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Sample records for bovine derived materials

  1. Identification of bovine material in porcine spray-dried blood derivatives using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique

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    Sánchez A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the widely supported theory of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE spread in cattle by contaminated animal feeds, screening of feed products has become essential. For many years, manufacturers have used blood and plasma proteins as high quality ingredients of foods for both pets and farm animals. However, in Europe, the Commission Regulation 1234/2003/EC temporally bans the use of processed animal proteins, including blood-derivative products, in feedstuffs for all farm animals which are fattened or bred for the production of food. This regulation has some exceptions, such as the use of non ruminant blood products into the feed of farm fish. Authorization of the re-introduction of these proteins into animal feed formulations, especially non ruminant proteins into the feed for non ruminant farm animals, is expected when adequate control methods to discriminate ruminant proteins exist. Currently, the number of validated methods to differentiate the species of origin for most of the animal by-products is limited. Here we report the development of a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assay, which allows detection of bovine or porcine specific mitochondrial DNAfrom spray-dried blood derivate products (plasma, whole blood and red cells, as a marker for bovine contamination in porcine products. Sample extracts, suitable for PCR, were easily and quickly obtained with the commercial PrepManTM Ultra reagent (Applied Biosystems. To confirm the porcine origin of the samples, primers targeting a specific region of 134 bp of the porcine cytochrome b coding sequence were designed (cytbporc1-F and cytbporc2-R. Previously published PCR primers (L8129 and H8357, specific for a 271 bp fragment of the bovine mitochondrial ATPase 8-ATPase 6 genes, were chosen to accomplish amplification of bovine DNA. The limit of detection (LOD of the bovine PCR assay was at least of 0.05% (v/v of bovine inclusion in spray-dried porcine plasma or red

  2. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  3. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  4. Immunohistochemical studies of scrapie archival material from Irish ARQ/ARQ sheep for evidence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy-derived disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, A.; McElroy, M.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Bassett, H.; O'Donoghue, A.M.; Sweeney, T.

    2005-01-01

    Since scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep are clinicopathologically indistinguishable, BSE in sheep may have been misdiagnosed as scrapie. Disease-specific prion protein (PrPd) patterns in archival tissues of 38 Irish ARQ/ARQ sheep diagnosed as scrapie-affected were compared

  5. 动物产品中猪源性和牛源性成分双重荧光PCR检测方法的建立%Identification of Swine-derived and Bovine-derived Materials in Animal Products by Multiplex Fluorescent PCR Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冉

    2012-01-01

    [Objective ] To develop a multiplex fluorescent PCR assay method to detect swine-derived and bovine-derived materials in animal products. [ Method ] Two pairs of specific primers and two fluorescent-labled probes were designed and synthesized according to mitochondrial DNA gene sequences. The multiplex fluorescent PCR reaction system was established through the optimized screening of reaction system and reaction conditions, and swine-derived and bovine-derived materials in animal products were detected in the same fluorescent PCR reaction system. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were evaluated. [ Result ] The method successfully detected swine-derived and bovine-derived materials from 16 animals. Swine-derived and bovine-derived materials could obtain responsible S-type amplification curve, while there was no amplification curve from the other 14 animals. The detection limits of the assay for swine and bovine were either up to 10^-5, which was consistent with that of single-weight fluorescent PCR assay method. [Conclusion ] The multiplex fluorescent PCR developed in the study has strong specificity and good sensitivity, so it is suitable for the detection of swine-derived and bovine-derived materials in feed, meat products, milk products, etc..%[目的]建立双重荧光PCR法,检测动物产品中猪、牛源性成分。[方法]分别针对猪、牛线粒体DNA(mitochondrial DNA,mtDNA)种间保守基因,设计特异性引物与探针,通过对反应体系和反应条件的优化筛选,建立了双重荧光PCR方法,在同一个荧光PCR反应中完成2种动物源性成分的检测。并对该方法的特异性、敏感性进行评估。[结果]对16种不同的动物DNA进行检测.仅猪、牛源性成分收集到相应的典型的S型扩增曲线,对猪、牛二联模板的检测,可同时收集到相应模板的扩增曲线.其余14种动物源性成分未发现扩增曲线。双重荧光PCR对猪肉、牛肉模

  6. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material

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    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  7. Establishment of multiplex fluorescent PCR assay for the detection of bovine,goat and sheep- derived materials in animal products and feeding stuffs%动物产品及饲料中牛源和羊源性成分三重荧光PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冉; 蔡振鸿; 陈永锋

    2012-01-01

    为鉴定和区分饲料及动物产品中牛、山羊、绵羊源性成分,根据线粒体DNA(mitochondrial DNA,mtDNA)种间保守序列,设计合成了3对特异性引物与TaqMan探针,通过对荧光PCR反应体系和反应条件的优化筛选,建立了三重荧光PCR方法,在同一个荧光PCR反应中完成3种动物源性成分的检测.用该方法对16种不同源性的动物DNA进行检测,结果表明能特异地鉴别检测出牛、山羊和绵羊源性成分,且敏感性比现行国标PCR法高100倍.该方法适用于饲料、肉制品、奶制品等动物源性产品的检测.%In this study, a multiplex fluorescent PCR assay capable of detecting and differentiating bovine, goat and sheep-derived materials was developed using specific primers and TaqMan probes designed according to mitochondrial DNA gene sequences. The multiplex fluorescent PCR reaction system was optimized. The developed method could successfully detect bovine, goat and sheep-derived materials of 16 animals. The result showed that the real-time PCR can work accurately and efficiently, and can be 100 times as sensitive as conventional PCR of GB/T 20190-2006. Therefore, this method has the potential application for detection of bovine, goat and sheep-derived materials in feed, meat products, milk products, etc.

  8. Microarray analysis of embryo-derived bovine pluripotent cells: The vulnerable state of bovine embryonic stem cells

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    Kim, Daehwan; Jung, Yeon-Gil

    2017-01-01

    Although there are many studies about pluripotent stem cells, little is known about pluripotent pathways and the difficulties of maintaining the pluripotency of bovine cells in vitro. Here, we investigated differently expressed genes (DEG) in bovine embryo-derived stem-like cells (eSLCs) from various origins to validate their distinct characteristics of pluripotency and differentiation. We identified core pluripotency markers and additional markers which were not determined as pluripotency markers yet in bovine eSLCs. Using the KEGG database, TGFβ, WNT, and LIF signaling were related to the maintenance of pluripotency. In contrast, some DEGs related to the LIF pathway were down-regulated, suggesting that reactivation of the pathway may be required for the establishment of true bovine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Interestingly, oncogenes were co-down-regulated, while tumor suppressor genes were co-up-regulated in eSLCs, implying that this pattern may induce abnormal teratomas. These data analyses of signaling pathways provide essential information on authentic ESCs in addition to providing evidence for pluripotency in bovine eSLCs. PMID:28257460

  9. A comparative evaluation of bovine-derived xenograft (Bio-Oss Collagen) and type I collagen membrane (Bio-Gide) with bovine-derived xenograft (Bio-Oss Collagen) and fibrin fibronectin sealing system (TISSEEL) in the treatment of intrabony defects: A clinico-radiographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Palachur, Deepthi; K V Prabhakara Rao; Murthy, K. Raja V.; Kishore, D. Trinath; Reddy, M. Narendra; Bhupathi, Anitha

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of bovine-derived xenograft (Bio-Oss Collagen) and Type I collagen membrane (Bio-Gide) with bovine-derived xenograft (Bio-Oss Collagen) and fibrin fibronectin sealing system (TISSEEL) in the treatment of periodontal infrabony defects. Materials and Methods: Fourteen healthy patients in the age range of 20 to 60 years, showing bilateral or contralateral infrabony defects were selected. The defects were assigned ra...

  10. Physical and mechanical properties of cross-linked type I collagen scaffolds derived from bovine, porcine, and ovine tendons.

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    Ghodbane, Salim A; Dunn, Michael G

    2016-11-01

    Collagen scaffolds are often utilized in tissue engineering applications where their performance depends on physical and mechanical properties. This study investigated the effects of collagen source (bovine, porcine, and ovine tendon) on properties of collagen sponge scaffolds cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Scaffolds were tested for tensile and compressive properties, stability (resistance to enzymatic degradation), pore size, and swelling ratio. No significant differences in tensile modulus were observed, but ovine scaffolds had significantly greater ultimate strain, stress, and toughness relative to bovine and porcine scaffolds. No significant differences in compressive properties, pore size, or swelling ratio were observed as a function of collagen source. Ovine scaffolds were more resistant to collagenase degradation compared to bovine samples, which were more resistant than porcine scaffolds. In comparison to bovine scaffolds, ovine scaffolds performed equivalently or superiorly in all evaluations, and porcine scaffolds were equivalent in all properties except enzymatic stability. These results suggest that collagen sponges derived from bovine, porcine, and ovine tendon have similar physical and mechanical properties, and are all potentially suitable materials for various tissue engineering applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2685-2692, 2016.

  11. Microscopy and image analysis based approaches for the species-specific identification of bovine and swine bone containing material

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    Matteo Ottoboni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of image analysis measurements in combination with the official analytical method for the detection of constituents of animal origin in feedstuffs, in distinguishing between bovine and swine (bone containing material. Authentic samples of controlled origin containing bovine or swine meat and bone meals were analysed by the microscopic method, in accordance with the official analytical method. Sediment fractions of each sample were observed with a compound microscope at X40. A total of 362 bone fragment lacunae images were recorded and processed through image analysis software, deriving 30 geometric variables for each lacuna. Results indicated that not only were most variables significantly (P<0.001 different between bovine and swine samples, but also that two thirds of the same variables were bigger in bovine than in swine. This information, however, does not seem to be so effective in practice since bovine and swine features and measurements overlapped. It can be concluded that the microscopic method even when combined with image analysis does not fit all the requirements for accurately identifying prohibited ingredients of animal origin. A combined approach with other methods is therefore recommended.

  12. Enhanced adipogenic differentiation of bovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

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    Until now, the isolation and characterization of bovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bBM-MSCs) have not been established, which prompted us to optimize the differentiation protocol for bBM-MSCs. In this study, bBM-MSCs were freshly isolated from three 6-month-old cattle and used for p...

  13. Bovine milk-derived exosomes for drug delivery.

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    Munagala, Radha; Aqil, Farrukh; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2016-02-01

    Exosomes are biological nanovesicles that are involved in cell-cell communication via the functionally-active cargo (such as miRNA, mRNA, DNA and proteins). Because of their nanosize, exosomes are explored as nanodevices for the development of new therapeutic applications. However, bulk, safe and cost-effective production of exosomes is not available. Here, we show that bovine milk can serve as a scalable source of exosomes that can act as a carrier for chemotherapeutic/chemopreventive agents. Drug-loaded exosomes showed significantly higher efficacy compared to free drug in cell culture studies and against lung tumor xenografts in vivo. Moreover, tumor targeting ligands such as folate increased cancer-cell targeting of the exosomes resulting in enhanced tumor reduction. Milk exosomes exhibited cross-species tolerance with no adverse immune and inflammatory response. Thus, we show the versatility of milk exosomes with respect to the cargo it can carry and ability to achieve tumor targetability. This is the first report to identify a biocompatible and cost-effective means of exosomes to enhance oral bioavailability, improve efficacy and safety of drugs.

  14. Assessment of Neutralising Activity of Colostrum-Derived, Polyclonal, Bovine Antibodies: Use of the J774A.1 Anthrax Lethal Toxin Cytototoxity Assay

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    2005-12-01

    Assessment of Neutralising Activity of Colostrum - Derived, Polyclonal, Bovine Antibodies: Use of the J774A.1 Anthrax Lethal Toxin...activity of colostrum -derived, polyclonal, bovine antibodies. Antibodies against lethal factor and protective antigen were found to protect...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE Assessment of Neutralising Activity of Colostrum - Derived, Polyclonal, Bovine Antibodies: Use of the J774A.1

  15. Binding of benzodiazepine drugs to bovine serum albumin: A second derivative spectrophotometric study

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    Omran, Ahmed A.; El-Sayed, Abdel-Aziz; Shehata, Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The binding constants ( K values) of three benzodiazepine drugs to bovine serum albumin were determined by a second derivative spectrophotometric method. Despite the sample and reference samples were prepared in the same way to maintain the same albumin content in each sample and reference pair, the absorption spectra show that the baseline compensation was incomplete because of the strong background signals caused by bovine serum albumin. Accordingly, further quantitative spectral information could not be obtained from these absorption spectra. On the other hand, the calculated second derivative spectra clearly show isosbestic points indicating the complete removal of the residual background signal effects. Using the derivative intensity differences (Δ D values) of the studied benzodiazepine drugs before and after the addition of albumin, the binding constants were calculated and obtained with R.S.D. of less than 8%. The interactions of drugs with bovine serum albumin were investigated using Scatchard's plot. In addition, the consistency between the fractions of bound benzodiazepine calculated from the obtained K values and the experimental values were established. The results indicate that the second derivative method can be advantageously applicable to the determination of binding constants of drugs to serum albumin without prior separation. Moreover, the validity of the proposed method was confirmed.

  16. [Latin American regional reference materials for porcine heparin and bovine heparin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertengo, M E; Cinto, R O; Araldi, H T; Vernengo, M J

    1990-02-01

    In agreement with the Regional Programme of Reference Materials of the Panamerican Health Organization the Instituto Nacional de Farmacología y Bromatología of Buenos Aires designed a study for the calibration of a Reference Material for Heparin, porcine, mucosal and a Reference Material for Heparin, bovine, mucosal. The assay methods used in this study were those described in the United States Pharmacopeia XXI Ed and British Pharmacopoeia 1980, Addendum 1983. The overall combined potency estimates of both heparin in preparations relative to 4th Int.St. was 1633.83 UI/ampoule (95% confidence limits 1609.70-1657.96 UI/ampoule) for porcine heparin and 1332.31 UI/ampoule (95% confidence limits, 1302.31-1361.77 UI/ampoule) for bovine heparin. The assigned unitage was 1630 UI/ampoule for the porcine Reference Material and 1330 UI/ampoule for the bovine Reference Material.

  17. Derivation and Characterization of Bovine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Transposon-Mediated Reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    Talluri, Thirumala R.; Kumar, Dharmendra; Glage, Silke; Garrels, Wiebke; Ivics, Zoltan; Debowski, Katharina; Behr, Rüdiger; Niemann, Heiner; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a seminal breakthrough in stem cell research and are promising tools for advanced regenerative therapies in humans and reproductive biotechnology in farm animals. iPSCs are particularly valuable in species in which authentic embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines are yet not available. Here, we describe a nonviral method for the derivation of bovine iPSCs employing Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) transposon systems encoding different combinations of ...

  18. Comparative study of bovine and porcine derived materials in hydrolysate samples by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and general PCR%实时荧光定量PCR和常规PCR检测肝水解肽样品中牛、猪源性成分的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余燕; 何素婷; 王自强; 邓锋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR with general PCR in detecting bovine and porcine derived materials in hydrolysate samples.Methods DNA were extracted from hydrolysate samples which prepared by different steps by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and general PCR.Results DNA of bovine and porcine could be detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and general PCR in samples prepared in the processes before enzymolysis solution, but not detected in samples from supermatant to the fourth ultrafiltrate.Conclusion Both real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and general PCR can be applied to detect the fragments in hydrolysate samples.And real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR has the advantage such as rapid,convenient, non-environment-polluted, good repeatability, which improves the quality and efficiency.%目的:对比实时荧光定量PCR与常规PCR检测肝水解肽样品中牛、猪源性成分的有效性。方法对牛、猪源性肝水解肽样品肝脏至上清液工艺段样品进行DNA提取,采用实时荧光定量PCR和常规PCR同时检测样品中的DNA。结果实时荧光定量PCR和常规PCR在猪源、牛源肝水解肽从肝脏到酶解液的各工艺步骤段样品中,均检测到动物源性DNA,在上清液至超滤液四中,均未检测出动物源性DNA。结论两种方法均可用在检测肝水解肽样品中牛、猪源性成分。实时荧光定量PCR同时还具有快速、简便、不污染环境、重复性好的特点,可明显提高工作质量及效率。

  19. In vitro inhibition of bovine enamel demineralization by enamel matrix derivative.

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    Ran, Jin Mei; Ieong, Cheng Cheng; Xiang, Chen Yang; Lv, Xue Ping; Xue, Jing; Zhou, Xue Dong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Ling Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) affects the demineralization of bovine enamel in vitro and to assess the agent's anti-caries potential. Bovine enamel blocks were prepared and randomly divided into three groups (n = 15 per group), which were treated with distilled water (negative control), NaF (positive control), or Emdogain. All three groups were pH-cycled 12 times over 6 days. The percentage of surface enamel microhardness reduction (%SMHR), calcium demineralization rate (CDR), surface roughness, lesion depth and mineral loss after demineralization were examined. Surface morphology of specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The Emdogain and positive control groups showed similar surface roughness, lesion depths and mineral loss, which were significantly lower than those in the negative control group. In addition, the enamel surfaces of both the Emdogain and NaF groups showed much narrower intercrystalline spaces than the surfaces of the negative control group, which exhibited extensive microfractures along the crystal edges. %SMHR differed significantly among all three groups, with the smallest value in the Emdogain group and the greatest in the negative control group. These results indicate that enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) can significantly inhibit demineralization of bovine enamel in vitro, suggesting that it has potential as an anti-caries agent.

  20. Genomic DNA methylation patterns in bovine preimplantation embryos derived from in vitro fertilization

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    HOU Jian; LIU Lei; LEI TingHua; CUI XiuHong; AN XiaoRong; CHEN YongFu

    2007-01-01

    By using the approach of immunofluorescence staining with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (5MeC), the present study detected the DNA methylation patterns of bovine zygotes and preimplantation embryos derived from oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo in vitro culture (IVC). The results showed that: a) paternal-specific demethylation occurred in 61.5% of the examined zygotes, while 34.6% of them showed no demethylation; b) decreased methylation level was observed after the 8-cell stage and persisted through the morula stage, however methylation levels were different between blastomeres within the same embryos; c) at the blastocyst stage, the methylation level was very low in inner cell mass, but high in trophectoderm cells. The present study suggests, at least partly, that IVM/IVF/IVC may have effects on DNA methylation reprogramming of bovine zygotes and early embryos.

  1. Genomic DNA methylation patterns in bovine preim-plantation embryos derived from in vitro fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By using the approach of immunofluorescence staining with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (5MeC), the present study detected the DNA methylation patterns of bovine zygotes and preimplanta-tion embryos derived from oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo in vitro culture (IVC). The results showed that: a) paternal-specific demethylation occurred in 61.5% of the examined zygotes, while 34.6% of them showed no demethylation; b) decreased methylation level was observed after the 8-cell stage and persisted through the morula stage, however methylation levels were different between blastomeres within the same embryos; c) at the blastocyst stage, the methyla-tion level was very low in inner cell mass, but high in trophectoderm cells. The present study suggests, at least partly, that IVM/IVF/IVC may have effects on DNA methylation reprogramming of bovine zygotes and early embryos.

  2. Effectiveness of autologous serum as an alternative to fetal bovine serum in adipose-derived stem cell engineering.

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    Choi, Jaehoon; Chung, Jee-Hyeok; Kwon, Geun-Yong; Kim, Ki-Wan; Kim, Sukwha; Chang, Hak

    2013-09-01

    In cell culture, medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum is commonly used, and it is widely known that fetal bovine serum supplies an adequate environment for culture and differentiation of stem cells. Nevertheless, the use of xenogeneic serum can cause several problems. We compared the effects of four different concentrations of autologous serum (1, 2, 5, and 10%) on expansion and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells using 10% fetal bovine serum as a control. The stem cells were grafted on nude mice and the in vivo differentiation capacity was evaluated. The isolation of adipose-derived stem cells was successful irrespective of the culture medium. The proliferation potential was statistically significant at passage 2, as follows: 10% autologous serum > 10% fetal bovine serum = 5% autologous serum > 2% autologous serum = 1% autologous serum. The differentiation capacity appeared statistically significant at passage 4, as follows: 10% fetal bovine serum > 10% autologous serum = 5% autologous serum > 2% autologous serum = 1% autologous serum. Ten percent autologous serum and 10% fetal bovine serum had greater differentiation capacity than 1 and 2% autologous serum in vivo, and no significant difference was observed between the groups at ≥ 5% concentration at 14 weeks. In conclusion, 10% autologous serum was at least as effective as 10% fetal bovine serum with respect to the number of adipose-derived stem cells at the end of both isolation and expansion, whereas 1 and 2% autologous serum was inferior.

  3. DNA Methylation and Histone Acetylation Patterns in Cultured Bovine Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells (BADSCs

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    Beheshteh Abouhamzeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many studies have focused on the epigenetic characteristics of donor cells to improve somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. We hypothesized that the epigenetic status and chromatin structure of undifferentiated bovine adipose tissue-derived stem cells (BADSCs would not remain constant during different passages. The objective of this study was to determine the mRNA expression patterns of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b and histone deacetyltransferses (HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3 in BADSCs. In addition, we compared the measured levels of octamer binding protein-4 expression (OCT4 and acetylation of H3K9 (H3K9ac in BADSCs cultures and different passages in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, subcutaneous fat was obtained from adult cows immediately post-mortem. Relative level of DNMTs and HDACs was examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR, and the level of OCT4 and H3K9ac was analyzed by flow cytometry at passages 3 (P3, 5 (P5 and 7 (P7. Results: The OCT4 protein level was similar at P3 and P5 but a significant decrease in its level was seen at P7. The highest and lowest levels of H3K9ac were observed at P5 and P7, respectively. At P5, the expression of HDACs and DNMTs was significantly decreased. In contrast, a remarkable increase in the expression of DNMTs was observed at P7. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that the epigenetic status of BADSCs was variable during culture. The P5 cells showed the highest level of stemness and multipotency and the lowest level of chromatin compaction. Therefore, we suggest that P5 cells may be more efficient for SCNT compared with other passages.

  4. Antibody-independent identification of bovine milk-derived peptides in breast-milk.

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    Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Passariello, Annalisa; Dallas, David C; Robinson, Randall C; Barile, Daniela; Canani, Roberto Berni

    2016-08-10

    Exclusively breast-fed infants can exhibit clear signs of IgE or non IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. However, the definite characterization of dietary cow's milk proteins (CMP) that survive the maternal digestive tract to be absorbed into the bloodstream and secreted into breast milk remains missing. Herein, we aimed at assessing possible CMP-derived peptides in breast milk. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS), we compared the peptide fraction of breast milk from 12 donors, among which 6 drank a cup of milk daily and 6 were on a strict dairy-free diet. We identified two bovine β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg, 2 out 6 samples) and one αs1-casein (1 out 6 samples) fragments in breast milk from mothers receiving a cup of bovine milk daily. These CMP-derived fragments, namely β-Lg (f42-54), (f42-57) and αs1-casein (f180-197), were absent in milk from mothers on dairy-free diet. In contrast, neither intact nor hydrolyzed β-Lg was detected by western blot and competitive ELISA in any breast milk sample. Eight additional bovine milk-derived peptides identified by software-assisted MS were most likely false positive. The results of this study demonstrate that CMP-derived peptides rather than intact CMP may sensitize or elicit allergic responses in the neonate through mother's milk. Immunologically active peptides from the maternal diet could be involved in priming the newborn's immune system, driving a tolerogenic response.

  5. Embryonic stem-like cells derived from in vitro produced bovine blastocysts

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    Erika Regina Leal de Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the derivation of bovine embryonic stem-like (ES-like cells from the inner cell mass (ICM of in vitro produced blastocysts. The ICMs were mechanically isolated and six out of seventeen (35% ICMs could attach to a monolayer of murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF. Ten days after, primary outgrowths were mechanically dissected into several small clumps and transferred to a new MEF layer. Cells were further propagated and passaged by physical dissociation over a 60 days period. The pluripotency of the bovine ES-like cells was confirmed by RT-PCR of Oct-4 and STAT-3 gene markers. The colonies were weakly stained for alkaline phosphatase and the mesoderm and endoderm differentiation gene markers such as GATA-4 and Flk-1, respectively, were not expressed. Embryoid bodies were spontaneously formed at the seventh passage. Results showed that bovine ES-like cells could be obtained and passaged by mechanical procedures from the fresh in vitro produced blastocysts.

  6. Isolation and biological characterization of tendon-derived stem cells from fetal bovine.

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    Yang, Jinjuan; Zhao, Qianjun; Wang, Kunfu; Liu, Hao; Ma, Caiyun; Huang, Hongmei; Liu, Yingjie

    2016-09-01

    The lack of appropriate candidates of cell sources for cell transplantation has hampered efforts to develop therapies for tendon injuries, such as tendon rupture, tendonitis, and tendinopathy. Tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) are a type of stem cells which may be used in the treatment of tendon injuries. In this study, TDSCs were isolated from 5-mo-old Luxi Yellow fetal bovine and cultured in vitro and further analyzed for their biological characteristics using immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. It was found that primary TDSCs could be expanded for 42 passages in vitro maintaining proliferation. The expressions of stem cell marker nucleostemin and tenocyte-related markers, such as collagen I, collagen II, collagen III, and tenascin-C, were observed on different passage cells by immunofluorescence. The results from RT-PCR show that TDSCs were positive for collagen type I, CD44, tenascin-C, and collagen type III but negative for collagen type II. Meanwhile, TDSC passage 4 was successfully induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Our results indicate that the fetal bovine TDSCs not only had strong self-renewal capacity but also possess the potential for multi-lineage differentiation. This study provides theoretical basis and experimental foundation for potential therapeutic application of the fetal bovine TDSCs in the treatment of tendon injuries.

  7. Combined anticalcification treatment of bovine pericardium with decellularization and hyaluronic acid derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Deyi; Jin, Liqiang; Wang, Xuemei; Xu, Li; Liu, Tianqi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of decellularization and hyaluronic acid derivative on the improvement of anticalcification of glutaraldehyde fixed bovine pericardium (GFBP) using a rat subcutaneous implantation model A cell extraction process was employed to remove the cells and cellular components from bovine pericardium (BP), leaving a framework of largely insoluble collagen. Then acellular BP was cross-linked by glutaraldehyde solution and treated with hyaluronic acid derivative (HA-ADH) which was obtained by coupling adipic dihydrazide (ADH) on-COOH of hyaluronic acid (HA). The results of in vivo calcification tests showed that the calcium content was decreased dramatically by decellularization alone (from 28.07 ± 18.87 to 2.44 ± 0.55 μg Ca/mg dry tissue after 8 weeks' implantation), and even less concentration was shown by the combination of HA derivative treatment and decellularization (GFaBP-HA group) (0.25 ± 0.08 μg Ca/mg dry tissue after 8 weeks' implantation). In addition, GFaBP-HA group not only presented a lower degree of calcification, but also showed lower ratios of Ca/P molar, which corresponded to amorphous calcium phosphates. The obtained results indicated that GFaBP-HA was a potential candidate for the manufacture of anticalcification bioprostheses.

  8. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Comments on the proposed rule were required to......

  9. Effects of embryo-derived exosomes on the development of bovine cloned embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Pengxiang; Qing, Suzhu; Liu, Ruiqi; Qin, Hongyu; Wang, Weiwei; Qiao, Fang; Ge, Hui; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yongsheng

    2017-01-01

    The developmental competence of in vitro cultured (IVC) embryos is markedly lower than that of their in vivo counterparts, suggesting the need for optimization of IVC protocols. Embryo culture medium is routinely replaced three days after initial culture in bovine, however, whether this protocol is superior to continuous nonrenewal culture method under current conditions remains unclear. Using bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos as the model, our results showed that compared with routine renewal treatment, nonrenewal culture system significantly improved blastocyst formation, blastocyst quality (increased total cell number, decreased stress and apoptosis, enhanced Oct-4 expression and ratio of ICM/TE), as well as following development to term. Existence and function of SCNT embryo-derived exosomes were then investigated to reveal the cause of impaired development induced by culture medium replacement. Exosomes were successfully isolated through differential centrifugation and identified by both electron microscopy and immunostaining against exosomal membrane marker CD9. Supplementation of extracted exosomes into freshly renewed medium significantly rescued not only blastocyst formation and quality (in vitro development), but also following growth to term (in vivo development). Notably, ratio of ICM/TE and calving rate were enhanced to a similar level as that in nonrenewal group. In conclusion, our results for the first time indicate that 1: bovine SCNT embryos can secrete exosomes into chemically defined culture medium during IVC; 2: secreted exosomes are essential for SCNT blastocyst formation, blastocyst quality, and following development to term; 3: removal of exosomes induced by culture medium replacement impairs SCNT embryo development, which can be avoided by nonrenewal culture procedure or markedly recovered by exosome supplementation. PMID:28350875

  10. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-07

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed.

  11. The expression and putative role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor in bovine sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Li, C; Zhu, X; Wang, C; Liu, Zhuo; Li, W; Lu, Chen; Zhou, Xu

    2012-02-01

    The neurotrophin family of proteins promote the survival and differentiation of nerve cells and are thought to play an important role in development of reproductive tissues. The objective of the present study was to detect the presence of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB in bovine sperm, and explore the potential role of BDNF in sperm function. We demonstrated that both the neorotrophin BDNF and the tyrosine kinase receptor protein TrkB were expressed in ejaculated bovine sperm. Furthermore, BDNF per se was secreted by sperm. Insulin and leptin secretion by bovine sperm were increased (P BDNF, whereas insulin was decreased by K252a. Therefore, we inferred that BDNF could be a regulator of sperm secretion of insulin and leptin through the TrkB receptor. Sperm viability and mitochondrial activity were both decreased (P BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway was blocked with K252a. Furthermore, BDNF promoted apoptosis of bovine sperm through TrkB binding (P BDNF secreted by bovine sperm was important in regulation of insulin and leptin secretion in ejaculated bovine sperm. Furthermore, BDNF may affect sperm mitochondrial activity and apoptosis, as well as their viability.

  12. Fluorescence study on the interactions of PAMAM dendrimers and their derivatives with bovine serum albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yanming; SONG Yu; KONG Deling; YU Yaoting

    2005-01-01

    The interactions of amino-terminated, and ethylenediamine core poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers and their derivatives with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Experimental results showed that the fluorescence intensity of BSA decreased after the addition of different modified dendrimers, and the extent of the fluorescence quenching caused by various modified dendrimers strongly depends upon the different functional groups on their surfaces. We also investigated the influence of pH and ionic strength on the interaction between various modified dendrimers and BSA. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic measurements showed that the content of α-helix structure of BSA decreased after the addition of different modified dendrimers, which indicated that dendrimers induced changes in the secondary structure of BSA.

  13. Drying Technology of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptide Derived from Bovine Casein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhanmei; Hue Guicheng; TIAN Be

    2009-01-01

    Drying technology of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides derived from bovine casein was investigated. No significance was observed on ACE inhibitory activity of products prepared by spay drying and freeze drying (P>0.05). Spay drying was the best drying process for practical industry production. The inlet temperature ranged from 140℃ to 160℃ and the exit temperature ranged from 70℃ to 90℃ during the spay drying process. Under the optimal eonditious, scale-up of angiotensin converted enzyme inhibitory peptide from 1 L to 10 L and the experiment was successively conducted. Peptide yield was 29% and half inhibitory concentration(IC50) was 0.53g·L-1.

  14. Non-toxic perfringolysin O and α-toxin derivatives as potential vaccine candidates against bovine necrohaemorrhagic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verherstraeten, S; Goossens, E; Valgaeren, B; Pardon, B; Timbermont, L; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Deprez, P; Van Immerseel, F

    2016-11-01

    Bovine necrohaemorrhagic enteritis is a fatal Clostridium perfringens type A-induced disease that is characterised by sudden death. Recently the involvement of perfringolysin O and α-toxin in the development of necrohaemorrhagic lesions in the gut of calves was suggested, and thus derivatives of these toxins are potentially suitable as vaccine antigens. In the current study, the perfringolysin O derivative PFO(L491D), alone or in combination with α-toxin derivative GST-cpa247-370, was evaluated as possible vaccine candidate, using in vitro assays. PFO(L491D) showed no haemolytic effect on horse red blood cells and no cytotoxic effect on bovine endothelial cells. Furthermore, calves immunised with PFO(L491D) raised antibodies against perfringolysin O that could inhibit the perfringolysin O-associated haemolytic activity on horse red blood cells. Antisera from calves immunised with PFO(L491D) had a significantly higher neutralising capacity against the cytotoxic effect of C. perfringens culture supernatant to bovine endothelial cells than serum from control calves (P O and α-toxin and consequently inhibited both the perfringolysin O-associated haemolytic activity and the α-toxin-associated lecithinase activity in vitro. Additionally, the neutralising ability of these antisera on the cytotoxic effect of C. perfringens culture supernatant to bovine endothelial cells was significantly higher than that from calves immunised with PFO(L491D) (P O derivative PFO(L491D) is an immunogenic antigen that can potentially be used to produce vaccine against bovine necrohaemorrhagic enteritis. Including α-toxin derivative GST-cpa247-370 has an additional protective effect and therefore vaccination of calves with a combination of both antigens seems even more promising.

  15. Transcobalamin derived from bovine milk stimulates apical uptake of vitamin B12 into human intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Brad; Boggs, Irina; Green, Ralph; Miller, Joshua W; Hovey, Russell C; Humphrey, Rex; Wheeler, Thomas T

    2014-11-01

    Intestinal uptake of vitamin B12 (hereafter B12) is impaired in a significant proportion of the human population. This impairment is due to inherited or acquired defects in the expression or function of proteins involved in the binding of diet-derived B12 and its uptake into intestinal cells. Bovine milk is an abundant source of bioavailable B12 wherein it is complexed with transcobalamin. In humans, transcobalamin functions primarily as a circulatory protein, which binds B12 following its absorption and delivers it to peripheral tissues via its cognate receptor, CD320. In the current study, the transcobalamin-B12 complex was purified from cows' milk and its ability to stimulate uptake of B12 into cultured bovine, mouse and human cell lines was assessed. Bovine milk-derived transcobalamin-B12 complex was absorbed by all cell types tested, suggesting that the uptake mechanism is conserved across species. Furthermore, the complex stimulated the uptake of B12 via the apical surface of differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. These findings suggest the presence of an alternative transcobalamin-mediated uptake pathway for B12 in the human intestine other than that mediated by the gastric glycoprotein, intrinsic factor. Our findings highlight the potential for transcobalamin-B12 complex derived from bovine milk to be used as a natural bioavailable alternative to orally administered free B12 to overcome B12 malabsorption.

  16. Derivation of an equation to estimate marrow content of bovine cervical vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebault, R A; Field, R A; Means, W J; Russell, W C

    1998-08-01

    Marrow content of bovine cervical vertebrae from Choice- and Select-grade carcasses weighing 294 to 343 kg was determined so that a method to monitor the amount of marrow in meat from advanced meat/bone separation machinery and recovery (AMR) systems could be developed. The marrow determination requires cleaning and then ashing bones. Because a large difference in ash content of bone and bone marrow exists and because cartilage content of cervical vertebrae in Choice and Select beef is relatively constant, it was possible to derive the following equation: Weight of marrow = [weight of cartilage (% ash in cartilage - % ash in bone) + % ash in bone (total weight) - (total ash)]/[(% ash in bone - % ash in marrow)]. Constants for ash in fresh bone, marrow, and cartilage were 58.51, .57, and 2.14% with SD of 2.23, .15, and .30%, respectively. A cartilage content of 9.5% along with cervical vertebrae weight and total ash weight were also used to calculate 33.9% marrow in cervical vertebrae. Means for marrow pressed or centrifuged from bovine cervical vertebrae were lower than those obtained from the equation. Therefore, pressing and centrifuging left some marrow in spongy bone. Our ashing method for determining the amount of marrow in whole cervical vertebrae should be useful for determining marrow remaining in cervical vertebrae of bone cakes from AMR systems. Percentage ash in pressed bones is higher and the calculated marrow content is lower when pressed bones are compared to cervical vertebrae that are not pressed. The amount of marrow in whole cervical vertebrae minus the amount left in cervical vertebrae from bone cakes equals the amount in meat from AMR systems.

  17. Moldable setting time evaluation between sodium alginate and bovine gelatine of glutinous rice mixture as dental putty materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarini, V.; Hasratiningsih, Z.; Karlina, E.; Febrida, R.; Asri, L. A. T. W.; Purwasasmita, BS

    2017-02-01

    Putty elastomeric material is a viscous, moldable material that can be used as a dental impression to record and duplicate the tooth structure. Commercially available putty materials are hardly found in the Indonesian market. The aim of this work is to develop an alternative putty dental material from glutinous rice with two different gelling agents; sodium alginate and bovine gelatine. A commercially putty material was used as a control. The length of time required for the putty materials to set (setting time) was evaluated with compression set test. The result showed that sodium alginate and bovine gelatine gelling agents resulted in moldable putty materials that comparable to the commercial product. Glutinous rice mixed with sodium alginate gelling agent demonstrated longer setting time (more than 1 hours) compared to bovine gelatine (6 minutes). These may occur due to heat treatment applied to the bovine gelatine, while sodium alginate mixture has a chemical reaction since CaCl2 crosslink agent had been added to the mixture. Glutinous rice with bovine gelatine mixture is a promising candidate to be used as a dental putty material.

  18. Expression of the gap junction gene connexin43 (Cx43) in preimplantation bovine embryos derived in vitro or in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenzycki, C; Herrmann, D; Carnwath, J W; Niemann, H

    1996-09-01

    In this study we have examined the presence of mRNA encoding connexin 43 (Cx43) in bovine embryos derived in vivo and in vitro. Cumulus-oocyte complexes, immature and matured oocytes liberated from cumulus cells, zygotes, 2-4-cell and 8-16-cell embryos, morulae, blastocysts and hatched blastocysts were produced in vitro from ovaries obtained from an abattoir using TCM 199 supplemented with hormones and 10% oestrous cow serum for maturation. Cumulus-oocyte complexes matured for 24 h were exposed to bull spermatozoa for 19 h and then cultured in TCM 199 supplemented with 10% oestrous cow serum to the desired developmental stage. Morulae and blastocysts derived in vivo were collected from superovulated donor cows. Total RNA was extracted from pools of 60-200 bovine oocytes or embryos using a modified phenol-chloroform extraction method and analysed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Before reverse transcription, aliquots of DNase-digested embryonic RNA were tested by polymerase chain reaction using bovine-specific primers to control for residual genomic DNA contamination. DNA-free, total RNA was reverse transcribed after preincubation with the Cx43 specific 3'primer. The resultant cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using Cx43 specific primers that define a 516 bp fragment of Cx43. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction product was verified by restriction enzyme analysis with Alu I and sequencing. Assays were repeated at least twice for each developmental stage and provided identical results between replicates. Cx43 transcripts were detected in bovine morulae and blastocysts grown in vivo. In contrast, whereas the early in vitro stages from cumulus-oocyte complexes to morulae expressed Cx43, blastocysts and hatched blastocysts did not have detectable concentrations of mRNA from this gene. Restriction enzyme cutting revealed three fragments of the predicted size (139, 177, 200 bp). The amplified product showed 100% identity

  19. Making the switch: alternatives to foetal bovine serum for adipose-derived stromal cell expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Dessels

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs are being used extensively in clinical trials. These trials require that ASCs are prepared using good manufacturing procedures (GMPs and are safe for use in humans. The majority of clinical trials in which ASCs are expanded make use of fetal bovine serum (FBS. While FBS is used traditionally in the research setting for in vitro expansion, it does carry the risk of xenoimmunization and zoonotic transmission when used for expanding cells destined for therapeutic purposes. In order to ensure a GMP quality product for cellular therapy, in vitro expansion of ASCs has been undertaken using xeno-free (XF, chemically-defined, and human blood-derived alternatives. These investigations usually include the criteria proposed by the International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT and International Fat Applied Technology Society (IFATS. The majority of studies use these criteria to compare plastic-adherence, morphology, the immunophenotype and the trilineage differentiation of ASCs under the different medium supplemented conditions. Based on these studies, all of the alternatives to FBS seem to be suitable replacements; however, each has its own advantages and drawbacks. Very few studies have investigated the effects of the supplements on the immunomodulation of ASCs; the transcriptome, proteome and secretome; and the ultimate effects in appropriate animal models. The selection of medium supplementation will depend on the downstream application of the ASCs and their efficacy and safety in preclinical studies.

  20. Making the Switch: Alternatives to Fetal Bovine Serum for Adipose-Derived Stromal Cell Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessels, Carla; Potgieter, Marnie; Pepper, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are being used extensively in clinical trials. These trials require that ASCs are prepared using good manufacturing practices (GMPs) and are safe for use in humans. The majority of clinical trials in which ASCs are expanded make use of fetal bovine serum (FBS). While FBS is used traditionally in the research setting for in vitro expansion, it does carry the risk of xenoimmunization and zoonotic transmission when used for expanding cells destined for therapeutic purposes. In order to ensure a GMP quality product for cellular therapy, in vitro expansion of ASCs has been undertaken using xeno-free (XF), chemically-defined, and human blood-derived alternatives. These investigations usually include the criteria proposed by the International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) and International Fat Applied Technology Society (IFATS). The majority of studies use these criteria to compare plastic-adherence, morphology, the immunophenotype and the trilineage differentiation of ASCs under the different medium supplemented conditions. Based on these studies, all of the alternatives to FBS seem to be suitable replacements; however, each has its own advantages and drawbacks. Very few studies have investigated the effects of the supplements on the immunomodulation of ASCs; the transcriptome, proteome and secretome; and the ultimate effects in appropriate animal models. The selection of medium supplementation will depend on the downstream application of the ASCs and their efficacy and safety in preclinical studies. PMID:27800478

  1. 肉制品中牛源性成分荧光定量聚合酶链式反应方法的建立与应用%Establish and Application of a Real-Time Fluorescence-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of Bovine-Derived Materials in Meat Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗丽; 李志娟; 王珊; 张秀平; 陈静

    2015-01-01

    A real-time fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that enables rapid and accurate identification of adulterated beef products was developed usingTaqMan probe for the rapid and effective detection of bovine-derived materials in meat products. A pair of specific primers andTaqMan probe was designed according to the conserved sequence of the bovine β-actingene. PCR reaction conditions were optimized using pMD-18T-96-beef plasmid as standard. The results showed that the pMD-18T-96-beef plasmid was confirmed to be valid by PCR, sequencing and enzyme digestion and the developed standard curve produced a good linear relationship betweenCt value and initial amounts of total DNA with correlation coefficient and slope of 0.98 and−3.345, respectively. The sensitivity was 46.1 copies/µL. No cross-reactions were found in specimens containing pork, mutton, chicken, duck and goose. The intra- and inter-assay variable coefficients were less than 0.98% and 0.33%, respectively, suggesting good repeatability. A total of 40 beef product samples from the market were measured by this method and the routine real-time PCR method from the industry standard SN/T 2051—2008. Of the 40 samples, 3 were detected as positive as consistently indicated by the two assays. This real-time PCR method with strong specificity and high sensitivity could provide a useful approach for the identification of meat adulteration.%为了能够快速准确检测出市场中掺假牛肉制品,采用TaqMan探针法,建立一种用于快速有效检测牛肉制品中牛源性成分的荧光定量聚合酶链式反应(polymerase chain reaction,PCR)方法。选择GenBank中牛β-actin基因的保守序列,设计并合成特异性引物及TaqMan探针,以构建的pMD-18T-96-beef质粒为标准品,优化反应条件。结果表明:重组质粒标准品经PCR、测序和酶切鉴定正确,建立的标准曲线Ct值与模板拷贝数对数值之间呈良好的线

  2. Susceptibility of neuron-like cells derived from bovine Wharton’s jelly to bovine herpesvirus type 5 infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Tereza C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5, frequently lethal in cattle, is associated with significant agricultural economic losses due to neurological disease. Cattle and rabbits are frequently used as models to study the biology and pathogenesis of BoHV-5 infection. In particular, neural invasion and proliferation are two of the factors important in BoHV-5 infection. The present study investigated the potential of bovine Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stromal cells (bWJ-MSCs to differentiate into a neuronal phenotype and support robust BoHV-5 replication. Results Upon inducing differentiation within a defined neuronal specific medium, most bWJ-MSCs acquired the distinctive neuronal morphological features and stained positively for the neuronal/glial markers MAP2 (neuronal microtubule associated protein 2, N200 (neurofilament 200, NT3 (neutrophin 3, tau and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein. Expression of nestin, N200, β-tubulin III (TuJI and GFAP was further demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Following BoHV-5 inoculation, there were low rates of cell detachment, good cell viability at 96 h post-infection (p.i., and small vesicles developed along neuronal branches. Levels of BoHV-5 antigens and DNA were associated with the peak in viral titres at 72 h p.i. BoHV-5 glycoprotein C mRNA expression was significantly correlated with production of progeny virus at 72 h p.i. (p  Conclusion The results demonstrated the ability of bWJ-MSCs to differentiate into a neuronal phenotype in vitro and support productive BoHV-5 replication. These findings constitute a remarkable contribution to the in vitro study of neurotropic viruses. This work may pave the way for bWJ-MSCs to be used as an alternative to animal models in the study of BoHV-5 biology.

  3. Healing of human intrabony defects following regenerative periodontal therapy with a bovine-derived xenograft and guided tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculean, A; Stavropoulos, A; Windisch, P; Keglevich, T; Karring, T; Gera, I

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to histologically evaluate the healing of human intrabony defects following treatment with either a bovine-derived xenograft (BDX) and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) [BDX + GTR] or a bovine-derived xenograft mixed with collagen (BDX Coll) and GTR [BDX Coll + GTR]. Eight patients with chronic periodontitis and each with one very deep intrabony defect around a tooth scheduled for extraction were treated with either a combination of BDX + GTR (five patients) or with BDX Coll + GTR (three patients). The postoperative healing was uneventful in all eight cases. After a healing period of 6 months, the teeth or roots were extracted together with some of their surrounding soft and hard tissues and subsequently fixed in 10% buffered formalin. Following decalcification in EDTA, the specimens were embedded in paraffin and 8-microm histological sections were cut in the mesio-distal direction, parallel to the long axes of the teeth. The sections were alternatively stained with hematoxylin and eosin, van Giesson's connective tissue stain or with the Ladevig's connective tissue staining method and examined under the light microscope. Generally, formation of new cementum with inserting collagen fibers was found in seven out of the eight treated cases, whereas in the remaining case (treated with BDX + GTR) the healing was characterized by formation of a long junctional epithelium along the debrided root surface and no formation of cementum or bone. In the specimens demonstrating periodontal regeneration the new cementum was always of a cellular type. In most cases, the graft particles were surrounded by bone. In some areas, the bone tissue around the graft particles was connected by perpendicularly inserting collagen fibers to the newly formed cementum on the root surface. The epithelium downgrowth stopped always at the most coronal part of the newly formed cementum. No remnants of the membrane material were observed in any of the biopsies

  4. In Vitro Developmental Potential of Cloned Embryos Derived from Bovine Somatic Cells and Rabbits Oocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ya; LI Bin; ZHAO Huan; CHENG Li-zi; ZHANG Xiao-rong; CHEN Da-yuan; ZHANG Yun-hai; ZHANG Zhi-guo; JING Ren-tao; WANG Cun-li; ZHANG Mei-lin; LI Dong-wei

    2003-01-01

    180 reconstituted embryos were produced by nuclear transplantation using bovine ear fibroblasts at G0 or non-G0 stage as donor nuclei and oocytes collected from superovulated multiparous or young rabbits as recipients. After cultivation in two kinds of medium M199+ 10%FBS or RD+ 10%FBS, 112 of them developed to 2-cell stage (62.2%) and 26 to morula stage (14.4%) and 20 of them eventually developed to blastocyst stage (11. 1% ). There is no significant difference for the cleavage rates in two groups of reconstituted embryos derived from G0-stage and non-G0 stage donor cells respectively. However, G0-stage donor cells could result in higher rate of 8-cell - 16-cell stage embryos significantly (P<0.05), as well as higher rate of blastocysts (P<0.01). It seems that using two different culture systems had no significant effects on the cleavage rate, morula rate or blastocyst rate (P>0.05).

  5. Transcriptional analysis of diverse strains Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in primary bovine monocyte derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaochun; Tu, Zheng J; Coussens, Paul M; Kapur, Vivek; Janagama, Harish; Naser, Saleh; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2008-10-01

    In this study we analyzed the macrophage-induced gene expression of three diverse genotypes of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Using selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) on three genotypically diverse MAP isolates from cattle, human, and sheep exposed to primary bovine monocyte derived macrophages for 48 h and 120 h we created and sequenced six cDNA libraries. Sequence annotations revealed that the cattle isolate up-regulated 27 and 241 genes; the human isolate up-regulated 22 and 53 genes, and the sheep isolate up-regulated 35 and 358 genes, at the two time points respectively. Thirteen to thirty-three percent of the genes identified did not have any annotated function. Despite variations in the genes identified, the patterns of expression fell into overlapping cellular functions as inferred by pathway analysis. For example, 10-12% of the genes expressed by all three strains at each time point were associated with cell-wall biosynthesis. All three strains of MAP studied up-regulated genes in pathways that combat oxidative stress, metabolic and nutritional starvation, and cell survival. Taken together, this comparative transcriptional analysis suggests that diverse MAP genotypes respond with similar modus operandi for survival in the host.

  6. Maize (Zea mays)-derived bovine trypsin: characterization of the first large-scale, commercial protein product from transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Susan L; Mayor, Jocelyne M; Bailey, Michele R; Barker, Donna K; Love, Robert T; Lane, Jeffrey R; Delaney, Donna E; McComas-Wagner, Janet M; Mallubhotla, Hanuman D; Hood, Elizabeth E; Dangott, Lawrence J; Tichy, Shane E; Howard, John A

    2003-10-01

    Bovine trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) is an enzyme that is widely used for commercial purposes to digest or process other proteins, including some therapeutic proteins. The biopharmaceutical industry is trying to eliminate animal-derived proteins from manufacturing processes due to the possible contamination of these products by human pathogens. Recombinant trypsin has been produced in a number of systems, including cell culture, bacteria and yeast. To date, these expression systems have not produced trypsin on a scale sufficient to fulfill the need of biopharmaceutical manufacturers where kilogram quantities are often required. The present paper describes commercial-level production of trypsin in transgenic maize (Zea mays) and its physical and functional characterization. This protease, the first enzyme to be produced on a large-scale using transgenic plant technology, is functionally equivalent to native bovine pancreatic trypsin. The availability of this reagent should allow for the replacement of animal-derived trypsin in the processing of pharmaceutical proteins.

  7. Evaluation of bovine-derived lacteal complex supplementation on gene expression in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mario Clerici1,2, Emmanuel Pauze3, Arienne de Jong3, Mara Biasin1, Larry E Miller41Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; 2Don C Gnocchi Foundation, IRCCS, Milan, Italy; 3Sprim Advanced Life Sciences, Milan, Italy; 4Sprim USA, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: We conducted an evaluation of gene expression associated with innate and adaptive immunity in a double-blind ex vivo mouse study using a bovine-derived dietary ingredient (Ai/E10®, Health Technology Resources, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ, USA. BALB/c female mice (5–6 weeks of age were fed chewy granola bars supplemented with (Test or without (Control Ai/E10 for 10 days. After the feeding period, the animals were sacrificed and spleen cells were isolated and incubated with lipopolysaccharide and phorbol myristate acetate-ionomycin. RNA was extracted and mRNA expression of 84 genes involved in innate and acquired immunity was determined with real-time PCR arrays. Numerous genes associated with innate and adaptive immunity were upregulated in the Test group when stimulated with mitogens. Significant upregulation was observed in 30% (25 of 84 of genes upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation and in 14% (12 of 84 of genes upon phorbol myristate acetate + ionomycin stimulation in the Test group relative to Controls. This study illustrates that Ai/E10 supplementation results in significant and specific upregulation of genes associated with innate and adaptive immunity in mice. Notably, this effect was observed only in stimulated cultures.Keywords: dietary supplementation, immunomodulation, mice

  8. Differential effects of Mycobacterium bovis - derived polar and apolar lipid fractions on bovine innate immune cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirson Chris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mycobacterial lipids have long been known to modulate the function of a variety of cells of the innate immune system. Here, we report the extraction and characterisation of polar and apolar free lipids from Mycobacterium bovis AF 2122/97 and identify the major lipids present in these fractions. Lipids found included trehalose dimycolate (TDM and trehalose monomycolate (TMM, the apolar phthiocerol dimycocersates (PDIMs, triacyl glycerol (TAG, pentacyl trehalose (PAT, phenolic glycolipid (PGL, and mono-mycolyl glycerol (MMG. Polar lipids identified included glucose monomycolate (GMM, diphosphatidyl glycerol (DPG, phenylethanolamine (PE and a range of mono- and di-acylated phosphatidyl inositol mannosides (PIMs. These lipid fractions are capable of altering the cytokine profile produced by fresh and cultured bovine monocytes as well as monocyte derived dendritic cells. Significant increases in the production of IL-10, IL-12, MIP-1β, TNFα and IL-6 were seen after exposure of antigen presenting cells to the polar lipid fraction. Phenotypic characterisation of the cells was performed by flow cytometry and significant decreases in the expression of MHCII, CD86 and CD1b were found after exposure to the polar lipid fraction. Polar lipids also significantly increased the levels of CD40 expressed by monocytes and cultured monocytes but no effect was seen on the constitutively high expression of CD40 on MDDC or on the levels of CD80 expressed by any of the cells. Finally, the capacity of polar fraction treated cells to stimulate alloreactive lymphocytes was assessed. Significant reduction in proliferative activity was seen after stimulation of PBMC by polar fraction treated cultured monocytes whilst no effect was seen after lipid treatment of MDDC. These data demonstrate that pathogenic mycobacterial polar lipids may significantly hamper the ability of the host APCs to induce an appropriate immune response to an invading pathogen.

  9. Generation of bovine (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) adipose tissue derived stem cells: isolation, characterization, and multipotentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, R V; Chiaratti, M R; Santos, D C N; Bressan, F F; Sangalli, J R; Sá, A L A; Silva, T V G; Costa, N N; Cordeiro, M S; Santos, S S D; Ambrosio, C E; Adona, P R; Meirelles, F V; Miranda, M S; Ohashi, O M

    2015-01-15

    Adult stem cells are known for their plasticity and their potential to differentiate into several different cell types; these characteristics have implications for cell therapy and reproductive biotechnologies. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from bovine and buffalo adipose tissue. Cells isolated using enzymatic digestion of bovine and buffalo adipose-tissue biopsy samples were grown in vitro for at least 15 passages, verifying their capacity to proliferate. These cells were also subjected to immunophenotypic characterization for the presence of CD90, CD105, and CD79, and the absence of CD45, CD34, and CD73, which are positive and negative markers of MSC, respectively. To prove their multipotency, the cells were induced to differentiate into three different cell types, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes, which were stained with tissue-specific dyes (Chondrogenic-Alcian Blue, Osteogenic-Alizarin Red, and Adipogenic-Oil-Red O, respectively) to confirm differentiation. Gene expression analysis of pluripotency-related genes was also conducted. Our results suggest that adipose tissue from bovines and buffalos can be used as a source of MSC, making adipose tissue-derived cells an interesting option for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Additionally, these findings have implications for reproductive biotechnology because the use of MSC as nuclear donors has been linked to an increase in the efficiency of nuclear transfer.

  10. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Plant-Derived Diterpenes against Bovine Mastitis Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. S. Veneziani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the antibacterial activity of three diterpenes isolated from natural sources against a panel of microorganisms responsible for bovine mastitis. ent-Copalic acid (CA was the most active metabolite, with promising MIC values (from 1.56 to 6.25 µg mL−1 against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC and clinical isolate, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. We conducted time-kill assays of CA against S. aureus, a commensal organism considered to be a ubiquitous etiological agent of bovine mastitis in dairy farms worldwide. In the first 12 h, CA only inhibited the growth of the inoculums (bacteriostatic effect, but its bactericidal effect was clearly noted thereafter (between 12 and 24 h. In conclusion, CA should be considered for the control of several Gram-positive bacteria related to bovine mastitis.

  11. Transcriptional Response of Bovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages after the Infection with Different Argentinean Mycobacterium bovis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Caimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of bovines with Mycobacterium bovis causes important financial hardship in many countries presenting also a risk for humans. M. bovis is known to be adapted to survive and thrive within the intramacrophage environment. In spite of its relevance, at present the information about macrophage expression patterns is scarce, particularly regarding the bovine host. In this study, transcriptomic analysis was used to detect genes differentially expressed in macrophages derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells at early stages of infection with two Argentinean strains of M. bovis, a virulent and an attenuated strains. The results showed that the number of differentially expressed genes in the cells infected with the virulent strain (5 was significantly lower than those in the cells infected with the attenuated strain (172. Several genes were more strongly expressed in infected macrophages. Among them, we detected encoding transcription factors, anthrax toxin receptor, cell division and apoptosis regulator, ankyrin proteins, cytoskeleton proteins, protein of cell differentiation, and regulators of endocytic traffic of membrane. Quantitative real-time PCR of a selected group of differentially expressed genes confirmed the microarrays results. Altogether, the present results contribute to understanding the mechanisms involved in the early interaction of M. bovis with the bovine macrophage.

  12. Isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro differentiation of bovine Wharton jelly-derived multipotent mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Consiglio, Anna; Perrini, Claudia; Bertero, Alessia; Esposti, Paola; Cremonesi, Fausto; Vincenti, Leila

    2017-02-01

    Extrafetal tissues are a noncontroversial and inexhaustible source of mesenchymal stem cells that can be harvested noninvasively at low cost. In the veterinary field, as in man, stem cells derived from extrafetal tissues express plasticity, reduced immunogenicity, and have high anti-inflammatory potential making them promising candidates for treatment of many diseases. Umbilical cord mesenchymal cells have been isolated and characterized in different species and have recently been investigated as potential candidates in regenerative medicine. In this study, cells derived from bovine Wharton jelly (WJ) were isolated for the first time by enzymatic methods, frozen/thawed, cultivated for at least 10 passages, and characterized. Wharton jelly-derived cells readily attached to plastic culture dishes displaying typical fibroblast-like morphology and, although their proliferative capacity decreased to the seventh passage, these cells showed a mean doubling time of 34.55 ± 6.33 hours and a mean frequency of one colony-forming unit fibroblast like for every 221.68 plated cells. The results of molecular biology studies and flow cytometry analyses revealed that WJ-derived cells showed the typical antigen profile of mesenchymal stem cells and were positive for CD29, CD44, CD105, CD166, Oct-4, and c-Myc. They were negative for CD34 and CD14. Remarkably, WJ-derived cells showed differentiation ability. After culture in induced media, WJ-derived cells were able to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, and neurogenic lines as shown by positive staining and expression of specific markers. On polymerase chain reaction analysis, these cells were negative for MHC-II and positive for MHC-I, thus reinforcing the role of extrafetal tissue as an allogenic source for bovine cell-based therapies. These results provide evidence that bovine WJ-derived cells may have the potential to differentiate to repair damaged tissues and reinforce the importance of extrafetal

  13. Cloned embryos from semen. Part 2: Intergeneric nuclear transfer of semen-derived eland (Taurotragus oryx) epithelial cells into bovine oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel-Themaat, L.; Gomez, M.C.; Pope, C.E.; Lopez, M.; Wirtu, G.; Jenkins, J.A.; Cole, A.; Dresser, B.L.; Bondioli, K.R.; Godke, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The production of cloned offspring by nuclear transfer (NT) of semen-derived somatic cells holds considerable potential for the incorporation of novel genes into endangered species populations. Because oocytes from endangered species are scarce, domestic species oocytes are often used as cytoplasts for interspecies NT. In the present study, epithelial cells isolated from eland semen were used for intergeneric transfer (IgNT) into enucleated bovine oocytes and compared with bovine NT embryos. Cleavage rates of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos were similar (80 vs. 83%, respectively; p > 0.05); however, development to the morula and blastocyst stage was higher for bovine NT embryos (38 and 21%, respectively; p < 0.0001), than for eland IgNT embryos (0.5 and 0%, respectively). DNA synthesis was not observed in either bovine NT or eland IgNT cybrids before activation, but in 75 and 70% of bovine NT and eland igNT embryos, respectively, cell-cycle resumption was observed at 16 h postactivation (hpa). For eland IgNT embryos, 13% had ???8 cells at 84 hpa, while 32% of the bovine NT embryos had ???8 cells at the same interval. However, 100 and 66% of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos, respectively, that had ???8 cells synthesized DNA. From these results we concluded that (1) semen-derived epithelial cell nuclei can interact and be transcriptionally controlled by bovine cytoplast, (2) the first cell-cycle occurred in IgNT embryos, (3) a high frequency of developmental arrest occurs before the eight-cell stage in IgNT embryos, and (4) IgNT embryos that progress through the early cleavage stage arrest can (a) synthesize DNA, (b) progress through subsequent cell cycles, and (c) may have the potential to develop further. ?? 2008 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  14. Study on Morph-genetic Materials Derived from Natural Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The way to fabricate novel morph-genetic functional materials based on nature bio-structures is reviewed. We present the idea and methods of obtaining multi-scale porous materials by using wood, agricultural wastes and butterfly wing scales as bio-templates.

