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Sample records for bovine fecal swabs

  1. Comparison of Swabbing and Biopsy for Studying the Flora of the Bovine Uterus

    OpenAIRE

    Messier, S; Higgins, R.; Couture, Y; Morin, M.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of uterine biopsy as a sampling procedure for bacteriological examination, and to assess the importance of obligate anaerobes in the bovine uterus. The aerobic and anaerobic uterine flora of cows with postpartum metritis, cows in postpartum period without metritis and repeat-breeder cows was examined by using swab and biopsy sampling techniques. Obligate anaerobes were isolated in all the 11 cows with postpartum metritis and in three ...

  2. Bovine Enteroviruses as Indicators of Fecal Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Ley, Victoria; Higgins, James; Fayer, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    Surface waters frequently have been contaminated with human enteric viruses, and it is likely that animal enteric viruses have contaminated surface waters also. Bovine enteroviruses (BEV), found in cattle worldwide, usually cause asymptomatic infections and are excreted in the feces of infected animals in large numbers. In this study, the prevalence and genotype of BEV in a closed herd of cattle were evaluated and compared with BEV found in animals in the immediate environment and in environm...

  3. Development of an ELISA for evaluation of swab recovery efficiencies of bovine serum albumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Sparding

    Full Text Available After a potential biological incident the sampling strategy and sample analysis are crucial for the outcome of the investigation and identification. In this study, we have developed a simple sandwich ELISA based on commercial components to quantify BSA (used as a surrogate for ricin with a detection range of 1.32-80 ng/mL. We used the ELISA to evaluate different protein swabbing procedures (swabbing techniques and after-swabbing treatments for two swab types: a cotton gauze swab and a flocked nylon swab. The optimal swabbing procedure for each swab type was used to obtain recovery efficiencies from different surface materials. The surface recoveries using the optimal swabbing procedure ranged from 0-60% and were significantly higher from nonporous surfaces compared to porous surfaces. In conclusion, this study presents a swabbing procedure evaluation and a simple BSA ELISA based on commercial components, which are easy to perform in a laboratory with basic facilities. The data indicate that different swabbing procedures were optimal for each of the tested swab types, and the particular swab preference depends on the surface material to be swabbed.

  4. Quantitative PCR for Detection and Enumeration of Genetic Markers of Bovine Fecal Pollution▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Shanks, Orin C.; Atikovic, Emina; Blackwood, A. Denene; Lu, Jingrang; Noble, Rachel T.; Domingo, Jorge Santo; Seifring, Shawn; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate assessment of health risks associated with bovine (cattle) fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for the detection of two recently described bovine feces-specific genetic markers and a method for the enumeration of these markers using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Both assays exhibited a range of quantification from 25 to 2 × 106 copies of target DNA, with a coeff...

  5. Single Laboratory Comparison of Host-Specific PCR Assays for the Detection of Bovine Fecal Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are numerous PCR-based methods available to detect bovine fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each method targets a different gene and microorganism leading to differences in method performance, making it difficult to determine which approach is most suitable for field appl...

  6. Quantitative PCR for Detection and Enumeration of Genetic Markers of Bovine Fecal Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate assessment of health risks associated with bovine (cattle) fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for the detection of two recently described cow feces-spec...

  7. Human-, Ovine-, and Bovine-Specific Viral Source Tracking Tools to Discriminate Between the Major Fecal Sources in Agricultural Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiñol, Marta; Moriarty, Elaine; Lin, Susan; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Gilpin, Brent

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the sources of fecal contamination in different river catchments, using a combination of microbial source tracking tools, for human, ruminant, ovine and bovine livestock, in order to define appropriate water management strategies. Every source of waterway pollution was evaluated in river water samples from one urban river catchment and two important farming regions in New Zealand. Fecal pollution was initially measured by testing Escherichia coli and evaluating the presence of human- and ruminant-associated DNA markers of Bacteroidales (BiAdo, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and BacR) and human and ruminant fecal sterols/stanols ratios. Then specific fecal pollution sources were assessed with previously reported quantitative PCR assays targeting human-, bovine-, and ovine-specific viruses: human adenoviruses (HAdV), human JC polyomaviruses, bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV), and ovine polyomaviruses (OPyV). High level of ruminant fecal contamination was detected all over the farming areas, whereas no ruminant sources were identified in the urban river sampling sites. BacR was the most frequently observed ruminant marker and OPyV and BPyV allowed the identification of ovine and bovine fecal sources. The human fecal viral marker (HAdV) was the most frequently observed human marker, highly abundant in the urban sites, and also present in farming areas. This is the first study using simultaneously the ovine and the bovine viral markers to identify and quantify both bovine and ovine fecal pollution. PMID:26607578

  8. Decay of Fecal Indicator Bacterial Populations and Bovine-Associated Source-Tracking Markers in Freshly Deposited Cow Pats

    OpenAIRE

    Oladeinde, Adelumola; Bohrmann, Thomas; Wong, Kelvin; Purucker, S. T.; Bradshaw, Ken; Brown, Reid; Snyder, Blake; Molina, Marirosa

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and microbial source-tracking (MST) markers is critical to developing pathogen fate and transport models. Although pathogen survival in water microcosms and manure-amended soils is well documented, little is known about their survival in intact cow pats deposited on pastures. We conducted a study to determine decay rates of fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) and bovine-associated MST markers (CowM3, Rum-2-ba...

  9. Development, Evaluation, and Application of Lateral-Flow Immunoassay (Immunochromatography) for Detection of Rotavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples†

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Yousif, Yousif; Anderson, Joe; Chard-Bergstrom, Cindy; Kapil, Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    A lateral-flow immunoassay (LFT) was developed to detect bovine rotavirus in fecal samples. Using samples (n = 74) from diarrheic calves, a comparison of the LFT with a commercial latex agglutination test (LAT) and transmission electron microscopy (EM) was conducted. When EM was used as the reference method, initial studies of 29 samples indicated 70 and 80% sensitivities of the LFT and LAT, respectively, with both being 100% specific. When the LAT was the reference test, the LFT was 75% sens...

  10. Diversity and Population Structure of Bovine Fecal-Derived Microorganisms from Different Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but in odor emissions, agricultural land nutrient loading, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, our understanding of the specif...

  11. Molecular analysis of the bovine coronavirus S1 gene by direct sequencing of diarrheic fecal specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Takiuchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV causes severe diarrhea in newborn calves, is associated with winter dysentery in adult cattle and respiratory infections in calves and feedlot cattle. The BCoV S protein plays a fundamental role in viral attachment and entry into the host cell, and is cleaved into two subunits termed S1 (amino terminal and S2 (carboxy terminal. The present study describes a strategy for the sequencing of the BCoV S1 gene directly from fecal diarrheic specimens that were previously identified as BCoV positive by RT-PCR assay for N gene detection. A consensus sequence of 2681 nucleotides was obtained through direct sequencing of seven overlapping PCR fragments of the S gene. The samples did not undergo cell culture passage prior to PCR amplification and sequencing. The structural analysis was based on the genomic differences between Brazilian strains and other known BCoV from different geographical regions. The phylogenetic analysis of the entire S1 gene showed that the BCoV Brazilian strains were more distant from the Mebus strain (97.8% identity for nucleotides and 96.8% identity for amino acids and more similar to the BCoV-ENT strain (98.7% for nucleotides and 98.7% for amino acids. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the hypervariable region of the S1 subunit, these strains clustered with the American (BCoV-ENT, 182NS and Canadian (BCQ20, BCQ2070, BCQ9, BCQ571, BCQ1523 calf diarrhea and the Canadian winter dysentery (BCQ7373, BCQ2590 strains, but clustered on a separate branch of the Korean and respiratory BCoV strains. The BCoV strains of the present study were not clustered in the same branch of previously published Brazilian strains (AY606193, AY606194. These data agree with the genealogical construction and suggest that at least two different BCoV strains are circulating in Brazil.

  12. Bovine paratuberculosis II. A comparison of fecal culture and the antibody response.

    OpenAIRE

    De Lisle, G W; SAMAGH, B.S.; Duncan, J R

    1980-01-01

    Fecal culture for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and a complement fixing serological test using a carbohydrate antigen were compared for diagnostic efficiency in cattle naturally infected with M. paratuberculosis. Serological reactivity was associated with the persistent fecal shedding of large numbers of bacteria and in the absence of false positives in the population studied, was considered an efficient method for the identification of this segment of infected cattle. Minimally infected cat...

  13. Comparison of BD Max Cdiff and GenomEra C. difficile molecular assays for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile from stools in conventional sample containers and in FecalSwabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, J J; Kaukoranta, S-S

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the usability and performance of GenomEra™ C. difficile and BD Max™ Cdiff nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile were investigated in comparison with toxigenic culture and C. difficile toxin A- and toxin B-detecting immunochromatographic antigen (IA) test, the Tox A/B QuikChek®. In total, 302 faecal specimens were collected, 113 of which were in parallel to conventional sample containers and FecalSwab liquid-based microbiology (LBM) tubes. Seventy-nine specimens were considered true-positives for toxigenic C. difficile. The sensitivity and specificity were 97.5 % and 99.6 % and 93.7 % and 98.7 % for the GenomEra and BD Max assays respectively. Toxigenic culture and Tox A/B QuikChek had sensitivity and specificity of 91.1 % and 100 % and 34.2 % and 100 % respectively. Hands-on time for analysing 1 to 24 specimens using NAATs was 1 to 15 min. The rate of PCR inhibition was 0 % for both NAATs with faeces in LBM tubes, while with faeces in conventional sample containers the respective inhibition rates were 5.3 % and 4.4 % for the GenomEra and the BD Max assays. The NAATs demonstrated an excellent analytical performance, reducing significantly the overall workload of laboratory personnel compared with culture and IA test. PMID:25616552

  14. Evaluation of Bovine Feces-Associated Microbial Source Tracking Markers and Their Correlations with Fecal Indicators and Zoonotic Pathogens in a Brisbane, Australia, Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, W.; Sritharan, T.; Palmer, A.; Sidhu, J. P. S.; Toze, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the host specificity and host sensitivity of two bovine feces-associated bacterial (BacCow-UCD and cowM3) and one viral [bovine adenovirus (B-AVs)] microbial source tracking (MST) markers by screening 130 fecal and wastewater samples from 10 target and nontarget host groups in southeast Queensland, Australia. In addition, 36 water samples were collected from a reservoir and tested for the occurrence of all three bovine feces-associated markers along with fec...

  15. Decay of Fecal Indicator Bacterial Populations and Bovine-Associated Source-Tracking Markers in Freshly Deposited Cow Pats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and microbial source-tracking (MST) markers is critical to developing pathogen fate and transport models. Although pathogen survival in water microcosms and manure-amended soils is well documented, little is known about...

  16. Fecal Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control than formed stool, it is an added stress that can lead to fecal incontinence. Diagnosis & Tests How will my doctor diagnose the cause of fecal incontinence? Along with a physical exam, your doctor may want to do other tests ...

  17. Bovine Rhinitis Viruses Are Common in U.S. Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) ...

  18. A REAL-TIME RT-PCR REACTION SPECIFIC FOR BOVINE ENTEROVIRUSES PROVIDES A RAPID ASSAY FOR FECAL CONTAMINATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT BY CATTLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of bovine enteroviruses found in a closed herd of cattle and the surrounding environment indicated that bovine enteroviruses (BEV) could serve as useful markers of contamination with cattle waste. BEV was found in feces from 76% of cattle, 38% of white-tail deer in the same area an...

  19. Streptococcus agalactiae in the environment of bovine dairy herds--rewriting the textbooks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, H J; Nordstoga, A B; Sviland, S; Zadoks, R N; Sølverød, L; Kvitle, B; Mørk, T

    2016-02-29

    Many free-stall bovine dairy herds in Norway fail to eradicate Streptococcus agalactiae despite long-term control measures. In a longitudinal study of 4 free-stall herds with automatic milking systems (AMS), milk and extramammary sites were sampled 4 times with 1-2 month intervals. Composite milk, rectal- and vaginal swabs were collected from dairy cows; rectal swabs from heifers and young stock; rectal- and tonsillar swabs from calves; and environmental swabs from the AMS, the floors, cow beds, watering and feeding equipment. A cross sectional study of 37 herds was also conducted, with 1 visit for environmental sampling. Fifteen of the herds were known to be infected with S. agalactiae while the remaining 22 had not had evidence of S. agalactiae mastitis in the preceding 2 years. All samples were cultured for S. agalactiae, and selected isolates (n=54) from positive herds were genotyped by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Results show that the bovine gastrointestinal tract and the dairy cow environment are reservoirs of S. agalactiae, and point to the existence of 2 transmission cycles; a contagious transmission cycle via the milking machine and an oro-fecal transmission cycle, with drinking water as the most likely vehicle for transmission. Ten sequence types were identified, and results suggest that strains differ in their ability to survive in the environment and transmit within dairy herds. Measures to eradicate S. agalactiae from bovine dairy herds should take into account the extra-mammary reservoirs and the potential for environmental transmission of this supposedly exclusively contagious pathogen. PMID:26854346

  20. Swabs and swab-transport media kits in the isolation of upper respiratory bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, P W; Cumming, C G; Lough, H

    1982-01-01

    The recovery of upper respiratory tract bacteria on laboratory media from a variety of swabs and swab-transport media kits was examined. Organisms studied included strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. Although a wide range of results was obtained with regard to variables such as the type of swab or swab-transport media kit used, the time of plating, the temperature of storage of swab-transport me...

  1. Fecal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  2. Comparação de Indicadores e Metodologia de Coleta para Estimativas de Produção Fecal e Fluxo de Digesta em Bovinos Comparison of Markers and Collection Methodology for Fecal Production and Digesta Flow Estimates in Bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar a fibra em detergente ácido (FDAi indigestível com o óxido crômico para estimar a produção de matéria seca fecal e as digestibilidades dos nutrientes de dietas de bovinos, em dois esquemas de coletas (2 ou 6 dias. Foram utilizados cinco bovinos da raça Nelore, não-castrados, com 165 kg, fistulados no rúmen, abomaso e íleo. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e cinco períodos de coleta. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro níveis de concentrado na dieta (20, 40, 60 e 80%, usando-se feno de capim-Tifton 85 como volumoso. A digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (MS foi menor quando estimada pelo óxido crômico, enquanto as digestibilidades da MS no rúmen e nos intestinos não diferiram entre os indicadores. Quando se comparou a metodologia de coleta (6 dias vs. 2 dias, não houve diferença para as digestibilidades totais e parciais dos nutrientes e também para a eficiência microbiana, demonstrando assim que a metodologia alternativa de dois dias de coleta pode ser utilizada para estimar a produção fecal e os fluxos de MS no abomaso e no íleo.It was aimed to compare the internal markers, indigestible neutral detergent (NDFi and acid fiber (ADFi, and ADFi with oxide chromic to esteem the dry matter fecal production and nutrients digestibility of diets of bovine, in two outlines of collections (2 or 6 days. For the comparison among internal markers, 32 Nelore growing bulls, with 240 kg, were maintained under feedlot, receiving diets with different concentrate levels (20, 40, 60 and 80%. For the comparison among internal and external marker, five 165 kg Nelore growing bulls, rumen, abomasum and ileum fistulated, were used. The design was in blocks with four treatments and 5 collection periods. The treatments consisted of four concentrate levels (20, 40, 60 and 80%. The roughage used was Tifton 85 hay. The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM was smaller, when was estimated

  3. An Unusual Case of Swab Embolism

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    N. G. Naidoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular foreign body embolism is an exceptionally uncommon problem. We report on an unusual case of a surgical swab embolism which occurred during a thoracic surgical procedure.

  4. Use of cough swabs in a cystic fibrosis clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Equi, A; Pike, S.; Davies, J; Bush, A

    2001-01-01

    We audited prospectively 322 cough swabs taken from cystic fibrosis children and compared cough swabs with concomitant sputum samples in 30 expectorating patients. A positive cough swab is a strong predictor of sputum culture. However, a negative cough swab does not rule out infection. Persistent symptoms should be further investigated.



  5. The effect of sampling and storage on the fecal microbiota composition in healthy and diseased subjects.

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    Danyta I Tedjo

    Full Text Available Large-scale cohort studies are currently being designed to investigate the human microbiome in health and disease. Adequate sampling strategies are required to limit bias due to shifts in microbial communities during sampling and storage. Therefore, we examined the impact of different sampling and storage conditions on the stability of fecal microbial communities in healthy and diseased subjects. Fecal samples from 10 healthy controls, 10 irritable bowel syndrome and 8 inflammatory bowel disease patients were collected on site, aliquoted immediately after defecation and stored at -80 °C, -20 °C for 1 week, at +4°C or room temperature for 24 hours. Fecal transport swabs (FecalSwab, Copan were collected and stored for 48-72 hours at room temperature. We used pyrosequencing of the 16S gene to investigate the stability of microbial communities. Alpha diversity did not differ between all storage methods and -80 °C, except for the fecal swabs. UPGMA clustering and principal coordinate analysis showed significant clustering by test subject (p < 0.001 but not by storage method. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and (unweighted UniFrac showed a significant higher distance between fecal swabs and -80 °C versus the other methods and -80 °C samples (p < 0.009. The relative abundance of Ruminococcus and Enterobacteriaceae did not differ between the storage methods versus -80 °C, but was higher in fecal swabs (p < 0.05. Storage up to 24 hours (at +4 °C or room temperature or freezing at -20 °C did not significantly alter the fecal microbial community structure compared to direct freezing of samples from healthy subjects and patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

  6. EVA-Compatible Microbial Swab Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed spacecraft meet planetary protection requirements—and to protect our science from human contamination—we'll need to know whether micro-organisms are leaking/venting from our ships and spacesuits. This is easily done by swabbing external vents and suit surfaces for analysis, but requires a specialized tool for the job. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible swab tool that can be used to sample current space suits and life support systems. Data collected now will influence Mars life support and EVA hardware early in the planning process, before design changes become difficult and expensive.NASA’s EVA swab tool pairs a Space Shuttle-era tool handle with a commercially available swab tip mounted into a custom-designed end effector. A glove-compatible release mechanism allows the handle to quickly switch between swab tips, much like a shaving razor handle can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. Swab tips are stowed inside individual sterile containers, each fitted with a microbial filter that allows the container to equalize atmospheric pressure, but prevents cabin contaminants from rushing into the container when passing from the EVA environment into a pressurized cabin. A bank of containers arrayed inside a tool caddy allows up to six individual samples to be collected during a given spacewalk.NASA plans to use the tool in 2016 to collect samples from various spacesuits during ground testing to determine what (if any) human-borne microbial contamination leaks from the suit under simulated thermal vacuum conditions. Next, the tool will be used on board the International Space Station to assess the types of microbial contaminants found on external environmental control and life support system vents. Data will support

  7. Simple Flame Test Techniques Using Cotton Swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes three new methods for performing simple flame tests using cotton swabs. The first method uses a Bunsen burner and solid metal salts; the second method uses a Bunsen burner and 1 M aqueous solutions of metal salts; and the third method uses candles, rubbing alcohol, and solid metal salts. These methods have the advantage of being easy to perform, require inexpensive and easily-obtained materials, and have easy cleanup and disposal methods. See the Discussion on this Tested Demonstation .

  8. Detection of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses in the Nasal Epithelial Cells by the Direct Immunofluorescence Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Silim, A.; Elazhary, M. A. S. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Nasal epithelial cells were collected by cotton swabs for the diagnosis in experimental and field cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and field cases of bovine viral diarrhea in calves. A portion of the cells was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline and a 25 µL drop was placed on microscope slides. The cells were dried, fixed and stained according to the direct fluorescent antibody technique. Another portion of the same specimen was inoculated onto primary bovine skin cell culture...

  9. Swab Protocol for Rapid Laboratory Diagnosis of Cutaneous Anthrax

    OpenAIRE

    Dauphin, Leslie A.; Marston, Chung K.; Bhullar, Vinod; Baker, Daniel; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Chakraborty, Apurba; Khan, Salah Uddin; Hoffmaster, Alex R.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax is generally established by conventional microbiological methods, such as culture and directly straining smears of clinical specimens. However, these methods rely on recovery of viable Bacillus anthracis cells from swabs of cutaneous lesions and often yield negative results. This study developed a rapid protocol for detection of B. anthracis on clinical swabs. Three types of swabs, flocked-nylon, rayon, and polyester, were evaluated by 3 ...

  10. Swabs to genomes: a comprehensive workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madison I. Dunitz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The sequencing, assembly, and basic analysis of microbial genomes, once a painstaking and expensive undertaking, has become much easier for research labs with access to standard molecular biology and computational tools. However, there are a confusing variety of options available for DNA library preparation and sequencing, and inexperience with bioinformatics can pose a significant barrier to entry for many who may be interested in microbial genomics. The objective of the present study was to design, test, troubleshoot, and publish a simple, comprehensive workflow from the collection of an environmental sample (a swab to a published microbial genome; empowering even a lab or classroom with limited resources and bioinformatics experience to perform it.

  11. Swab protocol for rapid laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Leslie A; Marston, Chung K; Bhullar, Vinod; Baker, Daniel; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hossain, M Jahangir; Chakraborty, Apurba; Khan, Salah Uddin; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2012-12-01

    The clinical laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax is generally established by conventional microbiological methods, such as culture and directly straining smears of clinical specimens. However, these methods rely on recovery of viable Bacillus anthracis cells from swabs of cutaneous lesions and often yield negative results. This study developed a rapid protocol for detection of B. anthracis on clinical swabs. Three types of swabs, flocked-nylon, rayon, and polyester, were evaluated by 3 extraction methods, the swab extraction tube system (SETS), sonication, and vortex. Swabs were spiked with virulent B. anthracis cells, and the methods were compared for their efficiency over time by culture and real-time PCR. Viability testing indicated that the SETS yielded greater recovery of B. anthracis from 1-day-old swabs; however, reduced viability was consistent for the 3 extraction methods after 7 days and nonviability was consistent by 28 days. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the PCR amplification was not impacted by time for any swab extraction method and that the SETS method provided the lowest limit of detection. When evaluated using lesion swabs from cutaneous anthrax outbreaks, the SETS yielded culture-negative, PCR-positive results. This study demonstrated that swab extraction methods differ in their efficiency of recovery of viable B. anthracis cells. Furthermore, the results indicated that culture is not reliable for isolation of B. anthracis from swabs at ≥ 7 days. Thus, we recommend the use of the SETS method with subsequent testing by culture and real-time PCR for diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax from clinical swabs of cutaneous lesions. PMID:23035192

  12. IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE DETECTION OF 'CRYPTOSPORIDIUM' OOCYSTS IN FECAL SMEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) procedure was developed for the detection of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in human, nonhuman primate, and bovine fecal smears. The procedure, which takes about 90 min to perform, involves the use of a rabbit antiserum against Cryptosporidium ...

  13. Swab-wash method for quantitation of cutaneous microflora.

    OpenAIRE

    Keyworth, N; Millar, M R; Holland, K T

    1990-01-01

    We describe a comparison of the scrub-wash method of Williamson and Kligman and a swab-wash method for the enumeration of cutaneous microflora. The swab-wash method provides a less traumatic alternative to the scrub-wash method and can be used to sample the cutaneous microflora of premature neonates.

  14. Forensic analysis of explosive residues from hand swabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the forensic examination of physical evidence for organic explosives, cotton swabs are often used to collect residue from surfaces, such as skin and post-blast debris. A preliminary study has been conducted to develop extraction method of a common energetic compound, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) from hand swabs followed by direct analysis of the resulting extract solution using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detector. Analysis was performed on an octadecylsilane-based (C18) column using acetonitrile-water mixture (55:45) as mobile phase. The mobile phase was pumped at 1.0 mL/ min and separation affected using an isocratic mode with the detection wavelength of 230 nm. The explosive residue was extracted from cotton swabs using acetone in an ultrasonic cold bath. The developed method was later applied to the real hand swabs samples, which were taken from three army personnel who handled PETN during a munition disposal operation at Asahan Camp Military Firing range. The acetone extract obtained using sonication method was found to be effective in recovering PETN from cotton swabs with relatively high recovery (89.5 %) and good sensitivity with detection limit as low as 2 ng. The content of PETN in the real hand swab samples were found to be in the range of 4.7-130 mg. (author)

  15. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific nutritional deficiencies in, for example, iron or vitamin B12 . A qualitative fecal fat may be ordered as ... Chronic pancreatitis Pancreatic cancer Cystic fibrosis (affects the function of the pancreas) Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Diseases and ...

  16. Rectal swabs for analysis of the intestinal microbiota.

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    Andries E Budding

    Full Text Available The composition of the gut microbiota is associated with various disease states, most notably inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and malnutrition. This underlines that analysis of intestinal microbiota is potentially an interesting target for clinical diagnostics. Currently, the most commonly used sample types are feces and mucosal biopsy specimens. Because sampling method, storage and processing of samples impact microbiota analysis, each sample type has its own limitations. An ideal sample type for use in routine diagnostics should be easy to obtain in a standardized fashion without perturbation of the microbiota. Rectal swabs may satisfy these criteria, but little is known about microbiota analysis on these sample types. In this study we investigated the characteristics and applicability of rectal swabs for gut microbiota profiling in a clinical routine setting in patients presenting with various gastro-intestinal disorders. We found that rectal swabs appeared to be a convenient means of sampling the human gut microbiota. Swabs can be performed on demand, whenever a patient presents; swab-derived microbiota profiles are reproducible, whether they are gathered at home by patients or by medical professionals in an outpatient setting and may be ideally suited for clinical diagnostics and large-scale studies.

  17. Effect of protein coating of flocked swabs on the collection and release of clinically important bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K H Harry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical swab heads are often coated with biopolymers to improve the recovery and survival of organisms. To assess the effect of swab head material coating, water absorption capacity and capture and release characteristics of four pathogenic bacteria from protein coated and uncoated flocked swabs were determined. Demonstration of no uniformly higher recovery of all test bacteria from coated swabs over their corresponding uncoated swabs suggest importance of physicochemical properties of swab tip material compared with biopolymer coating, for swab selection for clinical applications.

  18. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Test Common Questions Ask Us Related Pages The Test How is it used? When is it ordered? ...

  19. Validation of the nylon flocked swab for planetary protection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Probst, Alexander

    The major issue of planetary protection is to prevent the contamination of extraterrestrial en-vironments by terrestrial biomolecules and life forms. In order not to affect or even to confound future life detection missions on celestial bodies, which are of interest for their chemical and bi-ological evolution, spacecraft are constructed in clean rooms and are subject to severe cleaning processes and microbiological controls before launch. Microbiological assays are used to mea-sure and control the bioburden on spacecraft itself and spacecraft hardware during assembly. The current NASA standard assays have originally been developed for the Viking programme in the 70s. Due to the stringent contamination control constrains of the upcoming ESA Ex-oMars mission, these protocols cannot be used, in particular the application of cotton swabs with wooden applicators is no longer possible. Therefore, cotton swabs will be replaced by the novel nylon flocked swabs. In the study presented here, the nylon flocked swabs were validated for the usage for measuring and controling of the bioburden on spacecraft related surfaces. The absolute recovery efficiency was determined, following the guidelines of USP1223 in preci-sion, accuracy, robustness, specificity, linearity and limit of detection. As a standard surface, stainless steel coupons were used, whereas B. atrophaeus (spores) served as standard microbial strain. Additionally, the nylon flocked swab was used for experiments on different rough and smooth surfaces with seven different Bacillus spores and two different protocols. Further details will be given concerning the new ESA standard swab procedure for the microbial examination of flight hardware and clean rooms to be used for the upcoming ExoMars mission.

  20. Comparison of air samples, nasal swabs, ear-skin swabs and environmental dust samples for detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Vigre, Håkan; Cavaco, Lina;

    2014-01-01

    To identify a cost-effective and practical method for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds, the relative sensitivity of four sample types: nasal swabs, ear-skin (skin behind the ears) swabs, environmental dust swabs and air was compared. Moreover, dependency...... conclusion, MRSA detection by air sampling is easy to perform, reduces costs and analytical time compared to existing methods, and is recommended for initial testing of herds. Ear-skin swab sampling may be more sensitive for MRSA detection than air sampling or nasal swab sampling....

  1. Detecting Rickettsia parkeri Infection from Eschar Swab Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Todd; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Dent, Mike; Jiang, Ju; Daly, Patrick L.; Maguire, Jason D.; Richards, Allen L.

    2013-01-01

    The typical clinical presentation of several spotted fever group Rickettsia infections includes eschars. Clinical diagnosis of the condition is usually made by analysis of blood samples. We describe a more sensitive, noninvasive means of obtaining a sample for diagnosis by using an eschar swab specimen from patients infected with Rickettsia parkeri.

  2. CERVICO-VAGINAL SWABS TO PREDICT PROM: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boricha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The presence of lower genital tract infections poses a threat to the health of a woman. During pregnancy, these infection s may also have a direct effect on the fetus or may indirectly predispose to fetal damage secondar y to premature labour or premature rupture of membranes. Early detection is thus import ant because maternal physiological alterations and the presence of a fetus may hamper the diagnosis and the management of such infections. Antepartum treatment of lower genital tr act infections or bacterial colonization has been found to reduce the incidence of preterm births . OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of education and socio-economic background, to assess diagnostic efficacy in pregnancy, to study the effect of intervention on the outcome of pregnan cy and finally, to study the appropriate trimester for taking a cervicovaginal swab in pregna nt women. MATERIALS AND METHODS - Our case study was a prospective study involving 100 pregnant women following up in the outpatient department of a community hospital from 200 8-2010 with respect to their cervicovaginal microbial growth in each trimester. Patients were divided into culture positive and negative groups and treated accordingly RESULTS – In our study, we found that streptococcus, candida and staphylococcus were the mo st commonly prevalent among all the microorganisms isolated. Out of 100 women, 27 were swab positive in the 1 st trimester with an increasing trend of 1% in swab positivity in subsequ ent trimesters. Among swab positive cases, 51.85%(1 st , 50%(2 nd and 51.72%(3 rd landed up in preterm labour with or without PROM. CONCLUSION – There was a very high positive correlation between the incidence of a positive swab culture and preterm events. We found that the best time for a cervicovaginal swab was during the 3 rd trimester. Our study had a high negative predictiv e value i.e. absence of growth were best in predicting that cases would not go in t o

  3. Imaging fecal incontinence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchsjaeger, Michael H. E-mail: michael.fuchsjaeger@univie.ac.at; Maier, Andrea G

    2003-08-01

    Fecal incontinence is the inability to defer release of gas or stool from the anus and rectum by mechanisms of voluntary control. It is an important medical disorder affecting the quality of life of up to 20% of the population above 65 years. The most common contributing factors include previous vaginal deliveries, pelvic or perineal trauma, previous anorectal surgery, and rectal prolapse. Many physicians lack experience and knowledge related to pelvic floor incontinence disorders, but advancing technology has improved this knowledge. Increased experience with endoanal ultrasound and endoanal magnetic resonance imaging have given us a better understanding not only of the anatomy of the anal canal but also of the underlying morphological defects in fecal incontinence. Current imaging methods are emphasized and recent literature is reviewed.

  4. Management of Fecal Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Bharucha, Adil E

    2008-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common condition that often impairs quality of life. It is generally caused by a variety of conditions that are associated with anorectal sensorimotor dysfunction and/or diarrhea. A detailed characterization of symptoms, particularly bowel habits, is useful for assessing symptom severity and guiding management. A careful digital rectal examination is invaluable for gauging anal resting and squeeze pressures and anorectal evacuation. Tests should be tailored to age, sym...

  5. Tracking the Sources of Fecal Contaminations: an Interdisciplinary Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneau, L.; Jarde, E.; Derrien, M.; Gruau, G.; Solecki, O.; Pourcher, A.; Marti, R.; Wéry, N.; Caprais, M.; Gourmelon, M.; Mieszkin, S.; Jadas-Hécart, A.; Communal, P.

    2011-12-01

    Fecal contaminations of inland and coastal waters induce risks to human health and economic losses. In order to improve water management, it is necessary to identify the sources of contamination, which implies the development of specific markers. In order to be considered as a valuable host-specific marker, one must (1) be source specific, (2) occur in high concentration in polluting matrices, (3) exhibit extra-intestinal persistence similar to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and (4) not grow out of the host. However, up to day no single marker has fulfilled all those criteria. Thus, it has been suggested to use a combination of markers in order to generate more reliable data. This has lead to the development of a Microbial Source Tracking (MST) toolbox including FIB and microbial and chemical specific markers in order to differentiate between human, bovine and porcine fecal contaminations. Those specific markers are, (1) genotypes of F-specific RNA bacteriophages, (2) bacterial markers belonging to the Bacteroidales (human-specific HF183, ruminant-specific Rum-2-Bac and pig-specific Pig-2-Bac markers), to the Bifidobacterium (Bifidobacterium adolescentis) and pig-specific Lactobacillus amylovorus, (3) fecal stanols and (4) caffeine. The development of this MST toolbox was composed of four steps, from the molecular scale to the watershed scale. At the molecular scale, the specificity and the concentration of those markers were studied in cattle and pig manures and in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and influents. At the microcosm scale, the transfer of bovine and porcine specific markers was investigated by rainfall simulations on agricultural plots amended with cattle or pig manure. Moreover, the relative persistence of FIB and human, porcine and bovine specific markers was investigated in freshwater and seawater microcosms inoculated with a WWTP influent, pig manure and cow manure. Finally, the aforementioned MST toolbox has been validated at the

  6. Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, V. A.; Ott, C. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during spaceflight missions is composed of several factors including both the concentration and characteristics of the microorganisms to which the crew are exposed. Thus, having a good understanding of the microbial ecology aboard spacecraft provides the necessary information to mitigate health risks to the crew. While preventive measures are taken to minimize the presence of pathogens on spacecraft, medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a specific culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. To address this bias in our understanding of the ISS environment, the Surface, Water, and Air Biocharacterization (SWAB) Flight Experiment was designed to investigate and develop monitoring technology to provide better microbial characterization. For the SWAB flight experiment, we hypothesized that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. Key findings during this experiment included: a) Generally, advanced molecular techniques were able to reveal a few organisms not recovered using culture-based methods; however, there is no indication that current monitoring is "missing" any medically significant bacteria or fungi. b) Molecular techniques have tremendous potential for microbial monitoring, however, sample preparation and data analysis present challenges for spaceflight hardware. c) Analytical results indicate that some molecular techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), can

  7. Retained surgical swab following breast augmentation: a rare cause of a breast mass

    OpenAIRE

    Baruah, Bedanta Prakash; Young, Phillipa; Douglas-Jones, Anthony; Mansel, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Retained surgical swab or sponge following surgery is an uncommon finding seen most commonly following abdominal and pelvic procedures. Reports of such lesions in the breast are particularly rare with only two previously published cases. We report here the first case of a retained swab following breast augmentation where unique diagnostic problems are encountered because of the presence of implants. This case shows that a retained swab should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any...

  8. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  9. Swab or biopsy samples for bioburden testing of allograft musculoskeletal tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry

    2014-12-01

    Swab and biopsy samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue are most commonly collected by tissue banks for bacterial and fungal bioburden testing. An in vitro study was performed using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards standard 'Quality control of microbiological transport systems' (2003) to validate and evaluate the recovery of six challenge organisms from swab and biopsy samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue. On average, 8.4 to >100 and 7.2 to >100 % of the inoculum was recovered from swab and biopsy samples respectively. A retrospective review of donor episodes was also performed, consisting of paired swab and biopsy samples received in this laboratory during the period 2001-2012. Samples of allograft femoral heads were collected from living donors during hip operations. From the 3,859 donor episodes received, 21 paired swab and biopsy samples each recovered an isolate, 247 swab samples only and 79 biopsy samples only were culture positive. Low numbers of challenge organisms were recovered from inoculated swab and biopsy samples in the in vitro study and validated their use for bioburden testing of allograft musculoskeletal tissue. Skin commensals were the most common group of organisms isolated during a 12-year retrospective review of paired swab and biopsy samples from living donor allograft femoral heads. Paired swab and biopsy samples are a suitable representative sample of allograft musculoskeletal tissue for bioburden testing. PMID:24599706

  10. Detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken fecal samples by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Nordentoft, Steen; Pedersen, Karl; Madsen, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay for detecting thermophilic Campylobacter spp. directly in chicken feces has been developed. DNA was isolated from fecal material by using magnetic beads followed by PCR with a prealiquoted PCR mixture, which had been stored at -18degreesC. Campylobacter could be detected in...... and compared to conventional culturing using selective enrichment. There was no statistically significant difference in performance between real-time PCR and culture by selective enrichment, and the diagnostic specificity was 0.96 with an agreement of 0.92. Therefore, the assay should be useful for...... less than 4 h, with a detection limit of 100 to 150 CFU/ml, in a fecal suspension. A bacterial internal control was added before DNA extraction to control both DNA isolation and the presence of PCR inhibitors in the samples. The assay was performed on 111 swab samples from a Danish surveillance program...

  11. Owner-collected swabs of pets: a method fit for the purpose of zoonoses research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, N; Hille, K; Verspohl, J; Wefstaedt, P; Kreienbrock, L

    2013-09-01

    As part of the preparation of a large cohort study in the entire German population, this study examined the feasibility of cat and dog owners collecting nasal and oral swabs of their animals at home as a method of assessing exposure to zoonoses. In veterinary clinics in Hannover, Germany, 100 pet owners were recruited. Nasal and oral swabs of pets were taken by a veterinarian at the clinic and owners took swabs at home. Swabs were analysed regarding bacterial growth and compared (owner vs. vet) using Cohen's kappa and McNemar's test. The return rate of kits was 92%, and 77% of owners thought it unnecessary to have veterinarian assistance to swab the mouth. McNemar's test results: oral swabs 78% agreement with Gram-positive bacterial growth, 87% agreement with Gram-negative bacterial growth; with similar results for nasal swabs. Although sample quality differed, this method allowed the receipt of swabs from pets in order to obtain information about colonization with zoonotic pathogens. PMID:23114113

  12. Salmonella fecal excretion control in broiler chickens by organic acids and essential oils blend feed added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Borsoi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is an important disease with economic impact as it may affect animal performance and may result in foodborne disease in humans through the eggs and carcass contamination. Regarding the Salmonella control, it is possible to decrease its fecal excretion and the contamination of chicken carcasses by adding organic acids to the feed or drinking water at appropriate times. The aim of this study was to test a blend of organic acids and essential oils in broilers challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE, and to verify the fecal excretion of Salmonella. Sixty broilers were placed in four groups. One group was the negative control. Another group was orally inoculated at 1 day-old with 10(5 CFU/mL of SE as a positive SE control. Two groups (T3 and T4 were orally inoculated at 1 day-old with 10(5 CFU/mL of SE and their feed was separately treated with 0.5 and 1% of organic acids and essential oils, respectively. To assess the fecal excretion of SE, cloacal swabs were collected from all birds at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days after inoculation. The T3 and T4 groups showed a reduction in fecal excretion of SE at 6 and 20 days after inoculation.

  13. Mannheimiose pulmonar experimental em bezerros: swab nasal e nasofaringeano como auxílio diagnóstico Experimental pneumonic mannheimiosis in calves: nasal and nasopharingeal swabs for diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Souza Coutinho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Um modelo experimental de mannheimiosepneumônica bovina (MPB foi utilizado com o objetivo de avaliar as espécies bacterianas das cavidades nasais e nasofaringeanas em diferentes momentos do curso da doença, bem como verificar a eficiência diagnóstica do exame microbiológico dos swabs nasais (SN e nasofaringeanos (SNF. Um total de 28 bezerros foi distribuído aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais (G1 a G4. SN e SNF foram colhidos sete dias antes e 12 (G1, 24 (G2, 48 (G3 e 72 (G4 horas após a inoculação intrabronquial de Mannheimia haemolytica. Após a indução da MPB, a bactéria M. haemolytica biotipo A foi predominante nos SN e SNF, sendo isolada em todos os momentos avaliados, com exceção de um SN colhido 24 horas após a indução da infecção. Não houve diferença significativa nas taxas de isolamento de Pasteurella multocida nos SN ou SNF, colhidos antes e após a indução da MPB. Contudo, esta bactéria passou a ser isolada mais freqüentemente após a indução da MPB, principalmente no SNF. Portanto, pode-se concluir que o exame microbiológico de SN e SNF é um teste auxiliar no diagnóstico da MPB.An experimental model of bovine pneumonic mannheimiosis (BPM was used to evaluate the nasal and nasopharynx bacterial species of calves during the course of the disease and for checking the diagnostic efficiency of nasal swab (NS and nasopharingeal swab (NPS microbiological exams. A total of 28 calves were randomized into four experimental groups (G1-G4. NS and NPS were obtained 7 days before and 12 (G1, 24 (G2, 48 (G3 e 72 (G4 hours after intrabronchial inoculation of Mannheimia haemolytica. After the induction of BPM, M. haemolytica biotype A was the predominant isolated bacterium in NS and NPS in all evaluated sampling times, except for one NS (harvested 24 hours. There were no significant statistical differences for the rates of Pasteurella multocida isolation in NS and NPS, harvested before and after the induction

  14. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

  15. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Hause

    Full Text Available Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2 and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4% were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  16. Degradation of copepod fecal pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Iversen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Copepod fecal pellets are often degraded at high rates within the upper part of the water column. However, the identity of the degraders and the processes governing the degradation remain unresolved. To identify the pellet degraders we collected water from Oresund (Denmark) approximately every...... second month from July 2004 to July 2005. These water samples were divided into 5 fractions (<0.2, <2, <20, <100, <200 mu m) and total (unfractionated). We determined fecal pellet degradation rate and species composition of the plankton from triplicate incubations of each fraction and a known, added...... amount of fecal pellets. The total degradation rate of pellets by the natural plankton community of Oresund followed the phytoplankton biomass, with maximum degradation rate during the spring bloom (2.5 +/- 0.49 d(-1)) and minimum (0.52 +/- 0.14 d(-1)) during late winter. Total pellet removal rate ranged...

  17. Extensive Within-Host Diversity in Fecally Carried Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates: Implications for Transmission Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Stoesser, N; Sheppard, A. E.; Moore, C. E.; Golubchik, T.; Parry, C M; Nget, P; Saroeun, M.; Day, N.P.; Giess, A.; Johnson, J. R.; Peto, T E; Crook, D. W.; Walker, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the transmission epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli, such as strains harboring extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, frequently use selective culture of rectal surveillance swabs to identify isolates for molecular epidemiological investigation. Typically, only single colonies are evaluated, which risks underestimating species diversity and transmission events. We sequenced the genomes of 16 E. coli colonies from each of eight fecal samples (n = 127 ge...

  18. Fecal microbiota transplantation: in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shaan; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Petrof, Elaine O

    2016-03-01

    There has been increasing interest in understanding the role of the human gut microbiome to elucidate the therapeutic potential of its manipulation. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the administration of a solution of fecal matter from a donor into the intestinal tract of a recipient in order to directly change the recipient's gut microbial composition and confer a health benefit. FMT has been used to successfully treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. There are preliminary indications to suggest that it may also carry therapeutic potential for other conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and functional gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26929784

  19. Home Use Tests: Fecal Occult Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Fecal Occult Blood Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... test kit to measure the presence of hidden (occult) blood in your stool (feces). What is fecal ...

  20. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination of mouth swabs during production causing a major outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassen Jørgen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2002 we investigated an outbreak comprising 231 patients in Norway, caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and linked to the use of contaminated mouth swabs called Dent-O-Sept. Here we describe the extent of contamination of the swabs, and identify critical points in the production process that made the contamination possible, in order to prevent future outbreaks. Methods Environmental investigation with microbiological examination of production, ingredients and product, molecular typing of bacteria and a system audit of production. Results Of the 1565 swabs examined from 149 different production batches the outbreak strain of P. aeruginosa was detected in 76 swabs from 12 batches produced in 2001 and 2002. In total more than 250 swabs were contaminated with one or more microbial species. P. aeruginosa was detected from different spots along the production line. The audit revealed serious breeches of production regulations. Health care institutions reported non-proper use of the swabs and weaknesses in their purchasing systems. Conclusion Biofilm formation in the wet part of the production is the most plausible explanation for the continuous contamination of the swabs with P. aeruginosa over a period of at least 30 weeks. When not abiding to production regulations fatal consequences for the users may ensue. For the most vulnerable patient groups only documented quality-controlled, high-level disinfected products and items should be used in the oropharynx.

  2. A Comparison of Tissue versus Swab Culturing of Infected Diabetic Foot Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Cao, Ying; Zou, Mengchen; Luo, Xiangrong; Jiang, Ya; Xue, Yaoming; Gao, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy of swabbing versus tissue biopsy for microbiological diagnosis of diabetic foot infection. Methods. This was a prospective trial. Fifty-six patients with diabetic foot infection were divided into the following 3 groups according to the PEDIS grading system: grade 2 (n = 10), grade 3 (n = 29), and grade 4 (n = 17). Two specimens were collected from each wound for microbial culturing after debridement, including a superficial swab and a deep tissue punch biopsy specimen. Results. Swab culturing identified all of the microorganisms isolated from the corresponding deep tissue specimens in 9/10 of grade 2 wounds (90.0%), and this proportion decreased to 12/29 (41.4%) and 7/17 (41.2%) for grades 3 and 4 wounds, respectively (p = 0.02). Moreover, the sensitivity for identifying Gram-negative bacteria, such as E. coli and Citrobacter, by swabbing was low (33.3%). In addition, some Gram-negative bacteria, such as Serratia and Ralstonia pickettii, were isolated from deep tissues but not from swabs. Conclusions. Swab culturing may be reliable for identification of pathogens in diabetic foot wounds classified as grade 2. However, it is advisable to culture deep tissue specimens for wounds of grade ≥3 because swab culturing is associated with a high risk of missing pathogens, especially Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27123004

  3. A Comparison of Tissue versus Swab Culturing of Infected Diabetic Foot Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the efficacy of swabbing versus tissue biopsy for microbiological diagnosis of diabetic foot infection. Methods. This was a prospective trial. Fifty-six patients with diabetic foot infection were divided into the following 3 groups according to the PEDIS grading system: grade 2 (n=10, grade 3 (n=29, and grade 4 (n=17. Two specimens were collected from each wound for microbial culturing after debridement, including a superficial swab and a deep tissue punch biopsy specimen. Results. Swab culturing identified all of the microorganisms isolated from the corresponding deep tissue specimens in 9/10 of grade 2 wounds (90.0%, and this proportion decreased to 12/29 (41.4% and 7/17 (41.2% for grades 3 and 4 wounds, respectively (p=0.02. Moreover, the sensitivity for identifying Gram-negative bacteria, such as E. coli and Citrobacter, by swabbing was low (33.3%. In addition, some Gram-negative bacteria, such as Serratia and Ralstonia pickettii, were isolated from deep tissues but not from swabs. Conclusions. Swab culturing may be reliable for identification of pathogens in diabetic foot wounds classified as grade 2. However, it is advisable to culture deep tissue specimens for wounds of grade ≥3 because swab culturing is associated with a high risk of missing pathogens, especially Gram-negative bacteria.

