional hernia in rat model, experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, S; Kapan, M; Goksoy, E; Karabicak, I; Oktar, H

    2003-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a frequent complication of abdominal surgery developing in 11-20 % of patients undergoing an abdominal operation. Regarding morbidity and loss of manpower, incisional hernias continue to be a fundamental problem for surgeons. In this experimental study, three commonly used mesh materials (Goretex PTFE; Tutoplast Fascia lata; Tutopatch Pericardium bovine) were compared according to effectiveness, strength, adhesion formation, histological changes, and early complications. Three groups, each consisting of 14 rats, have been formed as group A: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), group B: pericardium bovine and group C: fascia lata. Evaluations were achieved at the end of the first and second postoperative week, respectively. Adhesion formation, wound maturation, bursting pressure, and tensile strength were evaluated. No statistically significant difference regarding adhesion formation was observed between groups although adhesion formation was less significant in PTFE and pericardium bovine groups than in the fascia lata group. Bursting pressure and tensile strength values were significantly higher in PTFE group than in the fascia lata group ( P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was observed between groups regarding wound maturation. In this experimental model, PTFE and pericardium bovine were found to be superior to fascia lata in abdominal wall repair.

  13. Ichthyosis: the skin manifestation of multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño Suárez, E; Segurado Rodríguez, A; Guerra Tapia, A; Simón de las Heras, R; López-Ríos, F; Coll Rosell, M J

    1997-01-01

    Juvenile sulfatidosis (Austin type) or multiple sulfatase deficiency is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder affecting the activity of many sulfatases: arylsulfatase A, several mucopolysaccharide sulfatases, and steroid sulfatase. Certain aspects of the clinical phenotype can be attributed mainly to a deficiency of one specific sulfatase. Most patients develop metachromatic leukodystrophy caused by arylsulfatase A deficiency, dysostosis multiplex by mucopolysaccharide sulfatase deficiency, and ichthyotic skin by steroid sulfatase deficiency. We describe a 7-year-old boy with developmental delay from 7 months of age, progressive spastic quadriparesis, and coarse facial features. By 27 months of age, an ichthyotic rash had developed on the limbs, trunk, and scalp. A skin biopsy specimen revealed hyperkeratosis with a normal granular layer. The diagnosis of multiple sulfatase deficiency was demonstrated by measuring sulfatase activities in fresh leukocytes: there were large deficiencies of arylsulfatase A and B plus reduced arylsulfatase C. The ichthyosis associated with multiple sulfatase deficiency has an autosomal recessive inheritance, is caused by steroid sulfatase deficiency, and the scaling is sometimes milder than in X-linked recessive ichthyosis. This could reflect the residual activity of steroid sulfatase in some cases.

  14. Bilateral cheiloschisis in bovine - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Andrade Caldas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Caldas S.A., Nogueira V.A., Lima A.E.S., Aragão A.P., d’Avila M.S., Santos A.M., Miranda I.C., Costa S.Z.R. & Peixoto T.C. [Bilateral cheiloschisis in bovine - A case report.] Queilosquise bilateral em bovino - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(1:55-59, 2014. Departamento de Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: saulocaldas@hotmail.com A case of bilateral queilosquise in a cattle two years old was reported. Clinically, there was cachexia, difficulty in grasping food and water intake. The clinical examination revealed that the nasal orifices were discontinuous with the upper lip, which allowed communication between the nostrils and mouth in its rostral portion, crowding of incisors (tweezers, as well as exposure of medium and the 2nd corner and of the tongue. In this case, the bilateral queilosquise was the result of flaws in fusion of the maxillary process and the medial nasal process and its surroundings, probably due to mineral deficiencies of pregnant cow. This pathogenesis was suggested by excluding other possible causes, the knowledge of the existence of mineral deficiencies in the region where the event occurred and bad nutritional status of pregnant female.

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leer en español What Is Iron-deficiency anemia ... cases, surgery may be advised. Treatments for Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia Blood Transfusion If your iron-deficiency anemia is ...

  16. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W

    2006-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival.

  17. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  18. Hematopoietic sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase deficiency decreases atherosclerotic lesion development in LDL-receptor deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Bot

    Full Text Available AIMS: Altered sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P homeostasis and signaling is implicated in various inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. As S1P levels are tightly controlled by S1P lyase, we investigated the impact of hematopoietic S1P lyase (Sgpl1(-/- deficiency on leukocyte subsets relevant to atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: LDL receptor deficient mice that were transplanted with Sgpl1(-/- bone marrow showed disrupted S1P gradients translating into lymphopenia and abrogated lymphocyte mitogenic and cytokine response as compared to controls. Remarkably however, Sgpl1(-/- chimeras displayed mild monocytosis, due to impeded stromal retention and myelopoiesis, and plasma cytokine and macrophage expression patterns, that were largely compatible with classical macrophage activation. Collectively these two phenotypic features of Sgpl1 deficiency culminated in diminished atherogenic response. CONCLUSIONS: Here we not only firmly establish the critical role of hematopoietic S1P lyase in controlling S1P levels and T cell trafficking in blood and lymphoid tissue, but also identify leukocyte Sgpl1 as critical factor in monocyte macrophage differentiation and function. Its, partly counterbalancing, pro- and anti-inflammatory activity spectrum imply that intervention in S1P lyase function in inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis should be considered with caution.

  19. Bioinspired pressure actuated adhesive system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paretkar, D.R.; Kamperman, M.M.G.; Schneider, A.S.; Martina, D.; Creton, C.; Arzt, E.

    2011-01-01

    We developed a dry synthetic adhesive system inspired by gecko feet adhesion that can switch reversibly from adhesion to non-adhesion with applied pressure as external stimulus. Micropatterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces with pillars of 30 µm length and 10 µm diameter were fabricated using

  20. Cohesion and Adhesion with Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2016-01-01

    With increasing interest in bio-based adhesives, research on proteins has expanded because historically they have been used by both nature and humans as adhesives. A wide variety of proteins have been used as wood adhesives. Ancient Egyptians most likely used collagens tobond veneer to wood furniture, then came casein (milk), blood, fish scales, and soy adhesives, with...

  1. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach...... that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation...

  2. Adhesion on Nanoorganized Multilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolla Kazzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured multilayers composed of alternate organic (alkyldithiol and metallic (gold layers are grafted onto glass plates and prepared in order to modify the mechanical and local dissipative properties of a thin surface layer of the substrate. The adhesion phenomenon between a polyisoprene elastomer and these layers is presented and verified by two theories, namely, Johnson, Kendall, Roberts (JKR and linear elastic fracture mechanics. The increase in adhesion with contact time following a power law has been clearly noted.

  3. File list: Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes hg19 Unclassified Blood Polymorphonuclear leukocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes hg19 RNA polymerase Blood Polymorphonuclear leukocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes hg19 TFs and others Blood Polymorphonuclear leukocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes.bed ...

  13. File list: Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes hg19 Unclassified Blood Polymorphonuclear leukocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.50.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes hg19 Histone Blood Polymorphonuclear leukocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.50.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes.bed ...

  15. File list: DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Polymorphonuclear_leukocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)