  15. [Animal-derived feedstuffs as possible vectors for bovine encephalopathy (BSE) in Germany. Part 2: Assessment of vector risk for compounded feed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentek, J; Oberthür, R C; Kamphues, J; Kreienbrock, L; Flachowsky, G; Coenen, M

    2002-02-01

    Specific conditions and practices of cattle feeding in Germany have to be taken into account for assessing the risk of feed born transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, especially regarding the situation before the year 2000 when specific directives were introduced for feed production. The present retrospective epidemiological study includes data on feed production and the estimated amount of animal derived feedstuffs for the production of compounded feed for cattle. Risk assessment was performed based on the 'reproduction rate' (R0), that is defined as the estimated number of infections resulting from the processing of brain and spinal cord of BSE affected cattle that is recycled to bovines via feed. Under the conditions as given in Germany until the year 2000 the reproduction rate of BSE via the inclusion of animal derived feedstuffs in compounded feed production for cattle was estimated to be 1.1. Thus, it can be expected that BSE could be reproduced in the system, but with comparatively low efficiency. The expected incidence of BSE should be considerably lower compared to the situation during the 90th in the UK, due to the markedly lower recycling rate of animal protein in cattle feeding. Animal fat could have been a significant factor for BSE transmission due to contamination by proteinaceous brain and spinal cord material during the production process. The relative significance of fat containing feedstuffs for BSE transmission could have been higher in Germany compared to the situation in the UK where meat and bone meal was produced under different conditions and frequently used in higher proportions as an ingredient for compounded feed for ruminants.

  16. The Detection of Bovine - Derived Material in Import Meat and Bone Meal by PCR and Microwell Plate Hybridization%进口肉骨粉及动物饲料中牛源性成分的PCR-微孔板杂交检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 徐宝梁; 王丙武; 王曙光; 杨瑞馥; 张敏丽

    2001-01-01

    @@ 疯牛病(Mad-Cow Disease)即牛海绵状脑病(Bovine Spongiform Encephlopathy,BSE),已被证实与人的克雅氏病(Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease,CJD)有直接关联.人如果食用感染了疯牛病病原的牛肉,就会患上克雅氏病,造成永久性的脑部损伤,脑组织形成海绵状空洞,导致精神错乱、痴呆,最终死亡.

  17. Habitability and Biosignature Preservation in Impact-Derived Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapers, H. M.; Pontefract, A.; Osinski, G. R.; Cannon, K. M.; Mustard, J. F.

    2016-05-01

    Meteorite impacts create environments conducive to microbial colonization. Biosignatures in impact-derived materials have been characterized on Earth. Impact environments comprise candidates for biosignature detection and preservation on Mars.

  18. In vitro development competence of bovine nuclear transfer embryos derived from Nanog-overexpressing fibroblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-bang Zheng, Yan Yun, Yong-ce Hu, Yong Li, Hua-yan Wang, Xiao-ling Ma, Jin-qiang Sui, An-min Lei and Zhong-ying Dou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish Nanog-expressing cell lines that can be used as donor cells to construct transgenic cloned embryos, and to investigate their in vitro development competence. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, the cDNA of Nanog gene was cloned from fetal bovine primordial genital ridge tissues. The gene was inserted into PMD18-T vector using recombination techniques and then subcloned into vector pEGFP-C1. After confirmation by restrictive endonuclease digestion and sequencing, the recombinant plasmid pEGFP-Nanog was transfected into skin fibroblast cells. A stable transfected cell line was successfully established after two months of selection with neomycine (G418. Fluorescence microscopy, RT-PCR, and Western Blotting assays indicated that Nanog mRNA and EGFP-Nanog fusion protein were expressed in these cells. The EGFP-Nanog expressing fibroblast cells and the intact fibroblast cells (BEF422 were respectively used to construct cloned embryos. The results showed that the cleavage rate of recombinant embryos in BEF422 cells was significantly (P<0.05 higher than in EGFP-Nanog expressing cells (82.14 vs 40.38 %, but the blastocyst development rate in the latter was slightly higher than in the former (17.30 vs 14.29% (P<0.05, indicating that Nanog-overexpressed fibroblasts may be a better candidate of donor cells. To our knowledge, this is the first time that Nanog gene has been introduced into fibroblast cells to produce cloned embryos in bovine.

  19. Curcumin loaded in bovine serum albumin–chitosan derived nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SRIDHAR SKYLAB RAJAN; AKILA PANDIAN; TAMILSELVI PALANIAPPAN

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of this study is to prepare biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles for targeted delivery of curcumin to human colorectal adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells. Curcumin has an ability to block proliferation ofcancer cells by suppressing the nuclear transcription factor NF-KB hence, it is chosen as drug in the current study. To avoid its low bio-availability, high dosage and poor aqueous solubility, curcumin nanoparticles are prepared and loaded in naturally available biopolymers like chitosan and bovine serum albumin (BSA) by nanoprecipitation method at pH 6.3. The prepared nanoformulation was then characterized for surface morphology, particle size, polydispersity index, FT-IR spectra, UV–Visible spectrometer, confocal microscopy and in vitro cytotoxicity studies. Results showed that sizes of the prepared nanoparticles were ranged between 181 and 363 nm and curcumin-loaded particles were selectively targeting colorectal carcinoma cells effectively when concentration gets increased. So this study proved that BSA–chitosan based nanoparticles can be used as an efficient vehicle for effective curcumin delivery in treatment of cancer cells.

  20. Analysis of the bovine monocyte-derived macrophage response to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection using RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura E Casey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Johne’s disease, caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, (MAP, is a chronic intestinal disease of ruminants with serious economic consequences for cattle production in the United States and elsewhere. During infection, MAP bacilli are phagocytosed and subvert host macrophage processes, resulting in subclinical infections that can lead to immunopathology and dissemination of disease. Analysis of the host macrophage transcriptome during infection can therefore shed light on the molecular mechanisms and host-pathogen interplay associated with Johne’s disease. Here we describe results of an in vitro study of the bovine monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM transcriptome response during MAP infection using RNA-seq. MDM were obtained from seven age- and sex-matched Holstein-Friesian cattle and were infected with MAP across a six-hour infection time course with non-infected controls. We observed 245 and 574 differentially expressed genes in MAP-infected versus non-infected control samples (adjusted P value ≤ 0.05 at 2 and 6 hours post-infection, respectively. Functional analyses of these differentially expressed genes, including biological pathway enrichment, highlighted potential functional roles for genes that have not been previously described in the host response to infection with MAP bacilli. In addition, differential expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes, such as those associated with the IL-10 signaling pathway, and other immune-related genes that encode proteins involved in the bovine macrophage response to MAP infection emphasize the balance between protective host immunity and bacilli survival and proliferation. Systematic comparisons of RNA-seq gene expression results with Affymetrix® microarray data generated from the same experimental samples also demonstrated that RNA-seq represents a superior technology for studying host transcriptional responses to intracellular infection.

  1. Fabrication of Mineralized Collagen from Bovine Waste Materials by Hydrothermal Method as Promised Biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikh, Faheem A.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Macossay, Javier

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to produce mineralized-collagen by hydrothermal process. A simple method not depending on additional foreign chemicals has been employed to isolate the mineralized-collagen fibers from bovine waste. The process of extraction involves the use of hydrothermal method...

  2. Development and Application of a PCR Approach for Detection of Bovis, Sheep, Pig, and Chicken Derived Materials in Feedstuff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Jia-qin; WANG Jia-qi; BU Deng-pan; LI Dan; WANG Li; WEI Hong-yang; ZHOU Ling-yun

    2008-01-01

    A PCR method for detection of bovis, sheep, pig, and chicken derived materials in feedstuff was established, and the existing method was improved according to the research on general primer and species-specific primers. First, general primer designed according to 16S rRNA gene sequence of bovis, sheep, pig, chicken, fish, and horse mtDNA was used for primary detection of animal derived materials in feedstuff. Species-specific primers designed according to conserved sequence of mtDNA of bovis, sheep, pig, and chicken were used for amplification of a 271, 274, 149, and 266 bp fragment, respectively. Further confirmation of the detection result was then carried out. PCR method for detection of animal derived materials in unknown feedstuff was developed by using general primer, relevant PCR system, and PCR condition. Also a PCR method for detection of each species (bovines, sheep, pig, and chicken) was designed by using our species-specific primers. High sensitivity and specificity of our method were confirmed with a minimum detection level of 0.1%. Method for detection of animal derived materials in this research is not only cheap and easy for operation but also precise and reliable results can be obtained. It could be one of the effective methods for the detection of animal derived materials in feedstuff.

  3. Spectroscopic analysis on the binding interaction of biologically active pyrimidine derivative with bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas D. Suryawanshi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A biologically active antibacterial reagent, 2–amino-6-hydroxy–4–(4-N, N-dimethylaminophenyl-pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile (AHDMAPPC, was synthesized. It was employed to investigate the binding interaction with the bovine serum albumin (BSA in detail using different spectroscopic methods. It exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus which are common food poisoning bacteria. The experimental results showed that the fluorescence quenching of model carrier protein BSA by AHDMAPPC was due to static quenching. The site binding constants and number of binding sites (n≈1 were determined at three different temperatures based on fluorescence quenching results. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH, free energy (ΔG and entropy change (ΔS for the reaction were calculated to be 15.15 kJ/mol, –36.11 kJ/mol and 51.26 J/mol K according to van't Hoff equation, respectively. The results indicated that the reaction was an endothermic and spontaneous process, and hydrophobic interactions played a major role in the binding between drug and BSA. The distance between donor and acceptor is 2.79 nm according to Förster's theory. The alterations of the BSA secondary structure in the presence of AHDMAPPC were confirmed by UV–visible, synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. All these results indicated that AHDMAPPC can bind to BSA and be effectively transported and eliminated in the body. It can be a useful guideline for further drug design.

  4. Screening of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Mutants for Attenuation in a Bovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise A Lamont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination remains a major tool for prevention and progression of Johne’s disease, a chronic enteritis of ruminants worldwide. Currently there is only one licensed vaccine within the United States and two vaccines licensed internationally against Johne’s disease. All licensed vaccines reduce fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP and delay disease progression. However, there are no available vaccines that prevent disease onset. A joint effort by the Johne’s Disease Integrated Program (JDIP, a USDA-funded consortium, and USDA- APHIS/VS sought to identify transposon insertion mutant strains as vaccine candidates in part of a three phase study. The focus of the Phase I study was to evaluate MAP mutant attenuation in a well-defined in vitro bovine monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM model. Attenuation was determined by colony forming unit (CFUs counts and slope estimates. Based on CFU counts alone, the MDM model did not identify any mutant that significantly differed from the wild-type control, MAP K-10. Slope estimates using mixed models approach identified six mutants as being attenuated. These were enrolled in protection studies involving murine and baby goat vaccination-challenge models. MDM based approach identified trends in attenuation but this did not correlate with protection in a natural host model. These results suggest the need for alternative strategies for Johne’s disease vaccine candidate screening and evaluation.

  5. A Tetrameric Peptide Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibits Specific Cytotoxic Effects against Oral Squamous-Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarte, Víctor A.; Rosas, Jaiver E.; Rivera, Zuly J.; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L.; García, Javier E.; Vernot, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Several short linear peptides derived from cyclic bovine lactoferricin were synthesized and tested for their cytotoxic effect against the oral cavity squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines CAL27 and SCC15. As a control, an immortalized and nontumorigenic cell line, Het-1A, was used. Linear peptides based on the RRWQWR core sequence showed a moderate cytotoxic effect and specificity towards tumorigenic cells. A tetrameric peptide, LfcinB(20–25)4, containing the RRWQWR motif, exhibited greater cytotoxic activity (>90%) in both OSCC cell lines compared to the linear lactoferricin peptide or the lactoferrin protein. Additionally, this tetrameric peptide showed the highest specificity towards tumorigenic cells among the tested peptides. Interestingly, this effect was very fast, with cell shrinkage, severe damage to cell membrane permeability, and lysis within one hour of treatment. Our results are consistent with a necrotic effect rather than an apoptotic one and suggest that this tetrameric peptide could be considered as a new candidate for the therapeutic treatment of OSCC. PMID:26609531

  6. Peripheral blood-derived bovine dendritic cells promote IgG1-restricted B cell responses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna A; Garcia-Tapia, David; Jordan, Kimberly R; Haas, Karen M; Werling, Dirk; Howard, Chris J; Estes, D Mark

    2003-01-01

    Regulation of humoral responses involves multiple cell types including the requirements for cognate interactions between T and B cells to drive CD40-dependent responses to T-dependent antigens. A third cell type has also been shown to play an essential role, the dendritic cell (DC). We demonstrate that bovine peripheral blood-derived (PB)-DC are similar in function to features described for human interstitial DC including the production of signature type 2 cytokines [interleukin (IL)-13, IL-10]. PB-DC express moderate-to-high costimulatory molecule expression, and major histocompatibility complex class II is negative for CD14 expression and has low or no expression of CD11c. Consistent with the interstitial phenotype is the ability of PB-DC to influence B cell activation and differentiation via direct expression of CD40L and type 2 cytokines. Collectively, these results suggest that direct B cell-DC interactions may promote an immunoglobulin-isotype expression pattern consistent with type 2 responses, independent of direct T cell involvement.

  7. A Tetrameric Peptide Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibits Specific Cytotoxic Effects against Oral Squamous-Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor A. Solarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several short linear peptides derived from cyclic bovine lactoferricin were synthesized and tested for their cytotoxic effect against the oral cavity squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC cell lines CAL27 and SCC15. As a control, an immortalized and nontumorigenic cell line, Het-1A, was used. Linear peptides based on the RRWQWR core sequence showed a moderate cytotoxic effect and specificity towards tumorigenic cells. A tetrameric peptide, LfcinB(20–254, containing the RRWQWR motif, exhibited greater cytotoxic activity (>90% in both OSCC cell lines compared to the linear lactoferricin peptide or the lactoferrin protein. Additionally, this tetrameric peptide showed the highest specificity towards tumorigenic cells among the tested peptides. Interestingly, this effect was very fast, with cell shrinkage, severe damage to cell membrane permeability, and lysis within one hour of treatment. Our results are consistent with a necrotic effect rather than an apoptotic one and suggest that this tetrameric peptide could be considered as a new candidate for the therapeutic treatment of OSCC.

  8. Single Particle Dynamic Imaging and Fe3+ Sensing with Bright Carbon Dots Derived from Bovine Serum Albumin Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxiu; Wei, Lin; Zheng, Xuanfang; Xiao, Lehui

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrated a convenient and green strategy for the synthesis of highly luminescent and water-soluble carbon dots (Cdots) by carbonizing carbon precursors, i.e., Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles, in water solution. Without post surface modification, the as-synthesized Cdots exhibit fluorescence quantum yield (Q.Y.) as high as 34.8% and display superior colloidal stability not only in concentrated salt solutions (e.g. 2 M KCl) but also in a wide range of pH solutions. According to the FT-IR measurements, the Cdots contain many carboxyl groups, providing a versatile route for further chemical and biological functionalization. Through conjugation of Cdots with the transacting activator of transcription (TAT) peptide (a kind of cell penetration peptide (CPP)) derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is possible to directly monitor the dynamic interactions of CPP with living cell membrane at single particle level. Furthermore, these Cdots also exhibit a dosage-dependent selectivity toward Fe3+ among other metal ions, including K+, Na+, Mg2+, Hg2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Pb2+ and Al3+. We believed that the Cdots prepared by this strategy would display promising applications in various areas, including analytical chemistry, nanomedicine, biochemistry and so on.

  9. Spectroscopic Investigations of the Binding Interaction of a New Indanedione Derivative with Human and Bovine Serum Albumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Hillebrand

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Binding of a newly synthesized indanedione derivative, 2-(2-hydroxy-3-ethoxybenzylidene-1,3-indanedione (HEBID, to human and bovine serum albumins (HSA and BSA, under simulated physiological conditions was monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. The binding parameters (binding constants and number of binding sites and quenching constants were determined according to literature models. The quenching mechanism was assigned to a Förster non-radiative energy transfer due to the HEBID-SA complex formation. A slightly increased affinity of HEBID for HSA was found, while the number of binding sites is approximately one for both albumins. The molecular distance between donor (albumin and acceptor (HEBID and the energy transfer efficiency were estimated, in the view of Förster’s theory. The effect of HEBID on the protein conformation was investigated using circular dichroism and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopies. The results revealed partial unfolding in the albumins upon interaction, as well as changes in the local polarity around the tryptophan residues

  10. Computational Study Exploring the Interaction Mechanism of Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potent Cattle Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghui; Yang, Yinfeng; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-07-27

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections are prevailing in cattle populations on a worldwide scale. The BVDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), as a promising target for new anti-BVDV drug development, has attracted increasing attention. To explore the interaction mechanism of 65 benzimidazole scaffold-based derivatives as BVDV inhibitors, presently, a computational study was performed based on a combination of 3D-QSAR, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The resultant optimum CoMFA and CoMSIA models present proper reliabilities and strong predictive abilities (with Q(2) = 0. 64, R(2)ncv = 0.93, R(2)pred = 0.80 and Q(2) = 0. 65, R(2)ncv = 0.98, R(2)pred = 0.86, respectively). In addition, there was good concordance between these models, molecular docking, and MD results. Moreover, the MM-PBSA energy analysis reveals that the major driving force for ligand binding is the polar solvation contribution term. Hopefully, these models and the obtained findings could offer better understanding of the interaction mechanism of BVDV inhibitors as well as benefit the new discovery of more potent BVDV inhibitors.

  11. Characteristics of and sorption to biochars derived from waste material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huichao; Kah, Melanie; Sigmund, Gabriel; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Biochars can exhibit a high sorption potential towards heavy metals and organic contaminants in various environmental matrices (e.g., water, soil). They have therefore been proposed for environmental remediation purposes to sequester contaminants. To date, most studies have focused on the physicochemical and sorption properties of mineral phases poor biochars, which are typically produced from plant residues. Only little knowledge is available for biochars derived from human and animal waste material, which are typically characterized by high mineral contents (e.g., sewage sludge, manure). Using human and animal waste as source material to produce biochars would support the development of attractive combined strategies for waste management and remediation. The potential impact of mineral phases on the physicochemical and sorption properties of biochars requires further studies so that the potential as sorbent material can be evaluated. With this purpose, different source material biochars were produced at 200°C, 350°C and 500°C, to yield a series of biochars representing a range of mineral content. The derived biochars from wood shavings (heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) of all materials were within the guidelines values proposed by the International Biochar Initiative, indicating their suitability for environmental application. Single point sorption coefficients for the model sorbate pyrene were measured to investigate the effect of mineral content, feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, particle size fractions and acid demineralization on sorption behavior. Overall, sorption of pyrene was strong for all materials (4 < Log Kd < 6.5 L/kg). Sorption generally increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature but there was no effect of particle size on sorption affinity. For mineral phase rich biochars, sorption generally increased after acid demineralization. When considering all materials together, the sorbent aromaticity (hydrogen-carbon ratio) was

  12. Isolation, in vitro culture and identification of a new type of mesenchymal stem cell derived from fetal bovine lung tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengfei; Pu, Yabin; Li, Xiayun; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuhua; Guan, Weijun; Ma, Yuehui

    2015-09-01

    Lung‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (LMSCs) are considered to be important in lung tissue repair and regenerative processes. However, the biological characteristics and differentiation potential of LMSCs remain to be elucidated. In the present study, fetal lung‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (FLMSCs) were isolated from fetal bovine lung tissues by collagenase digestion. The in vitro culture conditions were optimized and stabilized and the self‑renewal ability and differentiation potential were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the FLMSCs were morphologically consistent with fibroblasts, were able to be cultured and passaged for at least 33 passages and the cell morphology and proliferative ability were stable during the first 10 passages. In addition, FLMSCs were found to express CD29, CD44, CD73 and CD166, however, they did not express hematopoietic cell specific markers, including CD34, CD45 and BOLA‑DRα. The growth kinetics of FLMSCs consisted of a lag phase, a logarithmic phase and a plateau phase, and as the passages increased, the proliferative ability of cells gradually decreased. The majority of FLMSCs were in G0/G1 phase. Following osteogenic induction, FLMSCs were positive for the expression of osteopontin and collagen type I α2. Following neurogenic differentiation, the cells were morphologically consistent with neuronal cells and positive for microtubule‑associated protein 2 and nestin expression. It was concluded that the isolated FLMSCs exhibited typical characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells and that the culture conditions were suitable for their proliferation and the maintenance of stemness. The present study illustrated the potential application of lung tissue as an adult stem cell source for regenerative therapies.

  13. Effects of in vitro growth culture duration and prematuration culture on maturational and developmental competences of bovine oocytes derived from early antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiping; Nagano, Masashi; Kang, Sung-Sik; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2013-10-15

    Bovine ovaries offer a large pool of oocytes that could be used for in vitro production of embryos of genetically valuable animals. The effects of in vitro growth (IVG) culture duration (10, 12, and 14 days) on the viability and growth of bovine oocytes derived from early antral follicles (0.5-1 mm diameter) in this study. In addition, the effect of pre-IVM culture with phosphodiesterase inhibitor (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) on nuclear maturation of IVG oocytes was also evaluated. In experiment 1, oocyte viability observed after 10 or 12 days of IVG culture was greater (P culture. Oocyte diameters and proportions of oocytes at metaphase II stage were greater (P culture where used when compared with 10 days culture. In addition, the proportion of oocytes at metaphase II stage was greater (P culture was performed for oocytes derived from 12 and 14 days of IVG culture. When 12 and 14 days of IVG culture followed by pre-IVM culture were compared in experiment 2, cumulus cell membrane integrity was greater (P culture (24.5%) was greater (P culture was considered the optimal processing system for bovine oocytes derived from early antral follicles when oocyte viability, diameter, maturation, and development competences were considered.

  14. Dense velocity reconstruction from tomographic PTV with material derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Jan F. G.; Scarano, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    A method is proposed to reconstruct the instantaneous velocity field from time-resolved volumetric particle tracking velocimetry (PTV, e.g., 3D-PTV, tomographic PTV and Shake-the-Box), employing both the instantaneous velocity and the velocity material derivative of the sparse tracer particles. The constraint to the measured temporal derivative of the PTV particle tracks improves the consistency of the reconstructed velocity field. The method is christened as pouring time into space, as it leverages temporal information to increase the spatial resolution of volumetric PTV measurements. This approach becomes relevant in cases where the spatial resolution is limited by the seeding concentration. The method solves an optimization problem to find the vorticity and velocity fields that minimize a cost function, which includes next to instantaneous velocity, also the velocity material derivative. The velocity and its material derivative are related through the vorticity transport equation, and the cost function is minimized using the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) algorithm. The procedure is assessed numerically with a simulated PTV experiment in a turbulent boundary layer from a direct numerical simulation (DNS). The experimental validation considers a tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiment in a similar turbulent boundary layer and the additional case of a jet flow. The proposed technique (`vortex-in-cell plus', VIC+) is compared to tomographic PIV analysis (3D iterative cross-correlation), PTV interpolation methods (linear and adaptive Gaussian windowing) and to vortex-in-cell (VIC) interpolation without the material derivative. A visible increase in resolved details in the turbulent structures is obtained with the VIC+ approach, both in numerical simulations and experiments. This results in a more accurate determination of the turbulent stresses distribution in turbulent boundary layer investigations. Data from a jet

  15. Malignant Tumor Derived from Skin Melanocytes of a Bovine of Unusual Presentation: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Chaves Velásquez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Melanocytic tumors and melanomas in domestic animals include neoplasms composed of melanin-producing cells. In cattle, these tumors are rare and mostly benign, while malignant tumors are almost non-existent. The article reports the case of a female crossbred cow 38 months of age with a fluctuating mass located between the mandibular border and the left parotid region, about three months duration, with evident growth in the last thirty days. After surgical excision, a sample preserved in buffered formalin (10% was sent to the Laboratory of Pathology (University of Nariño—consisting of a fragment of 7.0 × 10.5 × 8.0 cm, ellipsoid, with skin and hair on one side, irregular surface, blackish brown, semi-soft consistency, and presence of shear translucent slimy content—for processing and inclusion in paraffin, cut to 5 μm thickness and stained with hematoxylin-eosin coloration. The forwarded tissue was classified as a neoplasm of malignant behavior derived from melanocytes, due to its cellular characteristics: growth pattern, pattern of distribution, severe cellular pleomorphism, anisocytosis, megalocytosis, nuclear pleomorphism, anisokaryosis, megalokaryosis, and involvement of blood vessel walls; additionally, the paraffin block was cut for immunohistochemical processing using monoclonal markers (S-100 DAKO® and Melan A DAKO®, contrasted with Mayer’s hematoxylin. Strong immunostaining of neoplastic cells is evident, and it constitutes the first reported case of this disease in Nariño (Colombia.

  16. Characterization of implant materials in fetal bovine serum and sodium sulfate by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. II. Coarsely sandblasted samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contu, F; Elsener, B; Böhni, H

    2003-10-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to investigate the corrosion resistance of coarsely sandblasted implant alloys, commercially pure titanium, Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, and CoCrMo in 0.1M sodium sulfate and fetal bovine serum. Coarsely sandblasted samples have a heterogeneous surface constituted by a large number of protrusions and recessions. Impedance spectra collected in sodium sulfate present two time constants (maxima in the phase-angle of the bode plot) associated with the total surface and with the tips, respectively. In bovine serum, the two maxima in the impedance spectra cannot be distinguished because of the formation of an adsorption layer of organic molecules, which causes a decrease in the values of both the total and tips' capacitances as well as an increase in the polarization resistance. Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb show the highest corrosion rate both in serum and in sodium sulfate. Based on the capacitance values obtained in sodium sulfate, the real surface area of the coarsely sandblasted electrodes has been estimated relative to mechanically polished surfaces. The values of the effective electrode area correlate with the mechanical properties of the samples: in fact, the softest electrode (commercially pure titanium) shows the largest effective electrode area, whereas the hardest material (CoCrMo alloy) shows the smallest surface area.

  17. Effects of oocyte quality, incubation time and maturation environment on the number of chromosomal abnormalities in IVF-derived early bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyda-Peyrás, Sebastian; Dorado, Jesus; Hidalgo, Manuel; Anter, Jaouad; De Luca, Leonardo; Genero, Enrique; Moreno-Millán, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are one of the major causes of embryo developmental failures in mammals. The occurrence of these types of abnormalities is higher in in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of oocyte morphology and maturation conditions on the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in bovine preimplantational embryos. To this end, 790 early cattle embryos derived from oocytes with different morphologies and matured under different conditions, including maturation period (24 v. 36h) and maturation media (five different serum supplements in TCM-199), were evaluated cytogenetically in three sequential experiments. The rates of normal diploidy and abnormal haploidy, polyploidy and aneuploidy were determined in each embryo. Throughout all the experiments, the rate of chromosomal abnormalities was significantly (P<0.05) affected by oocyte morphology and maturation conditions (maturation time and culture medium). Lower morphological quality was associated with a high rate of chromosome abnormalities (P<0.05). Moreover, polyploidy was associated with increased maturation time (P<0.01), whereas the maturation medium significantly (P<0.05) affected the rates of haploidy and polyploidy. In general, supplementing the maturation medium with oestrous cow serum or fetal calf serum resulted in higher rates of chromosomal aberrations (P<0.05) compared with the other serum supplements tested (bovine steer serum, anoestroues cow serum, bovine amniotic fluid and bovine serum albumin). On the basis of the results of the present study, we conclude that the morphological quality of oocytes and the maturation conditions affect the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in IVP bovine embryos.

  18. Administration of bovine casein-derived peptide prevents cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease model mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuda, Kana; Yamada, Akio; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Iwanami, Jun; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in identifying natural food ingredients that may serve to prevent dementia such as that due to Alzheimer disease (AD). Peptides derived from food proteins have been demonstrated to have various physiological activities such as a hypotensive action. Recent findings have indicated possible associations of hypertension with AD progression, and suggest that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors with potential to pass through the blood brain barrier (BBB) may reduce the risk of AD. In this study, we investigated the effect of milk peptide (CH-3) on cognitive function in AD model mice. CH-3 contains a tripeptide (methionine-lysine-proline, MKP) that has been found to have a strong ACE inhibitory effect and the potential to pass through the BBB. Adult male ddY mice were used in this study, and an animal model of AD was induced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ1–42. CH-3 (250 mg/kg/day) or MKP (0.5 mg/kg/day) was orally administered every day starting 2 days before ICV injection. At 3 weeks after ICV injection, cognitive function was evaluated by the Morris water maze test. Brain samples were obtained after behavioral testing, and expression of inflammatory cytokines and NADPH oxidase subunits was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. ICV injection of Aβ1–42 significantly impaired cognitive function compared with that in PBS-injected mice. Daily administration of CH-3 markedly attenuated this Aβ1-42-induced cognitive decline. Aβ1–42 injection significantly enhanced the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and p22phox in the mouse hippocampus compared with PBS injection, and showed a tendency to increase the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), p47phox and gp91phox, whereas CH-3 treatment markedly reduced Aβ1-42-induced TNF-α, MCP-1, iNOS, p47phox and gp91phox expression. Finally, administration of MKP also attenuated Aβ1-42-induced

  19. Suppression of MMP activity in bovine cartilage explants cultures has little if any effect on the release of aggrecanase-derived aggrecan fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Bijue; Chen, Pingping; Jensen, Anne-Christine Bay

    2009-01-01

    - and aggrecanase-derived fragments of aggrecan and type II collagen into the supernatant of bovine cartilage explants cultures using neo-epitope specific immunoassays, and to associate the release of these fragments with the activity of proteolytic enzymes using inhibitors. FINDINGS: Bovine cartilage explants were...... cultured in the presence or absence of the catabolic cytokines oncostatin M (OSM) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). In parallel, explants were co-cultured with protease inhibitors such as GM6001, TIMP1, TIMP2 and TIMP3. Fragments released into the supernatant were determined using a range of neo......-epitope specific immunoassays; (1) sandwich (342)FFGVG-G2 ELISA, (2) competition NITEGE(373)ELISA (3) sandwich G1-NITEGE(373 )ELISA (4) competition (374)ARGSV ELISA, and (5) sandwich (374)ARGSV-G2 ELISA all detecting aggrecan fragments, and (6) sandwich CTX-II ELISA, detecting C-telopeptides of type II collagen...

  20. A model for acoustic absorbent materials derived from coconut fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramis, J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a methodology is proposed for obtaining empirical equations describing the sound absorption characteristics of an absorbing material obtained from natural fibers, specifically from coconut. The method, which was previously applied to other materials, requires performing measurements of air-flow resistivity and of acoustic impedance for samples of the material under study. The equations that govern the acoustic behavior of the material are then derived by means of a least-squares fit of the acoustic impedance and of the propagation constant. These results can be useful since they allow the empirically obtained analytical equations to be easily incorporated in prediction and simulation models of acoustic systems for noise control that incorporate the studied materials.En este trabajo se describe el proceso seguido para obtener ecuaciones empíricas del comportamiento acústico de un material absorbente obtenido a partir de fibras naturales, concretamente el coco. El procedimiento, que ha sido ensayado con éxito en otros materiales, implica la realización de medidas de impedancia y resistencia al flujo de muestras del material bajo estudio. Las ecuaciones que gobiernan el comportamiento desde el punto de vista acústico del material se obtienen a partir del ajuste de ecuaciones de comportamiento de la impedancia acústica y la constante de propagación del material. Los resultados son útiles ya que, al disponer de ecuaciones analíticas obtenidas empíricamente, facilitan la incorporación de estos materiales en predicciones mediante métodos numéricos del comportamiento cuando son instalados formando parte de dispositivos para el control del ruido.

  1. Nanoporous Carbide-Derived Carbon Material-Based Linear Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janno Torop

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Devices using electroactive polymer-supported carbon material can be exploited as alternatives to conventional electromechanical actuators in applications where electromechanical actuators have some serious deficiencies. One of the numerous examples is precise microactuators. In this paper, we show for first time the dilatometric effect in nanocomposite material actuators containing carbide-derived carbon (CDC and polytetrafluoroetylene polymer (PTFE. Transducers based on high surface area carbide-derived carbon electrode materials are suitable for short range displacement applications, because of the proportional actuation response to the charge inserted, and high Coulombic efficiency due to the EDL capacitance. The material is capable of developing stresses in the range of tens of N cm-2. The area of an actuator can be dozens of cm2, which means that forces above 100 N are achievable. The actuation mechanism is based on the interactions between the high-surface carbon and the ions of the electrolyte. Electrochemical evaluations of the four different actuators with linear (longitudinal action response are described. The actuator electrodes were made from two types of nanoporous TiC-derived carbons with surface area (SA of 1150 m2 g-1 and 1470 m2 g-1, respectively. Two kinds of electrolytes were used in actuators: 1.0 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4 solution in propylene carbonate and pure ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (EMITf. It was found that CDC based actuators exhibit a linear movement of about 1% in the voltage range of 0.8 V to 3.0 V at DC. The actuators with EMITf electrolyte had about 70% larger movement compared to the specimen with TEABF4 electrolyte.

  2. Structural, compositional, mechanical characterization and biological assessment of bovine-derived hydroxyapatite coatings reinforced with MgF{sub 2} or MgO for implants functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihailescu, Natalia [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); Stan, G.E. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); Duta, L. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, Bucharest RO-060101 (Romania); Bleotu, Coralia [Stefan S. Nicolau Institute of Virology, 85 Mihai Bravu Avenue, Bucharest RO-030304 (Romania); Sopronyi, M.; Luculescu, C. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); Oktar, F.N. [Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Marmara University, Goztepe, Istanbul TR-34722 (Turkey); Advance Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Marmara University, Goztepe, Istanbul TR-34722 (Turkey); Mihailescu, I.N., E-mail: ion.mihailescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania)

    2016-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a consecrated biomaterial for bone reconstruction. In the form of thin films deposited by pulsed laser technologies, it can be used to cover metallic implants aiming to increase biocompatibility and osseointegration rate. HA of animal origin (bovine, BHA) reinforced with MgF{sub 2} (2 wt.%) or MgO (5 wt.%) were used for deposition of thin coatings with improved adherence, biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity. For pulsed laser deposition experiments, a KrF* (λ = 248 nm, τ{sub FWHM} ≤ 25 ns) excimer laser source was used. The deposited structures were characterized from a physical–chemical point of view by X-Ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy in top- and cross-view modes, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy and Pull-out adherence tests. The microbiological assay using the HEp-2 cell line revealed that all target materials and deposited thin films are non-cytotoxic. We conducted tests on three strains isolated from patients with dental implants failure, i.e. Microccocus sp., Enterobacter sp. and Candida albicans sp. The most significant anti-biofilm effect against Microcococcus sp. strain, at 72 h, was obtained in the presence of BHA:MgO thin films. For Enterobacter sp. strain a superior antimicrobial activity at 72 h was noticed, in respect with simple BHA or Ti control. The enhanced antimicrobial performances, correlated with good cytocompatibility and mechanical properties recommend these biomaterials as an alternative to synthetic HA for the fabrication of reliable implant coatings for dentistry and other applications. - Highlights: • Novel biological derived HA coatings fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. • Renewable resources • Reinforcement with MgF{sub 2} and MgO improves the HA coatings' bonding strength. • Significant anti-biofilm effect obtained for MgO reinforced HA films. • Alternative low cost solutions for a new generation of dental implants.

  3. Ozone (O/sub 3/)-induced augmentation of eicosanoid metabolism in cultured epithelial cells derived from bovine trachea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leikauf, G.D.; Driscoll, K.; Weideman, P.; Lippmann, M.

    1986-03-05

    Epithelial damage and inflammation have been implicated in ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Because O/sub 3/ is relatively insoluble and highly reactive, initiating effects of this compound are likely limited to the epithelium. To examine eicosanoid metabolism following exposure to 0.1-10.0 ppm O/sub 3/, epithelial cell monolayers derived from bovine trachea were alternately exposed to O/sub 3/ and culture medium for 2h by rotating on inclined platforms. After control exposures, basal release rates determined by RIA were: PG(Prostaglandin) E/sub 2/ = 93.0(19.6), PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../=4.0(1.3), 6kPGF/sub 1..cap alpha../=4.9(0.9), Tx (Thromboxane) B/sub 2/=3.9(0.9), LT(Leukotriene)B/sub 4/=0.6(0.4)pg/cm/sup 2/ x h (mean (SE), n=6 to 22). After 0.1 ppm release of PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and 6kPGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ increased to 35.5(6.5) and 14.0(1.1)pg/cm/sup 2/ x h, while PGE/sub 2/ decreased to 76.5 (20.7). Thus, the F/sub 2..cap alpha..//E/sub 2/ ratio changed from 3.9(control) to 46.4% (0.1 ppm). Higher O/sub 3/ levels produced dose-dependent increases in cyclooxygenase product release with maximal rates occurring at 4.1 ppm (PGE/sub 2/ = 1170(314), PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../=26.9(8.2), 6kPGF/sub 1..cap alpha../=28.5(6.7)). Lipoxygenase products were much lower and unchanged by O/sub 3/ concentrations < 4.1 ppm. At 4.1 ppm, however, LTB/sub 4/ rates did increase to 4.3(0.9). After 10 ppm, all rates declined along with a decline in cell viability (98.8 to 93.0%). These findings suggest that environmentally relevant levels of O/sub 3/ augments cyclooxygenase and, at higher concentrations, lipoxygenase metabolism.

  4. Tailoring material properties of a nanofibrous extracellular matrix derived hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Todd D.; Lin, Stephen Y.; Christman, Karen L.

    2011-12-01

    In the native tissue, the interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, mechanical stability, and signaling. It has been shown that decellularized ECMs can be processed into injectable formulations, thereby allowing for minimally invasive delivery. Upon injection and increase in temperature, these materials self-assemble into porous gels forming a complex network of fibers with nanoscale structure. In this study we aimed to examine and tailor the material properties of a self-assembling ECM hydrogel derived from porcine myocardial tissue, which was developed as a tissue specific injectable scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering. The impact of gelation parameters on ECM hydrogels has not previously been explored. We examined how modulating pH, temperature, ionic strength, and concentration affected the nanoscale architecture, mechanical properties, and gelation kinetics. These material characteristics were assessed using scanning electron microscopy, rheometry, and spectrophotometry, respectively. Since the main component of the myocardial matrix is collagen, many similarities between the ECM hydrogel and collagen gels were observed in terms of the nanofibrous structure and modulation of properties by altering ionic strength. However, variation from collagen gels was noted for the gelation temperature along with varied times and rates of gelation. These discrepancies when compared to collagen are likely due to the presence of other ECM components in the decellularized ECM based hydrogel. These results demonstrate how the material properties of ECM hydrogels could be tailored for future in vitro and in vivo applications.

  5. Process for stabilizing the viscosity characteristics of coal derived materials and the stabilized materials obtained thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronfenbrenner, James C. (Allentown, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Allentown, PA); Tewari, Krishna (Allentown, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A process is disclosed for stabilizing the viscosity of coal derived materials such as an SRC product by adding up to 5.0% by weight of a light volatile phenolic viscosity repressor. The viscosity will remain stabilized for a period of time of up to 4 months.

  6. Process for stabilizing the viscosity characteristics of coal derived materials and the stabilized materials obtained thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronfenbrenner, J.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-11-26

    A process is disclosed for stabilizing the viscosity of coal derived materials such as an SRC product by adding up to 5.0% by weight of a light volatile phenolic viscosity repressor. The viscosity will remain stabilized for a period of time of up to 4 months.

  7. Factors affecting the outcome of in vitro bovine embryo production using ovum pick-up-derived cumulus oocyte complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merton, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Optimization of bovine ovum pick up (OPU) followed by in vitro embryo production (IVP) has been driven by the desire of both beef and dairy cattle breeders to enhance genetic improvement. The work presented in this thesis focuses on optimizing the efficiency and efficacy of the OPU-IVP program. Atte

  8. Bovine tunica vaginalis: a new material for umbilical hernioplasty in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Abass

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fresh patches of bovine tunica vaginalis (BTV, was used as implants for the repair of experimentally-created umbilical hernias in eight sheep. The scrotum were harvested immediately after slaughter and thoroughly washed with sterile distilled water for 5-7 times. The scrotal skin together with the fatty tissues and the loose connective tissues and the tunica adventitia were mechanically stripped by means of a sterile surgical knife, and finally washed with sterile physiological saline solution for 5-7 times. The prepared patches were immersed in the sterile saline solution and preserved at 2-4 ºC in sterile jars, ready for use within 4 hrs from their harvesting for hernioplasty of sheep umbilical hernias. The eight implanted grafts were examined clinically and histologically, and all were successfully healed except one (87.5%. Clinically, the successfully implanted BTV patches didn't show signs of rejection, except for the presence of cardinal signs of local inflammatory reaction which were subsided 48 hrs post-operation, and disappeared within 4-5 days post-operation. The healing processes showed no significant abnormalities, except for the occurrence of a few simple multifocal stitch abscess infections. The histopathological examinations showed invasion of dense fibrous connective tissues, consisted of heavy bundles of collagen fibers, through which newly formed capillaries and mononuclear inflammatory cells and melanin pigments deposition, were infiltrated through the graft. As a first report on this new tissue implant in sheep, BTV is proved to be a suitable biocompatible heterogenic surgical patch for reconstruction of umbilical hernias, because of its availability as a cheap tissue, with a high tensile strength and flexibility. However, further investigation is required regarding preservation efficiency and employment for reconstruction of soft tissue defects in man and animals.

  9. Towards accurate structural characterization of metal centres in protein crystals: the structures of Ni and Cu T6 bovine insulin derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Christian Grundahl; Mossin, Susanne; Ståhl, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    Using synchrotron radiation (SR), the crystal structures of T6 bovine insulin complexed with Ni2+ and Cu2+ were solved to 1.50 and 1.45 Å resolution, respectively. The level of detail around the metal centres in these structures was highly limited, and the coordination of water in Cu site II...... of the copper insulin derivative was deteriorated as a consequence of radiation damage. To provide more detail, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to improve the information level about metal coordination in each derivative. The nickel derivative contains hexacoordinated Ni2+ with trigonal symmetry...... towards lower coordination numbers. Primary damage, i.e. photoreduction, was followed directly by XANES as a function of radiation dose, while secondary damage in the form of structural changes around the Cu atoms after exposure to different radiation doses was studied by crystallography using...

  10. Differences in Virulence Between Bovine-Derived Clinical Isolates of Pasteurella multocida Serotype A from the UK and the USA in a Model of Bovine Pneumonic Pasteurellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagleish, M P; Bayne, C W; Moon, G G; Finlayson, J; Sales, J; Williams, J; Hodgson, J C

    2016-07-01

    The time of onset and subsequent degree and progression of clinical signs, bacterial colonization and tissue pathology during experimental disease induced by intratracheal inoculation of either a UK or USA isolate of Pasteurella multocida serotype A recovered from clinical cases of bovine pneumonia were determined. Calves aged 8 weeks were challenged with 300 ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS) alone (group 1, n = 3, negative control) or containing 7.1 × 10(8) colony forming units (cfu) of UK isolate (group 2, n = 8) or 5.8 × 10(8) cfu of USA isolate (group 3, n = 8). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at 0, 1 and 4 days post challenge (dpc) and at the time of necropsy examination (7-8 dpc) showed no significant differences between groups 2 and 3 in bacterial numbers recovered. No P. multocida were recovered from group 1 animals. No clinical disease was present in group 1 calves and in group 3 was limited to scour in 1 calf at 1 dpc. All calves in group 2 had reduced food intake at 4-5 dpc, five had periods of dullness, three a mild nasal discharge at 1 dpc, four had mild to substantial respiratory stridor and one was killed at 6 dpc for humane reasons. Rectal temperatures remained about 39°C in group 1 calves, but increased in P. multocida-challenged calves to 40-41°C within 8-12 h of challenge. Significantly (P = 0.01) greater percentages of lung surface area were consolidated in group 2 (mean ± SD, 21 ± 10.1) compared with group 3 (7 ± 8.6) calves. Significantly more extensive and severe histological lesions were present in the lung lobes (P = 0.006) and lymph nodes (P = 0.02) of group 2 compared with group 3 calves. Pleurisy was present in group 2 calves only and no pathology was present in group 1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) produced 11 (group 2, UK isolate) or 10 (group 3, USA isolate) bands with differences in banding patterns. Results overall showed that two isolates, distinct geographically and genetically (by PFGE

  11. Synthesis of phthalocyanine derivatives as materials for organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo-Ramos, Aura

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are used to convert sunlight into electricity by using thin films of organic semiconductors. OPVs have the potential to produce low cost, lightweight, flexible devices with an eased manufacturing process. This technology contains the potential to increase the use of clean, sustainable solar energy, helping manage the global energy and environmental crisis that results majorly from the constant use of fossil fuels as an energy source. The ability to modulate the physical properties of organic molecules by tuning their chemical structure is an advantage for OPVs. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are highly pi-conjugated synthetic porphyrin analogs that have been explored as active layer components in OPVs due to their high extinction coefficients and hole mobilities. The Pc structure can be modified by the introduction of metals in the core and the incorporation of substituents into the periphery. These modifications tend to tune the solubility, photophysical properties and condensed phase organization of Pcs. The research work in this dissertation describes improved methods towards substituted Pc derivatives addressing: (1) the use of mass spectrometry techniques for Pcs characterization, (2) efforts to achieve materials with near-infrared (NIR) absorption, and (3) the potential of Pc as electron-acceptor materials. Herein, the synthesis of a series of asymmetric and symmetric metallated Pcs has been established, which resulted in interesting chemical, photophysical and electrochemical properties. The materials investigated in this thesis increase the potential of Pcs as organic semiconductors for OPVs.

  12. Recent Advances in Nanocomposite Materials of Graphene Derivatives with Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Terzopoulou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review article presents the recent advances in syntheses and applications of nanocomposites consisting of graphene derivatives with various polysaccharides. Graphene has recently attracted much interest in the materials field due to its unique 2D structure and outstanding properties. To follow, the physical and mechanical properties of graphene are then introduced. However it was observed that the synthesis of graphene-based nanocomposites had become one of the most important research frontiers in the application of graphene. Therefore, this review also summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis of graphene nanocomposites with polysaccharides, which are abundant in nature and are easily synthesized bio-based polymers. Polysaccharides can be classified in various ways such as cellulose, chitosan, starch, and alginates, each group with unique and different properties. Alginates are considered to be ideal for the preparation of nanocomposites with graphene derivatives due to their environmental-friendly potential. The characteristics of such nanocomposites are discussed here and are compared with regard to their mechanical properties and their various applications.

  13. Presence of central nervous system tissues as bovine spongiform encephalopathy specified risk material in Turkish raw meat ball (cig kofte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Hulusi DİNÇOĞLU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE is a virulent disease which may infect by affecting the central nervous system (CNS tissues in cattle and causes degeneration in nerves. Central nervous system tissues such as brain and spinal cord which are classified as specified risk materials (SRMs are regarded to be main source of infection. The contamination of the meat with the specific risk materials (SRMs can occur in phases of slaughter, fragmentation of carcass and processing. This study was conducted in order to investigate the existence of CNS tissues in raw meat ball (cig kofte which is commonly consumed in the Southeastern Region of Turkey, particularly in Şanlıurfa. For this purpose, 145 samples of raw meat ball were tested. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits (Ridascreen risk material 10/5, R-biofarm GmbH which determine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP as determinant were used. As a result of the analyses, positivity was detected in 21 of totally 145 samples of raw meat ball (14.48%. 6 (4.14% of the samples gave low level of positivity (≥ 0.1 standard absorbance, 10 (6.90% gave medium level of positivity (>0.2 standard absorbance and 5 (3.45% gave high level of positivity (≥0.5 standard absorbance. As a consequence, meats are contaminated in any phase of both slaughter and meat production even if accidentally. Regarding this matter, necessary measures should be taken and hygiene rules should be applied.

  14. Effect of envelope material on biosecurity during emergency bovine mortality composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, T D; Ahn, H K; Richard, T L; Harmon, J D; Reynolds, D L; Akinc, S

    2013-02-01

    The biosecurity of composting as an emergency disposal method for cattle mortalities caused by disease was evaluated by conducting full-scale field trials begun during three different seasons and using three different envelope materials. Process biosecurity was significantly affected by the envelope material used to construct the composting matrix. Internal temperatures met USEPA Class A time/temperature criteria for pathogen reduction in 89%, 67%, and 22%, respectively of seasonal test units constructed with corn silage, straw/manure, or ground cornstalks. In trials begun in the winter, survival times of vaccine strains of avian encephalomyelitis and Newcastle disease virus were noticeably shorter in silage test units than in the other two materials, but during summer/spring trials survival times in ground cornstalk and straw/manure test units were similar to those in test units constructed with silage.

  15. Properties of Frankfurter-type Sausages with Pork Back-fat Replaced with Bovine Heart Surimi-like Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin-Kyu; Yum, Hyeon-Woong; Kim, Gap-Don; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Yang, Han-Sul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of bovine heart surimi-like material (BHSM) used as a back fat replacer, on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages. Frankfurter-type sausage with added BHSM had a higher moisture content and lower fat content than the control. In addition, the samples with added BHSM had higher pH, cooking loss and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value and lower water exudation than the control. The sausage formulation with 40% BHSM was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation without affecting cooking loss compared to the 60% BHSM treatment sample. Results showed that hardness values increased upon replacement with BHSM, and sausages manufactured with 40% BHSM had higher lightness and lower redness values. Panelists found there were no differences in color, odor, and tenderness scores and the overall acceptability score found that treatment samples containing 20% and 40% BHSM were preferable to the control after storage for 14 d. These results indicate that fat replacement with BHSM was beneficial to the quality of frankfurter-type sausages, and acceptable reduced-fat products can be produced when back fat is replaced with up to 40% BHSM. PMID:27621694

  16. Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity against E. coli ATCC 11775, S. maltophilia ATCC 13636 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly De Jesús Huertas Méndez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B–containing non-natural amino acids and the RWQWR motif were synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. The antibacterial activity of peptides against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13636, and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. The synthetic bovine lactoferricin exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli ATCC 11775 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR2K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. The monomeric, cyclic, tetrameric, and palindromic peptides containing the RWQWR motif exhibited high and specific activity against E. coli ATCC 11775. The results suggest that short peptides derived from lactoferricin B could be considered as potential candidates for the development of antibacterial agents against infections caused by E. coli.

  17. Global gene expression and systems biology analysis of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages in response to in vitro challenge with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Magee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality in global cattle populations. Macrophages are among the first cell types to encounter M. bovis following exposure and the response elicited by these cells is pivotal in determining the outcome of infection. Here, a functional genomics approach was undertaken to investigate global gene expression profiles in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM purified from seven age-matched non-related females, in response to in vitro challenge with M. bovis (multiplicity of infection 2:1. Total cellular RNA was extracted from non-challenged control and M. bovis-challenged MDM for all animals at intervals of 2 hours, 6 hours and 24 hours post-challenge and prepared for global gene expression analysis using the Affymetrix® GeneChip® Bovine Genome Array. RESULTS: Comparison of M. bovis-challenged MDM gene expression profiles with those from the non-challenged MDM controls at each time point identified 3,064 differentially expressed genes 2 hours post-challenge, with 4,451 and 5,267 differentially expressed genes detected at the 6 hour and 24 hour time points, respectively (adjusted P-value threshold ≤ 0.05. Notably, the number of downregulated genes exceeded the number of upregulated genes in the M. bovis-challenged MDM across all time points; however, the fold-change in expression for the upregulated genes was markedly higher than that for the downregulated genes. Systems analysis revealed enrichment for genes involved in: (1 the inflammatory response; (2 cell signalling pathways, including Toll-like receptors and intracellular pathogen recognition receptors; and (3 apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: The increased number of downregulated genes is consistent with previous studies showing that M. bovis infection is associated with the repression of host gene expression. The results also support roles for MyD88-independent signalling and intracellular PRRs in

  18. Characterization of Syrian hamster adapted prions derived from L-type and C-type bovine spongiform encephalopathies

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Atypical forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) may be caused by different prions from classical BSE (C-BSE). In this study, we examined the susceptibility of mice overexpressing mouse and hamster chimeric prion protein (PrP) to L-type atypical BSE (L-BSE). None of the transgenic mice showed susceptibility to L-BSE, except mice overexpressing hamster PrP. We also examined the transmission properties of L-BSE in hamsters. The incubation period of hamsters intracerebrally inoculated wi...

  19. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bovine Wharton's jelly and their potential for use in cloning by nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gonzales da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Wharton's jelly is a source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs that had not yet been tested for bovine embryo production by nuclear transfer (NT. Thus, the objective of this study was to isolate, characterize and test MSCs derived from Wharton's jelly for embryo and pregnancy production by NT in cattle. The umbilical cord was collected during calving and cells derived from Wharton's jelly (WJCs were isolated by explant and cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium. Skin Fibroblasts (FB were isolated after 6 months of life. Morphological analysis was performed by bright field and scanning electron microscopy (SEM during cell culture. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and differentiation induction in cell lineages were performed for WJC. In the NT procedure, oocytes at the arrested metaphase II stage were enucleated using micromanipulators, fused with WJCs or FB and later activated artificially. SEM micrographs revealed that WJCs have variable shape under culture. Mesenchymal markers of MSCs (CD29+, CD73+, CD90+ and CD105+ were expressed in bovine-derived WJC cultures, as evidenced by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. When induced, these cells differentiated into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. After classification, the WJCs were used in NT. Blastocyst formation rate by NT with WJCs at day 7 was 25.80±0.03%, similar to blatocyst rate with NT using skin fibroblasts (19.00±0.07%. Pregnancies were obtained and showed that WJCs constitute a new cell type for use in animal cloning.

  20. Biomass-derived carbonaceous materials as components in wood briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, S.; Koch, C.; Stadlbauer, E.A.; Scheer, J. [Univ. of Applied Sciences, THM Campus Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Weber, B. [Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Coyoacan (Mexico); Strohal, U.; Fey, J. [Strohal Anlagenbau, Staufenberg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The present paper describes a briquette composed of a substantial amount of wooden biomass and up to 35% of carbonaceous materials derived from biogenic residues. The cellulosic component may be a mixture of any wooden residue. Suitable substrates for the carbonaceous fraction are vegetation wastes from land management or agriculture. Depending on physical and chemical nature of the substrate, Hydrothermal Carbonisation (HTC) or Low Temperature Conversion (LTC) may be used to produce the carbonaceous part of the briquette. HTC turns wet biomass at temperatures around 200 deg C in an autoclave into lignite whereas LTC treatment at 400 deg C and atmospheric pressure produces black coal. This is manifested by a molar ratio of 0.1 {<=} H/C (LTC) {<=} 0.7; 0.05{<=} O/C (LTC) {<=} 0.4 and 0.7 < H/C (HTC) <1.5 ; 0.2< O/C (HTC) < 0.5. Solid state {sup 13}C-NMR confirms these findings showing a strong absorption band for sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon atoms at chemical shifts of 100 ppm und 165 ppm for LTC biochar. Depending on the substrate, HTC gives rise to an increase in the specific calorific value (MJ/kg) by a factor of {Psi} {approx} 1.2 - 1.4; LTC by 1.5 - 1.8. In addition ash melting points are significantly increased; in case of wheat straw by about 200 deg C. Compacted products may have a cylindrical or rectangular profile.

  1. Study of abietic acid glycerol derivatives as microencapsulating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, P K; Dorle, A K

    1991-01-01

    Abietic acid (85 per cent pure) was extracted from rosin N Grade and further standardized. Abietic acid derivatives were prepared by heating abietic acid with glycerol and intermediate reaction products with different acid values were collected. Salicylic acid granules were encapsulated using a 10 per cent solution of abietic acid and its derivatives by standard spray pan technique. The coated microcapsules were evaluated for moisture absorption, dissolution and flow properties. The result showed that abietic acid glycerol derivatives, AaG-54 and AaG-20 had better moisture protection properties. Dissolution studies indicate that these derivatives could be used for delayed release of drugs.

  2. Healing of intra-bony defects following treatment with a composite bovine-derived xenograft (Bio-Oss Collagen) in combination with a collagen membrane (Bio-Gide PERIO).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sculean, A.; Chiantella, G.C.; Windisch, P.; Arweiler, N.B.; Brecx, M.; Gera, I.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of the present study was to compare clinically the treatment of deep intra-bony defects with a combination of a composite bovine-derived xenograft (BDX Coll) and a bioresorbable collagen membrane [guided tissue regeneration (GTR)] to access flap surgery only. METHODS: Thirty-two pat

  3. Study of some improved shellac derivatives as microencapsulating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheorey, D S; Kshirsagar, M D; Dorle, A K

    1991-01-01

    Shellac was chemically modified to alter its permeability and to prevent its 'after hardening'. Various shellac derivatives such as with succinic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, ethylenediamine and myristic acid were prepared. Salicylic acid granules were coated and evaluated for flow properties, moisture absorption and release characteristics before and after ageing. These derivatives imparted better flow properties and showed excellent ageing properties.

  4. Effects of cell culture techniques on gene expression and cholesterol efflux in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells derived from milk and tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, D; Potzel, A; Beck, M; Meyer, H H D; Viturro, E; Kliem, H

    2012-10-01

    Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) are often used in cell culture to study metabolic and inflammatory processes in the udder of dairy cows. The most common source is udder tissue from biopsy or after slaughter. However, it is also possible to culture them from milk, which is non-invasive, repeatable and yields less contamination with fibroblasts. Generally, not much is known about the influence of cell origin and cell culture techniques such as cryopreservation on pbMEC functionality. Cells were extracted from milk and udder tissue to evaluate if milk-derived pbMEC are a suitable alternative to tissue-derived pbMEC and to test what influence cryopreservation has. The cells were cultivated for three passages and stored in liquid nitrogen. The relative gene expression of the five target genes kappa-casein, lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin, lysozyme (LYZ1) and the prolactin receptor normalised with keratin 8 showed a tendency to decrease in the tissue cultures, but not in the milk-derived cultures, suggesting a greater influence of the cultivation process on tissue-derived cells, freezing lowered expression levels in both cultures. Overall expression of LAP and LYZ1 tended to be higher in milk cells. Cholesterol efflux was measured to compare passages one to seven in milk-derived cells. Passage number did not alter the efflux rate (p ≤ 0.05). We showed for the first time that the extraction of pbMEC from milk can be a suitable alternative to tissue extraction.

  5. Effect of the inoculation site of bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) on the skin fold thickness increase in cattle from officially tuberculosis free and tuberculosis-infected herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Carmen; Alvarez, Julio; Bezos, Javier; Quick, Harrison; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; Romero, Beatriz; Saez, Jose L; Liandris, Emmanouil; Navarro, Alejandro; Perez, Andrés; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2015-09-01

    The official technique for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) worldwide is the tuberculin skin test, based on the evaluation of the skin thickness increase after the intradermal inoculation of a purified protein derivative (PPD) in cattle. A number of studies performed on experimentally infected or sensitized cattle have suggested that the relative sensitivity of the cervical test (performed in the neck) may vary depending on the exact location in which the PPD is injected. However, quantitative evidence on the variation of the test accuracy associated to changes in the site of inoculation in naturally infected animals (the population in which performance of the test is most critical for disease eradication) is lacking. Here, the probability of obtaining a positive reaction (>2 or 4 millimeters and/or presence of local clinical signs) after multiple inoculations of bovine PPD in different cervical and scapular locations was assessed in animals from five bTB-infected herds (818 cattle receiving eight inoculations) using a hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression model and adjusting for the potential effect of age and sex. The effect of the inoculation site was also assessed qualitatively in animals from four officially tuberculosis free (OTF) herds (two inoculations in 210 animals and eight inoculations in 38 cattle). Although no differences in the qualitative outcome of the test were observed in cattle from OTF herds, a statistically important association between the test outcome and the inoculation site in animals from infected herds was observed, with higher probabilities of positive results when the test was performed in the neck anterior area. Our results suggest that test sensitivity may be maximized by considering the area of the neck in which the test is applied, although lack of effect of the inoculation site in the specificity of the test should be confirmed in a larger sample.

  6. Conductivity at Low Humidity of Materials Derived from Ferroxane Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapina, Alberto; Holtappels, Peter; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    Carboxylic-acid-stabilised γ-FeOOH particles (ferroxanes) are synthesized using a precipitation from aqueous solution, and a following reaction with acetic acid. The materials produced with these powders are investigated by XRD, SEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and impedance spectroscopy....... Conductivity of both sintered and unsintered materials decreases strongly with a decrease in water partial pressure in the atmosphere during the test. The highest conductivity (7·10−3 S cm−1) is measured in air (pH2O = 0.037 atm) at room temperature on sintered material. The conductivity values are compared...