  4. Practical action levels for chelation therapy in plutonium inhalation using nose swab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to propose action levels for chelation therapy in the case of inhalation of plutonium compounds using nose swabs. The relationship between the activity found in the nose swabs and early faecal excretion was investigated using actual cases at JAEA-NFCEL. The ratio was found to be in log-normal distribution. The action levels based on the activity of nose swab corresponding to 10 ALI (5200 mSv) are determined for the facilities at JAEA-NFCEL by using the relationship and specific information such as isotopic ratio and physicochemical characteristics of plutonium compounds. (authors)

  5. Culture-independent qunatification of Salmonella enterica in carcass gauze swabs by flotation prior to real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Schelin, Jenny; Norling, Börje;

    2010-01-01

    concentrations of ≥ 6.1×108 CFU/swab sample, but not by concentrations ≤ 6.1×106 CFU/swab sample. By using the gauze swabs directly in the flotation procedure, the homogenization step normally used for preparation of food-related samples could be excluded, which simplified the culture independent quantification...

  6. Surgical swab counting: a qualitative analysis from the perspective of the scrub nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Lima, D; Sacks, M; Blackman, W; Benn, J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a qualitative exploration of the sociotechnical processes underlying retained surgical swabs, and to explore the fundamental reasons why the swab count procedure and related protocols fail in practice. Data was collected through a set of 27 semistructured qualitative interviews with scrub nurses from a large, multi-site teaching hospital. Interview transcripts were analysed using established constant comparative methods, moving between inductive and deductive reasoning. Key findings were associated with interprofessional perspectives, team processes and climate and responsibility for the swab count. The analysis of risk factors revealed that perceived social and interprofessional issues played a significant role in the reliability of measures to prevent retained swabs. This work highlights the human, psychological and organisational factors that impact upon the reliability of the process and gives rise to recommendations to address contextual factors and improve perioperative practice and training. PMID:24908834

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination of mouth swabs during production causing a major outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Lassen Jørgen; Engeset Eva; Jacobsen Trond; Hagestad Kristian; Bø Gjermund; Eriksen Hanne-Merete; Iversen Bjørn G; Aavitsland Preben

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2002 we investigated an outbreak comprising 231 patients in Norway, caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and linked to the use of contaminated mouth swabs called Dent-O-Sept. Here we describe the extent of contamination of the swabs, and identify critical points in the production process that made the contamination possible, in order to prevent future outbreaks. Methods Environmental investigation with microbiological examination of production, ingredients and product, mole...

  8. A Comparison of Tissue versus Swab Culturing of Infected Diabetic Foot Wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Huang; Ying Cao; Mengchen Zou; Xiangrong Luo; Ya Jiang; Yaoming Xue; Fang Gao

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy of swabbing versus tissue biopsy for microbiological diagnosis of diabetic foot infection. Methods. This was a prospective trial. Fifty-six patients with diabetic foot infection were divided into the following 3 groups according to the PEDIS grading system: grade 2 (n = 10), grade 3 (n = 29), and grade 4 (n = 17). Two specimens were collected from each wound for microbial culturing after debridement, including a superficial swab and a deep tissue punch biops...

  9. Evaluation of blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles for DNA profiling technique using STR markers

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Garima; Dogra, T. D.; Raina, Anupuma

    2015-01-01

    Aim To study the short tandem repeat (STR) pattern of DNA from the blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles of the recipients of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to examine whether these tissues contain donor derived cells. Methods The study enrolled 25 patients who sustained engraftment. Peripheral blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles were collected on days 21-30, 90, and 180 after transplantation and the chimeric status of the recipients was evaluated. Results Donor deriv...

  10. Differences in microbial signatures between rectal mucosal biopsies and rectal swabs

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo-Pérez, Félix; Amber N McCoy; Okechukwu, Charles; Carroll, Ian M.; Smith, Kevin M.; Jeremiah, Kim; Sandler, Robert S.; Asher, Gary N; Keku, Temitope O

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence the microbiota of the large bowel may influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer as well as other diseases including type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Current sampling methods to obtain microbial specimens, such as feces and mucosal biopsies, are inconvenient and unappealing to patients. Obtaining samples through rectal swabs could prove to be a quicker and relatively easier method, but it is unclear if swabs are an ad...

  11. Predictive Value of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Nasal Swab PCR Assay for MRSA Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Dangerfield, Benjamin; Chung, Andrew; Webb, Brandon; Seville, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with poor outcomes and frequently merits empirical antibiotic consideration despite its relatively low incidence. Nasal colonization with MRSA is associated with clinical MRSA infection and can be reliably detected using the nasal swab PCR assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the nasal swab MRSA PCR in predicting MRSA pneumonia. A retrospective cohort study was performed in a tertiary care cente...

  12. Fecal Chymotrypsin and Trypsin Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. S.; Ediss, I.; Mullinger, M. A.; Bogoch, A.

    1971-01-01

    Trypsin and chymotrypsin concentrations were determined in 180 spot stool specimens from 110 control patients in hospital. The lower limit of normality for each enzyme was placed at the 5% level: 95% of this population excreted feces containing more than 100 μg. of chymotrypsin and 30 μg. of trypsin per g. of feces. Chymotrypsin concentrations appeared to be a more reliable guide to pancreatic function than trypsin concentrations. Fecal chymotrypsin concentrations were subnormal in five patients with chronic pancreatitis, borderline in one patient with relapsing pancreatitis, subnormal in one patient after pancreatectomy, and subnormal in five of nine with carcinoma of the pancreas. Subnormal concentrations of fecal chymotrypsin were found in seven of 21 patients with chronic liver disease related to alcoholism, eight of 32 with a partial gastrectomy, three of 10 with adult celiac disease and five of 16 with psoriasis. It appears that the determination of fecal chymotrypsin concentrations provides a valuable screening test for pancreatic exocrine deficiency. However, normal results may be found in some patients with pancreatic disease and subnormal values may occur in some patients with other conditions. PMID:5550376

  13. Fatal trichuris spp. infection in a Holstein heifer persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, Greg N

    2004-06-01

    Whipworms (Trichuris spp.) were identified in the colon of a recently purchased, 10-month-old dairy heifer that died suddenly. A skin test was positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Signs of BVDV occurred in other heifers in the group, but fecal flotations were negative for whipworm eggs. PMID:15283522

  14. Fatal Trichuris spp. infection in a Holstein heifer persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Wideman, Greg N.

    2004-01-01

    Whipworms (Trichuris spp.) were identified in the colon of a recently purchased, 10-month-old dairy heifer that died suddenly. A skin test was positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Signs of BVDV occurred in other heifers in the group, but fecal flotations were negative for whipworm eggs.

  15. Multispectral fluorescence imaging for detection of bovine feces on Romaine lettuce and baby spinach leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging with ultraviolet-A excitation was used to evaluate the feasibility of two-waveband fluorescence algorithms for the detection of bovine fecal contaminants on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces of Romaine lettuce and baby spinach leaves. Correlation analysis was used t...

  16. A Metagenomics and Case-Control Study To Identify Viruses Associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Kondov, Nikola O.; Deng, Xutao; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Neibergs, Holly L.; Delwart, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a common health problem for both dairy and beef cattle, resulting in significant economic loses. In order to identify viruses associated with BRD, we used a metagenomics approach to enrich and sequence viral nucleic acids in the nasal swabs of 50 young dairy cattle with symptoms of BRD. Following deep sequencing, de novo assembly, and translated protein sequence similarity searches, numerous known and previously uncharacterized viruses were identified. Bovi...

  17. Improved diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) by standard serological techniques and DNA amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to improve the diagnosis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Botswana by the implementation and establishment of the OIE standard complement fixation test (CFT) method, and to demonstrate a diagnostic system in a 96 well format coupled with a colorimetric detection of the PCR amplified product suitable for moderate to high sample numbers for the detection of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides SC (MmmSC) from nasal swabs, lung tissue and cultures

  18. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 in Parana State, Brazil: case report, viral isolation, and molecular identification

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Renato Kruger; Tania Regina Penha; Daura Regina Eira Stoffelo; Paulo Michel Roehe; Magda Costa Ribeiro; Vanete Thomaz Soccol

    2015-01-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a member of Gammaherpesvirinae sub-family and belongs to genus Rhadinovirus . This virus has been associated with different clinical manifestations and research activity has put forward a strong correlation among virus infection, postpartum metritis, and abortion. The goal of this work was to characterize a virus strain isolate from a cow’s uterine outflow. From swabs drawn of uterine secretion, a virus strain was isolated and characterized by its cytopatholog...

  19. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 16, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket...

  20. Campylobacter sp in eggs from cloacal swab positive breeder hens Campylobacter sp em ovos provenientes de matrizes pesadas com swab cloacal positivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter sp is a microaerophilic, thermotolerating Gram negative bacterium, known to be one of the main causes of food-borne human infections. Among the foods that carry these microorganisms, the chicken is outstanding. In Brazil, a large chicken exporting country, few researches are conducted about their prevalence in breeder hens and the transmission through eggs. The aim of this research was to verify the presence of Campylobacter sp in the shells and within the eggs from positive cloacal swab breeder hens. Microbiological analyses were made on cloacal swabs of 140 weighed breeder hens. The positive breeder hens were set aside and in a total of 244 of their eggs, Campylobacter sp was present in macerated shells and yolk contents during 7 weeks. Out of the 140 researched breeder hens, 25 (17.8% were positive from cloacal swabs, however the eggs were not positive. The physiological characteristics of the birds, their eggs and Campylobacter sp favor the bacterium entering and surviving in the eggs, but in this study, no positive result was found in macerated shells or in the yolks, indicating that vertical transmission is probably an unusual event.Campylobacter sp é reconhecida como uma das principais causas de gastrenterite humana de origem alimentar. Dentre os alimentos veiculadores desses microrganismos, a carne de frango tem sido a mais implicada. Os estudos existentes sobre a transmissão vertical da Campylobacter são escassos e não conclusivos. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a presença de Campylobacter sp na casca e interior de ovos de matrizes positivas em swabs cloacais e a possibilidade de transmissão vertical. Foram analisados swabs cloacais de 140 matrizes pesadas e seus ovos colhidos para análise durante 7 semanas consecutivas. Dos 244 ovos colhidos, 129 foram fumigados e 115 analisados sem tratamento. Foram analisados o macerado da casca e a gema. Das 140 matrizes pesquisadas, 25 (17,8% foram positivas em swabs

  1. THERMOTOLERANT NON-FECAL SOURCE 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE': VALIDITY OF THE FECAL COLIFORM TEST IN RECREATIONAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin pulp and paper mill processing plants were evaluated for fecal coliform and total Klebsiella (i.e., thermotolerant and thermointolerant) bacterial concentrations. Using the standard fecal coliform test, up to 90 per cent of non-fecal source thermo-tolerant K. pneumoniae...

  2. Sensitive diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by lesion swab sampling coupled to qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emily R; Gomez, Maria Adelaida; Scheske, Laura; Rios, Ruby; Marquez, Ricardo; Cossio, Alexandra; Albertini, Audrey; Schallig, Henk; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2014-12-01

    Variation in clinical accuracy of molecular diagnostic methods for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is commonly observed depending on the sample source, the method of DNA recovery and the molecular test. Few attempts have been made to compare these variables. Two swab and aspirate samples from lesions of patients with suspected CL (n = 105) were evaluated alongside standard diagnosis by microscopic detection of amastigotes or culture of parasites from lesion material. Three DNA extraction methods were compared: Qiagen on swab and aspirate specimens, Isohelix on swabs and Boil/Spin of lesion aspirates. Recovery of Leishmania DNA was evaluated for each sample type by real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of parasitic 18S rDNA, and the diagnostic accuracy of the molecular method determined. Swab sampling combined with Qiagen DNA extraction was the most efficient recovery method for Leishmania DNA, and was the most sensitive (98%; 95% CI: 91-100%) and specific (84%; 95% CI: 64-95%) approach. Aspirated material was less sensitive at 80% (95% CI: 70-88%) and 61% (95% CI: 50-72%) when coupled to Qiagen or Boil-Spin DNA extraction, respectively. Swab sampling of lesions was painless, simple to perform and coupled with standardized DNA extraction enhances the feasibility of molecular diagnosis of CL. PMID:25111885

  3. A Non-Invasive Strategy for Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Diagnosis: Newborn Platelet Genotyping with Buccal Swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Bertrand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia results from the maternal immune response against fetal-specific antigens inherited from the father. The diagnosis is ascertained only when the maternal alloantibody and the offending antigen present in the newborn are identified. Up until now most laboratories perform DNA extraction for neonatal genotyping from newborn blood samplings. In order to avoid such an invasive procedure, two protocols of DNA extraction from buccal swabs were developed: a manual protocol using the QIAamp mini blood kit (Qiagen, and an automated procedure with the MagNA Pure Compact instrument (Roche. Both EDTA-blood and buccal swabs from thrombocytopenic newborns were genotyped manually (14 samples, automatically (15 samples or both manually and automatically (two samples. Human Platelet Antigen (HPA genotyping was performed using the BeadChip assay (BioArray, Immucor. Concordant genotypings were obtained for all samples except for one swab with the manual method. The automated DNA extraction from newborn buccal swabs with the MagNA Pure Compact instrument was chosen as the first-line strategy, with a significant gain of time in processing buccal swabs.

  4. Fecal calprotectin in coeliac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Capone, Pietro; Rispo, Antonio; Imperatore, Nicola; Caporaso, Nicola; Tortora, Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    We would like to share with the readers the results of our experience in 50 celiac disease (CD) patients, enrolled between September 2012 and April 2013, who were referred to our third-level CD Unit. The fecal calprotectin (FC) concentration of 50 adults with newly diagnosed CD was compared to that of a control group of 50 healthy subjects. FC level was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay with diagnostic cut-off of 75 μg/g. In addition, we tried to correlate the FC level with symp...

  5. Quantitative identification of fecal water pollution sources by TaqMan real-time PCR assays using Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Young; Weir, Susan C; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T

    2010-12-01

    PCR-based analysis of Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genes has emerged as a promising tool to identify sources of fecal water pollution. In this study, three TaqMan real-time PCR assays (BacGeneral, BacHuman, and BacBovine) were developed and evaluated for their ability to quantitatively detect general (total), human-specific, and bovine-specific Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic markers. The detection sensitivity was determined to be 6.5 copies of 16S rRNA gene for the BacGeneral and BacHuman assays and 10 copies for the BacBovine assay. The assays were capable of detecting approximately one to two cells per PCR. When tested with 70 fecal samples from various sources (human, cattle, pig, deer, dog, cat, goose, gull, horse, and raccoon), the three assays positively identified the target markers in all samples without any false-negative results. The BacHuman and BacBovine assays exhibited false-positive reactions with non-target samples in a few cases. However, the level of the false-positive reactions was about 50 times smaller than that of the true-positive ones, and therefore, these cross-reactions were unlikely to cause misidentifications of the fecal pollution sources. Microbial source-tracking capability was tested at two freshwater streams of which water quality was influenced by human and cattle feces, respectively. The assays accurately detected the presence of the corresponding host-specific markers upon fecal pollution and the persistence of the markers in downstream areas. The assays are expected to reliably determine human and bovine fecal pollution sources in environmental water samples. PMID:20871990

  6. Characterization of sources and loadings of fecal pollutants using microbial source tracking assays in urban and rural areas of the Grand River Watershed, Southwestern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Young; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T; Weir, Susan C; Thomas, Janis L; Habash, Marc

    2014-04-15

    Sources of fecal water pollution were assessed in the Grand River and two of its tributaries (Ontario, Canada) using total and host-specific (human and bovine) Bacteroidales genetic markers in conjunction with reference information, such as land use and weather. In-stream levels of the markers and culturable Escherichia coli were also monitored during multiple rain events to gain information on fecal loadings to catchment from diffuse sources. Elevated human-specific marker levels were accurately identified in river water impacted by a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and at a downstream site in the Grand River. In contrast, the bovine-specific marker showed high levels of cattle fecal pollution in two tributaries, both of which are characterized as intensely farmed areas. The bovine-specific Bacteroidales marker increased with rainfall in the agricultural tributaries, indicating enhanced loading of cattle-derived fecal pollutants to river from non-point sources following rain events. However, rain-triggered fecal loading was not substantiated in urban settings, indicating continuous inputs of human-originated fecal pollutants from point sources, such as WWTP effluent. This study demonstrated that the Bacteroidales source tracking assays, in combination with land use information and hydrological data, may provide additional insight into the spatial and temporal distribution of source-specific fecal contamination in streams impacted by varying land uses. Using the approach described in this study may help to characterize impacted water sources and to design targeted land use management plans in other watersheds in the future. PMID:24509346

  7. Survey of Bovine Enterovirus in Biological and Environmental Samples by a Highly Sensitive Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Mansilla, Carmen; Gómez, Nuria; Córdoba, Laura; Roblas, Neftal; Ponz, Fernando; Ley, Victoria; Sáiz, Juan-Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Animal enteroviruses shed in the feces of infected animals are likely environmental contaminants and thus can be used as indicators of animal fecal pollution. Previous work has demonstrated that bovine enterovirus (BEV) present in bovine feces contaminates waters adjacent to cattle herds and that BEV-like sequences are also present in shellfish and in deer feces from the same geographical area. However, little information is available about the prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and genomic ...

  8. Improved laboratory efficiency and diagnostic accuracy with new double-lumen-protected swab for for endometrial specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzlo, M T; Hesser, J W; Morgan, T; Valter, P J; Thrupp, L D

    1979-01-01

    Intrauterine specimens were obtained from 22 patients with endometritis and 24 control patients following cesarean section by using both a new protected swab and a standard anaerobic swab. The protected swab improved the value of the direct smear and Gram stain, resulted in fewer false-positive cultures, better defined endometrial flora in patients with endometritis, and permitted major savings in laboratory personnel time and materials. PMID:372215

  9. Rapid PCR detection of group a streptococcus from flocked throat swabs: A retrospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Ronald

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis may improve patient care by ensuring that patients with GAS pharyngitis are treated quickly and also avoiding unnecessary use of antibiotics in those without GAS infection. Very few molecular methods for detection of GAS in clinical throat swab specimens have been described. Methods We performed a study of a laboratory-developed internally-controlled rapid Group A streptococcus (GAS PCR assay using flocked swab throat specimens. We compared the GAS PCR assay to GAS culture results using a collection of archived throat swab samples obtained during a study comparing the performance of conventional and flocked throat swabs. Results The sensitivity of the GAS PCR assay as compared to the reference standard was 96.0% (95% CI 90.1% to 98.4%, specificity 98.6% (95% CI 95.8% to 99.5%, positive predictive value (PPV 96.9% (95% CI 91.4% to 99.0% and negative predictive value (NPV of 98.1% (95% CI 95.2% to 99.2%. For conventional swab cultures, sensitivity was 96.0% (95% CI 90.1% to 98.4%, specificity 100% (95% CI 98.2% to 100%, PPV 100%, (95% CI 96.1% to 100% and NPV 98.1% (95% CI 95.2% to 99.3% Conclusions In this retrospective study, the GAS PCR assay appeared to perform as well as conventional throat swab culture, the current standard of practice. Since the GAS PCR assay, including DNA extraction, can be performed in approximately 1 hour, prospective studies of this assay are warranted to evaluate the clinical impact of the assay on management of patients with pharyngitis.

  10. Comparison of cytobrushes with swabs for recovery of endocervical cells and for Chlamydiazyme detection of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kellogg, J A; Seiple, J W; Klinedinst, J L; Levisky, J S

    1992-01-01

    Endocervical swab and cytobrush specimens from 1,301 symptomatic women were microscopically analyzed for adequacy and tested using Chlamydiazyme (CZ) (Abbott Laboratories). When the swab specimen was collected first, blocking antibody-confirmed CZ-positive results were obtained from 48 (8.0%) of 599 patients, 42 (87.5%) from swabs and 46 (95.8%) from cytobrushes (not significant). When the swab specimen was collected second, confirmed CZ-positive results were obtained from 46 (6.6%) of 702 pa...

  11. Quantification of Human and Animal Viruses to Differentiate the Origin of the Fecal Contamination Present in Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Bofill-Mas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different viruses are excreted by humans and animals and are frequently detected in fecal contaminated waters causing public health concerns. Classical bacterial indicator such as E. coli and enterococci could fail to predict the risk for waterborne pathogens such as viruses. Moreover, the presence and levels of bacterial indicators do not always correlate with the presence and concentration of viruses, especially when these indicators are present in low concentrations. Our research group has proposed new viral indicators and methodologies for determining the presence of fecal pollution in environmental samples as well as for tracing the origin of this fecal contamination (microbial source tracking. In this paper, we examine to what extent have these indicators been applied by the scientific community. Recently, quantitative assays for quantification of poultry and ovine viruses have also been described. Overall, quantification by qPCR of human adenoviruses and human polyomavirus JC, porcine adenoviruses, bovine polyomaviruses, chicken/turkey parvoviruses, and ovine polyomaviruses is suggested as a toolbox for the identification of human, porcine, bovine, poultry, and ovine fecal pollution in environmental samples.

  12. A new bovine conjunctiva model shows that Listeria monocytogenes invasion is associated with lysozyme resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jessica; Owen, A Rhys; Glanvill, Amy; Francis, Asher; Maboni, Grazieli; Nova, Rodrigo J; Wapenaar, Wendela; Rees, Catherine; Tötemeyer, Sabine

    2015-08-31

    Listerial keratoconjunctivitis ('silage eye') is a wide spread problem in ruminants causing economic losses to farmers and impacts negatively on animal welfare. It results from direct entry of Listeria monocytogenes into the eye, often following consumption of contaminated silage. An isolation protocol for bovine conjunctival swabbing was developed and used to sample both infected and healthy eyes bovine eyes (n=46). L. monocytogenes was only isolated from one healthy eye sample, and suggests that this organism can be present without causing disease. To initiate a study of this disease, an infection model was developed using isolated conjunctiva explants obtained from cattle eyes post slaughter. Conjunctiva were cultured and infected for 20 h with a range of L. monocytogenes isolates (n=11), including the healthy bovine eye isolate and also strains isolated from other bovine sources, such as milk or clinical infections. Two L. monocytogenes isolates (one from a healthy eye and one from a cattle abortion) were markedly less able to invade conjunctiva explants, but one of those was able to efficiently infect Caco2 cells indicating that it was fully virulent. These two isolates were also significantly more sensitive to lysozyme compared to most other isolates tested, suggesting that lysozyme resistance is an important factor when infecting bovine conjunctiva. In conclusion, we present the first bovine conjunctiva explant model for infection studies and demonstrate that clinical L. monocytogenes isolates from cases of bovine keratoconjunctivitis are able to infect these tissues. PMID:25778543

  13. Combined cervical swab and urine specimens for PCR diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, M; Reynolds, M.; Hoy, C.; Brayson, J.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Sampling of both the cervix and urine increases the chance of detection of Chlamydia trachomatis compared with sampling either site alone. We determined the effect of combining urine and cervical swab specimens in the clinic setting on the sensitivity of C trachomatis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing.

  14. Viability of Trichomonas vaginalis in Copan Universal Transport Medium and eSwab Transport Medium ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rivers, C. A.; Schwebke, J R

    2008-01-01

    We compared the use of universal transport medium and eSwab transport medium held at room temperature or 37°C to bedside inoculation and immediate incubation of culture media for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis. There were no significant culturable differences in the sensitivity of either of the transport media to that of bedside inoculation.

  15. Comparison of microbiological results of deep tissue biopsy and superficial swab in diabetic foot infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Bozkurt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study, we aimed to compare superficial swab cultures with deep tissue biopsy cultures and also toevaluate the reliability of superficial swap cultures in diabetic foot infected patients.Materials and methods: To compare two culture methods, the hospitalized patients with diabetic foot infections wereretrospectively evaluated at Dicle University and Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, between October 2009and November 2010. The patients were divided two groups as with osteomyelitis (osteomyelitis group, Wagner ≥3 andwith soft tissue infections (soft tissue infection (STI group, Wagner <3. The cultures of deep tissue biopsy specimensand swab samples were collected from all patients.Results: In 75 patients with osteomyelitis, the compatibility rate in deep tissue biopsy culture with superficial swabculture was 58.7% whereas in STI group this rate was 89.1% (p<0.001. Of 41 superficial swap cultures, 33 of them (81%had the same microorganisms with the identified microorganisms in deep tissue cultures. Staphylococcus aureus was thepredominant pathogen isolated from deep tissue biopsy cultures and also from superficial swap cultures. The distributionsof microorganisms in deep tissue culture and swap cultures were similar.Conclusions: This study indicates that superficial swab culture could be valuable to identify the pathogens in infecteddiabetic wounds without osteomyelitis. The accuracy of swab specimens diminishes when osteomyelitis develops. Deeptissue culture seems more sensitive and reliable in osteomyelitis group. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1(3:122-127

  16. Swabbing often fails to detect amphibian Chytridiomycosis under conditions of low infection load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaehyub; Bataille, Arnaud; Kosch, Tiffany A; Waldman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd), causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts. PMID:25333363

  17. Swabbing often fails to detect amphibian Chytridiomycosis under conditions of low infection load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyub Shin

    Full Text Available The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd, causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts.

  18. Frequency and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Acinetobacter Species Isolated from Pus and Pus Swab Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from pus and pus swab specimens at a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from July 2008 to July 2012. Methodology: Data regarding positive culture and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern was retrieved from the pus and pus swab culture records of the Microbiology Department, AFIP, Rawalpindi. Only those pus and pus swab specimens which yielded the growth of Acinetobacter species were included in the study. Results:Out of 2781, 1848 were of pure pus while 933 were pus swab specimens. Out of 2538 culture positive isolates, 276 (10.9 percentage) were identified as Acinetobacterspecies. Among 276 Acinetobacter species, 245 (88.8 percentage) were Acinetobacter baumannii and 31 (11.2 percentage) were Acinetobacter johnsonii. Male/female ratio of the affected patients was 5.6:1. Doxycycline was the most sensitive antibiotic to which 45 percentage of the tested isolates were sensitive. Sensitivity to all other antimicrobials was 15 percentage or less. Conclusion: About 11 percentage of soft tissue and wound infections are caused by Acinetobacter species in our set up particularly in male. Doxycycline was the most sensitive antibiotic. Sensitivity to all other antimicrobials was 15 percentage or less. In vitro sensitivity to carbapenems is very low. (author)

  19. Sampling the Body Odor of Primates: Cotton Swabs Sample Semivolatiles Rather Than Volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkemeyer, Claudia S; Thomsen, Ruth; Jänig, Susann; Kücklich, Marlen; Slama, Anna; Weiß, Brigitte M; Widdig, Anja

    2016-07-01

    We assessed the suitability of a frequently used sampling method employing cotton swabs for collecting animal body odor for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Our method validation showed that both sampling material and sampling protocols affect the outcome of the analyses. Thus, among the tested protocols swabs of pure viscose baked before use and extracted with hexane had the least blank interferences in GC-MS analysis. Most critical for the recovery of VOCs was the handling time: the significant recovery losses of volatiles experienced with this sampling procedure suggest that a rapid processing of such samples is required. In a second part, we used swab sampling to sample the body odor of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), which lack scent glands. First results after GC-MS analysis of the samples collected from these nonhuman primates emphasize that proper analytical performance is an indispensable prerequisite for successful automated data evaluation of the complex GC-MS profiles. Moreover, the retention times and the nature of the identified chemical compounds in our samples suggest that the use of swabs is generally more appropriate for collecting semivolatile rather than VOCs. PMID:27121043

  20. Prevalence of Salmonella in finger swabs and nail cuts of hotel workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Pulikodan Francis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Salmonella infections are usually acquired via the food chain as a result of the ability of Salmonella serovarsto colonize and persist within the gastrointestinal tract of their host. Proper hygiene and enforcement of public healthis the key to prevent Salmonella disease. This study was aimed to assess the finger swabs and nail cuts of hotel workersbacteriologically.Materials and methods: In total various samples were collected from 40 hotel workers and processed to detect theSalmonella carrier. The finger swabs and nail cuts of hotel workers were collected and assessed bacteriologically forsalmonella strains.Results: A total of 35 finger swabs were bacteriologically assessed. Among 35 swabs 27 are male and eight are females.After conformation 23 samples (65.7% showed positive to Salmonella. Also from a battery of 38 samples from nail cuts30 (79.0% showed positive to Salmonella.Conclusion: The lack of public sanitary facilities can be another hurdle to keep the desirable hands hygiene of the vendors.In our study it is reported that severity of the current scenario among the hotel worker hygiene and they are theunknowingly playing role in spread of diseases like Salmonellosis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(1: 1-4

  1. Fecal calprotectin concentration in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Yi; Ko, Kyung Ok; Lim, Jae Woo; Cheon, Eun Jeong; Kim, Hyo Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Among the many factors associated with acute intestinal mucosal infection, numerous studies have proposed the usefulness of fecal calprotectin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of fecal calprotectin in the diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods We collected 154 stool samples from 16 very low birth weight and premature newborns at the Konyang University Hospital neonatal intensive care unit or neonatal nursery. The stool samples were collected using the Calprest device, and the fecal calprotectin level was measured with the BÜHLMANN Calprotectin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results Fecal calprotectin levels were significantly higher in the NEC group than in the non-NEC group (P=0.02). There was a significant positive linear relationship between the fecal calprotectin level and number of days after birth (P=0.00) in the gestational age <26 weeks group. There was a significant negative linear relationship between the calprotectin level and number of days after birth (P=0.03) in the gestational age ≥26 weeks and <30 weeks group. There was no difference in the calprotectin levels according to the type and method of feeding between the NEC and non-NEC groups. Conclusion Fecal calprotectin levels were significantly increased in premature infants with NEC. The fecal calprotectin test is a noninvasive, easy, and useful tool for the diagnosis of NEC. PMID:25210522

  2. Detection and confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in direct quantitative PCR positive fecal samples by the manual fluorescent MGIT culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaji, Satoko; Nagata, Reiko; Mori, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    An efficient protocol for the manual fluorescent MGIT culture system combined with rapid confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) growth in the broth culture was established and evaluated for the detection of viable MAP in direct quantitative PCR (QPCR) positive bovine feces. Manually detected fluorescence emissions from MGIT tubes were analyzed objectively using an open source software, ImageJ. For molecular confirmation of MAP growth, DNA samples harvested by simply boiling the broth, an inexpensive and time- and labor-saving DNA preparation method, yielded adequate results. The sheep strain of MAP required longer incubation time relative to the cattle strain, suggesting that the MGIT system may not support well the growth of ovine isolates as described previously. Of 61 direct QPCR positive bovine feces, the recovery rate of MAP in the MGIT system (62.3%) was significantly higher (Pculture by the MGIT system was several weeks earlier compared to solid media. In MGIT culture positive samples, the time to detect fluorescence was correlated with the DNA quantity detected in fecal QPCR. As a positive result in the direct fecal QPCR test does not mean fecal excretion of viable MAP, bacterial isolation by fecal culture could be conducted to verify the QPCR result. For this purpose, the manual MGIT system is a sensitive and rapid culture method at least for bovine samples. PMID:24065085

  3. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  4. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  5. Surge and Swab Pressure Calculation: Calculation of Surge and Swab Pressure Changes in Laminar and Turbulent Flow While Circulating Mud and Pumping

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Andreas Grav

    2014-01-01

    Pressure changes due to Surge and Swabs has in many years been a big concern in the industry. If the pressure changes become too high, the formation can fracture, and formation influx can lead to a kick. In worst case scenarios this kick can lead on to blow out and put human life in danger. This thesis focuses the fundamental theory and on a program that can calculate the pressure changes in turbulent and laminar flow conditions for non-Newtonian fluids. The program lets you choose what secti...

  6. Evaluation of methods to improve the extraction and recovery of DNA from cotton swabs for forensic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Michael S; Stasulli, Dominique M; Sobestanovich, Emily M; Bille, Todd W

    2014-01-01

    Samples for forensic DNA analysis are often collected from a wide variety of objects using cotton or nylon tipped swabs. Testing has shown that significant quantities of DNA are retained on the swab, however, and subsequently lost. When processing evidentiary samples, the recovery of the maximum amount of available DNA is critical, potentially dictating whether a usable profile can be derived from a piece of evidence or not. The QIAamp DNA Investigator extraction kit was used with its recommended protocol for swabs (one hour incubation at 56°C) as a baseline. Results indicate that over 50% of the recoverable DNA may be retained on the cotton swab tip, or otherwise lost, for both blood and buccal cell samples when using this protocol. The protocol's incubation time and temperature were altered, as was incubating while shaking or stationary to test for increases in recovery efficiency. An additional step was then tested that included periodic re-suspension of the swab tip in the extraction buffer during incubation. Aliquots of liquid blood or a buccal cell suspension were deposited and dried on cotton swabs and compared with swab-less controls. The concentration of DNA in each extract was quantified and STR analysis was performed to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. Stationary incubations and those performed at 65°C did not result in significant gains in DNA yield. Samples incubated for 24 hours yielded less DNA. Increased yields were observed with three and 18 hour incubation periods. Increases in DNA yields were also observed using a swab re-suspension method for both cell types. The swab re-suspension method yielded an average two-fold increase in recovered DNA yield with buccal cells and an average three-fold increase with blood cells. These findings demonstrate that more of the DNA collected on swabs can be recovered with specific protocol alterations. PMID:25549111

  7. The effect of swab sample choice on the detection of avian influenza in apparently healthy wild ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, avian influenza viruses have been isolated from cloacal swab specimens, but recent data suggest that the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus can be better detected from respiratory tract specimens. To better understand how swab sample type affects the detection ability of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses we collected and tested four swab types: oropharyngeal swabs (OS), cloacal swabs (CS), the two swab types combined in the laboratory (LCS), and the two swab types combined in the field (FCS). A total of 1968 wild waterfowl were sampled by each of these four methods and tested for avian influenza virus using matrix gene reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR. The highest detection rate occurred with the FCS (4.3%) followed by the CS (4.0%). Although this difference did not achieve traditional statistical significance, Bayesian analysis indicated that FCS was superior to CS with an 82% probability. The detection rates for both the LCS (2.4%) and the OS (0.4%) were significantly different from the FCS. In addition, every swab type that was matrix RT-PCR positive was also tested for recovery of viable influenza virus. This protocol reduced the detection rate, but the ordering of swab types remained the same: 1.73% FCS, 1.42% CS, 0.81% LCS, and 0% OS. Our data suggest that the FCS performed at least as well as any other swab type for detecting LPAI viruses in the wild ducks tested. When considering recent studies showing that HPAI H5N1 can be better detected in the respiratory tract, the FCS is the most appropriate sample to collect for HPAI H5N1 surveillance while not compromising LPAI studies.

  8. Measurement of fecal 14C excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous measurements of fecal 14C and expired 14CO2 in the breath are necessary to evaluate patients with various ileal abnormalities and bile salt malabsorption. Following the oral ingestion of the labeled bile acid, glycine-[I-14C]cholic acid, detection of increased fecal 14C without abnormal expiration of 14CO2 identifies patients with ileal resection. This contrasts with the normal fecal 14C content and abnormal expired 14CO2 found in patients with bacterial overgrowth. Fecal 14C content was determined by utilizing Van Slyke combustion of the specimen and trapping the liberated 14CO2 with Scintisorb C. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate, and expands the diagnostic usefulness of the bile salt absorption test

  9. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION: EPA PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  10. Torrefaction Processing of Human Fecal Waste Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New technology is needed to collect, stabilize, safen, recover useful materials, and store human fecal waste for long duration missions. The current SBIR Phase I...

  11. Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator...

  12. Multiple diagnostic tests to identify cattle with Bovine viral diarrhea virus and duration of positive test results in persistently infected cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, Robert W.; Hessman, Bill E.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Johnson, Bill J.; Burge, Lurinda J.; Kapil, Sanjay; Braziel, Barbara; Kautz, Kira; Reck, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Several tests for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected monthly from December 20, 2005, through November 27, 2006 (day 0 to day 342) from 12 persistently infected (PI) cattle with BVDV subtypes found in US cattle: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The samples included clotted blood for serum, nasal swabs, and fresh and formalin-fixed ear notches. The tests were as follows: titration of infectious virus in serum and nasal swabs; antigen-capture (AC) enzyme-linked im...

  13. Giardia intestinalis and fecal fat analysis

    OpenAIRE

    ÜSTÜN, Şebnem; ORUÇ, Nevin; İLTER, Tankut

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Malabsorption patients in whom fecal fat analysis was performed were also investigated for Giardia intestinalis. Materials and Methods: Fecal fat tests were studied in 75 malabsorption patients who had applied to the Gastroenterology Department of Ege University Medical Faculty in the period 2009-2010. In addition, stools were examined by parasitological methods in terms of Giardia intestinalis. Results: As a result of stool examination of 75 malabsorption cases, Giar...

  14. Fecal calprotectin concentration in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jung Min; Park, Ju Yi; Ko, Kyung Ok; Lim, Jae Woo; Cheon, Eun Jeong; Kim, Hyo Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Among the many factors associated with acute intestinal mucosal infection, numerous studies have proposed the usefulness of fecal calprotectin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of fecal calprotectin in the diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods We collected 154 stool samples from 16 very low birth weight and premature newborns at the Konyang University Hospital neonatal intensive care unit or neonatal nursery. The stool samples were collected using t...

  15. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  16. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  17. Detection of Brucella spp. in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus by a real-time PCR using blowhole swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingzhong; Conway, Jessica; Phillips, Kristen M; Stolen, Megan; Durden, Wendy N; Fauquier, Deborah; McFee, Wayne E; Schwacke, Lori

    2016-08-01

    Blowhole swabs are a simple and non-invasive method for collecting samples from cetaceans and can be used for screening large numbers of animals in the field. This study reports a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp. using blowhole swab samples from bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus stranded in the coastal region of Virginia, South Carolina and northern Florida, USA, between 2013 and 2015. We used real-time PCR results on lung samples from the same dolphins in order to estimate the relative sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR of blowhole swabs. Brucella DNA was detected in lung tissue of 22% (18/81) and in blowhole swabs of 21% (17/81) of the sampled dolphins. The relative sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR on blowhole swabs as compared to the real-time PCR on lung samples was 94% (17/18) and 100% (63/63), respectively. These results indicate that real-time PCR on blowhole swabs may be used as a non-invasive test for rapid detection of Brucella spp. in the respiratory tract of dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of blowhole swabs for detection of bacterial pathogens by real-time PCR in bottlenose dolphins. PMID:27503920

  18. Identification of rhabdoviral sequences in oropharyngeal swabs from German and Danish bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Melina; Freuling, Conrad M.; Müller, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the frame of active lyssavirus surveillance in bats, oropharyngeal swabs from German (N = 2297) and Danish (N = 134) insectivorous bats were investigated using a newly developed generic pan-lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR).Findings: In total, 15 RT......-qPCR positive swabs were detected. Remarkably, sequencing of positive samples did not confirm the presence of bat associated lyssaviruses but revealed nine distinct novel rhabdovirus-related sequences. Conclusions: Several novel rhabdovirus-related sequences were detected both in German and Danish insectivorous...... bats. The results also prove that the novel generic pan-lyssavirus RT-qPCR offers a very broad detection range that allows the collection of further valuable data concerning the broad and complex diversity within the family Rhabdoviridae....

  19. A simple and novel method for retrieval of Pasteurellaceae from swab samples collected in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie J; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Bojesen, Anders M

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally it has been difficult or impossible to collect and preserve bacterial samples of especially fastidious bacteria in mixed primary cultures, unless the samples could be transported to a laboratory within approximately 24 h. Therefore, a simple novel method for preserving swab samples...... enabled the bacteria to survive for at least 330 days at -20°C. The 100% recovery of target organisms in the polar bear samples even following lengthy storage and transport demonstrates that the method is very useful under remote field conditions....... until bacterial isolation can be completed in the laboratory was developed and evaluated. Pasteurellaceae bacteria were used as a representative for fastidious bacteria. A 7.5% glucose serum medium was used as freeze medium. Swab samples were soaked in the medium a maximum of 2 h after collection and...

  20. Comparison of microbiological results of deep tissue biopsy and superficial swab in diabetic foot infections

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, Fatma; Gülsün, Serda; Tekin, Recep; Hoşoğlu, Salih; Acemoğlu, Hamit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we aimed to compare superficial swab cultures with deep tissue biopsy cultures and also to evaluate the reliability of superficial swap cultures in diabetic foot infected patients. Materials and methods: To compare two culture methods, the hospitalized patients with diabetic foot infections were retrospectively evaluated at Dicle University and Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, between October 2009 and November 2010. The patients were divided two group...

  1. Comparison of microbiological results of deep tissue biopsy and superficial swab in diabetic foot infections

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Bozkurt; Hamit Acemoğlu; Salih Hoşoğlu; Recep Tekin; Serda Gülsün

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we aimed to compare superficial swab cultures with deep tissue biopsy cultures and also toevaluate the reliability of superficial swap cultures in diabetic foot infected patients.Materials and methods: To compare two culture methods, the hospitalized patients with diabetic foot infections wereretrospectively evaluated at Dicle University and Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, between October 2009and November 2010. The patients were divided two groups as wit...

  2. Evaluation of a PCR Test for Detection of Treponema pallidum in Swabs and Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Grange, P. A.; Gressier, L.; Dion, P. L.; Farhi, D; Benhaddou, N.; Gerhardt, P; Morini, J. P.; Deleuze, J.; Pantoja, C.; Bianchi, A.; Lassau, F; Avril, M. F.; Janier, M; Dupin, N.

    2012-01-01

    Syphilis diagnosis is based on clinical observation, serological analysis, and dark-field microscopy (DFM) detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis, in skin ulcers. We performed a nested PCR (nPCR) assay specifically amplifying the tpp47 gene of T. pallidum from swab and blood specimens. We studied a cohort of 294 patients with suspected syphilis and 35 healthy volunteers. Eighty-seven of the 294 patients had primary syphilis, 103 had secondary syphil...

  3. Value of bacterial culture of vaginal swabs in diagnosis of vaginal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadić Dane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Vaginal and cervical swab culture is still very common procedure in our country’s everyday practice whereas simple and rapid diagnostic methods have been very rarely used. The aim of this study was to show that the employment of simple and rapid diagnostic tools [vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy (VFWMM, vaginal pH and potassium hydroxide (KOH test] offers better assessment of vaginal environment than standard microbiologic culture commonly used in Serbia. Methods. This prospective study included 505 asymptomatic pregnant women undergoing VFWMM, test with 10% KOH, determination of vaginal pH and standard culture of cervicovaginal swabs. Combining findings from the procedures was used to make diagnoses of bacterial vaginosis (BV and vaginitis. In addition, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN was determined in each sample and analyzed along with other findings. Infections with Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were confirmed or excluded by microscopic examination. Results. In 36 (6% patients cervicovaginal swab cultures retrieved several aerobes and facultative anaerobes, whereas in 52 (11% women Candida albicans was isolated. Based on VFWMM findings and clinical criteria 96 (19% women had BV, 19 (4% vaginitis, and 72 (14% candidiasis. Of 115 women with BV and vaginitis, pH 4.5 was found in 5, and of 390 with normal findings 83 (21% had vaginal pH 4.5. Elevated numbers of PMN were found in 154 (30% women - in 83 (54% of them VFWMM was normal. Specificity and sensitivity of KOH test and vaginal pH determination in defining pathological vaginal flora were 95% and 81%, and 79% and 91%, respectively. Conclusion. Cervicovaginal swab culture is expensive but almost non-informative test in clinical practice. The use of simpler and rapid methods as vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy, KOH test and vaginal pH offers better results in diagnosis, and probably in the treatment and prevention of sequels of vaginal

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella in finger swabs and nail cuts of hotel workers

    OpenAIRE

    Steffi Pulikodan Francis; Prabhu Nagarajan; Akhilesh Upgade

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Salmonella infections are usually acquired via the food chain as a result of the ability of Salmonella serovarsto colonize and persist within the gastrointestinal tract of their host. Proper hygiene and enforcement of public healthis the key to prevent Salmonella disease. This study was aimed to assess the finger swabs and nail cuts of hotel workersbacteriologically.Materials and methods: In total various samples were collected from 40 hotel workers and processed to detect theSalm...

  5. Prevalence of Salmonella in finger swabs and nail cuts of hotel workers

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Steffi Pulikodan; Prabhu NAGARAJAN; Upgade, Akhilesh

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Salmonella infections are usually acquired via the food chain as a result of the ability of Salmonella serovars to colonize and persist within the gastrointestinal tract of their host. Proper hygiene and enforcement of public health is the key to prevent Salmonella disease. This study was aimed to assess the finger swabs and nail cuts of hotel workers bacteriologically. Materials and methods: In total various samples were collected from 40 hotel workers and processed to detect...

  6. Utilization and Assessment of Throat Swab and Urine Specimens for Diagnosis of Chikungunya Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Hanumaiah, H; Raut, Wrunda C

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne infection with clinical presentation of fever, arthralgia, and rash. The etiological agent Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is generally transmitted from primates to humans through the bites of infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Outbreaks of Chikungunya occur commonly with varied morbidity, mortality, and sequele according to the epidemiological, ecological, seasonal, and geographical impact. Investigations are required to be conducted as a part of the public health service to understand and report the suspected cases as confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Holistic sampling at a time of different types would be useful for laboratory testing, result conclusion, and reporting in a valid way. The use of serum samples for virus detection, virus isolation, and serology is routinely practiced, but sometimes serum samples from pediatric and other cases may not be easily available. In such a situation, easily available throat swabs and urine samples could be useful. It is already well reported for measles, rubella, and mumps diseases to have the virus diagnosis from throat swabs and urine. Here, we present the protocols for diagnosis of CHIKV using throat swab and urine specimens. PMID:27233262

  7. Evaluation of a PCR Test for Detection of Treponema pallidum in Swabs and Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, P. A.; Gressier, L.; Dion, P. L.; Farhi, D.; Benhaddou, N.; Gerhardt, P.; Morini, J. P.; Deleuze, J.; Pantoja, C.; Bianchi, A.; Lassau, F.; Avril, M. F.; Janier, M.

