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Sample records for bovine cyp19 gene

  1. ( CYP19 ) gene in Iranian women with endometriosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... CYP19 repeat lengths than control subjects. The strong association of CYP19 gene polymorphism with high-stage endometriosis suggests that CYP19 may have a prognostic implication. Keywords: CYP19; Aromatase; Endometriosis; Gene polymorphism. The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics (2013) 14, 165– ...

  2. Upstream Stimulating Factors 1 and 2 Enhance Transcription from the Placenta-Specific Promoter 1.1 of the Bovine Cyp19 Gene

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    Vanselow Jens

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placenta-derived oestrogens have an impact on the growth and differentiation of the trophoblast, and are involved in processes initiating and facilitating birth. The enzyme that converts androgens into oestrogens, aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom, is encoded by the Cyp19 gene. In the placenta of the cow, expression of Cyp19 relies on promoter 1.1 (P1.1. Our recent studies of P1.1 in vitro and in a human trophoblast cell line (Jeg3 revealed that interactions of placental nuclear protein(s with the E-box element at position -340 are required for full promoter activity. The aim of this work was to identify and characterise the placental E-box (-340-binding protein(s (E-BP as a step towards understanding how the expression of Cyp19 is regulated in the bovine placenta. Results The significance of the E-box was confirmed in cultured primary bovine trophoblasts. We enriched the E-BP from placental nuclear extracts using DNA-affinity Dynabeads and showed by Western blot analysis and supershift EMSA experiments that the E-BP is composed of the transcription factors upstream stimulating factor (USF 1 and USF2. Depletion of the USFs by RNAi and expression of a dominant-negative USF mutant, were both associated with a significant decrease in P1.1-dependent reporter gene expression. Furthermore, scatter plot analysis of P1.1 activity vs. USF binding to the E-box revealed a strong positive correlation between the two parameters. Conclusion From these results we conclude that USF1 and USF2 are activators of the bovine placenta-specific promoter P1.1 and thus act in the opposite mode as in the case of the non-orthologous human placenta-specific promoter.

  3. Analysis of aromatase ( CYP19 ) gene in Iranian women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of aromatase (CYP19) gene in Iranian women with endometriosis. Hajar Saber, Zivar Salehi, Saiedeh Sadri. Abstract. Endometriosis is a chronic, inflammatory, estrogen dependent disease that affects up to 10% of all women of fertile age. It is characterized by the presence and proliferation of functional endometrial ...

  4. Association between CYP19 gene SNP rs2414096 Polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome in Chinese women

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Jia-Li; Sun, Jing; Ge, Hui-Juan; Cao, Yun-Xia; Wu, Xiao-Ke; Liang, Feng-Jing; Sun, Hai-Xiang; Ke, Lu; Yi, Long; Wu, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Several studies have reported the association of the SNP rs2414096 in the CYP19 gene with hyperandrogenism, which is one of the clinical manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). These studies suggest that SNP rs2414096 may be involved in the etiopathogenisis of PCOS. To investigate whetherthe CYP19 gene SNP rs2414096 polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to PCOS, we designed a case-controlled association study including 684 individuals. Methods A ca...

  5. CYP19 gene variant confers susceptibility to endometriosis-associated infertility in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ledan; Lu, Xiaosheng; Wang, Danhan; Qu, Wanglei; Li, Wenju; Xu, Xiaowen; Huang, Qiusui; Han, Xueying; Lv, Jieqiang

    2014-06-27

    An aromatase encoded by the CYP19 gene catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of estrogens, which is related to endometriosis development. To assess the association of CYP19 gene polymorphisms with the risks of endometriosis, chocolate cysts and endometriosis-related infertility, a case-control study was conducted in Chinese Han women by recruiting 225 healthy control females, 146 patients with endometriosis, 94 endometriosis women with chocolate cyst and 65 women with infertility resulting from endometriosis, as diagnosed by both pathological and laparoscopic findings. Individual genotypes at rs2236722:T>C, rs700518:A>G, rs10046:T>C and [TTTA]n polymorphisms were identified. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared between the control group and case groups by chi-square analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were determined by logistic regression analysis to predict the association of CYP19 gene polymorphisms with the risk of endometriosis, the related chocolate cysts and infertility. The genotype distributions of the tested CYP19 gene polymorphisms were not significantly different between the healthy control group and the endometriosis/endometriosis with the chocolate cyst group. However, the CYP19 rs700518AA genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of endometriosis-related infertility (55.4% in the infertility group vs 25.3% in the control group, Pinfertility.