  7. Bovine colostral antibody against verotoxin 2 derived from Escherichia coli O157:H7: resistance to proteases and effects in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Takashi; Seita, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Mariko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Tagata, Kazutoshi; Yamamoto, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    A bovine colostral antibody against verotoxin (VT) 2 of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was administered orally to beagle dogs. The antibody remained in the dogs' small intestine for at least 2 h, whereas little serum antibody remained 1.5 h after administration. Furthermore, the antibody activity of secretory IgA did not change until 2 h after administration; however, the activity of IgG and IgM antibodies decreased by approximately 60% and 40% at 2 h after administration, respectively. Seven beagle dogs inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 producing VT2 were administered bovine colostral antibody or bovine colostral whey without antibody. With administration of bovine colostral whey without antibody, the amount of VT2 in feces decreased gradually after administration and increased again at 5 d after inoculation, whereas bovine colostral antibody significantly reduced the amount of VT2 in feces on the day after administration. In addition, 9 beagle dogs were given bovine colostral antibody, bovine plasma antibody, or saline. The amount of VT2 in feces again decreased significantly more rapidly after administration of bovine colostral antibody than after administration of bovine plasma antibody or saline.

  8. Conductivity at Low Humidity of Materials Derived from Ferroxane Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Lapina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylic-acid-stabilised γ-FeOOH particles (ferroxanes are synthesized using a precipitation from aqueous solution, and a following reaction with acetic acid. The materials produced with these powders are investigated by XRD, SEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and impedance spectroscopy. Conductivity of both sintered and unsintered materials decreases strongly with a decrease in water partial pressure in the atmosphere during the test. The highest conductivity (7·10−3 S cm−1 is measured in air (pH2O = 0.037 atm at room temperature on sintered material. The conductivity values are compared with other works in the literature and the dependence of conductivity on surface area and pore size is discussed. It is suggested that both unsintered and sintered materials act as proton conductors at room temperature under moderate humidity conditions.

  9. Nanostructured energetic materials derived from sol-gel chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R L; Tillotson, T M; Hrubesh, L W; Gash, A E

    2000-03-15

    Initiation and detonation properties are dramatically affected by an energetic material's microstructural properties. Sol-gel chemistry allows intimacy of mixing to be controlled and dramatically improved over existing methodologies. One material goal is to create very high power energetic materials which also have high energy densities. Using sol-gel chemistry we have made a nanostructured composite energetic material. Here a solid skeleton of fuel, based on resorcinol-formaldehyde, has nanocrystalline ammonium perchlorate, the oxidizer, trapped within its pores. At optimum stoichiometry it has approximately the energy density of HMX. Transmission electron microscopy indicated no ammonium perchlorate crystallites larger than 20 nm while near-edge soft x-ray absorption microscopy showed that nitrogen was uniformly distributed, at least on the scale of less than 80 nm. Small-angle neutron scattering studies were conducted on the material. Those results were consistent with historical ones for this class of nanostructured materials. The average skeletal primary particle size was on the order of 2.7 nm, while the nanocomposite showed the growth of small 1 nm size crystals of ammonium perchlorate with some clustering to form particles greater than 10 nm.

  10. Sol-gel derived electrode materials for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan

    1998-12-01

    Electrochemical capacitors have been receiving increasing interest in recent years for use in energy storage systems because of their high energy and power density and long cycle lifes. Possible applications of electrochemical capacitors include high power pulsed lasers, hybrid power system for electric vehicles, etc. In this dissertation, the preparation of electrode materials for use as electrochemical capacitors has been studied using the sol-gel process. The high surface area electrode materials explored in this work include a synthetic carbon xerogel for use in a double-layer capacitor, a cobalt oxide xerogel for use in a pseudocapacitor, and a carbon-ruthenium xerogel composite, which utilizes both double-layer and faradaic capacitances. The preparation conditions of these materials were investigated in detail to maximize the surface area and optimize the pore size so that more energy could be stored while minimizing mass transfer limitations. The microstructures of the materials were also correlated with their performance as electrochemical capacitors to improve their energy and power densities. Finally, an idealistic mathematical model, including both double-layer and faradaic processes, was developed and solved numerically. This model can be used to perform the parametric studies of an electrochemical capacitor so as to gain a better understanding of how the capacitor works and also how to improve cell operations and electrode materials design.

  11. Functional materials derived from block copolymer self-assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao

    is to fabricate interconnected and highly ordered metal oxide films by using a nano-porous polymer with gyroid morphology as the template. This unique structure is ideal for the solar cell application where a mesoscopic metal oxide scaffold functions as the electron collection and transport material. Two......The main objective of this project is to explore block copolymer self-assembly for generating functional materials with well-defined morphology on sub-20 nanometer length scale, which can be utilized in many important applications such as solar cells and nanolithography. One of the specific targets......-casting, the block copolymer self-organizes into monolayer packed sphere pattern, without any surface treatment of the substrate and annealing process. Arrays of nano-pillars and nanowells of various materials are fabricated in dry etch processes over wafer scale without defects. We also show an in situ Al2O3 hard...

  12. Electrodynamic Analysis of Dissipative Electromagnetic Materials Based on Fractional Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Kang-Bo; LIANG Chang-Hong; DANG Xiao-Jie

    2007-01-01

    The generalized Lagrangian is defined in a dissipative electromagnetic medium on the basis of the combination of dynamical analysis and fractional derivative.Lorentz medium models are obtained by formulating relevant EulerLagrange equations.The invariance is obtained subsequently by investigating the invariance of time variation in the system,and then the relation between the related Hamiltonian and electromagnetic energy density is investigated.Canonical equations are obtained eventually.The electrodynamic interpretation on dissipative electromagnetic systems is revesled.

  13. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production Using New Combinatorial Chemistry Derived Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, Thomas F.; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon; Kleiman-Shwarsctein, Alan; Stucky, Galen D. (PI); McFarland, Eric W. (PI)

    2004-10-25

    Solar photoelectrochemical water-splitting has long been viewed as one of the “holy grails” of chemistry because of its potential impact as a clean, renewable method of fuel production. Several known photocatalytic semiconductors can be used; however, the fundamental mechanisms of the process remain poorly understood and no known material has the required properties for cost effective hydrogen production. In order to investigate morphological and compositional variations in metal oxides as they relate to opto-electrochemical properties, we have employed a combinatorial methodology using automated, high-throughput, electrochemical synthesis and screening together with conventional solid-state methods. This report discusses a number of novel, high-throughput instruments developed during this project for the expeditious discovery of improved materials for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Also described within this report are results from a variety of materials (primarily tungsten oxide, zinc oxide, molybdenum oxide, copper oxide and titanium dioxide) whose properties were modified and improved by either layering, inter-mixing, or doping with one or more transition metals. Furthermore, the morphologies of certain materials were also modified through the use of structure directing agents (SDA) during synthesis to create mesostructures (features 2-50 nm) that increased surface area and improved rates of hydrogen production.

  14. Cadmium isotope fractionation of materials derived from various industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinková, Eva; Chrastný, Vladislav; Francová, Michaela; Šípková, Adéla; Čuřík, Jan; Myška, Oldřich; Mižič, Lukáš

    2016-01-25

    Our study represents ϵ(114/110) Cd NIST3108 values of materials resulting from anthropogenic activities such as coal burning, smelting, refining, metal coating, and the glass industry. Additionally, primary sources (ore samples, pigment, coal) processed in the industrial premises were studied. Two sphalerites, galena, coal and pigment samples exhibited ϵ(114/110) CdNIST3108 values of 1.0±0.2, 0.2±0.2, 1.3±0.1, -2.3±0.2 and -0.1±0.3, respectively. In general, all studied industrial processes were accompanied by Cd isotope fractionation. Most of the industrial materials studied were clearly distinguishable from the samples used as a primary source based on ϵ(114/110) Cd NIST3108 values. The heaviest ϵ(114/110) CdNIST3108 value of 58.6±0.9 was found for slag resulting from coal combustion, and the lightest ϵ(114/110) CdNIST3108 value of -23±2.5 was observed for waste material after Pb refinement. It is evident that ϵ(114/110) Cd NIST3108 values depend on technological processes, and in case of incomplete Cd transfer from source to final waste material, every industrial activity creates differences in Cd isotope composition. Our results show that Cd isotope analysis is a promising tool to track the origins of industrial waste products.

  15. Towards accurate structural characterization of metal centres in protein crystals: the structures of Ni and Cu T{sub 6} bovine insulin derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankaer, Christian Grundahl; Mossin, Susanne; Ståhl, Kenny; Harris, Pernille, E-mail: ph@kemi.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet 207, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The level of structural detail around the metal sites in Ni{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} T{sub 6} insulin derivatives was significantly improved by using a combination of single-crystal X-ray crystallography and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Photoreduction and subsequent radiation damage of the Cu{sup 2+} sites in Cu insulin was followed by XANES spectroscopy. Using synchrotron radiation (SR), the crystal structures of T{sub 6} bovine insulin complexed with Ni{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} were solved to 1.50 and 1.45 Å resolution, respectively. The level of detail around the metal centres in these structures was highly limited, and the coordination of water in Cu site II of the copper insulin derivative was deteriorated as a consequence of radiation damage. To provide more detail, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to improve the information level about metal coordination in each derivative. The nickel derivative contains hexacoordinated Ni{sup 2+} with trigonal symmetry, whereas the copper derivative contains tetragonally distorted hexacoordinated Cu{sup 2+} as a result of the Jahn–Teller effect, with a significantly longer coordination distance for one of the three water molecules in the coordination sphere. That the copper centre is of type II was further confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The coordination distances were refined from EXAFS with standard deviations within 0.01 Å. The insulin derivative containing Cu{sup 2+} is sensitive towards photoreduction when exposed to SR. During the reduction of Cu{sup 2+} to Cu{sup +}, the coordination geometry of copper changes towards lower coordination numbers. Primary damage, i.e. photoreduction, was followed directly by XANES as a function of radiation dose, while secondary damage in the form of structural changes around the Cu atoms after exposure to different radiation doses was studied by crystallography using a laboratory diffractometer. Protection against photoreduction and subsequent

  16. Human platelet lysate is an alternative to fetal bovine serum for large-scale expansion of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottipamula, Sanjay; Sharma, Archana; Krishnamurthy, Sagar; Majumdar, Anish Sen; Seetharam, Raviraja N

    2012-07-01

    Human platelet lysate (HPL) was evaluated as an alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in large-scale culturing of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) for therapeutic applications. Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM)of low glucose (LG) and Knock Out (KO) were used with human platelet lysate (HPL) as LG-HPL and KO-HPL, and with FBS as LG-FBS and KO-FBS to culture the BM-MSCs. HPL at 10 % (v/v) supported BM-MSCs growth and subsequent isolation efficiency generated >90 × 10(6) MSCs in LG-HPL. Population doublings (PDs) and population doubling times of LG-HPL and KO-HPL (PDT) were not significantly different but LG-HPL showed a significant clonogenic potential and HPL cultures had an average PDT of 36.5 ± 6.5 h and an average PDs of 5 ± 0.7/passage. BM-MSCs cultured with LG-HPL had significantly higher immunosuppression compared to LG-FBS, but KO-HPL and KO-FBS-grown cultures were not significantly different. HPL is therefore alternative to FBS for large-scale production of BM-MSCs for therapeutic applications.

  17. Evaluation of ion mobility-mass spectrometry for determining the isomeric heterogeneity of oligosaccharide-alditols derived from bovine submaxillary mucin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Bendiak, Brad; Kaplan, Kimberly; Davis, Eric; Siems, William F; Hill, Herbert H

    2013-10-15

    Rapid separation and independent analysis of isomeric species are needed for the structural characterization of carbohydrates in glycomics research. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry techniques were used to examine a series of isomeric neutral oligosaccharide-alditols derived from bovine submaxillary mucin. Several analytical techniques were employed: (1) off line separation of the oligosaccharide-alditol mixture by HPLC; (2) direct and rapid evaluation of isomeric heterogeneity of oligosaccharides by electrospray ionization-ion mobility-time of flight mass spectrometry; and (3) mobility-selected MS(2) and MS(3) to evaluate isomeric mobility peaks by dual gate ion mobility-tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple isomeric ion mobility peaks were observed for the majority of oligosaccharide-alditols, which was achieved on the millisecond time scale after LC separation. Fragmentation spectra obtained from the collision-induced dissociation of isomeric precursor ions could be essentially identical, or dramatically different for a given precursor m/z using the dual-gate ion mobility quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. This further confirmed the need for rapid physical resolution of isomeric precursor species prior to their tandem mass spectral analysis.

  18. Proline modulates the effect of bisphosphonate on calcium levels and adenosine triphosphate production in cell lines derived from bovine Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, A G; Echeverría, C I; Pérez Rojo, F G; Prieto González, E A; Roldán, E J A

    2014-12-01

    Bisphosphonates have been proposed as pharmacological agents against parasite and cancer cell growth. The effect of these compounds on helminthic cell viability and acellular compartment morphology, however, has not yet been studied. The effects of different types of bisphosphonates, namely etidronate (EHDP), pamidronate (APD), alendronate (ABP), ibandronate (IB) and olpadronate (OPD), and their interaction with amiloride, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (D3) and proline were evaluated on a cell line derived from bovine Echinococcus granulousus protoscoleces (EGPE) that forms cystic colonies in agarose. The EGPE cell line allowed testing the effect of bisphosphonates alone and in association with other compounds that could modulate calcium apposition/deposition, and were useful in measuring the impact of these compounds on cell growth, cystic colony formation and calcium storage. Decreased cell growth and cystic colony formation were found with EHDP, IB and OPD, and increased calcium storage with EHDP only. Calcium storage in EGPE cells appeared to be sensitive to the effect of amiloride, D3 and proline. Proline decreased calcium storage and increased colony formation. Changes in calcium storage may be associated with degenerative changes of the cysts, as shown in the in vitro colony model and linked to an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) decrease. In conclusion, bisphosphonates could be suitable tempering drugs to treat cestode infections.

  19. Pooled human platelet lysate versus fetal bovine serum—investigating the proliferation rate, chromosome stability and angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells intended for clinical use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S; Glovinski, Peter V

    2013-01-01

    Because of an increasing focus on the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in clinical trials, the culture conditions for these cells are being optimized. We compared the proliferation rates and chromosomal stability of ASCs that had been cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM......) supplemented with either pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) or clinical-grade fetal bovine serum (FBS) (DMEM(pHPL) versus DMEM(FBS))....

  20. Characterization of implant materials in fetal bovine serum and sodium sulfate by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. I. Mechanically polished samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contu, F; Elsener, B; Böhni, H

    2002-12-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to monitor the long-term stability (up to 150 days) of mechanically polished commercial pure titanium, Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, and CoCrMo alloys in 0.1M sodium sulfate and fetal bovine serum. A capacitive spectrum in the frequency range from 10(-3) to 10(5) Hz is always found and the impedance spectra can be fitted by a simple parallel RC circuit with a constant phase element. The open circuit potential observed in serum is always more cathodic and the polarization resistance (R(p)) is higher than that recorded in sodium sulfate solutions. The observed variation of the equivalent capacitance in serum bovine suggests that an adsorption layer of organic molecules develops on the electrode surface and it is responsible for both the decrease in open circuit potential and the higher R(p), because it hinders the oxygen evolution reaction and the charge transfer responsible for the passive film dissolution (or growth). Among the alloys studied, Ti6Al4V displayed the highest steady-state values of R(p) both in serum and in sodium sulfate.

  1. Fullerenol-containing Materials Derived by Sol-gel Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiping XIA; Zhaoyang JIANG; Jianli ZHANG; Jinhao WANG; Yuepin ZHANG; Qiuhua NIE

    2004-01-01

    Water soluble fullerenols were synthesized and incorporated in SiO2, SiO2-TiO2, GPTMS-SiO2, GPTMS-ATPS inorganic and organic-inorganic materials by sol-gel processes. The maximum concentrations of C60(OH)n and C7o(OH)n in the obtained SiO2 gels were estimated to be about 0.6% and 1.5% in weight, respectively. The characteristics of the UV/visible spectra of fullerenols in H2O and various gels were measured and compared. The thermal stability of fullerenols in gels was investigated with differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results indicate that the absorption features of fullerenols in solid gels are similar to those in H2O and the fullerenols in SiO2 are stable at 400℃. The optical limiting effect of the fullerenols was investigated preliminarily.

  2. Design Strategies for Functionalized Poly(2-oxazolines and Derived Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Wiesbrock

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The polymer class of poly(2-oxazolines currently is under intensive investigation due to the versatile properties that can be tailor-made by the variation and manipulation of the functional groups they bear. In particular their utilization in the biomedic(inal field is the subject of numerous studies. Given the mechanism of the cationic ring-opening polymerization, a plethora of synthetic strategies exists for the preparation of poly(2-oxazolines with dedicated functionality patterns, comprising among others the functionalization by telechelic end-groups, the incorporation of substituted monomers into (copoly(2-oxazolines, and polymeranalogous reactions. This review summarizes the current state-of-the-art of poly(2-oxazoline preparation and showcases prominent examples of poly(2-oxazoline-based materials, which are retraced to the desktop-planned synthetic strategy and the variability of their properties for dedicated applications.

  3. De effecten van behandelingen met bovine somatotropine bij melkvee op de weide en vervolgens op stal = The effects of treatment with recombinantly derived bovine somatotropin in dairy cows at pasture and consecutively indoors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    In 2 proeven werd het effect van behandeling bij melkkoeien met recombinant bovine somatotropine bestudeerd met geheel of gedeeltelijke weidegang. In beide proeven werden 4 perioden van 28 dagen onderscheiden: een voorperiode van 28 dagen om de proefdiergroepen samen te kunnen stellen en een hoofdpe

  4. Zearalenone and Its Derivatives α-Zearalenol and β-Zearalenol Decontamination by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Bovine Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Keller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEA and its derivatives are mycotoxins with estrogenic effects on mammals. The biotransformation for ZEA in animals involves the formation of two major metabolites, α- and β-zearalenol (α-ZOL and β-ZOL, which are subsequently conjugated with glucuronic acid. The capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from silage to eliminate ZEA and its derivatives α-ZOL and β-ZOL was investigated as, also, the mechanisms involved. Strains were grown on Yeast Extract-Peptone-Dextrose medium supplemented with the mycotoxins and their elimination from medium was quantified over time by HPLC-FL. A significant effect on the concentration of ZEA was observed, as all the tested strains were able to eliminate more than 90% of the mycotoxin from the culture medium in two days. The observed elimination was mainly due to ZEA biotransformation into β-ZOL (53% and α-ZOL (8% rather than to its adsorption to yeast cells walls. Further, the biotransformation of α-ZOL was not observed but a small amount of β-ZOL (6% disappeared from culture medium. ZEA biotransformation by yeasts may not be regarded as a full detoxification process because both main end-products are still estrogenic. Nonetheless, it was observed that the biotransformation favors the formation of β-ZOL which is less estrogenic than ZEA and α-ZOL. This metabolic effect is only possible if active strains are used as feed additives and may play a role in the detoxification performance of products with viable S. cerevisiae cells.

  5. Humic derivatives as promising hormone-like materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, R. P.; Khudaibergenova, E. M.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this research is to prepare novel bio-inoculants derived from coal humic substances (HS) using bio-solubilization technique. This approach can be considered to some extent as model for supply plants with available nutrients throw the mineralisation of organic matter in soils by bacteria and fungi. Screening for the stable and active microorganisms' strains possessing ability to degrade humic substances was performed. The following subjects were examined using different isolation methods: natural microbial population from city soil, wood rot of Ulmis Pamila and biohumus of vermiculture of Eisenia foetida. Approaches for monitoring the humics-solubilizing fungi growth under liquid surface conditions in the presence of HS, proper conditions of bio-solubilization technique were elaborated. Coal humic acids (HA) from oxidized brown coal (Kyrgyz deposits) were isolated and added to a Czapek nutrient broth which was used either in full strength or without nitrogen source. The individual flasks were inoculated with natural microbial populations of corresponding cultivated soil, biohumus and wood rot samples for 12 months. Evaluation of phyto-hormonal activity of the produced HS and their derivatives in respect to higher plants with auxine and gibberellic tests was performed. To characterize structure of the biopreparations obtained, an experimental approach was undertaken that implies application of different complementary techniques for the structural analysis of biopreparations. As those were used: elemental and functional analysis, FTIR and 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography. According to the elemental composition of HS recovered from microbial cultures, a decrease in carbon and a significant increase of nitrogen in HS reisolated from the full strength broth inoculated with wood-decay microorganisms has been found. If biohumus microorganisms were used as inoculum, only minor changes were detected in the elemental composition of HS. A

  6. A sol-gel derived pH-responsive bovine serum albumin molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Pi, Jiangyan; Wang, Xiaojie; Huang, Rong; Du, Yamei; Yu, Xiaoyang; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan; Shea, Kenneth J

    2016-08-17

    A pH-responsive surface molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) (MIPILs) was prepared on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a sol-gel technique. The material was synthesized using a 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane modified multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT-APTES) as the substrate, bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the template molecule, an alkoxy-functionalized IL 1-(3-trimethoxysilyl propyl)-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([TMSPMIM]Cl) as both the functional monomer and the sol-gel catalyst, and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the crosslinking agent. The molecular interaction between BSA and [TMSPMIM]Cl was quantitatively evaluated by UV-vis spectroscopy prior to polymerization so as to identify an optimal template/monomer ratio and the most suitable pH value for the preparation of the MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs. This strategy was found to be effective to overcome the problems of trial-and-error protocol in molecular imprinting. The optimum synthesis conditions were as follows: template/monomer ratio 7:20, crosslinking agent content 2.0-2.5 mL, temperature 4 °C and pH 8.9 Tris-HCl buffer. The influence of incubation pH on adsorption was also studied. The result showed that the imprinting effect and selectivity improved significantly with increasing incubation pH from 7.7 to 9.9. This is mainly because the non-specific binding from electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions decreased greatly with the increase of pH value, which made the specific binding affinity from shape selectivity strengthened instead. The polymers synthesized under the optimal conditions were then characterized by BET surface area measurement, FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption capacity, imprinting effect, selective recognition and reusability were also evaluated. The as-prepared MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs were also found to have a number of advantages including high surface area (134.2 m(2) g(-1)), high adsorption capacity (55.52

  7. New improved method for evaluation of growth by food related fungi on biologically derived materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Karina P.; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2002-01-01

    as a new method where 10 mul of a spore suspension is placed in a spot on the test sample. The new method gave additional information about fungal growth on biologically derived materials, revealing a clear difference between survival and growth. PHB and PIA turned out to be most suitable for food......Biologically derived materials, obtained as commercial and raw materials (Polylactate (PLA), Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), potato, wheat and corn starch) were tested for their ability to support fungal growth using a modified ASTM G21-96 (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard as well...

  8. Biomass derived novel functional foamy materials - BIO-FOAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suurnaekki, A.; Boer, H.; Forssell, P. (and others) (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: anna.suurnakki@vtt.fi

    2010-10-15

    BIO-FOAM has aimed at exploiting the potential of biomaterials in replacing synthetic polymers in solid foamy materials. The target applications have been various, including food, packaging, construction and insulation. The project activities during the second project year have focused on characterisation of the solid model foams and on modeling the behaviour of polymers at liquid- liquid interfaces. In the modelling study the intrinsic consistence of the applied thermodynamic approach was confirmed. The experimentally obtained solubility parameters of polymers were in good agreement with the calculated solubility parameters. The polymers were, however, found to posses too little surface activity to alone provide stable foams, but they were able to act as co-surfactants. In the model polymer foam work both expanded polymer foams and wood fibre based foams were prepared. Supercritical CO{sub 2}-gas chamber was found to be a useful tool to prepare expanded polymer foams in small scale. Only partial replacement of synthetic polymers could, however, be obtained with native biomaterials indicating the need of tailoring of biopolymer properties and suitable formulations including surfactants or stabilizing particles. In wood fibre-based foams both nanocellulose and lignin showed potential as additives or reinforcing components.The outcome of the extruded food snacks study was that the processing parameters were related with the equipmentvariables. Furthermore, glycerol was shown to facilitate greatly extrusion processing. In foam concrete work concrete pore structure was shown to correlate with its strength and stability. At optimum concentration wood fibres affected positively the concrete processing performance. (orig.)

  9. Raw material generated from pet bottle recycling and its derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Almeida Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recycling process is no longer a pejorative connotation business to become the main business of any company not only because of the need to conserve virgin resources, but mainly because of the benefits to the environment. In this sense, this paper aims at assessing the possibility of exports of polyethylene terephthalate - PET known for - a type of product that can be recycled and reprocessed into products of various types and applications. This article has been structured based on exploratory research bibliographic database of scientific articles, books, newspapers and magazines where we analyze the main steps involved in the recycling of PET and its exploitation for export. Support of organizations and associations such as the Brazilian Association of PET (ABIPET contributed to the development of theoretical framework. The market operated and what can still be very large, with the possibility of exponential growth supported by: the economy in the use of virgin resources reduces the impact of chemicals in the environment, saving energy used in the production process, reducing the use of financial resources allocated to the reuse of materials.

  10. A sol-gel derived pH-responsive bovine serum albumin molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Mingming, E-mail: liumm@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtse River), Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Pi, Jiangyan; Wang, Xiaojie; Huang, Rong; Du, Yamei; Yu, Xiaoyang; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan [Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtse River), Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Shea, Kenneth J., E-mail: kjshea@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2016-08-17

    A pH-responsive surface molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) (MIPILs) was prepared on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a sol-gel technique. The material was synthesized using a 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane modified multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT-APTES) as the substrate, bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the template molecule, an alkoxy-functionalized IL 1-(3-trimethoxysilyl propyl)-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([TMSPMIM]Cl) as both the functional monomer and the sol-gel catalyst, and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the crosslinking agent. The molecular interaction between BSA and [TMSPMIM]Cl was quantitatively evaluated by UV–vis spectroscopy prior to polymerization so as to identify an optimal template/monomer ratio and the most suitable pH value for the preparation of the MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs. This strategy was found to be effective to overcome the problems of trial-and-error protocol in molecular imprinting. The optimum synthesis conditions were as follows: template/monomer ratio 7:20, crosslinking agent content 2.0–2.5 mL, temperature 4 °C and pH 8.9 Tris–HCl buffer. The influence of incubation pH on adsorption was also studied. The result showed that the imprinting effect and selectivity improved significantly with increasing incubation pH from 7.7 to 9.9. This is mainly because the non-specific binding from electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions decreased greatly with the increase of pH value, which made the specific binding affinity from shape selectivity strengthened instead. The polymers synthesized under the optimal conditions were then characterized by BET surface area measurement, FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption capacity, imprinting effect, selective recognition and reusability were also evaluated. The as-prepared MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs were also found to have a number of advantages including high surface area (134.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high adsorption

  11. Sustainable hybrid photocatalysts: titania immobilized on carbon materials derived from renewable and biodegradable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review comprises the preparation, properties and heterogeneous photocatalytic applications of TiO2 immobilized on carbon materials derived from earth-abundant, renewable and biodegradable agricultural residues and sea food waste resources. The overview provides key scientifi...

  12. Effect of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal-stem-cell bioactive materials on porcine embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo-Young; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Seung-Eun; Choi, Hyun-Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Park, Min-Jee; Son, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Jun-Beom; Jeong, Chang-Jin; Lee, Dong-Sun; Riu, Key-Jung; Park, Se-Pill

    2013-12-01

    Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs) secrete bioactive materials that are beneficial for tissue repair and regeneration. In this study, we characterized human hAT-MSC bioactive material (hAT-MSC-BM), and examined the effect of hAT-MSC-BM on porcine embryo development. hAT-MSC-BM was enriched with several growth factors and cytokines, including fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and interleukin 6 (IL6). Among the various concentrations and days of treatment tested, 10% hAT-MSC-BM treatment beginning on culture Day 4 provided the best environment for the in vitro growth of parthenogenetic porcine embryos. While the addition of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) increased the hatching rate and the total cell number of parthenogenetic porcine embryos compared with the control and hAT-MSC culture medium group, the best results were from the group cultured with 10% hAT-MSC-BM. Mitochondrial activity was also higher in the 10% hAT-MSC-BM-treated group. Moreover, the relative mRNA expression levels of development and anti-apoptosis genes were significantly higher in the 10% hAT-MSC-BM-treated group than in control, hAT-MSC culture medium, or 10% FBS groups, whereas the transcript abundance of an apoptosis gene was slightly lower. Treatment with 10% hAT-MSC-BM starting on Day 4 also improved the development rate and the total cell number of in vitro-fertilized embryos. This is the first report on the benefits of hAT-MSC-BM in a porcine embryo in vitro culture system. We conclude that hAT-MSC-BM is a new, alternative supplement that can improve the development of porcine embryos during both parthenogenesis and fertilization in vitro.

  13. Oral Serum-Derived Bovine Immunoglobulin/Protein Isolate Has Immunomodulatory Effects on the Colon of Mice that Spontaneously Develop Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maijó, Mònica; Polo, Javier; Campbell, Joy M.; Russell, Louis; Crenshaw, Joe D.; Weaver, Eric; Moretó, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    Dietary immunoglobulin concentrates prepared from animal plasma can modulate the immune response of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Previous studies have revealed that supplementation with serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) ameliorates colonic barrier alterations in the mdr1a-/- genetic mouse model of IBD. Here, we examine the effects of SBI on mucosal inflammation in mdr1a-/- mice that spontaneously develop colitis. Wild type (WT) mice and mice lacking the mdr1a gene (KO) were fed diets supplemented with either SBI (2% w/w) or milk proteins (Control diet), from day 21 (weaning) until day 56. Leucocytes in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and in lamina propria were determined, as was mucosal cytokine production. Neutrophil recruitment and activation in MLN and lamina propria of KO mice were increased, but were significantly reduced in both by SBI supplementation (p animals, but SBI prevented these changes (both p < 0.05). In the colon of KO mice, there was an increased production of mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2 (2-fold), IL-6 (26-fold) and IL-17 (19-fold), and of chemokines MIP-1β (4.5-fold) and MCP-1 (7.2-fold). These effects were significantly prevented by SBI (p < 0.05). SBI also significantly increased TGF-β secretion in the colon mucosa, suggesting a role of this anti-inflammatory cytokine in the modulation of GALT and the reduction of the severity of the inflammatory response during the onset of colitis. PMID:27139220

  14. Carbon-Based Functional Materials Derived from Waste for Water Remediation and Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinglang; Yu, Yifu; Sindoro, Melinda; Fane, Anthony G; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-23

    Carbon-based functional materials hold the key for solving global challenges in the areas of water scarcity and the energy crisis. Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have shown promising results in various fields of application, their high preparation cost and low production yield still dramatically hinder their wide practical applications. Therefore, there is an urgent call for preparing carbon-based functional materials from low-cost, abundant, and sustainable sources. Recent innovative strategies have been developed to convert various waste materials into valuable carbon-based functional materials. These waste-derived carbon-based functional materials have shown great potential in many applications, especially as sorbents for water remediation and electrodes for energy storage. Here, the research progress in the preparation of waste-derived carbon-based functional materials is summarized, along with their applications in water remediation and energy storage; challenges and future research directions in this emerging research field are also discussed.

  15. Functional Thermoplastic Materials from Derivatives of Cellulose and Related Structural Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikuni Teramoto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys advances in the development of various material functionalities based on thermoplastic cellulose and related structural polysaccharide derivatives. First, the dependence of thermal (phase transition behavior on the molecular composition of simple derivatives is rationalized. Next, approaches enabling effective thermoplasticization and further incorporation of material functionalities into structural polysaccharides are discussed. These approaches include: (a single-substituent derivatization, (b derivatization with multi-substituents, (c blending of simple derivatives with synthetic polymers, and (d graft copolymerization. Some examples addressing the control of supramolecular structures and the regulation of molecular and segmental orientations for functional materials fabrication, which have especially progressed over the past decade, are also addressed. Attractive material functions include improved mechanical performance, controlled biodegradability, cytocompatiblity, and optical functions.

  16. Isolation and characterization of Wharton’s jelly-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from bovine umbilical cord and maintained in a defined serum-free three-dimensional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Tereza C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The possibility for isolating bovine mesenchymal multipotent cells (MSCs from fetal adnexa is an interesting prospect because of the potential for these cells to be used for biotechnological applications. Bone marrow and adipose tissue are the most common sources of MSCs derived from adult animals. However, little knowledge exists about the characteristics of these progenitors cells in the bovine species. Traditionally most cell cultures are developed in two dimensional (2D environments. In mammalian tissue, cells connect not only to each other, but also support structures called the extracellular matrix (ECM. The three-dimensional (3D cultures may play a potential role in cell biotechnology, especially in tissue therapy. In this study, bovine-derived umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly (UC-WJ cells were isolated, characterized and maintained under 3D-free serum condition as an alternative of stem cell source for future cell banking. Results Bovine-derived UC-WJ cells, collected individually from 5 different umbilical cords sources, were successfully cultured under serum-free conditions and were capable to support 60 consecutive passages using commercial Stemline® mesenchymal stem cells expansion medium. Moreover, the UC-WJ cells were differentiated into osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes and neural-like cells and cultured separately. Additionally, the genes that are considered important embryonic, POU5F1 and ITSN1, and mesenchymal cell markers, CD105+, CD29+, CD73+ and CD90+ in MSCs were also expressed in five bovine-derived UC-WJ cultures. Morphology of proliferating cells typically appeared fibroblast-like spindle shape presenting the same viability and number. These characteristics were not affected during passages. There were 60 chromosomes at the metaphase, with acrocentric morphology and intense telomerase activity. Moreover, the proliferative capacity of T cells in response to a mitogen stimulus was suppressed when

  17. Development and Characterization of a Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out Supplemental Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S; Danganan, L; Tammero, L; Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-arani, P; Hindson, B

    2007-08-06

    viruses which are of two bovine types bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and psuedocowpox (PCP). This document provides details of signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used. A condensed summary of the development, testing and performance of the multiplexed assay panel was presented in a 126 page separate document, entitled 'Development and Characterization of A Multiplexed RT-PCR Species Specific Assay for Bovine and one for Porcine Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Rule-Out'. This supplemental document provides additional details of large amount of data collected for signature generation, evaluation, and testing, as well as the specific methods and materials used for all steps in the assay development and utilization processes. In contrast to last years effort, the development of the bovine and porcine panels is pending additional work to complete analytical characterization of FMDV, VESV, VSV, SVD, RPV and MCF. The signature screening process and final panel composition impacts this effort. The unique challenge presented this year was having strict predecessor limitations in completing characterization, where efforts at LLNL must preceed efforts at PIADC, such challenges were alleviated in the 2006 reporting by having characterization data from the interlaboratory comparison and at Plum Island under AgDDAP project. We will present an addendum at a later date with additional data on the characterization of the porcine and bovine multiplex assays when that data is available.

  18. POLYPYRROLE AND POLYPYRROLE/WOOD-DERIVED MATERIALS CONDUCTING COMPOSITES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Beneventi Mail

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Wood and cellulose derivatives, in both fibrous and water-soluble macromolecular form, are emerging as outstanding candidates for organic electronics applications due to their large-scale availability, low cost, and easy processability. Paper and wood fibre-based derivatives are considered to be materials of choice as supports for communication world-wide. The interest in producing inexpensive and universally available conducting polymer/cellulose fibres substrates resides in the possibility of creating new materials that can be used for a broad range of advanced applications. For instance, PPy/cellulose fibres composites can be used for the preparation of energy storage devices thanks to the conjugation of the high specific area of cellulose fibres and the electrochemical properties of PPy. Other possible applications of such composites are in the area of the antistatic materials, sensors, electromagnetic interference shielding materials, smart packaging, and tissues. Concerning the woody polymers, some of them (i.e. cellulose derivatives also exhibit biocompatibility, as well as film-forming properties and transparency. In combination with the electrical properties of PPy, these features make PPy/macromolecular cellulose composites suitable for applications as displays, lighting, and photovoltaics. Due to their chemical structure, macromolecular wood derivatives have been proposed with success as enhancing conductivity additives in Py polymerisation. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of PPy chemistry and of the most relevant advances attained in the production of PPy/wood derived materials conducting composites.

  19. Kinetics of early in vitro development of bovine in vivo- and in vitro-derived zygotes produced and/or cultured in chemically defined or serum-containing media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, P; Booth, P J; Callesen, H

    2002-01-01

    at first cleavage (defined serum: 20-22% versus in vivo-derived: 8 P cell cycles of in vivo-derived zygotes were 1-5 h shorter compared with those of in vitro-derived zygotes cultured under similar conditions (P ... development was affected by serum during IVM-IVF and culture. The first and fourth cell cycles were prolonged by 4-5 h in the absence of serum during IVM-IVF, whereas the presence of serum during culture decreased the duration of the fourth cell cycle and triggered premature blastulation. The results......The kinetics of the in vitro development of early embryos from bovine zygotes derived in vitro and in vitro were compared, investigating the effect of serum during in vitro maturation and fertilization (IVM-IVF) and in culture. Zygotes were collected from superovulated heifers or produced in vitro...

  20. Quantitative exposure assessment for the combustion of meat and bone meal derived from specified risk material in the context of BSE in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, E J; Grace, P M; Fry, D J; McDonnell, K P; Colgan, S F; Ward, S M

    2002-11-01

    The probability and severity of an adverse event can be analyzed by quantitative exposure assessment (QEA). This methodology was applied to model the human health risks associated with the combustion of specified risk material (SRM) derived meat and bone meal (MBM) in a combustion facility. The identification of MBM and SRM as significant factors in the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has resulted in restrictions on their use and movement, and this has led to a requirement for alternative end-uses for these products. A stochastic (Latin Hypercube sampling) simulation model was developed to assess the exposure and hence the risks associated with the use of SRM-derived MBM in a combustion facility. The model simulates the potential infectivity pathways that SRM-derived MBM follows, including its production from animals potentially infected with sub-clinical BSE and subsequent processing of the material with segregation and heat treatments. A failure probability was included to take account of sub-optimal operating conditions. Two scenarios, reflecting the infectivity risk in different animal tissues as defined by the European Commission's scientific steering committee (SSC), were performed with 100,000 iterations of the model. Model results showed that the societal exposure to humans resulting from the combustion of SRM-derived MBM is extremely small (mean values ranging from 7.57 x 10(-6) ID50/year to 8.38 x 10(-5) ID50/year). The resulting societal risks are significantly less than the background societal risk of approximately 2.5 cases of sporadic CJD in Ireland each year. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the species barrier had a large impact on exposure calculations and hence should be the focus of further scientific investigation to reduce our uncertainty about this parameter. The model predicts that material spillage into untreated effluent represents the biggest risk to humans, indicating that efforts for risk mitigation should be focused

  1. Galactosyl-lactose sialylation using Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase as the biocatalyst and bovine κ-casein-derived glycomacropeptide as the donor substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrink, Maarten H; ten Kate, Geert A; van Leeuwen, Sander S; Sanders, Peter; Sallomons, Erik; Hage, Johannes A; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    2014-10-01

    trans-Sialidase (TS) enzymes catalyze the transfer of sialyl (Sia) residues from Sia(α2-3)Gal(β1-x)-glycans (sialo-glycans) to Gal(β1-x)-glycans (asialo-glycans). Aiming to apply this concept for the sialylation of linear and branched (Gal)nGlc oligosaccharide mixtures (GOS) using bovine κ-casein-derived glycomacropeptide (GMP) as the sialic acid donor, a kinetic study has been carried out with three components of GOS, i.e., 3'-galactosyl-lactose (β3'-GL), 4'-galactosyl-lactose (β4'-GL), and 6'-galactosyl-lactose (β6'-GL). This prebiotic GOS is prepared from lactose by incubation with suitable β-galactosidases, whereas GMP is a side-stream product of the dairy industry. The trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcTS) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Its temperature and pH optima were determined to be 25°C and pH 5.0, respectively. GMP [sialic acid content, 3.6% (wt/wt); N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), >99%; (α2-3)-linked Neu5Ac, 59%] was found to be an efficient sialyl donor, and up to 95% of the (α2-3)-linked Neu5Ac could be transferred to lactose when a 10-fold excess of this acceptor substrate was used. The products of the TcTS-catalyzed sialylation of β3'-GL, β4'-GL, and β6'-GL, using GMP as the sialic acid donor, were purified, and their structures were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Monosialylated β3'-GL and β4'-GL contained Neu5Ac connected to the terminal Gal residue; however, in the case of β6'-GL, TcTS was shown to sialylate the 3 position of both the internal and terminal Gal moieties, yielding two different monosialylated products and a disialylated structure. Kinetic analyses showed that TcTS had higher affinity for the GL substrates than lactose, while the Vmax and kcat values were higher in the case of lactose.

  2. Expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3 and the receptors TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII in placentomes of artificially inseminated and nuclear transfer derived bovine pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelich, S R; Shelling, A N; Wells, D N; Peterson, A J; Lee, R S F; Ramachandran, A; Keelan, J A

    2006-01-01

    Bovine nuclear transfer pregnancies are characterized by a high incidence of placental abnormalities, notably, increased placentome size and deficiencies in trophoblast cell function and establishment of placental vasculature. Alterations in gene expression during placental growth and development may contribute to the appearance of large placentomes in pregnancies derived from nuclear transfer. The placenta synthesizes a number of cytokines and growth factors, including the transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) that are involved in the establishment, maintenance and/or regulation of pregnancy. All forms of TGF-beta and their receptors are present at the fetal-maternal interface of the bovine placentome, where they are thought to play an important role in regulating growth, differentiation, and function of the placenta. Using real-time RT-PCR, we have examined the expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3 and the receptors TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII in placentomes of artificially inseminated (AI) and nuclear transfer (NT)-derived bovine pregnancies at days 50, 100 and 150 of gestation. TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 mRNA expression increased by 2.0-2.8-fold, while TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII mRNA expression decreased by 1.7-2.0-fold in NT placentomes compared to AI controls at all gestational ages examined. These findings indicate that NT placentomes may be resistant to the growth suppressive effects of TGF-betas and could contribute to the placental proliferative abnormalities observed in NT-derived placentas. Alternatively, deficiencies in placentation may provide a mechanism whereby TGF-betas are dysregulated in NT pregnancies.

  3. A peptide derived from human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) exerts bactericidal activity against Gram-negative bacterial isolates obtained from clinical cases of bovine mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram-negative bacteria are responsible for approximately one-third of the clinical cases of bovine mastitis and can elicit a life-threatening, systemic inflammatory response. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a membrane component of all Gram-negative bacteria and is largely responsible for evoking the de...

  4. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene) and its derivatives: novel organic electronic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Asit; Bendikov, Michael; Chand, Suresh

    2014-05-20

    Since the discovery of high conductivity in iodine-doped polyacetylene, many interesting conducting polymers have been developed. Of these, polythiophenes have been most studied as electronic materials, with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and the water-soluble PEDOT-PSS being the most successful commercially used conducting polymers. The polyselenophene family together with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxyselenophene) (PEDOS) and its derivatives have been shown to have slightly different properties compared to these of polythiophene and PEDOT because of their different electron donating characters, aromaticities (selenophene vs thiophene), oxidation potentials, electronegativities, and polarizabilities (Se vs S). As a result, the polyselenophenes, especially PEDOS and its derivatives, show a lower band gap and higher-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels compared with those of thiophene and the PEDOT family. In an organic materials context, the PEDOS family offers some advantages over PEDOT derivatives. This Account draws on computational studies, synthetic methods, electrochemical polymerizations, chemical polymerizations, and the materials properties of PEDOS and its derivatives to demonstrate the importance of these novel materials, which lie at the frontier of conducting polymer research. In particular, we show that (i) PEDOS derivatives have a lower band gap (about 0.2 eV) than the corresponding PEDOT derivatives. Consequently, PEDOS derivatives can absorb the solar spectrum more efficiently compared to PEDOT derivatives and the properties of optoelectronic devices based on neutral and doped PEDOS should be somewhat different from these of PEDOT. (ii) EDOS derivatives have a greater tendency to undergo electrochemical polymerization compared to EDOT derivatives and offer stable and smooth polymer films. (iii) The PEDOS backbone is more rigid than the PEDOT backbone. (iv) PEDOS derivatives are excellent electrochromic materials with high

  5. Hexaazatrinaphthylene Derivatives: Efficient Electron-Transporting Materials with Tunable Energy Levels for Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongbing; Zhu, Zonglong; Kuo, Ming-Yu; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2016-07-25

    Hexaazatrinaphthylene (HATNA) derivatives have been successfully shown to function as efficient electron-transporting materials (ETMs) for perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). The cells demonstrate a superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.6 % with negligible hysteresis. This study provides one of the first nonfullerene small-molecule-based ETMs for high-performance p-i-n PVSCs.

  6. Self-assembly made durable: water-repellent materials formed by cross-linking fullerene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaobing; Shen, Yanfei; Kessel, Stefanie; Fernandes, Paulo; Yoshida, Kaname; Yagai, Shiki; Kurth, Dirk G; Möhwald, Helmuth; Nakanishi, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Fullerene flakes: A diacetylene-functionalized fullerene derivative self-organizes into flakelike microparticles (see picture). Both the diacetylene and C(60) moieties can be effectively cross-linked, which leads to supramolecular materials with remarkable resistivity to solvent, heat, and mechanical stress. Moreover, the surface of the cross-linked flakelike objects is highly durable and water-repellent.

  7. 78 FR 14012 - Use of Materials Derived From Cattle in Human Food and Cosmetics; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Use of Materials Derived From Cattle in Human Food and Cosmetics; Reopening of the Comment Period... final rule entitled ``Use of Materials Derived From Cattle in Human Food and Cosmetics'' that published... July 14, 2004 (69 FR 42256), FDA published an interim final rule entitled ``Use of Materials...

  8. Grafting of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material derived from bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo, a lignocellulosic biopolymer material, is of interest as feedstock for production of cellulose derivatives by chemical functionalization. Optimization of grafting of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material (average Degree of Polymerization 816, isolated from bamboo (Dendrocalamus stictus was performed by varying the process parameters such as duration of soaking of cellulosic material in ceric ammonium nitrate solution, ceric ammonium nitrate concentration, polymerization time, temperature of reaction and acrylonitrile concentration to study their influence on percent grafting and grafting efficiency. Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material derived from bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus in heterogenous medium can be initiated effectively with ceric ammonium nitrate. The optimum reaction conditions obtained for grafting of acrylonitrile onto cellulosic material were: duration of dipping cellulosic material in ceric ammonium nitrate solution 1 hr, ceric ammonium nitrate concentration 0.02 M, acrylonitrile concentration 24.6 mol/anhydroglucose unit, temperature of reaction 40°C and polymerization time 4 hrs. The percent grafting for optimized samples is 210.3% and grafting efficiency is 97%. The characterization of the grafted products by means of FTIR and Scanning Electron Microscopy furnished the evidence of grafting of acrylonitrile onto the cellulosic material.

  9. 实时荧光PCR技术快速检测食品中的牛源成分%Detection for bovine-derived ingredients in foods with real-time polymerase chain reaction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽丽; 李培; 丁洪流; 金萍; 傅春玲

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立基于实时荧光PCR技术的食品中牛源性成分快速检测方法.方法:以牛线粒体细胞色素b为目的基因,设计特异性引物和探针,通过特异性、灵敏性实验,及模拟混合肉样和市售肉制品检测,对该体系进行验证.结果:该牛源荧光PCR检测体系具有很好的特异性及灵敏性,可检测1pg牛源DNA的存在,对于各模拟肉类样品中掺杂的牛源性成分,其检测限低至0.5%,且经市售加工食品验证具有较好的应用能力.结论:所建立的牛引物探针体系具有特异性好、灵敏度高,快速高效等优点,可用于对食品中牛源性成分的掺假鉴别检测.%Objective:This study was aimed to establish a real-time PCR assay for detection of bovine-derived ingredients in food.Methods:Primers and Taqman probe of this assay were designed within bovine conservative regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome b(cyt b) gene.The specificity had been evaluated with no amplification on DNA from other meats while the detection sensitivity tested with meat mixtures containing various beef content.The assay was further applied to detect commercially available meat food for verifying its adaptability.Results:The assay was highly specific showing no amplification with other meats and could detect 1pg of beef DNA.Applied to the DNA extracted from meat mixtures,it was possible to detect 0.5% beef spiked in other species.Conclusion:The system yields excellent results for identification of bovine derivatives in food products and it was a potentially reliable and suitable technique in routine food analysis for detection of bovine-derived ingredients in food.

  10. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the Ventron site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, C.; Yu, C.; Jones, L.

    1992-03-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the Ventron site in Beverly, Massachusetts. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The derivations for the single radionuclides and the total uranium guidelines were based on the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Ventron site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following remedial action. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  11. Characterization of new sources of derivative starches as wall materials of essential oil by spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Verdalet-Guzmán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Starch derivatives of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott and rice were characterized as wall materials of orange oil (d-limonene by spray drying. Native starches were initially hydrolyzed with HCl and then esterified. Succinylated starches were modified using a conventional method in a slurry and were extruded; whereas, the phosphorylated starches were modified using the extrusion process. Viscosity and solubility of starches reduced after acid hydrolysis, derivatization, and extrusion. The particle size of the wall materials ranged between 20.05 and 31.81 µm. The encapsulation efficiency of the phosphorylated taro, rice, and waxy corn starches was 96.9, 96.8 and 97.1% respectively, and 98.6, 98.1, and 98.8% for succynilated taro, rice, and waxy corn starches, respectively. Starch derivatives of taro and rice could potentially be used as wall materials of orange oil d-limonene.

  12. Asymptotic analysis, polarization matrices and topological derivatives for piezoelectric materials with small voids

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, G; Sokolowski, J

    2009-01-01

    Asymptotic formulae for the mechanical and electric fields in a piezoelectric body with a small void are derived and justified. Such results are new and useful for applications in the field of design of smart materials. In this way the topological derivatives of shape functionals are obtained for piezoelectricity. The asymptotic formulae are given in terms of the so-called polarization tensors (matrices) which are determined by the integral characteristics of voids. The distinguished feature of the piezoelectricity boundary value problems under considerations is the absence of positive definiteness of an differential operator which is non self-adjoint. Two specific Gibbs' functionals of the problem are defined by the energy and the electric enthalpy. The topological derivatives are defined in different manners for each of the governing functionals. Actually, the topological derivative of the enthalpy functional is local i.e., defined by the pointwise values of the governing fields, in contrary to the energy f...

  13. LC-MS/MS analysis of permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans derived from human, bovine, and goat milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xue; Zhou, Shiyue; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-06-01

    Oligosaccharides in milk not only provide nutrition to the infants but also have significant immune biofunctions such as inhibition of pathogen binding to the host cell. The main component in milk oligosaccharides is free oligosaccharides. Since the proteins in milk are highly glycosylated, N-glycans in milk also play an import role. In this study, we investigated the permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans extracted from bovine, goat, and human milks using LC-MS/MS. Quantitation profiles of free oligosaccharides and N-glycans were reported. The number of free oligosaccharides observed in bovine, goat, and human milk samples (without isomeric consideration) were 11, 8, and 11, respectively. Human milk had more complex free oligosaccharides structures than the other two milk samples. Totally 58, 21, and 43 N-glycan structures (without isomeric consideration) were associated with whey proteins extracted from bovine, goat, and human milk samples, respectively. Bovine milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were highly sialylated and to a lesser extend fucosylated. Goat and human milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were both highly fucosylated. Also, the isomeric glycans in milk samples were determined by porous graphitic carbon LC at elevated temperatures. For example, separation of human milk free oligosaccharide Gal-GlcNAc-(Fuc)-Gal-Glc and Gal-GlcNAc-Gal-Glc-Fuc isomers was achieved using porous graphitic carbon column. Permethylation of the glycan structures facilitated the interpretation of MS/MS. For example, internal cleavage and glycosidic bond cleavage are readily distinguished in the tandem mass spectra of permethylated glycans. This feature resulted in the identification of several isomers.

  14. Distinct localization of FMRFamide- and bovine pancreatic polypeptide-like material in the brain, retrocerebral complex and suboesophageal ganglion of the cockroach Periplaneta americana L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhaert, P; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; De Loof, A

    1985-01-01

    One bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP) antiserum and two FMRFamide antisera were applied in the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) immunohistochemical technique on a complete series of sections of brains, suboesophageal ganglia (SOG), corpora cardiaca (CC) and corpora allata of Periplaneta american...

  15. A new star(ch is born: Starbons as biomass-derived mesoporous carbonaceous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Shuttleworth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Porous carbon materials are present in a wide rangeof technologically important applications, includingseparation science, heterogeneous catalyst supports,water purification filters, stationary phase materials,as well as the developing future areas of energygeneration and storage applications. Hard templateroutes to ordered mesoporous carbons are wellestablished, but whilst offering different mesoscopictextural phases, the surface of the material is difficultto chemically post-modify and processing is energy,resource and step intensive. The production of carbonmaterials from biomass (i.e. sugars orpolysaccharides is a relatively new but rapidlyexpanding research area. In this manuscript, wedescribe the preparation, properties and applicationsof a novel family of polysaccharide-derivedmesoporous carbonaceous materials derived fromrenewable resources (namely polysaccharidesdenoted as Starbons®.

  16. Electron-deficient anthraquinone derivatives as cathodic material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Taniki, Ryosuke; Masuda, Asuna; Honma, Itaru; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki

    2016-10-01

    We studied the electronic and structural properties of electron-deficient anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives, Me4N4AQ and TCNAQ, and investigated their charge-discharge properties in lithium ion batteries along with those of AQ. Cyclic voltammogram, X-ray structure analysis and theoretical calculations revealed that these three acceptors have different features, such as different electron-accepting properties with different reduction processes and lithium coordination abilities, and different packing arrangements with different intermolecular interactions. These differences greatly affect the charge-discharge properties of lithium ion batteries that use these compounds as cathode materials. Among these compounds, Me4N4AQ showed a high charge/discharge voltage (2.9-2.5 V) with high cyclability (>65% of the theoretical capacity after 30 cycles; no decrease after 15 cycles). These results provide insight into more in-depth design principles for lithium ion batteries using AQ derivatives as cathodic materials.

  17. Luminescent liquid crystalline materials based on palladium(II) imine derivatives containing the 2-phenylpyridine core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micutz, Marin; Iliş, Monica; Staicu, Teodora; Dumitraşcu, Florea; Pasuk, Iuliana; Molard, Yann; Roisnel, Thierry; Cîrcu, Viorel

    2014-01-21

    In this work we report our studies concerning the synthesis and characterisation of a series of imine derivatives that incorporate the 2-phenylpyridine (2-ppy) core. These derivatives were used in the cyclometalating reactions of platinum(II) or palladium(II) in order to prepare several complexes with liquid crystalline properties. Depending on the starting materials used as well as the solvents employed, different metal complexes were obtained, some of them showing both liquid crystalline behaviour and luminescence properties at room temperature. It was found that, even if there are two competing coordination sites, the cyclometalation process takes place always at the 2-ppy core with (for Pt) or without (for Pd) the imine bond cleavage. We successfully showed that it is possible to prepare emissive room temperature liquid crystalline materials based on double cyclopalladated heteroleptic complexes by varying the volume fraction of the long flexible alkyl tails on the ancillary benzoylthiourea (BTU) ligands.

  18. Delivery of recombinant vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 gD and Babesia bovis MSA-2c to mice using liposomes derived from egg yolk lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Anabel E; Zamorano, Patricia; Wilkowsky, Silvina; Torrá, Florencia; Ferreri, Lucas; Dominguez, Mariana; Florin-Christensen, Mónica

    2013-06-01

    Liposomes prepared from total egg yolk lipid extracts were used to deliver experimental DNA vaccines to mice consisting of pCI-neo plasmids encoding bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) gD or Babesia bovis MSA-2c. A significantly higher proportion of mice in the B. bovis MSA-2c group, but not those in the BoHV-1 gD group, developed detectable immunoglobulin G responses when vaccinated with liposome encapsulated DNA in comparison with mice vaccinated with naked DNA. In both groups, antibody titres were similar between mice vaccinated with liposome encapsulated DNA and naked DNA.

  19. Numerical Derivation of Strain Rate Effects on Material Properties of Masonry with Solid Clay Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xueying; HAO Hong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,numerical method is used to study the strain rate effect on masonry materials.A typical unit of masonry is selected to serve as a representative volume element (RVE).Numerical model of RVE is established with detailed distinctive modeling of brick and mortar with their respective dynamic material properties obtained from laboratory tests.The behavior of brick and mortar are characterized by a dynamic damage model that accounts for rate-sensitive and pressuredependent properties of masonry materials.Dynamic loads of different loading rates are applied to RVE.The equivalent homogenized uniaxial compressive strength,threshold strain and elastic modulus in three directions of the masonry are derived from the simulated responses of the RVE.The strain rate effect on the masonry material with clay brick and mortar,such as the dynamic increase factor (DIF) of the ultimate strength and elastic modulus as a function of strain rate are derived from the numerical results.

  20. Emitting materials based on phenylanthracene-substituted naphthalene derivatives for organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Woo; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Jwajin [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440‐746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Song Eun; Lee, Ho Won [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@wow.hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440‐746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This study reports the emitting materials based on phenylanthracene-substituted naphthalene derivatives to achieve efficient electroluminescent properties for OLED applications. An OLED device using 4,4′-bis(10-phenylanthracen-9-yl)-1,1′-binaphthalene exhibited the blue emission with the CIE coordinates of (0.19, 0.16) and efficient electroluminescent properties with the luminance, power and external quantum efficiency of 1.70 cd/A, 0.79 lm/W and 1.26% at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. Also, the other device using 1,4-bis(10-phenylanthracene-9-yl)naphthalene exhibited white emission with the CIE coordinates of (0.34, 0.43) at 7V, respectively. This device exhibits the luminance, power and external quantum efficiency of 2.22 cd/A, 1.13 lm/W and 0.86% at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. - Highlights: • We synthesized fluorescent materials based on phenylanthracene derivatives. • Electroluminescence properties of these materials depend on the molecular structures. • These blue and white materials have great potential for application in OLEDs.

  1. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J. Y.; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E.; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    With the arising of global climate change and resource shortage, in recent years, increased attention has been paid to environmentally friendly materials. Trees are sustainable and renewable materials, which give us shelter and oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Trees are a primary resource that human society depends upon every day, for example, homes, heating, furniture, and aircraft. Wood from trees gives us paper, cardboard, and medical supplies, thus impacting our homes, school, work, and play. All of the above-mentioned applications have been well developed over the past thousands of years. However, trees and wood have much more to offer us as advanced materials, impacting emerging high-tech fields, such as bioengineering, flexible electronics, and clean energy. Wood naturally has a hierarchical structure, composed of well-oriented microfibers and tracheids for water, ion, and oxygen transportation during metabolism. At higher magnification, the walls of fiber cells have an interesting morphology--a distinctly mesoporous structure. Moreover, the walls of fiber cells are composed of thousands of fibers (or macrofibrils) oriented in a similar angle. Nanofibrils and nanocrystals can be further liberated from macrofibrils by mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic methods. The obtained nanocellulose has unique optical, mechanical, and barrier properties and is an excellent candidate for chemical modification and reconfiguration. Wood is naturally a composite material, comprised of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Wood is sustainable, earth abundant, strong, biodegradable, biocompatible, and chemically accessible for modification; more importantly, multiscale natural fibers from wood have unique optical properties applicable to different kinds of optoelectronics and photonic devices. Today, the materials derived from wood are ready to be explored for applications in new technology areas, such as electronics, biomedical devices, and energy. The

  2. Physical properties and biocompatibility of UHMWPE-derived materials modified by synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Iu; Weinhardt, V; Kashkarova, A; Lebedev, S; Baumbach, T; Pichugin, V; Zaitsev, K; Khlusov, I

    2014-08-01

    The applications of synchrotron radiation (SR) in medical imaging have become of great use, particularly in angiography, bronchography, mammography, computed tomography, and X-ray microscopy. Thanks to recently developed phase contrast imaging techniques non-destructive preclinical testing of low absorbing materials such as polymers has become possible. The focus of the present work is characterization and examination of UHMWPE-derived materials widely used in medicine, before and after their exposure to SR during such testing. Physical properties, such as wettability, surface energy, IR-spectroscopy, roughness, optical microscopy, microhardness measurements of UHMWPE samples were studied before and after SR. The relationship between a growth of UHMWPE surface hydrophilicity after SR and surface colonization by stromal cells was studied in vitro. Obtained results demonstrate that SR may be used as prospective direction to examine bulk (porous) structure of polymer materials and/or to modify polymer surface and volume for tissue engineering.