    2012-01-01

    Syphilis diagnosis is based on clinical observation, serological analysis, and dark-field microscopy (DFM) detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis, in skin ulcers. We performed a nested PCR (nPCR) assay specifically amplifying the tpp47 gene of T. pallidum from swab and blood specimens. We studied a cohort of 294 patients with suspected syphilis and 35 healthy volunteers. Eighty-seven of the 294 patients had primary syphilis, 103 had secondary syphilis, 40 had latent syphilis, and 64 were found not to have syphilis. The T. pallidum nPCR results for swab specimens were highly concordant with syphilis diagnosis, with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 95%. Reasonable agreement was observed between the results obtained with the nPCR and DFM methods (kappa = 0.53). No agreement was found between the nPCR detection of T. pallidum in blood and the diagnosis of syphilis, with sensitivities of 29, 18, 14.7, and 24% and specificities of 96, 92, 93, and 97% for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), plasma, serum, and whole-blood fractions, respectively. HIV status did not affect the frequency of T. pallidum detection in any of the specimens tested. Swab specimens from mucosal or skin lesions seemed to be more useful than blood for the efficient detection of the T. pallidum genome and, thus, for the diagnosis of syphilis. PMID:22219306

  8. Dose confirmation of irradiation sterilization application for a kind of medium isopropyl alcohol swab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to ISO11137-2:2006 method one, ISO11737-1; 1995, ISO11737-2:1998, Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2005), dose of irradiation sterilization for a kind of medium isopropyl alcohol swab was studied. The experiments included microbial limit determination, irradiation dose verification, sterility test and method validation. Results showed that, the swabs had high degree of antibacterial activity, but which could be counteracted by the added normal saline (at a dose of 400 ml/swab). Under the experiments circumstances, average initial bioburden is 5.36 CFU/SIP (Sample Item Portion), a verification dose of 4.6 kGy is required to give an SAL (sterility assurance level) of 10-2, while a sterilization dose is found to be 16.8 kGy, which is required to give an SAL of 10-6. The validation for the methods of initial bioburden determination and sterility test were also studied. The recovery rates of Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus Rosenbach, Escherichia coli in three parallels were all no less than 70%. The microorganism growth were all observed of B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Clostridium Sporogenes, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger. (authors)

  9. Real-Time PCR Improves Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection Compared With Culture Using Self-Collected Vaginal swabs

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Caliendo; Jordan, J. A.; Green, A.M.; Ingersoll, J; DiClemente, R J; Wingood, G M

    2005-01-01

    Objective. To compare a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with broth culture for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis using self-collected vaginal swabs.Methods. Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained from adolescent and young adult African-American women participating in HIV-1 prevention programs. T. vaginalis culture was performed using the InPouch TV System. Samples for the real-time PCR assay were collected using the BDProbeTec ET Culturette Direct Dry Swab system and ...

  10. Real-time PCR improves detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection compared with culture using self-collected vaginal swabs.

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Caliendo; Jordan, J. A.; Green, A.M.; Ingersoll, J; DiClemente, R J; Wingood, G M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with broth culture for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis using self-collected vaginal swabs. METHODS: Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained from adolescent and young adult African-American women participating in HIV-1 prevention programs. T. vaginalis culture was performed using the InPouch TV System. Samples for the real-time PCR assay were collected using the BDProbeTec ET Culturette Direct Dry Swab system and...

  11. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  12. Fecal calprotectin in coeliac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Pietro; Rispo, Antonio; Imperatore, Nicola; Caporaso, Nicola; Tortora, Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    We would like to share with the readers the results of our experience in 50 celiac disease (CD) patients, enrolled between September 2012 and April 2013, who were referred to our third-level CD Unit. The fecal calprotectin (FC) concentration of 50 adults with newly diagnosed CD was compared to that of a control group of 50 healthy subjects. FC level was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay with diagnostic cut-off of 75 μg/g. In addition, we tried to correlate the FC level with symptoms, histological severity of CD (Marsh grade) and level of tissue transglutaminase antibodies (aTg) in CD patients. Finally, FC level was increased in five CD patients and in four controls (10% vs 8%, P = NS); mean FC concentration of patients and controls were 57.7 (SD ± 29.1) and 45.1 (SD ± 38.4) respectively. Furthermore, no significant correlation was seen between FC levels and symptoms/Marsh grade/aTg. The five CD patients did not show inflammatory lesions (e.g., ulcers, erosions) at upper endoscopy. The four healthy controls with positive FC were followed-up for further six months; in this observational period they did not show clinical signs of any underlying disease. On these bases, we think that FC is not able to investigate the subclinical inflammatory changes of active CD and FC should be considered a useless tool in the diagnostic work-up of uncomplicated CD but it should be accompanied by aTg when ruling out organic disease in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:24574734

  13. Survival of Indicator and Pathogenic Bacteria in Bovine Feces on Pasture▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sinton, Lester W.; Braithwaite, Robin R.; Hall, Carollyn H.; Mackenzie, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    The survival of enteric bacteria was measured in bovine feces on pasture. In each season, 11 cow pats were prepared from a mixture of fresh dairy cattle feces and sampled for up to 150 days. Four pats were analyzed for Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci, and enterococci, and four inoculated pats were analyzed for Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica. Two pats were placed on drainage collectors, and another pat was fitted with a temperature probe. In the first 1 to 3 weeks, there wer...

  14. Characterization of an Enteropathogenic Bovine Calicivirus Representing a Potentially New Calicivirus Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Smiley, J. R.; Chang, K. O.; J. Hayes; Vinjé, J; Saif, L J

    2002-01-01

    Bovine enteric caliciviruses (BEC) are associated with diarrhea in young calves. The BEC strains detected in Europe form a third genogroup within the genus “Norwalk-like viruses” (NLV) of the family Caliciviridae. In this report, we present sequence, clinical, and histological data characterizing a novel enteropathogenic BEC strain, NB, detected in fecal specimens from calves in the United States. The complete RNA genome of the NB virus is 7,453 bases long and is organized into two open readi...

  15. High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Gordon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively. The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively. The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines.

  16. Assessing the ability of swab data to determine the true burden of infection for the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    OpenAIRE

    Clare, F.; Daniel, O; Garner, T.; Fisher, M.

    2016-01-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a pathogenic fungus which causes the disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians by infecting the animals’ epidermis. The most commonly applied method for the detection of Bd is the use of a sterile swab, rubbed over the keratinized areas of an amphibian and then processed to yield DNA for detection by qPCR. This method has been used to infer a threshold of lethal infection in some species; however, how reliable and reproducible the swabbing method is at dete...

  17. Evaluation of the Abbott TESTPACK RSV enzyme immunoassay for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal swab specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Swierkosz, E M; Flanders, R; Melvin, L; Miller, J D; Kline, M W

    1989-01-01

    The Abbott TESTPACK RSV assay (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.), a rapid (20-min) enzyme immunoassay, was compared with culture and direct immunofluorescence (DFA) of nasopharyngeal cells for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens, collected from 234 infants, were placed in viral transport medium. Portions of specimen in transport medium were used for each test. Of 234 specimens, 70 (30%) were culture positiv...

  18. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria on Rectal Swabs and Factors Affecting Resistance to Antibiotics in Patients Undergoing Prostate Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Beom; Jung, Seung Il; Hwang, Eu Chang; Kwon, Dong Deuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on rectal swabs in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy and the factors affecting resistance to antibiotics were evaluated. Materials and Methods Two hundred twenty-three men who underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy from November 2011 to December 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Rectal swabs were cultured on MacConkey agar to identify antibiotic-resistant bacteria in rectal flora before TRUS-guide...

  19. Neonatal diarrhea by bovine coronavirus (BCoV in beef cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Lorenzetti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV is the second most important viral agent involved in neonatal diarrhea in calves worldwide. The reports on the frequency of BCoV infection in beef cattle herds under extensive management are uncommon in Brazil. The present study analyzed 93 diarrheic fecal samples of calves up to 60 days of age from 13 commercial beef cattle herds located in the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraná, and Rondônia. The fecal samples were collected during 2009-2012 and were previously analyzed for the presence of bovine rotavirus group A (BoRVA, with negative results. The presence of BCoV in the fecal samples was evaluated by the partial amplification of the N gene by using the semi-nested PCR technique. The expected products of 251 bp length were amplified 33.3% (31/93 of the analyzed diarrheic fecal samples. The results revealed that coronaviruses has important participation in the neonatal diarrhea complex of beef cattle herds reared extensively from the different geographical regions of Brazil.

  20. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiology. Due to the high number of unknown causes of clinical mastitis, studies were undertaken to gain more insight into the role of viruses in this important disease. For the first time, we found tha...

  1. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis cases and close human contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Kock, M M; Ehlers, M M

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the diversity of Staphylococcus spp. recovered from bovine intramammary infections and humans working in close contact with the animals and to evaluate the susceptibility of the staphylococcal isolates to different antimicrobials. A total of 3,387 milk samples and 79 human nasal swabs were collected from 13 sampling sites in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. In total, 146 Staph. aureus isolates and 102 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were recovered from clinical and subclinical milk samples. Staphylococcusaureus was isolated from 12 (15.2%) of the human nasal swabs and 95 representative CNS were recovered for further characterization. The CNS were identified using multiplex-PCR assays, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and tuf gene sequencing. Seven Staphylococcus spp. were identified among the CNS of bovine origin, with Staph.chromogenes (78.4%) predominating. The predominant CNS species recovered from the human nasal swabs was Staph.epidermidis (80%) followed by Staph.chromogenes (6.3%). The antimicrobial susceptibility of all staphylococcal isolates was evaluated using disk diffusion and was supplemented by screening for specific antimicrobial resistance genes. Ninety-eight (67.1%) Staph.aureus isolates of bovine origin were pansusceptible; 39 (26.7%) isolates were resistant to a single class, and 7 (4.8%) isolates were resistant to 2 classes of antimicrobials. Two Staph. aureus (1.4%) isolates were multidrug-resistant. Resistance to penicillin was common, with 28.8% of the bovine and 75% of the human Staph. aureus isolates exhibiting resistance. A similar observation was made with the CNS, where 37.3% of the bovine and 89.5% of the human isolates were resistant to penicillin. Multidrug-resistance was common among the human CNS, with 39% of the isolates exhibiting resistance to 3 or more classes of antimicrobials. The antimicrobial

  2. Case report: Stercoral sigmoid colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic constipation can lead to fecal impaction. It can also rarely lead to catastrophic complications like perforation, colonic obstruction, and fecal peritonitis. We report a rare case of stercoral sigmoid colonic perforation with fecal peritonitis and pneumoperitoneum, which was diagnosed on preoperative CT scan

  3. Molecular detection of bovine coronavirus in a diarrhea outbreak in pasture-feeding Nellore steers in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Juliane; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide diarrhea outbreaks in cattle herds are more frequently detected in calves being that diarrhea outbreaks in adult cattle are not common. Winter dysentery (WD) is a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) enteric infection that is more reported in Northern hemisphere. Seasonal outbreaks of WD in adult cattle occur mainly in dairy cows. WD has not been described in beef cattle herds of tropical countries. This study describes the molecular detection of BCoV in a diarrhea outbreak in beef cattle steers (Nellore) raised on pasture in Parana, southern Brazil. During the outbreak, the farm had about 600 fattening steers. Watery and bloody diarrhea unresponsive to systemic broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy reveals a morbidity rate of approximately 15 %. The BCoV N gene was identified in 42.9 % (6/14) of the diarrheic fecal samples evaluated by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (SN-PCR) technique. Other enteric microorganisms occasionally identified in adult cattle and evaluated in this study such as bovine groups A, B, and C rotavirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine torovirus, aichivirus B, and Eimeria sp. were not identified in the fecal samples. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first description of the BCoV diagnosis in fecal samples collected in a diarrhea outbreak in adult beef cattle grazing in the grass in a tropical country. PMID:26712361

  4. Detection of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV) Genome from Nasal Swabs of Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratta, Barkha; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Singh, Shanker K; Kumar, Ajay; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2016-07-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) one of the most important viruses of small ruminants has a restricted host range. We report here the presence of PPRV virus in the nasal swabs of 3 out of 12 dogs in a routine microarray screening. The presence of PPRV sequence was further confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The sequence analysis revealed that the PPRV virus has close similarities with the viruses present in Indian subcontinent but was not identical to the vaccine virus used in India. Results suggest possible crossing of species barrier but requires further serological evidences. PMID:27040823

  5. Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection by PCR Using Vaginal Swab Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Madico, Guillermo; Thomas C Quinn; Rompalo, Anne; Mckee, Kelly T.; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    1998-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the world. A PCR test using vaginal swab samples for the detection of T. vaginalis was developed to add T. vaginalis infection to the growing list of STDs that can be detected by DNA amplification techniques. A primer set, BTUB 9/2, was designed to target a well-conserved region in the beta-tubulin genes of T. vaginalis. All strains (15 of 15) of T. vaginalis tested were successfully detected ...

  6. Interaction of fecal coliforms with soil aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-applied manures may contain various contaminants that cause water pollution and concomitant health problems. Some of these pollutants are bacteria, and fecal coliforms (FC) have been widely used as an indicator of bacterial contamination. Experiments on bacteria attachment to soil are tradition...

  7. Effect of fecal material on carcass microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler carcass bacterial counts are increased by visible fecal material, therefore further treatment of these carcasses is necessary. Inside-outside bird washers (IOBWs) are used by many processors to remove feces and possibly reduce bacterial counts. A series of studies have shown that IOBWs hav...

  8. Fecal immunochemical test as a biomarker for inflammatory bowel diseases: can it rival fecal calprotectin?

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Jun; Hiraoka, Sakiko; Nakarai, Asuka; Takashima, Shiho; Inokuchi, Toshihiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of disease activity is essential for choosing an appropriate treatment and follow-up plan for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endoscopy is required for accurately evaluating disease activity, but the procedures are sometimes invasive and burdensome to patients. Therefore, alternative non-invasive methods for evaluating or predicting disease activity including mucosal status are desirable. Fecal calprotectin (Fcal) is the most widely used fecal marker for IB...

  9. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... 8 ). Questions and Answers About Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) What is cartilage? Cartilage is a type of ...

  10. Pilot study of participant-collected nasal swabs for acute respiratory infections in a low-income, urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas CY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celibell Y Vargas,1 Liqun Wang,1 Yaritza Castellanos de Belliard,1 Maria Morban,1 Hilbania Diaz,1 Elaine L Larson,2,3 Philip LaRussa,1 Lisa Saiman,1,4 Melissa S Stockwell1,5,6 1Department of Pediatrics, 2School of Nursing, 3Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 4Department of Infection Prevention and Control, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, 5Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 6NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA Objective: To assess the feasibility and validity of unsupervised participant-collected nasal swabs to detect respiratory pathogens in a low-income, urban minority population. Methods: This project was conducted as part of an ongoing community-based surveillance study in New York City to identify viral etiologies of acute respiratory infection. In January 2014, following sample collection by trained research assistants, participants with acute respiratory infection from 30 households subsequently collected and returned a self-collected/parent-collected nasal swab via mail. Self/parental swabs corresponding with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction primary research samples were analyzed. Results: Nearly all (96.8%, n=30/31 households agreed to participate; 100% reported returning the sample and 29 were received (median time: 8 days. Most (18; 62.1% of the primary research samples were positive. For eight influenza-positive research samples, seven (87.5% self-swabs were also positive. For ten other respiratory pathogen-positive research samples, eight (80.0% self-swabs were positive. Sensitivity of self-swabs for any respiratory pathogen was 83.3% and 87.5% for influenza, and specificity for both was 100%. There was no relationship between level of education and concordance of results between positive research samples and their matching participant swab. Conclusion: In this pilot study, self-swabbing

  11. Experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits Sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, H W; Reed, D E

    1979-09-01

    Experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus caused acute keratoconjunctivitis and a fatal systemic infection. The clinical syndrome was characterized initially by blepharospasm and ocular discharge. The rabbits were markedly depressed on post-exposure day (PED) 5 and were dead or moribund on PED 6. The virus was readily recovered from liver and adrenal gland tissue on PED 6 and from conjunctival swabs on PED 1 to 6. Histopathologic studies revealed a few necrotic foci in the liver and multiple focal to diffuse necrosis of the adrenal glands. Viral isolation and immunofluorescence tests were used to demonstrate a direct association between infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral antigens and the lesions. PMID:230773

  12. Preliminary quality assessment of bovine colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Taranto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Data on bovine colostrum quality are scarce or absent, although Commission Regulations No 1662/2006 and No 1663/2006 include colostrum in the context of chapters on milk. Thus the aim of the present work is to study some physical, chemical, hygiene and safety quality parameters of bovine colostrum samples collected from Sicily and Calabria dairy herds. Thirty individual samples were sampled after 2-3 days from partum. The laboratory tests included: pH, fat (FT, total nitrogen (TN, lactose (LTS and dry matter (NM percentage (Lactostar and somatic cell count (CCS (DeLaval cell counter DCC. Bacterial counts included: standard plate count (SPC, total psychrophilic aerobic count (PAC, total, fecal coliforms by MPN (Most Probable Number, sulphite-reducing bacteria (SR. Salmonella spp. was determined. Bacteriological examinations were performed according to the American Public Health Association (APHA methods, with some adjustements related to the requirements of the study. Statistical analysis of data was performed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The results showed a low variability of pH values and FT, TN and DM percentage between samples; whereas LTS trend was less noticeable. A significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was observed between pH, TN and LTS amount. The correlation between LTS and TN contents was highly significant (P<0.001. Highly significant and negative was the correlation (P<0.001 between DM, NT and LTS content. SPC mean values were 7.54 x106 CFU/mL; PAC mean values were also high (3.3x106 CFU/mL. Acceptable values of coagulase positive staphylococci were showed; 3 Staphylococcus aureus and 1 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains was isolated. Coagulase negative staphylococci counts were low. A high variability in the number of TC, as for FC was observed; bacterial loads were frequently fairly high. Salmonella spp. and SR bacteria were absent. It was assumed that bacteria from samples had a prevailing environmental origin

  13. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  14. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  15. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  16. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  17. Randomized comparison of vaginal self-sampling by standard vs. dry swabs for Human papillomavirus testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate if human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) using a dry vaginal swab is a valid alternative for HPV testing. Women attending colposcopy clinic were recruited to collect two consecutive Self-HPV samples: a Self-HPV using a dry swab (S-DRY) and a Self-HPV using a standard wet transport medium (S-WET). These samples were analyzed for HPV using real time PCR (Roche Cobas). Participants were randomized to determine the order of the tests. Questionnaires assessing preferences and acceptability for both tests were conducted. Subsequently, women were invited for colposcopic examination; a physician collected a cervical sample (physician-sampling) with a broom-type device and placed it into a liquid-based cytology medium. Specimens were then processed for the production of cytology slides and a Hybrid Capture HPV DNA test (Qiagen) was performed from the residual liquid. Biopsies were performed if indicated. Unweighted kappa statistics (κ) and McNemar tests were used to measure the agreement among the sampling methods. A total of 120 women were randomized. Overall HPV prevalence was 68.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 59.3–77.2) by S-WET, 54.4% (95% CI 44.8–63.9) by S-DRY and 53.8% (95% CI 43.8–63.7) by HC. Among paired samples (S-WET and S-DRY), the overall agreement was good (85.7%; 95% CI 77.8–91.6) and the κ was substantial (0.70; 95% CI 0.57-0.70). The proportion of positive type-specific HPV agreement was also good (77.3%; 95% CI 68.2-84.9). No differences in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade one (CIN1) or worse between the two Self-HPV tests were observed. Women reported the two Self-HPV tests as highly acceptable. Self-HPV using dry swab transfer does not appear to compromise specimen integrity. Further study in a large screening population is needed. ClinicalTrials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01316120

  18. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Landis, C; Miles, D G; Smith, R A; Saliki, J T; Ridpath, J F; Confer, A W; Neill, J D; Eberle, R; Clement, T J; Chase, C C L; Burge, L J; Payton, M E

    2016-06-24

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected from 114 cattle on initial BRD treatment. Processing included modified live virus (MLV) vaccination. Seven BRD necropsy cases were included for 121 total cases. Mean number of days on feed before first sample was 14.9 days. Swabs and tissue homogenates were tested by gel based PCR (G-PCR), quantitative-PCR (qPCR) and quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and viral culture. There were 87/114 (76.3%) swabs positive for at least one virus by at least one test. All necropsy cases were positive for at least one virus. Of 121 cases, positives included 18/121 (14.9%) BoHV-1; 19/121 (15.7%) BVDV; 76/121 (62.8%) BoCV; 11/121 (9.1%) BRSV; and 10/121 (8.3%) PI3V. For nasal swabs, G-PCR (5 viruses) detected 44/114 (38.6%); q-PCR and qRT-PCR (4 viruses) detected 81/114 (71.6%); and virus isolation detected 40/114 (35.1%). Most were positive for only one or two tests, but not all three tests. Necropsy cases had positives: 5/7 G-PCR, 5/7 q-PCR and qRT-PCR, and all were positive by cell culture. In some cases, G-PCR and both real time PCR were negative for BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V in samples positive by culture. PCR did not differentiate field from vaccines strains of BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V. However based on sequencing and analysis, field and vaccine strains of culture positive BoHV-1, BoCV, BVDV, and PI3V, 11/18 (61.1%) of BoHV-1 isolates, 6/17 (35.3%) BVDV isolates, and 1/10 (10.0%) PI3V identified as vaccine. BRSV was only identified by PCR testing. Interpretation of laboratory tests is appropriate as molecular based tests and virus isolation cannot separate field from vaccine strains. Additional testing using sequencing appears appropriate for identifying vaccine

  19. [Research progress of fecal microbiota transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ting; Tang, Tongyu

    2015-07-01

    Intestinal microbial ecosystem is the most complex and the largest micro-ecosystem of the mammals. The use of antibiotics can lead to a lot of major changes of the flora, making the intestinal flora damaged and impacted, even developing Clostridium difficile infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a special organ transplant therapy, which can rebuild the intestinal flora, has raised the clinical concerns. It has been used in the refractory Clostridium difficile, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and some non-intestinal diseases related to the metabolic disorders. But this method of treatment has not become a normal treatment, and many clinicians and patients can not accept it. This paper reviews relevant literature in terms of origin, indications, mechanism, production process, current situation and future research, and provide a reference for the clinical application of the treatment of fecal microbiota transplantation. PMID:26211780

  20. Fecal calprotectin in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsham, Natalie E; Sherwood, Roy A

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome share many symptoms. While irritable bowel syndrome is a functional bowel disorder for which no specific treatment is available, the range of effective therapies for IBD is evolving rapidly. Accurate diagnosis of IBD is therefore essential. Clinical assessment, together with various imaging modalities and endoscopy, has been the mainstay of diagnosis for many years. Fecal biomarkers of gastrointestinal inflammation have appeared in the past decade, of which calprotectin, a neutrophil cytosolic protein, has been studied the most. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic remitting and relapsing diseases, and objective assessment of disease activity and response to treatment are important. This review focuses on the use of fecal calprotectin measurements in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with IBD. PMID:26869808

  1. [Fecal Calprotectin in Inflammatory Bowel Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun

    2016-05-25

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis comprise conditions characterized by chronic, relapsing immune activation and inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. Objective estimation of intestinal inflammation is the mainstay in the diagnosis and observation of IBD, but is primarily dependent on expensive and invasive procedures such as endoscopy. Therefore, a simple, noninvasive, inexpensive, and accurate test would be extremely important in clinical practice. Fecal calprotectin is a calcium-containing protein released into the lumen that is excreted in feces during acute and chronic inflammation. It is well-researched, noninvasive, and has high sensitivity and specificity for identification of inflammation in IBD. This review will focus on the use of fecal calprotectin to help diagnose, monitor, and determine treatment in IBD. PMID:27206433

  2. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P; Billen, G.

    1991-01-01

    We propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which [3H]thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, we found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 ...

  3. Office-Based Management of Fecal Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Costilla, Vanessa C.; Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Mayer, Anita P.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a devastating disorder that is more prevalent than previously realized. FI is the involuntary loss of stool. Many factors contribute to the pathophysiology of FI, including advanced age, bowel irregularity, parity, and obesity. A detailed history and focused rectal examination are important to making the diagnosis and determining contributing causes. Although multiple diagnostic studies are available to assess the cause of FI, specific guidelines that delineate when...

  4. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  5. Dietary effects on human fecal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Catarina

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of microbial populations in the gastrointestinal (GI)-tract is a complex process, involving microbial and host interactions eventually resulting in a dense and stable population. Recently, the identification of microbial species from fecal samples has become more accurate with the use of 16S RNA gene-based methods. However, although these molecular-based detection methods have apparent benefits over culture-based techniques, they involve potential pitfalls that should be tak...

  6. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  7. Alteration in Fecal Microbiota Associated with Grain-induced Subacute Ruminal Acidosis Challenge in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, Anne Mette; Derakshani, Hooman; Li, Shucong;

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: High prevalence of subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) in dairy herds has been reported with large impact on production and welfare. The field diagnosis of SARA is currently unclear and primarily based on point measurements of rumen pH, which are inaccurate. Consequently, SARA cases in t...... markers of the disease. bovine, subacute ruminal acidosis, fecal microbiome, biological marker Host publication information...... field are often not detected. Thus, other and better markers of SARA are needed. The purpose of this research was to study the feces microbiome during SARA and assess the possibilities of using feces microbial markers as indicators of SARA. Methods: Six lactating, rumen cannulated, Danish Holstein cows...... predictive value was estimated to R2: 87.0 and Q2: 73.2, respectively. Conclusion: Results confirm that intensive grain feeding changes the feces microbiome. The identification of specific taxa characteristic of SARA could provide new knowledge of the pathogenesis and might be useful as future biological...

  8. Rectal Swabs Are Suitable for Quantifying the Carriage Load of KPC-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Lerner, A; Romano, J.; Chmelnitsky, I.; Navon-Venezia, S.; Edgar, R.; Carmeli, Y

    2013-01-01

    It is more convenient and practical to collect rectal swabs than stool specimens to study carriage of colon pathogens. In this study, we examined the ability to use rectal swabs rather than stool specimens to quantify Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). We used a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay to determine the concentration of the blaKPC gene relative to the concentration of 16S rRNA genes and a quantitative culture-based...

  9. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in bovine feces by monoclonal antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Anusz, K Z; Mason, P H; Riggs, M W; Perryman, L E

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in bovine feces. Fecal oocysts were concentrated by centrifugation through Formalin-ethyl acetate solution and captured with monoclonal antibody 18.280.2 reactive with C. parvum oocysts. Captured oocysts were detected with goat anti-oocyst serum, following the addition of a peroxidase conjugate of rabbit anti-goat immunoglobulin and O-phenylenediamine substrate. The assay was...

  10. Stability of bovine coronavirus on lettuce surfaces under household refrigeration conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, Lisa; Saif, Linda J.; Zhang, Yongbin; Zhang, Xuming; Azevedo, Marli S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Fecal suspensions with an aerosol route of transmission were responsible for a cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) cases in 2003 in Hong Kong. Based on that event, the World Health Organization recommended that research be implemented to define modes of transmission of SARS coronavirus through sewage, feces, food and water. Environmental studies have shown that animal coronaviruses remain infectious in water and sewage for up to a year depending on the temperature and humidity. In this study, we examined coronavirus stability on lettuce surfaces. A cell culture adapted bovine coronavirus, diluted in growth media or in bovine fecal suspensions to simulate fecal contamination was used to spike romaine lettuce. qRT-PCR detected viral RNA copy number ranging from 6.6 × 104 to 1.7 × 106 throughout the experimental period of 30 days. Whereas infectious viruses were detected for at least 14 days, the amount of infectious virus varied, depending upon the diluent used for spiking the lettuce. UV and confocal microscopic observation indicated attachment of residual labeled virions to the lettuce surface after the elution procedure, suggesting that rates of inactivation or detection of the virus may be underestimated. Thus, it is possible that contaminated vegetables may be potential vehicles for coronavirus zoonotic transmission to humans. PMID:22265299

  11. Le complexe respiratoire bovin

    OpenAIRE

    Lekeux, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    Les maladies respiratoires des bovins sont, partout dans le monde, la cause principale de mortalité chez les jeunes bovins. Plusieurs facteurs favorisent l'apparition de ce syndrome : des facteurs propres à l'animal, comme l'âge, l'état général et le statut immunitaire; d'autres relatifs à l'environnement, comme les stress engendrés par les changements de régime alimentaire, de température et d'humidité; d'autres encore, liés à la présence d'agents infectieux, comme des bactéries, des virus e...

  12. Genetics of bovine vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Richard Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease is an important issue for animal breeders, farmers and governments. Solutions to control infectious disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. The primary aim of this thesis is to discover regions of the bovine genome which influence the immune response post immunisation. To accomplish this two types of immunising agents, a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMD...

  13. Vitrification of Bovine Oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Anchamparuthy, Vahida Muhammed Ismail

    2007-01-01

    Cryopreservation of oocytes is a challenge. Studies were conducted to vitrify mouse zygotes and cumulus-intact bovine oocytes from follicles of different diameters, small (â ¤ 4 mm) and medium (4 to 10 mm), using nylon mesh. The specific goals were to assess changes in apoptotic gene expression (Fas-FasL, Bax, Bcl-2, and survivin) in conjunction with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and caspase assays. Mouse zygotes were exposed to increasing concentrations...

  14. Factors Influencing Fecal Contamination in Pond of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappett, P. S.; Escamilla, V.; Layton, A.; McKay, L. D.; Emch, M.; Mailloux, B. J.; Williams, D. E.; Huq, M. R.; Alam, M.; Farhana, L.; Ferguson, A. S.; Sayler, G. S.; Ahmed, K.; Serre, M. L.; Akita, Y.; Yunus, M.; van Geen, A.

    2010-12-01

    Occurrence of diarrheal disease in villages in rural Bangladesh remains relatively common, even though many households have switched to tubewell water for drinking and cooking. One factor contributing to this may be exposure to fecal contamination in ponds, which are often used for bathing and fishing. The objective of this study is to determine the dominant sources of fecal pollution in typical ponds and to explore the relationship between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were sampled and analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and for E. coli, Bacteroides and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation infrastructure were surveyed and compared to levels of pond fecal contamination. Molecular fecal source tracking using Bacteroides, determined that humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (pcattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is from humans, use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural Bangladesh.

  15. Evaluation of penicillin G residues by kidney inhibition swab tests in sow body fluids and tissues following intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2011, the USDA-Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) changed the method used for screening swine tissues for antimicrobial residues to the Kidney Inhibition Swab (KIS(TM)) from the Fast Antimicrobial Screen Test. A high dose of penicillin G procaine relative to a label dose is commonly used ...

  16. Evaluation of penicillin G residues by kidney inhibition swab tests in sow body fluids and tissues following intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2011, the USDA-Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) changed the method used for screening swine tissues for antimicrobial residues from the Fast Antimicrobial Screen Test to the Kidney Inhibition Swab (KIS(TM)). Here, we describe the use of KIS(TM) test for the detection of penicillin G res...

  17. Pseudo-Outbreak of Cupriavidus pauculus Infection at an Outpatient Clinic Related to Rinsing Culturette Swabs in Tap Water▿

    OpenAIRE

    Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Elkins, Camille; Swyers, Lettie; Bannerman, Tammy; Pancholi, Preeti

    2010-01-01

    Cupriavidus pauculus is a water microorganism rarely isolated from clinical specimens. We describe a pseudo-outbreak in which multiple strains that were associated with moistening of culturette swabs with tap water were isolated from a single clinic before collecting the patient specimen.

  18. Determining Sources of Fecal Pollution in a Rural Virginia Watershed with Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Fecal Streptococci

    OpenAIRE

    Hagedorn, Charles; Robinson, Sandra L.; Filtz, Jennifer R.; Grubbs, Sarah M.; Angier, Theresa A.; Reneau, Raymond B.

    1999-01-01

    Nonpoint sources of pollution that contribute fecal bacteria to surface waters have proven difficult to identify. Knowledge of pollution sources could aid in restoration of the water quality, reduce the amounts of nutrients leaving watersheds, and reduce the danger of infectious disease resulting from exposure to contaminated waters. Patterns of antibiotic resistance in fecal streptococci were analyzed by discriminant and cluster analysis and used to identify sources of fecal pollution in a r...

  19. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  20. Study of criteria influencing the success rate of DNA swabs in operational conditions: A contribution to an evidence-based approach to crime scene investigation and triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, S

    2016-01-01

    DNA is nowadays swabbed routinely to investigate serious and volume crimes, but research remains scarce when it comes to determining the criteria that may impact the success rate of DNA swabs taken on different surfaces and situations. To investigate these criteria in fully operational conditions, DNA analysis results of 4772 swabs taken by the forensic unit of a police department in Western Switzerland over a 2.5-year period (2012-2014) in volume crime cases were considered. A representative and random sample of 1236 swab analyses was extensively examined and codified, describing several criteria such as whether the swabbing was performed at the scene or in the lab, the zone of the scene where it was performed, the kind of object or surface that was swabbed, whether the target specimen was a touch surface or a biological fluid, and whether the swab targeted a single surface or combined different surfaces. The impact of each criterion and of their combination was assessed in regard to the success rate of DNA analysis, measured through the quality of the resulting profile, and whether the profile resulted in a hit in the national database or not. Results show that some situations-such as swabs taken on door and window handles for instance-have a higher success rate than average swabs. Conversely, other situations lead to a marked decrease in the success rate, which should discourage further analyses of such swabs. Results also confirm that targeting a DNA swab on a single surface is preferable to swabbing different surfaces with the intent to aggregate cells deposited by the offender. Such results assist in predicting the chance that the analysis of a swab taken in a given situation will lead to a positive result. The study could therefore inform an evidence-based approach to decision-making at the crime scene (what to swab or not) and at the triage step (what to analyse or not), contributing thus to save resource and increase the efficiency of forensic science

  1. Fecal calprotectin in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsham NE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natalie E Walsham,1 Roy A Sherwood2 1Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University Hospital Lewisham, Lewisham, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Viapath at King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and irritable bowel syndrome share many symptoms. While irritable bowel syndrome is a functional bowel disorder for which no specific treatment is available, the range of effective therapies for IBD is evolving rapidly. Accurate diagnosis of IBD is therefore essential. Clinical assessment, together with various imaging modalities and endoscopy, has been the mainstay of diagnosis for many years. Fecal biomarkers of gastrointestinal inflammation have appeared in the past decade, of which calprotectin, a neutrophil cytosolic protein, has been studied the most. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic remitting and relapsing diseases, and objective assessment of disease activity and response to treatment are important. This review focuses on the use of fecal calprotectin measurements in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with IBD. Keywords: calprotectin, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammation 

  2. Research of Optimization Method of Swabbing Parameters of All Rods Pumping Wells in the Entire Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xishun

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the drawbacks of the optimization and design methods and the practical production goal of least energy consumption, a new theory is raised that the gas of the layer released energy in the lifting process including two parts: dissolved-gas expansion energy and free-gas expansion energy. The motor’s input power of rod pumping system is divided into hydraulic horse power, gas expansion power, surface mechanical loss power, subsurface loss power. Using the theory of energy-conservation, the simulation model of free-gas expansion power has been established, the simulating models of the motor’s input power which are based on the energy method have been improved and the simulation precision of system efficiency has been enhanced. The entire optimization design models have been set up in which the single-well output is taken as the optimum design variable, the planed production of all oil wells in an overall oilfield as the restraint condition and the least input power of the overall oilfield as the object. Synthesizing the optimization design results of the single well and the entire oilfield, the optimal output and the optimal swabbing parameters of all wells can be got. The actual optimizing examples show that the total power consumption designed by the entire optimization method is less 12.95% than that by the single optimization method.

  3. Molecular diagnosis of African tick bite fever using eschar swabs in a traveller returning from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Nicole; Burgmann, Heinz; Forstner, Christina; Ramharter, Michael; Széll, Marton; Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Stanek, Gerold; Markowicz, Mateusz

    2016-08-01

    African tick bite fever is an emerging infectious disease among travellers caused by the pathogen Rickettsia africae. Most travel-associated cases have been reported from countries in southern Africa. So far it has rarely been reported among travellers to eastern Africa and our patient is one of the first described cases imported from Tanzania. A woman presented with fever, chills, headache, myalgia and a rickettsial eschar on her ankle after returning from Tanzania. The diagnosis of African tick bite fever is often based on clinical grounds due to a lack of reliable diagnostic tests at commencement of symptoms. In this patient direct molecular detection of R. africae was performed by PCR from a sample obtained non-invasively with a swab from the rickettsial eschar. A positive PCR result was achieved although the patient had already started antibiotic treatment with doxycycline. In conclusion, this non-invasive method enables early diagnosis of African tick bite fever by direct molecular detection of R. africae and might improve the management of undifferentiated fever in travellers from Africa. PMID:27488618

  4. Discovery of a novel Parvovirinae virus, porcine parvovirus 7, by metagenomic sequencing of porcine rectal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinski, Rachel M; Mitra, Namita; Hause, Ben M

    2016-08-01

    Parvoviruses are a diverse group of viruses containing some of the smallest known species that are capable of infecting a wide range of animals. Metagenomic sequencing of pooled rectal swabs from adult pigs identified a 4103-bp contig consisting of two major open reading frames encoding proteins of 672 and 469 amino acids (aa) in length. BLASTP analysis of the 672-aa protein found 42.4 % identity to fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) parvovirus 2 (EhPV2) and 37.9 % to turkey parvovirus (TuPV) TP1-2012/HUN NS1 proteins. The 469-aa protein had no significant similarity to known proteins. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that PPV7, EhPV2, and TuPV represent a novel genus in the family Parvoviridae. Quantitative PCR screening of 182 porcine diagnostic samples found a total of 16 positives (8.6 %). Together, these data suggest that PPV7 is a highly divergent novel parvovirus prevalent within the US swine. PMID:26995221

  5. Fecal Viral Load and Norovirus-associated Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Martin C W Chan; Sung, Joseph J Y; Lam, Rebecca K. Y.; Chan, Paul K.S.; Nelson L S Lee; Lai, Raymond W.M.; Leung, Wai K

    2006-01-01

    We report the median cDNA viral load of norovirus genogroup II is >100-fold higher than that of genogroup I in the fecal specimens of patients with norovirus-associated gastroenteritis. We speculate that increased cDNA viral load accounts for the higher transmissibility of genogroup II strains through the fecal-oral route.

  6. 21 CFR 866.5180 - Fecal calprotectin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fecal calprotectin immunological test system. 866.5180 Section 866.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5180 Fecal calprotectin immunological...

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of MR colonography with fecal tagging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Michael Patrick; Løgager, Vibeke Berg; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Eegholm, Bodil; Thomsen, Henrik Segelcke; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    >10 mm. CONCLUSION: MRC showed acceptable per-patient sensitivities, but the per-polyp sensitivities are still compromised by the fecal tagging. MRC may be implemented, but at the present time MRC with fecal tagging is not ready for widespread use, although it remains a very promising diagnostic tool....

  8. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  9. Multisite Evaluation of Cepheid Xpert Carba-R Assay for Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Organisms in Rectal Swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tato, M; Ruiz-Garbajosa, P; Traczewski, M; Dodgson, A; McEwan, A; Humphries, R; Hindler, J; Veltman, J; Wang, H; Cantón, R

    2016-07-01

    Rapid identification of patients who are colonized with carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO) is included in multiple national guidelines for containment of these organisms. In a multisite study, we evaluated the performance of the Cepheid Xpert Carba-R assay, a qualitative diagnostic test that was designed for the rapid detection and differentiation of the blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, and blaIMP-1 genes from rectal swab specimens. A double rectal swab set was collected from 383 patients admitted at four institutions (2 in the United States, 1 in the United Kingdom, 1 in Spain). One swab was used for reference culture (MacConkey broth containing 1 mg/liter of meropenem and subcultured to a MacConkey agar plate with a 10-μg meropenem disk) and for sequencing of DNA obtained from carbapenem-nonsusceptible isolates for carbapenemase identification. The other swab was used for the Xpert Carba-R assay. In addition to the clinical rectal swabs, 250 contrived specimens (108 well-characterized CPO and 142 negative controls spiked onto negative rectal swabs) were tested. Overall, 149/633 (23.5%) samples were positive by the Xpert Carba-R assay. In 6 samples, multiple targets were detected (4 VIM/OXA-48, 1 IMP-1/NDM, and 1 NDM/KPC). The Xpert Carba-R assay detected 155 targets (26 IMP-1, 30 VIM, 27 NDM, 33 KPC, 39 OXA-48) within a time range of 32 to 48 min. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Xpert Carba-R assay compared to those of the reference culture and sequencing results were 96.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.2% to 98.9%), 98.6% (95% CI, 97.1% to 99.4%), 95.3%, and 99.0%, respectively. The Cepheid Xpert Carba-R assay is an accurate and rapid test to identify rectal colonization with CPO, which can guide infection control programs to limit the spread of these organisms. PMID:27122379

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  11. Fecal microbial determinants of fecal and systemic estrogens and estrogen metabolites: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High systemic estrogen levels contribute to breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women, whereas low levels contribute to osteoporosis risk. Except for obesity, determinants of non-ovarian systemic estrogen levels are undefined. We sought to identify members and functions of the intestinal microbial community associated with estrogen levels via enterohepatic recirculation. Methods Fifty-one epidemiologists at the National Institutes of Health, including 25 men, 7 postmenopausal women, and 19 premenopausal women, provided urine and aliquots of feces, using methods proven to yield accurate and reproducible results. Estradiol, estrone, 13 estrogen metabolites (EM, and their sum (total estrogens were quantified in urine and feces by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In feces, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase activities were determined by realtime kinetics, and microbiome diversity and taxonomy were estimated by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA amplicons. Pearson correlations were computed for each loge estrogen level, loge enzymatic activity level, and microbiome alpha diversity estimate. For the 55 taxa with mean relative abundance of at least 0.1%, ordinal levels were created [zero, low (below median of detected sequences, high] and compared to loge estrogens, β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase enzymatic activity levels by linear regression. Significance was based on two-sided tests with α=0.05. Results In men and postmenopausal women, levels of total urinary estrogens (as well as most individual EM were very strongly and directly associated with all measures of fecal microbiome richness and alpha diversity (R≥0.50, P≤0.003. These non-ovarian systemic estrogens also were strongly and significantly associated with fecal Clostridia taxa, including non-Clostridiales and three genera in the Ruminococcaceae family (R=0.57−0.70, P=0.03−0.002. Estrone, but not other EM, in urine correlated significantly with

  12. Molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from bovines and their handlers in Jammu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majueeb U Rehman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC in bovines and their handlers in Jammu, India. A total of 173 samples comprising of 103 fecal samples from bovines (60 from cattle and 43 from buffaloes, 28 stools and 42 fingertip rinses from bovine handlers were collected during August 2011 to March 2012. The isolated 126 E. coli strains (86 from bovines and 40 from handlers belonged to 25 different serogroups in addition to rough and untypeable strains. Using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, four EPEC strains were isolated; two each from bovines and their handlers, of which two possessed the hemolysin (hlyA gene. The prevalence of EPEC was recorded as 1.66% (n=1/60 in cattle, 2.32% (n=1/43 in buffaloes, and 2.85% (n=2/70 in their handlers. Antibiogram studies with the EPEC revealed the presence of multi-drug resistant E. coli. The isolates were mostly resistant to Amikacin, Amoxicillin, Cefixime and Streptomycin, and sensitive to Chloramphenicol. This study indicates that bovines as well as their handlers in Jammu region harbor EPEC, many of which being multi-drug resistant and carrying the hemolysin gene could be of high pathogenic potential for humans.

  13. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... risks of other livestock diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea, foot-and-mouth disease, infectious... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR 53314-53379..., 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0010) a...

  14. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  15. PCR confirmation of Chlamydophila felis from nasal and conjunctival swab samples of a domestic cat in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregurić-Gračner Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now there is no evidence that chlamydiosis does exist among cats in the Republic of Croatia regardless of the fact that feline chlamydiosis is a worldwide disease. This report describes the clinical examination of a one year old cat with bilateral conjunctivitis, as well as the diagnostic methods used to confirm infection with Chlamydophila (Cp. felis. We have used rapid enzyme immunoassay test (EIA for antigen detection, in order to examine the swabs taken from the eyes and nostrils. The positive result was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence (DIF made on scrapings from cat's conjunctivas. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR made on swabs taken from cat's conjunctivas and nostrils and sequencing the PCR product was used to confirmed infection of cat precisely with Chlamydophila felis. No increase of IgG antibodies against chlamydias was noted using indirect immunofluorescence (IFA method.

  16. Culture-independent quantification of Salmonella enterica in carcass gauze swabs by flotation prior to real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Schelin, Jenny; Norling, Börje; Vigre, Håkan; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Rådström, Peter

    To facilitate quantitative risk assessment in the meat production chain, there is a need for culture-independent quantification methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of flotation, a non-destructive sample preparation method based on traditional buoyant density centrifugation, for...... culture-independent quantification of intact Salmonella in pig carcass gauze swabs (100 cm2) prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR). A novel approach was investigated, excluding the homogenization step prior to flotation, to improve the detection limit and speed up the quantification procedure. The buoyant...... density of two Salmonella strains in different growth conditions was determined to be 1.065 – 1.092 g/ml. Based on these data, an optimal discontinuous flotation with three different density layers, 1.200, 1.102 and 1.055 g/ml, was designed for extracting intact Salmonella cells from pig carcass swabs...

  17. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  18. Evaluation of a conjunctival swab polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Leishmania infantum in dogs in a non-endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisweid, K; Weber, K; Sauter-Louis, C; Hartmann, K

    2013-10-01

    Due to the increasing numbers of dogs imported from or visiting Mediterranean countries, canine leishmaniasis has become an important infectious disease in countries where natural transmission typically does not occur. Although conjunctival swabs have recently been described as a useful diagnostic tool in endemic areas, their usefulness in non-endemic areas is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a conjunctival swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in dogs in a non-endemic area. Dogs (n=74) that were presented for suspected canine leishmaniasis or for screening purposes after a history of travelling were prospectively included. PCR results from conjunctival swabs were compared to those from bone marrow, lymph nodes and blood and also to antibody results determined by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dogs were considered infected if bone marrow, lymph node, or blood PCR was positive and were defined as not infected if bone marrow PCR, the gold standard of testing, was negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the conjunctival swab PCR were 78.4% (confidence interval [CI] 95%, 62.8-88.6) and 93.8% (CI 95%, 79.8-98.3), respectively. There was substantial agreement between PCR results from conjunctival swabs and lymph nodes (κ=0.642), fair to moderate agreement between conjunctival swabs and bone marrow (κ=0.483), and almost no agreement between conjunctival swabs and blood (κ=0.070). Dogs with high antibody titres were more likely to be positive on conjunctival swab PCR than dogs with negative or doubtful antibody titres (P<0.001). Thus, conjunctival swab PCR is a good non-invasive test to diagnose Leishmania infection in dogs in non-endemic countries. PMID:23993391

  19. Evaluation of isolation procedures and chromogenic agar media for detection of MRSA in nasal swabs from pigs and veal calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Graveland, Haitske; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Van Nes, Arie; Schoormans, Anky; Broekhuizen-Stins, Marian; Schothorst, Isabella Oosting-Van; Heederik, Dick; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Since the emergence of MRSA in livestock, screening of animals for the detection of MRSA is widely practised. Different procedures are published for animal samples but a systematic comparison of methods has not been performed. The objective of this study was to compare three available commonly used procedures and three chromogenic agars for detecting MRSA in nasal swabs from pigs (n=70) and veal calves (n=100). Procedures 1 and 2 used a pre-enrichment comprising Mueller Hi...

  20. Evaluation of Automated and Manual Commercial DNA Extraction Methods for Recovery of Brucella DNA from Suspensions and Spiked Swabs

    OpenAIRE

    Dauphin, Leslie A.; Hutchins, Rebecca J.; Bost, Liberty A.; Bowen, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated automated and manual commercial DNA extraction methods for their ability to recover DNA from Brucella species in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) suspension and from spiked swab specimens. Six extraction methods, representing several of the methodologies which are commercially available for DNA extraction, as well as representing various throughput capacities, were evaluated: the MagNA Pure Compact and the MagNA Pure LC instruments, the IT 1-2-3 DNA sample purification kit...