  6. A candidate gene study of CYP19 (aromatase) and male sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPree, Michael G; Mustanski, Brian S; Bocklandt, Sven; Nievergelt, Caroline; Hamer, Dean H

    2004-05-01

    Aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19), which is necessary for the conversion of androgens to estrogens, plays an important role in the sexual differentiation of the brain. To investigate whether differences in the gene encoding the aromatase enzyme influence sexual orientation in men, we conducted linkage, association, and expression analyses in a large sample of homosexual brothers using microsatellite markers in and around CYP19. No linkage was detected, and a gene-specific relative risk of 1.5-fold could be excluded at a lod score of -2. Results of the TDT demonstrated no preferential transmission of any of the CYP19 alleles in this sample. Expression of aromatase mRNA by microarray analysis was not significantly different between heterosexual and homosexual men. These results suggest that variation in the gene for this subunit of the aromatase enzyme complex is not likely to be a major factor in the development of individual differences in male sexual orientation.

  7. ANALYSIS OF CYP19 GENE POLYMORPHISM AS FACTOR AFFECTING MILK PRODUCTION OF CATTLE

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    Anna Trakovická

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the animal CYP19/PvuII genotypes, evaluate the genetic structure of population and estimate the effect of genotypes on long-life milk production traits in Slovak Simmental cattle. Blood samples were obtained from in total 150 Slovak Simmental cows originating from four different farms localized on eastern Slovakia. The polymorphism in CYP19 gene was detected using PCR-RFLP method and PvuII restriction enzyme. In cows population was identified the presence of all three genotypes: AA (74.7%, AB (21.3%, and BB (4%. The A allele was more frequent (0.85±0.02 than B (0.15±0.02. In population was found deviations from HWE. The level of locus polymorphism in the analysed population was only low (PIC=0.212. The activity of CYP19/PvuII alleles were unbalanced (Ne=1.33 and the higher proportion of homozygous animals caused the decrease of observed heterozygosity (He=0.21. Based on F – statistic results the most of the genetic variation was distributed within all analysed individuals (FIT 0.155. Evaluation of CYP19/PvuII genotype effect on milk production traits was carried out with linear models (GLM procedure. Based on the selected effect we were able to estimate the variability of analysed traits on in average 85%. The CYP19/PvuII genotype affected significantly the variability of milk and protein yield (P<0.05. The higher production of both traits was found in individuals with BB genotype. Statistically significant influence was detected also for sire (P<0.05, breeder (P<0.0001 and total number of completed lactations (P<0.0001.

  8. Aromatase (CYP19) promoter gene polymorphism and risk of nonviral hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wang, Renwei; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Oppenheimer, Rowena; Zhang, Zhen Quan; Yu, Mimi C; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies suggest that sex hormones may induce or promote the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Androgens are converted to estrogens by the CYP19 gene product, aromatase. Hepatic aromatase level and activity have been shown to be markedly elevated in HCC. Aromatase expression in liver tumors is driven by a promoter upstream of CYP19 exon I.6. First, the authors identified an A/C polymorphism in the exon I.6 promoter of the CYP19 gene. To determine whether allelic variants in the CYP19 I.6 promoter differ in their ability to drive gene expression, we carried out an in vitro reporter gene assay. Then, the authors studied the association between this polymorphism and HCC risk in 2 complementary case-control studies: 1 in high-risk southern Guangxi, China, and another in low-risk US non-Asians of Los Angeles County. Transcriptional activity was 60% higher for promoter vectors carrying the rs10459592 C allele compared with those carrying an A allele (P = .007). In both study populations, among subjects negative for at-risk serologic markers of hepatitis B or C, there was a dose-dependent association between number of high activity C allele and risk of HCC (P(trend) = .014). Risk of HCC was significantly higher (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-4.31) in subjects homozygous for the C allele compared with those homozygous for the A allele. This study provides epidemiologic evidence for the role of hepatic aromatization of androgen into estrogen in the development of nonviral hepatitis-related HCC. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  9. Association between CYP19 gene SNP rs2414096 Polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome in Chinese women