  3. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J Y; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    With the arising of global climate change and resource shortage, in recent years, increased attention has been paid to environmentally friendly materials. Trees are sustainable and renewable materials, which give us shelter and oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Trees are a primary resource that human society depends upon every day, for example, homes, heating, furniture, and aircraft. Wood from trees gives us paper, cardboard, and medical supplies, thus impacting our homes, school, work, and play. All of the above-mentioned applications have been well developed over the past thousands of years. However, trees and wood have much more to offer us as advanced materials, impacting emerging high-tech fields, such as bioengineering, flexible electronics, and clean energy. Wood naturally has a hierarchical structure, composed of well-oriented microfibers and tracheids for water, ion, and oxygen transportation during metabolism. At higher magnification, the walls of fiber cells have an interesting morphology-a distinctly mesoporous structure. Moreover, the walls of fiber cells are composed of thousands of fibers (or macrofibrils) oriented in a similar angle. Nanofibrils and nanocrystals can be further liberated from macrofibrils by mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic methods. The obtained nanocellulose has unique optical, mechanical, and barrier properties and is an excellent candidate for chemical modification and reconfiguration. Wood is naturally a composite material, comprised of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Wood is sustainable, earth abundant, strong, biodegradable, biocompatible, and chemically accessible for modification; more importantly, multiscale natural fibers from wood have unique optical properties applicable to different kinds of optoelectronics and photonic devices. Today, the materials derived from wood are ready to be explored for applications in new technology areas, such as electronics, biomedical devices, and energy. The

  4. Processing and Material Characterization of Continuous Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Polymer Derived Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.

    2014-01-01

    The need for high performance vehicles in the aerospace industry requires materials which can withstand high loads and high temperatures. New developments in launch pads and infrastructure must also be made to handle this intense environment with lightweight, reusable, structural materials. By using more functional materials, better performance can be seen in the launch environment, and launch vehicle designs which have not been previously used can be considered. The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Polymer matrix composites can be used for temperatures up to 260C. Ceramics can take much higher temperatures, but they are difficult to produce and form in bulk volumes. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, allowing a shape to be formed and cured and then to be pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in the composites. In this study, continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material. The oxyacetylene torch testing and three point bend testing have been performed on test panels and the test results are presented.

  5. Derivation of cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Peek Street site, Schenectady, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1992-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for cesium-137 were derived for the Peek rk. The derivation was based on the requirement that the Street site in Schenectady, New York. The derivation was based on the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Peek Street site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following remedial action. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD was used in this evaluation. Three potential scenarios were considered for the site on the assumption that for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site wig be utilized without radiological restrictions. The scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. Results indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for cesium-137 within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of cesium-137 at the Peek Street site does not exceed the following levels: 98 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker: the expected scenario), 240 pCi/g for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario), and 34 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the decontaminated area: a plausible scenario).

  6. Potential Synthetic Biolubricant as an Alternative to Bovine Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Scholes, Susan C.; Colledge, Coral J.; Naylor, Andrew; Mahdi, Mohammed H.; Smith, Alan M.; Joyce, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial that orthopaedic implant materials are tested in conditions that replicate the natural body’s environment as closely as possible. Bovine serum is currently recommended for use by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for the wear testing of these implant materials, however, the rheological properties of bovine serum do not match fully those of the body’s natural lubricant, synovial fluid. This study looks at a potential alternative to bovine serum for the test...

  7. Room-temperature Electrochemical Synthesis of Carbide-derived Carbons and Related Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Nanomaterials Group. Materials Science and Engineering Dept.

    2015-02-28

    This project addresses room-temperature electrochemical etching as an energy-efficient route to synthesis of 3D nanoporous carbon networks and layered 2D carbons and related structures, as well as provides fundamental understanding of structure and properties of materials produced by this method. Carbide-derived-carbons (CDCs) are a growing class of nanostructured carbon materials with properties that are desirable for many applications, such as electrical energy and gas storage. The structure of these functional materials is tunable by the choice of the starting carbide precursor, synthesis method, and process parameters. Moving from high-temperature synthesis of CDCs through vacuum decomposition above 1400°C and chlorination above 400°C, our studies under the previous DOE BES support led to identification of precursor materials and processing conditions for CDC synthesis at temperatures as low as 200°C, resulting in amorphous and highly reactive porous carbons. We also investigated synthesis of monolithic CDC films from carbide films at 250-1200°C. The results of our early studies provided new insights into CDC formation, led to development of materials for capacitive energy storage, and enabled fundamental understanding of the electrolyte ions confinement in nanoporous carbons.

  8. A promising method to derive the temperature coefficients of material constants of SAW and BAW materials. first application to LGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolay, Pascal; Aubert, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Langasite (LGS) is a promising material for SAW applications at high temperature. However, the temperature coefficients of LGS material constants are not accurate enough to perform reliable simulations, and therefore to make good use of available design tools, above 300°C. In the first part of the paper, we describe a new possible way to derive these coefficients in a wider temperature range. The method is based on Simulated Annealing, a well-known optimization algorithm. The algorithm converges toward a set of optimized temperature coefficients of the stiffness constants which are used to perform accurate simulations up to at least 800°C. In the second part, a deeper analysis of the algorithm outputs demonstrates some of its strengths but also some of its main limitations. Possible solutions are described to predict and then improve the accuracy of the optimized coefficient values. In particular, one solution making use of additional BAW target curves is tested. A promising solution to extend the optimization to the temperature coefficients of piezoelectric constants is also discussed.

  9. Theoretical study of an energetic material di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computations by density functional theory (DFT method are performed on a series of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives with different substituents and linkages. The heat of formation (HOF is predicted by the designed isodesmic reactions. The predicted results reveal that –N3 and –NN– groups are effective structural units for increasing the HOF values of the di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The HOMO–LUMO gap is affected by the substituents and linkage groups. Detonation performance is evaluated using the Kamlet–Jacobs approach based on the calculated density and HOF. The results indicate that –NO2, –NF2, –NH–, –NH–NH– and –NN– groups are helpful for enhancing the detonation properties of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The bond dissociation energy and bond order of the weakest bonds are analyzed to investigate their stability. It is observed that the –CH2–, –CH2–CH2– and –CHCH– groups are effective structural units for improving the stabilities of these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and the stability, five compounds are screened as the potential candidates for high energy density materials.

  10. Theoretical study of an energetic material di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua ZHOU; Zhong-liang MA; Jian-long WANG; Dong WANG

    2014-01-01

    Computations by density functional theory (DFT) method are performed on a series of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives with different sub-stituents and linkages. The heat of formation (HOF ) is predicted by the designed isodesmic reactions. The predicted results reveal that eN3 and eN]Ne groups are effective structural units for increasing the HOF values of the di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The HOMOeLUMO gap is affected by the substituents and linkage groups. Detonation performance is evaluated using the KamleteJacobs approach based on the calculated density and HOF. The results indicate that eNO2, eNF2, eNHe, eNHeNHe and eN]Ne groups are helpful for enhancing the detonation properties of di-1H-1,3,4-triazole derivatives. The bond dissociation energy and bond order of the weakest bonds are analyzed to investigate their stability. It is observed that the eCH2e, eCH2eCH2e and eCH]CHe groups are effective structural units for improving the stabilities of these derivatives. Considering the detonation performance and the stability, five compounds are screened as the potential candidates for high energy density materials.

  11. Synthesis and properties of novel water-soluble fullerene-glycine derivatives as new materials for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guichang; Yin, Fen; Duan, Jihua; Li, Guangtao

    2015-01-01

    Novel water-soluble fullerene-glycine derivatives were synthesized by means of simple organic chemistry. They are completely soluble in water, yielding a clear brown solution. The products were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The assembly behavior of water-soluble fullerene-glycine derivatives was investigated by SEM. The results show that the fullerene-glycine derivatives create morphology that is sphere-like. The cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines of the fullerene-glycine derivatives was evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) and flow cytometry. The results show that fullerene-glycine derivatives exhibit mortality and apoptosis of the cells which increased with the increase of fullerene-glycine derivative concentration. The cytotoxicity mechanism of fullerene-glycine derivatives was investigated for the first time. Novel water-soluble fullerene-glycine derivatives were synthesized by means of simple organic chemistry. The products were characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, TGA, and SEM. The bioactivities of fullerene-glycine derivative materials have been tested, and the results show that compared with the fullerene complex, the fullerene-glycine derivative materials exhibit mortality and apoptosis of the cells which increased with the increase of fullerene-glycine derivative concentration. SEM images showed the macrostructure of fullerene-glycine derivative materials was spheres.

  12. Protein Hydrolysates from Non-bovine and Plant Sources Replaces Tryptone in Microbiological Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Yamini; Patel, Shifa; Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Meganathan, R.

    Tryptone (pancreatic digest of casein) is a common ingredient in laboratory and fermentation media for growing wild-type and genetically modified microorganisms. Many of the commercially manufactured products such as human growth hormone, antibiotics, insulin, etc. are produced by recombinant strains grown on materials derived from bovine sources. With the emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and the consequent increase in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, elimination of materials of bovine origin from fermentation media is of paramount importance. To achieve this objective, a number of protein hydrolysates derived from non-bovine animal and plant sources were evaluated. Tryptone in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth was replaced with an equal quantity of alternate protein hydrolysates. Four of the six hydrolysates (one animal and three from plants) were found to efficiently replace the tryptone present in LB-medium as measured by growth rate and growth yield of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. In addition, we have determined plasmid stability, inducibility and activity of the plasmid encoded β-galactosidase in the recombinant strain grown in the presence of various protein hydrolysates.

  13. Structure - Property Relationships of Furanyl Thermosetting Polymer Materials Derived from Biobased Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fengshuo

    Biobased thermosetting polymers have drawn significant attention due to their potential positive economic and ecological impacts. New materials should mimic the rigid, phenylic structures of incumbent petroleum-based thermosetting monomers and possess superior thermal and mechanical properties. Furans and triglycerides derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and plant oils are promising candidates for preparing such thermosetting materials. In this work, furanyl diepoxies, diamines and di-vinyl esters were synthesized using biobased furanyl materials, and their thermal and mechanical properties were investigated using multiple techniques. The structure versus property relationship showed that, compared with the prepared phenylic analogues, biobased furanyl thermosetting materials possess improved glassy storage modulus (E '), advanced fracture toughness, superior high-temperature char yield and comparable glass transition temperature (Tg) properties. An additive molar function analysis of the furanyl building block to the physical properties, such as Tg and density, of thermosetting polymers was performed. The molar glass transition function value (Yg) and molar volume increment value (Va,i) of the furanyl building block were obtained. Biobased epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was modified using different fatty acids at varying molar ratios, and these prepared materials dramatically improved the critical strain energy release rate (G1c) and the critical stress intensity factor (K1c) values of commercial phenylic epoxy resins, without impairing their Tg and E ' properties. Overall, it was demonstrated that biobased furans and triglycerides possess promising potential for use in preparing high-performance thermosetting materials, and the established methodologies in this work can be utilized to direct the preparation of thermosetting materials with thermal and mechanical properties desired for practical applications.

  14. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the Shpack site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.J.; Yu, C.; Monette, F.; Jones, L.

    1991-08-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the Shpack site in Norton, Massachusetts. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Shpack site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following decontamination. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Three potential scenarios were considered for the site; the scenarios vary with regard to time spent at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1000 years, provided that the soil concentration of combined uranium (uranium-234 and uranium-238) at the Shpack site does not exceed the following levels: 2500 pCi/g for Scenario A (recreationist: the expected scenario); 1100 pCi/g for Scenario B (industrial worker: a plausible scenario); and 53 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer using a well water as the only water source: a possible but unlikely scenario). The uranium guidelines derived in this report apply to the combined activity concentration of uranium-234 and uranium-238 and were calculated on the basis of a dose of 100 mrem/yr. In setting the actual uranium guidelines for the Shpack site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors, such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate. 8 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the Aliquippa Forge site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monette, F.; Jones, L.; Yu, C.

    1992-09-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the Aliquippa Forge site in Aliquippa, Pennsylvania. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Aliquippa Forge site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following decontamination. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Four potential scenarios were considered for the site; the scenarios vary with regard to time spent at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for uranium within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of combined uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the Aliquippa Forge site does not exceed the following levels: 1,700 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker: the expected scenario); 3,900 pCi/g for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario); 20 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer using well water as the only water source: a possible but unlikely scenario), and 530 pCi/g for Scenario D (resident farmer using a distant water source not affected by site conditions as the only water source: a possible but unlikely scenario). The uranium guidelines derived in this report apply to the combined activity concentration of uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238 and were calculated on the basis of a dose of 100 mrem/yr.

  16. Integrated synthesis of poly(o-phenylenediamine)-derived carbon materials for high performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hui; Wang, Xiaolei; Liu, Xuexia; Yang, Xiurong [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022 (China)

    2012-12-18

    Poly(o-phenylenediamine) (POPD)-derived functional carbon materials with excellent capacitive performance are successfully synthesized by means of an integrated one-step process, in which FeCl{sub 3} not only oxidizes the polymerization of the organic monomers but also activates the carbonization. Furthermore, extensive research has proved that this strategy to discover novel carbons is useful not only for capacitors but also for other energy storage/conversion devices. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. The Feasibility of Wood and its Derivatives as a Bicycle Frame Building Material

    OpenAIRE

    BRENT TAYLOR, NICHOLAS

    2016-01-01

    [EN] ABSTRACT Nicholas Brent Taylor: The Feasibility of Wood and its Derivatives as a Bicycle Frame Building Material The bicycle is often considered as one of the most important inventions of all time. In addition, it is the most efficient form of human transport in the world. It is non pollutant, uses no fuel other than human power and its carbon footprint is neutralised in a short time. Today, faced with the threat of global warming brought about by fossil fuels, countries such as De...

  18. A Novel Cathode Material for Cathodic Dehalogenation of 1,1-Dibromo Cyclopropane Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gütz, Christoph; Selt, Maximilian; Bänziger, Markus; Bucher, Christoph; Römelt, Christina; Hecken, Nadine; Gallou, Fabrice; Galvão, Tomás R; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2015-09-28

    Leaded bronze turned out to be an excellent cathode material for the dehalogenation reaction of cyclopropanes without affecting the strained molecular entity. With this particular alloy, beneficial properties of lead cathodes are conserved, whereas the corrosion of cathode is efficiently suppressed. The solvent in the electrolyte determines whether a complete debromination reaction is achieved or if the process can be selectively stopped at the monobromo cyclopropane intermediate. The electroorganic conversion tolerates a variety of functional groups and can be conducted at rather complex substrates like cyclosporine A. This approach allows the sustainable preparation of cyclopropane derivatives.

  19. Plant-Derived Human Collagen Scaffolds for Skin Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, James J.; Drexler, Jason W.; Das, Amitava; Roy, Sashwati; Shilo, Shani; Shoseyov, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds are commonly formed using proteins extracted from animal tissues, such as bovine hide. Risks associated with the use of these materials include hypersensitivity and pathogenic contamination. Human-derived proteins lower the risk of hypersensitivity, but possess the risk of disease transmission. Methods engineering recombinant human proteins using plant material provide an alternate source of these materials without the risk of disease transmission or concerns regarding variability. To investigate the utility of plant-derived human collagen (PDHC) in the development of engineered skin (ES), PDHC and bovine hide collagen were formed into tissue engineering scaffolds using electrospinning or freeze-drying. Both raw materials were easily formed into two common scaffold types, electrospun nonwoven scaffolds and lyophilized sponges, with similar architectures. The processing time, however, was significantly lower with PDHC. PDHC scaffolds supported primary human cell attachment and proliferation at an equivalent or higher level than the bovine material. Interleukin-1 beta production was significantly lower when activated THP-1 macrophages where exposed to PDHC electrospun scaffolds compared to bovine collagen. Both materials promoted proper maturation and differentiation of ES. These data suggest that PDHC may provide a novel source of raw material for tissue engineering with low risk of allergic response or disease transmission. PMID:23298216

  20. Derivation of Accident-Specific Material-at-Risk Equivalency Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason P. Andrus; Dr. Chad L. Pope

    2012-05-01

    A novel method for calculating material at risk (MAR) dose equivalency developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) now allows for increased utilization of dose equivalency for facility MAR control. This method involves near-real time accounting for the use of accident and material specific release and transport. It utilizes all information from the committed effective dose equation and the five factor source term equation to derive dose equivalency factors which can be used to establish an overall facility or process MAR limit. The equivalency factors allow different nuclide spectrums to be compared for their respective dose consequences by relating them to a specific quantity of an identified reference nuclide. The ability to compare spectrums to a reference limit ensures that MAR limits are in fact bounding instead of attempting to establish a representative or bounding spectrum which may lead to unintended or unanalyzed configurations. This methodology is then coupled with a near real time material tracking system which allows for accurate and timely material composition information and corresponding MAR equivalency values. The development of this approach was driven by the complex nature of processing operations in some INL facilities. This type of approach is ideally suited for facilities and processes where the composition of the MAR and possible release mechanisms change frequently but in well defined fashions and in a batch-type nature.

  1. Morphological and Electrochemical Properties of the Lactose-derived Carbon Electrode Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.F. Myronyuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the morphological and electrochemical properties of carbon electrode materials derived from D-lactose by mixing of carbon precursor with activating reagent selected from a number КОН, K2CO3, ZnCl2, SnCl2∙2H2O, and calcining the composite mixture at 800 °С. After dissolution and removal of K2O, ZnO or SnO from volume of prototypes specific surface of carbon materials increases in 1,7-4,2 times, and electrical conductivity - in 1,4-2,8 times. The activating reagents for effective influence on the properties of carbon structures can be placed in the following order: ZnCl2  КОН  K2CO3  SnCl2∙2H2O. It is set that the highest specific capacity as an electrode material for supercapacitor has a sample with the highest electrical conductivity (78 Оhm – 1∙m – 1 obtained using KOH activating reagent. The electrode material capacity was 176-157 F∙g – 1 at discharge currents of 10-100 mA. It was found that the difference in the values of capacitance of prototypes caused by different chemical state of their surface.

  2. Morphological and Electrochemical Properties of the Lactose-derived Carbon Electrode Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.F. Myronyuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the morphological and electrochemical properties of carbon electrode materials derived from D-lactose by mixing of carbon precursor with activating reagent selected from a number КОН, K2CO3, ZnCl2, SnCl2∙2H2O, and calcining the composite mixture at 800 °С. After dissolution and removal of K2O, ZnO or SnO from volume of prototypes specific surface of carbon materials increases in 1,7-4,2 times, and electrical conductivity - in 1,4-2,8 times. The activating reagents for effective influence on the properties of carbon structures can be placed in the following order: ZnCl2 > КОН > K2CO3 > SnCl2∙2H2O. It is set that the highest specific capacity as an electrode material for supercapacitor has a sample with the highest electrical conductivity (78 Оhm – 1∙m – 1 obtained using KOH activating reagent. The electrode material capacity was 176-157 F∙g – 1 at discharge currents of 10-100 mA. It was found that the difference in the values of capacitance of prototypes caused by different chemical state of their surface.

  3. Material derivatives of boundary integral operators in electromagnetism and application to inverse scattering problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanyshyn Yaman, Olha; Le Louër, Frédérique

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with the material derivative analysis of the boundary integral operators arising from the scattering theory of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves and its application to inverse problems. We present new results using the Piola transform of the boundary parametrisation to transport the integral operators on a fixed reference boundary. The transported integral operators are infinitely differentiable with respect to the parametrisations and simplified expressions of the material derivatives are obtained. Using these results, we extend a nonlinear integral equations approach developed for solving acoustic inverse obstacle scattering problems to electromagnetism. The inverse problem is formulated as a pair of nonlinear and ill-posed integral equations for the unknown boundary representing the boundary condition and the measurements, for which the iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton method can be applied. The algorithm has the interesting feature that it avoids the numerous numerical solution of boundary value problems at each iteration step. Numerical experiments are presented in the special case of star-shaped obstacles.

  4. Deriving binary phase diagrams for chromonic materials in water mixtures via fluorescence spectroscopy: cromolyn and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Gerald R; Karukstis, Kerry K; Rayermann, Scott

    2015-01-14

    We report here the first example of a new and novel method of determining the binary temperature-composition phase diagram of a chromonic material in water using its intrinsic fluorescence. Disodium cromoglycate, or cromolyn, is an anti-allergy medicine representative of a class of compounds known as the chromonics. We have discovered that cromolyn's fluorescence is very sensitive to the polarity, hence structure, of the phase it exhibits. The fluorescence signal shifts its wavelength maximum and its shape depending on whether the cromolyn is a single phase or in coexisting phases. Since the signal due to individual phases can be identified, the fluorescence signal can reveal the temperature-induced transitions between single phase and phase coexistence regions. By studying such fluorescence data for different compositions, an isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram may be constructed. We present here a phase diagram derived from fluorescence studies that is in agreement with previous determinations using other techniques. Our results suggest that the binary phase diagrams of other intrinsically fluorescent chromonic materials, such as perylene monoimide and bisimide derivatives used in organic optoelectronic devices, solar cells, and light-emitting diodes, can be studied in water using an analogous fluorescence approach.

  5. [Advances in the research of natural polymeric materials and their derivatives in the manufacture of scaffolds for dermal tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Wang, Hong; Leng, Chongyan; Wang, Kuan; Xie, Ying

    2016-05-01

    Natural polymeric materials and their derivatives are organic macromolecular compounds which exist in plants, animals, and micro-organisms. They have been widely used in the preparation of scaffolds for skin tissue engineering recently because of their good histocompatibility and degradability, and low immunogenicity. With the improvement of the preparation technics, composite materials are more commonly used to make scaffolds for dermal tissue engineering. This article summarizes the classification and research status of the commonly used natural polymer materials, their derivatives, and composite scaffold materials, as well as makes a prospect of the research trends of dermal scaffold in the future.

  6. N-doped carbon dots derived from bovine serum albumin and formic acid with one- and two-photon fluorescence for live cell nuclear imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mingqian; Li, Xintong; Wu, Hao; Wang, Beibei; Wu, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dots with both one- and two-photon fluorescence have drawn great attention for biomedical imaging. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbon dots were facilely developed by one-pot hydrothermal method using bovine serum albumin and formic acid as carbon sources. They are highly water-soluble with strong fluorescence when excited with ultraviolet or near infrared light. The carbon dots have a diameter of ~8.32 nm and can emit strong two-photon induced fluorescence upon excitation at 750 nm with a femtosecond laser. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer analysis revealed that the carbon dots contained three components, C, N and O, corresponding to the peak at 285, 398 and 532 eV, respectively. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that there are carboxyl and carboxylic groups on the surface, which allowed further linking of functional molecules. pH stability study demonstrated that the carbon dots are able to be used in a wide range of pH values. The fluorescence mechanism is also discussed in this study. Importantly, these carbon dots are biocompatible and highly photostable, which can be directly applied for both one- and two-photon living cell imaging. After proper surface functionalization with TAT peptide, they can be used as fluorescent probes for live cell nuclear-targeted imaging.

  7. β-Lactotensin derived from bovine β-lactoglobulin exhibits anxiolytic-like activity as an agonist for neurotensin NTS(2) receptor via activation of dopamine D(1) receptor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, I-Ching; Suzuki, Chihiro; Kanegawa, Norimasa; Oda, Ayako; Yamada, Ayako; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Yamada, Daisuke; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Wada, Etsuko; Wada, Keiji; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2011-11-01

    β-Lactotensin (His-Ile-Arg-Leu) is a bioactive peptide derived from bovine milk β-lactoglobulin, acting as a natural agonist for neurotensin receptors. We found that β-lactotensin exhibited anxiolytic-like activity in an elevated plus-maze test after its intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice. β-Lactotensin was also orally active. The anxiolytic-like activity of β-lactotensin after i.p. administration was blocked by levocabastine, an antagonist for the neurotensin NTS(2) receptor. β-Lactotensin had anxiolytic-like activity in wild-type but not Ntsr2-knockout mice. β-Lactotensin increased intracellular Ca(2+) flux in glial cells derived from wild-type mice but not Ntsr2 knockout mice. These results suggest that β-lactotensin acts as an NTS(2) receptor agonist having anxiolytic-like activity. The anxiolytic-like activity of β-lactotensin was also blocked by SCH23390 and SKF83566, antagonists for dopamine D(1) receptor, but not by raclopride, an antagonist for D(2) receptor. Taken together, β-lactotensin may exhibit anxiolytic-like activity via NTS(2) receptor followed by D(1) receptor.

  8. The application of methacrylate resin and the derivation as restorative material of damaged tooth tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adioro Soetojo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of methacrylate resin and the derivation (composite resin and dentin bonding in clinical conservative dentistry has been widely developed. This material could be used to restore class I-V cavity with good aesthetic due to the compatible color with tooth. Composite resin adhesion hydrophobically in enamel that is due to mechanic retention in the form of resin tags which penetrates into enamel porosity. Meanwhile hydrophilic dentin bonding adhesion due to the chemical reaction between functional groups of amino collagen with carbonyl in dentin bonding forming amide binding. In addition mechanical retention in which dentin bonding penetrating into nano inter fibrilar cavity then polymerized. The success of methacrylate resin adhesion restoration is decided by enamel porosity, wetting character of resin, wetting contact angle, good etching acid, optimal humidity of tooth surface, the accuracy of dentist during filling is done etc.

  9. Self-assembly into soft materials of molecules derived from naturallyoccurring fatty-acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mohan

    The self-assembly of molecular gelators has provided an attractive route for the construction of nanostructured materials with desired functionalities. A well-defined paradigm for the design of molecular gels is needed, but none has yet been established. One of the important challenges to defining this paradigm is the creation of structure-property correlations for gelators at different distance scales. This dissertation centers on gaining additional insights in the relationship between small changes in gelator structures derived from long-chain, naturally-occurring fatty acids and the properties of the corresponding gels. This approach offers a reasonable method to probe the rational design of molecular gelators. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  10. Method of treating oils derived by thermal treatment of solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culbertson, W.J.; Nevens, T.D.; Schnackenberg, W.D.

    1966-08-09

    A method for treating a heavy fraction separated under substantially non-cracking conditions from a crude oil derived by thermal treatment of solid carbonaceous material in order to produce a heavy fraction and a light fraction consists of heat treating the separated heavy fraction at a temperature above about 600$F. This temperature is below the point of incipient thermal decomposition of the heavy fraction. The heat treatment takes place for a period of time which is inversely proportional to the temperature to produce a product which, when combined with at least part of a light fraction, results in an oil having a pour point lower than that of the original crude oil. The heat treatment produces substantially no non-condensible hydrocarbons and substantially no elemental carbon. (21 claims)

  11. Retina derived relaxation is mediated by K(ir) channels and the inhibition of Ca(2+) sensitization in isolated bovine retinal arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takır, Selçuk; Uydeş-Doğan, B Sönmez; Özdemir, Osman

    2015-03-01

    Retinal relaxing factor (RRF) has recently been identified as a novel paracrine regulator of retinal circulation acting differently from well known mediators of the endothelium and the retina. Herein, we aimed to characterize the relaxing mechanism of the retina, i.e. RRF, by evaluating the role of Ca(+2)-dependent and -independent signaling mechanisms as well as inward rectifier K(+) (Kir) channels. Retinal relaxation was determined by placing a piece of retinal tissue just on top of the precontracted bovine retinal arteries mounted in a wire myograph. The retina produced a complete relaxation response, which display a biphasic character, in depolarized arteries contracted by L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist, Bay k 8644. Blockade of L-type Ca(2+) channel by nifedipine, inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase by cyclopiazonic acid or removal of extracellular Ca(2+) did not influence the prominent relaxation to the retina. Originally, retinal relaxation was found to be unaffected from the inhibition of myosin light chain kinase by ML7, whereas, completely abolished in the presence of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) inhibitor, Calyculin A. Moreover, the inhibition of Rho kinase by its putative inhibitor, Y-27632 displayed comparable relaxant effects to RRF in retinal arteries precontracted either by prostaglandin F2α or K(+), and augmented the moderate response to the retina in K(+) precontracted arteries. In addition, retinal relaxation was significantly inhibited and lost its biphasic character in the presence of Kir channel blocker, Ba(2+). Our results suggested that inhibition of Ca(2+) sensitization through the activation of MLCP, possibly via interfering with Rho kinase, and the opening of Kir channels are likely to be involved in the inhibitory influence of RRF on the retinal arteries.

  12. Intrinsically antibacterial materials based on polymeric derivatives of eugenol for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Luis; Barcenilla, Jose M; Vázquez, Blanca; González, Ramón; San Román, Julio

    2008-09-01

    Infections are the most common cause of biomaterial implant failure representing a constant challenge to the more widespread application of medical implants. This study reports on the preparation and characterization of novel hydrophilic copolymeric systems provided with antibacterial properties coming from eugenol residues anchored to the macromolecular chains. Thus, high conversion copolymers were prepared from the hydrophilic monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and different eugenol monomeric derivatives, eugenyl methacrylate (EgMA) and ethoxyeugenyl methacrylate (EEgMA), by bulk polymerization reaction. Thermal evaluation revealed glass transition temperature values in the range 95-58 degrees C following the order HEMA-co-EgMA > PHEMA > HEMA-co-EEgMA and a clear increase in thermal stability with the presence of any eugenyl monomer in the system. In vitro wettability studies showed a reduction of water sorption capacity and surface free energy values with increasing the content of eugenol residues in the copolymer. The antimicrobial activity of copolymeric discs was evaluated by determining their capacity to reduce or inhibit colony formation by different bacterial species. All eugenyl containing materials showed bacteria growth inhibition, this one being higher for the EEgMA derivative copolymers.

  13. Energy and materials flows in the production of olefins and their derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.; Shen, S.Y.

    1980-08-01

    Production of olefins and their derivatives uses almost 3.5% of the oil and gas consumed annually in the United States. It is estimated that their production requires an input energy of 2 Q, which is 50% of the energy used in the production of all petrochemicals. Substantial amounts of this energy could be recovered through recycling. For example, recycling of a single plastic product, polyester soft drink bottles, could have recovered about 0.014 Q in 1979. (About 1.4 Q is used to produce plastic derivatives of olefins). Petrochemical processes use fuels as feedstocks, as well as for process energy, and a portion of this energy is not foregone and can be recovered through combustion of the products. The energy foregone in the production of ethylene is estimated to be 7800 Btu/lb. The energy foregone in plastics production ranges from 12,100 Btu/lb for the new linear low-density polyethylene to 77,200 Btu/lb for nylon 66, which is about 60% of the total energy input for that product. Further investigation of the following areas could yield both material and energy savings in the olefins industry: (1) recycling of petrochemical products to recover energy in addition to that recoverable through combustion, (2) impact of feedstock substitution on utilization of available national resources, and (3) effective use of the heat embodied in process steam. This steam accounts for a major fraction of the industry's energy input.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and photophysical study of ethynyl pyrene derivatives as promising materials for organic optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, Paola E.; Corrêa, Rodrigo J.; Garden, Simon J., E-mail: garden@iq.ufrj.br

    2015-05-15

    Two series of pyrene derivatives, phenylethynyl (4–6) and the previously unknown ethynylcyclohexanol (7–9), were prepared by Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions. The introduction of an increasing number of ethynyl substituents resulted in a progressive bathochromic shift in the absorption and emission spectra which culminated in an inversion of the nature of the first two excited states ({sup 1}L{sub a} and {sup 1}L{sub b}) of the tetra-substituted derivatives (6 and 9) relative to pyrene. In solution, only for the mono-cyclohexanolethynyl pyrene (7) a sufficiently concentrated solution could be obtained so as to observe the excimer. Additionally, the emission band ratio I{sub 1}/I{sub 3} for 7 was found to be moderately sensitive to the nature of the solvent and the ratio directly correlated with the Py scale. TDDFT calculations were used to explore the variation of the properties of the low lying excited states. Fluorescence emission in the solid state, with the appropriate choice of materials, covers the entire visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum due to static excimer emission. A massive red-shift for solid state photoluminescence from 9 resulted in emission at longer wavelength than the more highly conjugated 6. - Highlights: • Phenyl and cyclohexanol ethynylpyrene derivatives: photophysically compared. • Excimer formation and solvent dependent emission from cyclohexanolethynylpyrene. • Systematic red shifting of solid state photoluminescence from static excimers. • Massive red-shift in the solid state photoluminescence of 9. • TDDFT calculations: properties of the lowest singlet states, systematic comparison.

  15. Nature and Properties of Lateritic Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hsing Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical composition of lateritic soils in order to use these soils as potential commercial products for industrial application in the future. Five lateritic soils derived from various parent materials in Taiwan, including andesite, diluvium, shale stone, basalt, and Pleistocene deposit, were collected from the Bt1 level of soil samples. Based on the analyses, the Tungwei soil is an alfisol, whereas other lateritic soils are ultisol. Higher pH value of Tungwei is attributed to the large amounts of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Loupi and Pingchen soils would be the older lateritic soils because of the lower active iron ratio. For the iron minerals, the magnetic iron oxides such as major amounts of magnetite and maghemite were found for Tamshui and Tungwei lateritic soils, respectively. Lepidocrocite was only found in Soka soil and intermediate amounts of goethite were detected for Loupi and Pingchen soils. After Mg-saturated and K-saturated processes, major amounts of mixed layer were observed in Loupi and Soka soils, whereas the montmorillonite was only detected in Tungwei soil. The investigation results revealed that the parent materials would play an important role during soil weathering process and physical, chemical, and mineralogy compositions strongly affect the formation of lateritic soils.

  16. Adsorption of methylene blue on biochar microparticles derived from different waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonappan, Linson; Rouissi, Tarek; Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder K; Ramirez, Antonio Avalos; Verma, Mausam; Surampalli, Rao Y; Valero, José R

    2016-03-01

    Biochar microparticles were prepared from three different types of biochar, derived from waste materials, such as pine wood (BC-PW), pig manure (BC-PM) and cardboard (BC-PD) under various pyrolysis conditions. The microparticles were prepared by dry grinding and sequential sieving through various ASTM sieves. Particle size and specific surface area were analyzed using laser particle size analyzer. The particles were further characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The adsorption capacity of each class of adsorbent was determined by methylene blue adsorption tests in comparison with commercially available activated carbon. Experimental results showed that dye adsorption increased with initial concentration of the adsorbate and biochar dosage. Biochar microparticles prepared from different sources exhibited improvement in adsorption capacity (7.8±0.5 mg g(-1) to 25±1.3 mg g(-1)) in comparison with raw biochar and commercially available activated carbon. The adsorption capacity varied with source material and method of production of biochar. The maximum adsorption capacity was 25 mg g(-1) for BC-PM microparticles at 25°C for an adsorbate concentration of 500 mg L(-1) in comparison with 48.30±3.6 mg g(-1) for activated carbon. The equilibrium adsorption data were best described by Langmuir model for BC-PM and BC-PD and Freundlich model for BC-PW.

  17. Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils amended with livestock-derived organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolla, D.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon dioxide gas xchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, as well as the carbon sink strength of various arable land ecosystems, is of primary interest for global change research. Measures for increasing soil C inputs include the preferential use of livestock-derived organic materials (e.g. animal manure and slurries, digestate from biogas production plants and compost). The application of such materials to agricultural soils returns essential nutrients for plant growth and organic matter to maintain long-term fertility. Whether or not such practices ultimately result in sustained C sequestration at the ecosystem level will depend on their mineralization rates. This work presents preliminary results from a laboratory incubation trial to evaluate carbon dioxide fluxes from two agricultural soils (a calcareous silt loam and a silty clay loam) amended with agricultural doses of (i) pig slurry (PSL), (ii) the digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of pig slurries (AAS) and (ii) a compost from the aerobic stabilisation of the digestate (LDC). These subsequent steps of slurry stabilisation resulted in a decrease in the content of labile organic matter which was reflected in a reduction in maximum carbon dioxide emission rates from amended soils. Measurements have shown that peak emissions from soils occur immediately after application of these organic materials (within 5 days) and decrease in the order PSL > AAS > LDC. Moreover, mean cumulative emissions over the first 40 days showed that a higher percentage (about 44%) of the C added with PSL was mineralised respect to C added with AAS (39%) and LDC (25%). Although it was hypothesised that apart from the quantity and stability of the added organic materials, even soil characteristics could influence C mineralisation rates, no significant differences were observed between emission fluxes for similarly treated soils. Mean cumulative emission fluxes after 40 days from treatment were of 114, 103 and

  18. Stability of the resistance to the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone, a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana F Castro

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is the prototype Pestivirus. BVDV infection is distributed worldwide and causes serious problems for the livestock industry. The thiosemicarbazone of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC is a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (NNI of BVDV. All TSC-resistant BVDV variants (BVDV-TSCr T1-5 present an N264D mutation in the NS5B gene (RdRp whereas the variant BVDV-TSCr T1 also presents an NS5B A392E mutation. In the present study, we carried out twenty passages of BVDV-TSCr T1-5 in MDBK cells in the absence of TSC to evaluate the stability of the resistance. The viral populations obtained (BVDV R1-5 remained resistant to the antiviral compound and conserved the mutations in NS5B associated with this phenotype. Along the passages, BVDV R2, R3 and R5 presented a delay in the production of cytopathic effect that correlated with a decrease in cell apoptosis and intracellular accumulation of viral RNA. The complete genome sequences that encode for NS2 to NS5B, Npro and Erns were analyzed. Additional mutations were detected in the NS5B of BVDV R1, R3 and R4. In both BVDV R2 and R3, most of the mutations found were localized in NS5A, whereas in BVDV R5, the only mutation fixed was NS5A V177A. These results suggest that mutations in NS5A could alter BVDV cytopathogenicity. In conclusion, the stability of the resistance to TSC may be due to the fixation of different compensatory mutations in each BVDV-TSCr. During their replication in a TSC-free medium, some virus populations presented a kind of interaction with the host cell that resembled a persistent infection: decreased cytopathogenicity and viral genome synthesis. This is the first report on the stability of antiviral resistance and on the evolution of NNI-resistant BVDV variants. The results obtained for BVDV-TSCr could also be applied for other NNIs.

  19. In Vivo Rescue of a Silent tax-Deficient Bovine Leukemia Virus from a Tumor-Derived Ovine B-Cell Line by Recombination with a Retrovirally Transduced Wild-Type tax Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Broeke, Anne; Bagnis, Claude; Ciesiolka, Malgorzata; Cleuter, Yvette; Gelderblom, Hans; Kerkhofs, Pierre; Griebel, Philip; Mannoni, Patrice; Burny, Arsene

    1999-01-01

    The lack of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) expression is a consistent finding in freshly isolated ovine tumor cells and in the B-cell lines derived from these tumors. In order to gain further insight into the mechanisms of BLV silencing in these tumors, we have used the YR2 B-cell line, which was derived from the leukemic cells of a BLV-infected sheep. This cell line contains a single, monoclonally integrated, silent provirus, which cannot be reactivated either by stimulation in vitro or by in vivo injection of the tumor cells or cloned proviral DNA in sheep. Sequence analysis of the tax gene from the YR2 cell line identified two G-to-A transitions (G7924 to A7924 and G8149 to A8149) that result in E-to-K amino acid changes at positions 228 and 303 in the Tax protein. Following retroviral vector-mediated transfer of a wild-type tax gene into YR2 cells, we showed that BLV mRNA, viral proteins, and virions were produced, demonstrating that the cellular factors required for virus expression were present in the original YR2 cell line. Injection of this transduced YR2 cell line in sheep led to the rescue of replication-competent BLV proviruses. The integrated competent proviruses exhibited unique chimeric tax genes, which arose from homologous recombination between the transduced wild-type tax and the YR2-derived tax sequences. Furthermore, in one of these functional recombinant proviruses, only the A8149-to-G8149 reversion was present, providing clear evidence that the defect underlying the silent phenotype in YR2 cells results from a single C-terminal E303-to-K303 amino acid substitution in the BLV Tax protein. Our observations suggest that a single strategically located mutation in tax provides a mechanism for BLV inactivation in B-cell tumors. PMID:9882306

  20. A particle-tracking approach for accurate material derivative measurements with tomographic PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Matteo; Scarano, Fulvio

    2013-08-01

    The evaluation of the instantaneous 3D pressure field from tomographic PIV data relies on the accurate estimate of the fluid velocity material derivative, i.e., the velocity time rate of change following a given fluid element. To date, techniques that reconstruct the fluid parcel trajectory from a time sequence of 3D velocity fields obtained with Tomo-PIV have already been introduced. However, an accurate evaluation of the fluid element acceleration requires trajectory reconstruction over a relatively long observation time, which reduces random errors. On the other hand, simple integration and finite difference techniques suffer from increasing truncation errors when complex trajectories need to be reconstructed over a long time interval. In principle, particle-tracking velocimetry techniques (3D-PTV) enable the accurate reconstruction of single particle trajectories over a long observation time. Nevertheless, PTV can be reliably performed only at limited particle image number density due to errors caused by overlapping particles. The particle image density can be substantially increased by use of tomographic PIV. In the present study, a technique to combine the higher information density of tomographic PIV and the accurate trajectory reconstruction of PTV is proposed (Tomo-3D-PTV). The particle-tracking algorithm is applied to the tracers detected in the 3D domain obtained by tomographic reconstruction. The 3D particle information is highly sparse and intersection of trajectories is virtually impossible. As a result, ambiguities in the particle path identification over subsequent recordings are easily avoided. Polynomial fitting functions are introduced that describe the particle position in time with sequences based on several recordings, leading to the reduction in truncation errors for complex trajectories. Moreover, the polynomial regression approach provides a reduction in the random errors due to the particle position measurement. Finally, the acceleration

  1. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  2. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  3. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the New Brunswick Site, Middlesex County, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, D.; Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-02-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the New Brunswick Site, located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides of concern and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the New Brunswick Site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. The guidelines derived in this report are intended to apply to the remediation of these remaining residual radioactive materials at the site. The primary radionuclides of concern in these remaining materials are expected to be radium-226 and, to a lesser extent, natural uranium and thorium. The DOE has established generic cleanup guidelines for radium and thorium in soil; however, cleanup guidelines for other radionuclides must be derived on a site-specific basis.

  4. Studies on supercapacitor electrode material from activated lignin-derived mesoporous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipendu; Li, Yunchao; Bi, Zhonghe; Chen, Jihua; Keum, Jong K; Hensley, Dale K; Grappe, Hippolyte A; Meyer, Harry M; Dai, Sheng; Paranthaman, M Parans; Naskar, A K

    2014-01-28

    We synthesized mesoporous carbon from pre-cross-linked lignin gel impregnated with a surfactant as the pore-forming agent and then activated the carbon through physical and chemical methods to obtain activated mesoporous carbon. The activated mesoporous carbons exhibited 1.5- to 6-fold increases in porosity with a maximum Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area of 1148 m(2)/g and a pore volume of 1.0 cm(3)/g. Both physical and chemical activation enhanced the mesoporosity along with significant microporosity. Plots of cyclic voltammetric data with the capacitor electrode made from these carbons showed an almost rectangular curve depicting the behavior of ideal double-layer capacitance. Although the pristine mesoporous carbon exhibited a range of surface-area-based capacitance similar to that of other known carbon-based supercapacitors, activation decreased the surface-area-based specific capacitance and enhanced the gravimetric specific capacitance of the mesoporous carbons. A vertical tail in the lower-frequency domain of the Nyquist plot provided additional evidence of good supercapacitor behavior for the activated mesoporous carbons. We have modeled the equivalent circuit of the Nyquist plot with the help of two constant phase elements (CPE). Our work demonstrated that biomass-derived mesoporous carbon materials continue to show potential for use in specific electrochemical applications.

  5. High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrode Materials from Cellulose-Derived Carbon Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jie; Niu, Haitao; Li, Zhenyu; Du, Yong; Cizek, Pavel; Xie, Zongli; Xiong, Hanguo; Lin, Tong

    2015-07-15

    Nitrogen-functionalized carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs) were prepared by carbonizing polypyrrole (PPy)-coated cellulose NFs, which were obtained by electrospinning, deacetylation of electrospun cellulose acetate NFs, and PPy polymerization. Supercapacitor electrodes prepared from N-CNFs and a mixture of N-CNFs and Ni(OH)2 showed specific capacitances of ∼236 and ∼1045 F g(-1), respectively. An asymmetric supercapacitor was further fabricated using N-CNFs/Ni(OH)2 and N-CNFs as positive and negative electrodes. The supercapacitor device had a working voltage of 1.6 V in aqueous KOH solution (6.0 M) with an energy density as high as ∼51 (W h) kg(-1) and a maximum power density of ∼117 kW kg(-1). The device had excellent cycle lifetime, which retained ∼84% specific capacitance after 5000 cycles of cyclic voltammetry scans. N-CNFs derived from electrospun cellulose may be useful as an electrode material for development of high-performance supercapacitors and other energy storage devices.

  6. Cathodic Polarization Coats Titanium Based Implant Materials with Enamel Matrix Derivate (EMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Frank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a bioactive surface coating that enhances bone healing and bone growth is a strong focus of on-going research for bone implant materials. Enamel matrix derivate (EMD is well documented to support bone regeneration and activates growth of mesenchymal tissues. Thus, it is a prime candidate for coating of existing implant surfaces. The aim of this study was to show that cathodic polarization can be used for coating commercially available implant surfaces with an immobilized but functional and bio-available surface layer of EMD. After coating, XPS revealed EMD-related bindings on the surface while SIMS showed incorporation of EMD into the surface. The hydride layer of the original surface could be activated for coating in an integrated one-step process that did not require any pre-treatment of the surface. SEM images showed nano-spheres and nano-rods on coated surfaces that were EMD-related. Moreover, the surface roughness remained unchanged after coating, as it was shown by optical profilometry. The mass peaks observed in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS analysis confirmed the integrity of EMD after coating. Assessment of the bioavailability suggested that the modified surfaces were active for osteoblast like MC3M3-E1 cells in showing enhanced Coll-1 gene expression and ALP activity.

  7. Studies on Supercapacitor Electrode Material from Activated Lignin-Derived Mesoporous Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Li, Yunchao [ORNL; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL; Grappe, Hippolyte A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized mesoporous carbon from pre-cross-linked lignin gel impregnated with a surfactant as the pore-forming agent, and then activated the carbon through physical and chemical methods to obtain activated mesoporous carbon. The activated mesoporous carbons exhibited 1.5- to 6-fold increases in porosity with a maximum BET specific surface area of 1148 m2/g and a pore volume of 1.0 cm3/g. Slow physical activation helped retain dominant mesoporosity; however, aggressive chemical activation caused some loss of the mesopore volume fraction. Plots of cyclic voltammetric data with the capacitor electrode made from these carbons showed an almost rectangular curve depicting the behavior of ideal double-layer capacitance. Although the pristine mesoporous carbon exhibited the same range of surface-area-based capacitance as that of other known carbon-based supercapacitors, activation decreased the surface-area-based specific capacitance and increased the gravimetric-specific capacitance of the mesoporous carbons. Surface activation lowered bulk density and electrical conductivity. Warburg impedance as a vertical tail in the lower frequency domain of Nyquist plots supported good supercapacitor behavior for the activated mesoporous carbons. Our work demonstrated that biomass-derived mesoporous carbon materials continue to show potential for use in specific electrochemical applications.

  8. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worley Kim C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries.

  9. BINDING EFFICACY AND ELUCIDATION OF QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP OF ACETANILIDE AND ITS DERIVATIVES WITH BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN AND THEIR INHIBITION AGAINST COX1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Violet Dhayabaran et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum albumins are the most abundant proteins in plasma with many physiological functions. Among them, BSA has a wide range of functions involving the binding, transport and delivery of fatty acids, porphyrins, bilirubin, steroids, etc and it is home to specific binding sites for metals, pharmaceuticals and dyes. Recently, nanotechnology has become a popular term in the current science and technology. Nanotechnology has been introduced for the food and drug industry, including encapsulations and delivery systems. BSA nanoparticles were prepared and their binding efficacy with the available analgesics such as acetanilide and its derivatives were studied. The value of apparent rate constant Kapp from the interaction between acetanilide and BSA by UV visible spectroscopic and fluorescence technique was found to be 2.294X106. The quenching rate constant of BSA-Acetanilide was found to be 1.0345X1015M-1 S-1. There are two binding sites in BSA for acetanilide. A QSAR study was performed for the different analgesics. Inhibition of Acetanilide and its derivatives with the Cyclooxygenase (COX 1 was studied using docking mechanism. The electro chemical behavior of acetanilide is studied and it is found to be reversible.

  10. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  11. A procedure for estimating site specific derived limits for the discharge of radioactive material to the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Hallam, J; Jones, J A

    1983-01-01

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) for the discharge of radioactive material to the atmosphere are evaluated using parameter values to ensure that the exposure of the critical group is unlikely to be underestimated significantly. Where the discharge is greater than about 5% of the GDL, a more rigorous estimate of the derived limit may be warranted. This report describes a procedure for estimating site specific derived limits for discharges of radioactivity to the atmosphere taking into account the conditions of the release and the location and habits of the exposed population. A worksheet is provided to assist in carrying out the required calculations.

  12. A Short Review on the Catalytic Activity of Hydrotalcite-Derived Materials for Dry Reforming of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Dębek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-containing hydrotalcite-derived materials have been recently proposed as promising materials for methane dry reforming (DRM. Based on a literature review and on the experience of the authors, this review focuses on presenting past and recent achievements on increasing activity and stability of hydrotalcite-based materials for DRM. The use of different NiMgAl and NiAl hydrotalcite (HT precursors, various methods for nickel introduction into HT structure, calcination conditions and promoters are discussed. HT-derived materials containing nickel generally exhibit high activity in DRM; however, the problem of preventing catalyst deactivation by coking, especially below 700 °C, is still an open question. The proposed solutions in the literature include: catalyst regeneration either in oxygen atmosphere or via hydrogasification; or application of various promoters, such as Zr, Ce or La, which was proven to enhance catalytic stability.

  13. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  14. Material Selection Guide Derived from Material - Chemical Compatibility Database: Feasibility Based on Database and Predictive Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    with unknown content and matrix size. 15 2.7 Inventory of the Freguencv of Test and Proverty Data. An inventory of the occurrence of property data types...A, D ASTM D-2240 Shore A ASTM D-3242 Table C-6. Specifications for Mechanical Property Testing Deflection/Expansion Material Class Proverty ...Specifications for Functional Property Testing Proverty Class Material Class Property Specification Optical Plastics Transmittance ASTM D-1003

  15. BSA对生物材料吸附行为的研究%Study on adsorption of bovine serum albumin on biological materials surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳栋栋; 万涛; 陈晓明

    2013-01-01

    以原子力显微镜为主要研究工具,研究了BSA分子对CoCrMo合金和Al2O3陶瓷的吸附行为,测试了BSA吸附膜的厚度及BSA分子对CoCrMo合金和Al2O3陶瓷的吸附力.%The atomic force microscope was taken as the main tool to investigate the adsorption behavior of bo-vine serum albumin (BSA) molecules on CoCrMo alloys and Al2O3 ceramics in this article. The thickness of the BSA films and the adsorption force between BSA molecules and the samples were tested.

  16. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cara, Irina Gabriela, E-mail: coroirina@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Trincă, Lucia Carmen, E-mail: lctrinca@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Trofin, Alina Elena, E-mail: aetrofin@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Cazacu, Ana, E-mail: anagarlea@gmail.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Ţopa, Denis, E-mail: topadennis@yahoo.com [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania); Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara, E-mail: catipeptu@yahoo.co.uk [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, 73 D. Mangeron Street, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Jităreanu, Gerard, E-mail: gerardj@uaiasi.ro [“Ion Ionescu de la Brad” University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, 3M. Sadoveanu Alley, 700490 Iasi (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Surface characteristics of activated straw (wheat, corn, soybean) were assessed. • Modification methods to enhance materials sorption were presented. • Adsorption mechanism of metribuzin was revealed and discussed. - Abstract: Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  17. Pilot study on binding of bovine salivary proteins to grit silicates and plant phytoliths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcus MAU; Thomas M.KAISER; Karl-Heinz S(U)DEKUM

    2013-01-01

    Mostly fed with grass in fresh or conserved form,cattle and other livestock have to cope with silicate defence bodies from plants (phytoliths) and environmental silicates (grit),which abrade tooth enamel and could additionally interact with various salivary proteins.To detect potential candidates for silicate-binding proteins,bovine whole saliva was incubated with grass-derived phytoliths and silicates.Interactions of salivary proteins with pulverized bovine dental enamel and dentine were additionally analysed.After intense washing,the powder fractions were loaded onto 1D-polyacrylamide gels,most prominent adhesive protein bands were cut out and proteins were identified by mass spectrometry within three independent replicates.All materials were mainly bound by bovine odorant-binding protein,bovine salivary protein 30× 103 and carbonic anhydrase VI.The phytolith/silicate fraction showed additional stronger interaction with haemoglobin β and lactoperoxidase.Conceivably,the binding of these proteins to the surfaces may contribute to biological processes occurring on them.

  18. Detecting un-authorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst-Jensen, Arne; Bertheau, Yves; de Loose, Marc; Grohmann, Lutz; Hamels, Sandrine; Hougs, Lotte; Morisset, Dany; Pecoraro, Sven; Pla, Maria; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Wulff, Doerte

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified plants, in the following referred to as genetically modified organisms or GMOs, have been commercially grown for almost two decades. In 2010 approximately 10% of the total global crop acreage was planted with GMOs (James, 2011). More than 30 countries have been growing commercial GMOs, and many more have performed field trials. Although the majority of commercial GMOs both in terms of acreage and specific events belong to the four species: soybean, maize, cotton and rapeseed, there are another 20+ species where GMOs are commercialized or in the pipeline for commercialization. The number of GMOs cultivated in field trials or for commercial production has constantly increased during this time period. So have the number of species, the number of countries involved, the diversity of novel (added) genetic elements and the global trade. All of these factors contribute to the increasing complexity of detecting and correctly identifying GMO derived material. Many jurisdictions, including the European Union (EU), legally distinguish between authorized (and therefore legal) and un-authorized (and therefore illegal) GMOs. Information about the developments, field trials, authorizations, cultivation, trade and observations made in the official GMO control laboratories in different countries around the world is often limited, despite several attempts such as the OECD BioTrack for voluntary dissemination of data. This lack of information inevitably makes it challenging to detect and identify GMOs, especially the un-authorized GMOs. The present paper reviews the state of the art technologies and approaches in light of coverage, practicability, sensitivity and limitations. Emphasis is put on exemplifying practical detection of un-authorized GMOs. Although this paper has a European (EU) bias when examples are given, the contents have global relevance.

  19. Synthesis of pentafluorosulfanylpyrazole and pentafluorosulfanyl-1,2,3-triazole and their derivatives as energetic materials by click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chengfeng; Gard, Gary L; Winter, Rolf W; Syvret, Robert G; Twamley, Brendan; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2007-09-13

    1-Pentafluorosulfanyl acetylene and its derivatives react with azide or diazomethane giving rise to an SF5-substituted 1,2,3-triazole or pyrazole. The SF5 group increases density remarkably and as a result enhances the detonation performance of the energetic materials relative to the CF3 group.

  20. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown aetiol

  1. A triphenylamine-based benzoxazole derivative as a high-contrast piezofluorochromic material induced by protonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Pengchong; Chen, Peng; Jia, Junhui; Xu, Qiuxia; Sun, Jiabao; Yao, Boqi; Zhang, Zhenqi; Lu, Ran

    2014-03-11

    A triphenylamine-based benzoxazole derivative exhibits a low contrast piezofluorochromic behavior under external pressure, and a high-contrast fluorescence change induced by protonation can be observed.

  2. Assessment of some straw-derived materials for reducing the leaching potential of Metribuzin residues in the soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Irina Gabriela; Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Trofin, Alina Elena; Cazacu, Ana; Ţopa, Denis; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Jităreanu, Gerard

    2015-12-01

    Biomass (straw waste) can be used as raw to obtain materials for herbicide removal from wastewater. These by-products have some important advantages, being environmentally friendly, easily available, presenting low costs, and requiring little processing to increase their adsorptive capacity. In the present study, some materials derived from agricultural waste (wheat, corn and soybean straw) were investigated as potential adsorbents for metribuzin removal from aqueous solutions. The straw wastes were processed by grinding, mineralisation (850 °C) and KOH activation in order to improve their functional surface activity. The materials surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The adsorbents capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for herbicide determination. For adsorption isotherms, the equilibrium time considered was 3 h. The experimental adsorption data were modelled by Freundlich and Langmuir models. The activated straw and ash-derived materials from wheat, corn and soybean increased the adsorption capacity of metribuzin with an asymmetrical behaviour. Overall, our results sustain that activated ash-derived from straw and activated straw materials can be a valuable solution for reducing the leaching potential of metribuzin through soil.

  3. ROMP-Derived cyclooctene-based monolithic polymeric materials reinforced with inorganic nanoparticles for applications in tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Weichelt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous monolithic inorganic/polymeric hybrid materials have been prepared via ring-opening metathesis copolymerization starting from a highly polar monomer, i.e., cis-5-cyclooctene-trans-1,2-diol and a 7-oxanorborn-2-ene-derived cross-linker in the presence of porogenic solvents and two types of inorganic nanoparticles (i.e., CaCO3 and calcium hydroxyapatite, respectively using the third-generation Grubbs initiator RuCl2(Py2(IMesH2(CHPh. The physico-chemical properties of the monolithic materials, such as pore size distribution and microhardness were studied with regard to the nanoparticle type and content. Moreover, the reinforced monoliths were tested for the possible use as scaffold materials in tissue engineering, by carrying out cell cultivation experiments with human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells.

  4. Precursor Derived Nanostructured Si-C-X Materials for Nuclear Applications. Final Report, October 2010 - September 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordia, Rajendra [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Tomar, Vikas [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Henager, Chuck [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-08

    Polymer derived ceramic route is an attractive approach to make structural materials with unique nanostructures that have very desirable high temperature properties. Processing techniques to make a variety of needed shapes and forms (e.g. coatings, matrices for fiber reinforced composites, porous ceramics) have been developed. With appropriate high temperature processing, the precursors can be converted to nano-crystalline materials. In this collaborative project, we investigated the processing, stability and properties of nanostructured Si-C materials, derived from polymeric precursors, and their performance under conditions appropriate for nuclear energy applications. All the milestones of the project were accomplished. Some of the results are being currently analyzed and additional papers being prepared in which support from NEUP will be acknowledged. So far, eight peer-reviewed papers have been published and one invention disclosure made. In this report, we summarize the major findings of this project.

  5. A Quantum Chemical Study on Polythiophenes Derivatives as Donor Materials in Bulk-heterojunction Polymer Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Mohamed Omer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the optimum design of the donor and acceptor materials in polymer solar cells, it is very important to do a theoretical calculation for the energy levels and energy gaps. In this work we used the semiempirical method Austin Model1 (AM1 to investigate the Higher Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO and Lower Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO of polythiophenes derivatives/fullerenes combination (bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. The overestimation on the HOMO and LUMO values was corrected by using experimental data from literature as criteria of correctness. Using our correction method, a reasonable linear relationship between the computed energy band gaps of polythiophenes derivatives and the experimental band gaps were found. The corrected HOMO and LUMO energies of polythiophenes derivatives match well with the experimental one. This method can serve as a road map inorder to design and synthesis appropriate combination of polythiophenes derivatives/fullerenes for bulk heterojunction solar cells.

  6. Proteomic analysis of bovine blastocoel fluid and blastocyst cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Linnert; Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Beck, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    development, little information is available about the protein complement of early embryos. Modern, sensitive proteomic technology (nano HPLC tandem mass spectrometry) allowed us to describe the proteome of the scarce blastocoel fluid and cell material of expanded bovine blastocysts isolated...

  7. Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cell Culture and Identification in Vitro%奶牛外周血树突状细胞体外诱导培养与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹康; 赵倩明; 隋雁南; 封飞飞; 占今舜; 赵国琦

    2016-01-01

    通过粒-巨噬细胞集落刺激因子( GM⁃CSF)和白细胞介素-4( IL⁃4)体外诱导外周血单核细胞为树突状细胞,为利用树突状细胞免疫疗法治疗奶牛乳房炎奠定基础和提供细胞模型。利用淋巴细胞分离液分离获得奶牛外周血单核细胞,在6孔板内培养2h后,弃掉含有大量的T细胞和B细胞上清液,贴壁的基本上是单核细胞,磷酸盐缓冲液清洗5次,加入含有GM⁃CSF和IL⁃4的2 mL培养基进行3 d诱导。之后,从培养基顶部小心吸弃1.4 mL的培养基,然后再补加含有GM⁃CSF和IL⁃4的1.8 mL培养基继续诱导3 d。每天通过显微镜观察细胞形态。第7天经流式检测细胞表面抗原 CD11c、CD14、主要组织相容性复合体Ⅱ( MHCⅡ)、CD40、CD80、CD86的表达。结果表明:1)第2天,一些细胞表面可以生长出刺突并伴随着伪足的生长。第3天,细胞表面的刺突和伪足越来越多。第4、5天,一些带有刺突和伪足的细胞开始聚集和融合。第6天,单核细胞基本被诱导为树突状细胞,细胞表面含有大量清晰可见的刺突和伪足。2)经流式检测,CD14、CD11c、MHCⅡ阳性表达细胞分别占诱导细胞的6.8%、65.0%、75.9%,CD80和CD86阳性表达细胞分别占诱导细胞的2.0%和1.2%。综上所述,采用奶牛外周血单核细胞经体外诱导能够获得一定纯度的奶牛树突状细胞。%This study aimed to induce bovine peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic cell by granulocyte⁃macrophage colony stimulating factor ( GM⁃CSF) and interleukin⁃4 ( IL⁃4) cytokines, which could lay founda⁃tion and provide cell model for dairy cow mastitis treatment using cell immunotherapy. The bovine peripheral blood monocyte was acquired by lymphocyte separation medium and seeded in 6⁃proe plate to culture for 2 h. Then, suspended cells containing an amount of B and T cells were discarded, and

  8. Removal of Pb, Cd, and Cr in a water purification system using modified mineral waste materials and activated carbon derived from waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H. R.; Su, L. C.; Ruan, H. D.