  1. Current Microbial Isolates from Wound Swabs, Their Culture and Sensitivity Pattern at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Pondei, Kemebradikumo; Fente, Beleudanyo G.; Oladapo, Oluwatoyosi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Wound infections continue to be problematic in clinical practice where empiric treatment of infections is routine. Objectives: A retrospective cross-sectional study to determine the current causative organisms of wound infections and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital (NDUTH), Okolobiri, Bayelsa State of Nigeria. Methods: Records of wound swabs collected from 101 patients with high suspicion of wound infection were analysed. Sm...

  2. Rapid diagnosis of diarrhea caused by Shigella sonnei using dipsticks; comparison of rectal swabs, direct stool and stool culture.

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    Claudia Duran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated a dipstick test for rapid detection of Shigella sonnei on bacterial colonies, directly on stools and from rectal swabs because in actual field situations, most pathologic specimens for diagnosis correspond to stool samples or rectal swabs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The test is based on the detection of S. sonnei lipopolysaccharide (LPS O-side chains using phase I-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles, and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 5 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 6 minutes. This is the optimal time for lecture to avoid errors of interpretation. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 4 x 10(6 CFU/ml of S. sonnei. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and different unrelated strains. When tested on 342 rectal swabs in Chile, specificity (281/295 was 95.3% (95% CI: 92.9% - 97.7% and sensitivity (47/47 was 100%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 95.5 % of cases (328/342 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 77% (95% CI: 65% - 86.5% and 100% respectively. When tested on 219 stools in Chile, Vietnam, India and France, specificity (190/198 was 96% (95% CI 92%-98% and sensitivity (21/21 was 100%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 96.3 % of cases (211/219 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 72.4% (95% CI 56.1%-88.6% and 100 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: This one-step dipstick test performed well for diagnosis of S. sonnei both on stools and on rectal swabs. These data confirm a preliminary study done in Chile.

  3. Office-Based Management of Fecal Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costilla, Vanessa C.; Mayer, Anita P.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a devastating disorder that is more prevalent than previously realized. FI is the involuntary loss of stool. Many factors contribute to the pathophysiology of FI, including advanced age, bowel irregularity, parity, and obesity. A detailed history and focused rectal examination are important to making the diagnosis and determining contributing causes. Although multiple diagnostic studies are available to assess the cause of FI, specific guidelines that delineate when testing should be done do not exist. Clinicians must weigh the risk, benefit, and burden of testing against the need for empiric treatment. All types of FI are initially managed in the same way, which includes lifestyle modification to reduce bowel derangements, improved access to toileting, and initiation of a bulking regimen to improve stool consistency. If initial conservative management fails, pharmaco-logic agents, biofeedback, or surgery may be indicated. PMID:23935551

  4. Direct PCR amplification of the HVSI region in mitochondrial DNA from buccal cell swabs

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    Kovačević-Grujičić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been widely used in population genetics, human evolutionary and molecular anthropology studies. mtDNA hypervariable segments I and II (HVSI and HVSII were shown to be a suitable tool in genetic analyses due to the unique properties of mtDNA, such as the lack of recombination, maternal mode of inheritance, rapid evolutionary rate and high population-specific polymorphisms. Here we present a rapid and low-cost method for direct PCR amplification of a 330 bp fragment of HVSI from buccal cell samples. Avoiding the DNA isolation step makes this method appropriate for the analysis of a large number of samples in a short period of time. Since the transportation of samples and fieldwork conditions can affect the quality of samples and subsequent DNA analysis, we tested the effects of long-term storage of buccal cell swabs on the suitability of such samples for direct PCR amplification. We efficiently amplified a 330 bp fragment of HVSI even after the long-term storage of buccal cells at room temperature, +4°C or at -20°C, for up to eight months. All examined PCR products were successfully sequenced, regardless of sample storage time and conditions. Our results suggest that the direct PCR amplification of the HVSI region from buccal cells is a method well suited for large-scale mtDNA population studies.[Acknowledgments. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (Grant no. III 47025.

  5. Fecal immunochemical test as a biomarker for inflammatory bowel diseases: can it rival fecal calprotectin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Jun; Hiraoka, Sakiko; Nakarai, Asuka; Takashima, Shiho; Inokuchi, Toshihiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of disease activity is essential for choosing an appropriate treatment and follow-up plan for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endoscopy is required for accurately evaluating disease activity, but the procedures are sometimes invasive and burdensome to patients. Therefore, alternative non-invasive methods for evaluating or predicting disease activity including mucosal status are desirable. Fecal calprotectin (Fcal) is the most widely used fecal marker for IBD, and many articles have described the performance of the marker in predicting disease activity, mucosal healing (MH), treatment efficacy, and risk of relapse. Fecal immunochemical test (FIT) can quantify the concentration of hemoglobin in stool and was originally used for the screening of colorectal cancer. We recently reported that FIT is also a useful biomarker for IBD. A direct comparison between the use of Fcal and FIT showed that both methods predicted MH in ulcerative colitis equally well. However, in the case of Crohn's disease, FIT was less sensitive to lesions in the small intestine, compared to Fcal. FIT holds several advantages over Fcal in regards to user-friendliness, including a lower cost, easy and clean handling, and the ability to make rapid measurements by using an automated measurement system. However, there is insufficient data to support the application of FIT in IBD. Further studies into the use of FIT for evaluating the inflammatory status of IBD are warranted. PMID:26884729

  6. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in simulated and true clinical throat swab specimens by nanorod array-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

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    Suzanne L Hennigan

    Full Text Available The prokaryote Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of respiratory disease in humans, accounting for 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia and the leading cause of pneumonia in older children and young adults. The limitations of existing options for mycoplasma diagnosis highlight a critical need for a new detection platform with high sensitivity, specificity, and expediency. Here we evaluated silver nanorod arrays (NA as a biosensing platform for detection and differentiation of M. pneumoniae in culture and in spiked and true clinical throat swab samples by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS. Three M. pneumoniae strains were reproducibly differentiated by NA-SERS with 95%-100% specificity and 94-100% sensitivity, and with a lower detection limit exceeding standard PCR. Analysis of throat swab samples spiked with M. pneumoniae yielded detection in a complex, clinically relevant background with >90% accuracy and high sensitivity. In addition, NA-SERS correctly classified with >97% accuracy, ten true clinical throat swab samples previously established by real-time PCR and culture to be positive or negative for M. pneumoniae. Our findings suggest that the unique biochemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy, combined with reproducible spectral enhancement by silver NA, holds great promise as a superior platform for rapid and sensitive detection and identification of M. pneumoniae, with potential for point-of-care application.

  7. Comparison between nasopharyngeal swab and nasal wash, using culture and PCR, in the detection of potential respiratory pathogens

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    El Batrawy Sherouk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasopharyngeal carriage of potential pathogens is important as it is both the major source of transmission and the prerequisite of invasive disease. New methods for detecting carriage could improve comfort, accuracy and laboratory utility. The aims of this study were to compare the sensitivities of a nasopharyngeal swab (NPS and a nasal wash (NW in detecting potential respiratory pathogens in healthy adults using microbiological culture and PCR. Results Healthy volunteers attended for nasal washing and brushing of the posterior nasopharynx. Conventional and real-time PCR were used to detect pneumococcus and meningococcus. Statistical differences between the two nasal sampling methods were determined using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test; differences between culture and PCR methods were determined using the McNemar test. Nasal washing was more comfortable for volunteers than swabbing (n = 24. In detection by culture, the NW was significantly more likely to detect pathogens than the NPS (p Conclusions Nasal washing and PCR may provide effective alternatives to nasopharyngeal swabbing and classical microbiology, respectively.

  8. Validation of a same-day real-time PCR method for screening of meat and carcass swabs for Salmonella

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    Hansen Flemming

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major sources of human Salmonella infections is meat. Therefore, efficient and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain is necessary. Validation of alternative methods is needed to prove that the performance is equal to established methods. Very few of the published PCR methods for Salmonella have been validated in collaborative studies. This study describes a validation including comparative and collaborative trials, based on the recommendations from the Nordic organization for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal of a same-day, non-commercial real-time PCR method for detection of Salmonella in meat and carcass swabs. Results The comparative trial was performed against a reference method (NMKL-71:5, 1999 using artificially and naturally contaminated samples (60 minced veal and pork meat samples, 60 poultry neck-skins, and 120 pig carcass swabs. The relative accuracy was 99%, relative detection level 100%, relative sensitivity 103% and relative specificity 100%. The collaborative trial included six laboratories testing minced meat, poultry neck-skins, and carcass swabs as un-inoculated samples and samples artificially contaminated with 1–10 CFU/25 g, and 10–100 CFU/25 g. Valid results were obtained from five of the laboratories and used for the statistical analysis. Apart from one of the non-inoculated samples being false positive with PCR for one of the laboratories, no false positive or false negative results were reported. Partly based on results obtained in this study, the method has obtained NordVal approval for analysis of Salmonella in meat and carcass swabs. The PCR method was transferred to a production laboratory and the performance was compared with the BAX Salmonella test on 39 pork samples artificially contaminated with Salmonella. There was no significant difference in the results obtained by the two methods. Conclusion The real-time PCR method for

  9. Contact with beach sand, concentrations of fecal indicators, and enteric illness risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies ofbeach sand fecal contamination have triggered interest among scientists and in the media. Although evidence shows that beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms as well as fecal pathogens, illness risk associated with beach sand contact and fecal indicators...

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF CHICKEN-SPECIFIC FECAL MICROBIAL SEQUENCES USING A METAGENOMIC APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we applied a genome fragment enrichment (GFE) method to select for genomic regions that differ between different fecal metagenomes. Competitive DNA hybridizations were performed between chicken fecal DNA and pig fecal DNA (C-P) and between chicken fecal DNA and an ...

  11. Changes of Cattle Fecal Microbiome Under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to study the microbiome in wastewater, sewage sludge, and feces. Previous microbial survival studies have shown different fecal-associated microbes have different decay rates and regrowth behaviors.

  12. Inspection of fecal contamination on strawberries using fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yung-Kun; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Delwiche, Stephen R.; Lo, Y. Martin; Chen, Suming; Chan, Diane E.

    2013-05-01

    Fecal contamination of produce is a food safety issue associated with pathogens such as Escherichia coli that can easily pollute agricultural products via animal and human fecal matters. Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with consuming raw fruits and vegetables have occurred more frequently in recent years in the United States. Among fruits, strawberry is one high-potential vector of fecal contamination and foodborne illnesses since the fruit is often consumed raw and with minimal processing. In the present study, line-scan LED-induced fluorescence imaging techniques were applied for inspection of fecal material on strawberries, and the spectral characteristics and specific wavebands of strawberries were determined by detection algorithms. The results would improve the safety and quality of produce consumed by the public.

  13. Methods of targeting animal sources of fecal pollution in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, proposed chemical and biological MST indicators for the determination of animal fecal sources are discussed. The biological indicators are grouped based on the phylogenetic description of the proposed target (eukarya, bacteria, and virus). A comprehensive descrip...

  14. Two, four, six, eight... stop and count before it is too late! An audit on swab, needle and instrument counts in theatre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, T.

    2014-07-01

    A concurrent audit was conducted over a four week period to determine if the counting of swabs, needles and instruments for surgery adhered to local policy and recommended guidelines. Data were collected on 30 abdominal surgical procedures. This audit highlighted failings in the count process. It identified poor communication within the multidisciplinary team. There needs to be an increased awareness about local policy, national and international guidelines regarding the counting of swabs, needles and instruments for all surgical procedures.

  15. Fecal Pellet Flux in the Mesopelagic Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koweek, D.; Shatova, O.; Conte, M. H.; Weber, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Oceanic Flux Program (OFP), located 75km SE of Bermuda, is the longest running sediment trap time-series of its kind, continually collecting deep sea particle flux since 1978. Recent application of digital microphotography to the size-fractionated OFP sediment trap material has generated a wealth of new quantitative visual information on particle flux composition, its changes with depth, and its temporal variability. We examined the fecal pellet flux at 1500m depth using image analysis of digital archives, in conjunction with data on the overlying surface ocean from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) and the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) programs, to investigate the role of mesoscale physical forcing on mesopelagic particle flux variability. During 2007, a productive cyclonic eddy, a mode water eddy and an anticyclonic eddy passed over the OFP site. Fecal pellet flux was enhanced during passage of both the cyclonic and mode water eddies. Total mass flux (TMF) was also enhanced during the productive cyclonic eddy, but was not influenced by the passage of the mode water eddy. No increase in fecal pellet flux or TMF was apparent during passage of the anticyclonic eddy despite indications of increased zooplankton abundance from ADCP backscatter intensity. Fecal pellet size frequency distributions indicate the presence of two, and sometimes three, distinct size classes. No seasonal trend in mean size of fecal pellets was observed for any size class, implying that the size distribution of the zooplankton populations producing the pellets is relatively constant throughout the year. We also investigated fecal pellet flux changes with depth at 500, 1500 and 3200m. Fecal pellet flux, and the fecal pellet contribution to TMF, were greatest at 500m and decreased with depth. The use of quantitative image analysis holds great potential as a powerful analytical tool in studies of marine particulate flux.

  16. Treating Fecal Incontinence: An Unmet Need in Primary Care Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, William E; Palsson, Olafur S; Simren, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Fecal incontinence affects up to 36% of primary care patients. Although effective treatments are available, doctors rarely screen for this condition and patients seldom volunteer complaints of fecal incontinence. Conservative management yields 60% improvement in symptoms and continence in 20% of patients. Referrals are currently being accepted for studies seeking to improve case detection and to support conservative management or self-care. PMID:27154893

  17. An Investigation of Variables in a Fecal Flotation Technique

    OpenAIRE

    O'Grady, M R; Slocombe, J. O. D.

    1980-01-01

    Several variables in a standard vial fecal gravitational flotation technique were investigated. These were the specific gravity of the sodium nitrate flotation solution, duration of flotation and mesh sizes of strainers. The number of eggs which floated and adhered to a coverslip were counted and estimates of the number of eggs remaining in the strained fecal suspension and in the feces trapped on the strainer were made. Eggs from hookworms, Trichuris vulpis and Toxocara canis in feces from d...

  18. The role of fecal calprotectin in investigating inflammatory bowel diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Erbayrak; Cansel Turkay; Elife Eraslan; Hulya Cetinkaya; Benan Kasapoglu; Mehmet Bektas

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Invasive and non-invasive tests can be used to evaluate the activity of inflammatory bowel diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of fecal calprotectin in evaluating inflammatory bowel disease activity and the correlation of fecal calprotectin with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein values in inflammatory bowel disease. METHOD: Sixty-five patients affected with inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled. Twenty outpatie...

  19. The Role of Fecal Calprotectin in Investigating Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbayrak, Mustafa; Turkay, Cansel; Eraslan, Elife; Cetinkaya, Hulya; Kasapoglu, Benan; Bektas, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Invasive and non-invasive tests can be used to evaluate the activity of inflammatory bowel diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of fecal calprotectin in evaluating inflammatory bowel disease activity and the correlation of fecal calprotectin with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein values in inflammatory bowel disease. METHOD: Sixty-five patients affected with inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled. Twenty outpatients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease comprised the control group. RESULTS: In the present study, all patients in the control group had an fecal calprotectin value lower than the cut-off point (50 mg/kg). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, fecal calprotectin was found to be strongly associated with colorectal inflammation indicating organic disease. Fecal calprotectin is a simple and non-invasive method for assessing excretion of macrophages into the gut lumen. Fecal calprotectin values can be used to evaluate the response to treatment, to screen asymptomatic patients, and to predict inflammatory bowel disease relapses. PMID:19488608

  20. The role of fecal calprotectin in investigating inflammatory bowel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Erbayrak

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Invasive and non-invasive tests can be used to evaluate the activity of inflammatory bowel diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of fecal calprotectin in evaluating inflammatory bowel disease activity and the correlation of fecal calprotectin with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein values in inflammatory bowel disease. METHOD: Sixty-five patients affected with inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled. Twenty outpatients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease comprised the control group. RESULTS: In the present study, all patients in the control group had an fecal calprotectin value lower than the cut-off point (50 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, fecal calprotectin was found to be strongly associated with colorectal inflammation indicating organic disease. Fecal calprotectin is a simple and non-invasive method for assessing excretion of macrophages into the gut lumen. Fecal calprotectin values can be used to evaluate the response to treatment, to screen asymptomatic patients, and to predict inflammatory bowel disease relapses.

  1. Colitis following fecal diversion: still a challenge

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    Castro Leonaldson dos Santos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available After fecal diversion, nonspecific colitis may be seen in the defunctionalized colon. The purpose of this prospective study is to identify specific findings that could help in the differential diagnosis between diversion colitis and other inflammatory bowel diseases in order to avoid inappropriate diagnosis and therapy. It was studied, prospectively, thirteen consecutive patients from two public hospitals of Rio de Janeiro who had undergone temporary colostomy for indications other than inflammatory bowel disease. They were submitted to endoscopy with biopsy of both proximal and distal colorectal segments, and prospectively evaluated before and after restoration of intestinal continuity. Endoscopy with biopsy of both proximal and distal excluded colorectal segments showed a nonspecific mucosal and submucosal inflammation, resembling ulcerative colitis ( p < 0.01. There was endoscopic resolution in all patients once restoration of intestinal continuity was established (p < 0.01 and also histologic improvement after the stoma closure. In conclusion there are no specific findings that make possible an unequivocal distinction between diversion colitis and other nonspecific inflammatory diseases. Diagnosis should be achieved if after stoma closure occur remission of endoscopic large bowel inflammatory signs with improvement in mucosal histologic appearance and prompt relief of clinical complaints.

  2. A simple method of infecting rabbits with Bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, A R; Pidone, C L; Massone, A R; Quiroga, M A; Riganti, J G; Corva, S G; Galosi, C M

    2008-06-01

    This report describes an alternative technique to inoculate rabbits and to reproduce infection by Bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5. First, the nostrils are anaesthetized by aspersion with local anaesthetic. A few seconds later, and after proving the insensitivity of the zone, the rabbits are put on their back legs with their nostrils upwards and the inoculum is introduced slowly into each nostril by using disposable droppers. Clinical signs, viral isolation from nasal swabs, histological lesions found, positive polymerase chain reaction and antibodies production confirm the infection. This very simple and bloodless technique, where the animals are exposed to minor distress, may be useful for evaluating the virulence of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 strains, to study the establishment of latent virus infection and to test the potential of experimental vaccines or properties of antiviral drugs. It may be also suitable for experimental infection with other respiratory viruses in this animal model. PMID:18423632

  3. Microbial community analysis and identification of alternative host-specific fecal indicators in fecal and river water samples using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ju-Yong; Park, Hee-Deung; Lee, Kyong-Hee; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2011-08-01

    It is important to know the comprehensive microbial communities of fecal pollution sources and receiving water bodies for microbial source tracking. Pyrosequencing targeting the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene was used to investigate the characteristics of bacterial and Bacteroidales communities in major fecal sources and river waters. Diversity analysis indicated that cow feces had the highest diversities in the bacterial and Bacteroidales group followed by the pig sample, with human feces having the lowest value. The Bacteroidales, one of the potential fecal indicators, totally dominated in the fecal samples accounting for 31%-52% of bacterial sequences, but much less (0.6%) in the river water. Clustering and Venn diagram analyses showed that the human sample had a greater similarity to the pig sample in the bacterial and Bacteroidales communities than to samples from other hosts. Traditional fecal indicators, i.e., Escherichia coli, were detected in the human and river water samples at very low rates and Clostridium perfringens and enterococci were not detected in any samples. Besides the Bacteroidales group, some microorganisms detected in the specific hosts, i.e., Parasutterella excrementihominis, Veillonella sp., Dialister invisus, Megamonas funiformis, and Ruminococcus lactaris for the human and Lactobacillus amylovorus and Atopostipes sp. for the pig, could be used as potential host-specific fecal indicators. These microorganisms could be used as multiple fecal indicators that are not dependent on the absence or presence of a single indicator. Monitoring for multiple indicators that are highly abundant and host-specific would greatly enhance the effectiveness of fecal pollution source tracking. PMID:21887641

  4. Buccal swabbing as a noninvasive method to determine bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbial community structures in the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Kirk, Michelle R; Jonker, Arjan; McCulloch, Alan; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of rumen microbial community structure based on small-subunit rRNA marker genes in metagenomic DNA samples provides important insights into the dominant taxa present in the rumen and allows assessment of community differences between individuals or in response to treatments applied to ruminants. However, natural animal-to-animal variation in rumen microbial community composition can limit the power of a study considerably, especially when only subtle differences are expected between treatment groups. Thus, trials with large numbers of animals may be necessary to overcome this variation. Because ruminants pass large amounts of rumen material to their oral cavities when they chew their cud, oral samples may contain good representations of the rumen microbiota and be useful in lieu of rumen samples to study rumen microbial communities. We compared bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic community structures in DNAs extracted from buccal swabs to those in DNAs from samples collected directly from the rumen by use of a stomach tube for sheep on four different diets. After bioinformatic depletion of potential oral taxa from libraries of samples collected via buccal swabs, bacterial communities showed significant clustering by diet (R = 0.37; analysis of similarity [ANOSIM]) rather than by sampling method (R = 0.07). Archaeal, ciliate protozoal, and anaerobic fungal communities also showed significant clustering by diet rather than by sampling method, even without adjustment for potentially orally associated microorganisms. These findings indicate that buccal swabs may in future allow quick and noninvasive sampling for analysis of rumen microbial communities in large numbers of ruminants. PMID:26276109

  5. Current Microbial Isolates from Wound Swab and Their Susceptibility Pattern in a Private Medical College Hospital in Dhaka city

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    Shahin Sultana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound infection is one of the major health problems that are caused and aggravated by the invasion of pathogenic organisms where empiric treatment is routine. Objective: To isolate and identify the bacteria causing wound infection and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Materials and method: A total of 263 wound swab and pus samples were collected during the period of January to December 2012 from Delta Medical College and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Swabs from the wound were inoculated on appropriate media and cultured and the isolates were identified by standard procedures as needed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method according to ‘The Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute’ guidelines. Results: In this study 220 bacterial isolates were recovered from 263 samples showing an isolation rate of 83.65%. The predominant bacteria isolated from infected wounds were Staphylococcus aureus 89 (40.45% followed by Escherichia coli 62 (28.18%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 34 (15.45%, Enterococci 18 (8.18%, Acinetobacter 5 (2.27%, Klebsiella 9 (4.09% and Proteus 3 (3.36%. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to linezolid (94.38%, fusidic acid (91.01%, vancomycin (87.64%, amikacin (74.15% and gentamicin (73.03%. Among the Gram negative isolates Escherichia coli was predominant and showed sensitivity to imipenem (93.54% amikacin (83.87% colistin (53.22% and piperacillin and tazobactum (53.22% and pseudomonas showed sensitivity to amikacin (73.52%, imipenem (70.58% and colistin (70.58%. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen from wound swab and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of various isolates help to assist the clinician in appropriate selection of empirical antibiotics against wound infection.

  6. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

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    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  7. Bovine coronavirus detection in a collection of diarrheic stool samples positive for group a bovine rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fernandes Barry

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal diarrhea is an important cause of economic losses for cattle farmers. The main viral etiologies of enteric diseases are group A rotaviruses (GARV and the bovine coronavirus (BCoV. Although both viruses infect calves of the same age, the occurrence of mixed infections is still under studied. The present study describes the co-infection of BCoV and GARV in stool samples. Forty-four diarrheic fecal samples from calves up to 60 days old that had previously tested positive for GARV by SS-PAGE were analyzed using semi-nested PCR for BCoV. A product with 251 bp of the BCoV nucleoprotein gene was amplified in 15.9% (7/44 of the samples, demonstrating that co-infection is not an unusual event. These results reinforce the need for testing for both GARV and BCoV, even in fecal samples that previously tested positive for one virus.A diarreia neonatal é uma importante causa de perdas econômicas para a criação de bovinos. Os principais agentes etiológicos virais das doenças entéricas são o rotavírus bovino grupo A (GARV e o coronavírus bovino (BCoV. Embora ambos os vírus infectem bezerros na mesma faixa etária, infecções mistas ainda são pouco estudadas. O presente trabalho descreve a identificação do BCoV em amostras de fezes positivas para o GARV, caracterizando a ocorrência de infecções mistas. Quarenta e quatro amostras de fezes diarreicas de bezerros com até 60 dias de idade, previamente identificadas como positivas para o GARV bovino por meio da técnica de SS-PAGE, foram avaliadas quanto a presença do BCoV pela técnica de semi-nested PCR. Um produto com 251 pb do gene da nucleoproteína do BCoV foi amplificado em 15,9% (7/44 das amostras de fezes demonstrando que a co-infecção não é um evento raro. Esse resultado enfatizada a importância da realização simultânea do diagnóstico para esses dois importantes vírus entéricos de bezerros em surtos de diarreia neonatal tanto em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros quanto de

  8. Evaluation of Multiple Methods for Detection of Gastrointestinal Colonization of Carbapenem-Resistant Organisms from Rectal Swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, Patricia J; Martin, Isabella; Opene, Belita; Tamma, Pranita D; Carroll, Karen C; Milstone, Aaron M

    2016-06-01

    Rectal swabs from high-risk patients were screened for carbapenem-resistant organisms (CROs) using several methods. The direct MacConkey plate method was the most sensitive for CROs (95%), while chromID CARBA and the Check-Direct CPE screen assay were the most sensitive for the detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) (100%; all blaKPC). All methods had a specificity of >90% for CROs, and for CPOs, the specificity ranged from 85 to 98%. Broth enrichment methods performed poorly compared to direct inoculation methods, negating the need for the broth enrichment step. PMID:27053674

  9. The development of a line-scan imaging algorithm for the detection of fecal contamination on leafy geens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Chuang, Yung-Kun; Lee, Hoyoung

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports the development of a multispectral algorithm, using the line-scan hyperspectral imaging system, to detect fecal contamination on leafy greens. Fresh bovine feces were applied to the surfaces of washed loose baby spinach leaves. A hyperspectral line-scan imaging system was used to acquire hyperspectral fluorescence images of the contaminated leaves. Hyperspectral image analysis resulted in the selection of the 666 nm and 688 nm wavebands for a multispectral algorithm to rapidly detect feces on leafy greens, by use of the ratio of fluorescence intensities measured at those two wavebands (666 nm over 688 nm). The algorithm successfully distinguished most of the lowly diluted fecal spots (0.05 g feces/ml water and 0.025 g feces/ml water) and some of the highly diluted spots (0.0125 g feces/ml water and 0.00625 g feces/ml water) from the clean spinach leaves. The results showed the potential of the multispectral algorithm with line-scan imaging system for application to automated food processing lines for food safety inspection of leafy green vegetables.

  10. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  11. Deteksi Bovine Herpesvirus-1 Secara Immunohistokimia pada Membran Korioallantois Telur Ayam Berembrio (IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY DETECTION OF BOVINE HERPESVIRUS-1 IN CORIOALLANTOIC MEMBRANE OF CHICKEN EMBRYONATED EGG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Purwandari Kristianingrum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR is caused by Bovine Herpes virus-1 in the cattle. The clinicalsigns demonstrate depression, anorexia, swelling of the vulva, redness of the vestibule, pustule and ulceron the vaginal mucosal. Based on previous research, IBR virus from the nasal swab could be grown inchorio-allantoic membrane of embryonated chicken eggs. This study aim was to confirm whether IBR virusin cattle could be grown in embryonated chicken eggs as a substitute for cell culture. A total of five nasalswab samples from the cows that were positive for IBR infection (diagnosed by Polymerase Chain Reactionand cell culture were inoculated on the chorio-allantois membrane of embryonated chicken eggs.Observation of lesions performed at 3-5 days after inoculation. Re-inoculation (passage was done threetimes. Pock characteristic lesions were observed on the corioallantoic membrane with the size of 5-7 mm,rounded shape, opaque edge, with necrosis in the central area. Furthermore, pock lesions were processedfor hematoxylin and eosin staining and immuno-histochemistry. The result of hematoxylin and eosinstaining showed that the formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies and vacuolization of the epithelial cellof membrane was observed. Immuno-histochemistry staining showed positive reaction for antibodiesagainst BHV-1 in the epithelial cells membrane. In conclusion, embryonated chicken eggs could be usedas a medium for detection of IBR.

  12. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie

    1988-01-01

    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bov...

  13. Evaluation of 292 ocular swabs, vitreous and aqueous cultures in pathologies with severe prognosis during a 24-month observation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Giardini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Different part of the eye can be infected by bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses (5. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of ocular swabs culture in pathologies with severe prognosis. Methods.We examined 292 patients with a severe diseases: 98% of those used topical and/or systemic antibiotic therapy.All sample were cultured both into a chocolate agar medium and into an Haemophilus selective agar and, at the same time, inoculated onto a modified blood cuture. Results. 75 out of 292 (25.7% patients tested negative.The most representative microorganisms were: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS (20%, Staphylococcus aureus (12%, member of the Pseudomonadaceae family (10.9%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (9%, alpha haemolytic streptococci (8.2%, Fungus and Yeast (5.4%. Considering the type of cultures: 54.5% of the vitreous cultures were positive and 45.5% were negative; 38.2% of the positive cultures were referred to endophthalmitis, with prevalence of CNS (32.5% and S. aureus (22.9%, while 27.6% were due to an abscesces, with prevalence of members of the Pseudomonadaceae family (53.3%, CNS (23.3% and S. pneumoniae (16.7%. Conclusions. This data suggest the importance of the ocular swabs, vitreous and aqueous cultures in the therapeutic approach of the diseases with a severe prognosis and emphasize the good performance of the modified Bactec Plus system.

  14. Current Microbial Isolates from Wound Swabs, Their Culture and Sensitivity Pattern at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondei, Kemebradikumo; Fente, Beleudanyo G.; Oladapo, Oluwatoyosi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Wound infections continue to be problematic in clinical practice where empiric treatment of infections is routine. Objectives: A retrospective cross-sectional study to determine the current causative organisms of wound infections and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital (NDUTH), Okolobiri, Bayelsa State of Nigeria. Methods: Records of wound swabs collected from 101 patients with high suspicion of wound infection were analysed. Smears from the wound swabs were inoculated on appropriate media and cultured. Bacterial colonies were Gram stained and microscopically examined. Biochemical tests were done to identify pathogen species. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic testing. Results: Prevalence of wound infection was 86.13% (CI: 79.41–92.85). Most bacteria were Gram negative bacilli with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most prevalent pathogen isolated. The bacterial isolates exhibited a high degree of resistance to the antibiotics tested (42.8% to 100% resistance). All isolates were resistant to cloxacillin. Age group and sex did not exert any effect on prevalence, aetiological agent or antimicrobial resistance pattern. Conclusion: We suggest a multidisciplinary approach to wound management, routine microbiological surveillance of wounds, rational drug use and the institution of strong infection control policies. PMID:23874138

  15. Endoanal ultrasonography in fecal incontinence: Current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Andreia

    2015-06-10

    Fecal incontinence has a profound impact in a patient's life, impairing quality of life and carrying a substantial economic burden due to health costs. It is an underdiagnosed condition because many affected patients are reluctant to report it and also clinicians are usually not alert to it. Patient evaluation with a detailed clinical history and examination is very important to indicate the type of injury that is present. Endoanal ultrasonography is currently the gold standard for sphincter evaluation in fecal incontinence and is a simple, well-tolerated and non-expensive technique. Most studies revealed 100% sensitivity in identifying sphincter defect. It is better than endoanal magnetic resonance imaging for internal anal sphincter defects, equivalent for the diagnosis of external anal sphincter defects, but with a lower capacity for assessment of atrophy of this sphincter. The most common cause of fecal incontinence is anal sphincter injury related to obstetric trauma. Only a small percentage of women are diagnosed with sphincter tears immediately after vaginal delivery, but endoanal ultrasonography shows that one third of these women have occult sphincter defects. Furthermore, in patients submitted to primary repair of these tears, ultrasound revealed a high frequency of persistent sphincter defects after surgery. Three-dimensional endoanal ultrasonography is currently largely used and accepted for sphincter evaluation in fecal incontinence, improving diagnostic accuracy and our knowledge of physiologic and pathological sphincters alterations. Conversely, there is currently no evidence to support the use of elastography in fecal incontinence evaluation. PMID:26078826

  16. Bacteriological (fecal and total coliform) quality of Pakistani coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coliform bacteria group consists of several genera of bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae. These are harmless bacteria, mostly live in soil, water, and digestive system of animals. Fecal coliform bacteria, which belongs to this group, are present in large numbers in feces and intestinal tract of human beings and other warm-blooded animals which can enter into water bodies from human and animal waste. Swimming in water having high levels of Fecal coliform bacteria increases the chance of developing illness (fever, nausea or stomach cramps) from pathogens entering the body through mouth, nose, ears or cuts in the skin. The objective of the present study was to characterize the bathing quality of Pakistani coastal water with respect to coliform bacteria. Total and Fecal coliform bacteria were determined at seven different locations along Pakistan coast using membrane filtration (MF) technique. 100 ml of water was passed through 0.45 micron (mu) filter paper. These filter papers were put on pads, soaked in Lauryle sulphate broth in petri-dishes and incubated at 44 deg. C for Fecal and 37 deg. for Total coliform for 24 hours. Significantly high population of Fecal and Total coliform bacteria was recorded at Karachi harbour area and Indus delta region. Results indicate that a large amount of domestically originated waste is being discharged into these locations without any pre-treatment (e.g., screening, activated sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) resulting in a poor seawater quality making it unfit for bathing. (author)

  17. Chinese physicians’ perceptions of fecal microbiota transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Rong-Rong; Sun, Gang; Yang, Yun-Sheng; Peng, Li-Hua; Wang, Shu-Fang; Shi, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Jing-Quan; Ban, Yong-Ling; Pan, Fei; Wang, Xue-Hong; Lu, Wei; Ren, Jian-Lin; Song, Ying; Wang, Jiang-Bin; Lu, Qi-Ming; Bai, Wen-Yuan; Wu, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Zi-Kai; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Ye

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore Chinese physicians’ perceptions towards fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and to provide information and an assessment of FMT development in China. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was developed according to the FMT practice guidelines and was distributed to physicians in hospitals via Internet Research Electronic Data Capture (REDcap) software and electronic mails to assess their attitudes toward and knowledge of FMT. The questionnaire included a brief introduction of FMT that was followed by 20 questions. The participants were required to respond voluntarily, under the condition of anonymity and without compensation. Except for the fill-in-the-blank questions, all of the other questions were required in the REDcap data collection systems, and the emailed questionnaires were completed based on eligibility. RESULTS: Up to December 9, 2014, 844 eligible questionnaires were received out of the 980 distributed questionnaires, with a response rate of 86.1%. Among the participants, 87.3% were from tertiary hospitals, and there were 647 (76.7%) gastroenterologists and 197 (23.3%) physicians in other departments (non-gastroenterologists). Gastroenterologists’ awareness of FMT prior to the survey was much higher than non-gastroenterologists’ (54.3 vs 16.5%, P < 0.001); however, acceptance of FMT was not statistically different (92.4 vs 87.1%, P = 0.1603). Major concerns of FMT included the following: acceptability to patients (79.2%), absence of guidelines (56.9%), and administration and ethics (46.5%). On the basis of understanding, the FMT indications preferred by physicians were recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (86.7%), inflammatory bowel disease combined with Clostridium difficile infection (78.6%), refractory ulcerative colitis (70.9%), ulcerative colitis (65.4%), Crohn’s disease (59.4%), chronic constipation (43.7%), irritable bowel syndrome (39.1%), obesity (28.1%) and type 2 diabetes (23.9%). For donor selection, the

  18. Enterotoxemia em bovino Bovine enterotoxaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.F. Lobato

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of bovine enterotoxaemia in Morro da Garça, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Clostridium perfringens type D was isolated in pure culture and was characterized by biochemical reactions and PCR. By the mouse neutralization test, the presence of epsilon toxin from intestinal content was detected.

  19. Enterotoxemia em bovino Bovine enterotoxaemia

    OpenAIRE

    F.C.F. Lobato; R.A. Assis; V.L.V. Abreu; M.F. Souza Jr.; C.G.R.D. Lima; F.M. Salvarani

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a case of bovine enterotoxaemia in Morro da Garça, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Clostridium perfringens type D was isolated in pure culture and was characterized by biochemical reactions and PCR. By the mouse neutralization test, the presence of epsilon toxin from intestinal content was detected.

  20. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed H. Wakid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stool specimens of 1238 workers in western region of Saudi Arabia were examined for infection with intestinal parasites and for fecal occult blood (FOB to investigate the possibility that enteroparasites correlate to occult intestinal bleeding. Direct smears and formal ether techniques were used for detection of diagnostic stages of intestinal parasites. A commercially available guaiac test was used to detect fecal occult blood. 47.01% of the workers were infected with intestinal parasites including eight helminthes species and eight protozoan species. The results provided no significant evidence (P-value=0.143 that intestinal parasitic infection is in association with positive guaiac FOB test.

  1. Chapter A7. Section 7.1. Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Donna N.; Sylvester, Marc A.

    1997-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria are used to assess the microbiological quality of water because, although not typically disease causing, they are correlated with the presence of several waterborne disease-causing organisms. The concentration of indicator bacteria is a measure of water safety for body-contact recreation or for consumption. This report provides information on the equipment, sampling protocols, and identification, enumeration, and calculation procedures that are in standard use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel for the collection of data on fecal indicator bacteria.

  2. Differential decay of Enterococci and Escherichia coli originating from two fecal pollution sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using in situ subtropical aquatic mesocosms, fecal source (cattle manure versus sewage) was shown to be the most important contributor to differential loss in viability of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), specifically enterococci in freshwater and Escherichia coli in marine habita...

  3. Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis DNA by use of self-obtained vaginal swabs with the BD ProbeTec Qx assay on the BD Viper system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Pol, Barbara; Williams, James A; Taylor, Stephanie N; Cammarata, Catherine L; Rivers, Charles A; Body, Barbara A; Nye, Melinda; Fuller, Deanna; Schwebke, Jane R; Barnes, Mathilda; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection worldwide, and improved diagnostic methods are critical for controlling this pathogen. Diagnostic assays that can be used in conjunction with routine chlamydia/gonorrhea nucleic acid-based screening are likely to have the most impact on disease control. Here we describe the performance of the new BD T. vaginalis Qx (TVQ) amplified DNA assay, which can be performed on the automated BD Viper system. We focus on data from vaginal swab samples, since this is the specimen type routinely used for traditional trichomonas testing and the recommended specimen type for chlamydia/gonorrhea screening. Vaginal swabs were obtained from women attending sexually transmitted disease or family planning clinics at 7 sites. Patient-collected vaginal swabs were tested by the TVQ assay, and the Aptima T. vaginalis (ATV) assay was performed using clinician-collected vaginal swabs. Additional clinician-collected vaginal swabs were used for the wet mount and culture methods. Analyses included comparisons versus the patient infection status (PIS) defined by positive results with the wet mount method or culture, direct comparisons assessed with κ scores, and latent class analysis (LCA) as an unbiased estimator of test accuracy. Data from 838 women, 116 of whom were infected with T. vaginalis, were analyzed. The TVQ assay sensitivity and specificity estimates based on the PIS were 98.3% and 99.0%, respectively. The TVQ assay was similar to the ATV assay (κ=0.938) in direct analysis. LCA estimated the TVQ sensitivity and specificity as 98.3 and 99.6%, respectively. The TVQ assay performed well using self-collected vaginal swabs, the optimal sample type, as recommended by the CDC for chlamydia/gonorrhea screening among women. PMID:24391200

  4. Community Structures of Fecal Bacteria in Cattle from Different Animal Feeding Operations▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Shanks, Orin C.; Kelty, Catherine A.; Archibeque, Shawn; Jenkins, Michael; Newton, Ryan J.; McLellan, Sandra L; Susan M. Huse; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2011-01-01

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity but also in food safety, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, most published molecular surveys fail to provide adequate detail about variability in the community structures of fecal bacteria within and across cattle populations. Using massively parallel pyrosequencing of a hypervariable region of the rRNA coding region, we profiled the fecal mi...

  5. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 in Parana State, Brazil: case report, viral isolation, and molecular identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Ernesto Renato; Penha, Tania Regina; Stoffelo, Daura Regina Eira; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Ribeiro, Magda Costa; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a member of Gammaherpesvirinae sub-family and belongs to genus Rhadinovirus . This virus has been associated with different clinical manifestations and research activity has put forward a strong correlation among virus infection, postpartum metritis, and abortion. The goal of this work was to characterize a virus strain isolate from a cow's uterine outflow. From swabs drawn of uterine secretion, a virus strain was isolated and characterized by its cytopathology, morphology, and molecular biology approaches. In culture there was CPE development, characterized mainly by long strands with several small balloons along them, radiated from infected cells. Electron microscopy analysis revealed virus particles that had icosahedrical capsid symmetry surrounded by a loose envelope, typical of a herpesvirus. A 2,571 bp PCR product after Hind III digestion generated four fragments, whose base pair composition were 403, 420, 535, and 1,125 bp. Restriction enzymes Hind III and Bam HI generated the expected diagnostic bands as well as a 2,350 bp hypermolar fragment as a result of Bam HI treatment to demonstrate that agent was a bovine herpesvirus 4, appertaining to DN-599 group. PMID:26221118

  6. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 in Parana State, Brazil: case report, viral isolation, and molecular identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Renato Kruger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 is a member of Gammaherpesvirinaesub-family and belongs to genus Rhadinovirus. This virus has been associated with different clinical manifestations and research activity has put forward a strong correlation among virus infection, postpartum metritis, and abortion. The goal of this work was to characterize a virus strain isolate from a cow’s uterine outflow. From swabs drawn of uterine secretion, a virus strain was isolated and characterized by its cytopathology, morphology, and molecular biology approaches. In culture there was CPE development, characterized mainly by long strands with several small balloons along them, radiated from infected cells. Electron microscopy analysis revealed virus particles that had icosahedrical capsid symmetry surrounded by a loose envelope, typical of a herpesvirus. A 2,571 bp PCR product after HindIII digestion generated four fragments, whose base pair composition were 403, 420, 535, and 1,125 bp. Restriction enzymes HindIII and BamHI generated the expected diagnostic bands as well as a 2,350 bp hypermolar fragment as a result of BamHI treatment to demonstrate that agent was a bovine herpesvirus 4, appertaining to DN-599 group.

  7. The utility of polyester and cotton as swabbing substrates for the removal of cellular material from surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Christina M; Kaufman, Stacie R; Quarino, Lawrence

    2011-03-01

    Various types of cotton and polyester fabrics were tested to ascertain the optimal physical and chemical characteristics of fabrics needed for the removal of cellular material from surfaces. DNA quantitation values obtained on dried saliva stains showed no difference between cotton and polyester across all constructions and solvent conditions. Fabrics used dry and with water yielded higher quantitation values than those used with isopropanol. Quantitation values were also higher for wovens and nonwovens than knits across all solvent conditions. Low thread count fabrics used with water yielded higher quantitation values, but no correlation between thread count and quantitation values was observed with dry fabrics. A low thread count woven fabric, however, outperformed other tested fabrics when swabbing object surfaces in a highly used room. Full DNA profiles from fingerprints on glass surfaces were obtained with low thread count woven and nonwoven fabrics but not with the knit fabric tested. PMID:21342191

  8. APTIMA assay on SurePath liquid-based cervical samples compared to endocervical swab samples facilitated by a real time database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Samer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC cervical samples are increasingly being used to test for pathogens, including: HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC using nucleic acid amplification tests. Several reports have shown the accuracy of such testing on ThinPrep (TP LBC samples. Fewer studies have evaluated SurePath (SP LBC samples, which utilize a different specimen preservative. This study was undertaken to assess the performance of the Aptima Combo 2 Assay (AC2 for CT and GC on SP versus endocervical swab samples in our laboratory. Materials and Methods: The live pathology database of Montefiore Medical Center was searched for patients with AC2 endocervical swab specimens and SP Paps taken the same day. SP samples from CT- and/or GC-positive endocervical swab patients and randomly selected negative patients were studied. In each case, 1.5 ml of the residual SP vial sample, which was in SP preservative and stored at room temperature, was transferred within seven days of collection to APTIMA specimen transfer tubes without any sample or patient identifiers. Blind testing with the AC2 assay was performed on the Tigris DTS System (Gen-probe, San Diego, CA. Finalized SP results were compared with the previously reported endocervical swab results for the entire group and separately for patients 25 years and younger and patients over 25 years. Results: SP specimens from 300 patients were tested. This included 181 swab CT-positive, 12 swab GC-positive, 7 CT and GC positive and 100 randomly selected swab CT and GC negative patients. Using the endocervical swab results as the patient′s infection status, AC2 assay of the SP samples showed: CT sensitivity 89.3%, CT specificity 100.0%; GC sensitivity and specificity 100.0%. CT sensitivity for patients 25 years or younger was 93.1%, versus 80.7% for patients over 25 years, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.02. Conclusions: Our results show that AC2 assay of 1.5 ml SP

  9. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during their lifetime; The bovines from which the... from animals that are not known to have been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during... March 16, 2012 Part II Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR...

  10. FINGERPRINTING OF FECAL ENTEROCOCCI BY MATRIX ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fecal enterococci group has been suggested as an indicator of fecal contamination in freshwater and marine water systems and as a potential target for bacterial source tracking of fecal pollution. While many studies have described the diversity of enterococci in environmenta...

  11. Evaluation of gallium maltolate on fecal Salmonella shedding in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness in humans and causes over a third of all cases of gastroenteritis in the United States. Human foodborne outbreaks due to Salmonella have been traced to milk, beef, pork, and poultry. Fecal contamination of the carcass and hide is thought to be a maj...

  12. Intestinal parasite infections and fecal steroid levels in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenbein, Michael P

    2006-08-01

    Immune-endocrine interactions have been evaluated much less frequently in nonhuman primates, and this may be due, in part, to logistical and ethical concerns regarding trapping and sampling of endangered species, especially apes. Using noninvasive fecal collection methods, the present study evaluates possible relationships between fecal steroid levels and gastrointestinal parasite infections in the Ngogo chimpanzee community in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Because both testosterone and cortisol exhibit immunosuppressive effects in vitro and in other animal models, it was hypothesized that both testosterone and cortisol would be positively associated with gastrointestinal parasite infections in these animals. When placed in a mixed model simultaneously, both testosterone (F = 4.98, df = 1, P = 0.033) and cortisol (F = 5.94, df = 1, P = 0.020) were positively associated with total (helminth and protozoan) parasite richness (the number of unique intestinal parasite species recovered from hosts' fecal samples). It is possible that androgens and corticoids alter the ability of a host to mount an effective immune response against concomitant infection with multiple parasitic species. The utility of fecal samples for assessing immune-endocrine interactions is discussed. PMID:16444733

  13. Noninvasive methods for estradiol recovery from infant fecal samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmandaL Thompson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available While the activation of the infant hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis and the existence of a postnatal gonadotrophin surge were first documented in the early 1970s, study of the longitudinal development of gonadal hormones in infancy, and the potential physiological and behavioral correlates of this development, have been hampered by reliance on infrequent serum sampling. The present study reports the validation of a noninvasive method for repeated assessment of steroid hormones in infant fecal samples. Fecal samples were collected in, and excised from cotton diaper liners, and extracted using methanol. Extracts were analyzed for estradiol using a diluted assay modification. Method validity was supported by a steroid recovery rate of at least 80%, a sensitivity of 0.35 pg/ml, and inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variations of less than 10% and 20%, respectively. Variation in estradiol concentration was assessed across (1 sample type (scraped vs. cut from diaper liner, (2 time of day (morning vs. afternoon/evening samples, (3 time interval between samples and (4 time to assay (1 day vs. 489 days after collection. Of these characteristics, only the time interval between samples within an individual was significantly associated with estradiol concentration. This is the first report of human infant fecal estradiol levels. The results support fecal recovery as a novel and powerful noninvasive tool for longitudinal studies of human infants, expanding research opportunities for investigating development of sex-specific behaviors in infancy, and the potential effects of endocrine disruptors on development.