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    Yi Long

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have reported the association of the SNP rs2414096 in the CYP19 gene with hyperandrogenism, which is one of the clinical manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. These studies suggest that SNP rs2414096 may be involved in the etiopathogenisis of PCOS. To investigate whetherthe CYP19 gene SNP rs2414096 polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to PCOS, we designed a case-controlled association study including 684 individuals. Methods A case-controlled association study including 684 individuals (386 PCOS patients and 298 controls was performed to assess the association of SNP rs2414096 with PCOS. Genotyping of SNP rs2414096 was conducted by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method that was performed on genomic DNA isolated from blood leucocytes. Results were analyzed in respect to clinical test results. Results The genotypic distributions of rs2414096 (GG, AG, AA in the CYP19 gene (GG, AG, AA in women with PCOS (0.363, 0.474, 0.163, respectively were significantly different from that in controls (0.242, 0.500, 0.258, respectively (P = 0.001. E2/T was different between the AA and GG genotypes. Age at menarche (AAM and FSH were also significantly different among the GG, AG, and AA genotypes in women with PCOS (P = 0.0391 and 0.0118, respectively. No differences were observed in body mass index (BMI and other serum hormone concentrations among the three genotypes, either in the PCOS patients or controls. Conclusions Our data suggest that SNP rs2414096 in the CYP19 gene is associated with susceptibility to PCOS.

  10. Fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques (FISH) to detect changes in CYP19a gene expression of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Woo; Tompsett, Amber; Zhang, Xiaowei; Newsted, John L; Jones, Paul D; Au, Doris; Kong, Richard; Wu, Rudolf S S; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive in situ hybridization methodology using fluorescence-labeled riboprobes (FISH) that allows for the evaluation of gene expression profiles simultaneously in multiple target tissues of whole fish sections of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). To date FISH methods have been limited in their application due to autofluorescence of tissues, fixatives or other components of the hybridization procedure. An optimized FISH method, based on confocal fluorescence microscopy was developed to reduce the autofluorescence signal. Because of its tissue- and gender-specific expression and relevance in studies of endocrine disruption, gonadal aromatase (CYP19a) was used as a model gene. The in situ hybridization (ISH) system was validated in a test exposure with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole. The optimized FISH method revealed tissue-specific expression of the CYP19a gene. Furthermore, the assay could differentiate the abundance of CYP19a mRNA among cell types. Expression of CYP19a was primarily associated with early stage oocytes, and expression gradually decreased with increasing maturation. No expression of CYP19a mRNA was observed in other tissues such as brain, liver, or testes. Fadrozole (100 microg/L) caused up-regulation of CYP19a expression, a trend that was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis on excised tissues. In a combination approach with gonad histology, it could be shown that the increase in CYP19a expression as measured by RT-PCR on a whole tissue basis was due to a combination of both increases in numbers of CYP19a-containing cells and an increase in the amount of CYP19a mRNA present in the cells.

  11. ANALYSIS OF CYP19 GENE POLYMORPHISM AS FACTOR AFFECTING MILK PRODUCTION OF CATTLE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anna Trakovická; Nina Moravcíková; Martina Miluchová; Michal Gábor

    2015-01-01

      The aim of this study was to determine the animal CYP19/PvuII genotypes, evaluate the genetic structure of population and estimate the effect of genotypes on long-life milk production traits in Slovak Simmental cattle...