    2016-08-01

    This study attempts to find out and optimize the removal efficiency of heavy metals in a water purification unit using a low-cost waste material and modified mineral waste materials (MMWM) accompanied with activated carbon (AC) derived from waste materials. The factors of the inner diameter of the purification unit (2.6-5cm), the height of the packing materials (5-20cm), the size of AC (200-20mesh), the size of MMWM (1-0.045mm), and the ratio between AC and MMWM in the packing materials (1:0 - 0:1) were examined based on a L18 (5) 3 orthogonal array design. In order to achieve an optimally maximum removal efficiency, the factors of the inner diameter of the purification unit (2.6-7.5cm), the height of the packing materials (10-30cm), and the ratio between AC and MMWM in the packing materials (1:4-4:1) were examined based on a L16 (4) 3 orthogonal array design. A height of 25cm, inner diameter of 5cm, ratio between AC and MMWM of 3:2 with size of 60-40mesh and 0.075-0.045mm, respectively, were the best conditions determined by the ICP-OES analysis to perform the adsorption of heavy metals in this study.

  9. Modulation of human immune responses by bovine interleukin-10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerco den Hartog

    Full Text Available Cytokines can be functionally active across species barriers. Bovine IL-10 has an amino acid sequence identity with human IL-10 of 76.8%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether bovine IL-10 has immunomodulatory activities on human monocytes and dendritic cells. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy donors, and used directly or allowed to differentiate to dendritic cells under the influence of IL-4 and GM-CSF. Recombinant bovine IL-10 inhibited TLR induced activation of monocytes, and dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced activation of monocyte-derived DCs comparable to human IL-10. By using blocking antibodies to either bovine IL-10 or the human IL-10 receptor it was demonstrated that inhibition of monocyte activation by bovine IL-10 was dependent on binding of bovine IL-10 to the human IL-10R. These data demonstrate that bovine IL-10 potently inhibits the activation of human myeloid cells in response to TLR activation. Bovine IL-10 present in dairy products may thus potentially contribute to the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and allergy, enhance mucosal tolerance induction and decrease intestinal inflammation and may therefore be applicable in infant foods and in immunomodulatory diets.

  10. Polymer Derived Yttrium Silicate Ablative TPS Materials for Next-Generation Exploration Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Through the proposed NASA SBIR program, NanoSonic will optimize its HybridSil® derived yttrium silicates to serve as next-generation reinforcement for carbon...

  11. Characterization of Zeolite in Zeolite-Geopolymer Hybrid Bulk Materials Derived from Kaolinitic Clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayami Takeda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid materials have been formed when kaolin was used as a starting material. Their characteristics are of interest because they can have a wide pore size distribution with micro- and meso-pores due to the zeolite and geopolymer, respectively. In this study, Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid bulk materials were fabricated using four kinds of kaolinitic clays (a halloysite and three kinds of kaolinite. The kaolinitic clays were first calcined at 700 °C for 3 h to transform into the amorphous aluminosilicate phases. Alkali-activation treatment of the metakaolin yielded bulk materials with different amounts and types of zeolite and different compressive strength. This study investigated the effects of the initial kaolinitic clays on the amount and types of zeolite in the resultant geopolymers as well as the strength of the bulk materials. The kaolinitic clays and their metakaolin were characterized by XRD analysis, chemical composition, crystallite size, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR analysis, and specific surface area measurements. The correlation between the amount of zeolite formed and the compressive strength of the resultant hybrid bulk materials, previously reported by other researchers was not positively observed. In the studied systems, the effects of Si/Al and crystalline size were observed. When the atomic ratio of Si/Al in the starting kaolinitic clays increased, the compressive strength of the hybrid bulk materials increased. The crystallite size of the zeolite in the hybrid bulk materials increased with decreasing compressive strength of the hybrid bulk materials.

  12. Carbon dioxide capture on amine-rich carbonaceous materials derived from glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Bacsik, Zoltan; Hedin, Niklas; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan; Antonietti, Markus; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena

    2010-07-19

    The synthesis of carbonaceous materials with a high surface density of amino functions for CO(2) sorption and sequestration is reported. The amino-rich carbonaceous materials are characterized by elemental analysis, N(2) sorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential, TGA and FTIR measurements. A detailed discussion on the use of these materials in CO(2) capture is provided. The materials show significant sorption capabilities for CO(2) (4.3 mmol g(-1)at -20 degrees C and 1 bar). Furthermore, they show a high apparent selectivity for CO(2) over N(2) at both low and high temperatures.

  13. Construction of tubular polypyrrole-wrapped biomass-derived carbon nanospheres as cathode materials for lithium–sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiuhong; Lu, Yang; Peng, Tao; Hou, Xiaoyi; Luo, Rongjie; Wang, Yange; Yan, Hailong; Liu, Xianming; Kim, Jang-Kyo; Luo, Yongsong

    2017-03-01

    A promising hybrid material composed of tubular polypyrrole (T-PPy)-wrapped monodisperse biomass-derived carbon nanospheres (BCSs) was first synthesized successfully via a simple hydrothermal approach by using watermelon juice as the carbon source, and further used as an anchoring object for sulfur (S) of lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries. The use of BCSs with hydrophilic nature as a framework could provide large interface areas between the active materials and electrolyte, and improve the dispersion of T-PPy, which could help in the active material utilization. As a result, BCS@T-PPy/S as a cathode material exhibited a high capacity of 1143.6 mA h g‑1 and delivered a stable capacity up to 685.8 mA h g‑1 after 500 cycles at 0.5 C, demonstrating its promising application for rechargeable Li–S batteries.

  14. Preparation, Characterization and Luminescence of MCM-41 Immobilized Bovine Serum Albumin Composite Material%MCM-41固载牛血清白蛋白复合材料的制备、表征及发光

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宇辰; 翟庆洲

    2012-01-01

    In this research, nanoscale MCM-41 molecular sieve was prepared using hydrothermal method and then bovine serum albumin (BSA) was immobilized in the above host to prepare ( MCM-41 )-BSA composite materials by physical adsorption method. Chemical analysis showed that BSA had entered into the above-stated host material and its immobilization amount was 55. 68 mg (BSA)/g (MCM-41). Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that crystallinity degree of composite materials was maintained good and basic frameworks of the molecular sieve were preserved intact and were not destructed due to BSA introduction. The low temperature N2 adsorption-desorption study results at 77 K showed that BSA had already partially entered in the molecular sieve pore channels. The measurement results by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed that the diameter of ( MCM-41) -BSA sample was 100 ± 10 nm. The luminescence study showed that in the (MCM-41)-BSA sample the conformation of BSA was not changed.%本研究首先利用水热法制备出了纳米分子筛MCM-41,然后把牛血清白蛋白(Bovine serum albumin,BSA)物理吸附法固载在主体MCM-41中,制备出(MCM-41)-BSA复合材料.化学分析表明,BSA已进入上述主体材料中,固载量为55.68 mg (BSA)/g(MCM-41).粉末X射线衍射(XRD)结果表明,复合材料的结晶度保持良好,分子筛的基本骨架保存完好没有由于BSA的引入而遭到破坏.77 K低温N2吸附-解吸附的研究结果说明,BSA部分进入了分子筛孔道中.扫描电镜(SEM)测量结果显示,(MCM-41)-BSA样品的直径为100±10 nm.发光研究表明,(MCM-41)-BSA样品中BSA的构象未发生变化.

  15. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the Colonie Site, Colonie, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, D.

    1996-05-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Colonie site located in Colonie, New York. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The site became contaminated with radioactive material as a result of operations conducted by National Lead (NL) Industries from 1958 to 1984; these activities included brass foundry operations, electroplating of metal products, machining of various components using depleted uranium, and limited work with small amounts of enriched uranium and thorium. The Colonie site comprises the former NL Industries property, now designated the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), and 56 vicinity properties contaminated by fallout from airborne emissions; 53 of the vicinity properties were previously remediated between 1984 and 1988. In 1984, DOE accepted ownership of the CISS property from NL Industries. Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines.

  16. Absorption spectra of new synthesized electroluminescent materials of poly-N-vinylcarbazole derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makowska-Janusik, M.; Sanetra, J.; Palmers, H.; Bogdal, D.; Gondek, E.; Kityk, I.V.

    2004-01-01

    Absorption spectra in the new synthesized poly-N-vinylcarbazole (PNVK) materials are investigated both theoretically as well as experimentally. The investigated materials were modified by substitution of the backside groups by electron acceptors Cl, Br, I and by donor methoxy in the position 3,6 of

  17. Boron-nitrogen doped carbon scaffolding: organic chemistry, self-assembly and materials applications of borazine and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Davide; Fasano, Francesco; Lorenzo-Garcia, M Mercedes; Marinelli, Davide; Oubaha, Hamid; Tasseroul, Jonathan

    2015-10-25

    Discovered by Stock and Pohland in 1926, borazine is the isoelectronic and isostructural inorganic analogue of benzene, where the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bonds are substituted by B-N bonds. The strong polarity of such heteroatomic bonds widens the HOMO-LUMO gap of the molecule, imparting strong UV-emitting/absorption and electrical insulating properties. These properties make borazine and its derivatives valuable molecular scaffolds to be inserted as doping units in graphitic-based carbon materials to tailor their optoelectronic characteristics, and specifically their semiconducting properties. By guiding the reader through the most significant examples in the field, in this feature paper we describe the past and recent developments in the organic synthesis and functionalisation of borazine and its derivatives. These boosted the production of a large variety of tailored derivatives, broadening their use in optoelectronics, H2 storage and supramolecular functional architectures, to name a few.

  18. Vestas Pinaria Region: Original Basaltic Achondrite Material Derived from Mixing Upper and Lower Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, L. A.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Ammannito, Eleonora; Frigeri, Alessandro; Stephan, Katrin; Longobardo, Andrea; Palomba, Ernesto; Tosi, Federico; Zambon, Francesca; Krohn, Katrin; DeSanctis, Cristina M.; Reddy, Vishnu; LeCorre, Lucille; Nathues, Andreas; Pieters, Carle M.; Prettyman, Thomas; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of data from the Dawn mission shows that the Pinaria region of Vesta spanning a portion of the rim of the Rheasilvia basin is bright and anhydrous. Reflectance spectra, absorption band centers, and their variations, cover the range of pyroxenes from diogenite-rich to howardite and eucrite compositions, with no evidence of olivine in this region. By examining band centers and depths of the floor, walls and rims of six major craters in the region, we find a lane of diogenite-rich material next to howardite-eucrite material that does not follow the local topography. The source of this material is not clear and is probably ejecta from post-Rheasilvia impacts. Material of a howardite-eucrite composition originating from beyond the Rheasilvia basin is evident on the western edge of the region. Overall, the Pinaria region exposes the complete range of basaltic achondrite parent body material, with little evidence of contamination of non-basaltic achondrite material. With both high reflectance and low abundance of hydrated material, this region of Vesta may be considered the "Pinaria desert".

  19. Center for Coal-Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, Robert; Robl, Tom; Rathbone, Robert

    2012-06-30

    The overarching goal of this project was to create a sustained center to support the continued development of new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion by-products or CCB’s (e.g., cements, grouts, wallboard, masonry block, fillers, roofing materials, etc). Specific objectives includes the development of a research kiln and associated system and the formulation and production of high performance low-energy, low-CO2 emitting calcium sulfoaluminate (CAS) cement that utilize coal combustion byproducts as raw materials.

  20. Chemical modeling of acid-base properties of soluble biopolymers derived from municipal waste treatment materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Marinos, Janeth Alicia Tafur; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-02-04

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials.

  1. Synthesis of New Energetic Materials and Ionic Liquids Derived from Metronidazole

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Simple and efficient synthetic procedures were established for the preparation of new energetic covalent compounds, salts, and protonated ionic liquids based on the readily available antimicrobial agent metronidazole. Some of these materials exhibit the desirable properties of energetic materials and energetic ionic liquids, such as low vapor pressure, low melting point, good chemical and thermal stability, and high energetic content. For each of the relevant compounds prepared, thermal stabi...

  2. Parallel synthesis of arrays of amino-acid-derived isocyanoamides useful as starting materials in IMCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dömling, Alexander; Beck, Barbara; Fuchs, Thilo; Yazbak, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    Arrays of amino-acid-derived isocyanoamides are conveniently produced on a multigram scale in one step by the solventless aminolysis of the corresponding methyl esters with primary or secondary aliphatic amines. Most of the corresponding isocyanides precipitate during the reaction and can be filtere

  3. Sexing Bovine Embryos Using PCR Amplification of Bovine SRY Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾溢滔; 张美兰; 陈美珏; 周霞娣; 黄英; 任兆瑞; 黄淑帧; 胡明信; 吴学清; 高建明; 张斌; 徐慧如

    1994-01-01

    This study analyses the bovine SRY DNA sequence by direct sequencing procedure, followed by the designation of the PCR primers specific for bovine SRY. Using PCR amplification of bovine SRY gene, the embryo sex was determined. The results of the embryo sex identification were confirmed after the embryo transfer and pregnancies.

  4. Supercritical CO2 foaming of thermoplastic materials derived from maize: proof-of-concept use in mammalian cell culture applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago

    Full Text Available Foams are high porosity and low density materials. In nature, they are a common architecture. Some of their relevant technological applications include heat and sound insulation, lightweight materials, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Foams derived from natural polymers are particularly attractive for tissue culture due to their biodegradability and bio-compatibility. Here, the foaming potential of an extensive list of materials was assayed, including slabs elaborated from whole flour, the starch component only, or the protein fraction only of maize seeds.We used supercritical CO2 to produce foams from thermoplasticized maize derived materials. Polyethylene-glycol, sorbitol/glycerol, or urea/formamide were used as plasticizers. We report expansion ratios, porosities, average pore sizes, pore morphologies, and pore size distributions for these materials. High porosity foams were obtained from zein thermoplasticized with polyethylene glycol, and from starch thermoplasticized with urea/formamide. Zein foams had a higher porosity than starch foams (88% and 85%, respectively and a narrower and more evenly distributed pore size. Starch foams exhibited a wider span of pore sizes and a larger average pore size than zein (208.84 vs. 55.43 μm2, respectively. Proof-of-concept cell culture experiments confirmed that mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3 and two different prostate cancer cell lines (22RV1, DU145 attached to and proliferated on zein foams.We conducted screening and proof-of-concept experiments on the fabrication of foams from cereal-based bioplastics. We propose that a key indicator of foamability is the strain at break of the materials to be foamed (as calculated from stress vs. strain rate curves. Zein foams exhibit attractive properties (average pore size, pore size distribution, and porosity for cell culture applications; we were able to establish and sustain mammalian cell cultures on zein foams for extended time periods.

  5. IR spectroscopy studies of zeolites in geopolymeric materials derived from kaolinite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, M.; Minkiewicz, J.; Mozgawa, W.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of alkali activation process conditions on the IR spectra, on which amount and types of zeolites in the resultant geopolymers influence significantly. Kaolinite was used as starting materials. The kaolinitic clay was first calcined to transform into the amorphous aluminosilicate phases (metakaolinite) and then activated with sodium silicate (as water glass) and sodium hydroxide. The effects of reaction systems composition (expressed as SiO2/Al2O3 and Al2O3/Na2O molar ratios) as well as synthesis temperature on the phase composition of obtained products have been determined. In particular, the structures of materials were examined using FT-IR spectroscopy in the middle infrared range. The results were compared to the XRD measurements, as well as SEM observations. Alkali-activation treatment of the metakaolin yielded bulk materials with different amounts and types of zeolite, which reveal the IR spectra of received materials. With proper selection of the initial conditions (temperature and composition), it is possible to obtain a solid material containing zeolite phase such as zeolite X, zeolite A or sodalite. The presence of zeolite phase was confirmed by the measurement of spectra in the middle infrared. In particular in pseudolattice range of the spectra, i.e. 800-400 cm-1, there are bands associated with the ring vibrations, which are characteristic for secondary building units (SBU) occurred in zeolite structure. IR spectroscopy is also useful in the studies of resulting amorphous phase structure.

  6. Characterization and Hydrodesulfurization Properties of Catalysts Derived from Amorphous Metal-boron Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, Greg; Pease, Melissa; Layman, Kathryn A.; Burns, Autumn W.; Bussell, Mark E.; Wang, Xianqin; Hanson, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Jose A.

    2007-01-22

    Unsupported and silica-supported amorphous metal-boron materials (Ni-B, Mo-O-B, and Ni-Mo-O-B) were prepared by NaBH4 reduction of aqueous or impregnated metal salts. The resulting materials were characterized by a range of techniques, including conventional and time-resolved X-ray diffraction. The latter technique was used to determine the onset of crystallization of the amorphous materials during annealing in He flow and to identify the phases formed. Annealing of unsupported Ni-B resulted in the crystallization of predominantly Ni3B, followed by Ni metal, whereas Ni-B/SiO2 formed Ni and then NiO. There was no evidence for crystallization of B-containing phases for Mo-O-B or Mo-O-B/SiO2 on annealing; instead, the predominant phase formed was MoO2. In general, the phases formed for Ni-Mo-O-B and Ni-Mo-O-B/SiO2 were consistent with those formed in the monometallic materials, but at higher annealing temperatures. Catalysts prepared by sulfiding Ni-B/SiO2 and Ni-Mo-O-B/SiO2 materials had significantly higher thiophene HDS activities than conventionally prepared sulfided Ni/SiO2 and Ni-Mo/SiO2 catalysts, whereas a sulfided Mo-O-B/SiO2 catalyst had a dramatically lower HDS activity than a sulfided Mo/SiO2 catalyst.

  7. 肉制品中牛源性成分的PCR-RFLP检测%Detection of bovine derived material in meat products by PCR-RFLP assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高琳; 徐幸莲; 周光宏

    2007-01-01

    根据牛线粒体DNA特异性片段设计出引物,应用PCR-RFLP技术检测出7种生肉和4种加工肉制品中的牛源性成分,并根据线粒体中Cytb保守序列设立内源参照基因检测DNA提取效率.方法简便、快速、适合实验室常规物种检测.

  8. Fractional derivatives in the transport of drugs across biological materials and human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Michele; Cametti, Cesare

    2016-11-01

    The diffusion of drugs across a composite structure such as a biological membrane is a rather complex phenomenon, because of its inhomogeneous nature, yielding a diffusion rate and a drug solubility strongly dependent on the local position across the membrane itself. These problems are particularly strengthened in composite structures of a considerable thickness like, for example, the human skin, where the high heterogeneity provokes the transport through different simultaneous pathways. In this note, we propose a generalization of the diffusion model based on Fick's 2nd equation by substituting a diffusion constant by means of the memory formalism approach (diffusion with memory). In particular, we employ two different definitions of the fractional derivative, i.e., the usual Caputo fractional derivative and a new definition recently proposed by Caputo and Fabrizio. The model predictions have been compared to experimental results concerning the permeation of two different compounds through human skin in vivo, such as piroxicam, an anti-inflammatory drug, and 4-cyanophenol, a test chemical model compound. Moreover, we have also considered water penetration across human stratum corneum and the diffusion of an antiviral agent employed as model drugs across the skin of male hairless rats. In all cases, a satisfactory good agreement based on the diffusion with memory has been found. However, the model based on the new definition of fractional derivative gives a better description of the experimental data, on the basis of the residuals analysis. The use of the new definition widens the applicability of the fractional derivative to diffusion processes in highly heterogeneous systems.

  9. Synthesis of New Energetic Materials and Ionic Liquids Derived from Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and efficient synthetic procedures were established for the preparation of new energetic covalent compounds, salts, and protonated ionic liquids based on the readily available antimicrobial agent metronidazole. Some of these materials exhibit the desirable properties of energetic materials and energetic ionic liquids, such as low vapor pressure, low melting point, good chemical and thermal stability, and high energetic content. For each of the relevant compounds prepared, thermal stability was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Some of these compounds may be considered promising precursors of pharmaceuticals such as antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antifungal, antineoplastic agents, or enzyme inhibitors.

  10. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation of...... of proteases. The generation of protein-derived radicals also results in an enhancement of photobleaching of the porphyrin, suggesting that protein radical generation is linked to porphyrin photooxidation....

  11. Enzootic bovine leukosis and Bovine leukemia virus

    OpenAIRE

    Amauri Alcindo Alfieri; Alice Fernandes Alfieri; Luis Álvaro Leuzzi Junior

    2004-01-01

    All over de World the Enzootic Bovine Leukosis is a important viral infection in cattle herds. This revision points out topics relative to the etiological agent, clinical signals, diagnosis methods, control and prophylaxis of the infection.A Leucose Enzoótica Bovina é uma infecção viral amplamente disseminada em rebanhos bovinos de todo o mundo. Esta revisão tem por objetivo apresentar tópicos relacionados ao agente etiológico, à doença clínica e aos métodos de diagnóstico, controle e profila...

  12. Chemical Modeling of Acid-Base Properties of Soluble Biopolymers Derived from Municipal Waste Treatment Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Tafur Marinos, Janeth Alicia; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials. PMID:25658795

  13. Chemical Modeling of Acid-Base Properties of Soluble Biopolymers Derived from Municipal Waste Treatment Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tabasso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials.

  14. Sol-gel-derived hybrid materials multi-doped with rare-earth metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazowska, E.; Rysiakiewicz-Pasek, E.; Borczuch-Laczka, M.; Cholewa-Kowalska, K.

    2012-06-01

    Four different hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on TiO2-SiO2 matrices with organic additives and doped with rare-earth metal ions (III) from the group of europium, cerium, terbium, neodymium, dysprosium and samarium, were synthesized by sol-gel method. Tetraethyl orthosilicate, titanium (IV) isopropoxide and organic compounds, such as butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, ethyl acetate, propylene carbonate, organic solvents and certain inorganic salts were used in the synthesis. The inorganic part of the sols, which were used in the synthesis of all the hybrid materials, was prepared separately and then the organic parts were added. The materials obtained were aged for three weeks at room temperature and then heated in an electric oven for three hours at temperatures of 80 °C-150 °C. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX); X-ray diffraction (XRD); Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (KBr technique); 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance; and fluorescence spectroscopy were used for the examination of morphology, microstructure and luminescence properties, respectively. Photoluminescence properties with relatively intense narrow emission lines of Tb, Eu, Dy, Nd, Sm respectively to the RE-ions doping, were observed for all the hybrid materials.

  15. Controlled synthesis of the tricontinuous mesoporous material IBN-9 and its carbon and platinum derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Yunfeng

    2011-08-23

    Controlled synthesis of mesoporous materials with ultracomplicated pore configurations is of great importance for both fundamental research of nanostructures and the development of novel applications. IBN-9, which is the only tricontinuous mesoporous silica with three sets of interpenetrating three-dimensional channel systems, appears to be an excellent model mesophase for such study. The extensive study of synthesis space diagrams proves mesophase transition among the cylindrical MCM-41, tricontinuous IBN-9 and bicontinuous MCM-48, and also allows a more precise control of phase-pure synthesis. On the other hand, rational design of structure-directing agents offers a possibility to extend the synthesis conditions of IBN-9, as well as tailor its pore size. Moreover, an unprecedented helical structure consisting of twisted 3-fold interwoven mesoporous channels is reported here for the first time. The unique tricontinuous mesostructure of IBN-9 has been well-replicated by other functional materials (e.g., carbon and platinum) via a "hard- templating" synthesis route. The obtained carbon material possesses large surface area (∼1900 m2/g), high pore volume (1.56 cm 3/g), and remarkable gas adsorption capability at both cryogenic temperatures and room temperature. The platinum material has an ordered mesostructure composed of highly oriented nanocrystals. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Mineralization and Transformation of Nitrogen Derived from Plant Materials in Soils over 10 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGLI-LI; WENQI-XIAO

    1993-01-01

    Results of a 10-year decomposition experiment indicated that the annual mineralization rate of organic N in newly-formed humus varied with the type of original plant materials and the water regimes for decomposition,ranging from 0.028 to 0.074.The mineralization rate under waterlogged conditions was higher than that under upland conditions.The proportion of α-amino acid N in humus newly-formed under waterlogged conditions was slightly higher than that under upland conditions.It decreased gradually with time,while the proportion of nonhydrolyzable N showed no consistent trend,irrespective of the water regines for decomposition.The distribution of amino acids in humus newly-formed from different plant materials under various water regimes was quite similar with that in original plant materials,and only minor differences could be found among them.For example,in comparison to original plant materials,the newly-formed humus contained higher proportions of isoleucine,cysting,γ-amino-butyric acid and ornithine,and lower proportions of phenylalanine and proline.Moreover the proportion of phenylalanine was higher in the humus newly-fored under waterlogged conditions than that under upland conditions.

  17. Speciation of dimethylarsinyl-riboside derivatives (arsenosugars) in marine reference materials by HPLC-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    1995-01-01

    (cf. Table 2) were present in shellfish certified reference materials (CRMs) and in a lobster hepatopancreas CRM. The concentration of the two arsenosugars in the shellfish samples amounts to 18% of the total arsenic as compared to arsenobetaine at 9–13% and dimethylarsinate at 4–9% of the total...

  18. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes.

  19. Characterization and Hydrodesulfurization Properties of Catalysts Derived from Amorphous Metal-Boron Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks,G.; Pease, M.; Burns, A.; Layman, K.; Bussell, M.; Wang, X.; Hanson, J.; Rodriquez, J.

    2007-01-01

    Unsupported and silica-supported amorphous metal-boron materials (Ni-B, Mo-O-B, and Ni-Mo-O-B) were prepared by NaBH{sub 4} reduction of aqueous or impregnated metal salts. The resulting materials were characterized by a range of techniques, including conventional and time-resolved X-ray diffraction. The latter technique was used to determine the onset of crystallization of the amorphous materials during annealing in He flow and to identify the phases formed. Annealing of unsupported Ni-B resulted in the crystallization of predominantly Ni{sub 3}B, followed by Ni metal, whereas Ni-B/SiO{sub 2} formed Ni and then NiO. There was no evidence for crystallization of B-containing phases for Mo-O-B or Mo-O-B/SiO{sub 2} on annealing; instead, the predominant phase formed was MoO{sub 2}. In general, the phases formed for Ni-Mo-O-B and Ni-Mo-O-B/SiO2 were consistent with those formed in the monometallic materials, but at higher annealing temperatures. Catalysts prepared by sulfiding Ni-B/SiO{sub 2} and Ni-Mo-O-B/SiO{sub 2} materials had significantly higher thiophene HDS activities than conventionally prepared sulfided Ni/SiO2 and Ni-Mo/SiO{sub 2} catalysts, whereas a sulfided Mo-O-B/SiO{sub 2} catalyst had a dramatically lower HDS activity than a sulfided Mo/SiO{sub 2} catalyst.

  20. Heat conduction in nanoscale materials: a statistical-mechanics derivation of the local heat flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiantao

    2014-09-01

    We derive a coarse-grained model for heat conduction in nanoscale mechanical systems. Starting with an all-atom description, this approach yields a reduced model, in the form of conservation laws of momentum and energy. The model closure is accomplished by introducing a quasilocal thermodynamic equilibrium, followed by a linear response approximation. Of particular interest is the constitutive relation for the heat flux, which is expressed nonlocally in terms of the spatial and temporal variation of the temperature. Nanowires made of copper and silicon are presented as examples.

  1. Light-based theranostics using hybrid structures derived from biological and organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankayala, Raviraj; Burns, Joshua M.; Mac, Jenny T.; Anvari, Bahman

    2016-09-01

    We have engineered hybrid nanostructures derived from erythrocytes, which can be doped with various near infrared (NIR) organic chromophores, including the FDA-approved indocyanine green (ICG). We refer to these vesicles as NIR erythrocyte-mimicking transducers (NETs), as they are capable of generating heat, reactive oxygen species (ROS) or emit fluorescence light. We present preliminary results that demonstrate the effectiveness of NETs for fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapeutic destruction of breast cancer cells, upon photo-excitation using NIR light. These hybrid nanostructures present a promising platform with theranostic capability for future biomedical clinical applications.

  2. Variational principles for linear and nonlinear mixtures: New derivations and application to bilinear materials and yield behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqaraleh, Sahar Mubarak

    2006-04-01

    We study in this paper the effective energy potential of nonlinear composites in terms of the corresponding energy potential for linear material. We study this for power law material using Suquet's variational principle, for bilinear material using Ponte Castaneda variational principle, and we studied the yield behavior as limiting cases of both. We show that three established variational principles can be derived from the Cauchy-Buniakowski-Schwartz inequality; these variational principles (bounds) are: (a) bounds on yield behavior of mixtures, (b) The Hashin-Shtrikman variational principle for linear materials, (c) The Debotton and Ponte Castaneda bound for power-law polycrystals. We also compute the actual stress and strain fields for laminate material for two choices of the average strain, and compute a bound on the effective potential for spherical inclusions using Hashin's linear bound, as well as for spheroidal inclusions using Willis's linear bound. We obtained bounds sharper than the established bounds for both laminate and aligned ellipsoids geometry, and we investigate also how the bound depends on the specified geometry and on specific parameters of the problem.

  3. Rosin and rosin derivatives as hydrophobic matrix materials for controlled release of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Y V; Dorle, A K

    1990-09-01

    The evaluation of rosin, a rosin hard paraffin adduct, and four rosin esters as hydrophobic matrix materials for the controlled release of drugs is reported, using aspirin as a drug model. Aspirin matrix tablets were prepared using a wet granulation (nonaqueous) method, and were evaluated for various pharmaceutical parameters. Dissolution studies in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer showed that all formulations had hardness greater than 6 kg/cm2 and disintegration time greater than 150 min. Release of aspirin from the formulations obeyed a diffusion controlled first order kinetic and linear to the square root of time function. Two of the resin ester formulations had a T80% of more than 4 hr. The results suggest that these esters may find application in the development of sustained release formulations for the local treatment of dental diseases, or--as tablet matrices suitably coated with acid resistant material--in the development of oral sustained release drug delivery systems.

  4. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra ePezzuto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days. Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission Regulation (EC No. 450/2009. This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment.

  5. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzuto, Alessandra; Losasso, Carmen; Mancin, Marzia; Gallocchio, Federica; Piovesana, Alessia; Binato, Giovanni; Gallina, Albino; Marangon, Alberto; Mioni, Renzo; Favretti, Michela; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days). Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission of the European Communities, 2009). This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment.

  6. Transmission FTIR derivative spectroscopy for estimation of furosemide in raw material and tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo Gallignani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A Fourier transform infrared derivative spectroscopy (FTIR-DS method has been developed for determining furosemide (FUR in pharmaceutical solid dosage form. The method involves the extraction of FUR from tablets with N,N-dimethylformamide by sonication and direct measurement in liquid phase mode using a reduced path length cell. In general, the spectra were measured in transmission mode and the equipment was configured to collect a spectrum at 4 cm−1 resolution and a 13 s collection time (10 scans co-added. The spectra were collected between 1400 cm−1 and 450 cm−1. Derivative spectroscopy was used for data processing and quantitative measurement using the peak area of the second order spectrum of the major spectral band found at 1165 cm−1 (SO2 stretching of FUR with baseline correction. The method fulfilled most validation requirements in the 2 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL range, with a 0.9998 coefficient of determination obtained by simple calibration model, and a general coefficient of variation <2%. The mean recovery for the proposed assay method resulted within the (100±3% over the 80%–120% range of the target concentration. The results agree with a pharmacopoeial method and, therefore, could be considered interchangeable.

  7. Metal-Ligand Interactions and Salt Bridges as Sacrificial Bonds in Mussel Byssus-Derived Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byette, Frédéric; Laventure, Audrey; Marcotte, Isabelle; Pellerin, Christian

    2016-10-10

    The byssus that anchors mussels to solid surfaces is a protein-based material combining strength and toughness as well as a self-healing ability. These exceptional mechanical properties are explained in part by the presence of metal ions forming sacrificial bonds with amino acids. In this study, we show that the properties of hydrogel films prepared from a byssus protein hydrolyzate (BPH) can also be improved following the biomimetic formation of sacrificial bonds. Strengthening and toughening of the materials are both observed when treating films with multivalent ions (Ca(2+) or Fe(3+)) or at the BPH isoelectric point (pI) as a result of the formation of metal-ligand bonds and salt bridges, respectively. These treatments also provide a self-healing behavior to the films during recovery time following a deformation. While pI and Ca(2+) treatments have a similar but limited pH-dependent effect, the modulus, strength, and toughness of the films increase largely with Fe(3+) concentration and reach much higher values. The affinity of Fe(3+) with multiple amino acid ligands, as shown by vibrational spectroscopy, and the more covalent nature of this interaction can explain these observations. Thus, a judicious choice of treatments on polyampholyte protein-based materials enables control of their mechanical performance and self-healing behavior through the strategic exploitation of reversible sacrificial bonds.

  8. Flexible EMI shielding materials derived by melt blending PVDF and ionic liquid modified MWNTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Maya; Sharma, Sukanya; Abraham, Jiji; Thomas, Sabu; Madras, Giridhar; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2014-09-01

    Nano composites of PVDF with ionic liquid [EMIM][TF2N] (IL) modified MWNTs were prepared by melt blending to design materials for EMI shielding applications. MWNTs and IL were mixed in two different ratios (1:1 and 1:5) to facilitate better dispersion of MWNTs in PVDF. It was observed that non-covalent interactions between IL and PVDF resulted in a better dispersion of CNTs and was consistent with increasing concentration of IL. Interestingly, IL modified MWNTs induced the formation of γ-phase crystals in PVDF, which was further confirmed by XRD, FTIR and DSC. Melt rheological measurements and DSC analysis revealed the plasticization effect of IL in PVDF composites further manifesting in a decrease in the storage modulus and the glass transition temperature. This phenomenal effect presumably led to better dispersion of IL modified MWNTs in PVDF further resulting in a significant improvement in electrical conductivity and structural properties. More interestingly, the elongational properties in the composites improved with IL modified MWNTs in striking contrast to MWNT filled PVDF composites. The ac conductivity of the composites reached about 10-3 S cm-1 with the addition of 2 wt% IL modified MWNTs (1:1). This further led to a high electro-magnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of about 20 dB at 2 wt% IL modified MWNTs. Such materials can further be explored for flexible, lightweight EMI shielding materials for a wide range of operating frequency.

  9. Bovine milk glycome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, N; DePeters, E J; Freeman, S; German, J B; Grimm, R; Lebrilla, C B

    2008-10-01

    Bovine milk oligosaccharides have several potentially important biological activities including the prevention of pathogen binding to the intestinal epithelial and as nutrients for beneficial bacteria. It has been suggested that milk oligosaccharides are an important source of complex carbohydrates as supplements for the food and the pharmaceutical industries. However, only a small number of structures of bovine milk oligosaccharides (bMO) are known. There have been no systematic studies on bMO. High-performance mass spectrometry and separation methods are used to evaluate bMO, and nearly 40 oligosaccharides are present in bovine milk. Bovine milk oligosaccharides are composed of shorter oligomeric chains than are those in human milk. They are significantly more anionic with nearly 70%, measured abundances, being sialylated. Additionally, bMO are built not only on the lactose core (as are nearly all human milk oligosaccharides), but also on lactose amines. Sialic acid residues include both N-acetyl and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, although the former is significantly more abundant.

  10. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  11. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The sy

  12. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is caused by a novel contagion, known to as a prion. Prions are proteins capable of converting a normal cellular protein into a prion, thereby propagating an infection. BSE is the first known prion zoonotic. As such it has attracted broad scientific and, to a r...

  13. A theoretical derivation of the HoekeBrown failure criterion for rock materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Zuo; Huihai Liu; Hongtao Li

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a three-dimensional crack model to theoretically derive the HoekeBrown rock failure criterion based on the linear elastic fracture theory. Specifically, we argue that a failure characteristic factor needs to exceed a critical value when macro-failure occurs. This factor is a product of the micro-failure orientation angle (characterizing the density and orientation of damaged micro-cracks) and the changing rate of the angle with respect to the major principal stress (characterizing the microscopic stability of damaged cracks). We further demonstrate that the factor mathematically leads to the empirical HoekeBrown rock failure criterion. Thus, the proposed factor is able to successfully relate the evolution of microscopic damaged crack characteristics to macro-failure. Based on this theoretical development, we also propose a quantitative relationship between the brittleeductile transition point and confining pressure, which is consistent with experimental observations.

  14. Synthesis of thermotropic cellulose derivatives and their behaviour as ion conducting materials

    CERN Document Server

    Yue, Z

    2002-01-01

    4-methoxy-4'- oxylbiphenyl group and 4-methoxyphenyl-4'-oxybenzoate group, were incorporated onto the cellulose backbone via a flexible spacer, respectively. The effects of the structure of the mesogenic groups and the length of spacer on the thermotropic liquid crystallinity of these polymers were investigated. Novel thermotropic cellulose derivatives containing poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) side chains and pendant mesogenic side chains were synthesized and characterized. The PEO-350 groups were incorporated onto the cellulose backbone via ester or ether linkage, and the three products, including two highly substituted esters (COE-1 and HPCOE-1A) and a regioselective substituted ether (TPEOCELL), all exhibit thermotropic liquid crystallinity. Among them TPEOCELL forms a right-handed chiral nematic mesophase at room temperature, with the selective reflection in the wavelength of the visible range; the influence of salt on the cholesteric optical properties was examined. These three polymers were employed as poly...

  15. Magnetic materials at finite temperatures: thermodynamics and combined spin and molecular dynamics derived from first principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbach, Markus [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perera, Meewanage Dilina N. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Center for Simulational Physics; Landau, David P [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Center for Simulational Physics; Nicholson, Don M. [Univ. of North Carolina, Asheville, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Yin, Junqi [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). National Inst. for Computational Sciences; Brown, Greg [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2015-01-01

    We present a unified approach to describe the combined behavior of the atomic and magnetic degrees of freedom in magnetic materials. Using Monte Carlo simulations directly combined with first principles the Curie temperature can be obtained ab initio in good agreement with experimental values. The large scale constrained first principles calculations have been used to construct effective potentials for both the atomic and magnetic degrees of freedom that allow the unified study of influence of phonon-magnon coupling on the thermodynamics and dynamics of magnetic systems. The MC calculations predict the specific heat of iron in near perfect agreement with experimental results from 300K to above Tc and allow the identification of the importance of the magnon-phonon interaction at the phase-transition. Further Molecular Dynamics and Spin Dynamics calculations elucidate the dynamics of this coupling and open the potential for quantitative and predictive descriptions of dynamic structure factors in magnetic materials using first principles-derived simulations.

  16. Examples of reference material data needed for LBB analysis derived from WGCS-EC-DGXI studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrequin, P.; Houssin, B.; Guinovart, J.

    1997-04-01

    Mechanical data collected through the sponsorship of the Activity Group 3 <<Materials>> of the Working Group Codes and Standards of DG XI European Commission are pointed out to illustrate their potential use for Leak Before Break analyses. Most of the tensile, fatigue, creep and fracture toughness data have been generated for stainless steels, mainly on modified type 316 L (N), selected for the Super Phoenix LMFBR. Trends for ongoing programs and future works on C-Mn and MnNiMo low alloy steels are provided.

  17. Naturally occurring radionuclides in materials derived from urban water treatment plants in southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Ross; Akber, Riaz

    2008-04-01

    An assessment of radiologically enhanced residual materials generated during treatment of domestic water supplies in southeast Queensland, Australia, was conducted. Radioactivity concentrations of U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Rn-222, and Po-210 in water, sourced from both surface water catchments and groundwater resources were examined both pre- and post-treatment under typical water treatment operations. Surface water treatment processes included sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation and filtration, while the groundwater was treated using cation exchange, reverse osmosis, activated charcoal or methods similar to surface water treatment. Waste products generated as a result of treatment included sediments and sludges, filtration media, exhausted ion exchange resin, backwash and wastewaters. Elevated residual concentrations of radionuclides were identified in these waste products. The waste product activity concentrations were used to model the radiological impact of the materials when either utilised for beneficial purposes, or upon disposal. The results indicate that, under current water resource exploitation programs, reuse or disposal of the treatment wastes from large scale urban water treatment plants in Australia do not pose a significant radiological risk.

  18. Natural sisal fibers derived hierarchical porous activated carbon as capacitive material in lithium ion capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhewei; Guo, Huajun; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhixing; Yan, Zhiliang; Wang, Yansen

    2016-10-01

    Lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is a novel advanced electrochemical energy storage (EES) system bridging gap between lithium ion battery (LIB) and electrochemical capacitor (ECC). In this work, we report that sisal fiber activated carbon (SFAC) was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment followed by KOH activation and served as capacitive material in LIC for the first time. Different particle structure, morphology, specific surface area and heteroatoms affected the electrochemical performance of as-prepared materials and corresponding LICs. When the mass ratio of KOH to char precursor was 2, hierarchical porous structured SFAC-2 was prepared and exhibited moderate specific capacitance (103 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1), superior rate capability and cyclic stability (88% capacity retention after 5000 cycles at 1 A g-1). The corresponding assembled LIC (LIC-SC2) with optimal comprehensive electrochemical performance, displayed the energy density of 83 Wh kg-1, the power density of 5718 W kg-1 and superior cyclic stability (92% energy density retention after 1000 cycles at 0.5 A g-1). It is worthwhile that the source for activated carbon is a natural and renewable one and the synthesis method is eco-friendly, which facilitate that hierarchical porous activated carbon has potential applications in the field of LIC and other energy storage systems.

  19. Biphasic thermoelectric materials derived from the half-Heusler/full-Heusler system Ti-Ni-Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jason Everett

    Among the possible avenues for increasing the efficiency of global energy usage, thermoelectrics are an exciting, solid-state option. Thermoelectric materials, which convert an internal temperature gradient into a voltage and vice versa, have found applications in refrigeration as well as power generation from waste heat. TiNiSn, a semiconductor of the half-Heusler (hH) crystal structure, is of particular interest due to its very favorable electronic transport properties, conductivity (sigma) and Seebeck coefficient ( S), at relevant temperature regimes (between 600 K and 900 K). Unfortunately, its overall efficiency is hampered by a comparatively high thermal conductivity (kappa). In the design of thermoelectric materials, a number of approaches have been taken to increase the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT = ( S2sigma/kappa)T, where T is temperature. In this work we examine how microstructure can be used to alter these thermoelectric propertiesin a biphasic Ti-Ni-Sn materials containing full-Heusler (fH) TiNi2Sn embedded within hH thermoelectric TiNiSn. We explored a wide range of Ni compositions in TiNi1+xSn--from stoichiometric TiNiSn to high Heusler volume fraction, TiNi1.25Sn--materials prepared by levitation induction melting followed by annealing. Phase distributions and microstructure were characterized using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and optical and electron microscopy. In a sample of the nominal composition TiNi1.15Sn, a significant decrease in thermal conductivity (about 30%) is observed for the biphasic material despite the metallic second-phase particles existing at the micrometer scale; a 50% increase in the electrical conductivity is also measured. These result in a maximum figure of merit, ZT, of 0.44 at 800 K, which is 25% greater than is observed for the x = 0 sample. Density functional theory calculations using hybrid functionals were performed to determine band alignments between the half- and full-Heusler compounds, as well as

  20. Characterization of Waste Material Derived Willemite-Based Glass-Ceramics Doped with Erbium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Sarrigani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the production of erbium doped willemite-based glass-ceramic using waste material. In this work, a willemite-based glass-ceramic was prepared from waste material to obtain excellent crystallinity and then doped with trivalent erbium (Er3+ to yield ([(ZnO0.5(SLS0.5]1−x[Er2O3]x final composition where x=3 wt%. The samples were sintered at various temperatures (500–1100°C to study the effects of sintering temperatures on microstructure and physical properties of the samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR were used to determine structural changes and functional groups in the samples, respectively. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM equipped with energy dispersive X-ray was used to observe surface morphology and to detect presence of elements in the samples. Findings showed that average grain size of the Er3+ doped glass-ceramic sample increased as a function of the sintering temperature and the optimum temperature was 900°C.

  1. Hierarchical micro- and mesoporous carbide-derived carbon as a high-performance electrode material in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Marcus; Korenblit, Yair; Kockrick, Emanuel; Borchardt, Lars; Oschatz, Martin; Kaskel, Stefan; Yushin, Gleb

    2011-04-18

    Ordered mesoporous carbide-derived carbon (OM-CDC) materials produced by nanocasting of ordered mesoporous silica templates are characterized by a bimodal pore size distribution with a high ratio of micropores. The micropores result in outstanding adsorption capacities and the well-defined mesopores facilitate enhanced kinetics in adsorption processes. Here, for the first time, a systematic study is presented, in which the effects of synthesis temperature on the electrochemical performance of these materials in supercapacitors based on a 1 M aqueous solution of sulfuric acid and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid are reported. Cyclic voltammetry shows the specific capacitance of the OM-CDC materials exceeds 200 F g(-1) in the aqueous electrolyte and 185 F g(-1) in the ionic liquid, when measured in a symmetric configuration in voltage ranges of up to 0.6 and 2 V, respectively. The ordered mesoporous channels in the produced OM-CDC materials serve as ion-highways and allow for very fast ionic transport into the bulk of the OM-CDC particles. At room temperature the enhanced ion transport leads to 75% and 90% of the capacitance retention at current densities in excess of ∼10 A g(-1) in ionic liquid and aqueous electrolytes, respectively. The supercapacitors based on 250-300 μm OM-CDC electrodes demonstrate an operating frequency of up to 7 Hz in aqueous electrolyte. The combination of high specific capacitance and outstanding rate capabilities of the OM-CDC materials is unmatched by state-of-the art activated carbons and strictly microporous CDC materials.

  2. Some anthracene derivatives with N,N-dimethylamine moieties as materials for photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondek, E. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Krakow, Podchorazych 1, Krakow (Poland); Kityk, I.V. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, ul. Ks. Marcina Strzody 9, Gliwice 44-100 (Poland)], E-mail: i.kityk@ajd.czest.pl; Danel, A. [Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University of Krakow, ul.Balicka 122, 31-149, Krakow (Poland)

    2008-11-15

    Photovoltaic properties of novel composites consisting of poly(3-decylotiophene-4,5-diyl) PDT with doped anthracene dye chromophore were explored. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels of the composite were estimated by means of DFT B3LYP quantum chemical calculations. The open-circuit voltage was found to be enhanced with the increase of the chromophore state dipole moment, however short-circuit current is diminished. Despite the values of the quantum efficiencies not being too large (about 0.16-0.19%), the influence of the state dipole moments should be taken into account during the further research of materials with improved photovoltaic responses. One of possible mechanisms may be related to existence of trapping polaron states, which are directly related to the state dipole moments of the chromophore interacting with the dipole moments of the particular polymer chains.

  3. Tunable electronic and magnetic properties of two‐dimensional materials and their one‐dimensional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuhua; Liu, Xiaofei; Yu, Jin; Hang, Yang; Li, Yao; Guo, Yufeng; Xu, Ying; Sun, Xu; Zhou, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Low‐dimensional materials exhibit many exceptional properties and functionalities which can be efficiently tuned by externally applied force or fields. Here we review the current status of research on tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of low‐dimensional carbon, boron nitride, metal‐dichalcogenides, phosphorene nanomaterials by applied engineering strain, external electric field and interaction with substrates, etc, with particular focus on the progress of computational methods and studies. We highlight the similarities and differences of the property modulation among one‐ and two‐dimensional nanomaterials. Recent breakthroughs in experimental demonstration of the tunable functionalities in typical nanostructures are also presented. Finally, prospective and challenges for applying the tunable properties into functional devices are discussed. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2016, 6:324–350. doi: 10.1002/wcms.1251 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. PMID:27818710

  4. Derivation of temperature dependent mechanical properties of polymer foam core materials using optical extensometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fruehmann R.K.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for determining the temperature dependence of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of polymer foams core materials is presented. The design of the test specimen is described in detail, covering the parasitic effects resulting from departures from the uniform strain condition. The measurement approach is based on a non-contact technique so that the behaviour of the complaint foam is not modified by the attachment of strain gauges or extensometers. Firstly experiments are conducted at room temperature and then at elevated temperatures in a thermal chamber. Readings are taken through an optical window using a standard digital camera. Digital image correlation is used to obtain the strains.

  5. Sorption enhanced steam reforming of biomass-derived compounds: process and material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Li

    2010-07-01

    An attempt has been made to develop a flexible system to produce very pure H{sub 2} with high efficiency from renewable bio-based recourses. First, such model compounds as ethanol, glycerol, sorbitol and glucose, have been tested for H{sub 2} production via sorption enhanced steam reforming (SESR) over Co-Ni/hydrotalcite-like (HTls) derived catalyst and CaO-based CO{sub 2} acceptor. The experimental results show that all of feedstocks, even heavy feedstocks, were able to offer high H{sub 2} purity (97.3approx99.1%) and yield at low steam to carbon (S/C = 1.3approx6) ratio in comparison to the corresponding steam reforming process. In addition, the studied system also presents encouraging potential for improvement of energy efficiency. Chemical looping combustion (CLC) was coupled to the cyclic multi-step SESR process to assist the acceptor regeneration by using multifunctional Pd/Co-Ni/HTls catalyst. With coupling of CLC to SESR, H{sub 2} concentration in the gas effluent of the SESR reactions was still higher than 95 mol% on a dry basis. The assembled CLC-SESR process has inherent high efficiency in H{sub 2} production. (Author)

  6. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil at the Middlesex Sampling Plant Site, Middlesex, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, D.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1995-02-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) site in Middlesex, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy. The site became contaminated from operations conducted in support of the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) between 1943 and 1967. Activities conducted at the site included sampling, storage, and shipment of uranium, thorium, and beryllium ores and residues. Uranium guidelines for single radioisotopes and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the MSP site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The RESRAD computer code, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Four scenarios were considered for the site. These scenarios vary regarding future land use at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed.

  7. A framework for assessing ecological risks of petroleum-derived materials in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1997-05-01

    Ecological risk assessment estimates the nature and likelihood of effects of human actions on nonhuman organisms, populations, and ecosystems. It is intended to be clearer and more rigorous in its approach to estimation of effects and uncertainties than previously employed methods of ecological assessment. Ecological risk assessment is characterized by a standard paradigm that includes problem formulation, analysis of exposure and effects, risk characterization, and communication with a risk manager. This report provides a framework that applies the paradigm to the specific problem of assessing the ecological risks of petroleum in soil. This type of approach requires that assessments be performed in phases: (1) a scoping assessment to determine whether there is a potential route of exposure for potentially significant ecological receptors; (2) a screening assessment to determine whether exposures could potentially reach toxic levels; and (3) a definitive assessment to estimate the nature, magnitude, and extent of risks. The principal technical issue addressed is the chemically complex nature of petroleum--a complexity that may be dealt with by assessing risks on the basis of properties of the whole material, properties of individual chemicals that are representative of chemical classes, distributions of properties of the constituents of chemical classes, properties of chemicals detected in the soil, and properties of indicator chemicals. The advantages and feasibility of these alternatives are discussed. The report concludes with research recommendations for improving each stage in the assessment process.

  8. Amino acid derivative-mediated detoxification and functionalization of dual cure dental restorative material for dental pulp cell mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Hajime; Yamada, Masahiro; Iwasa, Fuminori; Ueno, Takeshi; Deyama, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Kuniaki; Yawaka, Yasutaka; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2010-10-01

    Current dental restorative materials are only used to fill the defect of hard tissues, such as dentin and enamel, because of their cytotoxicity. Therefore, exposed dental pulp tissues in deep cavities must be first covered by a pulp capping material like calcium hydroxide to form a layer of mineralized tissue. However, this tissue mineralization is based on pathological reaction and triggers long-lasting inflammation, often causing clinical problems. This study tested the ability of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), amino acid derivative, to reduce cytotoxicity and induce mineralized tissue conductivity in resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), a widely used dental restorative material having dual cure mechanism. Rat dental pulp cells were cultured on untreated or NAC-supplemented RMGI. NAC supplementation substantially increased the percentage of viable cells from 46.7 to 73.3% after 24-h incubation. Cell attachment, spreading, proliferative activity, and odontoblast-related gene and protein expressions increased significantly on NAC-supplemented RMGI. The mineralization capability of cells, which was nearly suppressed on untreated RMGI, was induced on NAC-supplemented RMGI. These improved behaviors and functions of dental pulp cells on NAC-supplemented RMGI were associated with a considerable reduction in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and with the increased level of intracellular glutathione reserves. These results demonstrated that NAC could detoxify and functionalize RMGIs via two different mechanisms involving in situ material detoxification and antioxidant cell protection. We believe that this study provides a new approach for developing dental restorative materials that enables mineralized tissue regeneration.

  9. Stability of spray-dried chitosan salts derived from lobster chitin as a raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilia De la Paz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this work was to develop and validate a method for determining the degree of molar deacetylation of chitosan acetate and chitosan lactate, as well as to study the stability of both salts. Materials and Methods: A spectrophotometric method was validated according to internationally-established quantitative techniques. Three industrial batches of chitosan acetate and chitosan lactate, obtained by spray drying, were stored under shelf life conditions for twelve months. Organoleptic characteristics, the degree of molar deacetylation, pH, loss on drying and microbiological count were determined at the beginning and end of the study. Results and Discussion: The statistical data proved that the two methods complied with international standards for the validation of analytical techniques. It was shown that the procedures developed were linear, specific, precise and accurate, so they can be used for the purposes of quality control and stability study of the polymer salts. Salts remained in powder form, with a light-yellow to dark-yellow coloration. Values of loss on drying (2.5 - 5.2 % of chitosan salt using acetic or lactic acid, as a solvent, indicated the good quality of spray-dried particles of chitosan. Similar behavior was obtained regarding pH. The two salts stayed within the parameters that determine their quality, both in the initial stage and after twelve months at room temperature. Conclusion: Spray drying chitosan acetate and chitosan lactate, stored at room temperature in a dry place, in double polyethylene bags and multilayer paper bags, kept their physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics for a period of twelve months.

  10. Comparison of two porcine-derived materials for repairing abdominal wall defects in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengni Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical properties, host responses and incorporation of porcine small intestine submucosa (PSIS and porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM in a rat model of abdominal wall defect repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prior to implantation, PSIS and PADM were prepared and evaluated in terms of structure and mechanical properties. Full-thickness abdominal wall defects were created in 50 Sprague-Dawley rats, and were repaired using either PSIS or PADM. Rats were sacrificed 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-repair and examined for herniation, infection, adhesions, contraction, and changes in the thickness and strength of the tissues incorporated at the defect sites. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were performed to analyze inflammatory responses, collagen deposition and vascularization. RESULTS: PADM showed more dense collagen deposition and stronger mechanical properties than PSIS prior to implantation (P<0.01. However, the mechanical properties observed after integration with the surrounding native tissues was similar for PADM and PSIS. Both PADM and PSIS showed significant contraction by week 12. However, PADM tissue induced less adhesion and increased in thickness more slowly, and showed less infiltration by foreign giant cells, polymorphonuclear cells, and mononuclear cells. Improved remodeling of host tissue was observed after PSIS implantation, which was apparent from the orientation of bands of fibrous connective tissue, intermixed with newly formed blood vessels by Week 12. CONCLUSION: PSIS showed weaker mechanical properties prior to implantation. However, after implantation PSIS induced more pronounced host responses and showed better incorporation into host tissues than PADM.

  11. Honeycomb porous films as permeable scaffold materials for human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calejo, Maria Teresa; Ilmarinen, Tanja; Jongprasitkul, Hatai; Skottman, Heli; Kellomäki, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in developed countries, characterised by the degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a pigmented cell monolayer that closely interacts with the photoreceptors. RPE transplantation is thus considered a very promising therapeutic option to treat this disease. In this work, porous honeycomb-like films are for the first time investigated as scaffold materials for human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium (hESC-RPE). By changing the conditions during film preparation, it was possible to produce films with homogeneous pore distribution and adequate pore size (∼3-5 µm), that is large enough to ensure high permeability but small enough to enable cell adherence and spreading. A brief dip-coating procedure with collagen type IV enabled the homogeneous adsorption of the protein to the walls and bottom of pores, increasing the hydrophilicity of the surface. hESC-RPE adhered and proliferated on all the collagen-coated materials, regardless of small differences in pore size. The differentiation of hESC-RPE was confirmed by the detection of specific RPE protein markers. These results suggest that the porous honeycomb films can be promising candidates for hESC-RPE tissue engineering, importantly enabling the free flow of ions and molecules across the material. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1646-1656, 2016.

  12. Calix[4]pyrrole derivative: recognition of fluoride and mercury ions and extracting properties of the receptor-based new material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Namor, Angela F Danil; Khalife, Rasha

    2008-12-11

    A calix[4]pyrrole derivative, namely, meso-tetramethyl tetrakis (4-phenoxy methyl ketone) calix[4]pyrrole, 1, was synthesized and structurally (1H NMR) and thermodynamically characterized. The complexing properties of this receptor with a wide variety of anions and cations in dipolar aprotic media (acetonitrile, propylene carbonate, and dimethyl sulfoxide) were investigated through 1H NMR and conductance studies. The former technique was used to assess whether or not complexation occurs and if so to identify the active sites of interaction of 1 with ions. The composition of the complexes was established by conductance measurements. It was found that in dipolar aprotic solvents, 1 interacts only with two polluting ions (fluoride and mercury). The complexation thermodynamics of 1 and these ions in these solvents is reported. The medium effect on the binding process involving the fluoride ion is discussed taking into account the solvation properties of reactants and the product. Complexes of moderate stability are found. Given that this is an important factor to consider for the recycling of the loaded material in extraction processes, 1 was treated with formaldehyde in basic medium leading to the production of a calix[4]pyrrole based material able to extract fluoride and mercury (II) ions from water. Thus the optimum conditions for the extraction of these ions from aqueous solutions were established. The material is easily recyclable using an organic acid. Final conclusions are given.

  13. Evaluating biomass-derived hierarchically porous carbon as the positive electrode material for hybrid Na-ion capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jizhang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Mei, Changtong; Xu, Junling; Zhou, Shuang; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2017-02-01

    As a promising renewable resource, biomass has several advantages such as wide availability, low cost, and versatility. In this study, we use peanut shell, wheat straw, rice straw, corn stalk, cotton stalk, and soybean stalk as the precursors to synthesize hierarchically porous carbon as the positive electrode material for hybrid Na-ion capacitors, aiming to establish a criterion of choosing suitable biomass precursors. The carbon derived from wood-like cotton stalk has abundant interconnected macropores, high surface area of 1994 m2 g-1, and large pore volume of 1.107 cm3 g-1, thanks to which it exhibits high reversible capacitance of 160.5 F g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 and great rate capability, along with excellent cyclability. The carbonaceous positive electrode material is combined with a Na2Ti2.97Nb0.03O7 negative electrode material to assemble a hybrid Na-ion capacitor, which delivers a high specific energy of 169.4 Wh kg-1 at 120.5 W kg-1, ranking among the best-performed hybrid ion capacitors.

  14. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti Díaz, Ismael Alejandro; Vargas, Roberto; Apolo, Ada; Moraña, José Antonio; Pedrana, Graciela; Cardozo, Elena; Almeida, Edgardo

    2003-01-01

    A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  15. Selenium in bovine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, S M; Kuzan, F B; Senger, P L

    1981-05-01

    This study investigated the association of selenium with ejaculated bovine spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive spermatozoa. Over 75% of the radioactive selenium-75 was released after 30 min of incubation in 2 X 10(-3) dithiothreitol. Of the selenium-75 released by dithiothreitol, 85% was associated with spermatozoal protein. Protein containing selenium-75 was found predominantly in a single band after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molecular weight was approximately 21,500 daltons.

  16. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye)

    OpenAIRE

    Angelos, JA

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The...

  17. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques.