  14. Avian influenza infection alters fecal odor in mallards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Kimball

    Full Text Available Changes in body odor are known to be a consequence of many diseases. Much of the published work on disease-related and body odor changes has involved parasites and certain cancers. Much less studied have been viral diseases, possibly due to an absence of good animal model systems. Here we studied possible alteration of fecal odors in animals infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV. In a behavioral study, inbred C57BL/6 mice were trained in a standard Y-maze to discriminate odors emanating from feces collected from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus compared to fecal odors from non-infected controls. Mice could discriminate odors from non-infected compared to infected individual ducks on the basis of fecal odors when feces from post-infection periods were paired with feces from pre-infection periods. Prompted by this indication of odor change, fecal samples were subjected to dynamic headspace and solvent extraction analyses employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify chemical markers indicative of AIV infection. Chemical analyses indicated that AIV infection was associated with a marked increase of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone in feces. These experiments demonstrate that information regarding viral infection exists via volatile metabolites present in feces. Further, they suggest that odor changes following virus infection could play a role in regulating behavior of conspecifics exposed to infected individuals.

  15. Fecal Viral Concentration and Diarrhea in Norovirus Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Nelson; Martin C W Chan; Wong, Bonnie; Choi, K.W.; Sin, Winnie; Lui, Grace; Chan, Paul K.S.; Lai, Raymond W.M.; Cockram, C.S.; Sung, Joseph J Y; Leung, Wai K

    2007-01-01

    Fecal viral concentrations of 40 patients infected with norovirus genogroup GII.4 correlated with diarrhea duration and frequency of vomiting. Higher viral concentration and older age were independently associated with prolonged diarrhea (>4 days). These findings provide information on the pathogenesis and transmission of norovirus infections.

  16. CT colonography with fecal tagging after incomplete colonoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryspeerdt, S.; Lefere, P.; Herman, M.; Baekelandt, M.; Holsbeeck, B. van [Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Roeselare (Belgium); Deman, R. [H. Hart Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Roeselare (Belgium); Rutgeerts, L.; Ghillebert, G.; Baert, F. [H. Hart Ziekenhuis, Department of Gastroenterology, Roeselare (Belgium)

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate dietary fecal tagging (FT) as a cleansing method prior to CT colonography (CTC) in patients with incomplete conventional colonoscopy (CC). After written informed consent was obtained, 24 patients had standard colonoscopic preparation (ScCl), and 25 patients had FT as cleansing method. Segmental distention, fluid levels, fecal residues, tagged appearance of fluid levels, and residual stool were evaluated. Mann-Whitney U test was used to test for significant differences between FT and ScCl groups. Compared with ScCl, FT improved distention (p=0.001), reduced the amount of fluid (p=0.043), but suffered from residual stool (p=0.046). A clear correlation was found between distention and fluid. No differences were found in stool size between FT and ScCl. FT showed a good labeling of fecal residues, and acceptable labeling of fluid levels. Compared with ScCl, FT reduces fluid, favors distention, but suffers from fecal residues. The tagged nature of these residues, however, allows differentiation from polyps. (orig.)

  17. CT colonography with fecal tagging after incomplete colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate dietary fecal tagging (FT) as a cleansing method prior to CT colonography (CTC) in patients with incomplete conventional colonoscopy (CC). After written informed consent was obtained, 24 patients had standard colonoscopic preparation (ScCl), and 25 patients had FT as cleansing method. Segmental distention, fluid levels, fecal residues, tagged appearance of fluid levels, and residual stool were evaluated. Mann-Whitney U test was used to test for significant differences between FT and ScCl groups. Compared with ScCl, FT improved distention (p=0.001), reduced the amount of fluid (p=0.043), but suffered from residual stool (p=0.046). A clear correlation was found between distention and fluid. No differences were found in stool size between FT and ScCl. FT showed a good labeling of fecal residues, and acceptable labeling of fluid levels. Compared with ScCl, FT reduces fluid, favors distention, but suffers from fecal residues. The tagged nature of these residues, however, allows differentiation from polyps. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of exposures to fecally-contaminated recreational water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to fecally-contaminated recreational waters can pose a health risk to swimmers and other recreators. Since 2003, we have interviewed nearly 27,000 respondents at seven beaches impacted by treated sewage discharge. Information was collected about the duration and exposure...

  19. Serologic Evidence for Fecal-Oral Transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, David; Brown, Heidi E; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is among the most prevalent infections in the world and a key cause of gastric diseases; however, its route of transmission remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the potential for fecal-oral transmission of H. pylori by leveraging its association with a disease with known etiology. Utilizing serology data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999; N = 6,347), the association between H. pylori and hepatitis A virus (HAV), a sensitive indicator for fecal-oral exposure, was assessed. Survey-weighted kappa and multiple logistic regression were used to quantify the association between H. pylori and HAV after controlling for age, sex, race, poverty, birthplace, crowding, smoking, and alcohol use. Concordant serological results were found among 69.8% of participants (survey-weighted κ = 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26, 0.35). The adjusted odds of H. pylori seropositivity were over two times higher after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.79, 2.87). Results from this study suggest H. pylori and HAV infections are strongly associated. Since HAV is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, fecal-oral transmission may be an important pathway for H. pylori spread. PMID:26598563

  20. Removal of bacterial fecal indicators, coliphages and enteric adenoviruses from waters with high fecal pollution by slow sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Rosalie; Dizer, Halim; Graeber, Ingeborg; Rosenwinkel, Karl-Heinz; López-Pila, Juan M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the performance of slow sand filtration (SSF) facilities, including the time needed for reaching stabilization (maturation), operated with surface water bearing high fecal contamination, representing realistic conditions of rivers in many emerging countries. Surface water spiked with wastewater was infiltrated at different pore water velocities (PWV) and samples were collected at different migration distances. The samples were analyzed for phages and to a lesser extent for fecal bacteria and enteric adenoviruses. At the PWV of 50 cm/d, at which somatic phages showed highest removal, their mean log(10) removal after 90 cm migration was 3.2. No substantial differences of removal rates were observed at PWVs between 100 and 900 cm/d (2.3 log(10) mean removal). The log(10) mean removal of somatic phages was less than the observed for fecal bacteria and tended more towards that of enteric adenoviruses This makes somatic phages a potentially better process indicator than Escherichia coli for the removal of viruses in SSF. We conclude that SSF, and by inference in larger scale river bank filtration (RBF), is an excellent option as a component in multi-barrier systems for drinking water treatment also in areas where the sources of raw water are considerably fecally polluted, as often found in many emerging countries. PMID:20851449

  1. Prevalence and diagnosis of Giardia infection in dogs and cats using a fecal antigen test and fecal smear

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Merle E.; Leonard, Nancy J.; Strout, Jessie

    2010-01-01

    The SNAP fecal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Giardia test was used to determine the prevalence of Giardia in dogs and cats with gastrointestinal signs. The test was positive in 241 (13.0%) dogs and 16 (4.1%) cats. Giardia cysts were detected in only 61 of the 241 dogs and 4 of the 16 cats that were test positive.

  2. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tarmudji; Supar

    2008-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis). This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic). M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal p...

  3. Application of kidney inhibition swab tests to evaluate penicillin-G residues in sow tissues and body fluids following intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney inhibition swab (KIS) tests, recently adapted by the US FSIS for antibiotics on-site screening, were employed to evaluate the depletion of penicillin-G residues from kidney, liver, muscle, serum, and urine of sows after intramuscular (IM) penicillin-G procaine administration. Sows (n=130; 22...

  4. Evaluation of different sampling media for their potential use as a combined swab for the collection of both organic and inorganic explosive residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song-im, Nopporn; Benson, Sarah; Lennard, Chris

    2012-10-10

    Commercially available skin cleansing alcohol wipes and conventional swabs were investigated for their use as a universal sampling medium for the simultaneous collection of both organic and inorganic explosive residues. Six compounds with the potential to be encountered in casework [pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), triacetone triperoxide (TATP), ammonium nitrate, and sodium chlorate] were selected as representative target compounds. Quantities of these target compounds were deposited on four different substrates (glass, plastic, aluminium foil and laminate). Two chosen alcohol wipes demonstrated better overall performance in the recovery of both the organic and inorganic representative compounds from each of the test surfaces compared to the results obtained using conventional cotton and polyester swabs, pre-moistened with various solvents, and a direct methanol wash (used as a control). Results obtained using dry cotton swabs indicated that it was not an effective swabbing system for the collection of both organic and inorganic explosive residues on common substrates. PMID:22658743

  5. Comparison of nasopharyngeal aspirate and nasal swab specimens for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in different settings in a developing country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, L G; Trautner, S; Kofoed, P-E;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) for diagnostic purposes using nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) and nasal swabs (NS) in different clinical settings in a community study in Guinea-Bissau. METHOD: During 1996-98 paired specimens were obtained from 635 children under 5...

  6. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Pepe; Gian Carlo Tenore; Raffaella Mastrocinque; Paola Stusio; Pietro Campiglia

    2013-01-01

    Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble) and whey proteins (soluble). Caseins ( α S1, α S2, β , and κ ) are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β -lactoglobulin, α -lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other...

  7. Detection of a Novel Bovine Lymphotropic Herpesvirus

    OpenAIRE

    Rovnak, Joel; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Reyes, Richard A.; Baines, Joel D.; Parrish, Colin R.; Casey, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Degenerate PCR primers which amplify a conserved region of the DNA polymerase genes of the herpesvirus family were used to provide sequence evidence for a new bovine herpesvirus in bovine B-lymphoma cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The sequence of the resultant amplicon was found to be distinct from those of known herpesvirus isolates. Alignment of amino acid sequences demonstrated 70% identity with ovine herpesvirus 2, 69% with alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, 65% with bovine h...

  8. Evaluation of LIAISON® C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase and LIAISON® C. difficile toxin A and B in Copan FecalSwabTM samples in a three-step algorithm for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Oggioni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The presumptive laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection is achieved by the means of the detection of a common antigen (glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH in stool, then confirming the positives either by the detection of toxins A and B or by a molecular test for the detection of pathogenicity locus, encoding for the two toxins and for the binary toxin. A fully automated chemiluminescence system for the GDH antigen (LIAISON® C. difficile GDH and for the detection of toxins A and B (LIAISON® C. difficile Toxin A and B (DiaSorin, Gerenzano, Italy allows for the performance of these tests on large numbers of samples in a short time, ensuring the traceability of the data.

  9. Post-Katrina Fecal Contamination in Violet Marsh near New Orleans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Richmond

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Fecal material entrained in New Orleans flood waters was pumped into the local environment. Violet Marsh received water pumped from St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward. Sediment core samples were collected from canals conducting water from these areas to pump stations and from locations within Violet Marsh. Viable indicator bacteria and fecal sterols were used to assess the levels of fecal material in sediment deposited after the levee failures and deeper sediments deposited before. Most of the cores had fecal coliform levels that exceed the biosolids criterion. All of the cores had fecal sterols that exceeded the suggested environmental quality criterion. Our data show both a long history of fecal contamination in Violet Marsh and an increase in fecal loading corresponding to the failure of the levee system. The work was performed as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force investigation into the consequences of the failures of the New Orleans levee system.

  10. Fecal 13C analysis for the detection and quantitation of intestinal malabsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of 14CO2 breath tests and fecal analyses for the detection and quantitation of intestinal malabsorption has been extensively documented in adult subjects. The use of radioisotopes has extended the range of breath test applications to include pediatric and geriatric subjects. Here we report a fecal 13C analysis that can be used in conjunction with 14CO2 breath tests. Twenty-four-hour fecal samples were collected before and after the administration of a labeled substrate. Simultaneous cholyglycine 13CO2 breath tests and fecal assays were performed in five children. One child with bacterial overgrowth had an abnormal breath test and a normal fecal test. Of three children with ileal dysfunction, only one had an abnormal breath test, whereas the fecal test was abnormal in all three. Both the breath test and fecal test were abnormal for a child who had undergone an ileal resection. Both tests were normal for a child with ulcerative colitis

  11. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  12. MOLECULAR EVALUATION OF CHANGES IN PLANKTONIC BACTERIAL POPULATION RESULTING FROM EQUINE FECAL CONTAMINATION IN A SUB-WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of watersheds by fecal bacteria is a frequent cause for surface waters to be placed on the national impaired waters list. However, since the presence of fecal bacteria does not always indicate human fecal input, it is necessary to distinguish between fecal sources. ...

  13. [A microbiological study of swabs taken laparoscopically in cases of salpingitis and tubal sterility. Research for Chlamydia trachomatis and for mycoplasmas (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Suchet, J; Catalan, F; Loffredo, V; Serfaty, D; Piboulet, A; Perol, Y; Sanson, M J; Debache, C; Pigeau, F; Coppin, R; de Brux, J; Paynard, T

    1980-01-01

    Research was made for chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum in the peritoneum and the tubes of 99 women divided into 4 groups: 17 of them were being investigated because of acute salpingitis (Group A), 17 were being investigated for tubal sterility with chronic inflammation diagnosed laparoscopically (Group B), 29 were being investigated for tubal sterility without any laparoscopic evidence of inflammation (Group C) and 36 women had absolutely normal pelves and were being investigated for sterility. These were the control group (D). Swabs were also taken from the lower genital tracts as well as serological tests for chlamydia trachomatis and cytological samplings of the fluid from the Pouch of Douglas and the histology of the tubes. In the 17 women who had acute salpingitis the swabs 4 cases of C.T. and 4 of U.U. In the 46 women who had tubal sterility the laparoscopic swabs showed cases of C.T. and 7 of U.U. The swabs were most often positive in Group B. This group is characterised by a special appearence of the inflammation, with fluid present and viscous adhesions as well as peritoneal inflammatory cysts. These altogether help to make a presumptive diagnosis of C.T. infection on laparoscopy. In the control group of 36 cases there was no sign of C.T. in any case, although 2 swabs from the peritoneum showed U.U. So there is a statistically significant difference between the groups that were suspicious and the control group whether the results were obtained by cultures or by serological diagnosis. On the other hand there is no definitive difference as far as U.U. is concerned. These observations, which are similar to those published by other authors, lead us to think that micro-organisms and especially chlamydia trachomatis could be the bacteriological agent responsible for chronic inflammatory states found so frequently in women with tubal sterility. PMID:6450231

  14. Simulation of surge and swab pressures in well drilling operations; Simulacao do problema de 'surge' e 'swab' em atividades de perfuracao de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Fernando T.G.M.C. de; Kimura, Hudson Faglioni; Ramalho, Vanessa; Negrao, Cezar O. Ribeiro; Junqueira, Silvio L.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Martins, Andre Leibsohn [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The movements of the well drilling pipe, known as trips, cause variations in the well inner pressure. When the pipe is moving downwards, in an operation called 'running', the pressure increases and is known as surge pressure and, when it is moving upwards, in an operation called 'pulling', the pressure decreases and it is so called a swab pressure. The study of this phenomenon is of great importance not only due to financial reasons but also for the determination of speeds and accelerations which should be used in running and pulling operations. Among the researchers have studied this problem, Fontenot and Clark are two of the most important. They formulated the problem solution through considerations about the friction factor. The present work's target is to develop a computational program which allows the calculus of those pressures, according to previous investigations and models found in the literature and for different types of fluids as well, such as Bingham fluid and Power Law fluid. (author)

  15. Extensive Within-Host Diversity in Fecally Carried Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates: Implications for Transmission Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesser, N; Sheppard, A E; Moore, C E; Golubchik, T; Parry, C M; Nget, P; Saroeun, M; Day, N P J; Giess, A; Johnson, J R; Peto, T E A; Crook, D W; Walker, A S

    2015-07-01

    Studies of the transmission epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli, such as strains harboring extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, frequently use selective culture of rectal surveillance swabs to identify isolates for molecular epidemiological investigation. Typically, only single colonies are evaluated, which risks underestimating species diversity and transmission events. We sequenced the genomes of 16 E. coli colonies from each of eight fecal samples (n = 127 genomes; one failure), taken from different individuals in Cambodia, a region of high ESBL-producing E. coli prevalence. Sequence data were used to characterize both the core chromosomal diversity of E. coli isolates and their resistance/virulence gene content as a proxy measure of accessory genome diversity. The 127 E. coli genomes represented 31 distinct sequence types (STs). Seven (88%) of eight subjects carried ESBL-positive isolates, all containing blaCTX-M variants. Diversity was substantial, with a median of four STs/individual (range, 1 to 10) and wide genetic divergence at the nucleotide level within some STs. In 2/8 (25%) individuals, the same blaCTX-M variant occurred in different clones, and/or different blaCTX-M variants occurred in the same clone. Patterns of other resistance genes and common virulence factors, representing differences in the accessory genome, were also diverse within and between clones. The substantial diversity among intestinally carried ESBL-positive E. coli bacteria suggests that fecal surveillance, particularly if based on single-colony subcultures, will likely underestimate transmission events, especially in high-prevalence settings. PMID:25903575

  16. One year duration of immunity of the modified live bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 and bovine herpesvirus-1 fractions of Vista® Once SQ vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Lisa; Mattick, Debra; Schneider, Corey; Smith, Linda; Xue, Wenzhi; Trigo, Emilio

    2016-03-18

    Three studies were performed to determine the duration of immunity of the bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) fractions of a commercially prepared modified-live vaccine. Vista® Once SQ (Vista®) vaccine contains five modified-live viruses, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus, and two modified-live bacteria, Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica. For all three studies, calves were administered a single dose of vaccine or placebo vaccine subcutaneously, and were challenged with one of the three virulent viruses at least one year following vaccination. Calves were evaluated daily following challenge for clinical signs of disease associated with viral infection, nasal swab samples were evaluated for virus shedding, and serum was tested for neutralizing antibodies. Following the BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 challenges, whole blood was evaluated for white blood cell counts, and for the BVDV-2 study, whole blood was also evaluated for platelet counts. Calves vaccinated with BVDV type 1a, were protected from challenge with BVDV type 1b, and had significant reductions in clinical disease, fever, leukopenia, and virus shedding compared to control calves. Vaccinated calves in the BVDV-2 study were protected from clinical disease, mortality, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and virus shedding compared to controls. Vaccinated calves in the BHV-1 study were protected from clinical disease and fever, and had significantly reduced duration of nasal virus shedding. These three studies demonstrated that a single administration of the Vista® vaccine to healthy calves induces protective immunity against BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and BHV-1 that lasts at least one year following vaccination. PMID:26859238

  17. Treatment strategies in obstructed defecation and fecal incontinence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marat Khaikin; Steven D Wexner

    2006-01-01

    Obstructed defecation (OD) and fecal incontinence(FI) are challenging clinical problems, which are commonly encountered in the practice of colorectal surgeons and gastroenterologists. These disorders socially and psychologically distress patients and greatly impair their quality of life. The underlying anatomical and pathophysiological changes are complex, often incompletely understood and cannot always be determined. As a consequence, many medical, surgical,and behavioral approaches have been described, with no panacea. Over the past decade, advances in an understanding of these disorders together with rational and similar methods of evaluation in anorectal physiology laboratories (ARP), radiology studies, and new surgical techniques have led to promising results. In this brief review, we discuss treatment strategies and recent updates on clinical and therapeutic aspects of obstructed defecation and fecal incontinence.

  18. Severe hemoperitoneum after patient self-induced fecal evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianesini, S; Lanzara, S; Stano, R; Santini, S; De Troia, A; Gennari, S; Vasquez, G

    2011-01-01

    An increasing incidence of rectal injuries following patient self-induced harmful acts, aimed to sexual or laxatives porpouses, is a fact reported in literature (El-Ashaal et al., 2008). We herein report a case of severe hemoperitoneum related to a middle and upper rectal third seromuscolar tear caused by a self-induced fecal evacuation by means of an arrow with a covered cork tip. An urgent intestinal diversion by means of a Hartmann's operation was performed. The clinical case is presented in relation to the literature debate, regarding the issue of primary repair or resection and anastomosis versus fecal diversion for penetrating rectal injuries (Fabian, 2002; Cleary et al., 2006; Office of the Surgeon General, 1943; Busic et al., 2002). In conclusion, the importance of avoiding an anastomotic breakdown in a patient undergoing a hemorrhagic shock is highlighted. PMID:21876699

  19. Fecal microbiota transplantation: current clinical efficacy and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowman KA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn A Bowman,1 Elizabeth K Broussard,2 Christina M Surawicz2 1Department of Medicine, 2Division of Gastroenterology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT has gained mainstream attention with its remarkable efficacy in treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI when there are no other effective therapies. Methods of selecting donors and routes of administration vary among studies, but there are now randomized controlled trials showing efficacy of FMT in treating RCDI. Ongoing trials of FMT for other disease such as inflammatory bowel disease are underway; this therapy should not be used for these conditions unless there is strong evidence for efficacy. Long-term safety data are sorely needed, as well as clarification of regulatory concerns. Keywords: fecal microbiota transplant, recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, Clostridium difficile infection, microbiome, inflammatory bowel disease

  20. [Effects of nifuroxazide on fecal flora in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisson, Y; Larribaud, J

    1989-01-01

    Effect of nifuroxazide on fecal flora was studied in 12 healthy volunteers receiving, in hazardous order and double-blind procedure, three six-days courses of treatment separated by eight-days spaces of time: the conventional dosage of 400 mg twice a day, a dosage of 1200 mg once a day, and placebo. Among six settled bacteriological index (wealth of the fecal flora, percentage of gram-negative bacteria, numbers of E. coli, Enterococcus, Clostridium and Bacteroides), no significant variation was found by means of statistical study between D0, D2 and D7, nor between the three courses of treatment. Therefore nifuroxazide, even in high dosage, does not injure integrity of microbial intestinal ecosystem under so defined experimental conditions, similar with clinical conditions. PMID:2756516

  1. Can chronic gastritis cause an increase in fecal calprotectin concentrations?

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Montalto, Antonella Gallo, Gianluca Ianiro, Luca Santoro, Ferruccio D’Onofrio, Riccardo Ricci, Giovanni Cammarota, Marcello Covino, Monica Vastola, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Gasbarrini

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate fecal calprotectin concentrations (FCCs) in subjects with chronic gastritis and the correlation between FCCs and gastritis activity score.METHODS: FCCs were measured in 61 patients with histological diagnosis of gastritis and in 74 healthy volunteers. Histological grading of gastritis was performed according to the updated Sydney gastritis classification. Patients were subdivided into 2 groups according to the presence/absence of an active gastritis. Patients with chronic act...

  2. Fecal Biomarkers of Intestinal Health and Disease in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Tamara; Leach, Steven T; Katz, Tamarah; Andrew S Day; Chee Y. Ooi

    2014-01-01

    The identification of various fecal biomarkers has provided insight into the intestinal milieu. Most of these markers are associated with the innate immune system of the gut, apart from the more novel M2-pyruvate kinase. The innate immunity of the gut plays a role in maintaining a fine balance between tolerance to commensal bacteria and immune response to potential pathogens. It is a complex system, which comprises of multiple elements, including antimicrobial peptides (e.g., defensins, cathe...

  3. Endoanal ultrasonography in fecal incontinence: Current and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Fecal incontinence has a profound impact in a patient’s life, impairing quality of life and carrying a substantial economic burden due to health costs. It is an underdiagnosed condition because many affected patients are reluctant to report it and also clinicians are usually not alert to it. Patient evaluation with a detailed clinical history and examination is very important to indicate the type of injury that is present. Endoanal ultrasonography is currently the gold standard for sphincter ...

  4. Comparative analysis of summary scoring systems in measuring fecal incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Seong, Moo-Kyung; Jung, Sung-Il; Kim, Tae-Won; Joh, Hee-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose For measuring symptoms of fecal incontinence, summary scoring systems are widely used, but rigorous psychometric validation or assessment of such systems in terms of patients' subjective perception has rarely been done to date. This study was designed to assess the correlation between each severity measure and patients' subjective perception or clinicians' clinical assessment. We attempted to compare summary scoring systems of severity measures and searched for which of them showed hi...

  5. Fecal isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Agnarsson, U; Glass, S; Govan, J R

    1989-01-01

    Fecal isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed in 8 of 10 patients with cystic fibrosis who at the time of sampling also exhibited colonization of the respiratory tract. In contrast, P. aeruginosa cells were isolated at low frequency (9.1%) from the stools of 44 patients with cystic fibrosis with no previous history of chronic colonization. The results of this study suggest that the gastrointestinal tract is not a significant chronic reservoir of P. aeruginosa prior to pulmonary colon...

  6. Zooplankton fecal pellets link fossil fuel and phosphate deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, K.G.; Robbins, E.I.

    1981-01-01

    Fossil zooplankton fecal pellets found in thinly bedded marine and lacustrine black shales associated with phosphate, oil, and coal deposits, link the deposition of organic matter and biologically associated minerals with planktonic ecosystems. The black shales were probably formed in the anoxic basins of coastal marine waters, inland seas, and rift valley lakes where high productivity was supported by runoff, upwelling, and outwelling. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  7. Can chronic gastritis cause an increase in fecal calprotectin concentrations?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Massimo; Montalto; Antonella; Gallo; Gianluca; Ianiro; Luca; Santoro; Ferruccio; D; Onofrio; Riccardo; Ricci; Giovanni; Cammarota; Marcello; Covino; Monica; Vastola; Antonio; Gasbarrini; Giovanni; Gasbarrini

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate fecal calprotectin concentrations(FCCs) in subjects with chronic gastritis and the correlation between FCCs and gastritis activity score.METHODS:FCCs were measured in 61 patients with histological diagnosis of gastritis and in 74 healthy volunteers.Histological grading of gastritis was performed according to the updated Sydney gastritis classification.Patients were subdivided into 2 groups according to the presence/absence of an active gastritis.Patients with chronic active gastritis were di...

  8. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation. PMID:11526002

  9. Diagnostic Value of Fecal Calprotectin in Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, Hamed; Barzin, Gilda; Yousefinia, Mahsa; Mohammadkhani, Ashraf; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Amir Houshang; Tayebi, Sirous; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ansari, Reza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation limited to the mucosal layer of the colon. Calprotectin is a zinc and calcium binding protein derived from neutrophils and monocytes. It is easily detectable in tissue samples, body fluids, and stools, which makes it a potentially valuable marker of inflammation. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the value of fecal calprotectin (FC) as a marker of disease activity in patients with UC. METHODS S...

  10. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Qingling Zhu; Feng Li; Junli Wang; Lixiao Shen; Xiaoyang Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years. Methods Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1) was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), weight-for-...

  11. The Role of Fecal Calprotectin in Investigating Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Ünal; Evren Semizel; Muhittin Serdar; Çiğdem Ömür Ecevit; Yılmaz Karaca; Emine Mert Yılmaz; Hasan Kocaefe; Hasan Erhun Kasırga

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Fecal calprotectin (FCP) can be found in high concentrations in inflammatory bowel disease due to the increase in leucocyte turnover in intestinal wall or increase of migration of neutrophils into the lumen. In this study, we aimed to determine the FCP values of the ulcerative colitis (UC) patients at the time of diagnosis and to investigate the applicability and effectiveness of this non-invasive method in the diagnosis of the disease, routinely.Materials and Methods: A total o...

  12. Some virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolated from cloacal swabs of healthy Alagoas Curassows (Pauxi mitu in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André A.B. Saidenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Birds of the Cracidae family (curassows, guans, and chachalacas are endemic of the Neotropics and 50 species are currently classified. Brazil has 22 species, seven of which are considered threatened. The Alagoas Curassow (Pauxi mitu species is considered extinct in the wild; but about 120 birds are alive in captivity. Conservation of this species depends entirely on correct management. Health reports of both wildlife and captive curassows are rare. In this study the presence of Escherichia coli was evaluated in 23 healthy Alagoas Curassows from two private breeding centres. E. coli was isolated from cloacal swabs, and the presence of genes encoding cytotoxic necrotising factor 1 (cnf1, alpha-haemolysin (hly, aerobactin (iuc, serum resistance (iss and the following adhesions: S fimbriae (sfa, pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap and temperature-sensitive haemagglutinin (tsh were investigated. E. coli was isolated from 78.3% (18/23 of the birds, and the percentage of curassows colonized by E. coli was similar between the two facilities. From the 22 E. coli isolates, 15 (68.2% were positive for at least one virulence factor by PCR, and the most frequently found gene was iss (50%. No curassows had clinical signs of disease. Nevertheless, the presence of some E. coli strains may be a concern to the wildlife in captivity. Additional health surveillance studies are essential to guarantee successful conservation programmes for threatened cracids in Brazil.

  13. Detection and differentiation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviaeby PCR from tracheal swabs from birds with respiratory symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycoplasmas are worldwide pathogens that affect the poultry industry causing respiratory illness which cause a negative economic impact. Two mycoplasmas species are the most important in the commercial poultry: mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and mycoplasma synoviae (MS). By its importance and necessity to know and differentiate between mycoplasmas species in local's poultry houses this study used the PCR technique like a diagnosis tool, using tracheal swabs from bird with respiratory symptoms. A total of 91 samples from broilers, layers and breeders farms located in the departments of Cundinamarca and Boyaca was processed. The punctual prevalence founded in this study was 39.6 % for mg and 47.3 % for MS. statistical differences for type of production and positive samples for mg y MS (p < 0.05) were founded, a bigger number of positive samples from layers and breeder in comparison to broilers were found. In the same way, the positive samples for the layers and breeder from the age group between 20 and 60 weeks was greater, while for the broilers group most of the positive samples were from five weeks old birds for mg and two weeks old birds for MS.

  14. Healthy Farms in Slovakia: Antibiotic Sensitivity of Escherichia coli Isolated from Rectal Swabs of Chicken and Ram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Pochop

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was determine of antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swabs of chicken and ram from two different conventional breeding from Slovakia. For the antibiotic susceptibility testing disk diffusion method was used. A tested bacterium, Escherichia coli was exposed against four antibiotics: amikacin, gentamycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. For the identification of this strain, we used Chromogenic coliform agar, Triple sugar iron agar and biochemical test (ENTEROtest 24. For genetic identification of Escherichia coli Step One Real Time PCR with using special primer was used. Was determined that antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli was not found. Was found susceptibility in all cases of Escherichia coli isolates. Antibiotic resistance is a biological danger. Bacteria, which we study, are considered to reservoirs of resistant genes and they are facultative and obligate pathogens. If these pathogen bacteria cause diseases those these diseases are difficult to treat. In this study, we determined that we have healthy farms in Slovakia too. In this farm antibiotic was not use and we do not determined any resistance to antibiotics, which we used in experiment.

  15. Artificial Muscle Devices: Innovations and Prospects for Fecal Incontinence Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Elisa; Brusa, Tobia; Gingert, Christian; Hieber, Simone E; Leung, Vanessa; Osmani, Bekim; Dominietto, Marco D; Büchler, Philippe; Hetzer, Franc; Müller, Bert

    2016-05-01

    Fecal incontinence describes the involuntary loss of bowel content, which is responsible for stigmatization and social exclusion. It affects about 45% of retirement home residents and overall more than 12% of the adult population. Severe fecal incontinence can be treated by the implantation of an artificial sphincter. Currently available implants, however, are not part of everyday surgery due to long-term re-operation rates of 95% and definitive explantation rates of 40%. Such figures suggest that the implants fail to reproduce the capabilities of the natural sphincter. This article reviews the artificial sphincters on the market and under development, presents their physical principles of operation and critically analyzes their performance. We highlight the geometrical and mechanical parameters crucial for the design of an artificial fecal sphincter and propose more advanced mechanisms of action for a biomimetic device with sensory feedback. Dielectric electro-active polymer actuators are especially attractive because of their versatility, response time, reaction forces, and energy consumption. The availability of such technology will enable fast pressure adaption comparable to the natural feedback mechanism, so that tissue atrophy and erosion can be avoided while maintaining continence during daily activities. PMID:26926695

  16. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp;

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic...

  17. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whe...

  18. The impact of long-term dietary pattern of fecal donor on in vitro fecal fermentation properties of inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Rose, Devin J

    2016-04-20

    Although the composition of the gut microbiota is of interest, the functionality, or metabolic activity, of the gut microbiota is of equal importance: the gut microbiota can produce either harmful metabolites associated with human disease or beneficial metabolites that protect against disease. The purposes of this study were to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and fecal short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) concentrations; to determine the associations between dietary intake variables and inulin degradation, short and branched chain fatty acid (S/BCFA) production, and ammonia production during in vitro fecal fermentation of a highly fermentable substrate (inulin); and finally to compare results from the fermentation of inulin with those obtained in a previous report using a poorly fermentable substrate (whole wheat; Yang and Rose, Nutr. Res., 2014, 34, 749-759). Stool samples from eighteen individuals that had completed one-year dietary records were used in an in vitro fecal fermentation system with long-chain inulin as substrate. Few dietary intake variables were correlated with fecal S/BCFA concentrations; however, intakes of several plant-based foods, especially whole grain, dry beans, and certain vegetables that provided dietary fiber, plant protein, and B vitamins, were associated with acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA production during inulin fermentation. In contrast, intake of dairy and processed meats that provided cholesterol and little fiber, were associated with ammonia and BCFA production. Comparing results between inulin and whole wheat fermentations, significant correlations were only found for butyrate and BCFA, suggesting that regardless of the type of carbohydrate provided to the microbiota, long-term diet may have a pronounced effect on the propensity of the gut microbiota toward either beneficial metabolism (butyrate production) or detrimental metabolism (BCFA production). These results may help in

  19. Fecapentaene excretion and fecal mutagenicity in relation to nutrient intake and fecal parameters in humans on omnivorous and vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kok, T M; van Faassen, A; Bausch-Goldbohm, R A; ten Hoor, F; Kleinjans, J C

    1992-02-14

    Fecapentaenes are strong fecal mutagenic compounds presumably occurring in the majority of Western human individuals, and are possibly essential initiators of colon carcinogenesis. Dietary factors have been shown to influence colorectal cancer risk and to modulate both fecal mutagenicity and fecapentaene concentrations. Therefore, in this study, excretion of fecapentaenes is determined in humans consuming either vegetarian or omnivorous diets. The results show that the most predominant fecapentaene forms are excreted in higher concentrations by vegetarians. Consumption of cereal fiber, calcium and carotene as well as fecal concentrations of iso-lithocholic acid were found to correlate positively with excreted concentrations of one or more fecapentaene analogues. On average, 22% of excreted fecapentaene concentrations was found to be related to nutrient intake in stepwise regression models. Dietary calcium intake was found to be the most significant factor positively correlating with excreted fecapentaene concentrations. Intake of mono-unsaturated fatty acids or fiber from vegetables and fruit could be shown to correlate with fecapentaene excretion to a lesser degree. Despite high fecapentaene concentrations in fecal dichloromethane extracts, only 1 out of 20 samples revealed significant mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100. Further, aqueous extracts of feces from omnivores appeared to be equally mutagenic as feces from vegetarians and contained non-detectable concentrations of fecapentaenes. It is concluded that dietary factors do affect excreted fecapentaene levels, but only to a relatively minor extent. Since vegetarians at low risk for colorectal cancer excrete higher concentrations of fecapentaenes, it could be hypothesized that relatively increased fecapentaene excretion in combination with antimutagenic compounds in feces represents colon cancer prevention. PMID:1540928

  20. Fecal excretion of Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 and changes in fecal microbiota after eight weeks of oral supplementation with encapsulated probiotic

    OpenAIRE

    Charbonneau, Duane; Gibb, Roger D.; Quigley, Eamonn M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Certain randomized, placebo-controlled trials of oral supplementation with B. infantis 35624 have demonstrated the amelioration of symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Potential GI colonization by B. infantis 35624 or effects of supplementation on resident GI microbiota may pertain to these clinical observations. In this study, fecal excretion of B. infantis 35624 before, during and after 8 weeks of daily treatment was compared in subjects with IBS who received either the encapsulated oral s...

  1. Clostridium Difficile and Fecal Microbial Transplant in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Critically-ill patients constitute majority of the patients hospitalized in ICU wards (1, 2. This group of patients demands special considerations and measures of care (3-6. Clostridium difficile infection causes dangerous, painful and persistent diarrhea in critically ill patients. Its treatment consists of enteral metronidazol or vancomycin in combination with IV antibiotics cessation. Recently, probiotics have been considered as an alternative treatment for pseudomembranous colitis. In 1958, fecal microbial transplant was first described from healthy individuals to sick patients to displace pathogenic microbes from the intestine by re-establishing a healthy microbial community. Since then, it has gained value as “express stool treatment” or currently known as “fecal transplant”. Last year, FDA classified stool as drug, which typically requires an Investigational New Drug application (IND. However, in July 2013, the FDA issued guidance stating that it would exercise enforcement discretion for physicians administering FMT to treat patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Accordingly, considering stool as a tissue product or giving it its own classification, as FDA approved for blood, would keep patients safe, ensure broad access and facilitate research (7.It should be taken into consideration that some complications might accompany fecal microbial transplant such as making patients susceptible for conditions like obesity or autoimmune disorders.Safety and quality assurance starts from pre-enrollment donor screening, donor testing (17 serological and stool-based assays, donor monitoring and process control. The composition of the bacterial community has been shown to change when stored at -80oC compared to the samples stored at -20oC and it has been recommended to store the samples of intestinal content at -20oC before use for bacterial community analysis, instead of the current practice at -80oC (7, 8. However, if

  2. Virulence profiles of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and other potentially diarrheagenic E.coli of bovine origin, in Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pizarro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study described a group of strains obtained from a slaughter house in Mendoza, in terms of their pathogenic factors, serotype, antibiotype and molecular profile. Ninety one rectal swabs and one hundred eight plating samples taken from carcasses of healthy cattle intended for meat consumption were analyzed. Both the swab and the plate samples were processed to analyze the samples for the presence of virulence genes by PCR: stx1, stx2, eae and astA. The Stx positive strains were confirmed by citotoxicity assay in Vero cells. The isolates were subsequently investigated for their O:H serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular profile by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD. Twelve E.coli strains were identified by their pathogenicity. Nine were from fecal origin and three from carcasses. Three strains carried the stx1 gene, three the stx2 gene, two carried eae and four the astA gene. The detected serotypes were: O172:H-; O150:H8; O91:H21; O178:H19 and O2:H5. The strains showed a similarity around 70% by RAPD. Some of the E.coli strains belonged to serogroups known for certain life-threatening diseases in humans. Their presence in carcasses indicates the high probability of bacterial spread during slaughter and processing.

  3. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae: occurrence, risk factors for fecal carriage and strain traits in the Swiss slaughter cattle population younger than 2 years sampled at abattoir level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reist

    Full Text Available During the past decade extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae have become a matter of great concern in human and veterinary medicine. In this cross-sectional study fecal swabs of a geographically representative number of Swiss cattle at slaughterhouse level were sampled i to determine the occurrence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Swiss slaughter cattle population younger than 2 years, and ii to assess risk factors for shedding ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae. In total, 48 (8.4%; 95% C.I. 6.3-11.1% independent ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae were detected among the 571 tested animals. Species identification revealed 46 E. coli strains, one Enterobacter cloacae and one Citrobacter youngae. In view of beta-lactam antibiotics, all 48 isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin and cefpodoxime. Forty-five (93.8% isolates were resistant cefuroxime; one (2.1% isolate to cefoxitin, 28 (58.3% isolates to cefotaxime, 2 (4.2% isolates to ceftazidime, and 2 (4.2% isolates to cefepime. Risk factors for shedding ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae were (i age (OR 0.19 and 0.12 in age category 181 d to 1 y and 1 y to 2 y compared to ≤180 d, (ii primary production type, meaning dairy compared to beef on farm of origin (OR 5.95, and (iii more than 1 compared to less than 1 animal movement per d per 100 animals on farm of origin (OR 2.37.

  4. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  5. Adipogenesis of bovine perimuscular preadipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, non-transformed progeny adipofibroblasts, derived from mature adipocyte dedifferentiation, was used as a novel in vitro model to study adipogenic gene expression in cattle. Adipofibroblasts from dedifferentiated mature perimuscular fat (PMF) tissue were cultured with differentiation stimulants until the cells exhibited morphological differentiation. Treated cells were harvested from day 2 to 16 for RNA extraction, whereas control cells were cultured without addition of stimulants. Results from time course gene expression assays by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and their six down-stream genes were co-expressed at day 2 post-differentiation induction. When compared to other adipogenesis culture systems, the adipogenic gene expression of bovine PMF adipofibroblasts culture was different, especially to the rodent model. Collectively, these results demonstrated PPAR-γ and SREBP-1 cooperatively play a key role to regulate the re-differentiation of bovine adipofibroblasts, during early conversion stages in vitro

  6. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall...-five infectious bovine rhinotracheitis susceptible calves shall be used as test animals (20...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It...

  8. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam-Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-12-05

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam-swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (culture and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated how the false negative rate depends on test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam-swab sampling at low concentrations.

  9. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-04-16

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (plating/counting and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated false negative as a function of affecting test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam swab sampling at low concentrations.

  10. NMR metabolomic analysis of fecal water from subjects on a vegetarian diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Jenny; Karlsson, Pernilla Christina; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Rafter, Joseph James; Bohlin, Lars

    2008-01-01

    A vegetarian diet rich in phytochemicals may prevent colon carcinogenesis by affecting biochemical processes in the colonic mucosa. Compounds passing the digestive system reaching the colon could potentially be detected in fecal water. We previously reported that intact fecal water samples from human volunteers significantly decreased prostaglandin production and COX-2 protein expression in colonic cells. The aim with the present study was to further study the composition of the fecal waters,...

  11. Can fecal calprotectin better stratify Crohn’s disease activity index?

    OpenAIRE

    Scaioli, Eleonora; Cardamone, Carla; Scagliarini, Michele; Zagari, Rocco Maurizio; Bazzoli, Franco; Belluzzi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Crohn’s disease (CD) activity index (CDAI) is still widely used for monitoring clinical activity in CD patients, but is of little value as indicator of persistent inflammation in symptomless patients. Fecal calprotectin levels ≥150 µg/g are strongly indicative of endoscopically and/or histologically active disease. Our aim was to study, in a large cohort of CD patients, the relationship between CDAI and fecal calprotectin levels. Methods CDAI and fecal calprotectin levels were eval...

  12. Impact of Population and Latrines on Fecal Contamination of Ponds in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; Escamilla, Veronica; Layton, Alice; McKay, Larry D.; Emch, Michael; Williams, Daniel E.; Huq, Md. R.; Alam, Md. J.; Farhana, Labony; Mailloux, Brian J.; Ferguson, Andy; Sayler, Gary S.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; van Geen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A majority of households in Bangladesh rely on pond water for hygiene. Exposure to pond water fecal contamination could therefore still contribute to diarrheal disease despite the installation of numerous tubewells for drinking. The objectives of this study are to determine the predominant sources (human or livestock) of fecal pollution in ponds and examine the association between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond wat...

  13. Value of the oral swab for the molecular diagnosis of dogs in different stages of infection with Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschar, Mariana; de Oliveira, Eveline Tozzi Braga; Laurenti, Marcia Dalastra; Marcondes, Mary; Tolezano, Jose Eduardo; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Corbett, Carlos Eduardo P; da Matta, Vania Lucia Ribeiro

    2016-07-30

    This study was based on the need to employ a sensitive and specific method with samples that could be easily collected for diagnosing dogs infected with Leishmania infantum. To this end, we used real time-PCR (qPCR) to assess the value of the oral swab (OS) in detecting infected sick dogs (SD; n=62), including, for the first time, the analysis of apparently healthy infected dogs (AD; n=30), both from endemic areas for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). For comparison, we also evaluated the performance of the conjunctival swab (CS), blood (BL), lymph node (LN) and serology. We detected the presence of Leishmania DNA in the oral cavity in 62 out of the 92 dogs studied. The OS positivity (67.4%) was equivalent to the CS (68.5%) (p>0.05), higher than BL (52.2%) (p≤0.05), and lower than LN (84.8%) (p≤0.05). OS and CS performed well in SD dogs (82.3% and 83.9%, respectively) but not in AD dogs (36.7% for both samples). BL showed the lowest positivity (52.2%) and provided equivalent results between AD (60.0%) and SD (48.4%) dogs (p>0.05). LN yielded the highest positivity (84.8%), and it was also higher in the SD population (93.5%) compared to the AD population (66.7%) (p≤0.05). Parasite load was high in LN, moderate in OS and CS, and low in BL, showing the relationship between the levels of parasitism and the positivity rates found in these samples. Serology was positive in 82.2% of the SD group and in 70% of the AD dogs (p>0.05). Among the 20 seronegative dogs, seven (35%) were positive in either OS or CS, and 12 (60%) were positive when both noninvasive samples were jointly considered. The OS/CS combination resulted in a significant increase of positivity (p≤0.05) for the AD dogs (from 36.7% to 63.4%), as well as OS/serology (80%) and OS/CS/serology (83.4%). For the SD population, positivity reached up to 95.2% with the same combinations, showing that combination of samples and/or tests is required for the identification of dogs infected with L. infantum and that the

  14. The Use of Multiplex PCR to Determine the Prevalence of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Raw Milk, Feta Cheese, and Hand Swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinhom, Mohamed M A; Abdel-Latef, Gihan K; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) can cause mastitis in cattle and, therefore, can be present in milk. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of coagulase positive S. aureus and its enterotoxin genes sea, seb, and sec in isolates recovered from raw milk, feta cheese, and human hand swabs of milk and cheese handlers in Beni-Suef province, Egypt. A total of 100 samples of raw milk and 50 samples of pasteurized-milk feta cheese were collected. In addition, 50 hand swabs from milk handlers and 25 hand swabs from cheese handlers were examined for the presence of coagulase positive S. aureus. The isolates were characterized by multiplex PCR for detection of sea, seb, and sec genes, and for resistance to 5 classes of commonly used antibiotics. Twelve (12/100), 12 (6/50), and 17% (13/75) of milk, cheese, and hand swab samples, respectively, were positive for coagulase positive S. aureus. One isolate was obtained from each positive sample (31 isolates), and none contained genes for SEA or SEC production. Twenty-five percent, 33%, and 31%, respectively, of the isolates contained the genes for SEB, resulting in 3%, 4%, and 5% of samples being positive for toxin producing coagulase positive S. aureus, respectively. At least one isolate was resistant to each of the antibiotics tested. Despite the low potential for SEB production shown, preventative measures, such as maintenance of the cold-chain and good hygienic practices should be implemented to further reduce the potential risk to public health from SEB, and to reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26588209

  15. Evaluation of Presto(plus) assay and LightMix kit Trichomonas vaginalis assay for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in dry vaginal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waaij, Dewi J; Ouburg, Sander; Dubbink, Jan Henk; Peters, Remco P H; Morré, Servaas A

    2016-08-01

    This is an evaluation study of the Presto(plus) Assay for T. vaginalis by comparing to the TIB MOLBIOL LightMix Kit Trichomonas vaginalis Assay using 615 dry collected vaginal and rectal swabs. Discordant samples were analyzed by the Qiagen® Microbial DNA qPCR for TV Assay. Both assays showed comparable performances (McNemar p>0.05). PMID:27268968

  16. Evaluation of Remel Spectra CRE Agar for Detection of Carbapenem-Resistant Bacteria from Rectal Swabs Obtained from Residents of a Long-Term-Care Facility

    OpenAIRE

    LaBombardi, Vincent J.; Urban, Carl M.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Chen, Liang; Osorio, Giuliana; Kopacz, Joanna; Labaze, Georges; Segal-Maurer, Sorana

    2015-01-01

    We compared the Remel Spectra CRE agar plate to CDC standard methodology for the isolation of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) from 300 rectal swab specimens obtained from patients residing in a long-term-care facility (LTCF). Multiplex PCR experiments were performed on isolates to identify specific Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) and additional β-lactamases. Of the 300 patients, 72 (24%) harbored CRE and were PCR positive for KPC enzymes. The Remel Spectra CRE plates ...

  17. Isolation, identification, and complete genome sequence of a bovine adenovirus type 3 from cattle in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yuan-Mao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3 belongs to the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae and is involved in respiratory and enteric infections of calves. The isolation of BAV-3 has not been reported prior to this study in China. In 2009, there were many cases in cattle showing similar clinical signs to BAV-3 infection and a virus strain, showing cytopathic effect in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells, was isolated from a bovine nasal swab collected from feedlot cattle in Heilongjiang Province, China. The isolate was confirmed as a bovine adenovirus type 3 by PCR and immunofluorescence assay, and named as HLJ0955. So far only the complete genome sequence of prototype of BAV-3 WBR-1 strain has been reported. In order to further characterize the Chinese isolate HLJ0955, the complete genome sequence of HLJ0955 was determined. Results The size of the genome of the Chinese isolate HLJ0955 is 34,132 nucleotides in length with a G+C content of 53.6%. The coding sequences for gene regions of HLJ0955 isolate were similar to the prototype of BAV-3 WBR-1 strain, with 80.0-98.6% nucleotide and 87.5-98.8% amino acid identities. The genome of HLJ0955 strain contains 16 regions and four deletions in inverted terminal repeats, E1B region and E4 region, respectively. The complete genome and DNA binding protein gene based phylogenetic analysis with other adenoviruses were performed and the results showed that HLJ0955 isolate belonged to BAV-3 and clustered within the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae. Conclusions This is the first study to report the isolation and molecular characterization of BAV-3 from cattle in China. The phylogenetic analysis performed in this study supported the use of the DNA binding protein gene of adenovirus as an appropriate subgenomic target for the classification of different genuses of the family Adenoviridae on the molecular basis. Meanwhile, a large-scale pathogen and serological epidemiological

  18. Inflixmab in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease rapidly decreases fecal calprotectin levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anssi H(a)m(a)l(a)inen; Taina Sipponen; Kaija-Leena Kolho

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the response to infliximab in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as reflected in fecal calprotectin levels.METHODS: Thirty-six pediatric patients with IBD [23 Crohn’s disease (CD), 13 ulcerative colitis (UC); median age 14 years] were treated with infliximab. Fecal calprotectin was measured at baseline, and 2 and 6 wk after therapy, and compared to blood inflammatory markers. Maintenance medication was unaltered until the third infusion but glucocorticoids were tapered off if the patient was doing well.RESULTS: At introduction of infliximab, median fecal calprotectin level was 1150 μg/g (range 54-6032 μg/g). By week 2, the fecal calprotectin level had declined to a median 261 μg/g (P < 0.001). In 37% of the patients, fecal calprotectin was normal (< 100 μg/g) at 2 wk. By week 6, there was no additional improvement in the fecal calprotectin level (median 345 μg/g). In 22% of the patients, fecal calprotectin levels increased by week 6 to pretreatment levels or above, suggesting no response (or a loss of early response). Thus, in CD, the proportion of non-responsive patients by week 6 seemed lower, because only 9% showed no improvement in their fecal calprotectin level when compared to the respective figure of 46% of the UC patients (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: When treated with infliximab, fecal calprotectin levels reflecting intestinal inflammation normalized rapidly in one third of pediatric patients suggesting complete mucosal healing.

  19. Infliximab in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease rapidly decreases fecal calprotectin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Anssi; Sipponen, Taina; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the response to infliximab in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as reflected in fecal calprotectin levels. METHODS: Thirty-six pediatric patients with IBD [23 Crohn’s disease (CD), 13 ulcerative colitis (UC); median age 14 years] were treated with infliximab. Fecal calprotectin was measured at baseline, and 2 and 6 wk after therapy, and compared to blood inflammatory markers. Maintenance medication was unaltered until the third infusion but glucocorticoids were tapered off if the patient was doing well. RESULTS: At introduction of infliximab, median fecal calprotectin level was 1150 μg/g (range 54-6032 μg/g). By week 2, the fecal calprotectin level had declined to a median 261 μg/g (P < 0.001). In 37% of the patients, fecal calprotectin was normal (< 100 μg/g) at 2 wk. By week 6, there was no additional improvement in the fecal calprotectin level (median 345 μg/g). In 22% of the patients, fecal calprotectin levels increased by week 6 to pretreatment levels or above, suggesting no response (or a loss of early response). Thus, in CD, the proportion of non-responsive patients by week 6 seemed lower, because only 9% showed no improvement in their fecal calprotectin level when compared to the respective figure of 46% of the UC patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: When treated with infliximab, fecal calprotectin levels reflecting intestinal inflammation normalized rapidly in one third of pediatric patients suggesting complete mucosal healing. PMID:22215940

  20. Comparison of illumigene Group A Streptococcus Assay with Culture of Throat Swabs from Children with Sore Throats in the New Zealand School-Based Rheumatic Fever Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Arlo; Bissessor, Liselle; Farrell, Elizabeth; Shulman, Stanford T; Zheng, Xiaotian; Lennon, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis is a particularly important condition in areas of New Zealand where the incidence of acute rheumatic fever remains unacceptably high. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of GAS pharyngitis are cornerstones of the Rheumatic Fever Prevention Programme, but these are hindered by the turnaround time of culture. Tests with excellent performance and rapid turnaround times are needed. For this study, throat swabs (Copan ESwabs) were collected from schoolchildren self-identifying with a sore throat. Samples were tested by routine culture and the illumigene GAS assay using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Discrepant results were resolved by retesting of the same specimen by an alternative molecular assay. Seven hundred fifty-seven throat swab specimens were tested by both methods. The performance characteristics of the illumigene assay using culture on blood agar as the "gold standard" and following discrepancy analysis were as follows: sensitivity, 82% and 87%, respectively; specificity, 93% and 98%, respectively; positive predictive value, 61% and 88%, respectively; and negative predictive value, 97% and 97%, respectively. In our unique setting of a school-based throat swabbing program, the illumigene assay did not perform quite as well as described in previous reports. Despite this, its improved sensitivity and rapid turnaround time compared with those of culture are appealing. PMID:26560542

  1. Genetic Characterization of Fungi Isolated from the Environmental Swabs collected from a Compounding Center Known to Cause Multistate Meningitis Outbreak in United States Using ITS Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad M. Sulaiman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A multistate fungal meningitis outbreak started in September of 2012 which spread in 20 states of the United States. The outbreak has been fatal so far, and has affected 751 individuals with 64 deaths among those who received contaminated spinal injections manufactured by a Compounding Center located in Massachusetts. In a preliminary study, Food and Drug Administration (FDA investigated the outbreak in collaboration with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, state and local health departments, and identified four fungal and several bacterial contaminations in the recalled unopened injection vials. This follow-up study was carried out to assess DNA sequencing of the ITS1 region of rRNA gene for rapid identification of fungal pathogens during public health outbreak investigations. A total of 26 environmental swabs were collected from several locations at the manufacturing premises of the Compounding Center known to have caused the outbreak. The swab samples were initially examined by conventional microbiologic protocols and a wide range of fungal species were recovered. Species-identification of these microorganisms was accomplished by nucleotide sequencing of ITS1 region of rRNA gene. Analysis of data confirmed 14 additional fungal species in the swabs analyzed.

  2. Orally administered bovine lactoferrin inhibits bacterial translocation in mice fed bovine milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Teraguchi, S.; Shin, K.; Ogata, T; Kingaku, M; Kaino, A; Miyauchi, H; Fukuwatari, Y; Shimamura, S

    1995-01-01

    Feeding of bovine milk to mice induced a high incidence of bacterial translocation from the intestines to the mesenteric lymph nodes, and the bacteria involved were mainly members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Supplementation of the milk diet with bovine lactoferrin or a pepsin-generated hydrolysate of bovine lactoferrin resulted in significant suppression of bacterial translocation. Our findings suggest that this ability of lactoferrin to inhibit bacterial translocation may be due to its...

  3. Fecal and urinary excretion of six iodothyronines in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecal and urinary excretion rates of six iodothyronines were assessed in the rat maintained under normal steady state physiological conditions, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of control of normal thyroid hormone economy and metabolism. Groups of young adult male rats were injected with trace doses of T4, T3, rT3, 3,3'-diiodothyronine (T2), 3',5'-T2, or 3'-monoiodothyronine, each labeled with 125I, and feces and urine were collected separately for up to 10 days. Pooled fecal pellets were homogenized in saline, extracted in ethanol, evaporated under vacuum, and reconstituted in NaOH. Fecal extracts and urine were chromatographed on Sephadex G25 columns under conditions providing quantitative separations of components of interest. A new technique was also developed, based on a model of the in vitro extraction and measurement process, to correct chromatographic results for possible variable recoveries and possible artifactious degradation of radioactively labeled components. No iodothyronines or their conjugates were excreted in urine; all radioactivity was in the form of iodide. In feces, about 30% of the [125I]T3 injected was excreted as T3; and 24% of the [125I]T4 injected was excreted as T4, plus 4% as T3. Together, these results imply that about 24% of endogenous T4 production is excreted as T4 and 76% is irreversibly metabolized; and for T3, about 30% of endogenous T3 production is excreted as T3 and 70% is degraded. For the nonhormonal iodothyronines, about 6% of injected monoiodothyronine, 3% of injected 3',5'-T2, 2% of injected 3,3'-T2, and less than 1% of injected rT3 were excreted in feces as such, indicating that these substances are nearly completely deiodinated in vivo. Very little (1-7%) iodide was excreted as such in feces, which also were devoid of measurable conjugates

  4. Fecal calprotectin excretion in preterm infants during the neonatal period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Rougé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fecal calprotectin has been proposed as a non-invasive marker of intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease in adults and children. Fecal calprotectin levels have been reported to be much higher in both healthy full-term and preterm infants than in children and adults. OBJECTIVE: To determine the time course of fecal calprotectin (f-calprotectin excretion in preterm infants from birth until hospital discharge and to identify factors influencing f-calprotectin levels in the first weeks of life, including bacterial establishment in the gut. METHODOLOGY: F-calprotectin was determined using an ELISA assay in 147 samples obtained prospectively from 47 preterm infants (gestational age, and birth-weight interquartiles 27-29 weeks, and 880-1320 g, respectively at birth, and at 2-week intervals until hospital discharge. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although median f-calprotectin excretion was 138 microg/g, a wide range of inter- and intra-individual variation in f-calprotectin values (from day 3 to day 78 was observed (86% and 67%, respectively. In multivariate regression analysis, f-calprotectin correlated negatively with ante and per natal antibiotic treatment (p = 0.001, and correlated positively with the volume of enteral feeding (mL/kg/d (p = 0.009, the need to interrupt enteral feeding (p = 0.001, and prominent gastrointestinal colonization by Clostridium sp (p = 0.019 and Staphylococcus sp (p = 0.047. CONCLUSION: During the first weeks of life, the high f-calprotectin values observed in preterm infants could be linked to the gut bacterial establishment.

  5. Fecal Calprotectin Excretion in Preterm Infants during the Neonatal Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougé, Carole; Butel, Marie-José; Piloquet, Hugues; Ferraris, Laurent; Legrand, Arnaud; Vodovar, Michel; Voyer, Marcel; de la Cochetière, Marie-France; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Background Fecal calprotectin has been proposed as a non-invasive marker of intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease in adults and children. Fecal calprotectin levels have been reported to be much higher in both healthy full-term and preterm infants than in children and adults. Objective To determine the time course of fecal calprotectin (f-calprotectin) excretion in preterm infants from birth until hospital discharge and to identify factors influencing f-calprotectin levels in the first weeks of life, including bacterial establishment in the gut. Methodology F-calprotectin was determined using an ELISA assay in 147 samples obtained prospectively from 47 preterm infants (gestational age, and birth-weight interquartiles 27–29 weeks, and 880–1320 g, respectively) at birth, and at 2-week intervals until hospital discharge. Principal Findings Although median f-calprotectin excretion was 138 µg/g, a wide range of inter- and intra-individual variation in f-calprotectin values (from day 3 to day 78) was observed (86% and 67%, respectively). In multivariate regression analysis, f-calprotectin correlated negatively with ante and per natal antibiotic treatment (p = 0.001), and correlated positively with the volume of enteral feeding (mL/kg/d) (p = 0.009), the need to interrupt enteral feeding (p = 0.001), and prominent gastrointestinal colonization by Clostridium sp (p = 0.019) and Staphylococcus sp (p = 0.047). Conclusion During the first weeks of life, the high f-calprotectin values observed in preterm infants could be linked to the gut bacterial establishment. PMID:20552029

  6. Search for the genome of bovine herpesvirus types 1, 4 and 5 in bovine semen

    OpenAIRE

    P.E. Morán; Favier, P.A.; Lomónaco, M.; Catena, M.C.; M.L. Chiapparrone; Odeón, A.C.; Verna, A.E.; S.E. Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) causes respiratory and reproductive disorders in cattle. Recently, bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) and bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) have been identified to be associated with genital disease. In this study, the presence of the genome of BoHV-1, BoHV-4 and BoHV-5 in bovine semen of Argentinean and international origin was analyzed by PCR assays. The most important finding of this study is the detection of the genome of BoHV-1 and BoHV-4 in semen of b...

  7. Optimal purification and sensitive quantification of DNA from fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Application of reliable, rapid and sensitive methods to laboratory diagnosis of zoonotic infections continues to challenge microbiological laboratories. The recovery of DNA from a swine fecal sample and a bacterial culture extracted by a conventional phenol-chloroform extraction method was compared...... readings (R-2 = 0.99 and R-2 = 1.00). In conclusion, silica-membrane, columns can provide a more convenient and less hazardous alternative to the conventional phenol-based method. The results have implication for further improvement of sensitive amplification methods for laboratory diagnosis....

  8. Microplate fecal coliform method to monitor stream water pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, A.; J. C. Block

    1983-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the Moselle River by means of a microtechnique based on the most-probable-number method for fecal coliform enumeration. This microtechnique, in which each serial dilution of a sample is inoculated into all 96 wells of a microplate, was compared with the standard membrane filter method. It showed a marked overestimation of about 14% due, probably, to the lack of absolute specificity of the method. The high precision of the microtechnique (13%, in terms of the co...

  9. Pathogenicity of enterococci in a rat model of fecal peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlow, A G; Bohnen, J M; Nohr, C; Christou, N; Meakins, J

    1989-07-01

    The pathogenicity of enterococci in intraabdominal sepsis has not been clarified. Therefore, fecal-type peritonitis was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of barium sulfate along with a bacterial inoculum consisting of Escherichia coli, Bacteroides fragilis, and Clostridium perfringens with or without Streptococcus faecalis. Mortality at 19 d and characteristics of intraabdominal abscesses in survivors at 19 d were analyzed. The presence of S. faecalis in the original inoculum was significantly associated with death or large (greater than 20 mm) abscess formation when these two end points were examined together. S. faecalis may synergize with other bacteria in intraabdominal sepsis to augment morbidity and possibly mortality. PMID:2543707

  10. Fecal Calprotectin and Clinical Disease Activity in Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaija-Leena Kolho; Dan Turner

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore fecal calprotectin levels in pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) in relation with the validated clinical activity index PUCAI. Methods. This study included all 37 children (median age 14 years) with UC who had calprotectin measured (PhiCal ELISA Test) by the time of PUCAI assessment at the Children's Hospital of Helsinki in a total of 62 visits. Calprotectin values 1000  μ g/g). The best cut-off value for calprotectin for predicting poor outcome was 800  μ g/g (sensitivity...

  11. Daily variability of strongyle fecal egg counts in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Helena; Larsen, Lene; Ritz, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses and constitute a potential threat to equine health. Feces were collected from six horses four times daily over a period of 5 days. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed to identify any diurnal rhythms in strongyle egg shedding and to quantify...... variability at the different levels: individual horses, repeated counts, repeated subsamples, different time points, and different days. No significant differences in FECs were found between the different time points (P = .11). The variables-horse, day, subsample, and egg count-accounted for a variance of 104...

  12. Effects of toluidine blue and destaining reagents used in sexual assault examinations on the ability to obtain DNA profiles from postcoital vaginal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmeister, M N; Whelan, M; Borer, U V; Gehrig, C; Binda, S; Berzlanovich, A; Rauch, E; Dirnhofer, R

    1997-03-01

    Toluidine blue is an important tool to detect and document genital and perianal injuries following sexual assault. Application of toluidine blue dye and its subsequent removal from unstained areas by means of a destaining reagent, such as diluted acetic acid or a lubricant has been shown to increase the detection rate of posterior fourchette lacerations from 16% to 40% in adult rape victims. Currently, limited information on toluidine blue positive findings in sexually active control groups imposes some limitation on the interpretation of these injuries. Because injuries could otherwise be attributed to improper handling of an examination speculum or the improper insertion of the examining finger, the toluidine blue test should be performed prior to any digital or speculum examination and thus prior to the collection of forensic evidence. For forensic DNA identity testing, it becomes pertinent to determine whether toluidine blue and the destaining reagents used in a sexual assault examination have an adverse effect on the recovery of high molecular weight DNA from postcoital vaginal swabs and thereby have an impact on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis or PCR-based tests. It is known that some of the lubricants used can have a destructive effect on sperm motility. In order to investigate the potential effects, postcoital vaginal swabs were taken 6 h after sexual intercourse and exposed directly to 1% toluidine blue in aqueous solution, 1-10% acetic acid, and various surgical and vaginal lubricants. Subsequently, the DNA was isolated and DNA identity typing (RFLP and PCR-based) was performed. The results demonstrate, that these reagents have no negative effect on the ability to obtain DNA profiles, either RFLP or PCR-based, from shallow and deep vaginal swabs. The quantity and quality of extractable high molecular weight DNA obtained was comparable with that from uncontaminated postcoital vaginal swabs. RFLP patterns and PCR-based typing

  13. Interfacial behaviour of bovine testis hyaluronidase

    OpenAIRE

    Belem-Gonçalves, Silvia; Tsan, Pascale; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Alves, Tito L. M.; Salim, Vera M.; Besson, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The interfacial properties of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were suggested by demonstrating the association of hyaluronidase activity with membranes prepared from bovine testis. Protein adsorption to the air/water interface was investigated using surface pressure-area isotherms. Whatever the way to obtain interfacial films (protein injection or deposition), the hyaluronidase exhibited a significant affinity for the air/water interface. The isotherm obtained 180 min after...

  14. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biotypes and disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Deregt, D; Loewen, K G

    1995-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic...

  15. [Comparison of ertapenem-EMB Agar with traditional methods for screening carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from rectal swabs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perçin, Duygu; Colakoğlu, Selcan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Ekincioğlu, Pınar

    2012-10-01

    Detection of rectal colonization with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is the most important step in the infection control protocols in order to prevent infections caused by CRKP which has an increasing incidence all over the world. In this study, it was aimed to compare the detection rate of 2 mg/L ertapenem EMB agar medium with the other methods recommended by various international guidelines. These methods include direct plate method using ertapenem disc, enrichment method in tryptic soy broth containing 2 mg/L ertapenem and the investigation of the predominant betalactamases in the colonized patients. The lowest inoculum detected by different methods was determined by using simulative challenge test prepared for this purpose. The ability to detect CRKP from rectal swabs was evaluated by using the clinical specimens of 801 patients. For all bacteria isolated, carbapenem susceptibility was evaluated by using E-test method, the presence of beta-lactamases was determined by using modified Hodge test (MHT), and the carbapenemase genes were investigated by using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The lowest inoculum detected by ertapenem-EMB agar was 50 CFU/mL whereas the lowest inocula were 1 x 105 and 1 x 103, respectively by tryptic soy broth with ertapenem and direct plate method. No resistance gene were identified by PCR in 13 (39.4%) of 33 isolates, whereas blaOXA-48 was detected in 19 (95%) and blaIMP in 1 (5%) of 20 positive isolates. All of the positive strains were resistant to imipenem and ertapenem, while 2 (10%) strains were found to be susceptible to doripenem and meropenem. While MHT was negative in all strains which were negative for resistance genes, all resistance gene positive strains except one blaOXA-48 strain that was also sensitive to doripenem and meropenem, were found to be positive with MHT. According to the results of PCR, the sensitivities of the three methods were found to be 80%. The specificities, positive and

  16. Effects of high- and low-fiber diets on fecal fermentation and fecal microbial populations of captive chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kišidayová, S.; Váradyová, Z.; Pristaš, P.; Piknová, M.; Nigutová, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Profousová, Ilona; Schovancová, Kateřina; Kamler, Jiří; Modrý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 7 (2009), s. 548-557. ISSN 0275-2565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0264 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/0009/08; MVTS(SK) SK-CZ-0086-07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : chimpanzee * fiber * diet * in vitro fecal fermentation * DGGE * archaea * eubacteria Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.565, year: 2009

  17. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE APPLICATION OF MST METHODOLOGIES TO DIFFERENTIATE SOURCES OF FECAL CONTAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporal variability in the gastrointestinal flora of animals impacting water resources with fecal material can be one of the factors producing low source identification rates when applying microbial source tracking (MST) methods. Understanding how bacterial species and genotype...

  18. Fecal leukocytes in children infected with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Erik H; Ochoa, Theresa J; Ecker, Lucie; Cabello, Martin; Durand, David; Barletta, Francesca; Molina, Margarita; Gil, Ana I; Huicho, Luis; Lanata, Claudio F; Cleary, Thomas G

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and quantity of fecal leukocytes in children infected with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and to compare these levels between diarrhea and control cases. We analyzed 1,474 stool samples from 935 diarrhea episodes and 539 from healthy controls of a cohort study of children younger than 2 years of age in Lima, Peru. Stools were analyzed for common enteric pathogens, and diarrheagenic E. coli isolates were studied by a multiplex real-time PCR. Stool smears were stained with methylene blue and read by a blinded observer to determine the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field (L/hpf). Fecal leukocytes at >10 L/hpf were present in 11.8% (110/935) of all diarrheal episodes versus 1.1% (6/539) in controls (P 10 L/hpf were present in 8.5% (18/212) of diarrhea versus 1.3% (2/157) of control samples (P 10 L/hpf) with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 15.51; P < 0.05). Although diarrheagenic E. coli was isolated with similar frequencies in diarrhea and control samples, clearly it was associated with a more inflammatory response during symptomatic infection; however, in general, these pathogens elicited a mild inflammatory response. PMID:21325554

  19. Alcohol induced alterations to the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin D Couch

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that excessive alcohol consumption impacts the intestinal microbiota composition, causing disruption of homeostasis (dysbiosis. However, this observed change is not indicative of the dysbiotic intestinal microbiota function that could result in the production of injurious and toxic products. Thus, knowledge of the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiota function and their metabolites is warranted, in order to better understand the role of the intestinal microbiota in alcohol associated organ failure. Here, we report the results of a differential metabolomic analysis comparing volatile organic compounds (VOC detected in the stool of alcoholics and non-alcoholic healthy controls. We performed the analysis with fecal samples collected after passage as well as with samples collected directly from the sigmoid lumen. Regardless of the approach to fecal collection, we found a stool VOC metabolomic signature in alcoholics that is different from healthy controls. The most notable metabolite alterations in the alcoholic samples include: (1 an elevation in the oxidative stress biomarker tetradecane; (2 a decrease in five fatty alcohols with anti-oxidant property; (3 a decrease in the short chain fatty acids propionate and isobutyrate, important in maintaining intestinal epithelial cell health and barrier integrity; (4 a decrease in alcohol consumption natural suppressant caryophyllene; (5 a decrease in natural product and hepatic steatosis attenuator camphene; and (6 decreased dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, microbial products of decomposition. Our results showed that intestinal microbiota function is altered in alcoholics which might promote alcohol associated pathologies.

  20. Solid-phase microextraction and the human fecal VOC metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Dixon

    Full Text Available The diagnostic potential and health implications of volatile organic compounds (VOCs present in human feces has begun to receive considerable attention. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME has greatly facilitated the isolation and analysis of VOCs from human feces. Pioneering human fecal VOC metabolomic investigations have utilized a single SPME fiber type for analyte extraction and analysis. However, we hypothesized that the multifarious nature of metabolites present in human feces dictates the use of several diverse SPME fiber coatings for more comprehensive metabolomic coverage. We report here an evaluation of eight different commercially available SPME fibers, in combination with both GC-MS and GC-FID, and identify the 50/30 µm CAR-DVB-PDMS, 85 µm CAR-PDMS, 65 µm DVB-PDMS, 7 µm PDMS, and 60 µm PEG SPME fibers as a minimal set of fibers appropriate for human fecal VOC metabolomics, collectively isolating approximately 90% of the total metabolites obtained when using all eight fibers. We also evaluate the effect of extraction duration on metabolite isolation and illustrate that ex vivo enteric microbial fermentation has no effect on metabolite composition during prolonged extractions if the SPME is performed as described herein.

  1. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. PMID:27436438

  2. Bovine endometrial stromal cells display osteogenic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavirani Sandro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endometrium is central to mammalian fertility. The endometrial stromal cells are very dynamic, growing and differentiating throughout the estrous cycle and pregnancy. In humans, stromal cells appear to have progenitor or stem cell capabilities and the cells can even differentiate into bone. It is not clear whether bovine endometrial stromal cells exhibit a similar phenotypic plasticity. So, the present study tested the hypothesis that bovine endometrial stromal cells could be differentiated along an osteogenic lineage. Pure populations of bovine stromal cells were isolated from the endometrium. The endometrial stromal cell phenotype was confirmed by morphology, prostaglandin secretion, and susceptibility to viral infection. However, cultivation of the cells in standard endometrial cell culture medium lead to a mesenchymal phenotype similar to that of bovine bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the endometrial stromal cells developed signs of osteogenesis, such as alizarin positive nodules. When the stromal cells were cultured in a specific osteogenic medium the cells rapidly developed the characteristics of mineralized bone. In conclusion, the present study has identified that stromal cells from the bovine endometrium show a capability for phenotype plasticity similar to mesenchymal progenitor cells. These observations pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms of stroma cell differentiation in the bovine reproductive tract.

  3. Development of Cross-Assembly Phage PCR-Based Methods for Human Fecal Source Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technologies that can characterize human fecal pollution in environmental waters offer many advantages over traditional general indicator approaches. However, many human-associated methods cross-react with non-human animal sources and lack suitable sensitivity for fecal source id...

  4. Development and Testing of Novel Canine Fecal Source-Identification Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent to which dogs contribute to aquatic fecal contamination is unknown despite the potential for zoonotic transfer of harmful human pathogens. Recent method comparison studies have shown that available Bacteroidales 16S rRNA-based methods for the detection of canine fecal ...

  5. Differential Decay of Enterococci and Escherichia coli Originating from Two Fecal Pollution Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Korajkic, Asja; McMinn, Brian R.; Harwood, Valerie J.; Shanks, Orin C.; Fout, G. Shay; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Using in situ subtropical aquatic mesocosms, fecal source (cattle manure versus sewage) was shown to be the most important contributor to differential loss in viability of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), specifically enterococci in freshwater and Escherichia coli in marine habitats. In this study, sunlight exposure and indigenous aquatic microbiota were also important contributors, whose effects on FIB also differed between water types.

  6. Community structures of fecal bacteria in cattle from different animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fecal microbiome of cattle plays a critical role not only in animal health and productivity, but also in methane emissions, food safety, pathogen shedding, and the performance of fecal pollution detection methods. Unfortunately, most published molecular surveys fail to provid...

  7. DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF COW FECAL POLLUTION WITH REAL-TIME PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of health risk and fecal bacteria loads associated with cow fecal pollution requires a reliable host-specific genetic marker and a rapid quantification method. We report the development of quantitative PCR assays for enumeration of two recently described cow-specific g...

  8. Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures for improved detection of fecal coliforms from recreational waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, J D; Tunnicliff, B; Brickler, S K; Kramer, R E; Sinclair, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures significantly enhanced detection of fecal coliforms in surface-water samples from recreational beaches. In contrast to standard aerobic incubation, anaerobic incubation suppressed overgrowth of masking, noncoliform bacteria but did not increase the frequency of fecal coliform recovery.

  9. An investigation of variables in a fecal flotation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, M R; Slocombe, J O

    1980-04-01

    Several variables in a standard vial fecal gravitational flotation technique were investigated. These were the specific gravity of the sodium nitrate flotation solution, duration of flotation and mesh sizes of strainers. The number of eggs which floated and adhered to a coverslip were counted and estimates of the number of eggs remaining in the strained fecal suspension and in the feces trapped on the strainer were made. Eggs from hookworms, Trichuris vulpis and Toxocara canis in feces from dogs, Nematodirus spp. from sheep and Parascaris equorum from horses floated equally well in solutions with specific gravities (SpGr) ranging from 1.22-1.38. Taenia spp. from dogs had a slightly narrower range (SpGr 1.27-1.38) for best recovery. Eggs from Haemonchus contortus from sheep appeared to float best between SpGr 1.22- 1.32. Strongyles from one horse floated best with SpGr 1.27-1.32 and from another with SpGr 1.11-1.38. Coccidial oocysts from sheep floated best in a narrow range of SpGr from 1.22-1.27. However, as the SpGr of the solution was increased the recognition of eggs under the coverslip was increasingly difficult and especially so at SpGr 1.38 with sheep feces. This was due to the increasing amount of debris and the more rapid formation of crystals with evaporation with solutions of higher SpGr. It appeared, therefore, that solutions with SpGr of 1.22-1.35 would be best for routine laboratory use. At specific gravity 1.27, there appeared to be no difference in the number of eggs recovered for a four, eight and 12 min flotation period. Only 3-7% of the eggs in 4 g of feces were counted under the coverslip. This poor efficacy resulted first because approximately 50% of the eggs were trapped in the feces and retained on the strainer. Secondly, only one half of the strained fecal suspension, containing approximately 25% of the eggs, was placed in the vial for examination. Thirdly, of those eggs in the vial only 16-29% were counted under the coverslip. When the

  10. Discriminant analysis of antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal streptococci, a method to differentiate human and animal sources of fecal pollution in natural waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggins, B A

    1996-01-01

    Discriminant analysis of patterns of antibiotic resistance in fecal streptococci was used to differentiate between human and animal sources of fecal pollution in natural waters. A total of 1,435 isolates from 17 samples of cattle, poultry, human, and wild-animal wastes were obtained, and their ability to grow in the presence of four concentrations of five antibiotics (chlortetracycline, halofuginone, oxytetracycline, salinomycin, and streptomycin) was measured. When the resulting antibiotic r...

  11. Identification of Nonpoint Sources of Fecal Pollution in Coastal Waters by Using Host-Specific 16S Ribosomal DNA Genetic Markers from Fecal Anaerobes

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard, Anne E.; Field, Katharine G.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a new PCR-based method for distinguishing human and cow fecal contamination in coastal waters without culturing indicator organisms, and we show that the method can be used to track bacterial marker sequences in complex environments. We identified two human-specific genetic markers and five cow-specific genetic markers in fecal samples by amplifying 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments from members of the genus Bifidobacterium and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group and performing leng...

  12. Sediment and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Loading in a Mixed Land Use Watershed: Contributions from Suspended and Bed Load Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality studies that quantify sediment and fecal bacteria loading commonly focus on suspended contaminants transported during high flows. Fecal contaminants in bed sediments are typically ignored and need to be considered because of their potential to increase pathogen load...

  13. Application of leftover sample material from waterborne protozoa monitoring for the molecular detection of Bacteroidales and fecal source tracking markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we examined the potential for detecting fecal bacteria and microbial source tracking markers in samples discarded during the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia using USEPA Method 1623. Recovery rates for different fecal bacteria were determined using sp...

  14. Frequently Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BSE / FAQ on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease) Programs Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Farm Storage ... Asked Questions on BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease) Q. What is Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy? A. Bovine ...

  15. Detection of an untyped strain of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a dairy herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Bortolin Affonso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV causes important lower respiratory tract illness in calves. According to F and G proteins genetic sequences, three BRSV subgroups have been reported and characterized in several countries, showing differences in its distribution. In Brazil, the virus is widely disseminated throughout the herds and the few characterized isolates revealed the solely occurrence of the subgroup B. This study describes the detection and characterization of an untyped BRSV strain from a twenty-days-old calf from a herd without clinical respiratory disease. Nasal swabs were analyzed by RT-nested PCR for the F and G proteins genes. One sample has amplified the F protein gene. Sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic reconstruction were accomplished, revealing that the strain could not be grouped with any other BRSV subgroups reported. This result may suggest that the BRSV is in constantly evolution, even in Brazil, where the vaccination is not a common practice. More detailed studies about BRSV characterization are necessary to know the virus subgroups distribution among the Brazilian herds to recommend appropriated immunoprophylaxis.

  16. A cautionary note on fecal sampling and molecular epidemiology in predatory wild great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nys, Hélène Marie; Madinda, Nadège Freda; Merkel, Kevin; Robbins, Martha; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian Hubertus; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2015-08-01

    Fecal samples are an important source of information on parasites (viruses, prokaryotes, or eukaryotes) infecting wild great apes. Molecular analysis of fecal samples has already been used for deciphering the origins of major human pathogens such as HIV-1 or Plasmodium falciparum. However, for apes that hunt (chimpanzees and bonobos), detection of parasite nucleic acids may reflect either true infection of the host of interest or ingestion of an infected prey, for example, another non-human primate. To determine the potential magnitude of this issue, we estimated the prevalence of prey DNA in fecal samples obtained from two wild chimpanzee communities. We observed values >15%, which are higher than or close to the fecal detection rates of many great ape parasites. Contamination of fecal samples with parasite DNA from dietary origin may therefore occasionally impact non-invasive epidemiological studies. This problem can be addressed (at least partially) by monitoring the presence of prey DNA. PMID:26031302

  17. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  18. Design and Construction of Chimeric VP8-S2 Antigen for Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza; Zibaee, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. Rotavirus VP8 subunit is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response.

  19. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 2 from Commercial Fetal Bovine Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hua; Li, Yan; Gao, Mingchun; Wen, Kai; Jia, Ying; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2012-01-01

    We isolated a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from commercial fetal bovine serum and designated it HLJ-10. The complete genome is 12,284 nucleotides (nt); the open reading frame is 11,694 nt, coding 3,898 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to BVDV group 2.

  1. High-throughput DNA sequence analysis reveals stable engraftment of gut microbiota following transplantation of previously frozen fecal bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Matthew J; Weingarden, Alexa R.; Unno, Tatsuya; Khoruts, Alexander; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is becoming a more widely used technology for treatment of recurrent Clostridum difficile infection (CDI). While previous treatments used fresh fecal slurries as a source of microbiota for FMT, we recently reported the successful use of standardized, partially purified and frozen fecal microbiota to treat CDI. Here we report that high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed stable engraftment of gut microbiota following FMT using frozen fecal bacteria...

  2. Vaccination with attenuated Salmonella enterica Dublin expressing E coli O157:H7 outer membrane protein Intimin induces transient reduction of fecal shedding of E coli O157:H7 in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ferric C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli serogroup O157:H7 has emerged as an important zoonotic bacterial pathogen, causing a range of symptoms from self-limiting bloody diarrhea to severe hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans. Beef and dairy cattle are considered the most important animal reservoirs for this pathogen. One of the important virulence characteristics of E. coli O157:H7 is the eaeA gene encoding the 97 kDa surface protein intimin. Intimin is required for attachment and effacement during the interaction of enterohemorrhagic E. coli with human and bovine neonatal enterocytes. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that an adaptive mucosal immune response directed against intimin will reduce or prevent enteric colonization and fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle. Results Cattle were orally inoculated with either milk (control, milk with live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (vector, or milk with live attenuated recombinant S. Dublin expressing intimin (vaccinated on days 0, 14 and 28. On day 98, all calves were challenged orally with E. coli O157:H7 to evaluate whether vaccination with the recombinant S. Dublin expressing intimin would reduce the level of E. coli O157:H7 fecal shedding. During the first 28 days, vaccinated calves shed both the vector strain and the intimin-expressing S. Dublin strain at a similar level. The vector strain was shed for a significantly longer period as compared to the level of recombinant vaccine strain. Calves that received the intimin-expressed vaccine ceased shedding S. Dublin from day 28 to day 63. All calves were challenged with E. coli O157:H7 on day 98 to determine the effect on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7. The amount of E. coli O157:H7 in feces was measured for 30 days post-challenge. We observed a transient clearance of E. coli O157:H7 from the feces in the vaccinated calves. The magnitude of fecal E. coli O157:H7 shedding did not

  3. Pooling of porcine fecal samples for quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ken Steen; Johansen, Markku; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind;

    2014-01-01

    obtained by averaging test results from individual fecal samples in relation to a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test for Lawsonia intracellularis. Ten diarrheic and 10 normal fecal samples were submitted from each of 43 Danish swine herds (n = 860 fecal samples). Pools (n = 43), each...

  4. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans. PMID:25781716

  5. Bovine reproduction in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this document it has met relating data to the reproduction of bovine and their handling for the man that it can serve as norms to judge reproductive efficiency but always view in the aspect of the nutritious, climatic circumstances and of handling under which met. Under the previous description one can say that the fertility is the resultant of the interaction among the inheritance, the means and the handling, they vary in particular for each region and property. The fertility can be good, regulate or bad in the measure in that the factors that intervene. The environmental effect on the reproductive processes of the cow represents 80 percent of the variation factors and they include climate, effect of the light, effect of the temperature, effect of the nutritious contribution, effect of psychological factors: the loss of the tendency to the seasonal reproduction is in fact an answer from the animals to its association with the man. The influence of the environment and the feeding of the animals are more intense in the females than in the males, being evidenced that the reproduction control is under the influence hormonal joint with the nutrition. An appropriate nutrition is prerequisite for the beginning of the sexual maturation with an appropriate weight and corporal condition. It is also described the effect and the relationship of the energy contribution about the fertility, the restart of the ovarian activity, its cause of the continuation of the interval childbirth-conception, silent ovulation, organic ancestry and interval among childbirths

  6. Buccal swab analysis of mitochondrial enzyme deficiency and DNA defects in a child with suspected myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers (MERRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorns, William R; Valencia, Ignacio; Jayaraman, Aditya; Sheth, Sudip; Legido, Agustin; Goldenthal, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    The authors describe mitochondrial studies in a 6-year-old patient with a seizure disorder that can be seen in myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers. Using a recently developed noninvasive approach, analysis of buccal mitochondrial enzyme function revealed severe respiratory complex I and IV deficiencies in the patient. In addition, analysis of buccal mitochondrial DNA showed significant amounts of the common 5 kb and 7.4 kb mitochondrial DNA deletions, also detectable in blood. This study suggests that a buccal swab approach can be used to informatively examine mitochondrial dysfunction in children with seizures and may be applicable to screening mitochondrial disease with other clinical presentations. PMID:22114216

  7. Screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in clinical swabs using a high-throughput real-time PCR-based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornskov, D; Kolmos, B; Bendix Horn, P; Nederby Nielsen, J; Brandslund, I; Schouenborg, P

    2008-01-01

    2005, all patients and healthcare personnel have been screened for MRSA colonisation, involving analysis of 300-400 samples daily. To deal with this number of samples, a PCR-based method customised for high-throughput analysis and a system for fast reporting of MRSA carrier status were developed. Swab...... pattern. This is a cost-effective approach, as the greatest expense in hospitals involves the isolation of patients of unknown MRSA status. The method was evaluated by testing 2194 clinical samples, with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94%, respectively. The analytical sensitivity was 97%, with...

  8. MR Colonography with fecal tagging: Barium vs. barium ferumoxsil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M.P.; Chabanova, E.; Logager, V.B.; Thomsen, H.S.; Rosenberg, J.

    2008-01-01

    . Materials and Methods. Twenty patients referred to CC underwent dark lumen MRC prior to the colonoscopy. Two groups of patients received two different oral contrast agents (barium sulfate and barium sulfate/ferumoxsil) as a laxative-free fecal tagging prior to the MRC. After MRC, the contrast agent was...... rated qualitatively (with the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio) and subjectively (using a visual analog scale [VAS]) by three different blinded observers. Results. Evaluated both qualitatively and subjectively, the tagging efficiency of barium sulfate/ferumoxsil was significantly better (P...... <.05) than barium sulfate alone. The VAS method for evaluating the tagging efficiency of contrast agents showed a high correlation (observer 11, r = 0.91) to the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio and also a high interclass correlation (observer 11 and III = 0.89/0.85). MRC found I of 22 (5...

  9. Transient bladder and fecal incontinence following epidural blood patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Palomero-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidural blood patch (EBP is the currently accepted treatment of choice for postdural puncture headache because of its high initial success rates and infrequent complications. Many authors recommended a small volume (10-20 mL of blood to be delivered for an effective EBP. Here, we report an obstetric patient who developed a transient bladder and fecal incontinence after 19 mL of blood EBP at L 1 -L 2 level. Since the magnetic resonance image did not demonstrate any definitive spinal cord lesion, the exact mechanism remains unclear. We suggest that accumulation of blood performed at L 1 to L 2 level in a closed relationship with the sacral cord, may have trigger a significant pressure elevation of the epidural space at this level, resulting in a temporal spinal cord-related injury in the sacral cord.

  10. Automatic Identification of Human Erythrocytes in Microscopic Fecal Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Lei, Haoting; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Zhenglong; Liu, Juanxiu; Xie, Yu; Ni, Guangming; Liu, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Traditional fecal erythrocyte detection is performed via a manual operation that is unsuitable because it depends significantly on the expertise of individual inspectors. To recognize human erythrocytes automatically and precisely, automatic segmentation is very important for extraction of characteristics. In addition, multiple recognition algorithms are also essential. This paper proposes an algorithm based on morphological segmentation and a fuzzy neural network. The morphological segmentation process comprises three operational steps: top-hat transformation, Otsu's method, and image binarization. Following initial screening by area and circularity, fuzzy c-means clustering and the neural network algorithms are used for secondary screening. Subsequently, the erythrocytes are screened by combining the results of five images obtained at different focal lengths. Experimental results show that even when the illumination, noise pollution, and position of the erythrocytes are different, they are all segmented and labeled accurately by the proposed method. Thus, the proposed method is robust even in images with significant amounts of noise. PMID:26349804

  11. Paraparesis (paraplegia) tetraparesis (tetraplegia), urinary/fecal incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraparesis (paraplegia) refers to partial (-paresis) or complete (-plegia) loss of voluntary motor function in the pelvic limbs. Similar involvement of all four limbs is termed tetraparesis (tetraplegia). Paraparesis generally results from spinal cord lesions caudad to the second thoracic spinal cord segment, whereas tetraparesis occurs because of lesions craniad to this segment (see discussion of spinal cord lesion localization in The Neurologic Examination and Lesion Localization, on page 328). The limbs may be affected equally; however, asymmetric lesions cause greater clinical involvement on the ipsilateral side. Strictly unilateral lesions at C1-T2 result in clinical involvement on only the affected side of the body (hemiparesis, hemiplegia). Monoparesis (monoplegia) occurs subsequent to unilateral T2-S1 lesions. Trauma and neoplasia are the most common spinal cord diseases affecting cats. Urinary and fecal incontinence often occur concomitant with paresis. General concepts relating to disorders of micturition are discussed at the conclusion of this chapter

  12. Modern concepts for the treatment of fecal incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen H.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Anal incontinence is estimated to be present in approximately 2% of the total population. However, the incidence of this disorder increases with age, affecting up to 11% of men and 26% of women after the age of 50 years. In general, the causes of long-standing fecal incontinence may be divided into anorectal or congenital malformations, perineal trauma (due to surgery or accident, pudendal nerve lesions with or without muscular injury, and low-motor neuron lesions. Classical surgical treatment includes direct repair of the circumscribed gap in the anal sphincter, the so-called overlapping sphincteroplasty or anal repair. In the short term, this method was shown to be very effective in improving continence. Surgical repair of a diffuse weakness of the pelvic floor by application of the postanal repair method has led to more controversial results. While the short-term results are frequently beneficial, full continence is rarely achieved in the long run, especially in patients with impaired pudendal nerve function. All currently used surgical methods focus on the direct mechanical approach to the pelvic floor muscles and/or the anal sphincter. Therefore, the response to this kind of therapy is limited by the presence of a simultaneously existing neurogenic lesion (pudendal nerve damage, as "ell as by the magnitude and intensity of muscular injury. These problems have been addressed by the development of new methods that focus on the replacement of large muscular defects (Dynamic Graciloplasty and the treatment of neurogenic causes of fecal incontinence (Sacral Nerve Stimulation - SNS.