  18. Sequences outside that of residues 93-102 of 3A protein can contribute to the ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) to replicate in bovine-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xueqing; Li, Pinghua; Bai, Xingwen; Sun, Pu; Bao, Huifang; Lu, Zengjun; Cao, Yimei; Li, Dong; Chen, Yingli; Qiao, Zilin; Liu, Zaixin

    2014-10-13

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals. During 2010 and 2011, there was an epidemic of the Mya-98 lineage of the Southeast Asia (SEA) topotype in East Asia, including China. Changes in the FMDV 3A protein have been previously reported to be associated with the inability of FMDV to grow in bovine cells and cause disease in cattle. In this paper, we report the generation of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of FMDV O/SEA/Mya-98 strain O/GZSB/2011 for the first time along with two genetically modified viruses with deletion at positions 93-102 and 133-143 in 3A based on the established infectious clone. All the recombinant viruses grew well and displayed growth properties and plaque phenotypes similar to those of the parental virus in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells, porcine kidney (PK-15) cells, and primary fetal porcine kidney (FPK) cells. While the recombinant viruses rvGZSB and rvSBΔ133-143 exhibited similar growth properties and plaque phenotypes with the parental virus in primary fetal bovine kidney (FBK) cells, the recombinant virus rvSBΔ93-102, containing deletion at positions 93-102 in 3A, grew at a slower rate and had a smaller plaque size phenotype in FBK cells than that of the parental virus. Therefore, the results suggest that the deletion at positions 93-102 of 3A protein does not affect FMDV replication efficiency in BHK-21, PK-15 and FPK cells, but affects virus replication efficiency in FBK cells, although, cannot alone account for the inability to replicate in bovine cells.

  19. Highly Dispersed Polyoxometalate-Doped Porous Co3 O4 Water Oxidation Photocatalysts Derived from POM@MOF Crystalline Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Qing; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Qin, Chao; Wang, Xin-Long; Li, Yang-Guang; Tan, Hua-Qiao; Wang, En-Bo

    2016-10-17

    Rational design of earth-abundant photocatalysts is an important issue for solar energy conversion and storage. Polyoxometalate (POM)@Co3 O4 composites doped with highly dispersive molecular metal-oxo clusters, synthesized by loading a single Keggin-type POM cluster into each confined space of a metal-organic framework (MOF), exhibit significantly improved photocatalytic activity in water oxidation compared to the pure MOF-derived nanostructure. The systematic synthesis of these composite nanocrystals allows the conditions to be tuned, and their respective water oxidation catalytic performance can be efficiently adjusted by varying the thermal treatment temperature and the feeding amount of the POM. This work not only provides a modular and tunable synthetic strategy for preparing molecular cluster@TM oxide (TM=transition metal) nanostructures, but also showcases a universal strategy that is applicable to design and construct multifunctional nanoporous metal oxide composite materials.

  20. Ethical and legal considerations regarding the ownership and commercial use of human biological materials and their derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrini C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlo PetriniItalian National Institute of Health, Rome, ItalyAbstract: This article considers some of the ethical and legal issues relating to the ownership and use – including for commercial purposes – of biological material and products derived from humans. The discussion is divided into three parts: after first examining the general notion of ownership, it moves to the particular case of possible commercial use, and finally reflects on the case in point in the light of the preceding considerations. Units of cord blood donated altruistically for transplantation and which are found unsuitable for storage and transplantation, or which become unsuitable while stored in biobanks, are taken as an example. These cord-blood units can be discarded together with other biological waste, or they can be used for research or the development of blood-derived products such as platelet gel. Several ethical questions (eg, informed consent, property, distribution of profits, and others arise from these circumstances. In this regard, some criteria and limits to use are proposed.Keywords: bioethics, biological specimen banks, cord-blood stem cell transplantation, ethics, informed consent, legislation

  1. Geochemistry of batch-extract waters derived from spoil material collected at the Cordero coal mine, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments to evaluate postmining water quality at the Cordero Mine were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1984 to 1985. Contact of groundwater from the spoil aquifer with fresh spoil material caused only small changes in major-element concentrations and in pH, unless sulfide oxidation or contact with soluble salts, such as epsomite, occurred. In contrast, large changes in major-element concentration resulted when water from the coal aquifer contacted the spoil material. Only three of seven reaction models considered to explain the water quality changes during the batch-mixing experiments were consistent with the thermodynamic and mineralogical data. The three models used to account for the observed water quality changes derived potassium from potassium feldspar; magnesium from chlorite or epsomite or both; sodium from cation exchange and halite; chloride from halite; silica from potassium feldspar and chlorite; sulfate from gypsum, or epsomite or both, and carbon from carbon dioxide. In general, water quality samples obtained from the batch-mixing experiments using water from the coal aquifer had smaller major-ion concentrations than the actual water quality in the spoil aquifer. These differences can be explained by the limited amount of efflorescent salt dissolution and volume of water used in the experiments. Correction ratios calculated for these experiments may be applied to batch-mixing experiments at other mines in the area, to predict postmining water quality. (USGS)

  2. The preparation and performance of calcium carbide-derived carbon/polyaniline composite electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liping; Wang, Ying; Wang, Xianyou; Li, Na; An, Hongfang; Chen, Huajie; Guo, Jia

    Calcium carbide (CaC 2)-derived carbon (CCDC)/polyaniline (PANI) composite materials are prepared by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization of an aniline solution containing well-dispersed CCDC. The structure and morphology of CCDC/PANI composite are characterized by Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N 2 sorption isotherms. It has been found that PANI was uniformly deposited on the surface and the inner pores of CCDC. The supercapacitive behaviors of the CCDC/PANI composite materials are investigated with cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and cycle life measurements. The results show that the CCDC/PANI composite electrodes have higher specific capacitances than the as grown CCDC electrodes and higher stability than the conducting polymers. The capacitance of CCDC/PANI composite electrode is as high as 713.4 F g -1 measured by cyclic voltammetry at 1 mV s -1. Besides, the capacitance retention of coin supercapacitor remained 80.1% after 1000 cycles.

  3. The preparation and performance of calcium carbide-derived carbon/polyaniline composite electrode material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liping; Wang, Xianyou; Li, Na; An, Hongfang; Chen, Huajie [School of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Minister of Education, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Wang, Ying; Guo, Jia [School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Hubei 430073 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Calcium carbide (CaC{sub 2})-derived carbon (CCDC)/polyaniline (PANI) composite materials are prepared by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization of an aniline solution containing well-dispersed CCDC. The structure and morphology of CCDC/PANI composite are characterized by Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} sorption isotherms. It has been found that PANI was uniformly deposited on the surface and the inner pores of CCDC. The supercapacitive behaviors of the CCDC/PANI composite materials are investigated with cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and cycle life measurements. The results show that the CCDC/PANI composite electrodes have higher specific capacitances than the as grown CCDC electrodes and higher stability than the conducting polymers. The capacitance of CCDC/PANI composite electrode is as high as 713.4 F g{sup -1} measured by cyclic voltammetry at 1 mV s{sup -1}. Besides, the capacitance retention of coin supercapacitor remained 80.1% after 1000 cycles. (author)

  4. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble and whey proteins (soluble. Caseins (αS1, αS2, β, and κ are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides.

  5. Intracellular survival of Clostridium chauvoei in bovine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; Santos, Renato Lima; da Paixão, Tatiane Alves; de Oliveira Bernardes, Laura Cristina; de Macêdo, Auricélio Alves; Gonçalves, Luciana Aramuni; de Oliveira Júnior, Carlos Augusto; Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2017-02-01

    Clostridium chauvoei is the etiological agent of blackleg, a severe disease of domestic ruminants, causing myonecrosis and serious toxemia with high mortality. Despite the known importance of this agent, studies evaluating its pathogenesis of blackleg are scarce, and many are based on an unproven hypothesis that states that macrophages are responsible for carrying C. chauvoei spores from the intestines to muscles in the early stages of blackleg. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the survival of C. chauvoei vegetative cells or spores after phagocytosis by a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and bovine monocyte-derived macrophages and to profile inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine transcripts of bovine macrophages infected with C. chauvoei vegetative cells or spores. Both vegetative cells and spores of C. chauvoei remain viable after internalization by murine and bovine macrophages. Bovine macrophages infected with vegetative cells showed a pro-inflammatory profile, while those infected with spores displayed an anti-inflammatory profile. Together, these results corroborate the classical hypothesis that macrophages may play a role in the early pathogenesis of blackleg. Moreover, this is the first study to evaluate the infection kinetics and cytokine profile of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with a Clostridium species.

  6. Potential Synthetic Biolubricant as an Alternative to Bovine Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Scholes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is crucial that orthopaedic implant materials are tested in conditions that replicate the natural body’s environment as closely as possible. Bovine serum is currently recommended for use by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO for the wear testing of these implant materials, however, the rheological properties of bovine serum do not match fully those of the body’s natural lubricant, synovial fluid. This study looks at a potential alternative to bovine serum for the testing of orthopaedic implant materials; 0.5% gellan gum fluid gel. Wear tests using multidirectional motion were conducted on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE pins rubbing against stainless steel plates. Roughness measurements were performed during testing along with particle analysis of the testing lubricant. At two million cycles (equivalent to 121.3 km of sliding, the mean wear factor for the four UHMWPE pins was 0.25 (standard deviation (SD 0.03 × 10−6 mm3/Nm and there was no evidence of any transfer film on the plate surfaces. The wear factor produced by 0.5% gellan gum fluid gel was lower than that measured in previous studies using bovine serum as the lubricant but greater than the wear factor shown in published work using a similar alternative lubricant (sodium alginate mixed with gellan gum. Work on the development of a suitable alternative lubricant to bovine serum will continue.

  7. Photoaffinity labeling of the lysosomal neuraminidase from bovine testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); U. Rose (Ursula); R. Brossmer (Reinhard); F.W. Verheijen (Frans)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract ASA-NeuAc2en, a photoreactive arylazide derivative of sialic acid, is shown to be a powerful competitive inhibitor of lysosomal neuraminidase from bovine testis (Ki ≈ 21 μM). Photoaffinity labeling and partial purification of preparations containing this lysosomal neuramin

  8. Bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B; Potts, B J; Brian, D A

    1985-02-01

    Treatment of purified bovine coronavirus (Mebus strain) with pronase destroyed the integrity of virion surface glycoproteins gp140, gp120, gp100, reduced the amount of gp26 and destroyed the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. Bromelain, on the other hand, destroyed the integrity of gp120, gp100 and gp26 but failed to remove gp140 and failed to destroy viral hemagglutinating activity. These experiments suggest that gp140 is the virion hemagglutinin. Immunoblotting studies using monospecific antiserum demonstrate that gp140 is a disulfide-linked dimeric structure reducible to monomers of 65 kDa.

  9. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pinkeye).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, John A

    2015-03-01

    As is the case for controlling other infectious livestock diseases, the most successful efforts to control infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) will include consideration of the host, the environment, herd management, and ongoing surveillance even after the immediate crisis has passed. Research over many years has led to the discovery of a variety of antibiotic treatments and antibiotic regimens that can be effective against IBK. The discoveries of Mor bovoculi and reports of IBK associated with Mycoplasma spp without concurrent Mor bovis or Mor bovoculi have raised new questions into the roles that other organisms may play in IBK pathogenesis.

  10. New generation poly(ε-caprolactone)/gel-derived bioactive glass composites for bone tissue engineering: Part I. Material properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziadek, Michal, E-mail: dziadek@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Department of Glass Technology and Amorphous Coatings, 30 Mickiewicza Ave., 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Menaszek, Elzbieta, E-mail: elzbieta.menaszek@uj.edu.pl [Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum, Department of Cytobiology, 9 Medyczna St., 30-688 Krakow (Poland); Zagrajczuk, Barbara, E-mail: b.zagrajczuk@gmail.com [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Department of Glass Technology and Amorphous Coatings, 30 Mickiewicza Ave., 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Pawlik, Justyna, E-mail: pawlikj@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Department of Glass Technology and Amorphous Coatings, 30 Mickiewicza Ave., 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna, E-mail: cholewa@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Department of Glass Technology and Amorphous Coatings, 30 Mickiewicza Ave., 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2015-11-01

    Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) based composite films containing 12 and 21 vol.% bioactive glass (SBG) microparticles were prepared by solvent casting method. Two gel-derived SBGs of SiO{sub 2}–CaO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} system differing in SiO{sub 2} and CaO contents were applied (mol%): S2: 80SiO{sub 2}, 16CaO, 4P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and A2: 40SiO{sub 2}, 54CaO, 6P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The surfaces of the films in contact with Petri dish and exposed to the gas phase during casting were denoted as GS and AS, respectively. Both surfaces of films were characterised in terms of their morphology, micro- and nano-topography as well as wettability. Also mechanical properties (tensile strength, Young's modulus) and PCL matrix crystallinity (degree of crystallinity, crystal size) were evaluated. Degradation behaviour was examined by incubation of materials in UHQ-water at 37 °C for 56 weeks. The crystallinity, melting temperature and mass loss of incubated materials and pH changes of water were monitored. Furthermore, proliferation of MG-63 osteoblastic cells by direct contact and cytotoxic effect of obtained materials were investigated. Results showed that opposite surfaces of the same polymer and composite films differ in studied surface parameters. The addition of SBG particles into PCL matrix improves nano- and micro-roughness of both surfaces, enhances the hydrophilicity of GS surfaces (~ 67° for 21A2-PCL compared to ~ 78° for pure PCL) and also makes AS surface more hydrophobic (~ 94° for 21S2-PCL compared to ~ 86° for pure PCL). The nucleation density of PCL was increased with increasing content of SBG particles, which results in the large number of fine spherulites on composite AS surfaces observed using polarized optical (POM), scanning electron (SEM), and atomic force (AFM) microscopies. Higher content of SBG particles causes a notable increase of Young's modulus (from 0.38 GPa for pure PCL, 0.90 GPa for 12A2-PCL to 1.31 GPa for 21A2-PCL), which also depends on

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  12. Elastic Comparison Between Human and Bovine Femural Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Gaith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the elastic stiffness and the degree of anisotropy will be compared for the femur human and bovine bones are presented. A scale for measuring the overall elastic stiffness of the bone at different locations is introduced and its correlation with the calculated bulk modulus is analyzed. Based on constructing orthonormal tensor basis elements using the form-invariant expressions, the elastic stiffness for orthotropic system materials is decomposed into two parts; isotropic (two terms and anisotropic parts. The overall elastic stiffness is calculated and found to be directly proportional to bulk modulus. A scale quantitative comparison of the contribution of the anisotropy to the elastic stiffness and to measure the degree of anisotropy in an anisotropic material is proposed using the Norm Ratio Criteria (NRC. It is found that bovine femure plexiform has the largest overall elastic stiffness and bovine has the most isotropic (least anisotropic symmetry.

  13. Evidence for Parachlamydia in bovine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Silke; Casson, Nicola; Kaiser, Carmen; Thoma, Ruedi; Pospischil, Andreas; Greub, Gilbert; Borel, Nicole

    2009-03-16

    Bovine abortion of unknown infectious aetiology still remains a major economic problem. In this study, we focused on a new possible abortigenic agent called Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Retrospective samples (n=235) taken from late-term abortions in cattle were investigated by real-time diagnostic PCR for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydia spp., respectively. Histological sections of cases positive by real-time PCR for any Chlamydia-related agent were further examined by immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies. Chlamydophila abortus was detected only in three cases (1.3%) by real-time PCR and ArrayTube Microarray playing a less important role in bovine abortion compared to the situation in small ruminants in Switzerland. By real-time PCR as many as 43 of 235 (18.3%) cases turned out to be positive for Parachlamydia. The presence of Parachlamydia within placental lesions was confirmed in 35 cases (81.4%) by immunohistochemistry. The main histopathological feature in parachlamydial abortion was purulent to necrotizing placentitis (25/43). Parachlamydia should be considered as a new abortigenic agent in Swiss cattle. Since Parachlamydia may be involved in lower respiratory tract infections in humans, bovine abortion material should be handled with care given the possible zoonotic risk.

  14. The impact of thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage on the fish community near the estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M.; Shoji, J.; Mishima, T.; Honda, H.; Fujii, M.; Ohsawa, S.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Beppu is a region with many hot springs in Japan. Some of environmental studies of the rivers in this region (e.g. Kawano et al., 1998, Ohsawa et al., 2008) show that hot spring drainage flows into a river and then flow into the coastal are, and it strongly affects the river water quality. On the other hands, several kinds of tropical fish lives in those rivers (Hiramatu et al., 1995). We can easily have watched those fish there. Although the relationship between hot spring drainage and the fish community had not been investigated in the past in this area, it is easily assumed that thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage strongly affect the ecosystem. However, the impact of the hot spring drainage on the ecosystem in river and coastal area is not clear. We investigated the river water quality and physical property of six rivers in this region. Additionally, we investigated the fish community near the estuary at two rivers which are strongly affected by the hot spring drainage and not the influence of the hot spring at all. We tried an evaluation about the influence of thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage on the fish community near the estuary.The results of chemical and physical data in these rivers are as follows. The size of influence of hot spring drainage on river is different every river. In this region, Hirata River is most strongly affected by the hot spring drainage. The water temperature of Hirata River maintains 25 degrees Celsius or more through the year and the concentrations of dissolved component is very high. On the other hand, the water temperature and the concentrations of dissolved component of Hiya Rive is low. These data are similar to data of the upper side of Hirata River. The results of investigating the fish community indicate that Oreochromis niloticus and Rhinogobius giurinus is the dominant species at Hirata River and Hiya River respectively. In addition, there is more the number of

  15. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or para

  16. Novel Hole Transporting Materials Based on 4-(9H-Carbazol-9-yltriphenylamine Derivatives for OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh Pham Bao Nguyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs have been increasingly studied due to their emerging applicability. However, some of the properties of existing OLEDs could be improved, such as their overall efficiency and durability; these aspects have been addressed in the current study. A series of novel hole-transporting materials (HTMs 3a–c based on 4-(9H-carbazol-9-yltriphenylamine conjugated with different carbazole or triphenylamine derivatives have been readily synthesized by Suzuki coupling reactions. The resulting compounds showed good thermal stabilities with high glass transition temperatures between 148 and 165 °C. The introduction of HTMs 3b and 3c into the standard devices ITO/HATCN/NPB/HTMs 3 (indium tin oxide/dipyrazino(2,3-f:2ꞌ,3ꞌ-hquinoxaline 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexacarbonitrile/N,Nꞌ-bis(naphthalen-1-yl-N,Nꞌ-bis(phenyl-benzidine/HTMs/CBP (4,4ꞌ-Bis(N-carbazolyl-1,1ꞌ-biphenyl: 5% Ir(ppy3/Bphen/LiF/Al (tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline/LiF/Al resulted in significantly enhanced current, power, and external quantum efficiencies (EQE as compared to the reference device without any layers of HTMs 3.

  17. Theoretical studies on electronic structures and photophysical properties of anthracene derivatives as hole-transporting materials for OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitpakdee, Chirawat; Namuangruk, Supawadee; Khongpracha, Pipat; Jungsuttiwong, Siriporn; Tarsang, Ruangchai; Sudyoadsuk, Taweesak; Promarak, Vinich

    2014-05-05

    The electronic structures and photophysical properties of anthracene derivatives as hole-transporting materials (HTM) in OLEDs have been studied by DFT and TD-DFT methods. Thiophene and triphenylamine (TPA) moieties are used as substituents in anthracene based HTMs providing FATn and FAPn compounds (n=1-2), respectively. The calculated electronic levels by B3LYP show proper energy matching of FAPn and hole-injecting layer (HIL), indicating that the hole-transports of the FAPn compounds are better than the FATn compounds. The photophysical properties calculated by TD-B3LYP elucidate that TPA in FAPn compounds acts as electron donating group and induces charge transfer character in the absorptions. Furthermore, the calculated ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA) and reorganization energies also revealed that the extended FAP2 compound has the highest charge-transporting ability among the studied compounds. The calculated results are consistent to our experimental observations showing that FAP2 exhibits bright fluorescence with highest quantum yield in electroluminescent devices. Understanding of these properties is useful for further design of new HTMs of desired properties, such as high efficiency and stability.

  18. Binding energy and work function of organic electrode materials phenanthraquinone, pyromellitic dianhydride and their derivatives adsorbed on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang-Xin

    2014-09-24

    Electroactive organic compounds are a novel group of green cathode materials for rechargeable metal-ion batteries. However, the organic battery life is short because the organic compounds can be dissolved by nonaqueous electrolytes. Here a comparative investigation of phenanthraquinone (PQ), pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and their derivatives, i.e., benzo[1,2-b:4,3-b']difuran-4,5-dione (BDFD), benzo[1,2-b:4,3-b']dithiophene-4,5-quinone (BDTQ), 3,8-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (PAD), pyromellitic dithioanhydride (PMDT), pyromellitic diimide (PMDI) and 1,4,5,8-anthracenetetrone (ATO), adsorbed on graphene is performed using a density functional theory (DFT) with a van der Waals (vdW) dispersion-correction. The computed results show a strong physisorption with the binding energies between 1.10 and 1.56 eV. A sequence of the calculated binding energies from weak to strong is found to be BDFD work functions for the nanocomposites are found to be strongly affected by the work function of each organic compound. To understand the DFT results, a novel simple expression is proposed to predict the work function of the nanocomposites from the interfacial dipole and the work functions of the isolated graphene nanosheet and organic molecules. The predicted work functions for the nanocomposites from the new equation agree quite well with the values calculated from the vdW dispersion-corrected DFT.

  19. Facile synthesis of sewage sludge-derived in-situ multi-doped nanoporous carbon material for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Jie; Dai, Xiao-Hu

    2016-06-01

    Developing efficient, low-cost, and stable carbon-based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to replace the expensive platinum-based electrocatalysts remains a major challenge that hamper the practical application of fuel cells. Here, we report that N, Fe, and S co-doped nanoporous carbon material, derived via a facile one-step pyrolysis of sewage sludge, the major byproduct of wastewater treatment, can serve as an effective electrocatalyst for ORR. Except for the comparable catalytic activity with commercial 20% Pt/C via a nearly four-electron transfer pathway in both alkaline and acid medium, the as-synthesized co-doped electrocatalyst also exhibits excellent methanol crossover resistance and outstanding long-term operation stability. The organic compounds in sewage sludge act as the carbon source and the in-situ N and S dopant in the fabrication, while the inorganic compounds serve as the in-built template and the in-situ Fe dopant. Our protocol demonstrates a new approach in the economic and eco-friendly benign reuse of sewage sludge, and also provides a straightforward route for synthesizing excellent carbon-based electrocatalysts as promising candidates for ORR directly from a type of waste/pollution.

  20. 生鲜肉中牛源性和羊源性成分定量检测方法的建立%Establishment of quantitative methods for detecting bovine-derived and ovine-derived materials in fresh meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯震; 杨美成

    2016-01-01

    目的 建立生鲜肉中牛源性和羊源性成分荧光PCR定量检测方法.方法 以线粒体细胞色素b(Cytb)基因核苷酸序列为检测靶点,设计并优化引物,建立基于SYBR染料的荧光PCR定量检测方法,并对该方法进行特异性和灵敏度验证.结果 在退火温度60℃的条件下,荧光PCR检测体系中各条引物特异性良好,目标成分检测信号Ct值均小于20,非特异性检测信号Ct值均大于35,该方法在模板浓度为0.016~10 ng/μL时线性关系良好;以Ct30作为阳性或阴性结果的判定限,目标源性成分荧光PCR定量检测的灵敏度可达1%.结论 本方法可为生鲜肉制品种源鉴定和掺假检测提供理论依据.

  1. New generation poly(ε-caprolactone)/gel-derived bioactive glass composites for bone tissue engineering: Part I. Material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadek, Michal; Menaszek, Elzbieta; Zagrajczuk, Barbara; Pawlik, Justyna; Cholewa-Kowalska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) based composite films containing 12 and 21vol.% bioactive glass (SBG) microparticles were prepared by solvent casting method. Two gel-derived SBGs of SiO2-CaO-P2O5 system differing in SiO2 and CaO contents were applied (mol%): S2: 80SiO2, 16CaO, 4P2O5 and A2: 40SiO2, 54CaO, 6P2O5. The surfaces of the films in contact with Petri dish and exposed to the gas phase during casting were denoted as GS and AS, respectively. Both surfaces of films were characterised in terms of their morphology, micro- and nano-topography as well as wettability. Also mechanical properties (tensile strength, Young's modulus) and PCL matrix crystallinity (degree of crystallinity, crystal size) were evaluated. Degradation behaviour was examined by incubation of materials in UHQ-water at 37°C for 56weeks. The crystallinity, melting temperature and mass loss of incubated materials and pH changes of water were monitored. Furthermore, proliferation of MG-63 osteoblastic cells by direct contact and cytotoxic effect of obtained materials were investigated. Results showed that opposite surfaces of the same polymer and composite films differ in studied surface parameters. The addition of SBG particles into PCL matrix improves nano- and micro-roughness of both surfaces, enhances the hydrophilicity of GS surfaces (~67° for 21A2-PCL compared to ~78° for pure PCL) and also makes AS surface more hydrophobic (~94° for 21S2-PCL compared to ~86° for pure PCL). The nucleation density of PCL was increased with increasing content of SBG particles, which results in the large number of fine spherulites on composite AS surfaces observed using polarized optical (POM), scanning electron (SEM), and atomic force (AFM) microscopies. Higher content of SBG particles causes a notable increase of Young's modulus (from 0.38GPa for pure PCL, 0.90GPa for 12A2-PCL to 1.31GPa for 21A2-PCL), which also depends on SBG chemical composition. After 56-week degradation test, considerably higher

  2. Bovine herpesvirus 1 infection and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), classified as an alphaherpesvirus, is a major pathogen of cattle. Primary infection is accompanied by various clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis, and systemic infection in neonates. When animals survive, a life-long latent infection is established in nervous sensory ganglia. Several reactivation stimuli can lead to viral re-excretion, which is responsible for the...

  3. Intervet symposium: bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetters, T; Dubey, J P; Adrianarivo, A; Frankena, K; Romero, J J; Pérez, E; Heuer, C; Nicholson, C; Russell, D; Weston, J

    2004-10-28

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP)held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The symposium was organised by Juan Muñoz-Bielsa,Wicher Holland, Enzo Foccoliand Theo Schetters (chairman). The focus was on the present state of knowledge of the biology, epidemiology(presented by J.P. Dubey) and immunology of Neospora infection (presented by A. Adrianarivo),with special emphasis on the prospects of vaccination of cattle against Neospora-induced abortion (presentations of K. Frankena (Costa Rican trial) and C. Heuer (New Zealand trial)).

  4. Optical and charge transport properties of N-butyl-1,8-naphthalimide derivatives as organic light-emitting materials: A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fuyu [College of Physical and Electronic and Information Engineering, Chifeng University, Chifeng 024000 (China); Jin, Ruifa, E-mail: Ruifajin@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chifeng University, Chifeng 024000 (China)

    2014-05-01

    A series of N-butyl-1,8-naphthalimide derivatives have been designed to explore their optical, electronic, and charge transport properties as charge transport and/or luminescent materials for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) analysis has turned out that the vertical electronic transitions of absorption and emission are characterized as intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). The calculated results show that the optical and electronic properties of N-butyl-1,8-naphthalimide derivatives are affected by the substituent groups in 4-position of 1,8-naphthalimide ring. Our results suggest that N-butyl-1,8-naphthalimide derivatives with biphenyl (1), 2-phenylthiophene (2), 2-(thiophen-2-yl)thiophene (3), 2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxine (4), 2-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (5), benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (6), benzo[c]thiophene (7), and benzo[d]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (8) fragments are expected to be promising candidates for luminescent materials for OLEDs, particularly for 1–3 and 5. In addition, 7 and 8 can be used as promising hole transport materials for OLEDs. - Highlights: • A series of N-butyl-1,8-naphthalimide derivatives is investigated. • Optical and electronic properties are affected by their substituent groups. • The vertical electronic transitions are characterized as intramolecular charge transfer. • All derivatives are promising luminescent materials for OLEDs. • Some derivatives can be used as promising hole transport materials for OLEDs.

  5. Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor with Sol-Gel Derived Refractive Material as Transducer for High Temperature Gas Sensing in Clean Coal Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiquan Tao

    2006-12-31

    The chemistry of sol-gel derived silica and refractive metal oxide has been systematically studied. Sol-gel processes have been developed for preparing porous silica and semiconductor metal oxide materials. Micelle/reversed micelle techniques have been developed for preparing nanometer sized semiconductor metal oxides and noble metal particles. Techniques for doping metal ions, metal oxides and nanosized metal particles into porous sol-gel material have also been developed. Optical properties of sol-gel derived materials in ambient and high temperature gases have been studied by using fiber optic spectroscopic techniques, such as fiber optic ultraviolet/visible absorption spectrometry, fiber optic near infrared absorption spectrometry and fiber optic fluorescence spectrometry. Fiber optic spectrometric techniques have been developed for investigating the optical properties of these sol-gel derived materials prepared as porous optical fibers or as coatings on the surface of silica optical fibers. Optical and electron microscopic techniques have been used to observe the microstructure, such as pore size, pore shape, sensing agent distribution, of sol-gel derived material, as well as the size and morphology of nanometer metal particle doped in sol-gel derived porous silica, the nature of coating of sol-gel derived materials on silica optical fiber surface. In addition, the chemical reactions of metal ion, nanostructured semiconductor metal oxides and nanometer sized metal particles with gas components at room temperature and high temperatures have also been investigated with fiber optic spectrometric methods. Three classes of fiber optic sensors have been developed based on the thorough investigation of sol-gel chemistry and sol-gel derived materials. The first group of fiber optic sensors uses porous silica optical fibers doped with metal ions or metal oxide as transducers for sensing trace NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S in high temperature gas samples. The second group of

  6. Radiographic and histological study of perennial bone defect repair in rat calvaria after treatment with blocks of porous bovine organic graft material Estudo radiográfico e histológico do reparo de defeito ósseo perene em calvária de rato após o tratamento com material de enxerto orgânico bovino poroso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucele Vieira Marins

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, various bone graft materials of bovine origin to be used in oromaxillofacial surgeries have entered the market. In the present study, we determined the capacity of a block organic bone graft material (Gen-ox, Baumer SA, Brazil prepared from bovine cancellous bone to promote the repair of critical size bone injuries in rat calvaria. A transosseous defect measuring approximately 8mm in diameter was performed with a surgical trephine in the parietal bone of 25 rats. In 15 animals, the defects were filled with a block of graft material measuring 8mm in diameter and soaked in the animal's own blood, and in the other 10 animals the defects were only filled with blood clots. The calvariae of rats receiving the material were collected 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery, and those of animals receiving the blood clots were collected immediately and 6 months after surgery. During surgery, the graft material was found to be of easy handling and to adapt perfectly to the receptor bed after soaking in blood. The results showed that, in most animals treated, the material was slowly resorbed and served as a space filling and maintenance material, favoring angiogenesis, cell migration and adhesion, and bone neoformation from the borders of the lesion. However, a foreign body-type granulomatous reaction, with the presence of numerous giant cells preventing local bone neoformation, was observed in two animals of the 1-month subgroup and in one animal of the 3-month subgroup. These cases were interpreted as resulting from the absence of demineralization and the lack of removal of potential antigen factors during production of the biomaterial. We conclude that, with improvement in the quality control of the material production, block organic bone matrix will become a good alternative for bone defect repair in the oromaxillofacial region due to its high osteoconductive capacity.Nos últimos anos, vários materiais de origem bovina para enxerto

  7. Genetic and biochemical evidence that recombinant Enterococcus spp. strains expressing gelatinase (GelE) produce bovine milk-derived hydrolysates with high angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitory activity (ACE-IA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gútiez, Loreto; Borrero, Juan; Jiménez, Juan J; Gómez-Sala, Beatriz; Recio, Isidra; Cintas, Luis M; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E

    2014-06-18

    In this work, genes encoding gelatinase (gelE) and serine proteinase (sprE), two extracellular proteases produced by Enterococcus faecalis DBH18, were cloned in the protein expression vector pMG36c, containing the constitutive P32 promoter, generating the recombinant plasmids pCG, pCSP, and pCGSP encoding gelE, sprE, and gelE-sprE, respectively. Transformation of noncaseinolytic E. faecalis P36, E. faecalis JH2-2, E. faecium AR24, and E. hirae AR14 strains with these plasmids permitted detection of caseinolytic activity only in the strains transformed with pCG or pCGSP. Complementation of a deletion (knockout) mutant of E. faecalis V583 for production of gelatinase (GelE) with pCG unequivocally supported that gelE is responsible for the caseinolytic activity of the transformed strain grown in bovine skim milk (BSM). RP-HPLC-MS/MS analysis of hydrolysates of transformed Enterococcus spp. strains grown in BSM permitted the identification of 38 major peptide fragments including peptides with previously reported angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitory activity (ACE-IA), antihypertensive activity, and antioxidant activity.

  8. [Bovine heterologous bone graft in orbital surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morax, S; Hurbli, T; Smida, R

    1993-08-01

    Lubboc (T650) is a bovine heterologous bone implant obtained by specific preparation of trabecular of bone. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility studies have revealed the absence of any cytotoxicity or systemic toxicity. Lubboc has many fields of application, including all bone graft surgical indications. We report our first results concerning the use of this product in orbital surgery either as a filling or contention material or as an apposition material. On all 20 operated patients we did not encounter any intolerance, inflammation or infection. The follow-up is still too short to appreciate the long term integration of this material which has the advantage of being a substitute for autologous bone, avoiding bone graft harvesting.

  9. 1 H-pyrazolo[3,4- b]quinoline and 1 H-pyrazolo[3,4- b]quinoxaline derivatives as promising materials for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danel, Andrzej; Gondek, Ewa; Kityk, Iwan

    2009-12-01

    A review of recent studies of pyrazoloquinoline and quinoxaline derivative chromophore used as organic light emitting diodes and photovoltaic elements is done. We present both the principal ways of modifications of these materials as well as a possible chemical modifications to achieve more suitable technological parameters.

  10. Research on Growth Behavior of Embryos for Bovine and Murine on Primary Murine Embryos Fibroblast Cell Feeder Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Li-long; XIAO Mei; FENG Xiu-Liang; DOU Zhong-ying; QIU Huai; YANG Qi; LEI An-min; YANG Chun-rong; GAO Zhi-min

    2002-01-01

    The difference in growth behavior between bovine embryos and murine embryos was studied on PMEF(primary murine embryos fibroblast)feeder layer. The results showed as follows: With embryos having attached, bovine embryonic trophoblast formed a transparent membranous structure covering on inner cell mass (ICM), however, murine embryonic trophoblast formed disc structure. Bovine embryos formed four kinds of ICM colonies with different morphology including the mass-like, the net-like, the stream-like and the mixture-like colonies. Compared with Murine ICM, the bovine ICM grew more fast. So, the bovine ICM was passaged at first after a culture of approximately 5 - 6 days in vitro, but murine ICM was passaged at first after an attachment of 3 - 4 days on PMEF feeder layer. The mixture colonies of bovine ICM differentiated very early, while the others differentiated very late. Most ICM-like mass of Bovine grew in a defined spot, but bovine ICMs like stream and ICMs like net proliferated fast and dispersed quickly. We found that the single blastomeres derived from late bovine morula and late murine morula formed sub-blastophere; moreover, the bovine ICM cell would differentiate rapidly if the trophoblast was removed.

  11. 色谱纯化和质谱分析法研究牛骨源咸味肽%Separation, Purification and Analysis of Salty Peptides Derived from Bovine Bone by Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李迎楠; 刘文营; 张顺亮; 成晓瑜

    2016-01-01

    以牛骨为研究对象,通过中空纤维超滤装置、Sephadex G-25凝胶色谱柱对相对分子质量小于5000的酶解产物进行初步分离,选用制备型及分析型高效液相色谱分析仪对咸味肽进行纯化、收集及分析。结果表明:收集得到牛骨源咸味肽为单一组分;用基质辅助激光解析电离-飞行时间质谱仪对咸味肽进行分析,得到其为相对分子质量均小于1000的短肽,其呈现咸味的物质质荷比值可能为679.5109。%The enzymatic hydrolysate of bovine bone with relative molecular weight < 5 000 was separated by hollow fiber ultrafiltration and Sephadex G-25 column chromatography. Two salty peptide fractions from the hydrolysate were purified by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the pooled samples were analyzed by HPLC. The two fractions were found to consist of a single homogenous component. As analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS), both peptide fractions had a relative molecular weight less than 1000, the salty taste compound of which was m/z 679.510 9.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet...

  13. Corporoplasty using bovine pericardium grafts in complex penile prosthesis implantation surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. A. Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is the first, to our knowledge, to propose the use of a bovine pericardium graft in corporoplasty for penile prosthesis implantation. The advantages of bovine pericardium graft have been demonstrated by its use in cardiac surgery, including low cost, biocompatibility, impermeability, resistance to dilatation, flexibility, low likelihood of retraction, absence of antigenic reaction and natural absorption of the tissue. In this paper, we propose the use of this heterologous material graft in corporoplasty for penile prosthesis implantation. Materials and Methods: Five patients with a history of erosion, infection and fibrosis, mean time of follow-up 32 months (range 9-48 months. Bovine pericardium was used to cover large areas of implanted penile prostheses when use of the tunica albuginea was unfeasible. Results: The surgical procedure resulted in no complications in all patients. Conclusions: Bovine pericardium may substitute synthetic and autologous material with the additional advantages of lower cost and greater availability.

  14. Bioprospecting keratinous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L N; Sinclair, R D; Carver, J; Ecroyd, H; Lui, Y; Bennett, L E

    2010-01-01

    The concept of bioprospecting for bioactive peptides from keratin-containing materials such as wool, hair, skin and feathers presents an exciting opportunity for discovery of novel functional food ingredients and nutraceuticals, while value-adding to cheap and plentiful natural sources. The published literature reports multiple examples of proline-rich peptides with productive bio-activity in models of human disease including tumour formation, hypertension control and Alzheimer's disease. Bioactive peptides have been identified from food and other protein sources however the bioactivity of keratin-related proteins and peptides is largely unknown. Considering the high representation of proline-rich peptides among proven bioactive peptides, the proline-rich character of keratinous proteins supports current research. A selection of mammalian (cow epidermis, sheep wool) and avian (chicken feather) keratinous materials were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using established processing methods. A bio-assay of determining inhibition of early stage amyloid aggregation involved using a model fibril-forming protein - reduced and carboxymethylated bovine K-casein (RCMk-CN) and quantitation of fibril development with the amyloid-specific fluorophore, Thioflavin T (ThT). The assay was fully validated for analytical repeatability and used together with appropriate positive controls. Peptide library products derived from chicken feather (n=9), sheep wool (n=9) and bovine epidermis (n=9) were screened in the fibril inhibition assay based on K-casein. 3 of 27 products exhibited interesting levels of bio-activity with regard to fibril inhibition. HPLC profiles provide an indication of the complexity of the assemblage of peptides in the three active products. We conclude the bioprospecting research using keratinous materials shows promise for discovery of useful bioactive peptides.

  15. Distribution of hydroxyanthracene derivatives in Cassia alata and the factors affecting the quality of the raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwan Intaraksa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyses have been carried out on the content of hydroxyanthracene derivatives of the leaves, flowers and pods of Cassia alata, which had been collected at different harvesting times and different leaf-positions. It was found that when the leaves had been harvested in March, June or September, the hydroxyanthracene derivatives were accumulated more in the leaf-positions 1-3 (1.82, 1.25, 1.63 %w/w, respectively and 4-6 (1.39, 1.58, 1.09 %w/w, respectively. In December (the flowering and fruiting season, hydroxyanthracene derivatives were accumulated more in the flowers (2.21%w/w and the pods (1.82 %w/w, respectively. The method and temperature of drying markedly affected the hydroxyanthracene derivative content. Drying of the leaves in a hot air oven at 50ºC gave a higher hydroxyanthracene derivative content (1.43 %w/w than drying in a hot air oven at 80ºC (0.44 %w/w or drying in the sun (0.95 %w/w. Study on the stability of hydroxyanthracene derivatives in C. alata leaf powder, which was kept in tight container at room temperature, found that the hydroxyanthracene derivative content did not decrease within 9 months.

  16. Therapeutic effect of the bone-guided tissue regeneration in combination with a composite bovine-derived xenograft on intra-bony defects in elderly patients with periodontal disease%应用骨引导组织再生术联合骨粉治疗老年牙周病患者骨内缺损的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨泓; 姜毅; 林南雁

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare therapeutic effects of the bone-guided tissue regeneration in combination with a composite bovine-derived xenograft versus flap surgery only on intra-bony defects in elderly patients with periodontal disease. Methods Thirty elderly patients with periodontal disease were randomly divided into two groups. One group was treated by the bone-guided tissue regeneration in combination with a composite bovine-derived xenograft (experimental group). The other group was treated by flap surgery only (control group). Probing depth (PD)and clinical attachment level (AL) were determined before surgery and six months after treatment in two groups. The change of bone amount was also determined before surgery and six months after treatment through computer-assisted densitometric image analysis(CADIA). Results The changes of PD and CADIA were (3.8+1.7)mm, (20. 3+11.1)g/mm2 in experimental group and were (2.5+1.1)mm, (9.4+8. 6)g/mm2 in control group. The differences between two groups were significant (P.<0. 05). The change of AL was (3.5+ 1.6)mm in experimental group, compared with control group(2. 3 1.7)mm, which showed more obvious regeneration of alveolar bone (P< 0. 01). Conclusions Guided tissue regeneration in combination with a composite bovine-derived xenograft appears to be more effective than flap surgery only for intra-bony defects in elderly patients with periodontal disease.%目的 比较骨引导组织再生术联合骨粉应用和单纯翻瓣术对老年牙周病患者骨内缺损的治疗效果. 方法 选择老年牙周病患者30名,随机分为两组,对照组接受普通翻瓣手术,实验组接受骨引导组织再生术和骨粉的联合应用.两组分别于手术开始前和治疗后6个月检查牙周探诊深度(PD),附着水平(AL).并分别拍摄X线片,用计算机辅助骨密度定量测定(CADIA),分析每组患者治疗前后的骨量变化值. 结果 实验组PD、CADIA值改变分别为(3.8±1.7)mm、(20.3±11.1)g/mm2,

  17. Human exposure to bovine polyomavirus: a zoonosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, J.V.; Gardner, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    A competitive-type solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of antibody to bovine polyomavirus. Comparison of RIA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) results on 273 cattle sera indicated that both techniques were detecting antibody of like specificity. Human sera from 256 blood donors, 219 people recently vaccinated against polio, rubella or rabies, 50 immunosuppressed patients and 472 people with various occupational exposure to cattle were tested for antibody to bovine polyomavirus, the foetal rhesus monkey kidney strain, (anti-FRKV) by RIA. Apart from one blood donor and one of 108 rabies vaccinees only those in close contact with cattle possessed anti-FRKV. Compared with 62 per cent seropositive in the natural hosts, cattle, 71 per cent of veterinary surgeons, 50 per cent of cattle farmers, 40 per cent of abattoir workers, 16 per cent of veterinary institute technical staff and 10 per cent of veterinary students were anti-FRKV positive. Our findings indicate that the theoretical hazard of FRKV infection from undetected contamination of current tissue culture derived vaccines may, in practice, be remote. Proposed wider use of primate kidney cells as substrates for new vaccines may increase this risk.

  18. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  19. Expression of growth factor ligand and receptor genes in the preimplantation bovine embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A J; Hogan, A; Hahnel, A; Wiemer, K E; Schultz, G A

    1992-02-01

    The sensitive technique of mRNA phenotyping with the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was employed to determine the patterns of gene expression for several growth factor ligand and receptor genes during bovine preimplantation development. Several thousand bovine embryos encompassing a developmental series from one-cell zygotes to hatched blastocysts were produced by the application of in vitro maturation, fertilization, and oviductal epithelial cell embryo coculture methods. Transcripts for transforming growth factor (TGF-alpha) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-A) are detectable in all preimplantation bovine stages as observed in the mouse. Transcripts for TGF-beta 2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-II) and the receptors for PDGF-alpha, insulin, IGF-I, and IGF-II are also detectable throughout bovine preimplantation development, suggesting that these mRNAs are products of both the maternal and the embryonic genomes in the cow, whereas in the mouse they are present only following the activation of the embryonic genome at the two-cell stage. In contrast to the mouse embryo, IGF-I mRNA was detected within preimplantation bovine embryos. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a maternal message in the bovine embryo, since it is only detectable up until the eight-cell embryo stage. Bovine trophoblast protein (bTP) mRNA was detectable within day 8 bovine blastocysts. As was observed in the mouse, the transcripts for insulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), or nerve growth factor (NGF) were not detectable in any bovine embryo stage. Analyses of this type should aid the development of a completely defined culture medium for the more efficient production of preimplantation bovine embryos.

  20. Structural studies of the NaCaPO 4-SiO 2 sol-gel derived materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitarz, M.; Rokita, M.; Handke, M.; Galuskin, E.

    2003-06-01

    Structural studies of the NaCaPO 4-SiO 2 materials have been carried out. Amorphous materials from this system, after controlled crystallization process, can be used as potential nanomaterials. Structural studies of nanomaterials are of fundamental importance in view their future applications. Materials of different [PO 4] 3-/[SiO 4] 4- tetrahedra proportion have been prepared. Na + and Ca 2+ cations have compensated the negative charge of the lattice. Amorphous and crystalline materials have been obtained by sol-gel as well as conventional melting methods. The XRD phase identification has enabled amorphous and crystalline materials identification and suggests the separation of phosphorus and silicate crystalline phases. The obtained materials were examined using the electron scanning microscope and EDX spectrometer. Analysis of electron scanning microscope maps shows considerable inhomogeneity of crystalline samples. Fluctuations in ions distribution, in case of amorphous materials, have been noted too. DTA investigations have enabled to find the probable characteristic temperatures of glass crystallization. Detailed infrared spectroscopy measurements have been carried out. The spectra of obtained materials have been compared with the spectra of cristobalite. Spectroscopic studies confirm the inhomogeneity of materials.

  1. Characterization of the Materials Synthesized by High Pressure-High Temperature Treatment of a Polymer Derived t-BC2N Ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mera

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulk B-C-N materials were synthesized under static high thermobaric conditions (20 GPa and 2,000 °C in a multianvil apparatus from a polymer derived t-BC1.97N ceramic. The bulk samples were characterised using X-ray synchrotron radiation and analytical transmission electron microscopy in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy. Polycrystalline B-C-N materials with a cubic type structure were formed under the applied reaction conditions, but the formation of a ternary cubic diamond-like c-BC2N compound, could not be unambiguously confirmed.

  2. Development of Polythiophene and Its Derivatives as Thermoelectric Materials%聚噻吩及其衍生物热电材料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大刚; 王雷; 王文馨; 朱光明; 白晓军; 李均钦

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, polymer thermoelectric material is considered to be one kind of the most promising thermoelectric materials due to low cost, abundant resources,low thermal conductivity, etc. Polythiophene and its derivatives are widely studied as thermoelectric materials. The recent development of polythiophene and its derivatives in thermoelectric field are reviewed. These results indicate that polythiophene and its derivatives possess high Seebeck coefficient, and Seebeck coefficient usually decreases with an increasing electrical conductivity. The thermoelectric properties of polythiophene and its derivatives can be enhanced by reducing the material dimension, compounding with highly conductive inorganic nano-particles, doping with appropriate dopants, and so on.%近来,聚合物热电材料因其成本低、资源丰富、热导率低等优势被认为是最有前途的热电材料之一.聚噻吩及其衍生物是研究较为广泛的一类聚合物热电材料.综述了近年来聚噻吩、聚噻吩衍生物以及聚噻吩基/无机复合热电材料在热电领域的研究进展.已有研究表明,聚噻吩及其衍生物热电材料具有高的Seebeck系数,其Seebeck系数与电导率通常是此消彼长的关系.通过制备低维材料,与高电导率的无机纳米材料复合以及适度掺杂等方法可有效提高聚噻吩及其衍生物的热电性能.

  3. Comparison of the aggregation behavior of soy and bovine whey protein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.J.H.; Alting, A.C.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Soy-derived proteins (soy protein isolate, glycinin, and ß-conglycinin) and bovine whey-derived proteins (whey protein isolate, ¿-lactalbumin, ß-lactoglobulin) were hydrolyzed using subtilisin Carlsberg, chymotrypsin, trypsin, bromelain, and papain. The (in)solubility of the hydrolysates ob

  4. Synthesis and optical activity of isosorbide chiral derivative containing fluorocarbon group as chiral dopant in liquid crystal materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Liang Xie; Yin He Su; Chun Xiang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Novel isosorbide derivative containing perfluorocarbon group, bi(perfluorooctanesulfonyl)isosorbide ester as chiral dopant in liquid crystal, was synthesized. Chemical structure was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and 19F NMR. The optical texture of the mixture was observed by polarized optical microscopy (POM). Novel chiral dopant containing perfluorocarbon group had excellent optical activity. Its specific rotation and molar rotation were noticeable higher than those of bi(4-chloromethylbenzenecarbonic)isosorbide ester. The fluorocarbon group improved the molar rotation of chiral compound and did not affect optical rotation direction. The texture of the mixture added isosorbide derivative with fluorocarbon group showed the oily streak texture.

  5. Bovine Calcined Bone for the Repair of Radial Defect in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing segmental bone defect and seek a new artificial bone substitute material, the bovine calcined bone (450℃,32 h) was implanted into the 10-mm middle radial defect of rabbits with tricalcium phosphate ceramics as the control. By using the methods of histology, radiology and biomechanics their osteogenic ability were measured. It was found that the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing bone defect was better than that of tricalcium phosphate ceramics. The histological Nilsson′s scores at 3rd, 5th, 9th week after operation were significantly increased (P<0.01). At 12th week after operation the bending strength of radius in experimental group was much higher than that of control group and turned normal. It was suggested that bovine calcined bone is an ideal artificial bone substitute material with good ability of repairing segmental bone defect and some degree of mechanical strength.

  6. Bovine lactotroph cultures for the study of prolactin synthesis functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfa; Yang, Zhanqing; Fu, Shoupeng; Liu, Bingrun; Wu, Dianjun; Wang, Wei; Sun, Dongbo; Wu, Rui; Liu, Juxiong

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a bovine anterior pituitary-derived lactotroph (BAPDL) line that expresses prolactin (PRL) in vitro to study the mechanisms of bovine PRL synthesis and secretion. Immunohistochemistry assay of PRL in the newborn calves' anterior pituitary glands showed that most lactotrophs were located within the superior border of the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary. Tissues of the superior border of the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary were dispersed and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The limiting dilution method was used to establish BAPDL from single cell clone. BAPDL cells constantly expressed mRNAs for PRL and pituitary-specific transcription factor 1 (Pit-1) gene and grew steadily and rapidly in the DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS. PRL immunoreactivity was present in BAPDL at passage 20. The concentration of bovine PRL in BAPDL at passage 20 culture supernatant was decreased to below 35% compared with that in BAPDL at passage 1. The effects of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and dopamine (DA) on the expression and secretion of PRL in BAPDL at passage 4 were also investigated. The results are consistent with those of previous studies. Thus, it can be used successfully for studying the mechanisms of stimuli regulating PRL synthesis and release.

  7. Micelle swelling agent derived cavities for increasing hydrophobic organic compound removal efficiency by mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifeng

    2012-06-01

    Mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials with 2D hexagonal mesostructures were synthesized as reusable sorbents for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) removal by a facile one-step aqueous solution synthesis using 3-(trimethoxysily)propyl-octadecyldimethyl-ammonium chloride (TPODAC) as a structure directing agent. The mesopores were generated by adding micelle swelling agent, 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene, during the synthesis and removing it afterward, which was demonstrated to greatly increase the HOC removal efficiency. In this material, TPODAC surfactant is directly anchored on the pore surface of mesoporous silica via SiOSi covalent bond after the synthesis due to its reactive Si(OCH 3) 3 head group, and thus makes the synthesized materials can be easily regenerated for reuse. The obtained materials show great potential in water treatment as pollutants sorbents. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Particle Size of Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral on New Bone Formation and Implant Stability after Simultaneous Sinus Floor Elevation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon S; Aaboe, Merete; Janner, Simone F M;

    2013-01-01

    Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) is one of the best-documented bone substitute materials for sinus floor elevation (SFE).......Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) is one of the best-documented bone substitute materials for sinus floor elevation (SFE)....

  9. Polyketide Derivatives from Annona muricata Linn Leaves as Potencial Anticancer Material by Combination Treatment With Doxorubicin on Hela Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, A. N.; Astirin, O. P.; Prayito, A.; Widiyaningsih, R. F.; Prihapsara, F.

    2017-02-01

    One of the compounds found effication as an anticancer agent on cervical cancer is acetogenin, a polyketide compound that is abundant in Annona muricata L. leaves. This study has been done to examine polyketide derivatives was isolated from Annona muricata L. which has potency to induce apoptosis by p53 expression on hela cell line. An approach recently develop to overcome side effect of chemoterapeutic agent is used of combined chemoterapeutic agent, i.e doxorubicin. The determination of cytotoxic combination activity from polyketide derivative and doxorubicin was evaluated using MTT assay to obtain the value of CI (combination index). The expression of p53 profile was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on hela cell line. Data analysis showed that combination of polyketide derivative from Annona muricata L. (38,5 µg/ml) and doxorubicin with all of concentration performed synergistic effect on hela cell line with CI value from 0,33 – 0,65. The analysis on immucytochemistry showed that polyketide derivative from Annona muricata L. leaves could enhance p53 pathway significantly on hela cell line.

  10. Effect of the Side Chains and Anode Material on Thermal Stability and Performance of Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells Using DPP(TBFu2 Derivatives as Donor Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kovalenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized fabrication of bulk-heterojunction solar cells (BHJ SCs based on previously reported diketopyrrolopyrrole donor, ethyl-hexylated DPP(TBFu2, as well as two new DPP(TBFu2 derivatives with ethyl-hexyl acetate and diethyl acetal solubilizing side-chains and PC60BM as an acceptor is demonstrated. Slow gradual annealing of the solar cell causing the effective donor-acceptor reorganization, and as a result higher power conversion efficiency (PCE, is described. By replacing a hole transporting layer PEDOT:PSS with MoO3 we obtained higher PCE values as well as higher thermal stability of the anode contact interface. DPP(TBFu2 derivative containing ethyl-hexyl acetate solubilizing side-chains possessed the best as-cast self-assembly and high crystallinity. However, the presence of ethyl-hexyl acetate and diethyl acetal electrophilic side-chains stabilizes HOMO energy of isolated DPP(TBFu2 donors with respect to the ethyl-hexylated one, according to cyclic voltammetry.

  11. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF BOVINE ABORTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Krogh, H.V.; Jensen, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study of bovine abortions associated with Bacillus licheniformis is described. The material consisted of 2445 bovine abortions submitted for diagnostics from 1986 through 1993. Initially, B, licheniformis had been isolated from 81 cases. Sections of these cases were reexamined mic...... isolations, especially from the placenta, lungs, and abomasal contents, combined with the histological findings points to B, licheniformis abortions as being of haematogenous origin with subsequent transplacental spread to the fetus....

  12. Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  13. SCAFFOLD DARI BOVINE HYDROXYAPATITE DENGAN POLY VYNIALCHOHOL COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Edy Tontowi, Punto Dewo, Endang Tri Wahyuni, dan Joko Triyono

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, it is about 40% patients with hard tissue defect due to ostheoporosis, cancer or accidents and therest are defect since they have born.For many years, efforts for recovering have been done by transplantation orimplantation methods.Transplantation is more appropriate butit is not sustain because of limited donor, whileimplantation using synthetic materials such as bioceramics scaffoldis expensive due to import and the scaffold iseasier to break which does not match to the medical requirements.The research therefore has been addressed to thisissue. Local bovine hydroxyapatite (bHAscaffold has been used as thebase material and poly vynilalchohol (PVAas a coating material.The bHA scaffold was prepared by cutting a fresh bovine bone in the size of 5mmx5mmx5mmand boil it in a distilled water to remove its organic material. It was then heated up at 900 oC for 2 hours infurnace to obtain bovine hydroxyapatite scaffold (bHA. Coating process has been carried out by dip coating of thebHAscaffold in PVA solution.

  14. Symmetric supercapacitors using urea-modified lignin derived N-doped porous carbon as electrode materials in liquid and solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keliang; Xu, Ming; Gu, Yan; Gu, Zhengrong; Fan, Qi Hua

    2016-11-01

    N-doped porous carbon materials derived from urea-modified lignin were prepared via efficient KOH activation under carbonization. The synthesized N-doped carbon materials, which displayed a well-developed porous morphology with high specific surface area of 3130 m2 g-1, were used as electrode materials in symmetric supercapacitors with aqueous and solid electrolytes. In consistent with the observed physical structures and properties, the supercapacitors exhibited specific capacitances of 273 and 306 F g-1, small resistances of 2.6 and 7.7 Ω, stable charge/discharge at different current densities for over 5000 cycles and comparable energy and power density in 6 mol L-1 KOH liquid and KOH-PVA solid electrolytes, respectively.

  15. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general p

  16. Blue Fluorescent Materials Composed of Anthracene-Aryl Amine-Anthracene Derivatives for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul Bee; Song, Ji Young; Yang, Hyung Jin; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2015-07-01

    Blue fluorescent emitters based on anthracene-aryl amine-anthracene derivatives were studied for efficient OLEDs. Compound 1 exhibited efficient EL propereties with luminous and power efficien- cies of 4.50 cd/A and 1.75 lm/W at 200 mA/cm2, respectively and CIE coordinates of (0.18, 0.26) at 7.0 V.

  17. Derivatives of 10,16-Dihydroxyhexadecanoic Acid Isolated from Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum as Potential Material for Aliphatic Polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gerardo Zepeda-Vallejo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main monomer of tomato cuticle, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid (or 10,16-dihydroxypalmitic acid; 10,16-DHPA, was isolated and used to efficiently synthesize two different monomers (16-hydroxy-10-oxo-hexadecanoic and 7-oxohexa-decanedioic acids in addition to a dimer and linear and branched trimers. These compounds were fully characterized using NMR and MS techniques and could be used as starting materials for the synthesis of a wide range of chemicals and bio-polyesters, particularly the latter due to their physical properties, non-toxicity, and relative abundance among raw materials.

  18. Volatile compounds in the thermoplastic extrusion of bovine rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Conti e Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds of raw and extruded bovine rumen, extracted by dynamic headspace, were separated by gas chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS. Raw and extruded materials presented thirty-two volatile compounds. The following compounds were identified in raw bovine rumen: heptane, 1-heptene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, toluene, hexanal, ethyl butyrate, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, heptanal, limonene, nonanal, dodecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, heptadecane and octadecane. The following compounds were identified in the extruded material: 1-heptene, 2,4-dimethylhexane, toluene, limonene, undecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, heptadecane, octadecane and nonadecane. Mass spectra of some unidentified compounds indicated the presence of hydrocarbons with branched chains or cyclic structure.

  19. Research on Isolation and Clone of Embryonic Stem Cell-Like in Bovine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Li-long; YANG Qi; XIAO Mei; FENG Xiu-Liang; YANG Chun-rong; LEI An-min; GAO Zhi-min; DOU Zhong-ying; QIU Huai

    2002-01-01

    Bovine embryonic stem cell would be invaluable for researching the aspect of animal cloning, production transgenic animal and discussion of gene function in vitro. With the object of establishing an effective culture system for isolation and clone of bovine pluripotent stem cell, we cultured bovine embryos and mouse embryos including morula blastula and hatached blastula and obtained animal ICM on Primary marine embryonic fibroblast (Primary murine embryonic fibroblast, PMEF) feeder layer with tissue medium(DMEM supplemented with 15ml/100ml NBS ,0.1μmol/L Na2SeO3, 0. 1mmol/L β-mercaptoethanol, 1 000ng/ml LIF,10 ng/ml IGF, 1mmol/L necessary amino acid and 1mmol/L L-glutamine), then, we obtained mouse ICM and bovine ICM. Moreover, we isolated and cloned the 6 passage bovine ES like cells(12 cell lines) and 9 passage marine ES like cells (52 cell lines) deriving from bovine ICM and murine ICM respectively on the feeder layer of PMEF by disaggregating ICM and ES cell clones of bovine and murine into smaller clumps through digesting with 0. 125g/100ml trypsin and 0.02g/100ml EDTA and scattering with a glass needle. The pluripotency of both murine and bovine ES like cells was identified with morphological character, histochemistry identification, karyotype analysis and differentiation of ES cells in vitro or in vivo. This result showed that bovine embryonic stem cell and murine embryonic stem cell had developmental pluripotency.