  13. Flow fingerprinting fecal pollution and suspended solids in stormwater runoff from an urban coastal watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbeck, Cristiane Q; Jiang, Sunny C; Ahn, Jong Ho; Grant, Stanley B

    2006-07-15

    Field studies were conducted to characterize the concentration vs streamflow relationships (or "flow fingerprints") of fecal pollution and suspended solids in stormwater runoff from the Santa Ana River watershed, the largest watershed in southern California. The concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and F+ coliphages (viruses infecting E. coli) exhibit little-to-no dependence on streamflow rates, whereas the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) exhibit a very strong (power-law) dependence on streamflow rates. The different flow fingerprints observed for fecal pollutants, on one hand, and TSS, on the other hand, reflect different sources and transport pathways for these stormwater constituents. The flow-independent nature of fecal indicator bacteria and F+ coliphages is consistent with the idea that these contaminants are ubiquitously present on the surface of the urban landscape and rapidly partition into the surface water as the landscape is wetted by rainfall. The flow-dependent nature of TSS, on the other hand, is usually ascribed to the shear-induced erosion of channel bed sediments and/or the expansion of drainage area contributing to runoff. The apparent ubiquity of fecal indicator bacteria and F+ coliphages, together with the very high storm-loading rates of fecal indicator bacteria and the low detection frequency of human adenovirus and human enterovirus, suggest that fecal pollution in stormwater runoff from the Santa Ana River watershed is primarily of nonhuman waste origin. PMID:16903282

  14. Ovarian cycle approach by rectal temperature and fecal progesterone in a female killer whale, Orcinus orca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Kakizoe, Yuka; Kanda, Koji; Sengoku, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yohei; Adachi, Itsuki; Watanabe, Yoko; Doi, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the measurements of body temperature and fecal progesterone concentrations as minimally invasive techniques for assessing ovarian cycle in a single sexually mature female killer whale. Rectal temperature data, fecal and blood samples were collected in the dorsal position using routine husbandry training on a voluntary basis. The correlations between rectal temperature and plasma progesterone concentration and between fecal and plasma progesterone concentrations were investigated. Fecal progesterone metabolites were identified by a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme immunoassay. Plasma progesterone concentrations (range: 0.2-18.6 ng/ml) and rectal temperature (range: 35.3-35.9°C) changed cyclically, and cycle lengths were an average (±SD) of 44.9±4.0 days (nine cycles) and 44.6±5.9 days (nine cycles), respectively. Rectal temperature positively correlated with the plasma progesterone concentrations (r=0.641, P<0.01). There was a visual trend for fecal progesterone profiles to be similar to circulating plasma progesterone profiles. Fecal immunoreactive progestagen analysis resulted in a marked immunoreactive peak of progesterone. The data from the single killer whale indicate that the measurement of rectal temperature is suitable for minimally invasive assessment of the estrous cycle and monitoring the fecal progesterone concentration is useful to assess ovarian luteal activity. PMID:20648568

  15. Longitudinal fecal hormone analysis for monitoring reproductive activity in the female polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, M A; MacKinnon, K M; Roth, T L

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to identify suitable enzyme immunoassays to monitor gonadal and placental function in the female polar bear. Immunoreactive progesterone, progesterone metabolite (PdG), estrogen, and androgen metabolite (T) concentrations were measured in fecal samples collected over 24 mo from captive female bears (N = 20). Whereas fecal extracts produced displacement curves parallel to the standard curve for each respective steroid, T and PdG more accurately reflected reproductive events. Concentrations of fecal T increased (P < 0.05) during the breeding season, and brief spikes were associated with estrus and mating. A postovulatory increase in PdG was not always detected, but sustained baseline T after mating appeared consistent with ovulation. Parturient bears excreted higher PdG concentrations (P < 0.05) during expected time of embryo implantation in Fall, and a late gestational rise in fecal T occurred 30 days prepartum. Many nonparturient bears also had a PdG rise in the Fall, suggesting they experienced either pregnancy loss or a pseudopregnancy. Differentiating pregnant and pseudopregnant states was not achieved using fecal PdG alone, but when combined with fecal T, comprehensive diagnoses could be made. Nonparturient bears demonstrated elevated (P < 0.05) fecal T during summer months, whereas parturient bears did not. In summary, noninvasive hormone monitoring techniques were established for the female polar bear. Although this study was directed at facilitating management and breeding efforts of captive polar bears, the methods could be applied to studies of reproductive function in wild populations. PMID:23040062

  16. Is bovine dentine an appropriate substitute in abrasion studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wegehaupt, F J; Widmer, R.; Attin, T.

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the wear behaviour of human and bovine dentine due to toothbrushing with different relative dentin abrasivity (RDA) toothpastes. Forty human and 40 bovine dentine samples were prepared from bovine lower incisors or human premolars roots, and baseline surface profiles were recorded. The samples were distributed to four groups (each group n = 10 human and 10 bovine samples) and brushed with fluoridated experimental toothpastes with different RDAs (group A: RDA 10, B: ...

  17. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Goens, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  18. Production of cattle immunotolerant to bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    McClurkin, A W.; Littledike, E T; Cutlip, R C; Frank, G H; Coria, M F; Bolin, S R

    1984-01-01

    Inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into 58 to 125 day old fetuses of bovine virus diarrhea virus seropositive pregnant cows, or inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into seronegative cows 42 to 114 days pregnant, may produce clinically normal calves which are persistently infected with the specific isolate of bovine virus diarrhea virus yet seronegative to the homologous and heterologous isolates. Reinoculation of these persistently infected cattle with their homologous isolate ...

  19. Species variation in the fecal metabolome gives insight into differential gastrointestinal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saric, Jasmina; Wang, Yulan; Li, Jia; Coen, Muireann; Utzinger, Jürg; Marchesi, Julian R; Keiser, Jennifer; Veselkov, Kirill; Lindon, John C; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Holmes, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic composition of fecal extracts provides a window for elucidating the complex metabolic interplay between mammals and their intestinal ecosystems, and these metabolite profiles can yield information on a range of gut diseases. Here, the metabolites present in aqueous fecal extracts of humans, mice and rats were characterized using high-resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate pattern recognition techniques. Additionally, the effects of sample storage and preparation methods were evaluated in order to assess the stability of fecal metabolite profiles, and to optimize information recovery from fecal samples. Finally, variations in metabolite profiles were investigated in healthy mice as a function of time. Interspecies variation was found to be greater than the variation due to either time or sample preparation. Although many fecal metabolites were common to the three species, such as short chain fatty acids and branched chain amino acids, each species generated a unique profile. Relatively higher levels of uracil, hypoxanthine, phenylacetic acid, glucose, glycine, and tyrosine amino acids were present in the rat, with beta-alanine being unique to the rat, and glycerol and malonate being unique to the human. Human fecal extracts showed a greater interindividual variation than the two rodent species, reflecting the natural genetic and environmental diversity in human populations. Fecal composition in healthy mice was found to change over time, which might be explained by altered gut microbial presence or activity. The systematic characterization of fecal composition across humans, mice, and rats, together with the evaluation of inherent variation, provides a benchmark for future studies seeking to determine fecal biomarkers of disease and/or response to dietary or therapeutic interventions. PMID:18052033

  20. Understanding and evaluating bovine testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelic, John P

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to briefly review bovine testes and how they are assessed, with an emphasis on articles from Theriogenology. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most common method to assess testicular size; it varies among individual bulls and breeds and is highly heritable. In general, a large SC is associated with early puberty, more sperm, a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm, and better reproductive performance in closely related females. Consequently, there are minimum requirements for SC for breeding soundness. In prepubertal bull calves, there is an early rise (10-20 weeks of age) in LH, which is critically related to onset of puberty and testicular development. Feeding bulls approximately 130% of maintenance requirements of energy and protein from approximately 8 to 30 weeks of age increased LH release during the early rise, hastened puberty (approximately 1 month), and increased mature testis size and sperm production (approximately 20%-30%). However, high-energy diets after weaning (>200 days) often reduced sperm production and semen quality. A bull's testes and scrotum have opposing (complementary) temperature gradients, which keep the testicular temperature 2 °C to 6 °C cooler than core body temperature for production of fertile sperm (increased testicular temperature reduces semen quality). Infrared thermography, a quick and noninvasive method of assessing scrotal surface temperature, may be beneficial for evaluations of breeding soundness. The primary clinical use of ultrasonography in assessment of reproductive function in the bull is characterization of grossly detectable lesions in the testes and scrotum. In conclusion, testis size and function are critical for bull fertility, affected by nutrition, and readily assessed clinically. PMID:24274406

  1. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incubation of (1-14C]arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of [1-14C]PGH2 was virtually identical to that of [1-14C]AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid

  2. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Bovine. 113.68 Section 113.68 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  4. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five...

  5. 78 FR 1718 - Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in Cervids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 77 Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in... of antibodies to bovine tuberculosis in certain species of captive cervids. This action is necessary..., CO 80526-8117; (970) 494-7378. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Bovine tuberculosis is...

  6. 9 CFR 113.69 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.69 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  7. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared... virus diarrhea susceptible calves shall be used as test animals (20 vaccinates and five controls)....

  8. Measuring fecal progestogens as a tool to monitor reproductive activity in captive female bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancani, B; Da Dalt, L; Lacave, G; Romagnoli, S; Gabai, G

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to develop and test radioimmunoassays (RIAs) to measure fecal progestogens (P) and estrogens (E) to monitor ovarian activity in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Fecal samples were collected at least once a week for 20 mo from three peripubertal female bottlenose dolphins. Blood samples were collected at least once a month to compare serum and fecal steroid concentrations. Moreover, random fecal samples from three pregnant females, one lactating female, and one sexually mature female receiving oral altrenogest treatment were also collected. Fecal samples were collected behaviorally with a probe to avoid water contamination and extracted with petroleum ether (for P analysis) or diethyl ether (for E analysis). When possible, vaginal cytology and ovarian ultrasonography were used to monitor the estrous cycle. The RIA for fecal P had good reproducibility and negligible matrix effect. In addition, when fecal samples (N=25) were extracted with ethanol, the results with the two methods of extraction were highly correlated (r=0.923). Therefore, extraction of fecal samples with petroleum ether represented a valid alternative to other, more time-consuming methods of determining fecal P concentrations. In the absence of luteal activity, fecal P concentrations were consistently dolphin, as in other mammalian species. Additional HPLC-MS studies should be performed to identify predominant P metabolites to be used as fecal indicators of luteal activity in this species. PMID:19783290

  9. [Gastro-intestinal helminths detected by fecal examination in stray dogs in the Aydin province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlü, Hakki; Eren, Hasan

    2007-01-01

    Fecal specimens of a total of 200 dogs were examined by native, Fulleborn's floatation and Benedek's sedimentation methods to determine the prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in stray dogs in the Aydin Municipality Animal Shelter and the Kuşadasi Municipality Animal Shelter. Helminth infections were encountered in 82 (41%) of the fecal samples examined. One cestode egg and four nematode eggs were found in the infected fecal samples. The helminth eggs found were identified as follows: Taenia spp. (7.5%), Toxacara spp. (20%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Uncinaria stenocephala (21%) and Trichuris vulpis (1.5%). No trematode eggs and nematode larvae were found in this study. PMID:17471412

  10. Fecal coliform modeling under two flow scenarios in St. Louis Bay of Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijun; Hashim, Noor B; Kingery, William L; Huddleston, David H

    2010-01-01

    St. Louis Bay, along with its two major tributaries, Wolf River and Jourdan River, are included in the Mississippi 1998 Section 303(d) List for violation of the designated water use of recreation and shellfish harvesting. Fecal coliform was identified as one of the pollutants that caused the water quality impairment. In order to facilitate the total maximum daily loads (TMDL) development, the fecal coliform dynamics was investigated under 2 flow scenarios with a calibrated and validated modeling framework by integration of Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) and Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF). EFDC was used to model the hydrodymics and fecal coliform transportation in the Bay and the tributaries, whereas HSPF was applied to compute the flow and fecal coliform loadings from the watersheds. The total amount of precipitation in the dry year simulation corresponds to a 50-year return period of low flow condition, and a 10-year return period of high flow condition for wet weather simulation. For EFDC modeling, the fecal coliform sources considered were the contributions from the 2 upper watersheds (no tidal influence), the 28 small surrounding watershed, and 12 municipal, industrial, and domestic point sources. When simulating the fecal coliform loadings from the 2 upper watersheds using HSPF, the simulated non-point source loadings of fecal coliform included wildlife, land application of hog and cattle manure, land application of poultry litter, and grazing animals. The EFDC modeling results indicated that the wet weather exerted greater stress on fecal coliform water quality conditions. The number of exceedance of fecal coliform water quality standard in wet year simulation is much higher than that in dry year simulation. The impact of the upper rural watersheds loads on fecal coliform levels in the St. Louis Bay is much less significant than that from the surrounding urban runoff. Fecal coliform TMDL development should be based on high flow

  11. Bovine HEXIM1 inhibits bovine immunodeficiency virus replication through regulating BTat-mediated transactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-yan; Ma, Yong-gang; Gai, Yuan-ming; Liang, Zhi-bin; Ma, Jing; Su, Yang; Zhang, Qi-cheng; Chen, Qi-Min; Tan, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) transactivator (BTat) recruits the bovine cyclin T1 (B-cyclin T1) to the LTR to facilitate the transcription of BIV. Here, we demonstrate that bovine hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)-induced protein 1 (BHEXIM1) inhibits BTat-mediated BIV LTR transcription. The results of in vivo and in vitro assays show direct binding of BHEXIM1 to the B-cyclin T1. These results suggest that the repression arises from BHEXIM1-BTat competition for B-cyclin T1, which all...

  12. Complicaciones personales en pacientes con síndrome de incontinencia fecal Personal complications in patients with fecal incontinence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Dolores Azúa Blanco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida involuntaria de masa fecal, no siendo realmente una patología en sí misma, es a veces, para la persona que la padece, más importante que la situación que la provoca. Róbale el cuerpo y úsalo, es más, róbale también su mente, sus ideas, sus sensaciones, sentimientos y miedos: ¿notas su tensión psíquica al cerrar la puerta de casa? ¿Lloras de rabia y de tristeza al cambiar la ropa manchada? Esto es sólo una milésima parte de lo que ocurre. Imagínate con 70 u 80 años, con un cuerpo cansado y lento, con la mente no muy dispuesta a luchar y con este "problemilla".The involuntary loss of fecal mass, not being really a disease in itself is, at times, to the person who suffers, more important that the situation that provokes. Steal the body and use it, it is more, steal their mind, their thoughts, their sensations, feelings and fears; Do you feel his mental tension when closing the door? Do you cry of anger and sadness when changing stained clothes? This is just a thousandth part of what happens. Imagine at age of 70 or 80, with a tired and slow body, with the mind not very willing to fight and with this "little problem".

  13. Serial Fecal Calprotectin and Lactoferrin Measurements for Early Diagnosis of Pouchitis After Proctocolectomy for Ulcerative Colitis: Is Pouchoscopy No Longer Needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepfer, Alain; Reinisch, Walter

    2015-06-01

    This editorial discusses the role of serial measurements of fecal calprotectin or fecal lactoferrin for the early detection of pouchitis in patients with ulcerative colitis having undergone procto-colectomy with ileo-pouch-anal anastomosis. Furthermore, the role of fecal calprotectin and fecal lactoferrin for the monitoring of pouchitis is highlighted. PMID:26052770

  14. Preparation of prostaglandins from bovine lipid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast reliable method was designed for extraction and purification of prostaglandins from the local lipid which is extracted from bovine milk. The purified extract was about 13.4 mg/gm lipid. The obtained results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that, the extract consisted of more than one type of prostaglandins and the concentration of these types ranged between 250 and more than 263 mg/ml especially of PGF2 α. Although this study was performed using standards and purified extracts bovine lipid, it is highly promising for future application to biological fluids, milk and its derivatives. (authors). 21 refs., 2 figs

  15. Economics of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, K D

    1997-03-01

    A herd infected with bovine leukemia virus suffers a direct economic loss due to clinical lymphosarcoma. A major indirect cost associated with infection is restriction of the sale of animals and germplasma to foreign markets. Reports on the economic effects of infection on production have been variable and are reviewed in this article. In order to develop cost-effective bovine leukemia virus control programs, costs associated with the disease, the cost of prevention, and expected economic returns from a program need to be considered. PMID:9071750

  16. Altered microbiomes in bovine digital dermatitis lesions, and the gut as a pathogen reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zinicola

    Full Text Available Bovine digital dermatitis (DD is the most important infectious disease associated with lameness in cattle worldwide. Since the disease was first described in 1974, a series of Treponema species concurrent with other microbes have been identified in DD lesions, suggesting a polymicrobial etiology. However, the pathogenesis of DD and the source of the causative microbes remain unclear. Here we characterized the microbiomes of healthy skin and skin lesions in dairy cows affected with different stages of DD and investigated the gut microbiome as a potential reservoir for microbes associated with this disease. Discriminant analysis revealed that the microbiomes of healthy skin, active DD lesions (ulcerative and chronic ulcerative and inactive DD lesions (healing and chronic proliferative are completely distinct. Treponema denticola, Treponema maltophilum, Treponema medium, Treponema putidum, Treponema phagedenis and Treponema paraluiscuniculi were all found to be present in greater relative abundance in active DD lesions when compared with healthy skin and inactive DD lesions, and these same Treponema species were nearly ubiquitously present in rumen and fecal microbiomes. The relative abundance of Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus, a bacterium not previously reported in DD lesions, was increased in both active and inactive lesions when compared with healthy skin. In conclusion, our data support the concept that DD is a polymicrobial disease, with active DD lesions having a markedly distinct microbiome dominated by T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. putidum, T. phagedenis and T. paraluiscuniculi. Furthermore, these Treponema species are nearly ubiquitously found in rumen and fecal microbiomes, suggesting that the gut is an important reservoir of microbes involved in DD pathogenesis. Additionally, the bacterium Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus was highly abundant in active and inactive DD lesions.

  17. Detection of multiple virulence-associated genes in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from bovine mastitis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawool, D B; Malik, S V S; Shakuntala, I; Sahare, A M; Barbuddhe, S B

    2007-01-25

    Clinical samples (n=725) were collected from bovines (n=243) which were positive for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT) and somatic cell count (SCC). The clinical samples comprising blood (n=239), milk (n=243), and faecal swabs (n=243) were examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp. Isolation of the pathogen was done using selective enrichment in University of Vermont Medium and plating onto Dominguez-Rodriguez isolation agar. Confirmation of the isolates was based on biochemical tests and Christie, Atkins, Munch-Petersen (CAMP) test followed by pathogenicity testing. Pathogenicity of the isolates was tested by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) assay as well as in vivo tests namely, chick embryo and mice inoculation tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for five virulence-associated genes, plcA, prfA, hlyA, actA and iap. Listeria spp. were isolated from 12 (1.66%) samples. Of these 4 (0.55%) and 1 (0.14%) were confirmed as Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii, respectively. L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii were recovered from milk samples (2) and faecal (3) of mastitic cattle (3) and buffaloes (2). L. monocytogenes recovered from the milk of mastitic cattle and L. ivanovii from the faecal swab of buffalo turned out to be pathogenic. However, the remaining three hemolytic isolates exhibiting positive CAMP test turned out to be negative in PI-PLC assay, chick embryo and mice inoculation. L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii isolates characterized as pathogenic by PI-PLC assay and in vivo pathogenicity tests were found to possess all the five virulence-associated genes and three genes, plcA, prfA and actA respectively. The remaining three hemolytic but non-pathogenic L. monocytogenes isolates were negative for plcA by PCR. It seems that the plcA gene and its expression (in the PI-PLC assay) have an important role as virulence determinants in pathogenic Listeria spp. In conclusion, the PI-PLC assay and

  18. The interaction between bovine herpesvirus type 1 and activated bovine T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, P J; Ohmann, H B; Lawman, M J; Babiuk, L A

    1990-02-01

    The interaction between activated bovine T lymphocytes (BTLs) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) was investigated. BHV-1 infection of BTLs reduced the amplitude of recombinant bovine interleukin 2-induced proliferative responses. This decreased proliferation was caused by a virus-induced lymphocytolysis which was dependent on viable virus and was not inhibited by recombinant bovine interferon-alpha I1. Furthermore, lymphocytolysis was not associated with virus replication or with the synthesis of detectable levels of viral proteins. Electron microscopic examination of virus-infected cells revealed that lymphocytolysis was characterized by early nuclear disintegration resembling apoptosis. These observations suggest that activated T cells, localized at the site of BHV-1 infection, may be susceptible to virus-induced cytolysis. PMID:2155290

  19. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan

    2016-07-01

    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  20. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whey and skimmed milk, and purified. The applicant intends to add bLF to foods for particular nutritional uses, i.e. infant and follow-on formulae, dietary food for special medical purposes, dairy products, yoghurts and yoghurt drinks, and chewing gums. According to the applicant, the high intake estimate for infants would be 1.1 g bLF per day. For adults, the applicant’s calculation estimates a mean and 97.5th percentile intake of 0.6 and 2.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day, respectively, and a mean and 97.5th percentile daily intake of about 45 mg and 150 mg, respectively. The Panel notes that the safety of bLF as a novel food ingredient has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. That evaluation was to a significant extent based on safety data on bLF produced by Morinaga. The Panel also notes that the applicant intends maximum use levels of bLF in foods which are equivalent or lower than those intended by the applicant of the previous Opinion, and that the range of foods to which it is intended to add bLF is smaller. Consequently, the estimated intake levels described for the present application are comparable for infants and lower for all other population groups. The Panel concludes that the novel food ingredient, bLF, is safe under the proposed uses and use levels.

  1. Feeding on copepod fecal pellets: a new trophic role of dinoflagellates as detritivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Moldrup, M.; Berge, T.; Hansen, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    dinoflagellates (3 species) using a combination of classic incubation experiments and video recordings of feeding behavior. Fecal pellets were produced by adult Acartia tonsa feeding on Rhodomonas salina. Two mixotrophic species (Karlodinium armiger, a gymnodinoid dinoflagellate, Gy1) and all heterotrophic......Recent field studies indicate that dinoflagellates are key degraders of copepod fecal pellets. This study is the first to publish direct evidence of pellet grazing by dinoflagellates. Feeding and growth on copepod fecal pellets were studied for both heterotrophic (4 species) and mixotrophic.......3 ml cell−1 d−1 were obtained for G. spirale and P. depressum, respectively. Pellet feeding resulted in average growth rates of 0.69 and 0.08 d−1 with growth yields of 0.58 and 0.50 for G. spirale and P. depressum. Important factors for the grazing impact of the dinoflagellates on fecal pellets in this...

  2. Evaluation of alkali fusion and acid leaching methods for the separation of plutonium in fecal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational radiation workers of Fuel reprocessing and Fuel fabrication facilities are monitored for the assessment of intakes of actinide radionuclides and evaluation of effective dose. The determination of the internally deposited radionuclides is carried out, by in-vivo technique, by analyzing the bioassay materials like urine and feaces. Urine samples are selected for the analysis of soluble (Type M) Pu/U isotopes while fecal samples are analyzed for the determination insoluble Pu/U isotopes (Type S). The strategy involves the analysis of both fecal as well as urine samples for assessing the possible nature of compound. This paper presents the investigation of analytical methods for fecal sample processing. Generally, separation of Pu isotopes in fecal sample is carried out by alkali fusion followed by standard radioanalytical technique

  3. In Vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides and partially methyl esterified/acetylated homogalacturo

  4. Application of fecal calprotectin and myeloperoxidase in evaluation of disease activity of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏明见

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of fecal calprotectin and myeloperoxidase in evaluation of ulcerative colitis(UC) activity.Methods Specimens of serum and feces over the same period were collected from

  5. The dual influences of age and obstetric history on fecal continence in parous women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Eogan, Maeve

    2011-02-01

    To assess whether women who underwent forceps delivery were more likely than those who delivered either normally (spontaneous vaginal delivery [SVD]) or by cesarean to experience deterioration in fecal continence as they aged.

  6. Alterations in fecal microbiota composition by probiotic supplementation in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Bryrup, Thomas; Allin, Kristine H; Nielsen, Trine; Hansen, Tue H; Pedersen, Oluf

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effects of probiotic supplementation on fecal microbiota composition in healthy adults have not been well established. We aimed to provide a systematic review of the potential evidence for an effect of probiotic supplementation on the composition of human fecal microbiota as...... references of relevant papers. Search terms included healthy adult, probiotic, bifidobacterium, lactobacillus, gut microbiota, fecal microbiota, intestinal microbiota, intervention, and (clinical) trial. RCTs of solely probiotic supplementation and placebo in healthy adults that examined alteration in...... methodological quality assessment of reports of the clinical trials based on revised tools from PRISMA/Cochrane and by the Jadad score. RESULTS: Seven RCTs investigating the effect of probiotic supplementation on fecal microbiota in healthy adults were identified and included in the present systematic review...

  7. Transient fecal shedding and limited animal-to-animal transmission of Clostridium difficile by naturally infected finishing feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Palacios, Alexander; Pickworth, Carrie; Loerch, Steve; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2011-05-01

    To longitudinally assess fecal shedding and animal-to-animal transmission of Clostridium difficile among finishing feedlot cattle as a risk for beef carcass contamination, we tested 186 ± 12 steers (mean ± standard deviation; 1,369 samples) in an experimental feedlot facility during the finishing period and at harvest. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 12.9% of steers on arrival (24/186; 0 to 33% among five suppliers). Shedding decreased to undetectable levels a week later (0%; P difficile on arrival, however, had 4.6 times higher odds of receiving antimicrobials for respiratory signs than nonshedders (95% confidence interval for the odds ratio, 1.4 to 14.8; P = 0.01). Neither the toxin genes nor toxin A or B was detected in most (39/42) isolates based on two complementary multiplex PCRs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing, respectively. Two linezolid- and clindamycin-resistant PCR ribotype 078 (tcdA+/tcdB+/cdtB+/39-bp-type deletion in tcdC) isolates were identified from two steers (at arrival and week 20), but these ribotypes did not become endemic. The other toxigenic isolate (tcdA+/tcdB+/cdtB+/classic tcdC; PCR ribotype 078-like) was identified in the cecum of one steer at harvest. Spatio-temporal analysis indicated transient shedding with no evidence of animal-to-animal transmission. The association between C. difficile shedding upon arrival and the subsequent need for antimicrobials for respiratory disease might indicate common predisposing factors. The isolation of toxigenic C. difficile from bovine intestines at harvest highlights the potential for food contamination in meat processing plants. PMID:21441320

  8. Survey on vertical infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from fetal bovine sera in the field

    OpenAIRE

    NAGAYAMA, Kumiko; OGUMA, Keisuke; SENTSUI, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolation and antibody survey were performed using 2,758 fetal bovine sera (FBS) collected from slaughterhouses in New Zealand, Australia and the Dominican Republic, and then sent to Japan to manufacture commercial serum for cell culture use. FBS in the Dominican Republic were pooled for each several individuals, and those collected in other countries were separated according to each individual and subjected to the tests. BVDV was isolated from 25 (0.91%) FB...

  9. Pediatric fecal microbiota harbor diverse and novel antibiotic resistance genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée M Moore

    Full Text Available Emerging antibiotic resistance threatens human health. Gut microbes are an epidemiologically important reservoir of resistance genes (resistome, yet prior studies indicate that the true diversity of gut-associated resistomes has been underestimated. To deeply characterize the pediatric gut-associated resistome, we created metagenomic recombinant libraries in an Escherichia coli host using fecal DNA from 22 healthy infants and children (most without recent antibiotic exposure, and performed functional selections for resistance to 18 antibiotics from eight drug classes. Resistance-conferring DNA fragments were sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000, and reads assembled and annotated with the PARFuMS computational pipeline. Resistance to 14 of the 18 antibiotics was found in stools of infants and children. Recovered genes included chloramphenicol acetyltransferases, drug-resistant dihydrofolate reductases, rRNA methyltransferases, transcriptional regulators, multidrug efflux pumps, and every major class of beta-lactamase, aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme, and tetracycline resistance protein. Many resistance-conferring sequences were mobilizable; some had low identity to any known organism, emphasizing cryptic organisms as potentially important resistance reservoirs. We functionally confirmed three novel resistance genes, including a 16S rRNA methylase conferring aminoglycoside resistance, and two tetracycline-resistance proteins nearly identical to a bifidobacterial MFS transporter (B. longum s. longum JDM301. We provide the first report to our knowledge of resistance to folate-synthesis inhibitors conferred by a predicted Nudix hydrolase (part of the folate synthesis pathway. This functional metagenomic survey of gut-associated resistomes, the largest of its kind to date, demonstrates that fecal resistomes of healthy children are far more diverse than previously suspected, that clinically relevant resistance genes are present even without recent selective

  10. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Zhu

    Full Text Available Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years.Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1 was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ, weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ, and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA.In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR 14.69-419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g. All of the children were divided into three groups, 1-2 years (12-24 months, 2-3 years (24-36 months, 3-4 years (36-48 months, with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g, 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g, 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g, respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1-2 years, 2-3 years and 3-4 years (P = 0.016. In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1-2 years and children aged 3-4 years (P = 0.007. A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005 in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed.Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years, and higher FC concentrations when comparing with children older than 4

  11. Treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile infection using fecal microbiota transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rahul Pathak,1 Hill Ambrose Enuh,1 Anish Patel,1 Prasanna Wickremesinghe21Department of Internal Medicine, New York Medical College, Internal Medicine Program at Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USA; 2Department of Gastrointestinal Medicine, New York Medical College, Internal Medicine Program at Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USABackground: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI has become a global concern over the last decade. In the United States, CDI escalated in incidence from 1996 to 2005 from 31 to 64/100,000. In 2010, there were 500,000 cases of CDI with an estimated mortality up to 20,000 cases a year. The significance of this problem is evident from the hospital costs of over 3 billion dollars annually. Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT was first described in 1958 and since then about 500 cases have been published in literature in various small series and case reports. This procedure has been reported mainly from centers outside of the United States and acceptance of the practice has been difficult. Recently the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA labeled FMT as a biological drug; as a result, guidelines will soon be required to help establish it as a mainstream treatment. More US experience needs to be reported to popularize this procedure here and form guidelines.Method: We did a retrospective review of our series of patients with relapsing CDI who were treated with FMT over a 3-year period. We present our experience with FMT at a community hospital as a retrospective review and describe our procedure.Results: There were a total of 12 patients who underwent FMT for relapsing C. difficile. Only one patient failed to respond and required a second FMT. There were no complications associated with the transplant and all patients had resolution of symptoms within 48 hours of FMT.Conclusion: FMT is a cheap, easily available, effective therapy for recurrent CDI; it can be safely performed in a

  12. Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F.; Velázquez-Tavera, N.; Fargher, L.; Derrien, M.; Noreña-Barroso, E.

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 μg g- 1) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 μg g- 1). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings indicate

  13. Fecal sterols, seasonal variability, and probable sources along the ring of cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcega-Cabrera, F; Velázquez-Tavera, N; Fargher, L; Derrien, M; Noreña-Barroso, E

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development in Yucatan has had a dramatic impact on the environment, especially the water supply. Groundwater is the only source of water in Yucatan, since surface water is virtually absent due to the karstic nature of the soil. The ring of cenotes (RC) is a geological feature which functions as a source of water and as nodes in the underground river system that canalizes water towards the coast. Numerous productive and domestic activities take place around the RC in the absence of wastewater treatment or sewage systems. Consequently, a number of researchers have hypothesized that pollutants could migrate from the land surface to the underlying aquifer and, eventually, to the coast. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among sources of fecal sterols and their levels in cenotes, using the expected levels of fecal sterols obtained by a spatial analysis of the sources and a Pollution Source Index. Accordingly, expected levels are compared with the detected levels of fecal sterols in 5 areas around the RC. Regarding levels, observed during a sampling campaign carried out along the RC during September 2011 (rainy season) and May 2012 (dry season), varied from low to high concentrations of sterols (0.5-2396.42 μg g(-1)) and fecal sterols (0.3-1690.18 μg g(-1)). These concentrations showed no relationship between neighboring cenotes, where similar fecal sterol concentrations or gradients were expected. When comparing expected fecal sterols levels with the detected ones, only two of the five analyzed areas concur, suggesting that no clear relationship exists among sources and fecal sterols levels at the regional scale. Multivariate analysis showed that fecal sterols were associated with sterols and fine grain particulates during the rainy season, which suggests co-transport. During the dry season, fecal sterols associated with fine grain particulate and organic matter, which indicates a change to a deposition phenomenon. These findings

  14. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae : epidemiology and dynamics of fecal carriage

    OpenAIRE

    Titelman, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE) has become a major cause of community acquired urinary tract infection (UTI), and fecal carriage of EPE is emerging worldwide. The aims of this thesis were to study the molecular epidemiology of ESBL-enzymes in Stockholm (I) to evaluate treatment alternatives to the carbapenems for EPE (I-III), and to study the duration of fecal carriage and identify factors associated with prolonged carriage (IV). Paper I describes a consecutive collection of EPE...

  15. Injection of porous polycaprolactone beads containing autologous myoblasts in a dog model of fecal incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sung-Bum; Lee, Hye Seung; Lim, Jae-Young; Oh, Se Heang; Kim, Sang Joon; Hong, Sa-Min; Jang, Je-Ho; Cho, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Sung-Min; Lee, Jin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have examined whether bioengineering can improve fecal incontinence. This study designed to determine whether injection of porous polycaprolactone beads containing autologous myoblasts improves sphincter function in a dog model of fecal incontinence. Methods The anal sphincter of dogs was injured and the dogs were observed without and with (n = 5) the injection of porous polycaprolactone beads containing autologous myoblasts into the site of injury. Autologous myoblasts pu...

  16. The Determination of Fecal Contamination of Strawberry Flavored and Plain Ice Cream Samples Sold In Tekirdag

    OpenAIRE

    F. Coskun

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fecal contamination of strawberry flavored and plain icecream samples sold in Tekirdağ province. In addition, the pH of the samples were determined and the effectof pH on number of microorganisms were investigated. 25 plain and 25 strawberry flavored ice creamsamples were used as research material. Coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, E. coli and fecalstreptococci counts were determined in the ice cream samples. The microbial counts were found...

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Quantitative PCR Assay Targeting Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) Fecal Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Hodon; Lu, Jingrang; Vogel, Jason; Elk, Michael; Chávez-Ramírez, Felipe; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Santo Domingo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    While the microbial water quality in the Platte River is seasonally impacted by excreta from migrating cranes, there are no methods available to study crane fecal contamination. Here we characterized microbial populations in crane feces using phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene fecal clone libraries. Using these sequences, a novel crane quantitative PCR (Crane1) assay was developed, and its applicability as a microbial source tracking (MST) assay was evaluated by determining its host speci...

  18. Nano-architectural Alterations in Mucus Layer Fecal Colonocytes in Field Carcinogenesis: Potential for Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Hemant K. Roy; Damania, Dhwanil P.; DelaCruz, Mart; Kunte, Dhananjay P.; Subramanian, Hariharan; Crawford, Susan E.; Tiwari, Ashish K.; Wali, Ramesh K.; Backman, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Current fecal tests (occult blood, methylation, DNA mutations) target minute amounts of tumor products among a large amount of fecal material and thus have suboptimal performance. Our group has focused on exploiting field carcinogenesis as a modality to amplify the neoplastic signal. Specifically, we have demonstrated that endoscopically normal rectal brushings have striking nano-architectural alterations which are detectable utilizing a novel optical technique, partial wave spectroscopic mic...

  19. Effects of Long Term Antibiotic Therapy on Human Oral and Fecal Viromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira R Abeles

    Full Text Available Viruses are integral members of the human microbiome. Many of the viruses comprising the human virome have been identified as bacteriophage, and little is known about how they respond to perturbations within the human ecosystem. The intimate association of phage with their cellular hosts suggests their communities may change in response to shifts in bacterial community membership. Alterations to human bacterial biota can result in human disease including a reduction in the host's resilience to pathogens. Here we report the ecology of oral and fecal viral communities and their responses to long-term antibiotic therapy in a cohort of human subjects. We found significant differences between the viral communities of each body site with a more heterogeneous fecal virus community compared with viruses in saliva. We measured the relative diversity of viruses, and found that the oral viromes were significantly more diverse than fecal viromes. There were characteristic changes in the membership of oral and fecal bacterial communities in response to antibiotics, but changes in fecal viral communities were less distinguishing. In the oral cavity, an abundance of papillomaviruses found in subjects on antibiotics suggests an association between antibiotics and papillomavirus production. Despite the abundance of papillomaviruses identified, in neither the oral nor the fecal viromes did antibiotic therapy have any significant impact upon overall viral diversity. There was, however, an apparent expansion of the reservoir of genes putatively involved in resistance to numerous classes of antibiotics in fecal viromes that was not paralleled in oral viromes. The emergence of antibiotic resistance in fecal viromes in response to long-term antibiotic therapy in humans suggests that viruses play an important role in the resilience of human microbial communities to antibiotic disturbances.

  20. Differences in fecal particle size between free-ranging and captive individuals of two browser species

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, J.; Fritz, J.; Kienzle, E.; Medici, E P; Lang, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Streich, W J; Clauss, M

    2008-01-01

    Data from captive animals indicated that browsing (BR) ruminants have larger fecal particles-indicative of lesser chewing efficiency-than grazers (GR). To answer whether this reflects fundamental differences between the animal groups, or different reactions of basically similar organisms to diets fed in captivity, we compared mean fecal particle size (MPS) in a GR and a BR ruminant (aurox Bos primigenius taurus, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis) and a GR and a BR hindgut fermenter (Przewalski's...

  1. Diet and Environment Shape Fecal Bacterial Microbiota Composition and Enteric Pathogen Load of Grizzly Bears

    OpenAIRE

    Schwab, Clarissa; Cristescu, Bogdan; Northrup, Joseph M.; Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Gänzle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Diet and environment impact the composition of mammalian intestinal microbiota; dietary or health disturbances trigger alterations in intestinal microbiota composition and render the host susceptible to enteric pathogens. To date no long term monitoring data exist on the fecal microbiota and pathogen load of carnivores either in natural environments or in captivity. This study investigates fecal microbiota composition and the presence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and toxigenic cl...

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis in Fecal Samples from Greenhouse Workers after Exposure to B. thuringiensis-Based Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Gert B.; Larsen, Preben; Jacobsen, Bodil L.; Madsen, Bodil; Smidt, Lasse; Andrup, Lars

    2002-01-01

    In a study of occupational exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis, 20 exposed greenhouse workers were examined for Bacillus cereus-like bacteria in fecal samples and on biomonitoring filters. Bacteria with the following characteristics were isolated from eight individuals: intracellular crystalline inclusions characteristic of B. thuringiensis, genes for and production of B. cereus enterotoxins, and positivity for cry11 as determined by PCR. DNA fingerprints of the fecal isolates were identical t...

  3. Levan Enhances Associated Growth of Bacteroides, Escherichia, Streptococcus and Faecalibacterium in Fecal Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Tomson, Katrin; Talve, Tiina; Pudova, Ksenia; Puurand, Marju; Visnapuu, Triinu; Alamäe, Tiina; Adamberg, Signe

    2015-01-01

    The role of dietary fiber in supporting healthy gut microbiota and overall well-being of the host has been revealed in several studies. Here, we show the effect of a bacterial polyfructan levan on the growth dynamics and metabolism of fecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry. Eleven fecal samples from healthy donors were incubated in phosphate-buffered defined medium with or without levan supplementation and varying presence of amino acids. The generation of heat, change...

  4. The Long-term Clinical Efficacy of Biofeedback Therapy for Patients With Constipation or Fecal Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byoung Hwan; Kim, Nayoung; Kang, Sung-Bum; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Im, Bo Youn; Jee, Jung Hee; Oh, Jane C.; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Dong Ho

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims There has been a controversy regarding the usefulness of biofeedback therapy for functional constipation or fecal incontinence. This study was performed to investigate the long-term clinical efficacy of biofeedback therapy. Methods Sixty-four patients with constipation or fecal incontinence received biofeedback therapy for 4 weeks. Symptom improvements were evaluated immediately after the completion of biofeedback therapy and during the follow-up period of about 12 to 64 month...

  5. Effect of Bifidobacterium lactis LKM 512 yogurt on fecal microflora in middle to old aged persons

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Tadenuma, Tadashi; Nakamura, Kyoko; Kume, Hitoshi; Imai, Tetsuya; Kihara, Ritsuko; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Benno, Yoshimi

    2011-01-01

    Effect of yogurt (LKM512 yogurt) prepared Bifidobacterium lactis LKM 512, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LKM 1759 and Streptococcus thermophilus LKM 1742 on fecal microflora in 11 volunteers (six males and five females, average age 76.9 years) given this yogurt 100 g/day for 2 weeks were determined. At week 2 of consumption, the number of bifidobacteria in the fecal microflora increased significantly (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the frequencies of occurrence of peptostreptococci, veil...

  6. Use of Bacteroidales Microbial Source Tracking To Monitor Fecal Contamination in Fresh Produce Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ravaliya, Kruti; Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Garcia, Santos; Heredia, Norma; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna; Bartz, Faith E.; Leon, Juan S.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, fresh and minimally processed produce items have been associated with an increasing proportion of food-borne illnesses. Most pathogens associated with fresh produce are enteric (fecal) in origin, and contamination can occur anywhere along the farm-to-fork chain. Microbial source tracking (MST) is a tool developed in the environmental microbiology field to identify and quantify the dominant source(s) of fecal contamination. This study investigated the utility of an MST metho...

  7. Fecal calprotectin level correlated with both endoscopic severity and disease extent in ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Kousaku; Ishihara, Shunji; Yuki, Takafumi; Fukuba, Nobuhiko; Oshima, Naoki; Kazumori, Hideaki; Sonoyama, Hiroki; Yamashita, Noritsugu; Tada, Yasumasa; Kusunoki, Ryusaku; Oka, Akihiko; Mishima, Yoshiyuki; Moriyama, Ichiro; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between fecal calprotectin (FC) and disease extent in ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify the correlation of FC with disease extent and severity in UC patients. Methods UC patients scheduled to undergo an ileocolonoscopy were enrolled and fecal samples for FC measurement were collected prior to the procedure. A Mayo endoscopic subscore (MES) was determined for each of 5 colonic segments. To evaluate the associ...

  8. Fecal calprotectin as a biomarker of inflammatory lesions of the small bowel seen by videocapsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Egea-Valenzuela; Fernando Alberca-de-las-Parras; Fernando Carballo-Álvarez

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The levels of calprotectin in the stools are proportional to neutrophil activity in the enteric lumen, so fecal calprotectin is a useful intestinal inflammatory biomarker. It is an extended tool as predictor of colonic pathology but there is scare evidence about its utility in the small bowel. Objective: To test the yield of fecal calprotectin to detect lesions in the small bowel. Material and methods: We have retrospectively included 71 patients sent for small bowel capsule end...

  9. Determining Sources of Fecal Pollution in the Blackwater River Watershed, Franklin County, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Amy Marie

    2001-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) was used to determine sources of fecal pollution in the Blackwater River in South-central Virginia. The Department of Environmental Quality designated six segments as impaired due to high fecal coliform concentrations with non-point source (NPS) agriculture the suspected source of impairment. The Blackwater River watershed encompasses 72,000 ha of dairy, beef, and intensive production agriculture, abundant wildlife populations and many homes with onsite s...

  10. Determining Sources of Fecal Pollution in Water for a Rural Virginia Community

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, Alexandria Kristen

    2000-01-01

    This project involves developing and applying bacterial source tracking (BST) methodology to determine sources of fecal pollution in water for a rural community (Millwood, VA). Antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) is the primary BST method for fecal source identification, followed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for confirmation. Millwood consists of 66 homes, all served by individual septic systems, and a stream (Spout Run) passes through the center of the community. Sp...

  11. Design and evaluation of Bacteroides DNA probes for the specific detection of human fecal pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreader, C A

    1995-01-01

    Because Bacteroides spp. are obligate anaerobes that dominate the human fecal flora, and because some species may live only in the human intestine, these bacteria might be useful to distinguish human from nonhuman sources of fecal pollution. To test this hypothesis, PCR primers specific for 16S rRNA gene sequences of Bacteroides distasonis, B. thetaiotaomicron, and B. vulgatus were designed. Hybridization with species-specific internal probes was used to detect the intended PCR products. Extr...

  12. Microplate Subtractive Hybridization To Enrich for Bacteroidales Genetic Markers for Fecal Source Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, Linda K.; Simonich, Michael T.; Field, Katharine G.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to identify sources of fecal pollution plays a key role in the analysis of human health risk and the implementation of water resource management strategies. One approach to this problem involves the identification of bacterial lineages or gene sequences that are found exclusively in a particular host species or group. We used subtractive hybridization to enrich for target host-specific fecal Bacteroidales rRNA gene fragments that were different from those of very closely related r...

  13. Determination of ovarian cyclicity and pregnancy using fecal progesterone in forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Hua; Liu, Shu-Qiang; Yang, Shuang; Zhang, Tian-Xiang; Wei, Yu-Ting; Zhou, Jun-Tong; Hu, De-Fu; Li, Lin-Hai

    2016-07-01

    The forest musk deer (FMD, Moschus berezovskii) is a threatened species in China. Although crucial for its artificial breeding management and thus protection, to date, gonadal steroidogenic activity data are unavailable in this species. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to characterize ovarian activity throughout the estrous cycle, non-pregnant luteal phase, and gestation in female FMD. These goals were accomplished using an enzyme immunoassay to measure fecal concentrations of estradiol (E2) and progesterone. Fecal samples were collected from female FMD (aged 3-4 years) for one year, including during breeding and non-breeding seasons. Non-pregnant estrous cycles were recorded in females, based on fecal progesterone concentrations, their overall estrous cycle length was (mean±SEM) 24.3±0.5 days, with 21.6±0.5 days in the luteal phase and 2.7±0.3 days in the inter-luteal phase. Fecal progesterone and E2 concentrations were also measured in females that became pregnant and gave birth after gestating approximately 6 months. Two weeks after becoming pregnant, the average fecal progesterone concentration was significantly greater than that during non-pregnancy. The average fecal progesterone concentrations during pregnancy increased 3.2-fold above non-pregnant concentrations, decreasing to non-pregnant concentrations only after parturition. By contrast, average fecal E2 concentrations during gestation and after parturition were not different from average non-pregnant concentration. In addition, no difference was observed between progesterone concentration in the first month after pregnancy and the value during the luteal phase. However, progesterone concentration during the second month of pregnancy was significantly higher than the value during the luteal phase. In conclusion, monitoring fecal progesterone is an effective method for assessing ovarian function in FMD and will be a useful tool for breeding management and development of assisted

  14. DNA Hybridization of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Uteri and Fecal Samples of Bitches with Pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    SANCAK, Aziz Arda

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common bacterium that has been isolated from the bacterial culture of uterine and fecal samples of dogs with pyometra. The aim of the present study was to determine whether this organism could be relevant to the pathogenesis of pyometra in dogs. Fecal and uterine samples were collected from 17 bitches with pyometra. E. coli strains were isolated in all samples. Representative colonies of E. coli from each sample were analyzed for pathogenicity determinants by h...

  15. Ape Conservation Physiology: Fecal Glucocorticoid Responses in Wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following Human Visitation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P Muehlenbein; Marc Ancrenaz; Rosman Sakong; Laurentius Ambu; Sean Prall; Grace Fuller; Mary Ann Raghanti

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism can generate important revenue to support conservation of biodiversity. However, constant exposure to tourists and subsequent chronic activation of stress responses can produce pathological effects, including impaired cognition, growth, reproduction, and immunity in the same animals we are interested in protecting. Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans)...

  16. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  17. Detection and identification of the atypical bovine pestiviruses in commercial foetal bovine serum batches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Xia

    Full Text Available The recently emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses have been detected in commercial foetal bovine serum (FBS of mainly South American origin so far. It is unclear how widely the viruses are presented in commercial FBS of different geographic origins. To further investigate the possible pestivirus contamination of commercially available FBS batches, 33 batches of FBS were obtained from ten suppliers and analysed in this study for the presence of both the recognised and the atypical bovine pestiviruses. All 33 batches of FBS were positive by real-time RT-PCR assays for at least one species of bovine pestiviruses. According to the certificate of analysis that the suppliers claimed for each batch of FBS, BVDV-1 was detected in all 11 countries and BVDV-2 was detected exclusively in the America Continent. The atypical pestiviruses were detected in 13 batches claimed to originate from five countries. Analysis of partial 5'UTR sequences showed a high similarity among these atypical bovine pestiviruses. This study has demonstrated, for the first time that commercial FBS batches of different geographic origins are contaminated not only with the recognised species BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, but also with the emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses.