  20. A dynamic model to calculate cadmium concentrations in bovine tissues from basic soil characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waegeneers, Nadia, E-mail: nadia.waegeneers@var.fgov.be; Ruttens, Ann; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2011-06-15

    A chain model was developed to calculate the flow of cadmium from soil, drinking water and feed towards bovine tissues. The data used for model development were tissue Cd concentrations of 57 bovines and Cd concentrations in soil, feed and drinking water, sampled at the farms were the bovines were reared. Validation of the model occurred with a second set of measured tissue Cd concentrations of 93 bovines of which age and farm location were known. The exposure part of the chain model consists of two parts: (1) a soil-plant transfer model, deriving cadmium concentrations in feed from basic soil characteristics (pH and organic matter content) and soil Cd concentrations, and (2) bovine intake calculations, based on typical feed and water consumption patterns for cattle and Cd concentrations in feed and drinking water. The output of the exposure model is an animal-specific average daily Cd intake, which is then taken forward to a kinetic uptake model in which time-dependent Cd concentrations in bovine tissues are calculated. The chain model was able to account for 65%, 42% and 32% of the variation in observed kidney, liver and meat Cd concentrations in the validation study. - Research highlights: {yields} Cadmium transfer from soil, drinking water and feed to bovine tissues was modeled. {yields} The model was based on 57 bovines and corresponding feed and soil Cd concentrations. {yields} The model was validated with an independent data set of 93 bovines. {yields} The model explained 65% of variation in kidney Cd in the validation study.

  1. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Silica Material Derived from a Monosilylated Grubbs-Hoveyda Ruthenium Carbene as a Recyclable Metathesis Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Wong Chi Man

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a monosilylated Grubbs-Hoveyda ruthenium alkylidene complex is described, as well as the preparation and characterization of the corresponding material by sol-gel cogelification with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and the assay of this recyclable supported catalyst in ring-closing diene and enyne metathesis reactions under thermal and microwave conditions.

  2. Enhanced reversibility and durability of a solid oxide Fe-air redox battery by carbothermic reaction derived energy storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuan; Li, Xue; Gong, Yunhui; Huang, Kevin

    2014-01-18

    The recently developed solid oxide metal-air redox battery is a new technology capable of high-rate chemistry. Here we report that the performance, reversibility and stability of a solid oxide iron-air redox battery can be significantly improved by nanostructuring energy storage materials from a carbothermic reaction.

  3. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during their lifetime; The bovines from which the... from animals that are not known to have been fed ruminant protein, other than milk protein, during... community is that the agent is an abnormal form of a normal protein known as cellular prion protein. The...

  4. Seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in unvaccinated cattle

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) infection in the non-vaccinated cattle population in northern part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 sera samples were collected from cattle having the history of respiratory and reproductive disorder from cattle of different age, breeds, and sex. All the sera samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of IBR antibodies. Results: Results reveale...

  5. Sol-gel derived precursors to Group 14 semiconductor nanocrystals - Convenient materials for enabling nanocrystal-based applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veinot, Jonathan G C; Henderson, Eric J; Hessel, Colin M, E-mail: jveinot@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are intriguing because of their electronic, optical, and chemical characteristics. Silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) of sub-5 nm dimension are of particular interest due to their intense photoluminescent response and the promise of linking silicon photonics and electronics. Other related nanomaterials of technological importance include SiC and Ge. The following contribution describes key experimental findings pertaining to synthetic methodology, investigation of nanodomain formation and growth, as determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for a series of sol-gel derived prepolymers suitable for preparing Group 14 based nanocrystal containing composites.

  6. Sol-gel derived precursors to Group 14 semiconductor nanocrystals - Convenient materials for enabling nanocrystal-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, Jonathan G. C.; Henderson, Eric J.; Hessel, Colin M.

    2009-11-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are intriguing because of their electronic, optical, and chemical characteristics. Silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) of sub-5 nm dimension are of particular interest due to their intense photoluminescent response and the promise of linking silicon photonics and electronics. Other related nanomaterials of technological importance include SiC and Ge. The following contribution describes key experimental findings pertaining to synthetic methodology, investigation of nanodomain formation and growth, as determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for a series of sol-gel derived prepolymers suitable for preparing Group 14 based nanocrystal containing composites.

  7. Ultrathin nickel hydroxide nanosheet arrays grafted biomass-derived honeycomb-like porous carbon with improved electrochemical performance as a supercapacitive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Goli; Cha, Sung Min; Yu, Jae Su

    2017-03-01

    Three-dimensional hierarchical honeycomb-like activated porous carbon pillared ultrathin Ni(OH)2 nanosheets (Ni(OH)2 NSs@HAPC) for use as supercapacitor materials were facilely synthesized. With an aid of pine cone flowers as a biomass source, HAPC conducting scaffolds were prepared by the alkali treatment and pyrolysis methods under an inert gas atmosphere. Subsequently, the Ni(OH)2 NSs were synthesized evenly on the surface of HAPC via a solvothermal method. The resulting HAPC and Ni(OH)2 NSs@HAPC composite materials offered free pathways for effective diffusion of electrolyte ions and fast transportation of electrons when employed as an electrode material. The Ni(OH)2 NSs@HAPC composite electrode exhibited excellent electrochemical properties including a relatively high specific capacitance (Csp) value of ~ 916.4 F/g at 1 A/g with good cycling stability compared to the pristine HAPC and Ni(OH)2 NSs electrodes. Such bio-friendly derived carbon-based materials with transition metal hydroxide/oxide composite materials could be a promising approach for high-performance energy storage devices because of their advantageous properties of cost effectiveness and easy availability.

  8. Curcumin-functionalized silk materials for enhancing adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Luo, Tingting; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Murphy, Amanda R; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural phenolic compound derived from the plant Curcuma longa, was physically entrapped and stabilized in silk hydrogel films, and its influence on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) was assessed related to adipogenic differentiation. The presence of curcumin significantly reduced the silk gelation time and changed the porous morphology of gel matrix, but did not change the formation of the silk beta-sheet structure. Based on spectrofluorimetric analysis, curcumin most likely interacted with hydrophobic residues in silk, interacting with the beta-sheet domains formed in the hydrogels. The antioxidant activity of silk film-associated curcumin remained functional over at least one month in both the dry and hydrated state. Negligible curcumin was released from silk hydrogel films over 48 h incubation in aqueous solution. For hBMSC cultured on silk films containing more than 0.25 mg ml(-1) curcumin, cell proliferation was inhibited, while adipogenesis was significantly promoted based on transcripts as well as Oil Red O staining. When hBMSC were cultured in media containing free curcumin, both proliferation and adipogenesis of hBMSC were inhibited when curcumin concentrations exceeded 5 μM, which is more than 1000 times higher than the level of curcumin released from the films in aqueous solution. Thus, silk film-associated curcumin exhibited different effects on hBMSC proliferation and differentiation compared with curcumin in solution.

  9. Demonstration of freedom from brittle fracture - validation of the master curve methodology for deriving material fracture toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, F. [BNFL (United Kingdom); Pisarski, H. [TWI (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    ASTM A 350 LF5 steel is used in the manufacture of transport flasks. In order to satisfy regulatory requirements for demonstrating this materials' resistance to brittle fracture during flask operation, fracture mechanics data are required. The normal requirement for generating fracture toughness data is that testing must be carried out on material of equivalent thickness to the component under investigation and that the test must be carried out at the appropriate temperature and loading rate. Satisfying these requirements becomes very difficult for thick materials. In particular, routine dynamic testing of 300 mm thick steels could not be done on any known facility and would require a significant effort to develop one. The Master Curve proposed by Wallin(1) offers an alternative testing philosophy that enables the desired fracture toughness data to be generated by small scale testing. This report presents the results of a program of work to demonstrate that A350 LF5 steel is amenable to Master Curve techniques.

  10. Gelatin-derived sustainable carbon-based functional materials for energy conversion and storage with controllability of structure and component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Li; Xu, Dan; Zhong, Hai-Xia; Wang, Jun; Meng, Fan-Lu; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2015-02-01

    Nonprecious carbon catalysts and electrodes are vital components in energy conversion and storage systems. Despite recent progress, controllable synthesis of carbon functional materials is still a great challenge. We report a novel strategy to prepare simultaneously Fe-N-C catalysts and Fe3O4/N-doped carbon hybrids based on the sol-gel chemistry of gelatin and iron with controllability of structure and component. The catalysts demonstrate higher catalytic activity and better durability for oxygen reduction than precious Pt/C catalysts. The active sites of FeN4/C (D1) and N-FeN2+2/C (D3) are identified by Mössbauer spectroscopy, and most of the Fe ions are converted into D1 or D3 species. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity correlates well with the surface area, porosity, and the content of active Fe-N x /C (D1 + D3) species. As an anode material for lithium storage, Fe3O4/carbon hybrids exhibit superior rate capability and excellent cycling performance. The synthetic approach and the proposed mechanism open new avenues for the development of sustainable carbon-based functional materials.

  11. A new route for local probing of inner interactions within a layered double hydroxide/benzene derivative hybrid material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleutot, S; Dupin, J C; Baraille, I; Forano, C; Renaudin, G; Leroux, F; Gonbeau, D; Martinez, H

    2009-05-14

    This paper presents the preparation and characterization of hybrid hydrotalcite-type layered double hydroxides (Zn1-xAlx(OH)2HBSx.nH2O, with x=0.33) where HBS is the 4-phenol sulfonate, with a detailed analysis of the grafting process of this organic entity onto the host lattice. As a set of the usual techniques (XRD, TG-DT/MS, FTIR and 27Al MAS NMR) was used to characterize the hybrid materials, this work focuses on a joint study by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and some quantum-calculation modeling in order to highlight the nature of the interactions between the organic and the mineral sub-systems. For the as-prepared hybrid material, the main results lead to a quasi-vertical orientation of the organic molecules within the mineral sheets via H-bond stabilization. By heating the hybrid material up to 200 degrees C, the structure shrinks with the condensation of the organics; the different theoretical modeling done gives an energy-stable situation when a direct attachment of the HBS sulfonate group sets up with the mineral layers, in agreement with the recorded XPS experimental data.

  12. Identification of Animal Derived Material in Vegetarian Foods%素食中动物源性成分的PCR检测方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩平; 顾文佳; 曲勤凤; 胡雪莲; 俞漪; 陈欣钦

    2011-01-01

    A specific and sensitive real-time PCR method of animal-derived material in vegetarian toods was developed. The method could determine whether animal- derived material was contained in vegetarian foods by detecting one gene site. The detection limits of the method were respectively 0.01%, 0.05%, and 0.1% as to livestock, poultry and fish. Twenty-two different types of vegetarian food products were tested by the method and two products were detected to contain animal-derived ingredients. The method was easy to operate and suitable for detection of animal-derived ingredients in vegetarian food.%建立了素食产品中动物源性成分的实时荧光PCR检测方法,该方法特异、灵敏,仅通过检测一个基因位点即可判断素食产品中是否含有动物源性成分,对来源于畜类、禽类及鱼类动物源性成分的检出限分别为0.01%,0.05%,0.1%。运用该方法对市场上22份不同类型的素食产品进行了检测,检出2份产品中含有动物源性成分。该方法操作方便快捷,适用于素食中动物源性成分的定性检测。

  13. Derivation, parameterization and validation of a creep deformation/rupture material constitutive model for SiC/SiC ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mica Grujicic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the development of material constitutive models for creep-deformation and creep-rupture of SiC/SiC ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs under general three-dimensional stress states. The models derived are aimed for use in finite element analyses of the performance, durability and reliability of CMC turbine blades used in gas-turbine engines. Towards that end, one set of available experimental data pertaining to the effect of stress magnitude and temperature on the time-dependent creep deformation and rupture, available in the open literature, is used to derive and parameterize material constitutive models for creep-deformation and creep-rupture. The two models derived are validated by using additional experimental data, also available in the open literature. To enable the use of the newly-developed CMC creep-deformation and creep-rupture models within a structural finite-element framework, the models are implemented in a user-material subroutine which can be readily linked with a finite-element program/solver. In this way, the performance and reliability of CMC components used in high-temperature high-stress applications, such as those encountered in gas-turbine engines can be investigated computationally. Results of a preliminary finite-element analysis concerning the creep-deformation-induced contact between a gas-turbine engine blade and the shroud are presented and briefly discussed in the last portion of the paper. In this analysis, it is assumed that: (a the blade is made of the SiC/SiC CMC; and (b the creep-deformation behavior of the SiC/SiC CMC can be represented by the creep-deformation model developed in the present work.

  14. Sulfated dextrans enhance in vitro amplification of bovine spongiform encephalopathy PrP(Sc and enable ultrasensitive detection of bovine PrP(Sc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Murayama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prions, infectious agents associated with prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in cattle, and scrapie in sheep and goats, are primarily comprised of PrP(Sc, a protease-resistant misfolded isoform of the cellular prion protein PrP(C. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA is a highly sensitive technique used to detect minute amounts of scrapie PrP(Sc. However, the current PMCA technique has been unsuccessful in achieving good amplification in cattle. The detailed distribution of PrP(Sc in BSE-affected cattle therefore remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report here that PrP(Sc derived from BSE-affected cattle can be amplified ultra-efficiently by PMCA in the presence of sulfated dextran compounds. This method is capable of amplifying very small amounts of PrP(Sc from the saliva, palatine tonsils, lymph nodes, ileocecal region, and muscular tissues of BSE-affected cattle. Individual differences in the distribution of PrP(Sc in spleen and cerebrospinal fluid samples were observed in terminal-stage animals. However, the presence of PrP(Sc in blood was not substantiated in the BSE-affected cattle examined. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The distribution of PrP(Sc is not restricted to the nervous system and can spread to peripheral tissues in the terminal disease stage. The finding that PrP(Sc could be amplified in the saliva of an asymptomatic animal suggests a potential usefulness of this technique for BSE diagnosis. This highly sensitive method also has other practical applications, including safety evaluation or safety assurance of products and byproducts manufactured from bovine source materials.

  15. Depletion of TGF-β from fetal bovine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oida, Takatoku; Weiner, Howard L

    2010-10-31

    TGF-β is one of the key cytokines controlling immune responses. Measuring TGF-β from culture supernatants in vitro is an important index of immune function. However, fetal bovine serum (FBS) contains a high level of latent TGF-β that often hampers measuring T cell-derived TGF-β in culture using FBS-supplemented medium. In this report, we generated anti-latency associated peptide (LAP) monoclonal antibodies which cross-react with bovine LAP, and developed a protocol to deplete TGF-β from FBS. This provides the ability to reliably quantify TGF-β in vitro without relying on serum-free media which do not support growth of murine T cells.

  16. Immunoglobulin A in Bovine Milk: A Potential Functional Food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakebread, Julie A; Humphrey, Rex; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2015-08-26

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an anti-inflammatory antibody that plays a critical role in mucosal immunity. It is found in large quantities in human milk, but there are lower amounts in bovine milk. In humans, IgA plays a significant role in providing protection from environmental pathogens at mucosal surfaces and is a key component for the establishment and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis via innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To date, many of the dairy-based functional foods are derived from bovine colostrum, targeting the benefits of IgG. IgA has a higher pathogenic binding capacity and greater stability against proteolytic degradation when ingested compared with IgG. This provides IgA-based products greater potential in the functional food market that has yet to be realized.

  17. Energetic Materials with Promising Properties: Synthesis and Characterization of 4,4'-Bis(5-nitro-1,2,3-2H-triazole) Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunlin; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2015-05-18

    Using a variety of functionalization strategies, derivatives of 4, 4'-bis(5-nitro-1,2,3-2H-triazole) were designed, synthesized, and characterized. The isomers were separated, their structures were confirmed with single-crystal X-ray analysis, and their properties were determined by differential scanning calorimetry, density, impact sensitivity, heat of formation, and detonation velocity and pressure (calculated by EXPLO5 V6.01). Those materials were found to exhibit superior detonation performance when compared with the other fully carbon-nitrated bis(azoles).

  18. Effects of Fe and Mn in Paddy Soils Derived from Different Parent Materials on Methane Production and Emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ke-Xing; LIAO Zong-Wen; WANG Sheng-Chun; YOU Zhi-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Three types of paddy soils, derived from granite, Quaternary red clay and basalt, respectively, were selected to study the effects of Fe and Mn in paddy soils on methane production and emission through pot and incubation experiments. The results indicated that the difference of Fe and Mn in paddy soils was one of the important factors causing obvious differences in methane emission from different soil types. Soil Fe and Mn affecting methane emission from the paddy soils was likely through affecting soil Eh and forming Fe and Mn plaques on rice roots. Different rates and valences of added Fe and Mn significantly affected methane production from paddy soils. Therefore, this study enhanced understanding of processes controlling methane emission from paddy soils and may help to improve modeling and estimating regional and global methane emission from paddy soils.

  19. The comparative effectiveness of demineralized bone matrix, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and bovine-derived anorganic bone matrix on inflammation and bone formation using a paired calvarial defect model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshzaban A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahad Khoshzaban1,2,3, Shahram Mehrzad1, Vida Tavakoli2, Saeed Heidari Keshel2, Gholam Reza Behrouzi2, Maryam Bashtar2 1Iranian Tissue Bank Research and Preparation Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, 2Stem Cells Preparation Unit, Eye Research Center, Farabi Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Science, 3Dental Bio Material Department, Tehran University of Medical Science, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran, Iran Background: In this study, the effectiveness of Iranian Tissue Bank–produced demineralized bone matrix (ITB-DBM, beta-tricalcium phosphate (ßTCP, and Bio-Oss® (Geistlich Pharma AG, Wolhusen, Switzerland were evaluated and compared with double controls. The main goal was to measure the amount of new bone formation in the center of defects created in rat calvaria. Another goal was to compare the controls and evaluate the effects of each treatment material on their adjacent untreated (control defects. Methods: In this study, 40 male Wistar rats were selected and divided into four groups, In each group, there were ten rats with two defects in their calvarias; one of them is considered as control and the other one was treated with ITB-DBM (group 1, BIO-OSS (group2, and ßTCP (group 3, respectively. But in group 4, both defects were considered as control. The amount of inflammation and new bone formation were evaluated at 4 and 10 weeks. In the first group, one defect was filled with ITB-DBM; in the second group, one defect was filled with Bio-Oss; in the third group, one defect was filled with ßTCP; and in the fourth group, both defects were left unfilled. Zeiss microscope (Carl Zeiss AG, Oberkochen, Germany and Image Tool® (version 3.0; University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX software were used for evaluation. SPSS Statistics (IBM Corp, Somers, NY was used for statistical analysis. Results: Maximum bone formation at 4 and 10 weeks were observed in the ITB-DBM group (46.960% ± 4.366%, 94.970% ± 0

  20. Catalytic Graphitization for Preparation of Porous Carbon Material Derived from Bamboo Precursor and Performance as Electrode of Electrical Double-Layer Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Toshiki; Maguchi, Yuta; Kamimura, Sunao; Ohno, Teruhisa; Yasuoka, Takehiro; Nishida, Haruo

    2015-12-01

    The combination of addition of Fe (as a catalyst for graphitization) and CO2 activation (a kind of gaseous activation) was applied to prepare a porous carbon material from bamboo powder (a waste product of superheated steam treatment). Regardless of the heat treatment temperature, many macropores were successfully formed after the heating process by removal of Fe compounds. A turbostratic carbon structure was generated in the Fe-added sample heated at 850°C. It was confirmed that the added Fe acted as a template for pore formation. Moreover, it was confirmed that the added Fe acted as a catalyst for graphitization. The resulting electrochemical performance as the electrode of an electrical double-layer capacitor, as demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and charge-discharge testing, could be explained based on the graphitization and activation effects. Addition of Fe could affect the electrical properties of carbon material derived from bamboo.

  1. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  2. Effect of Substituents on the Electronic Structure and Degradation Process in Carbazole Derivatives for Blue OLED Host Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Minki

    2016-07-25

    We investigate the dissociation mechanism of the C-N bond between carbazole and dibenzothiophene in carbazole-dibenzothiophene (Cz-DBT) positional isomers, selected as representative systems for blue host materials in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The C-N bond dissociation energies, calculated at the density functional theory level, are found to depend strongly on the charge states of the parental molecules. In particular, the anionic C-N bond dissociations resulting in a carbazole anion can have low dissociation energies (∼1.6 eV) with respect to blue emission energy. These low values are attributed to the large electron affinity of the carbazole radical, a feature that importantly can be modulated via substitution. Substitution also impacts the energies of the first excited electronic states of the Cz-DBT molecules since these states have an intramolecular charge-transfer nature due to the spatially localized character of the frontier molecular orbitals within the carbazole moiety (for the HOMO) and the dibenzothiophene moiety (for the LUMO). The implications of these results must be considered when designing blue OLED hosts since these materials must combine chemical stability and high triplet energy. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  3. Materials based on carbon-filled porous layers of PVC cyclam derivatives cross-linked with the surfaces of asbestos fabric fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivadze, A. Yu.; Fridman, A. Ya.; Morozova, E. M.; Sokolova, N. P.; Voloshchuk, A. M.; Petukhova, G. A.; Bardishev, I. I.; Gorbunov, A. M.; Novikov, A. K.; Polyakova, I. Ya.; Titova, V. N.; Yavich, A. A.; Petrova, N. V.

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of bilayer materials with porous upper layers composed of PVC hydroxyethylcyclam derivatives filled with carbon and a layer consisting of hydroxyethylcyclam, cross-linked via Si-O-C groups with the silica chains of a developed surface of asbestos fabric, is described. The aza-crown groups in these materials are bound with aqua complexes of H2SO4 or NaOH. The structure of the materials is examined, their adsorption characteristics are determined, and the rate of motion of H+ or OH- ions in electrochemical bridges is measured, while the formation of H2 and O2 in their cathodic and anodic polarization is determined as a function of voltage. It is shown that the upper layer of these materials is adsorption-active and electronand H+- or OH-- conductive, while the bottom layer is only H+- or OH-- conductive; through it, the upper layer is supplied with the H+ or OH- ions needed for the regeneration of the aqua complexes broken down to H2 and O2 on carbon particles.

  4. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A

    1998-01-01

    The economic impact of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) warrants continued investigation of the mechanisms by which Moraxella bovis survives on and colonizes the corneal surface. Virulent strains of M bovis produce hemolysin and exhibit different plasmid profiles than nonvirulent strains. Interactions among host, environment, vector, season, and concurrent infection influence the prevalence of IBK. Mycoplasma sp. or infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus may enhance or hasten the disease process. The manifestations of IBK may range from mild conjunctivitis to severe ulceration, corneal perforation, and blindness. Treatment of IBK is dictated by economic considerations, intended animal use, and feasibility of administration. Antibiotic therapy is aimed at achieving drug concentrations in tears to meet or exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged periods. At present, IBK is not a preventable disease. Affected animals must be separated from the herd and vector control vigorously instituted. Carrier animals must be identified and removed from the herd. Vaccination trials have been unsuccessful because of pili antigen cross-reactivity, variable strains, and uncontrolled environmental factors. Recent investigations have determined that M bovis may utilize host iron sources via iron-repressible outer membrane proteins and siderophores for growth. Elucidation of normal defense mechanisms of the bovine eye may lead to new strategies to enhance the immune response against M bovis.

  5. Highly Efficient In Vitro Production of Bovine Blastocyst in Cell-Free Sequential Synthetic Oviductal Fluid vs. TCM199 Vero Cell Co-Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Morteza Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to establish a cell-free sequential culture system that cansupport high levels of in vitro embryo development and blastocyst formation from bovine zygotes.To this end, this investigation was carried out to evaluate the effects of glucose, serum and EDTAon bovine zygote in vitro development.Materials and Methods: Bovine presumptive zygotes were derived from oocytes matured, andfertilized in vitro and cultured in synthetic oviductal fluid sequential medium in a two-steps manner;SOF 1 for the first 3 days and SOF 2 for the second 5-6 days of in vitro embryo development. Inorder to evaluate the effect of different modifications of the basic medium on embryo development,glucose was added to the second phase (SOF A, serum was added to the first phase (SOF C andEDTA alone (SOF D or in combination with serum (SOF E was added into the first phase of invitro embryo culture. The results of each composition were compared with each other and with theresults of embryo development in TCM199 vero cell co-culture system.Results: Glucose addition to the second phase of embryo culture, improved the developmentalcompetency; however, the differences were not significant. Serum addition to the first phase ofembryo culture, significantly improved the developmental competency of embryos beyond thecleavage stage, compared to all the treatment and TCM199 co-culture groups. EDTA supplementationof culture medium, either alone or in combination with serum, significantly inhibits the embryodevelopment beyond the morula stage.Conclusion: The results indicated that culture of bovine presumptive zygotes in two steps cell-freeculture system, can support embryo development, and addition of serum throughout the culture andglucose to the second step significantly increased overall developmental competency compared toTCM199 co-culture system.

  6. Design and construction of nanoscale material for ultrasonic assisted adsorption of dyes: Application of derivative spectrophotometry and experimental design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Ahmad Reza; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Asfaram, Arash; Jannesar, Ramin; Goudarzi, Alireza

    2017-03-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central rotatable experimental design was used to investigate the effect of ultrasound assisted simultaneous adsorption process variables on Cu: ZnS-NPs-AC from aqueous solution. Cu: ZnS-NPs-AC was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). To overcome the severe methylene blue (MB) and brilliant green (BG) dyes spectral overlapping, derivative spectrophotometric method were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of dyes in their binary solutions. Simultaneous determination of the dyes can be carried out using the first-order and second order derivative signal at 664 and 663nm for BG and MB, respectively. The factors investigated were pH (2.5-8.5), adsorbent mass (0.006-0.030g), sonication time (1-5min) and initial MB and BG concentration (3-15mgL(-1)). Five levels, which were low level, center point, upper level and two axillar points, were considered for each of the factors. The desirability function (DF: 0.9853) on the STATISTICA version 10.0 software showed that the optimum removal (99.832 and 99.423% for MB and BG, respectively) was obtained at pH 8.0, adsorbent mass 0.024g, sonication time 4min and 9mgL(-1) initial concentration for each dye. Besides, the results show that obtained data were adequately fitted into the second-order polynomial model, since the calculated model F value (172.96 and 96.35 for MB and BG, respectively) is higher than the critical F value. The values of coefficient of determination (0.9968 and 0.9943 for MB and BG, respectively) and adjusted coefficient of determination (0.9911 and 0.9840 for MB and BG, respectively) are close to 1, indicating a high correlation between the observed and the predicted values. The ultrasonic amplitude and adsorbent mass were found to be the most effective variable influencing the adsorption process. The adsorption equilibrium was well

  7. Creep behavior of passive bovine extraocular muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Lawrence; Kim, Hansang; Shin, Andrew; Gupta, Vijay; Demer, Joseph L

    2011-01-01

    This paper characterized bovine extraocular muscles (EOMs) using creep, which represents long-term stretching induced by a constant force. After preliminary optimization of testing conditions, 20 fresh EOM samples were subjected to four different loading rates of 1.67, 3.33, 8.33, and 16.67%/s, after which creep was observed for 1,500 s. A published quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) relaxation function was transformed to a creep function that was compared with data. Repeatable creep was observed for each loading rate and was similar among all six anatomical EOMs. The mean creep coefficient after 1,500 seconds for a wide range of initial loading rates was at 1.37 ± 0.03 (standard deviation, SD). The creep function derived from the relaxation-based QLV model agreed with observed creep to within 2.7% following 16.67%/s ramp loading. Measured creep agrees closely with a derived QLV model of EOM relaxation, validating a previous QLV model for characterization of EOM biomechanics.

  8. Creep Behavior of Passive Bovine Extraocular Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Yoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper characterized bovine extraocular muscles (EOMs using creep, which represents long-term stretching induced by a constant force. After preliminary optimization of testing conditions, 20 fresh EOM samples were subjected to four different loading rates of 1.67, 3.33, 8.33, and 16.67%/s, after which creep was observed for 1,500 s. A published quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV relaxation function was transformed to a creep function that was compared with data. Repeatable creep was observed for each loading rate and was similar among all six anatomical EOMs. The mean creep coefficient after 1,500 seconds for a wide range of initial loading rates was at 1.37±0.03 (standard deviation, SD. The creep function derived from the relaxation-based QLV model agreed with observed creep to within 2.7% following 16.67%/s ramp loading. Measured creep agrees closely with a derived QLV model of EOM relaxation, validating a previous QLV model for characterization of EOM biomechanics.

  9. Nanoparticle Cookies Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks: Controlled Synthesis and Application in Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuhai; Chen, Minqi; Xie, Yanyu; Fan, Yanan; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Ji-Jun; Li, Yongguang; Grützmacher, Hansjörg; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-05-01

    The capacity of anode materials plays a critical role in the performance of lithium-ion batteries. Using the nanocrystals of oxygen-free metal-organic framework ZIF-67 as precursor, a one-step calcination approach toward the controlled synthesis of CoO nanoparticle cookies with excellent anodic performances is developed in this work. The CoO nanoparticle cookies feature highly porous structure composed of small CoO nanoparticles (≈12 nm in diameter) and nitrogen-rich graphitic carbon matrix (≈18 at% in nitrogen content). Benefiting from such unique structure, the CoO nanoparticle cookies are capable of delivering superior specific capacity and cycling stability (1383 mA h g(-1) after 200 runs at 100 mA g(-1) ) over those of CoO and graphite.

  10. Experimental studies on the inventory of cement-derived colloids in the pore water of a cementitious backfill material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, E

    2001-06-01

    The potential role of near-field colloids for the colloid-facilitated migration of radionuclides has stimulated investigations concerning the generation and presence of colloids in the near-field of a repository for low- and intermediate level waste (L/ILW). The highly gas permeable mortar (Nagra designation: mortar M1) is currently favoured as backfill material for the engineered barrier of the planned Swiss L/ILW repository. The cementitious backfill is considered to be a chemical environment with some potential for colloid generation. In a series of batch-style laboratory experiments the physico-chemical processes controlling the inventory of colloids in cement pore water of the backfill were assessed for chemical conditions prevailing in the initial stage of the cement degradation. In these experiments, backfill mortar M1 or quartz, respectively, which may be used as aggregate material for the backfill, were immersed in artificial cement pore water (a NaOH/KOH rich cement fluid). Colloid concentrations in the cement pore water were recorded as a function of time for different experimental settings. The results indicate that a colloid-colloid interaction process (coagulation) controlled the colloid inventory. The mass concentration of dispersed colloids was found to be typically lower than 0.02 ppm in undisturbed batch systems. An upper-bound value was estimated to be 0.1 ppm taking into account uncertainties on the measurements. To assess the potential for colloid generation in a dynamic system, colloid concentrations were determined in the pore water of a column filled with backfill mortar. The chemical conditions established in the mortar column corresponded to conditions observed in the second stage of the cement degradation (a Ca(OH){sub 2{sup -}} controlled cement system). In this dynamic system, the upper-bound value for the colloid mass concentration was estimated to be 0.1 ppm. Implications for radionuclide mobility were deduced taking into account the

  11. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational...

  12. Buttressing staples with cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) reinforces staple lines in an ex vivo peristaltic inflation model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2008-11-01

    Staple line leakage and bleeding are the most common problems associated with the use of surgical staplers for gastrointestinal resection and anastomotic procedures. These complications can be reduced by reinforcing the staple lines with buttressing materials. The current study reports the potential use of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) in non-crosslinked (NCEM) and crosslinked (XCEM) forms, and compares their mechanical performance with clinically available buttress materials [small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and bovine pericardium (BP)] in an ex vivo small intestine model.

  13. Excellent deep-blue emitting materials based on anthracene derivatives for non-doped organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wei; Xu, Chen; Ji, Baoming; Zheng, Caijun; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    Two deep-blue emitting materials 2-tert-butyl-9,10-bis(3,5-diphenylphenyl)anthracene (An-1) and 2-tert-butyl-9,10-bis(3,5-diphenylbiphenyl-4‧-yl)anthracene (An-2) were successfully synthesized by the Pd-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction. Both of these compounds have high thermal stabilities and show strong deep-blue emission as solid-state film as well as in n-hexane solution. Two non-doped electroluminescent devices employing An-1 and An-2 as emitting layers were fabricated by vacuum vapor deposition. These devices exhibited highly efficient and stable deep-blue emission with high color purity. The CIE coordinate and maximum EQE of An-1 based device are 4.2% and (0.16, 0.06), respectively. Device based on An-2 achieved a maximum EQE of 4.0% and a CIE coordinate of (0.16, 0.10).

  14. Dangers resulting from DNA profiling of biological materials derived from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with regard to forensic genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacewicz, R; Lewandowski, K; Rupa-Matysek, J; Jędrzejczyk, M; Berent, J

    2015-01-01

    The study documents the risk that comes with DNA analysis of materials derived from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in forensic genetics. DNA chimerism was studied in 30 patients after allo-HSCT, based on techniques applied in contemporary forensic genetics, i.e. real-time PCR and multiplex PCR-STR with the use of autosomal DNA as well as Y-DNA markers. The results revealed that the DNA profile of the recipient's blood was identical with the donor's in the majority of cases. Therefore, blood analysis can lead to false conclusions in personal identification as well as kinship analysis. An investigation of buccal swabs revealed a mixture of DNA in the majority of recipients. Consequently, personal identification on the basis of stain analysis of the same origin may be impossible. The safest (but not ideal) material turned out to be the hair root. Its analysis based on autosomal DNA revealed 100% of the recipient's profile. However, an analysis based on Y-chromosome markers performed in female allo-HSCT recipients with male donors demonstrated the presence of donor DNA in hair cells - similarly to the blood and buccal swabs. In the light of potential risks arising from DNA profiling of biological materials derived from persons after allotransplantation in judicial aspects, certain procedures were proposed to eliminate such dangers. The basic procedures include abandoning the approach based exclusively on blood collection, both for kinship analysis and personal identification; asking persons who are to be tested about their history of allo-HSCT before sample collection and profile entry in the DNA database, and verification of DNA profiling based on hair follicles in uncertain cases.

  15. Dangers resulting from DNA profiling of biological materials derived from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT with regard to forensic genetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Jacewicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study documents the risk that comes with DNA analysis of materials derived from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT in forensic genetics. DNA chimerism was studied in 30 patients after allo-HSCT, based on techniques applied in contemporary forensic genetics, i.e. real-time PCR and multiplex PCR-STR with the use of autosomal DNA as well as Y-DNA markers. The results revealed that the DNA profile of the recipient’s blood was identical with the donor’s in the majority of cases. Therefore, blood analysis can lead to false conclusions in personal identification as well as kinship analysis. An investigation of buccal swabs revealed a mixture of DNA in the majority of recipients. Consequently, personal identification on the basis of stain analysis of the same origin may be impossible. The safest (but not ideal material turned out to be the hair root. Its analysis based on autosomal DNA revealed 100% of the recipient’s profile. However, an analysis based on Y-chromosome markers performed in female allo-HSCT recipients with male donors demonstrated the presence of donor DNA in hair cells – similarly to the blood and buccal swabs. In the light of potential risks arising from DNA profiling of biological materials derived from persons after allotransplantation in judicial aspects, certain procedures were proposed to eliminate such dangers. The basic procedures include abandoning the approach based exclusively on blood collection, both for kinship analysis and personal identification; asking persons who are to be tested about their history of allo-HSCT before sample collection and profile entry in the DNA database, and verification of DNA profiling based on hair follicles in uncertain cases.

  16. Synthesis of 5-aminotetrazole-1N-oxide and its azo derivative: a key step in the development of new energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dennis; Klapötke, Thomas M; Piercey, Davin G; Stierstorfer, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    1-Hydroxy-5-aminotetrazole (1), which is a long-desired starting material for the synthesis of hundreds of new energetic materials, was synthesized for the first time by the reaction of aqueous hydroxylamine with cyanogen azide. The use of this unique precursor was demonstrated by the preparation of several energetic compounds with equal or higher performance than that of commonly used explosives, such as hexogen (RDX). The prepared compounds, including energetic salts of 1-hydroxy-5-aminotetrazole (hydroxylammonium (2, two polymorphs) and ammonium (3)), azo-coupled derivatives (potassium (5), hydroxylammonium (6), ammonium (7), and hydrazinium 5,5'-azo-bis(1-N-oxidotetrazolate (8, two polymorphs)), as well as neutral compounds 5,5'-azo-bis(1-oxidotetrazole) (4) and 5,5'-bis(1-oxidotetrazole)hydrazine (9), were intensively characterized by low-temperature X-ray diffraction, IR, Raman, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and DSC. The calculated energetic performance, by using the EXPLO5 code, based on the calculated (CBS-4M) heats of formation and X-ray densities confirm the high energetic performance of tetrazole-N-oxides as energetic materials. Last but not least, their sensitivity towards impact, friction, and electrostatic discharge were explored. 5,5'-Azo-bis(1-N-oxidotetrazole) deflagrates close to the DDT (deflagration-to-detonation transition) faster than all compounds that have been investigated in our research group to date.

  17. Shear bond strength and fracture analysis of human vs. bovine teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rüttermann

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate if bovine enamel and dentin are appropriate substitutes for the respective human hard tooth tissues to test shear bond strength (SBS and fracture analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 sound and caries-free human erupted third molars and 80 freshly extracted bovine permanent central incisors (10 specimens for each group were used to investigate enamel and dentine adhesion of one 2-step self-etch (SE and one 3-step etch and rinse (E&R product. To test SBS the buccal or labial areas were ground plane to obtain appropriate enamel or dentine areas. SE and E&R were applied and SBS was measured prior to and after 500 thermocycles between +5 and +55°C. Fracture analysis was performed for all debonded areas. RESULTS: ANOVA revealed significant differences of enamel and dentin SBS prior to and after thermocycling for both of the adhesives. SBS- of E&R-bonded human enamel increased after thermocycling but SE-bonded did not. Bovine enamel SE-bonded showed higher SBS after TC but E&R-bonded had lower SBS. No differences were found for human dentin SE- or E&R-bonded prior to or after thermocycling but bovine dentin SE-bonded increased whereas bovine dentine E&R-bonded decreased. Considering the totalized and adhesive failures, fracture analysis did not show significances between the adhesives or the respective tooth tissues prior to or after thermocycling. CONCLUSION: Although SBS was different on human and bovine teeth, no differences were found for fracture analysis. This indicates that solely conducted SBS on bovine substrate are not sufficient to judge the perfomance of adhesives, thus bovine teeth are questionnable as a substrate for shear bond testing.

  18. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard;

    2015-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  19. Computer modelling integrated with micro-CT and material testing provides additional insight to evaluate bone treatments: Application to a beta-glycan derived whey protein mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, D; Tu, P T; Dickinson, M; Watson, M; Blais, A; Das, R; Cornish, J; Fernandez, J

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a whey protein diet on computationally predicted mechanical strength of murine bones in both trabecular and cortical regions of the femur. There was no significant influence on mechanical strength in cortical bone observed with increasing whey protein treatment, consistent with cortical tissue mineral density (TMD) and bone volume changes observed. Trabecular bone showed a significant decline in strength with increasing whey protein treatment when nanoindentation derived Young׳s moduli were used in the model. When microindentation, micro-CT phantom density or normalised Young׳s moduli were included in the model a non-significant decline in strength was exhibited. These results for trabecular bone were consistent with both trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and micro-CT indices obtained independently. The secondary aim of this study was to characterise the influence of different sources of Young׳s moduli on computational prediction. This study aimed to quantify the predicted mechanical strength in 3D from these sources and evaluate if trends and conclusions remained consistent. For cortical bone, predicted mechanical strength behaviour was consistent across all sources of Young׳s moduli. There was no difference in treatment trend observed when Young׳s moduli were normalised. In contrast, trabecular strength due to whey protein treatment significantly reduced when material properties from nanoindentation were introduced. Other material property sources were not significant but emphasised the strength trend over normalised material properties. This shows strength at the trabecular level was attributed to both changes in bone architecture and material properties.

  20. New Materials Derived from Ybco: CrSr2RECu2O8 (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Y, Ho, Er, Lu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bustos, Rocío; Aguirre, Myriam H; Alario-Franco, Miguel A

    2005-05-02

    Eleven new oxides, derived from yttrium barium copper oxide by replacing the square-planar copper [Cu-O4] of the basal plane of the triple perovskite-based structure with octahedral Cr(IV), have been prepared at high pressure and temperature. Their crystal structures have been determined, and their complex microstructure has been established by means of high-resolution electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The materials have a general formula of CrSr2RECu2O8 (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Y, Ho, Er, and Lu); they are tetragonal, show the symmetry of space group P4/mmm, and do not appear to be superconducting.

  1. Characterisation of bovine epiblast-derived outgrowth colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Gjørret, Jakob; Schauser, Kirsten Hallundbæk

    2010-01-01

    (OCT4) staining, indicating an epiblast origin, and some also stained positive for cytoplasmic vimentin. Adjacent cells were linked by tight junctions towards the surface of the colony and rested on a basal lamina. The cells of the basal plate predominantly stained for alpha1-fetoprotein (AFP...... epiblasts display a central core of OCT4-stained cells of a potential epiblast origin surrounded by a basal plate of mainly AFP-stained cells of a potential hypoblast nature...

  2. Study on authentication of shark derived material in food using PCR%食品中鲨鱼源性成分真实性PCR鉴别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云霞; 包建强; 张舒亚; 陈颖; 黄文胜; 吕蓉; 李想; 高琴; 刘月明

    2011-01-01

    A specific and sensitive PCR method for identification of shark derived material in food was developed. A 180bp fragment was amplified form 9 kinds of shark samples,whereas no amplification was obtained from other 42 kinds of common plants and animals. The detection limit of the method was 0.1ng/uL DNA concentration and 0.1% (W/W)shark meat powder. 20 commercial shark products samples were analysized by PCR and all the products indicated exist of shark DNA except the false shark fin and shark liver oil. The detection method can be used to the identification of shark derived material in food.%建立食品中真实性鲨鱼源性成分PCR鉴别方法,该方法特异性强,灵敏度高。运用普通PcR技术对9种鲨鱼及42种常见非鲨鱼类动植物样品进行检测,9种鲨鱼中出现180bp特异性扩增条带,其他非鲨鱼样品中均未出现扩增条带,实验表明,本检测方法具有特异性,检测限为0.1n/ul鲨鱼DNA和0.1%(W/W)鲨鱼肉粉。运用建立的方法对20种常见的鲨鱼产品进行PCR检测,除仿鱼翅和鲨鱼肝油外,所有产品中均能检测出鲨鱼成分。该检测方法能够用于食品中鲨鱼源性成分的真实性鉴别。

  3. Effect of aging on the bioavailability and fractionation of arsenic in soils derived from five parent materials in a red soil region of Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Zeng, Xibai; Lu, Yahai; Su, Shiming; Bai, Lingyu; Li, Lianfang; Wu, Cuixia

    2015-12-01

    The effects of aging time and soil parent materials on the bioavailability and fractionations of arsenic (As) in five red soils were studied. The results indicated that As bioavailability in all soils decreased during aging, especially with a sharp decline occurring in the first 30 days. After aging for 360 days, the highest available As concentration, which accounted for 12.3% of the total, was observed in soils derived from purple sandy shale. While 2.67% was the lowest proportion of the available As in soils derived from quaternary red clay. Furthermore, the best fit of the available As changing with aging time was obtained using the pseudo-second-order model (R(2) = 0.939-0.998, P < 0.05). Notably, Al oxides played a more crucial role (R(2) = 0.89, P<0.05) than did Fe oxides in controlling the rate of As aging. The non-specially and specially absorbed As constituted the primary forms of available As.

  4. Fluorine segregation in crystalline materials: structural control and solid-state [2+2] cycloaddition in CF(3)-substituted tetrathiafulvalene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannin, Olivier; Fourmigué, Marc

    2006-04-03

    The well-known influence of long perfluorinated chains on the structures and stability of amphiphilic molecules in liquid crystalline mesophases or mesoscopic micellar arrangements is evaluated here in the realm of crystalline materials based on rigid aromatic molecules bearing only a limited number of CF(3) moieties. Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives bearing one or two CF(3) groups, that is, (Z)- and (E)-(CF(3))(2)TTF ((Z)-1, (E)-1), EDT-TTF-CF(3) (2), and EDT-TTF(CF(3))(2) (3) (EDT=ethylenedithio) are prepared from the 1,3-dipolar reaction of methyl 4,4,4-trifluorotetrolate with ethylenetrithiocarbonate. The structures of neutral (Z)-1, (E)-1, 2, and 3 as indicated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements reveal the recurrent formation of layered structures with a strong segregation of the fluorinated moieties and formation of fluorous bilayers, attributed to the amphiphilic character of those TTF derivatives upon CF(3) functionalization, and without need for longer C(n)F(2n+1) (n>1) perfluorinated chains. The short intermolecular distance between outer C==C double bonds observed in the layered structure of (E)-1 allows a solid-state [2+2] photocyclization with formation of chiral dyads incorporating the characteristic cyclobutane ring. These dyads containing two dihydrotetrathiafulvalene moieties facing each other exhibit reversible oxidation to the mixed-valence radical cation state and organize in the solid-state into the same layered structures with fluorous bilayers.

  5. Biomass carbon micro/nano-structures derived from ramie fibers and corncobs as anode materials for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhenghao; Yin, Shengyu; Guo, Zaiping; Wang, Shiquan; Feng, Chuanqi

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) rod-like carbon micro-structures derived from natural ramie fibers and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanosheets derived from corncobs have been fabricated by heat treatment at 700 °C under argon atomsphere. The structure and morphology of the as-obtained ramie fiber carbon (RFC) and corncob carbon (CC) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The electrochemical performances of the biomass carbon-based anode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) were investigated. When tested as anode material for lithium ion batteries, both the RFC microrods and CC nanosheets exhibited high capacity, excellent rate capability, and stable cyclability. The specific capacity were still as high as 489 and 606 mAhg-1 after 180 cycles when cycled at room temperature in a 3.0-0.01 V potential (vs. Li/Li+) window at current density of 100 mAg-1, respectively, which are much higher than that of graphite (375 mAhg-1) under the same current density. Although the anodes in sodium ion batteries showed poorer specific capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 122 and 139 mAhg-1 with similar cycling stability. The feature of stable cycling performance makes the biomass carbon derived from natural ramie fibers and corncobs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Biomass carbon micro/nano-structures derived from ramie fibers and corncobs as anode materials for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhenghao [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yin, Shengyu [College of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065 (China); Guo, Zaiping [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Institute for Superconducting & Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Wang, Shiquan [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Feng, Chuanqi, E-mail: cfeng@hubu.edu.cn [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Ramie fibers and corncobs are used as precursors to prepare the biomass carbons. • The ramie fiber carbon (RFC) took on morphology of 3D micro-rods. • The corncob carbon (CC) possessed a 2D nanosheets structure. • Both RFC and CC exhibited outstanding electrochemical performances in LIBs and SIBs systems. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) rod-like carbon micro-structures derived from natural ramie fibers and two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanosheets derived from corncobs have been fabricated by heat treatment at 700 °C under argon atomsphere. The structure and morphology of the as-obtained ramie fiber carbon (RFC) and corncob carbon (CC) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The electrochemical performances of the biomass carbon-based anode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) were investigated. When tested as anode material for lithium ion batteries, both the RFC microrods and CC nanosheets exhibited high capacity, excellent rate capability, and stable cyclability. The specific capacity were still as high as 489 and 606 mAhg{sup −1} after 180 cycles when cycled at room temperature in a 3.0–0.01 V potential (vs. Li/Li{sup +}) window at current density of 100 mAg{sup −1}, respectively, which are much higher than that of graphite (375 mAhg{sup −1}) under the same current density. Although the anodes in sodium ion batteries showed poorer specific capability than that in lithium-ion batteries, they still achieve a reversible sodium intercalation capacity of 122 and 139 mAhg{sup −1} with similar cycling stability. The feature of stable cycling performance makes the biomass carbon derived from natural ramie fibers and corncobs to be promising candidates as electrodes in rechargeable sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Evaluation of the Human Host Range of Bovine and Porcine Viruses that may Contaminate Bovine Serum and Porcine Trypsin Used in the Manufacture of Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus-Sekura, Carol; Richardson, James C.; Harston, Rebecca K.; Sane, Nandini; Sheets, Rebecca L.

    2011-01-01

    Current U.S. requirements for testing cell substrates used in production of human biological products for contamination with bovine and porcine viruses are U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 9CFR tests for bovine serum or porcine trypsin. 9CFR requires testing of bovine serum for seven specific viruses in six families (immunofluorescence) and at least 2 additional families non-specifically (cytopathicity and hemadsorption). 9CFR testing of porcine trypsin is for porcine parvovirus. Recent contaminations suggest these tests may not be sufficient. Assay sensitivity was not the issue for these contaminations that were caused by viruses/virus families not represented in the 9CFR screen. A detailed literature search was undertaken to determine which viruses that infect cattle or swine or bovine or porcine cells in culture also have human host range [ability to infect humans or human cells in culture] and to predict their detection by the currently used 9CFR procedures. There are more viruses of potential risk to biological products manufactured using bovine or porcine raw materials than are likely to be detected by 9CFR testing procedures; even within families, not all members would necessarily be detected. Testing gaps and alternative methodologies should be evaluated to continue to ensure safe, high quality human biologicals. PMID:22000165

  8. Bovine milk antibodies for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, H; Marnila, P; Gill, H S

    2000-11-01

    The immunoglobulins of bovine colostrum provide the major antimicrobial protection against microbial infections and confer a passive immunity to the newborn calf until its own immune system matures. The concentration in colostrum of specific antibodies against pathogens can be raised by immunising cows with these pathogens or their antigens. Immune milk products are preparations made of such hyperimmune colostrum or antibodies enriched from it. These preparations can be used to give effective specific protection against different enteric diseases in calves and suckling pigs. Colostral immunoglobulin supplements designed for farm animals are commercially available in many countries. Also, some immune milk products containing specific antibodies against certain pathogens have been launched on the market. A number of clinical studies are currently in progress to evaluate the efficacy of immune milks in the prevention and treatment of various human infections, including those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria. Bovine colostrum-based immune milk products have proven effective in prophylaxis against various infectious diseases in humans. Good results have been obtained with products targeted against rotavirus, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Clostridium difficile, Streptococcus mutans, Cryptosporidium parvum and Helicobacter pylori. Some successful attempts have been made to use immune milk in balancing gastrointestinal microbial flora. Immune milk products are promising examples of health-promoting functional foods, or nutraceuticals. This review summarises the recent progress in the development of these products and evaluates their potential as dietary supplements and in clinical nutrition.

  9. [Toxinology of bovine paraplegic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Mijares, A J; Domínguez, M G

    1993-01-01

    A clinical entity named "Bovine Paraplegic Syndrome" ("Síndrome Parapléjico de los Bovinos") has spread alarmingly, in the cattle growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. Approximately four million cattle are bread in the area were the disease occurs. The mortality index due to the disease ranges 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly cows, pregnant or lactating. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is decubitus, ventral or sternal, in animals that make vane efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established ruling out, clinically and with laboratory findings, that the animals are suffering known diseases with similar symptoms such as paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such Trypanosoma sp., Babesia sp., and Anaplasma sp.. Death occurs always, usually after few days, and to this date there is no known treatment able to save the sick cows. In this work, we describe results that suggest the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering and prone to suffer the syndrome; it is a natural toxin produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, this toxin is very specific to block sodium current during nerve electrical activity.

  10. Homogeneity studies in reference materials with Zeeman solid sampling GFAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohl, C.; Stoeppler, M.; Grobecker, K.H.

    1987-09-01

    The homogeneity of lead and cadmium in reference materials was investigated by solid sampling GFAAS. The following materials were comparatively analyzed: Standard reference materials from NBS, Washington 1567 wheat flour, 1568 rice flour and 1577a bovine liver, certified reference materials from BCR, Brussels, No 63 milk powder, No 184 bovine muscle, No 185 bovine liver, No 186 pig kidney, No 189 wholemeal flour, No 191 brown bread and a whole fish (dab) homogenate from the environmental specimen bank in the FRG. The results are remarkably different for the investigated materials.

  11. Effective atomic numbers of some H-, C-, N- and O-based composite materials derived from differential incoherent scattering cross-sections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Prasanna Kumar; V Manjunathaguru; T K Umesh

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we have made an effort to determine whether the effective atomic numbers of H-, C-, N- and O-based composite materials would indeed remain a constant over the energy grid of 280–1200 keV wherein incoherent scattering dominates their interaction with photons. For this purpose, the differential incoherent scattering cross-sections of Be, C, Mg, Al, Ca and Ti were measured for three scattering angles 60°, 80° and 100° at 279.1, 661.6 and 1115.5 keV using which an expression for the effective atomic number was derived. The differential incoherent scattering cross-sections of the composite materials of interest measured at these three angles in the same set-up and substituted in this expression would yield their effective atomic number at the three energies. Results obtained in this manner for bakelite, nylon, epoxy, teflon, perspex and some sugars, fatty acids as well as amino acids agreed to within 2% of some of the other available values. It was also observed that for each of these samples, eff was almost a constant at the three energies which unambiguously justified the conclusions drawn by other authors earlier [Manjunathaguru and Umesh, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 3969 (2006); Manohara et al, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B266, 3906 (2008); Manohara et al Phys. Med. Biol. 53, M377 (2008)] based on total interaction cross-sections in the energy grid of interest.

  12. Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  13. Bovine milk usage and feeding practices for infants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Mayuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk and dairy products from animal sources (cow′s milk or buffalo′s milk are an important part of Indian diet and its consumption starts at an early age. Objective: The purpose of this study is to understand the processing, storage and modifications carried out before bovine milk is fed to the infants and compare it with recommendations by Health Care Professionals (HCPs. Materials and Methods: The study involved assessments involving HCPs and mothers of children below 1 year of age through both qualitative and quantitative methods. Feeding recommendations by HCPs were assessed through a quantitative method. Results: The children are commonly initiated on bovine milk post 3 months of age. The milk is not covered while boiling in 70% cases and boiled at suboptimal temperature (moderate: 62% or low: 31%. Half of the families store milk outside refrigerators openly in the kitchen or rooms. The milk is modified in the majority of cases (81% before being fed. Modification of the milk was often done with sugar (85%, followed by water (49%, biscuits, fennel seeds, cardamom or infant cereals before feeding the baby. Addition of water was more prevalent among mothers of infants between 3 and 6 months. HCPs do not advise consumption of bovine milk by infants unless there is no other option available. Conclusion: A clear gap exists between recommended and actual practices for infant feeding in India. There is a huge opportunity to educate mothers on importance of breast feeding and benefits of implementing appropriate processing, storage, and consumption practices of bovine milk.

  14. GC-MS结合电子鼻分析温度对肉味香精风味品质的影响%Effect of Temperature on Sensory and Flavor Characteristics of Maillard Reaction Products Derived from Bovine Bone Hydrolsate as Analyzed by GC-MS and Electronic Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李迎楠; 刘文营; 成晓瑜

    2016-01-01

    The effect of different reaction temperatures on sensory quality and volatile flavor compounds of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) derived from bovine bone hydrolysate was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and electronic nose. The results showed that MRPs generated at different temperatures exhibited high variability in sensory quality and volatile flavor. The meat flavor produced at 105℃had obvious advantages in the terms of flavor and taste. In the meantime, it contained much more volatile flavor substances, which could reach 93.62%as detected by GC-MS. In particular, pyrazine compounds as characteristic flavor components accounted for 8.19%. The contents of aldehydes and ketones were higher as well. The meat flavor manufactured under this condition was dark brown, and had full bodied fragrance and a lasting aftertaste. At the same time, electronic nose analysis revealed that products obtained at different reaction temperatures had significant differences in volatile flavor composition.%以肉味香精为研究对象,从感官品质、挥发性风味物质组成和电子鼻分析角度研究不同反应温度对其风味品质的影响。结果表明,不同温度条件下肉味香精在感官评价、挥发性风味物质等方面都有较大的差异性。105℃条件下的肉味香精产品风味和口感相对较好;经气相色谱-质谱联用仪分析,该条件得到的肉味香精中挥发性物质相对含量较高,达到93.62%,其中具有特征风味的吡嗪类化合物高达8.19%,醛、酮类化合物的相对含量较高;在此条件下得到的肉味香精,色泽呈现深褐色,香味浓郁,回味悠长。运用电子鼻技术分析发现,不同温度条件下样品存在显著性差异,风味有所改变。

  15. Extraction and characterization of highly purified collagen from bovine pericardium for potential bioengineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria Helena, E-mail: mariahelena.santos@gmail.com [Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Silva, Rafael M.; Dumont, Vitor C. [Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Neves, Juliana S. [Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Mansur, Herman S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais-UFMG, Belo Horizonte/MG 31270-901 (Brazil); Heneine, Luiz Guilherme D. [Department of Health Science, Ezequiel Dias Foundation-FUNED, Belo Horizonte/MG 30510-010 (Brazil)

    2013-03-01

    Bovine pericardium is widely used as a raw material in bioengineering as a source of collagen, a fundamental structural molecule. The physical, chemical, and biocompatibility characteristics of these natural fibers enable their broad use in several areas of the health sciences. For these applications, it is important to obtain collagen of the highest possible purity. The lack of a method to produce these pure biocompatible materials using simple and economically feasible techniques presents a major challenge to their production on an industrial scale. This study aimed to extract, purify, and characterize the type I collagen protein originating from bovine pericardium, considered to be an abundant tissue resource. The pericardium tissue was collected from male animals at slaughter age. Pieces of bovine pericardium were enzymatically digested, followed by a novel protocol developed for protein purification using ion-exchange chromatography. The material was extensively characterized by electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed a purified material with morphological properties and chemical functionalities compatible with type I collagen and similar to a highly purified commercial collagen. Thus, an innovative and relatively simple processing method was developed to extract and purify type I collagen from bovine tissue with potential applications as a biomaterial for regenerative tissue engineering. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Type I collagen was obtained from bovine pericardium, an abundant tissue resource. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple and feasible processing technique was developed to purify bovine collagen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The appropriate process may be performed on industrial scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pure collagen presented appropriate morphological and molecular characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purify

  16. 进口饲料中牛源性与转基因成分的检测%Dectetion of bovine-derived and GMO materials in import feedstuff by PCR assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀玲; 闻伟刚; 张少波

    2006-01-01

    本文介绍了进口饲料中牛源性与转基因成分的PCR检测方法.该方法用异硫氰酸胍提取进口饲料样品DNA,以牛特异性引物扩增模板DNA,扩增产物为271 bp,PCR产物经限制性酶切片段分析,与预期设想一致;方法灵敏度实验结果显示,饲料样品中含有0.1%的牛源性成分时仍能检出.同时,根据转基因农作物最常使用的外源基因设计引物,在进口饲料中检测出35 S启动子和NOS中止子等转基因成分,具有快速、简便、准确等特点.

  17. Identification of Bovine and Sheep Derived Materials in Meat Products by Real-time PCR%应用Real-time PCR鉴定肉制品中的牛羊源成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海平; 姚卢悦; 於慧; 边涛; 张婷

    2013-01-01

    通过Real-time PCR进行肉制品中牛羊源成分的快速筛选,使我们能在常规工作中能快速检测出样品中是否含有牛羊源成分,以实现针对牛羊源成分的肉制品的掺假检测.并通过对牛羊源成分的定量分析,进一步为分析肉制品掺假情况等提供评判依据.

  18. Identification of porcine- and bovine-derived materials in meat products by PCR-RFLP assay%应用PCR-RFLP法鉴别肉制品中的猪和牛源性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高琳; 徐幸莲; 周光宏

    2008-01-01

    以动物线粒体DNA中Cytb区段的保守序列为目的基因进行PCR-RFLP,从猪、牛、羊、鸡、鸭、兔6种生肉及高压猪肉、猪肉火腿肠、猪肉枣、猪肉松、牛肉干、牛肉枣、牛肉火腿肠7种加工肉制品中鉴别出猪源性和牛源性成分.所有样品经PCR扩增均产生359 bp的片段.扩增子采用AluⅠ限制性酶切所产生的片段差异可用于区分猪肉和牛肉.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It...

  20. Investigating the Role of Surface Materials and Three Dimensional Architecture on In Vitro Differentiation of Porcine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Bruun Hartmann

    Full Text Available In vitro generation of dendritic-like cells through differentiation of peripheral blood monocytes is typically done using two-dimensional polystyrene culture plates. In the process of optimising cell culture techniques, engineers have developed fluidic micro-devises usually manufactured in materials other than polystyrene and applying three-dimensional structures more similar to the in vivo environment. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS is an often used polymer for lab-on-a-chip devices but not much is known about the effect of changing the culture surface material from polystyrene to PDMS. In the present study the differentiation of porcine monocytes to monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs was investigated using CD172apos pig blood monocytes stimulated with GM-CSF and IL-4. Monocytes were cultured on surfaces made of two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS and carbonised three-dimensional PDMS. Cells cultured conventionally (on two-dimensional polystyrene differentiated into moDCs as expected. Interestingly, gene expression of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, and pattern recognition receptors was influenced by culture surface material and architecture. Distinct clustering of cells, based on similar expression patterns of 46 genes of interest, was seen for cells isolated from two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS. Changing the material from polystyrene to PDMS resulted in cells with expression patterns usually associated with macrophage expression (upregulation of CD163 and downregulation of CD1a, FLT3, LAMP3 and BATF3. However, this was purely based on gene expression level, and no functional assays were included in this study which would be necessary in order to classify the cells as being macrophages. When changing to three-dimensional culture the cells became increasingly activated in terms of IL6, IL8, IL10 and CCR5 gene expression. Further stimulation

  1. Investigating the Role of Surface Materials and Three Dimensional Architecture on In Vitro Differentiation of Porcine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Sofie Bruun; Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Brogaard, Louise; Flagstad, Frederikke Bjergvang; Emnéus, Jenny; Wolff, Anders; Summerfield, Artur; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-01-01

    In vitro generation of dendritic-like cells through differentiation of peripheral blood monocytes is typically done using two-dimensional polystyrene culture plates. In the process of optimising cell culture techniques, engineers have developed fluidic micro-devises usually manufactured in materials other than polystyrene and applying three-dimensional structures more similar to the in vivo environment. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an often used polymer for lab-on-a-chip devices but not much is known about the effect of changing the culture surface material from polystyrene to PDMS. In the present study the differentiation of porcine monocytes to monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) was investigated using CD172apos pig blood monocytes stimulated with GM-CSF and IL-4. Monocytes were cultured on surfaces made of two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS and carbonised three-dimensional PDMS. Cells cultured conventionally (on two-dimensional polystyrene) differentiated into moDCs as expected. Interestingly, gene expression of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, and pattern recognition receptors was influenced by culture surface material and architecture. Distinct clustering of cells, based on similar expression patterns of 46 genes of interest, was seen for cells isolated from two- and three-dimensional polystyrene as well as two- and three-dimensional PDMS. Changing the material from polystyrene to PDMS resulted in cells with expression patterns usually associated with macrophage expression (upregulation of CD163 and downregulation of CD1a, FLT3, LAMP3 and BATF3). However, this was purely based on gene expression level, and no functional assays were included in this study which would be necessary in order to classify the cells as being macrophages. When changing to three-dimensional culture the cells became increasingly activated in terms of IL6, IL8, IL10 and CCR5 gene expression. Further stimulation with LPS resulted

  2. Viability testing of material derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to removal from a Containment Level-III Laboratory as part of a Laboratory Risk Assessment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabani Amin M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of clinical mycobacteriology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB can be a difficult organism to manipulate due to the restrictive environment of a containment level 3 (CL3 laboratory. Tests for rapid diagnostic work involving smears and molecular methods do not require CL3 practices after the organism has been rendered non-viable. While it has been assumed that after organism deactivation these techniques can be performed outside of a CL3, no conclusive study has consistently confirmed that the organisms are noninfectious after the theoretical 'deactivation' steps. Previous studies have shown that initial steps (such as heating /chemical fixation may not consistently kill MTB organisms. Methods An inclusive viability study (n = 226 was undertaken to determine at which point handling of culture extraction materials does not necessitate a CL3 environment. Four different laboratory protocols tested for viability included: standard DNA extractions for IS6110 fingerprinting, crude DNA preparations for PCR by boiling and mechanical lysis, protein extractions, and smear preparations. For each protocol, laboratory staff planted a proportion of the resulting material to Bactec 12B medium that was observed for growth for 8 weeks. Results Of the 208 isolates initially tested, 21 samples grew within the 8-week period. Sixteen (7.7% of these yielded positive results for MTB that included samples of: deactivated culture resuspensions exposed to 80°C for 20 minutes, smear preparations and protein extractions. Test procedures were consequently modified and tested again (n = 18, resulting in 0% viability. Conclusions This study demonstrates that it cannot be assumed that conventional practices (i.e. smear preparation or extraction techniques render the organism non-viable. All methodologies, new and existing, should be examined by individual laboratories to validate the safe removal of material derived from MTB to the outside of a

  3. Comparative study of the effectiveness and safety of porcine and bovine atelocollagen in Asian nasolabial fold correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Suk-Ho; Lee, Yoon-Jae; Rhie, Jong-Won; Suh, Dong-Sam; Oh, Deuk-Young; Lee, Joong-Ho; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Sue-Min; Jun, Young-Joon

    2015-06-01

    Bovine-derived collagen has been used for soft-tissue augmentation since 1977. However, there are issues regarding the possibility of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Researchers discovered that the histologic structure of porcine-derived collagen is similar to that of human dermal collagen and that it is free from the risk of BSE. This study was conducted to establish the effectiveness and safety of porcine-derived collagen compared to bovine-derived collagen. The 73 patients included in this study were healthy volunteers who responded to an advertisement approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB). They had visited the authors' hospital complaining of wrinkles on their nasolabial fold. Either porcine (TheraFill®) or bovine atelocollagen was randomly injected into each side of their nasolabial folds, and the five-grade Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale (WSRS) was used to evaluate the wrinkles before and after the injection. The average age of the 73 study patients was 46.18 years. The WSRS scores of the porcine and bovine atelocollagen-injected patients were 2.90 ± 0.71 and 2.85 ± 0.72 at the baseline and 2.15 ± 0.70 and 2.21 ± 0.67 after 6 months. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Adverse effects of the porcine atelocollagen injection were seen in 12 patients, with the most common symptom being redness. This study showed that porcine atelocollagen can be used easily and without the need for the skin testing which is necessary before bovine atelocollagen injection. The efficacy of porcine atelocollagen is also similar to that of bovine atelocollagen.

  4. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation......, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans....

  5. Treponema denticola in microflora of bovine periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Borsanelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis in cattle is an infectious purulent progressive disease associated with strict anaerobic subgingival biofilm and is epidemiologically related to soil management at several locations of Brazil. This study aimed to detect Treponema species in periodontal pockets of cattle with lesions deeper than 5mm in the gingival sulcus of 6 to 24-month-old animals considered periodontally healthy. We used paper cones to collect the materials, after removal of supragingival plaques, and kept frozen (at -80°C up to DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR using T. amylovorum, T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium and T. vincentii primers. In periodontal pocket, it was possible to identify by PCR directly, the presence of Treponema amylovorum in 73% of animals (19/26, T. denticola in 42.3% (11/26 and T. maltophilum in 54% (14/26. Among the 25 healthy sites, it was possible to identify T. amylovorum in 18 (72%, T. denticola in two (8% and T. maltophilum in eight (32%. Treponema medium and T. vincentii were not detected over all 51 evaluated samples. The presence of Treponema amylovorum, T. maltophilum and, in particular, the widely recognized T. denticola in subgingival microflora brings an original and potencially important contribution in studies of the bovine periodontitis.

  6. [Risk assessment for importing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnlimann, B; Guidon, D; Griot, C

    1994-07-01

    Since the occurrence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Switzerland in 1990, extensive epidemiological investigations and risk factor analyses were carried out. In this study, statistical data on meat and bone meal traded from 1985 to 1989 were analysed addressing the following questions: i) what amount of meat and bone meal was exported from Great Britain (GB) and where to and ii) what amount of meat and bone meal was imported into Switzerland and where from? The findings led to the hypothesis that imported material potentially infected with scrapie-like agents was the cause for BSE in Switzerland.

  7. Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Recombinant Proteins Modulate Antimycobacterial Functions of Bovine Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannantine, John P; Stabel, Judith R; Laws, Elizabeth; D Cardieri, Maria Clara; Souza, Cleverson D

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) activates the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) p38 pathway, yet it is unclear which components of M. paratuberculosis are involved in the process. Therefore, a set of 42 M. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins expressed from coding sequences annotated as lipoproteins were screened for their ability to induce IL-10 expression, an indicator of MAPKp38 activation, in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages. A recombinant lipoprotein, designated as MAP3837c, was among a group of 6 proteins that strongly induced IL-10 gene transcription in bovine macrophages, averaging a 3.1-fold increase compared to non-stimulated macrophages. However, a parallel increase in expression of IL-12 and TNF-α was only observed in macrophages exposed to a subset of these 6 proteins. Selected recombinant proteins were further analyzed for their ability to enhance survival of M. avium within bovine macrophages as measured by recovered viable bacteria and nitrite production. All 6 IL-10 inducing MAP recombinant proteins along with M. paratuberculosis cells significantly enhanced phosphorylation of MAPK-p38 in bovine macrophages. Although these proteins are likely not post translationally lipidated in E. coli and thus is a limitation in this study, these results form the foundation of how the protein component of the lipoprotein interacts with the immune system. Collectively, these data reveal M. paratuberculosis proteins that might play a role in MAPK-p38 pathway activation and hence in survival of this organism within bovine macrophages.

  8. Safety analysis on construction material derivative products of red mud%赤泥建设材料衍生产品的安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林亮

    2014-01-01

    Red mud is a residue obtained by the Bayer process during alumina production , and its disposal is an environmental problem due to its caustic nature , metal and radionuclide content and high alkalinity .The best solu-tion to safe disposal of red mud , which is continuously generated in large amounts , is to develop feasible application in industrial scale and to decrease the quantity for disposal with the utilization of red mud in the industry .Develop-ment of derivative construction material by red mud is one of the best ways to reutilize red mud in large scale .Be-sides, the safety issue of derivative construction material must be solved to make red mud harmless through treat-ment.Feasibility, safety and environmental compatibility of derivative construction material by red mud were dis-cussed in the aspects of radioactivity , causticity and leaching toxicity .Experimental results showed that radioactivi-ty levels of red mud exceed the limit specified in the national standard .However , it doesn ’ t produce strong leac-hing toxicity , and its alkalinity slows down the depassivation of rebar .%赤泥是拜耳法炼铝工业中产生的残渣,因其具有碱性腐蚀、有毒有害金属元素、放射性元素,而成为一个棘手的环境问题。赤泥安全处置的有效方法是通过开发工业上可行的规模化应用方法,以提高利用率、减少处置量,赤泥在建设工程材料领域的开发就是其规模化应用的一种有效途径;同时,必须解决赤泥的建设材料衍生产品的安全性问题,才能从根本上实现赤泥废弃物的无害化处置。从放射性、腐蚀性及浸出毒性方面讨论赤泥建设工程材料衍生品的可行性、安全性与环境相容性。结果表明,赤泥的放射性水平超过了安全规定的限值,但没有表现出显著的浸出毒性,同时其碱性延缓了钢筋的去钝化进程。

  9. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  10. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  11. Effects of branched polyethylene glycol derivative crosslinking on the structure and conformation stability of bovine tendon type Ⅰ collagen%枝化状聚乙二醇对牛跟腱Ⅰ型胶原结构与构象稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹明晖; 周建良; 陈义初; 周诚; 史嘉玮; 董念国

    2011-01-01

    Objective The triple helix of collagen is the basis of its biological function, such as cell adhesion and tissue remodeling. Crosslinking of collagen with chemical agent will improve the biomechanical properties. However, the effects of differernt crosslinking agents on the structure and conformation stability of type Ⅰ collagen are rarely investigated. Methods The branched polyethylene glycol ( PEG)derivative ( MW 12 kD) was used as crosslinking agent, and allowed to react with bovine achilles' s tendon type Ⅰ collagen modified by succinimidylacetylthioacetate (SATA). The ability of resistance of crosslinked collagen to enzymatic degradation was investigated by measuring the release of hydroxyproline, and differential scanning calorimeter ( DSC ) was taken to determine the thermal denaturation temperature. The effect of PEG on the riple helix of collagen was studied by circular dichroism ( CD) . Results The resistance ability of PEG crosslinked collagen was strongly enhanced when compared with that of control group ( P <0. 05 ) , and the thermal denaturation temperature was also significantly rised. CD demonstrated that PEG crosslinking did not result in the destruction of the triple helix conformation of type Ⅰ collagen. Conclusion Branched PEG derivative used in this study is a promising polymer crosslinking agent that may be utilized in the modification of type Ⅰ collagen.%目的 观察枝化状聚乙二醇对牛跟腱Ⅰ型胶原结构与构象稳定性的影响.方法 以牛跟腱Ⅰ型胶原为原料,以枝化状聚乙二醇为交联剂,在有效交联的前提下,通过测定羟脯氨酸含量观察聚乙二醇交联对胶原酶解稳定性的影响,采用示差扫描量热法(DSC)观察胶原热变性温度,采用圆二色光谱法(CD)观察聚乙二醇对胶原三螺旋构象稳定性的影响.结果 枝化状聚乙二醇交联组24 h降解率为26.79%,而对照组则达97.39%,两者比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).

  12. The comparision of the outcomes of guide bone regeneration by calcined bovine bone and Bio-Oss graft material in alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction%骨引导天然煅烧骨与Bio-Oss用于牙槽嵴保存效果的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 丁宇翔; 秦瑞峰; 侯锐; 周宏志; 张林林; 胡开进

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To compare the outcomes of guide bone regeneration by calcined bovine bone and Bio-Oss graft material in alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction.Methods:280 patients were divided into two groups randomly.Each patient had single tooth extracted.The sockets were filled with calcined bovine bone in 140 patients and Bio-Oss graft in another 140 patients. After shaping,all the sockets were covered with Bio-Gide membrane.Buccal mucoperiosteal flap was released and sutured to close the alveolar sockets.The patients were regularly examined at the 1st,12th and 24th week after surgery.Physical examination and X-ray evaluation were applied to compare the outcomes of the two materials in alveolar ridge preservation.Results:No infection and re-jection occurred.The radiographic results showed the width and height of the alveolar bone were preserved well at the 12th and 24th weeks.No statistically difference was found in the two groups at the 1st and 24th weeks(P>0.05).Conclusion:The two graft ma-terials can effectively preserve alveolar bone after tooth extraction.%目的:对比骨引导天然煅烧骨与Bio-Oss应用于拔牙后牙槽嵴保存的效果。方法:280例患者单颗牙拔除后,随机分为2组,将骨引导天然煅烧骨和Bio-Oss各植入140例拔牙窝中,塑形后均用Bio-Gide生物膜覆盖,颊侧黏骨膜翻瓣、滑行缝合、封闭拔牙创,并在术后第1周、12周、24周复查,拍摄全口曲面断层片及CT,评价2种植骨材料牙槽嵴保存的效果。结果:2组的大体观察均显示出了较好的结果,无感染及排斥反应。12周及24周影像学结果显示2组牙槽嵴的宽度和高度均得到了较好的保存,组间比较无统计学差异(P>0.05)。结论:2种植骨材料均能有效地保存拔牙后牙槽骨的骨量。

  13. Sewage-sludge-derived carbonaceous materials for catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of m-cresol in batch and continuous reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Wei, Huangzhao; Yu, Li; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Ying; Gu, Bin; Sun, Chenglin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, four sewage-sludge-derived carbonaceous materials (SWs) were evaluated for their catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation (CWPO) performance of m-cresol in batch reactor and continuous reactor, respectively. The SWs were produced by carbonization (SW); carbonization with the addition of CaO (CaO-SW); HNO3 pretreatment (HNO3-SW) and steam activation (Activated-SW). The properties of SW catalysts were assessed by thermogravimetric analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence, Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and zeta potential. The results showed that SW treated by HNO3 (HNO3-SW) had a high conversion of m-cresol in batch reactor and continuous reactor, respectively. Under the conditions of batch reaction (Cm-cresol = 100 mg L(-1), CH2O2 = 15.7 mmol L(-1), initial pH=7.0, 0.5 g L(-1) catalyst, 80°C, 180 min adsorption and 210 min oxidation), the conversion of m-cresol reached 100% and total organic carbon removal was 67.1%. It had a high catalytic activity and stability on the treatment of m-cresol in CWPO for more than 1100 h. Furthermore, a possible reaction mechanism for the oxidation of m-cresol to 2-methyl-p-benzoquinone by CWPO was proposed.

  14. Energy storage performance of urea combustion derived nanocrystalline-Li2MnSiO4 as a novel electrode material for symmetric supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Prerna; Sil, Anjan; Sharma, Yogesh

    2016-05-01

    A novel symmetric supercapacitor (SSC) consisting of urea combustion derived mesoporous Li2MnSiO4 (LMS) in aqueous electrolyte is investigated for the first time. The morphological and surface area analysis were conducted using FESEM and N2 adsorption/desorption measurements confirming the presence of mesopores with good surface area of nanocrystalline LMS. The electrochemical investigation of the SSC is examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) cycling, and the results are complimented with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 2 M KOH aqueous solution. SSC exhibits the specific capacitance (Cs) of 40(±2) F g-1 at 3 mV s-1 and 42(±2) F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 in voltage window ranging from -0.65 V to +0.65 V. GCD analysis illustrates good capacity retention and cyclability up to 1000 cycles. This improved performance of LMS in terms of rate capability, cyclability is mainly attributed to its unique morphology where high surface area and mesoporosity enables facile and smooth transportation of foreign electrolytic ions, and thereby increase the participation of active material in device.

  15. Synthesis of amino, azido, nitro, and nitrogen-rich azole-substituted derivatives of 1H-benzotriazole for high-energy materials applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Dharavath; Ghule, Vikas D; Tewari, Surya P; Muralidharan, Krishnamurthi

    2012-11-19

    The amino, azido, nitro, and nitrogen-rich azole substituted derivatives of 1H-benzotriazole have been synthesized for energetic material applications. The synthesized compounds were fully characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, IR, MS, and elemental analysis. 5-Chloro-4-nitro-1H-benzo[1,2,3]triazole (2) and 5-azido-4,6-dinitro-1H-benzo[1,2,3]triazole (7) crystallize in the Pca2(1) (orthorhombic) and P2(1)/c (monoclinic) space group, respectively, as determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their densities are 1.71 and 1.77 g cm(-3), respectively. The calculated densities of the other compounds range between 1.61 and 1.98 g cm(-3). The detonation velocity (D) values calculated for these synthesized compounds range from 5.45 to 8.06 km s(-1), and the detonation pressure (P) ranges from 12.35 to 28 GPa.

  16. Derivation of risk indices and analysis of variablility for the management of incidents involving the transport of nuclear materials in the Northern Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J; Hosseini, A; Karcher, M; Kauker, F; Dowdall, M; Schnur, R; Strand, P

    2016-04-15

    The transport of nuclear or radioactive materials and the presence of nuclear powered vessels pose risks to the Northern Seas in terms of potential impacts to man and environment as well socio-economic impacts. Management of incidents involving actual or potential releases to the marine environment are potentially difficult due to the complexity of the environment into which the release may occur and difficulties in quantifying risk to both man and environment. In order to address this, a state of the art oceanographic model was used to characterize the underlying variability for a specific radionuclide release scenario. The resultant probabilistic data were used as inputs to transfer and dose models providing an indication of potential impacts for man and environment This characterization was then employed to facilitate a rapid means of quantifying risk to man and the environment that included and addressed this variability. The radionuclide specific risk indices derived can be applied by simply multiplying the reported values by the magnitude of the source term and thereafter summing over all radionuclides to provide an indication of total risk.

  17. Involvement of fungal species in bovine mastitis in and around Mathura, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Pachauri

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of mycotic mastitis in bovines of Mathura region. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 milk samples collected from seven different regions of Mathura were examined by cultural, morphological and biochemical methods. Results: Out of 100 milk samples processed 64 samples were found positive for fungal isolates. The most common isolates were Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that Candida spp and Aspergillus spp are the main fungi involved in bovine mastitis in this region. Good hygiene and sanitation practices of animal farm and judicious use of antibiotics will lower incidence of bovine mycotic mastitis. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 393-395

  18. Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4

  19. Microscopical characterization of carbon materials derived from coal and petroleum and their interaction phenomena in making steel electrodes, anodes and cathode blocks for the Microscopy of Carbon Materials Working Group of the ICCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predeanu, G.; Panaitescu, C.; Bălănescu, M.; Bieg, G.; Borrego, A.G.; Diez, M. A.; Hackley, Paul C.; Kwiecińska, B.; Marques, M.; Mastalerz, Maria; Misz-Kennan, M.; Pusz, S.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Rodrigues, S.; Singh, A. K.; Varma, A. K.; Zdravkov, A.; Zivotić, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of petrographic textures representing the structural organization of the organic matter derived from coal and petroleum and their interaction phenomena in the making of steel electrodes, anodes and cathode blocks.This work represents the results of the Microscopy of Carbon Materials Working Group in Commission III of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology between the years 2009 and 2013. The round robin exercises were run on photomicrograph samples. For textural characterization of carbon materials the existing ASTM classification system for metallurgical coke was applied.These round robin exercises involved 15 active participants from 12 laboratories who were asked to assess the coal and petroleum based carbons and to identify the morphological differences, as optical texture (isotropic/anisotropic), optical type (punctiform, mosaic, fibre, ribbon, domain), and size. Four sets of digital black and white microphotographs comprising 151 photos containing 372 fields of different types of organic matter were examined. Based on the unique ability of carbon to form a wide range of textures, the results showed an increased number of carbon occurrences which have crucial role in the chosen industrial applications.The statistical method used to evaluate the results was based on the “raw agreement indices”. It gave a new and original view on the analysts' opinion by not only counting the correct answers, but also all of the knowledge and experience of the participants. Comparative analyses of the average values of the level of overall agreement performed by each analyst in the exercises during 2009–2013 showed a great homogeneity in the results, the mean value being 90.36%, with a minimum value of 83% and a maximum value of 95%.

  20. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 5 (FGE.21Rev5): Thiazoles, thiophenes, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical groups 29 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    .108, 15.115, 15.116, 15.118 and 15.135] do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intake (MSDI) approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce...... have also been considered. Adequate specifications, including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce, have been provided for all 41 candidate substances....

  1. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans.

  2. A porous carbon derived from amino-functionalized material of Institut Lavoisier as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coating for the extraction of phthalate esters from tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weiqian; Wang, Juntao; Zang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a porous carbon derived from amino-functionalized material of Institut Lavoisier (C-NH2 -MIL-125) was prepared and coated onto a stainless-steel wire through sol-gel technique. The coated fiber was used for the solid-phase microextraction of trace levels of phthalate esters (diallyl phthalate, di-iso-butyl ortho-phthalate, di-n-butyl ortho-phthalate, benzyl-n-butyl ortho-phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexy) ortho-phthalate) from tea beverage samples before gas chromatography with mass spectrometric analysis. Several experimental parameters that could influence the extraction efficiency such as extraction time, extraction temperature, sample pH, sample salinity, stirring rate, desorption temperature and desorption time, were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the linearity existed in the range of 0.05-30.00 μg/L for green jasmine tea beverage samples, and 0.10-30.00 μg/L for honey jasmine tea beverage samples, with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9939 to 0.9981. The limits of detection of the analytes for the method were 2.0-3.0 ng/L for green jasmine tea beverage sample, and 4.0-5.0 ng/L for honey jasmine tea beverage sample, depending on the compounds. The recoveries of the analytes for the spiked samples were in the range of 82.0-106.0%, and the precision, expressed as the relative standard deviations, was less than 11.1%.

  3. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Inhibits Steroid Production in Theca Cells of Bovine Follicles In Vitro: Distinct Effect of LPS on Theca Cell Function in Pre- and Post-selection Follicles

    OpenAIRE

    MAGATA, Fumie; HORIUCHI, Maya; Miyamoto, Akio; SHIMIZU, TAKASHI

    2014-01-01

    In postpartum dairy cows, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli causes uterine inflammation and leads to ovarian dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of LPS on steroid production in bovine theca cells at different stages of follicular development. Theca cells isolated from pre- and post-selection follicles (PRFs, 8.5 mm in diameter, respectively) of bovine ovaries were exposed to LPS under luteinizing hormone (LH) condi...

  4. Identification of Turkey Derived Material in Food and Feed Using Real-Time PCR%食品和饲料中火鸡源性成分的实时荧光PCR检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张舒亚; 谌鸿超; 宋青; 高琴; 吕蓉; 李想; 刘月明; 李富威

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the development of a PCR system for the authentication of turkey derived material in food and feed.A real-time PCR method was established for detection of turkey derived material. The method was specific for turkey derived material,and the limit of detection was determined as 0.001%. The PCR procedure is suitable for the detection of turkey derived material in food and feed.%为对产品真实性提供技术支撑,作者建立了食品和饲料中火鸡源性成分的检测方法.采用TaqMan探针实时荧光PCR方法,对火鸡源性成分特异性、灵敏度进行检测并进行实际应用.实验表明,建立的检测方法具有特异性和高灵敏度,检测限为0.001%.通过对市售食品和饲料样品的检测,建立的方法适用于食品和饲料中火鸡源性成分的检测.

  5. Establishment of a new bovine leukosis virus producing cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, D; Riebe, R; Blankenstein, P; Starick, E; Bondzio, A; Marquardt, O

    2004-11-01

    Due to the prevalence of different bovine leukosis virus (BLV) species in the cattle population in Europe, problems may arise in the serological diagnosis of BLV infections. In addition, earlier investigations demonstrated that contamination of the BLV antigen-producing cell culture systems by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) may give rise to misinterpretation of serological test results after BVDV vaccination of cattle. By co-cultivation of peripheral leukocytes of a BLV-infected cow with a permanent sheep kidney cell line, a new BLV-producing cell line named PO714 was established. This line carries a BLV provirus of the Belgian species and has been tested to be free of a variety of possibly contaminating viruses and mycoplasms. Investigations of a panel of well-characterised sera by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and capture ELISA (cELISA) tests using antigen prepared from this new cell line in comparison with antigen of the well-known cell line FLK/BLV yielded comparable results. False positive results caused by BVDV cross-reactions could be eliminated when tests were carried out with antigen derived from the new cell line.

  6. Transmission of sheep-bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Carlos; Bolea, Rosa; Marín, Belén; Cobrière, Fabien; Filali, Hicham; Vazquez, Francisco; Pitarch, José Luis; Vargas, Antonia; Acín, Cristina; Moreno, Bernardino; Pumarola, Martí; Andreoletti, Olivier; Badiola, Juan José

    2016-01-07

    Experimental transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent has been successfully reported in pigs inoculated via three simultaneous distinct routes (intracerebral, intraperitoneal and intravenous). Sheep derived BSE (Sh-BSE) is transmitted more efficiently than the original cattle-BSE isolate in a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine prion protein. However, the neuropathology and distribution of Sh-BSE in pigs as natural hosts, and susceptibility to this agent, is unknown. In the present study, seven pigs were intracerebrally inoculated with Sh-BSE prions. One pig was euthanized for analysis in the preclinical disease stage. The remaining six pigs developed neurological signs and histopathology revealed severe spongiform changes accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis throughout the central nervous system. Intracellular and neuropil-associated pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition was consistently observed in different brain sections and corroborated by Western blot. PrP(Sc) was detected by immunohistochemistry and enzyme immunoassay in the following tissues in at least one animal: lymphoid tissues, peripheral nerves, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, adrenal gland and pancreas. PrP(Sc) deposition was revealed by immunohistochemistry alone in the retina, optic nerve and kidney. These results demonstrate the efficient transmission of Sh-BSE in pigs and show for the first time that in this species propagation of bovine PrP(Sc) in a wide range of peripheral tissues is possible. These results provide important insight into the distribution and detection of prions in non-ruminant animals.

  7. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 2 and bovine herpesvirus 4 DNA in trigeminal ganglia of naturally infected cattle by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, F S; Franco, A C; Oliveira, M T; Firpo, R; Strelczuk, G; Fontoura, F E; Kulmann, M I R; Maidana, S; Romera, S A; Spilki, F R; Silva, A D; Hübner, S O; Roehe, P M

    2014-06-25

    Establishment of latent infection within specific tissues in the host is a common biological feature of the herpesviruses. In the case of bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2), latency is established in neuronal tissues, while bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) latent virus targets on cells of the monocytic lineage. This study was conducted in quest of BoHV-2, BoHV-4 and OvHV-2 DNA in two hundred trigeminal ganglia (TG) specimens, derived from one hundred clinically healthy cattle, majority of them naturally infected with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5). Total DNA extracted from ganglia was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to amplify part of the genes coding for BoHV-2, and BoHV-4 glycoprotein B and, for OvHV-2, the gene coding for phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase-like protein. BoHV-2 DNA was detected in TG samples of two (2%) and BoHV-4 DNA in nine (9%) of the animals, whereas OvHV-2 DNA could not be detected in any of the TG DNA. The two animals in which BoHV-2 DNA was identified were also co-infected with BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. Within the nine animals in which BoHV-4 DNA was detected, six were also co-infected with BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. This report provides for the first time evidence that viral DNA from BoHV-2 and BoHV-4 can be occasionally detected in TG of naturally infected cattle. Likewise, in this report we provided for the first time evidence that the co-infection of cattle with three distinct bovine herpesviruses might be a naturally occurring phenomenon.

  8. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  9. Fe(II) Spin Transition Materials Including an Amino-Ester 1,2,4-Triazole Derivative, Operating at, below, and above Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dîrtu, Marinela M; Naik, Anil D; Rotaru, Aurelian; Spinu, Leonard; Poelman, Dirk; Garcia, Yann

    2016-05-02

    A new family of one-dimensional Fe(II) 1,2,4-triazole spin transition coordination polymers for which a modification of anion and crystallization solvent can tune the switching temperature over a wide range, including the room temperature region, is reported. This series of materials was prepared as powders after reaction of ethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl-acetate (αEtGlytrz) with an iron salt from a MeOH/H2O medium affording: [Fe(αEtGlytrz)3](ClO4)2 (1); [Fe(αEtGlytrz)3](ClO4)2·CH3OH (2); [Fe(αEtGlytrz)3](NO3)2·H2O (3); [Fe(αEtGlytrz)3](NO3)2 (4); [Fe(αEtGlytrz)3](BF4)2·0.5H2O (5); [Fe(αEtGlytrz)3](BF4)2 (6); and [Fe(αEtGlytrz)3](CF3SO3)2·2H2O (7). Their spin transition properties were investigated by (57)Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The temperature dependence of the high-spin molar fraction derived from (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy in 1 reveals an abrupt single step transition between low-spin and high-spin states with a hysteresis loop of width 5 K (Tc(↑) = 296 K and Tc(↓) = 291 K). The properties drastically change with modification of anion and/or lattice solvent. The transition temperatures, deduced by SQUID magnetometry, shift to Tc(↑) = 273 K and Tc(↓) = 263 K for (2), Tc(↑) = 353 K and Tc(↓) = 333 K for (3), Tc(↑) = 338 K and Tc(↓) = 278 K for (4), T(↑) = 320 K and T(↓) = 305 K for (5), Tc(↑) = 106 K and Tc(↓) = 92 K for (6), and T(↑) = 325 K and T(↓) = 322 K for (7). Annealing experiments of 3 lead to a change of the morphology, texture, and magnetic properties of the sample. A dehydration/rehydration process associated with a spin state change was analyzed by a mean-field macroscopic master equation using a two-level Hamiltonian Ising-like model for 3. A new structural-property relationship was also identified for this series of materials [Fe(αEtGlytrz)3](anion)2·nSolvent based on Mössbauer and DSC

  10. Bovine bone for white ceramic; Osso bovino para ceramica branca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, J.L. de; Harima, E.; Leite, J.I.P.; Monteiro, F.M.; Bezerra, M.T.T., E-mail: leonaldo.souza@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte (LPMR/IFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Laboratorio de Processamento Mineral e de Residuos

    2011-07-01

    The porcelain is composed of feldspar, kaolin and about 50% for bovine bone ashes. This work aims to analyze the properties acquired by the substitution of kaolin by its waste. For characterization of raw materials chemical analyzes were made by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and mineralogical analysis by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Four formulations were produced varying the percentage of waste materials of kaolin and bone ashes of 25 and 55% by weight. The samples were sintered at temperatures of 1150, 1200 and 1250 deg C. The technological tests realized were: water absorption (WA), apparent porosity (AP), apparent density (AD) and linear retraction (LR). Improvement in the physical-mechanical properties of the samples with increasing temperature were observed, and 1250 deg C obtained 0.69% of WA, 1.22% AP, 2.26 g / cm3 AD, and 0.52% LR.

  11. Serological evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 in cattle-breeding systems on Colombia’s high plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Bovine herpesvirus – 1 (BoHV- 1 and Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 neutralizing antibodies in herds on the Colombian high plains and their correlation with the level of cross-protection against both herpesviruses. Materials and methods. This study was carried out on cattle farms located around the towns of Puerto López and Puerto Gaitán in Colombia’s Meta department. Sampling was made by convenience. Twenty-three farms were involved in the study; 488 sera samples were taken by random sampling. Virus neutralization test were performed according to the protocols of the OIE. Each serum was evaluated independently for each virus, BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. Results. The serological test confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 infections in the Colombian bovine population in 100% and 73.9% respectively. However, crossreaction for both viruses was not evident in all farms evaluated. Conclusions. Alpha-herpesviruses are amongst the most significant infectious agents affecting cattle. Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 is found throughout the whole world and is endemic in Colombian bovine population, whereas bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 has limited geographical distribution, mainly being reported in South-America (Brazil and Argentina, and we also confirmed the presence of BoHV-5 in Colombia.

  12. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Goens, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  13. Neurological disorder in cattle associated with bovine herpesvirus 4

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A nested PCR assay was used to diagnose bovine encephalitis through herpesviruses including bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Aujeszky's disease virus (SHV-1), and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2) in 14 fragments of central nervous system (CNS) from cattle that died with neurological signs. In addition, as some samples of bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) have been isolated from neural tissue, it was also tested by nested PCR. The cases of encephalitis occurred in isolati...

  14. Inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in various bovine tissues used for the production of natural sausage casings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, J.J.; de Haas, B.; Berends, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Bovine intestines, bladders and oesophagus are used for the production of natural casings ("beef casings") as edible sausage containers. Derived from cattle experimentally infected with FMDV (initial dosage 10(4) TCID(50)/mL, strain A Iran 97), these beef casings were treated with sodium chloride (N

  15. The development and characterization of a competitive ELISA for measuring active ADAMTS-4 in a bovine cartilage ex vivo model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yi; Zheng, Qinlong; Simonsen, Ole;

    2013-01-01

    )) in a bovine cartilage ex vivo model. We found that after stimulation with catabolic factors, the cartilage initially released high levels of aggrecanase-derived aggrecan fragments into supernatant but subsequently decreased to background levels. The level of active ADAMTS-4 released into the supernatant...

  16. Changes in the relative abundance of mRNA transcripts for insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I and IGF-II) ligands and their receptors (IGF-IR/IGF-IIR) in preimplantation bovine embryos derived from different in vitro systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, M A; Wrenzycki, C; Herrmann, D; Carnwath, J W; Niemann, H

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative abundance of mRNAs for the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-II ligands, and for the IGF receptors (IGF-IR and IGF-IIR) in in vitro preimplantation bovine embryos from the oocyte to the hatched blastocyst stage using two different culture systems: TCM-199 supplemented with oestrous cow serum, or synthetic oviduct fluid supplemented with polyvinyl alcohol. Development to the two- to four-cell stage and blastocyst stage was significantly higher (P IIR were expressed throughout preimplantation development up to the hatched blastocyst stage in a varying pattern. The expression patterns of IGF-IR, IGF-II and IGF-IIR in embryos generated in the two culture systems were not significantly different, except at the expanded blastocyst stage, at which significantly higher amounts of IGF-IIR were observed in the TCM system than in the synthetic oviduct fluid system. These results indicate that transcripts of IGF-IR and IGF-IIR follow the standard pattern in which maternal stores of mRNA in the oocyte are slowly depleted up to the 16-cell stage and then re-established at the onset of embryonic expression of these genes. The lack of detectable IGF-I transcripts in the bovine embryo indicates a predominantly paracrine mode of action. The bovine embryo is capable of producing IGF-II, IGF-IIR and IGF-IR in large amounts, particularly after hatching, which may be important for the formation of the filamentous conceptus. Results indicate an autocrine mechanism for IGF-II and modulation of IGF family expression by culture conditions.

  17. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  18. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... bovine brucellosis in the United States. The notice stated that USDA would hold four public...

  19. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for...

  20. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  1. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production....

  2. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  4. Pattern Matching of Harmonic Vibrations in Nonlinearly Generated Acoustic Modes in Bovine Bone Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alippi, A.; Biagioni, A.; Germano, M.; Passeri, D.

    2008-06-01

    Local probing of nonlinear generation of harmonic vibrations has been done on bone plate samples and the evaluation of the nonlinear term is derived from a limited number of cases of bovine thigh bones, that shows that a low level of nonlinearity is present in bone structures. This is consistent with the assumption that in low level nonlinear samples the distribution of harmonic vibrations matches the corresponding power distribution of the fundamental mode.

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Permissive for Replication of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Kong-Nan; Frazer, Ian H

    2002-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae protoplasts can take up bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) virions and that viral episomal DNA is replicated after uptake. Here we demonstrate that BPV virus-like particles are assembled in infected S. cerevisiae cultures from newly synthesized capsid proteins and also package newly synthesized DNA, including full-length and truncated viral DNA and S. cerevisiae-derived DNA. Virus particles prepared in S. cerevisiae are able to convey pa...

  6. Treatment of osteonecrosis of femoral head with BMSCs-seeded bio-derived bone materials combined with rhBMP-2 in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Zeng-ming; JIANG Hua; ZHAN Xin-li; WU Zhen-guo; ZHANG Xing-lin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) seeded bio-derived bone materials (BBM) combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in repairing defect of osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH). Methods: Early-stage osteonecrosis in the left hip was induced in 36 adult New Zealand white rabbits (provided by the Animal Center of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China) after core decompression and delivery of liquid nitrogen into the femoral head. Then the animals were divided into three groups according to the type of implants for bone repair: 12 rabbits with nothing (GroupⅠ, the blank control group), 12 with BBM combined with rhBMP-2 (Group Ⅱ), and 12 with BMSCs-seeded BBM combined with rhBMP-2 (Group Ⅲ). At 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery, X-ray of the femoral head of every 4 rabbits in each group was taken, and then they were killed and the femoral heads were collected at each time point, respectively. Gross observation was made on the femoral heads. After hematoxylin and eosin staining, Lane-sandhu scores of X-ray and bone densitometry were calculated and the histomorphometric measurements were made for the new bone trabeculae. Results: At 12 weeks after surgery, two femoral heads collapsed in GroupⅠ, but none in Group Ⅱor Group Ⅲ. X-ray examination showed that the femoral heads in Group Ⅰ had defect shadow or collapsed while those in Group Ⅱ had a low density and those in Group Ⅲ presented with a normal density. Histologically, the defects of femoral heads were primarily filled with no new bone but fibrous tissues in Group Ⅰ. In contrast, new bone regeneration and fibrous tissues occurred in Group Ⅱ and only new bone regeneration occurrd in Group Ⅲ. Lane-sandhu scores of X-ray, bone mineral density and rate of new bone in trabecular area in Group Ⅲ were higher signifIcantly than those of the other two groups. Conclusions: Our findings indicate a superior choice of

  7. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2016 Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 75, Revision 1 (FGE.75Rev1): Consideration of tetrahydrofuran derivatives evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to tetrahydrofuran derivatives evaluated by EFSA in FGE.33 (2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    with the JECFA conclusion ‘No safety concern at estimated level of intake as flavouring substances’ based on the maximised survey-derived daily intake (MSDI) approach. The specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all 11 substances, the information is adequate....

  8. Association between mitochondrial DNA haplotype compatibility and increased efficiency of bovine intersubspecies cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Yan, Zhonghai; Ma, Qingwen; Jiao, Fei; Huang, Shuzhen; Zeng, Fanyi; Zeng, Yitao

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructed embryos derived from intersubspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) have poorer developmental potential than those from intrasubspecies SCNT. Based on our previous study that Holstein dairy bovine (HD) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype compatibility between donor karyoplast and recipient cytoplast is crucial for SCNT embryo development, we performed intersubspecies SCNT using HD as donor karyoplast and Luxi yellow heifer (LY) as recipient cytoplast according to mtDNA haplotypes determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. The results demonstrated that intersubspecies mtDNA homotype SCNT embryos had higher pre- and post-implantation developmental competence than intrasubspecies mtDNA heterotype embryos as well as improved blastocyst reprogramming status, including normal H3K9 dimethylation pattern and promoter hypomethylation of pluripotent genes such as Oct4 and Sox2, suggesting that intersubspecies SCNT using LY oocytes maintains HD cloning efficiency and may reprogram HD nuclei to develop into a normal cloned animal ultimately. Our results indicated that karyoplast-cytoplast interactions and mtDNA haplotype compatibility may affect bovine intersubspecies SCNT efficiency. This study on bovine intersubspecies SCNT is valuable for understanding the mechanisms of mtDNA haplotype compatibility between karyoplast and cytoplast impacting the bovine SCNT efficiency, and provides an alternative and economic resource for HD cloning.

  9. Association between mitochondrial DNA haplotype compatibility and increased efficiency of bovine intersubspecies cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Yan; Zhonghai Yan; Qingwen Ma; Fei Jiao; Shuzhen Huang; Fanyi Zeng; Yitao Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructed embryos derived from intersubspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) have poorer developmental potential than those from intrasubspecies SCNT. Based on our previous study that Holstein dairy bovine (HD) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype compatibility between donor karyoplast and recipient cytoplast is crucial for SCNT embryo development, we performed intersubspecies SCNT using HD as donor karyoplast and Luxi yellow heifer (LY) as recipient cytoplast according to mtDNA haplotypes determined by polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. The results demonstrated that intersubspecies mtDNA homotype SCNT embryos had higher pre- and post-implantation developmental competence than intrasubspecies mtDNA heterotype embryos as well as improved blastocyst reprogramming status, including normal H3K9 dimethylation pattern and promoter hypomethylation of pluripotent genes such as Oct4 and Sox2, suggesting that intersubspecies SCNT using LY oocytes maintains HD cloning efficiency and may reprogram HD nuclei to develop into a normal cloned animal ultimately. Our results indicated that karyoplast-cytoplast interactions and mtDNA haplotype compatibility may affect bovine intersubspecies SCNT efficiency. This study on bovine intersubspecies SCNT is valuable for understanding the mechanisms of mtDNA haplotype compatibility between karyoplast and cytoplast impacting the bovine SCNT efficiency, and provides an alternative and economic resource for HD cloning.

  10. Development and validation of a bovine macrophage specific cDNA microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waddington David

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The response of macrophages to danger signals is an important early stage in the immune response. Our understanding of this complex event has been furthered by microarray analysis, which allows the simultaneous investigation of the expression of large numbers of genes. However, the microarray resources available to study these events in livestock animals are limited. Results Here we report the development of a bovine macrophage specific (BoMP cDNA microarray. The BoMP microarray contains 5026 sequence elements (printed in duplicate and numerous controls. The majority of the clones incorporated on the microarray were derived from the BoMP cDNA library generated from bovine myeloid cells subjected to various stimuli, including over 900 sequences unique to the library. Additional clones representing immunologically important genes have been included on the BoMP microarray. The microarray was validated by investigating the response of bovine monocytes to stimulation with interferon-γ and lipopolysaccharide using amplified RNA. At 2 and 16 hours post stimulation 695 genes exhibited statistically significant differential expression, including; 26 sequences unique to the BoMP library, interleukin 6, prion protein and toll-like receptor 4. Conclusion A 5 K cDNA microarray has been successfully developed to investigate gene expression in bovine myeloid cells. The BoMP microarray is available from the ARK-Genomics Centre for Functional Genomics in Farm Animals, UK.

  11. In vitro secretion of zymogens by bovine pancreatic acini and ultra-structural analysis of exocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivalingam Jayaveni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish a bovine pancreatic acinar cell culture model with longer viability and functionality. The cells could be maintained in a functional state for upto 20 days with normal morphology. Cells were positive for amylase as observed by immunofluorescence staining. Acinar cells are spherical and range about 2–3 µm in diameter. The porosome formed by exocytosis and heterogenous enzyme granules of size ranging 100–300 nm were seen on the surface of cells by electron microscopy. The activity of the enzymes was high on day 15 and the activity profile of the enzymes is in the order: protease>lipase>amylase and the enzymes were identified by SDS-PAGE. Long-term culture of bovine pancreatic acini could be useful in studying the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Since the bovine genome shares about 80% identity with the human genome, the cells derived from bovine pancreas can be engineered and used as a potential xenotransplant to treat conditions like pancreatitis as the tissue source is abundantly available.

  12. Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whey and skimmed milk, and purified. The applicant intends to add bLF to foods for particular nutritional uses, i.e. infant and follow-on formulae, dietary food for special medical purposes, dairy products, yoghurts and yoghurt drinks, and chewing gums. According to the applicant, the high intake estimate for infants would be 1.1 g bLF per day. For adults, the applicant’s calculation estimates a mean and 97.5th percentile intake of 0.6 and 2.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day, respectively, and a mean and 97.5th percentile daily intake of about 45 mg and 150 mg, respectively. The Panel notes that the safety of bLF as a novel food ingredient has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. That evaluation was to a significant extent based on safety data on bLF produced by Morinaga. The Panel also notes that the applicant intends maximum use levels of bLF in foods which are equivalent or lower than those intended by the applicant of the previous Opinion, and that the range of foods to which it is intended to add bLF is smaller. Consequently, the estimated intake levels described for the present application are comparable for infants and lower for all other population groups. The Panel concludes that the novel food ingredient, bLF, is safe under the proposed uses and use levels.

  13. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan

    2016-07-01

    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  14. Electronic and vibrational spectroscopy of the cytochrome c:cytochrome c oxidase complexes from bovine and Paracoccus denitrificans.

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, S. R.; Copeland, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    The 1:1 complex between horse heart cytochrome c and bovine cytochrome c oxidase, and between yeast cytochrome c and Paracoccus denitrificans cytochrome c oxidase have been studied by a combination of second derivative absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and resonance Raman spectroscopy. The second derivative absorption and CD spectra reveal changes in the electronic transitions of cytochrome a upon complex formation. These results could reflect changes in ground state heme structure or chan...

  15. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  16. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism in bovine Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, K. A.; Hoffman, Y.; Sakai, L. Y.; Byers, P. H.; Besser, T. E.; Milewicz, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Bovine Marfan syndrome is a disorder that closely resembles human Marfan syndrome in its clinical signs and pathological lesions. The similarities between the human and bovine diseases suggest that similar metabolic defects could be responsible. Although indirect immunofluorescent assays for fibrillin in skin biopsies did not distinguish affected cattle from control animals, cultures of skin fibroblasts of affected animals were distinguished from normal, unrelated control animals and normal half-siblings on the basis of fibrillin staining. After 72 to 96 hours in culture, stained with anti-fibrillin monoclonal antibody 201, hyperconfluent fibroblast cultures of affected cattle had less immunoreactive fibrillin than control cultures, and the staining pattern was granular rather than fibrillar. Under similar culture conditions, normal bovine aortic smooth muscle cells produced large amounts of immunoreactive fibrillin, but smooth muscle cells from a single affected cow showed markedly less fibrillin staining. In pulse-chase metabolic labeling experiments with [35S]cysteine, dermal fibroblasts from 6 affected calves, incorporated far less fibrillin into the extracellular matrix than control cells. These findings are similar to those reported in human Marfan syndrome, and they suggest that the bovine Marfan syndrome, like the human disorder, is caused by a mutation in fibrillin, leading to defective microfibrillar synthesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8456941

  17. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  18. Characterization of the bovine ampkgamma1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkel, Bernhard; Kollers, Sonja; Fries, Ruedi; Sazanov, Alexei; Yoshida, Erin; Valle, Edith; Davoren, Jon; Hickey, Donal

    2005-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) represents the mammalian form of the core component of a kinase cascade that is conserved between fungi, plants, and animals. AMPK plays a major role in protecting mammalian cells from metabolic stress by switching off biosynthetic pathways that require ATP and switching on ATP-regenerating pathways. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of the gene for the noncatalytic bovine gamma1 subunit of AMPK. The bovine ampkgamma1 (PRKAG1) gene spans in excess of 14 kb and is located at BTA 5q21-q22. It consists of 12 exons ranging in size from 38 b to 166 b, interspersed with 11 introns that range between 97 b and 6753 b in length. The coding region of the bovine gene shares 93% and 90% nucleotide sequence similarity with its human and rat counterparts, and the bovine AMPKgamma1 protein is 98% and 95% identical to its human and rat homologs, respectively, in amino acid sequence. SNP discovery using a cattle DNA panel revealed a number of polymorphisms that may be useful for the evaluation of ampkgamma1 as a candidate gene for energy metabolism-related production traits.

  19. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few va

  20. An unusual presentation of enzootic bovine leukosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sparling, A M

    2000-01-01

    A 6-year-old, Holstein x Simmental cow diagnosed with pyelonephritis had increasing difficulty rising and became recumbent, despite treatment with antibiotics. A serological test for the bovine leukemia virus was positive; at necropsy, the left kidney and ureter and the myocardium showed lesions of lymphosarcoma, confirmed by histology.

  1. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  2. Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Klement, Eyal

    2015-10-28

    Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, poor cattle condition at sale and loss of traction power at harvest. There are also significant impacts on trade to regions in which the disease does not occur, including the Americas and most of Europe. In recent years, unusually severe outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever have been reported from several regions in Asia and the Middle East, with mortality rates through disease or culling in excess of 10-20%. There are also concerns that, like other vector-borne diseases of livestock, the geographic distribution of bovine ephemeral fever could expand into regions that have historically been free of the disease. Here, we review current knowledge of the virus, including its molecular and antigenic structure, and the epidemiology of the disease across its entire geographic range. We also discuss the effectiveness of vaccination and other strategies to prevent or control infection.

  3. DETECTION OF THE BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Goraichuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea is a widespread infection of cattle that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Persistently infected cattle are the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds. Comparative results of antibodies presence received by two methods of enzymoimmunoassay and virus neutralization test are given in the paper. During the work, 1010 samples of blood serum of cattle from three farms in the Kharkiv region were selected and analyzed. Bovine viral diarrhea virus concerning antibodies were found by enzymoimmunoassay in 704 samples (69.7% using commercial kit and in 690 samples (68.3% using in house method. After results clarification by virus neutralization test, bovine viral diarrhea antibodies were found in 712 samples (70.5%. Immunoenzyme analysis is recommended for mass screening of cattle for viral diarrhea occurrence. The results confirm that the sensitivity immunoenzyme analysis satisfies the requirements of the diagnostic methods. Using the neutralization reaction of viruses as the «gold standard» of serological methods, it is appropriate to clarify the results of immunoenzyme analysis. Since the results contain a signi ficant number of false positive results, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive studies using both serological and molecular genetics methods.

  4. Transmission of new bovine prion to mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, T.G.M.; Biacabe, A.G.; Bencsik, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that cattle were affected by a prion disorder that differed from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by showing distinct molecular features of disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres). We show that intracerebral injection of such isolates into C57BL/6 mi

  5. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  6. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  7. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was dete

  8. Pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, S M; Taylor, J D; Confer, A W

    2007-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. P. multocida serogroup A isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. P. multocida A:3 is the most common serotype isolated from BRD, and these isolates have limited heterogeneity based on outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles and ribotyping. Development of P. multocida-induced pneumonia is associated with environmental and stress factors such as shipping, co-mingling, and overcrowding as well as concurrent or predisposing viral or bacterial infections. Lung lesions consist of an acute to subacute bronchopneumonia that may or may not have an associated pleuritis. Numerous virulence or potential virulence factors have been described for bovine respiratory isolates including adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide, polysaccharide capsule and a variety of OMPs. Immunity of cattle against respiratory pasteurellosis is poorly understood; however, high serum antibodies to OMPs appear to be important for enhancing resistance to the bacterium. Currently available P. multocida vaccines for use in cattle are predominately traditional bacterins and a live streptomycin-dependent mutant. The field efficacy of these vaccines is not well documented in the literature.

  9. Proficiency test for antibiotics in bovine muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine muscle, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative conf

  10. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV;

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  11. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  12. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  13. Synthesis and electroluminescent properties of blue fluorescent materials based on 9,9-diethyl-N,N-diphenyl-9 H-fluoren-2-amine substituted anthracene derivatives for organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seul Bee; Kim, Chanwoo; Park, Soo Na; Kim, Young Seok [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Won [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-30

    Four 9,9-diethyl-N,N-diphenyl-9 H-fluoren-2-amine substituted anthracene derivatives have been designed and synthesized by Suzuki cross coupling reactions. To explore the electroluminescent properties of these blue materials, multilayer blue organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated in the following device structure: indium tin oxide (180 nm)/N,N’-diphenyl-N,N’-(1-napthyl)-(1,1′-phenyl)-4,4′-diamine (50 nm)/blue emitting materials (1–4) (30 nm)/bathophenanthroline (30 nm)/lithium quinolate (2 nm)/Al (100 nm). All devices appeared excellent deep-blue emissions. Among them, a device exhibited a maximum luminance of 5686 cd/m{sup 2}, the luminous, power and external quantum efficiencies of 5.11 cd/A, 3.79 lm/W, and 4.06% with the Commission International de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.15, 0.15) at 500 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. - Highlights: • We synthesized blue fluorescent materials based on anthracene derivatives. • The EL efficiencies of these materials depend on the quantum yields in solid states. • These materials have great potential for applications as blue emitter in OLEDs.

  14. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Characterization of coal-derived materials by field desorption mass spectrometry, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, supercritical fluid extraction, and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Robins, W.H. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Under contract from the DOE , and in association with CONSOL Inc., Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated four principal and several complementary techniques for the analysis of non-distillable direct coal liquefaction materials in support of process development. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods were examined for potential usefulness as techniques to elucidate the chemical structure of residual (nondistillable) direct coal liquefaction derived materials. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) were evaluated for effectiveness in compound-class separation and identification of residual materials. Liquid chromatography (including microcolumn) separation techniques, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and GC/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods were applied to supercritical fluid extracts. The full report authored by the PNL researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal liquefaction materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of CONSOL`s contract.

  15. Polyethylene glycol-grafted bovine pericardium: a novel hybrid tissue resistant to calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudev, S C; Chandy, T

    1999-02-01

    Calcification is a frequent cause of the clinical failure of bioprosthetic heart valves fabricated from glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium (GATBP). An investigation was made of the grafting of different molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG 600, 1500, 4000 and 6000) via glutaraldehyde (GA) linkages to bovine pericardium (BP) and of their stability and calcification. The process of the calcification profile was studied by in vitro experiments via incubating pericardial samples in a metastable solution of calcium phosphate. Calcification of bovine pericardium grafted with PEG 6000 was significantly decreased compared to low molecular weight PEG grafts or Sodium dodecyl sulphate- (SDS) and GA-treated tissues. The mechanical properties of these modified tissues after enzyme (Trypsin) digestion and calcification were investigated. The biocompatibility aspects of grafted tissues were also established by monitoring the platelet adhesion, octane contact angle and water of hydration. PEG 6000-grafted tissues retained the maximum strength in trypsin buffer and calcium phosphate solutions. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the PEG-grafted bovine pericardium had substantially inhibited the platelet-surface attachment and their spreading. It is conceivable that high molecular weight polyethylene glycol-grafted pericardium (a hybrid tissue) may be a suitable calcium-resistant material for developing prosthetic valves due to their stability and biocompatibility.

  16. Immunodetection of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in bovine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiuk, Izabela; Młynek, Krzysztof

    2015-07-01

    This study was aimed at identifying and determining the configuration of structures which contain the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the bovine pancreas. The study material was collected from 20 animals. The distribution of CART in the bovine pancreas was investigated, by an immunohistochemical evaluation. CART peptide in the normal pancreas has been identified in intrapancreatic ganglia, nerve fibres and in endocrine cells of Langerhans islets and exocrine pancreas. CART immunoreactive nerve fibres innervate the exocrine and endocrine regions and the intrapancreatic ganglia, where they form a moderate number of networks, encircling the cell bodies. The few CART-immunoreactive endocrine cells, that appear in the bovine pancreas, are not limited to the islet cells, where they form a subpopulation of CART-containing cells, but are also individually distributed in the exocrine region. Furthermore, CART has been visualized in nerve fibres, innervating pancreatic outlet ducts and blood vessels. CART plays a physiological role in the integrated mechanisms that regulate both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic secretion. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that CART expression in nerve fibres and intrapancreatic ganglia is a common feature of the mammalian pancreas, whereas its expression in endocrine cells appears to be restricted to single cells of the bovine pancreas.

  17. A safety analysis of food waste-derived animal feeds from three typical conversion techniques in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-11-01

    This study was based on the food waste to animal feed demonstration projects in China. A safety analysis of animal feeds from three typical treatment processes (i.e., fermentation, heat treatment, and coupled hydrothermal treatment and fermentation) was presented. The following factors are considered in this study: nutritive values characterized by organoleptic properties and general nutritional indices; the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials; microbiological indices for Salmonella, total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TAC), molds and yeast (MY), Staphylococcus Aureus (SA), and Listeria; chemical contaminant indices for hazardous trace elements such as Cr, Cd, and As; and nitrite and organic contaminants such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). The present study reveals that the feeds from all three conversion processes showed balanced nutritional content and retained a certain feed value. The microbiological indices and the chemical contaminant indices for HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), nitrite, and mercury all met pertinent feed standards; however, the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials and a few chemical contaminants such as Pb were close to or might exceed the legislation permitted values in animal feeding. From the view of treatment techniques, all feed retained part of the nutritional values of the food waste after the conversion processes. Controlled heat treatment can guarantee the inactivation of bacterial pathogens, but none of the three techniques can guarantee the absence of cattle- and sheep-derived materials and acceptable levels of certain contaminants. The results obtained in this research and the feedstuffs legislation related to animal feed indicated that food waste-derived feed could be considered an adequate alternative to be used in animal diets, while the feeding action should be changed with the different qualities of the products, such as restrictions on the application

  18. Comparison of dosimetry gels prepared by agar and bovine gelatine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağsöz, M. E.; Korkut, Ö.; Alemdar, N.; Aktaş, S.; Çalı, E. B.; Kantarcı, M.

    2016-04-01

    Gel dosimeters are unique materials capable of showing three dimensional (3D) dose distributions of therapeutic or diagnostic exposures. Fricke gel dosimeters can be considered as chemical dosimeters that rely on a radiation-induced chemical reaction. Dose distribution of Fricke solutions containing Fe+2 ions determines the transformation of acidic, oxygen saturated Fe+2 ions to Fe+3 ions by the ionizing radiation in aqueous solutions. In this study we produced two different types of gel dosimeters using agar and bovine gelatin with similar fabrication methods. We compared the magnetic resonance (MR) T1 imaging responses of these two gel dosimeters to acquire a dose dependency of MR intensities. In conclusion agar gel dosimeters found to be produced easily and more consistent.

  19. Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Recombinant Proteins Modulate Antimycobacterial Functions of Bovine Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Bannantine

    Full Text Available It has been shown that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis activates the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK p38 pathway, yet it is unclear which components of M. paratuberculosis are involved in the process. Therefore, a set of 42 M. paratuberculosis recombinant proteins expressed from coding sequences annotated as lipoproteins were screened for their ability to induce IL-10 expression, an indicator of MAPKp38 activation, in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages. A recombinant lipoprotein, designated as MAP3837c, was among a group of 6 proteins that strongly induced IL-10 gene transcription in bovine macrophages, averaging a 3.1-fold increase compared to non-stimulated macrophages. However, a parallel increase in expression of IL-12 and TNF-α was only observed in macrophages exposed to a subset of these 6 proteins. Selected recombinant proteins were further analyzed for their ability to enhance survival of M. avium within bovine macrophages as measured by recovered viable bacteria and nitrite production. All 6 IL-10 inducing MAP recombinant proteins along with M. paratuberculosis cells significantly enhanced phosphorylation of MAPK-p38 in bovine macrophages. Although these proteins are likely not post translationally lipidated in E. coli and thus is a limitation in this study, these results form the foundation of how the protein component of the lipoprotein interacts with the immune system. Collectively, these data reveal M. paratuberculosis proteins that might play a role in MAPK-p38 pathway activation and hence in survival of this organism within bovine macrophages.

  20. Bone Formation with Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral or Biphasic Calcium Phosphate in the Presence of Autologous Platelet Lysate: Comparative Investigation in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Chakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone substitutes alone or supplemented with platelet-derived concentrates are widely used to promote bone regeneration but their potency remains controversial. The aim of this study was, therefore, to compare the regenerative potential of preparations containing autologous platelet lysate (APL and particles of either deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM or biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, two bone substitutes with different resorption patterns. Rabbit APL was prepared by freeze-thawing a platelet suspension. Critical-size defects in rabbit femoral condyle were filled with DBBM or DBBM+APL and BCP or BCP+APL. Rabbits were sacrificed after six weeks and newly formed bone and residual implanted material were evaluated using nondemineralized histology and histomorphometry. New bone was observed around particles of all fillers tested. In the defects filled with BCP, the newly formed bone area was greater (70%; P<0.001 while the residual material area was lower (60%; P<0.001 than that observed in those filled with DBBM. New bone and residual material area of defects filled with either APL+DBBM or APL+BCP were similar to those observed in those filled with the material alone. In summary, osteoconductivity and resorption of BCP were greater than those of DBBM, while APL associated with either DBBM or BCP did not have an additional benefit.