  18. Effect of Fermented Chlorella Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, Fecal Microbial and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Growing Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, L.; Lim, S. U.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 96 growing pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc; BW = 26.58±1.41 kg) were used in a 6-wk feeding trail to evaluate the effects of fermented chlorella (FC) supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, fecal microbial and fecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts) per treatment. Dietary treatments were: i) negative control (NC), basal diet (wit...

  19. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  20. A physical map of the bovine genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential geneti...

  1. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  2. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  3. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

  4. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-[14C]palmitate to 14CO2 and total [14C]acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO2 and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 μM). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 μM and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine

  5. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  6. An unusual presentation of enzootic bovine leukosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sparling, A M

    2000-01-01

    A 6-year-old, Holstein x Simmental cow diagnosed with pyelonephritis had increasing difficulty rising and became recumbent, despite treatment with antibiotics. A serological test for the bovine leukemia virus was positive; at necropsy, the left kidney and ureter and the myocardium showed lesions of lymphosarcoma, confirmed by histology.

  7. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  8. Comparative serological response in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; van den Hurk, Jan V.; McCartney, Duane; Harland, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to compare the serological responses in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and/or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Calves given IBRV, P13V, BRSV, and BVDV vaccines had significantly higher antibodies to these viruses than unvaccinated controls; however, serological responses to killed BVDV vaccines were low. Calves with preexisting an...

  9. Synergistic effects of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage functions.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, L.; Lehmkuhl, H D; Kaeberle, M L

    1999-01-01

    The effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) infection on selected bovine alveolar macrophage (AM) functions was investigated. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from 2- to 6-month-old calves seronegative for BRSV and BVDV and inoculated with approximately 1 median cell culture infective dose of virus per AM. Control, BRSV infected, ncpBVDV-infected and BRSV-ncpBVDV coinfected AM cultures were evaluated for Fc receptor expre...

  10. The relationship between the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease and titer changes to bovine coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in 3 Ontario feedlots.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, A; Martin, S W; Nagy, E.; Menzies, P; Harland, R

    2001-01-01

    Serological evidence of previous viral exposure (titer at arrival) and current viral exposure (titer increase) during a 28-day study period, was used to determine if bovine coronavirus (BCV) or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was associated with the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease (UBRD) in feedlot calves. Neutralizing antibody titers to BCV and BVDV were determined for 852 animals from 3 Ontario feedlots. Calves at 2 of the 3 feedlots (n = 753) received a modifie...

  11. Investigation of Bovine Viral Diarrheae Virus, Bovine Herpesvirus 1, and Bovine Leukosis Virus infections in a dairy cattle herd with abortion problem

    OpenAIRE

    Avcı, Oğuzhan; Yavru, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, Bovine Herpesvirus 1 and Bovine Leukosis Virus infections in a dairy cattle herd with abortion problem in Çankırı. A total of 172 serum and 172 leukocytes samples were collected from unvaccinated Holstein cows for mentioned infections in 2010. All sampled animals were over 3 years. While the serum samples were analysed by commercially available indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), leukocyte samples...

  12. Evaluation of a novel real-time PCR test based on the ssrA gene for the identification of group B streptococci in vaginal swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Thomas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the implementation of prevention guidelines, early-onset group B streptococci (GBS disease remains a cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Strategies to identify women who are at risk of transmitting GBS to their infant and the administration of intrapartum antibiotics have greatly reduced the incidence of neonatal GBS disease. However, there is a requirement for a rapid diagnostic test for GBS that can be carried out in a labour ward setting especially for women whose GBS colonisation status is unknown at the time of delivery. We report the design and evaluation of a real-time PCR test (RiboSEQ GBS test for the identification of GBS in vaginal swabs from pregnant women. Methods The qualitative real-time PCR RiboSEQ GBS test was designed based on the bacterial ssrA gene and incorporates a competitive internal standard control. The analytical sensitivity of the test was established using crude lysate extracted from serial dilutions of overnight GBS culture using the IDI Lysis kit. Specificity studies were performed using DNA prepared from a panel of GBS strains, related streptococci and other species found in the genital tract environment. The RiboSEQ GBS test was evaluated on 159 vaginal swabs from pregnant women and compared with the GeneOhm™ StrepB Assay and culture for the identification of GBS. Results The RiboSEQ GBS test is specific and has an analytical sensitivity of 1-10 cell equivalents. The RiboSEQ GBS test was 96.4% sensitive and 95.8% specific compared to "gold standard" culture for the identification of GBS in vaginal swabs from pregnant women. In this study, the RiboSEQ GBS test performed slightly better than the commercial BD GeneOhm™ StrepB Assay which gave a sensitivity of 94.6% and a specificity of 89.6% compared to culture. Conclusion The RiboSEQ GBS test is a valuable method for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of GBS in pregnant women. This study also validates the

  13. Evaluation of a novel real-time PCR test based on the ssrA gene for the identification of group B streptococci in vaginal swabs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wernecke, Martina

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the implementation of prevention guidelines, early-onset group B streptococci (GBS) disease remains a cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Strategies to identify women who are at risk of transmitting GBS to their infant and the administration of intrapartum antibiotics have greatly reduced the incidence of neonatal GBS disease. However, there is a requirement for a rapid diagnostic test for GBS that can be carried out in a labour ward setting especially for women whose GBS colonisation status is unknown at the time of delivery. We report the design and evaluation of a real-time PCR test (RiboSEQ GBS test) for the identification of GBS in vaginal swabs from pregnant women. METHODS: The qualitative real-time PCR RiboSEQ GBS test was designed based on the bacterial ssrA gene and incorporates a competitive internal standard control. The analytical sensitivity of the test was established using crude lysate extracted from serial dilutions of overnight GBS culture using the IDI Lysis kit. Specificity studies were performed using DNA prepared from a panel of GBS strains, related streptococci and other species found in the genital tract environment. The RiboSEQ GBS test was evaluated on 159 vaginal swabs from pregnant women and compared with the GeneOhm StrepB Assay and culture for the identification of GBS. RESULTS: The RiboSEQ GBS test is specific and has an analytical sensitivity of 1-10 cell equivalents. The RiboSEQ GBS test was 96.4% sensitive and 95.8% specific compared to "gold standard" culture for the identification of GBS in vaginal swabs from pregnant women. In this study, the RiboSEQ GBS test performed slightly better than the commercial BD GeneOhm StrepB Assay which gave a sensitivity of 94.6% and a specificity of 89.6% compared to culture. CONCLUSION: The RiboSEQ GBS test is a valuable method for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of GBS in pregnant women. This study also validates the ssrA gene as a suitable and

  14. Linkage mapping bovine EST-based SNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Gary L

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing linkage maps of the bovine genome primarily contain anonymous microsatellite markers. These maps have proved valuable for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL to broad regions of the genome, but more closely spaced markers are needed to fine-map QTL, and markers associated with genes and annotated sequence are needed to identify genes and sequence variation that may explain QTL. Results Bovine expressed sequence tag (EST and bacterial artificial chromosome (BACsequence data were used to develop 918 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to map genes on the bovine linkage map. DNA of sires from the MARC reference population was used to detect SNPs, and progeny and mates of heterozygous sires were genotyped. Chromosome assignments for 861 SNPs were determined by twopoint analysis, and positions for 735 SNPs were established by multipoint analyses. Linkage maps of bovine autosomes with these SNPs represent 4585 markers in 2475 positions spanning 3058 cM . Markers include 3612 microsatellites, 913 SNPs and 60 other markers. Mean separation between marker positions is 1.2 cM. New SNP markers appear in 511 positions, with mean separation of 4.7 cM. Multi-allelic markers, mostly microsatellites, had a mean (maximum of 216 (366 informative meioses, and a mean 3-lod confidence interval of 3.6 cM Bi-allelic markers, including SNP and other marker types, had a mean (maximum of 55 (191 informative meioses, and were placed within a mean 8.5 cM 3-lod confidence interval. Homologous human sequences were identified for 1159 markers, including 582 newly developed and mapped SNP. Conclusion Addition of these EST- and BAC-based SNPs to the bovine linkage map not only increases marker density, but provides connections to gene-rich physical maps, including annotated human sequence. The map provides a resource for fine-mapping quantitative trait loci and identification of positional candidate genes, and can be integrated with other

  15. Identification, quantification and treatment of fecal odors released into the air at two wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yubin; Hallis, Samantha A; Vitko, Tadeo; Suffet, Irwin H Mel

    2016-09-15

    Odorous emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are an annoyance for neighboring communities. This article, for the first time, quantitatively reports on an evaluation of the presence of fecal odorants identified in air samples from two exemplary WWTPs by the odor profile method (OPM) and chemical analysis. The fecal odorants indole and skatole were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The odor threshold concentration of skatole was determined to be 0.327 ng/L (60 pptV) in Teflon Bags by an expert panel. Skatole was found to be the primary chemical leading to fecal odor, due to its odor concentration to odor threshold concentration ratio that ranged from 2.8 to 22.5. The Weber-Fechner law was followed by pure skatole, but was not applicable when there was a mixture of fecal odorants and other odorant types present in WWTP air emission samples. This is probably caused by antagonism with other odorant types. Several existing odor control treatment methods for fecal odorants were evaluated at different wastewater treatment operations at two WWTPs by the OPM and chemical analysis for indole and skatole. Chemical scrubbing and biofiltration performed best in removing fecal odors among current control technologies. PMID:27235805

  16. (1)H NMR Spectroscopy of Fecal Extracts Enables Detection of Advanced Colorectal Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Aurelien; Dona, Anthony C; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Tournigand, Christophe; Baumgaertner, Isabelle; Lebaleur, Yann; Sobhani, Iradj; Holmes, Elaine

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing cause of mortality in developing countries, warranting investigation into its etiopathogenesis and earlier diagnosis. Here, we investigated the fecal metabolic phenotype of patients with advanced colorectal neoplasia and controls using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate modeling. The fecal microbiota composition was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR as well as Wif-1 methylation levels in stools, serum, and urine and correlated to the metabolic profile of each patient. The predictivity of the model was 0.507 (Q(2)Y), and the explained variance was 0.755 (R(2)Y). Patients with advanced colorectal neoplasia demonstrated increased fecal concentrations of four short-chain fatty acids (valerate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) and decreased signals relating to β-glucose, glutamine, and glutamate. The predictive accuracy of the multivariate (1)H NMR model was higher than that of the guaiac-fecal occult blood test and the Wif-1 methylation test for predicting advanced colorectal neoplasia. Correlation analysis between fecal metabolites and bacterial profiles revealed strong associations between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Clostridium leptum species with short-chain fatty acids concentration and inverse correlation between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and glucose. These preliminary results suggest that fecal metabonomics may potentially have a future role in a noninvasive colorectal screening program and may contribute to our understanding of the role of these dysregulated molecules in the cross-talk between the host and its bacterial microbiota. PMID:26211820

  17. Evaluation and Improved Use of Fecal Occult Blood Test in the Constipated Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilway, Denise M

    2016-01-01

    This quality improvement project examined the use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child in a pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic. A retrospective chart review was completed on 100 children seen for an initial visit with the gastroenterology provider. The number of fecal occult blood tests performed and the child's coinciding symptoms were tallied and compared with the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations. An educational intervention was held with the pediatric gastroenterology providers consisting of a PowerPoint presentation summarizing aims of the quality improvement project and reviewing recommendations for use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child. Pre- and post-intervention chart review data sets were compared. Results showed a 19.6% decrease in the use of fecal occult blood tests performed during the post-intervention timeframe. However, when used in conjunction with North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations, the appropriateness of fecal occult blood test use increased by 71.4% in the post-intervention patients. Reviewing the recommendations with gastroenterology providers assisted in optimizing the meaningful use of fecal occult blood test, improving quality and safety of care for children seen in the pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic. PMID:27070795

  18. Temporary Fecal Diversion in the Management of Colorectal and Perianal Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Mennigen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the results of temporary fecal diversion in colorectal and perianal Crohn’s disease. Method. We retrospectively identified 29 consecutive patients (14 females, 15 males; median age: 30.0 years, range: 18–76 undergoing temporary fecal diversion for colorectal (n=14, ileal (n=4, and/or perianal Crohn’s disease (n=22. Follow-up was in median 33.0 (3–103 months. Response to fecal diversion, rate of stoma reversal, and relapse rate after stoma reversal were recorded. Results. The response to temporary fecal diversion was complete remission in 4/29 (13.8%, partial remission in 12/29 (41.4%, no change in 7/29 (24.1%, and progress in 6/29 (20.7%. Stoma reversal was performed in 19 out of 25 patients (76% available for follow-up. Of these, the majority (15/19, 78.9% needed further surgical therapies for a relapse of the same pathology previously leading to temporary fecal diversion, including colorectal resections (10/19, 52.6% and creation of a definitive stoma (7/19, 36.8%. At the end of follow-up, only 4/25 patients (16% had a stable course without the need for further definitive surgery. Conclusion. Temporary fecal diversion can induce remission in otherwise refractory colorectal or perianal Crohn’s disease, but the chance of enduring remission after stoma reversal is low.

  19. Fecal calprotectin as a biomarker of inflammatory lesions of the small bowel seen by videocapsule endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Egea-Valenzuela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The levels of calprotectin in the stools are proportional to neutrophil activity in the enteric lumen, so fecal calprotectin is a useful intestinal inflammatory biomarker. It is an extended tool as predictor of colonic pathology but there is scare evidence about its utility in the small bowel. Objective: To test the yield of fecal calprotectin to detect lesions in the small bowel. Material and methods: We have retrospectively included 71 patients sent for small bowel capsule endoscopy in study for suspected inflammatory bowel disease. All of them had a determination of fecal calprotectin and had been sent to colonoscopy with no findings. Patients have been divided in groups: A, fecal calprotectin 100 µg/g, and we have analyzed which of them presented inflammatory lesions in capsule endoscopy studies. Results: The rate of patients with signi ficative lesions was 1 out of 10 (10% in group A, 6 out of 24 (25% in group B, and 21 out of 34 (62% in group C. If we consider levels over 50 µg/g pathologic, fecal calprotectin presents sensitivity: 96%, specificity: 23%, NPV: 90% and PPV: 56%. If we consider levels over 100 µg/g pathologic these values are sensitivity: 75%, specificity: 67%, NPV: 79% and PPV: 62%. Conclusions: Fecal calprotectin has high sensitivity but not so good specificity for predicting small bowel lesions after a normal colonoscopy. In daily practice it will be more useful to establish in 100 µg/g the limit to indicate capsule endoscopy studies.

  20. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters. PMID:26769702

  1. Assessing Transmission of Salmonella to Bovine Peripheral Lymph Nodes upon Horn Fly Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Brown, Tyson R; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J; Loneragan, Guy H; Edrington, Thomas S

    2016-07-01

    Biting arthropods are implicated in the transdermal transmission of Salmonella to bovine peripheral lymph nodes, and such contamination can contribute to increased Salmonella prevalence in processed beef. Since horn flies can acquire Salmonella and then excrete the bacteria in their feces, on-animal fly infestations were conducted in this study to assess whether horn flies have a role in this bacterial transmission. Three Salmonella serotypes were used to assess fly acquisition from and excretion onto cattle. The results indicated that flies can acquire Salmonella from the hide, as assessed by recovery from homogenates of surfacesterilized flies, and that Salmonella persists for at least 5 days in the fly. Fly fecal excreta serves as a bacterial contaminant on the hide, and the overall mean probable estimate of the quantity shed was ≈10(5) most probable number per fly cage area. In 5 days, no transmission of the bacteria to bovine peripheral lymph nodes was evident, prompting an assessment of the effects of prolonged horn fly feeding on transmission. Three groups of animals were infested with flies that had consumed a blood meal containing Salmonella Senftenberg. After 5 days, the study was either terminated or the flies were removed and the cages replenished with unfed flies either once or twice over the course of an 11- or 19-day fly exposure period, respectively. A microlancet-inoculated positive-control animal was included in each group for comparison. The impact of prolonged horn fly feeding was evident, as 8% of lymph nodes cultured were positive from the 5-day exposure, whereas 50 and 42% were positive from 11- and 19-day exposures, respectively. Higher concentrations of Salmonella were recovered from fly-infested animals than from the microlancet-inoculated control, likely a result of repeated inoculations over time by flies versus a single introduction. The data described provide new insights into the transmission dynamics of Salmonella in cattle

  2. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for the Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Krishna; Safdar, Nasia

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile, a major cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea due to perturbation of the normal gastrointestinal microbiome, is responsible for significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expenditures. The incidence and severity of C. difficile infection (CDI) is increasing and recurrent disease is common. Recurrent infection can be difficult to manage with conventional antibiotic therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which involves instillation of stool from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of the patient, restores the gut microbiome to a healthy state. FMT has emerged as a promising new treatment for CDI. There are limited data on FMT for treatment of primary CDI, but FMT appears safe and effective for recurrent CDI. The safety and efficacy of FMT in patients with severe primary or recurrent CDI has not been established. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who undergo FMT for CDI may be at increased risk of IBD flare and caution should be exercised with use of FMT in that population. The long-term safety of FMT is unknown; thus, rigorously conducted prospective studies are needed. PMID:26344412

  3. Distribution of Fecal Indicator Bacteria along the Malibu, California, Coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John

    2011-01-01

    Each year, over 550 million people visit California's public beaches. To protect beach-goers from exposure to waterborne disease, California state law requires water-quality monitoring for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as enterococci and Escherichia coli (E. coli), at beaches having more than 50,000 yearly visitors. FIB are used to assess the microbiological quality of water because, although not typically disease causing, they are correlated with the occurrence of certain waterborne diseases. Tests show that FIB concentrations occasionally exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) public health standards for recreational water in Malibu Lagoon and at several Malibu beaches (Regional Water Quality Control Board, 2009). Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) California Water Science Center are doing a study to identify the distribution and sources of FIB in coastal Malibu waters (fig. 1). The study methods were similar to those used in a study of FIB contamination on beaches in the Santa Barbara, California, area (Izbicki and others, 2009). This report describes the study approach and presents preliminary results used to evaluate the distribution and source of FIB in the Malibu area. Results of this study will help decision-makers address human health issues associated with FIB contamination in Malibu, and the methods used in this study can be used in other coastal areas affected by FIB contamination.

  4. Fecal Calprotectin and Clinical Disease Activity in Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Turner, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore fecal calprotectin levels in pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) in relation with the validated clinical activity index PUCAI. Methods. This study included all 37 children (median age 14 years) with UC who had calprotectin measured (PhiCal ELISA Test) by the time of PUCAI assessment at the Children's Hospital of Helsinki in a total of 62 visits. Calprotectin values 1000 μg/g). The best cut-off value for calprotectin for predicting poor outcome was 800 μg/g (sensitivity 73%, specificity 72%; area under the ROC curve being 0.71 (95%CI 0.57–0.85)) and for the PUCAI best cut-off values >10 (sensitivity 62%, specificity 64%; area under the ROC curve 0.714 (95%CI 0.58–0.85)). Conclusion. The clinical relevance of somewhat elevated calprotectin during clinical remission in pediatric UC is not known and, until further evidence accumulates, does not indicate therapy escalation. PMID:23533791

  5. Diagnostic Value of Fecal Calprotectin in Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Hamed; Barzin, Gilda; Yousefinia, Mahsa; Mohammadkhani, Ashraf; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Amir Houshang; Tayebi, Sirous; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ansari, Reza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation limited to the mucosal layer of the colon. Calprotectin is a zinc and calcium binding protein derived from neutrophils and monocytes. It is easily detectable in tissue samples, body fluids, and stools, which makes it a potentially valuable marker of inflammation. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the value of fecal calprotectin (FC) as a marker of disease activity in patients with UC. METHODS Seventy three eligible subjects underwent ileocolonoscopy and multiple biopsies were obtained from different parts of the colon and terminal ileum. All patients underwent blood and stool sampling as well as an interview to assess the disease severity utilizing ulcerative colitis activity index (UCAI), subjectively. The diagnostic value of the FC in comparison with Mayo disease activity index as the gold standard technique, was then evaluated. RESULTS Mean FC level increased linearly according to Mayo disease activity index (r=0.44, p 21.4 ng/ml was able to discriminate between active and inactive phases of UC according to Mayo disease activity index>2 with 72.3% sensitivity and 73.1% specificity. The combination of FC > 21.4 ng/ml and UCAI score of 7 had a 46.8% sensitivity and 88% specificity to diagnose Mayo disease activity index >2. Furthermore, FC level 2. PMID:24829673

  6. Can chronic gastritis cause an increase in fecal calprotectin concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalto, Massimo; Gallo, Antonella; Ianiro, Gianluca; Santoro, Luca; D’Onofrio, Ferruccio; Ricci, Riccardo; Cammarota, Giovanni; Covino, Marcello; Vastola, Monica; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate fecal calprotectin concentrations (FCCs) in subjects with chronic gastritis and the correlation between FCCs and gastritis activity score. METHODS: FCCs were measured in 61 patients with histological diagnosis of gastritis and in 74 healthy volunteers. Histological grading of gastritis was performed according to the updated Sydney gastritis classification. Patients were subdivided into 2 groups according to the presence/absence of an active gastritis. Patients with chronic active gastritis were divided into 3 subgroups on the basis of the activity score (mild, moderate, marked). FFCs in relation to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were also evaluated. RESULTS: FCCs in patients with chronic active gastritis were not significantly different to FCCs either in subjects with non active gastritis or in healthy controls. Among patients with chronic active gastritis (even marked), FCCs did not significantly differ according to activity score. No significant differences in FCCs were found when considering H. pylori, as well as when considering PPI chronic use. CONCLUSION: FCCs were not significantly increased in subjects with chronic gastritis, even in those patients with a marked neutrophil infiltration. PMID:20632443

  7. Trametes versicolor extract modifies human fecal microbiota composition in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhuo-Teng; Liu, Bo; Mukherjee, Purna; Newburg, David S

    2013-06-01

    Trametes versicolor is a mushroom used as a traditional Chinese medicine (Yun-zhi) for a wide array of seemingly disparate conditions. We hypothesized that many of its multiple purported activities could be mediated through stimulation of beneficial mutualist components of the microbiota. Human fecal microbiota was cultured anaerobically to determine its ability to ferment a common extract of T. versicolor, designated polysaccharide peptide (PSP), and the ability of PSP to alter the composition of the microbial community. The presence of PSP and fructooligosaccharides (FOS, a common prebiotic) in the medium, but not cellulose, significantly increased levels of Bifidobacterium spp. PSP also elevated Lactobacillus spp., while reducing Clostridium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Levels of Streptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp. and Escherichia did not significantly change. Fermentation of PSP increased the concentration of organic acids (lactate and short-chain fatty acids), decreased the pH, and induced β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. The genera of the human microbiota that are promoted by FOS and other prebiotics are also stimulated by the Trametes versicolor extract, PSP. Thus, Trametes versicolor, a common East Asian botanical, contains putative prebiotic agents that alter human gut microbiota and pH. This prebiotic-like activity may help explain some of the plethora of the health benefits attributed to this traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23435630

  8. Optimized methods for total nucleic acid extraction and quantification of the bat white-nose syndrome fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, from swab and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L; Bohuski, Elizabeth A; Lorch, Jeffery M; Blehert, David S

    2016-03-01

    The continued spread of white-nose syndrome and its impacts on hibernating bat populations across North America has prompted nationwide surveillance efforts and the need for high-throughput, noninvasive diagnostic tools. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis has been increasingly used for detection of the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in both bat- and environment-associated samples and provides a tool for quantification of fungal DNA useful for research and monitoring purposes. However, precise quantification of nucleic acid from P. destructans is dependent on effective and standardized methods for extracting nucleic acid from various relevant sample types. We describe optimized methodologies for extracting fungal nucleic acids from sediment, guano, and swab-based samples using commercial kits together with a combination of chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical modifications. Additionally, we define modifications to a previously published intergenic spacer-based qPCR test for P. destructans to refine quantification capabilities of this assay. PMID:26965231

  9. Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Kabell, Susanne; Kusk, M.; Zhang, M.F.; Jorgensen, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection...... of a suitable internal control gene, real time PCR parameters were evaluated for three candidate genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 28S rRNA and beta-actin to IBDVs. Based on this P-actin was selected as an internal control for quantification of IBDVs in BF. All BF samples with...... primers. The method described here is robust and may sever as a useful tool with high capacity for diagnostics as well as in viral pathogenesis studies....

  10. Viral load of equine herpesviruses 2 and 5 in nasal swabs of actively racing Standardbred trotters: Temporal relationship of shedding to clinical findings and poor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Helena; Ullman, Karin; Treiberg Berndtsson, Louise; Riihimäki, Miia; Penell, Johanna; Ståhl, Karl; Valarcher, Jean-François; Pringle, John

    2015-09-30

    The equine gamma herpesviruses 2 and 5 (EHV-2 and -5) have frequently been observed in the equine population and until recently presumed low to nonpathogenic. However, recent reports linking presence of equine gamma herpesviruses with clinical signs of mild to severe lung disease, suggest that the role of these viruses in respiratory disease and poor performance syndrome is still unclear. Moreover, baseline data regarding the temporal pattern of shedding of EHV-2 and EHV-5 within stables and within individual actively racing horses have been lacking. In a prospective longitudinal study, we followed elite racing Standardbred trotters at monthly intervals for 13 months, to investigate whether the amount of EHV-2 and EHV-5 shedded in nasal secretions varied over time within and between individual horses. Sixty-six elite horses were investigated by analyzing nasal swabs and serum samples, a health check and evaluation of athletic performance monthly during the study period. Nasal swabs were analyzed with two newly developed qPCR assays for EHV-2 and EHV-5, respectively. Of 663 samples, 197 (30%) were positive for EHV-2 and 492 (74%) positive for EHV-5. Furthermore, 176 (27%) of the samples were positive for both EHV-2 and EHV-5 simultaneously. There was considerable variation in the amount and frequency of shedding of EHV-2 and EHV-5 within and between individual horses. Viral load varied seasonally, but neither EHV-2 nor EHV-5 viral peaks were associated with clinical respiratory disease and/or poor performance in racing Standardbred trotters. PMID:26093774

  11. The detection and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Shigella isolates from meat and swab samples at butchers' shops in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Legesse; Hagos, Zenabu; Zegeye, Bidir; Addis, Zelalem

    2016-01-01

    Food borne pathogens are major causes of deaths, illnesses and billions of dollars of expenses. The burden of food borne illness is worsened by the ever increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance microbes. Shigella, a bacterial pathogen associated with food, is reported to account for higher prevalence rates of food borne illness in different settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 10 to June 30, 2013, at the butcher houses of Gondar town in the Northwest of Ethiopia to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella. Cattle raw meat and swab samples from selected critical control points, including knives, chopping boards, and the hands and noses of butchers, were collected and analyzed. The identification of Shigella was carried out using colony characteristics, the Gram reaction, and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The overall hygienic status of the butcher shops was also assessed using a checklist. An observational analysis revealed that the sanitary condition of the butcher shops and their premises was poor. Of 306 samples screened, 10.5% were positive for Shigella. Approximately 7.4% of meat samples and 10.2% of swab samples were contaminated with Shigella. Out of the total Shigella isolates, 90.6%, 46.9%, 18.8% and 9.4% were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone and tetracycline, respectively. A multidrug resistance pattern was recorded in 27.8% of the isolates. In conclusion, the safety of meat sold at Gondar butchers houses was poor. The identified Shigella isolates showed high levels of drug resistance and multidrug resistance patterns for commonly used antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine. Practicing wise use of antimicrobials and strict sanitary interventions at different critical control points is strongly recommended, in addition to further in-depth studies to prevent unprecedented consequences from

  12. Bile acids and pH values in total feces and in fecal water from habitually omnivorous and vegetarian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Faassen, A; Hazen, M J; van den Brandt, P A; van den Bogaard, A E; Hermus, R J; Janknegt, R A

    1993-12-01

    Twenty habitually omnivorous subjects and 19 habitually lactoovovegetarian subjects aged 59-65 y collected feces during 4 consecutive days. The concentrations of bile acids in total feces did not differ between the omnivores and vegetarians, but the bile acid concentrations in fecal water were significantly lower in the vegetarians. The concentration of the colorectal cancer-predicting bile acid deoxycholic acid in fecal water was explained by the intake of saturated fat and the daily fecal wet weight (r2 = 0.50). Fecal pH did not differ between the omnivores and vegetarians. This variable was significantly (P vegetarians. In conclusion, our vegetarian subjects had a lower concentration of deoxycholic acid in fecal water, higher fecal wet weight, and higher defecation frequency than the omnivorous subjects. PMID:8249879

  13. Fecal Microbial Composition of Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease Patients in Remission and Subsequent Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar S Wills; Jonkers, Daisy M. A. E.; Paul H Savelkoul; Masclee, Ad A.; Pierik, Marieke J.; John Penders

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited studies have examined the intestinal microbiota composition in relation to changes in disease course of IBD over time. We aimed to study prospectively the fecal microbiota in IBD patients developing an exacerbation during follow-up. DESIGN: Fecal samples from 10 Crohn's disease (CD) and 9 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients during remission and subsequent exacerbation were included. Active disease was determined by colonoscopy and/or fecal calprotectine levels. Exclusion crit...

  14. Longitudinal Poisson Regression To Evaluate the Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Coastal California Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Jennifer N.; Daniels, Miles E.; Watson, Fred G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Oates, Stori C.; Miller, Melissa A.; Hardin, Dane; Byrne, Barbara A.; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A.

    2012-01-01

    Fecal pathogen contamination of watersheds worldwide is increasingly recognized, and natural wetlands may have an important role in mitigating fecal pathogen pollution flowing downstream. Given that waterborne protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are transported within surface waters, this study evaluated associations between fecal protozoa and various wetland-specific and environmental risk factors. This study focused on three distinct coastal California wetlands: (i) a tidally inf...

  15. Evaluation and Performance of Rapid Methods for Identifying and Tracking Sources of Fecal Pollution in Coastal Watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Thulsiraj, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Fecal contamination of coastal waters is known to degrade the environment and poses a health risk to recreational beach users. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are used around the world to assess water quality and characterize fecal contamination. Elevated levels of FIB have been linked to health risks in epidemiological studies. However, some limitations exist with this indicator. FIB cannot be used to identify the specific sources as they originate from both human and animal sources. FIB may ...

  16. Fecal calprotectin levels are higher in rural than in urban Chinese infants and negatively associated with growth

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Jin-Rong; Sheng Xiao-Yang; Hu Yan-Qi; Yu Xiao-Gang; Westcott Jamie E; Miller Leland V; Krebs Nancy F; Hambidge K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Fecal calprotectin (FC) is an established simple biomarker of gut inflammation. To examine a possible relationship between linear growth and gut inflammation, we compared fecal calprotectin levels in 6 month old infants from poor rural vs affluent urban families. Methods The project was a cross-sectional comparison of FC from rural and urban populations in China. The relationship between length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) and FC concentrations were also compared. Single fecal sa...

  17. Detection of Human-Derived Fecal Pollution in Environmental Waters by Use of a PCR-Based Human Polyomavirus Assay▿

    OpenAIRE

    McQuaig, Shannon M.; Troy M. Scott; Harwood, Valerie J.; Farrah, Samuel R.; Lukasik, Jerzy O.

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory agencies mandate the use of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli or Enterococcus spp., as microbial indicators of recreational water quality. These indicators of fecal pollution do not identify the specific sources of pollution and at times underestimate health risks associated with recreational water use. This study proposes the use of human polyomaviruses (HPyVs), which are widespread among human populations, as indicators of human fecal pollution. A method was developed to concentr...

  18. Monitoring and Modeling Non-Point Source Contributions of Host-Specific Fecal Contamination in San Pablo Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Wuertz, Stefan; Bombardelli, Fabian A; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Wang, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Fecal contamination from non-point sources in coastal and estuarine water bodies is a problem of increasing concern. Water monitoring alone is sometimes insufficient in providing a clear picture of the fecal contamination of a water body. Well-formulated and developed mathematical and numerical transport models, on the contrary, predict continuous concentrations of microbial indicators under diverse scenarios of interest, and they can quantify fecal source contributions on a land use basis (h...

  19. Comparison of methods and animal models commonly used for investigation of fecal microbiota: Effects of time, host and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Nørrung, Birgit; Saadbye, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    specific pathogen free (SPF). or human flora associated (HFA). A higher variation (p <0.05) in fecal microbiota over time was observed for HFA than for SPF animals. Analysis of DGGE and T-RFLP profiles of fecal microbiota from SPF and HFA rats revealed that variation over time was less significant than...... variation between individuals, and that phylogenetic profiles clustered according to gender. These observations should be taken into account when designing future research addressing changes in fecal microbiota....

  20. Factors contributing to fecal incontinence in older people and outcome of routine management in home, hospital and nursing home settings

    OpenAIRE

    Akpan, Asangaedem; Gosney, Margot A; Barrett, James

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Fecal loading, cognitive impairment, loose stools, functional disability, comorbidity and anorectal incontinence are recognized as factors contributing to loss of fecal continence in older adults. The objective of this project was to assess the relative distribution of these factors in a variety of settings along with the outcome of usual management. Methods: One hundred and twenty adults aged 65 years and over with fecal incontinence recruited by convenience sampling from four dif...

  1. Quantifying the sensitivity of scent detection dogs to identify fecal contamination on raw produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Melissa L; Bond, Ronald F; Farrar, Jeff; Falco, Andy; Cassens, Barbara; Cruse, Alonza; Atwill, Edward R

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of raw produce commodities has been associated with foodborne outbreaks in the United States. In a recent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report outlining the incidence of food-related outbreaks from 1998 to 2008, produce of all kinds were implicated in 46% of illnesses and 23% of deaths. Methods that quickly identify fecal contamination of foods, including produce, will allow prioritization of samples for testing during investigations and perhaps decrease the time required to identify specific brands or lots. We conducted a series of trials to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of scent detection dogs to accurately identify fecal contamination on raw agricultural commodities (romaine lettuce, spinach, cilantro, and roma tomatoes). Both indirect and direct methods of detection were evaluated. For the indirect detection method, two dogs were trained to detect contamination on gauze pads previously exposed to produce contaminated with feces. For the direct detection method, two dogs were trained to identify fecal contamination on fresh produce. The indirect method did not result in acceptable levels of sensitivity except for the highest levels of fecal contamination (25 g of feces). Each dog had more difficulty detecting fecal contamination on cilantro and spinach than on roma tomatoes. For the direct detection method, the dogs exhibited >75% sensitivity for detecting ≥0.25 g of feces on leafy greens (cilantro, romaine lettuce, and spinach) and roma tomatoes, with sensitivity declining as the amount of feces dropped below 0.025 g. We determined that use of a scent detection dog to screen samples for testing can increase the probability of detecting ≥0.025 g of fecal contamination by 500 to 3,000% when samples with fecal contamination are rare (≤1%). PMID:24405993

  2. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, S.K.; Duris, J.W.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Focazio, M.J.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with genes (indicating varying animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  3. Fecal calprotectin in systemic sclerosis and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I; Leroi, A-M; Menard, J-F; Levesque, H; Quillard, M; Ducrotte, P

    2015-06-01

    Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a simple, non-invasive and reproducible test, which has been described to be highly elevated in patients with active inflammatory bowel diseases. Recently, few authors have reported increased levels of FC in SSc patients, although the relationship between FC levels and the degree of gastrointestinal involvement has not yet been determined in patients with SSc. Thus, this prospective study aimed to: 1) determine the prevalence of increased fecal calprotectin (FC) levels in unselected patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc); 2) make prediction about which SSc patients exhibit increased levels of FC; and 3) evaluate the correlation between increased levels of FC and digestive symptoms, and gastrointestinal involvement, including the presence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) using glucose H2/CH4 breath test. 125 consecutive patients with SSc underwent FC levels and glucose H2/CH4 breath test. All of the patients with SSc also completed a questionnaire on digestive symptoms, and a global symptom score (GSS) was calculated. 93 (74.4%) patients had abnormal levels of FC (>50 μg/g); 68 patients (54.4%) exhibited highly elevated levels of FC (>200 μg/g). A marked correlation was found between abnormal FC levels and GSS score of digestive symptoms, esophageal involvement and delayed gastric emptying. Moreover, we found a strong association between abnormal levels of FC and the presence of SIBO on glucose H2/CH4 breath test, with the higher correlation between the presence of SIBO and the level of FC ≥275 μg/g with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.97 ± 0.001 (CI: 0.93-0.99; p<10(-6)); the sensitivity of FC level ≥275 μg/g for predicting SIBO was as high as 0.93, while the specificity was 0.95. Finally, eradication of SIBO was obtained in 52.4% of the SSc patients with a significant improvement of intestinal symptoms. Finally, after 3 months of rotating courses of alternative antibiotic therapy

  4. The Role of Fecal Calprotectin in Investigating Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ünal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fecal calprotectin (FCP can be found in high concentrations in inflammatory bowel disease due to the increase in leucocyte turnover in intestinal wall or increase of migration of neutrophils into the lumen. In this study, we aimed to determine the FCP values of the ulcerative colitis (UC patients at the time of diagnosis and to investigate the applicability and effectiveness of this non-invasive method in the diagnosis of the disease, routinely.Materials and Methods: A total of 19 patients with UC (10 females, 9 males, age: 11.5±3.5 years old whoose stool samples collected during the diagnosis period and 20 healthy controls (10 female, 10 male, age: 10.3±4.5 years old were included in the study. Stool samples were collected for FCP analysis by ELISA method at the time of diagnosis and before the treatment period.Results: FCP values of the UC group were statistically higher than the control group. FCP values of the UC and control groups were 398.4 µg/gr stool (56.7-2450 and 19.4 µg/gr stool (2-81, respectively (p0.05. High CRP values (89.4%, elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (84.2%, leukocytosis (73.6%, thrombocytosis (68.4%, anemia (89.4%, and hypoalbuminemia (52.6% were found.Conclusions: FCP values of the UC patients were found to be statistically higher than the control group, and increase in FCP values has been observed with increasing disease activity. Therefore, we believe that the determination of FCP could be useful at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up of the patients with UC. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2012; 10: 80-4

  5. Strategies to Improve Repeat Fecal Occult Blood Testing Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terry C.; Arnold, Connie L.; Bennett, Charles L.; Wolf, Michael S.; Reynolds, Cristalyn; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Background A comparative effectiveness intervention by this team improved initial fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) rates from 3% to 53% among community clinic patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and costs associated with a literacy-informed intervention on repeat FOBT testing. Methods Between 2008 and 2011, a three-arm quasi-experiential comparative effectiveness evaluation was conducted in 8 community clinics in Louisiana. Clinics were randomly assigned to receive: enhanced care, a screening recommendation and FOBT kit annually; a brief educational intervention where patients additionally received a literacy appropriate pamphlet and simplified FOBT instructions; or nurse support where a nurse manager provided the education and followed up with phone support. In year 2 all materials were mailed. The study consisted of 461 patients, ages 50–85, with a negative initial FOBT. Results Repeat FOBT rates were 38% enhanced care, 33% education, and 59% with nurse support (p=0.017). After adjusting for age, race, gender, and literacy, patients receiving nurse support were 1.46 times more likely to complete repeat FOBT screening than those receiving education (95% CI 1.14–1.06, p=0.002) and 1.45 times more likely than those in enhanced care but this was not significant (95% CI 0.93–2.26 p=0.10). The incremental cost per additional person screened was $2,450 for nurse over enhanced care. Conclusion A mailed pamphlet and FOBT with simplified instructions did not improve annual screening. Impact Telephone outreach by a nurse manager was effective in improving rates of repeat FOBT yet this may be too costly for community clinics. PMID:24192009

  6. Molecular and antigenic characterization of bovine Coronavirus circulating in Argentinean cattle during 1994-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, M; Miño, S; Rodriguez, D; Badaracco, A; Nuñes, I; Souza, S P; Bilbao, G; Louge Uriarte, E; Galarza, R; Vega, C; Odeon, A; Saif, L J; Parreño, V

    2015-12-31

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is an important viral pathogen associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. Our aim was to investigate the incidence of BCoV in diarrhea outbreaks in beef and dairy herds from Argentina during 1994-2010. A total of 5.365 fecal samples from diarrheic calves were screened for BCoV diagnosis by ELISA. The virus was detected in 1.71% (92/5365) of the samples corresponding to 5.95% (63/1058) of the diarrhea cases in 239 beef and 324 dairy farms. The detection rate of BCoV was significantly higher in dairy than in beef herds: 12.13% (29/239) vs. 4.32% (14/324) respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the hypervariable S1 region of seven representative samples (from different husbandry systems, farm locations and years of sampling) indicated that BCoV strains circulating in Argentinean beef and dairy herds formed a cluster distinct from other geographical regions. Interestingly, Argentinean strains are distantly related (at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels) with the Mebus historic reference BCoV strain included in the vaccines currently available in Argentina. However, Mebus-induced antibodies were capable of neutralizing the BCoV Arg95, a field strain adapted to grow in vitro, and vice versa, indicating that both strains belong to the same CoV serotype reported in cattle. This work represents the first large survey describing BCoV circulation in Argentinean cattle. PMID:26520931

  7. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Suresh R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. Description The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. Conclusion We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.

  8. Hypoallergenic formula with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG for babies with colic: A pilot study of recruitment, retention, and fecal biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Fatheree, Nicole Y; Liu, Yuying; Ferris, Michael; Van Arsdall, Melissa; McMurtry, Valarie; Zozaya, Marcela; Cai, Chunyan; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Vu, Ta; Wong, Christine; Min, Juleen; Tran, Dat. Q.; Navarro, Fernando; Gleason, Wallace

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate recruitment, retention, and estimates for effects of formula supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on inflammatory biomarkers and fecal microbial community in infants with colic.

  9. Bovine Mastitis Associated with Prototheca blaschkeae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Sara; Silva, Eliane; Kraft, Christine; Carvalheira, Júlio; Videira, Arnaldo; Huss, Volker A. R.; Thompson, Gertrude

    2008-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important and complex disease responsible for economic losses in the dairy industry. Biotype II strains of the green alga Prototheca zopfii can be involved, most often resulting in chronic mastitis of difficult treatment associated with reduced milk production. This type of infection is rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing worldwide. In order to determine the kind of species involved in mastitis by Prototheca in northwest Portugal, 41 Prototheca isolates ...

  10. CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS BOVINE SOMATOTROPIN

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Harry M.; Scherer, Clifford W.; Barbano, David M.

    1992-01-01

    This article investigates the possible negative effects of bovine somatotropin (bST) and antibiotic use in cows on fluid-milk consumption in New York State. Based on data from a consumer survey, the potential change in milk consumption due to bST and antibiotic use is estimated. In addition, the current perceptions of consumers about bST and antibiotics are measured, and the significant socioeconomic, demographic, and attitudinal characteristics of consumers that are related to their milk-con...

  11. Dynamics of perinatal bovine leukemia virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Alvarez, Irene; Merlini, Ramiro; Rondelli, Flavia; Trono, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Argentina. As prevention of the spread from infected animals is of primary importance in breaking the cycle of BLV transmission, it is important to know the pathophysiology of BLV infection in young animals, as they are the main source of animal movement. In this work, we determined the proviral load and antibody titers of infected newborn calves from birth to first parturition (36 months). Results All calve...

  12. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation of...... by a range of proteases. The generation of protein-derived radicals also results in an enhancement of photobleaching of the porphyrin, suggesting that protein radical generation is linked to porphyrin photooxidation....

  13. Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Ploegaert, T.C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk Mastitis or udder inflammation is one of the most important health problems of dairy cattle. Resistance against mastitis and many other diseases is partly based on the naturally present disease resistance capacity: innate immunity. This research therefore aimed to identify adequate immune parameters and determine their relation with the susceptibility of the individual animal for mastitis and possibly also other health problems. Natural antibod...

  14. Antihelmintic Resistance For Gastrointestinal Bovine Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Torres Vásquez; Germán Alonso Prada Sanmiguel; Dildo Márquez Lara

    2007-01-01

    The gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), in domestic animals, especially in bovines are a very important factor that affects their productivity, because cattle production systems have intervened in the relationship between gastrointestinal parasites (PGI) and the host, breaking therefore the ecological balance between them. In many opportunities the development of parasitic populations have been favored or a parasitic population have been led to extinction, it has made that these populations exp...

  15. Radioimmunoassay of bovine leukosis virus antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A RIA method was developed for identifying the presence of serum antibodies to the bovine leukosis virus. The chosen procedure uses the ability of the virus antigen to bind to the solid phase of a polystyrene carrier. The method was compared with the ELISA method and with the pseudoneutralization and immunodiffusion tests. A high level of agreement was achieved between the RIA and the ELISA methods (95%). By its accuracy the RIA method proves superior to the immunodiffusion test. (author)

  16. Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1 detection in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Mohamed Elhassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to observe the infection pattern of Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1 in dairy cattle with reproductive problems in Sudan. A total of 140 samples comprising of vaginal swab (n=97, placenta (n=15, whole blood (n=19, uterine fluid (n=1, and serum (n=8 were collected from 16 dairy herds showing particularly high rate of abortion and infertility in Khartoum State. The samples were used for virus isolation, and were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. No virus could be isolated from the samples inoculated for isolation in cell culture. Out of 80 specimens tested by ELISA, 7 (8.75% were found to be positive, and one sample was doubtful. Using PCR, 11 (10.7% out of 103 samples were found to be positive. When comparing between two methods for DNA extraction, the DNA extracted by commercial kit was found to be better in quality as compared to the DNA extracted using phenol/chloroform/isoamyl-alcohol method. The study confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 in cattle farms with reproductive problems in Sudan.

  17. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble and whey proteins (soluble. Caseins (αS1, αS2, β, and κ are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides.

  18. Potential anticarcinogenic peptides from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Giacomo; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Mastrocinque, Raffaella; Stusio, Paola; Campiglia, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    BOVINE MILK POSSESSES A PROTEIN SYSTEM CONSTITUTED BY TWO MAJOR FAMILIES OF PROTEINS: caseins (insoluble) and whey proteins (soluble). Caseins ( α S1, α S2, β , and κ ) are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β -lactoglobulin, α -lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides. PMID:23533710

  19. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  20. A clinical comparison of purified bovine and purified porcine insulins.

    OpenAIRE

    Olczak, S A; Greenwood, R H

    1985-01-01

    Twenty four patients with established insulin dependent diabetes treated with twice daily soluble and isophane bovine insulins were changed to equivalent doses of either purified bovine Neusulin and Neuphane (Wellcome) or purified porcine Actrapid and Monotard (Novo) insulins. After 6 months treatment the porcine group showed a 35% fall in insulin binding antibodies and a 14% reduction in insulin dosage. The group changed to purified bovine insulins showed no significant change in insulin bin...