  12. Gonadotropin and sf-1 regulation of cyp19a1a gene and aromatase activity during oocyte development in the rohu, L. rohita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Moulik, Sujata; Pal, Puja; Majumder, Suravi; Mallick, Buddhadev; Gupta, Shreyasi; Guha, Payel; Roy, Sibsankar; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2016-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom), a product of cyp19a1 gene, plays pivotal roles in vertebrate steroidogenesis and reproduction. In this study, we isolated partial cDNA encoding the ovarian (cyp19a1a) and brain (cyp19a1b) P450arom genes from adult female rohu, Labeo rohita and investigated the regulation of cyp19a1a by gonadotropin and SF-1. The cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b were expressed predominantly in the ovary and brain respectively, with quantity of the former attuned to reproductive cycle. To elucidate gonadotropin regulation of cyp19a1a mRNA expression and P450 aromatase activity for 17β-estradiol (E2) biosynthesis in vitro by the vitellogenic ovarian follicles, time- and dose-dependent studies were conducted with HCG and porcine FSH. Results demonstrated that HCG stimulated significantly higher expression of cyp19a1a mRNA and aromatase activity leading to increased biosynthesis of E2 than FSH. To understand the involvement of SF-1 to in the regulation of cyp19a1a and aromatase activity, ovarian follicles were incubated with increasing concentrations of HCG and expression of sf1gene and activation of SF-1 protein were measured. Results demonstrated that HCG significantly induced expression of sf-1 gene and activation of SF-1 protein suggesting a link between SF-1 and P450 aromatase activation in this fish ovary during gonadotropin-induced steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A loss of aggressive behaviour and its reinstatement by oestrogen in mice lacking the aromatase gene (Cyp19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, K; Saibara, T; Okada, T; Onishi, S; Shizuta, Y

    2001-02-01

    Aromatase P450 (CYP19) is an enzyme responsible for conversion of androgens to oestrogens. We generated CYP19 knockout (ArKO) mice by targeting disruption of the CYP19 gene and observed that the ArKO males exhibited a complete loss of aggressive behaviour against intruder mice when examined using a resident-intruder paradigm. The defect in the behaviour of ArKO males was reinstated when the mice received supplements of 17beta-oestradiol soon after birth. Nevertheless, the cumulative duration of the behaviour displayed by the treated mice during the test period of 15 min was 19+/-10 s, which was much shorter than that displayed by wild-type males, 90+/-17 s. When the supplementation was started at 7 days after birth, the defect was not restored. These findings illustrate an absolute requirement for oestrogen during the neonatal stage of a male's life for the development of the potential for aggression observed in adulthood. Furthermore, the present study demonstrates that ArKO males are a useful model in which to investigate the neural mechanisms by which aggressive behaviour is controlled.

  14. Independent self-construal mediates the association between CYP19A1 gene variant and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing; Yang, Yafang; Xue, Mengying; Fang, Pengpeng; Shen, Guomin; Zhang, Kejin; Gao, Xiaocai; Yu, Rongjun; Gong, Pingyuan

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone and estrogen are involved in self-related behavioral dispositions and experiences of subjective well-being. In this study, we investigated to what extent the aromatase (CYP19A1) gene, which encodes an enzyme in converting testosterone into estrogen, contributes to subjective well-being and in another self-related disposition: independent and interdependent self-construal. In study 1, a meta-analysis showed that the GG genotype of CYP19A1 (a G/A substitution at Val80, rs700518) was associated with higher testosterone and lower estradiol. In study 2, an empirical study of individuals with the GG (n=115), AG (n=286) and AA (n=193) genotypes indicated that individuals with the GG genotype exhibited higher independent self-construal and higher subjective well-being. The association between the GG genotype of CYP19A1 Val80 and subjective well-being was mediated by the independent self-construal. Our findings reinforce the idea that personality traits such as independent self-construal explain the link between genetic variant and subjective well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Simple tandem repeat (TTTAn polymorphism in CYP19 (aromatase gene and breast cancer risk in Nigerian women

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    Ferrell Robert

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer related deaths in women worldwide. The incidence of the disease is increasing globally and this increase is occurring at a faster rate in population groups that hirtherto enjoyed low incidence. This study was designed to evaluate the role of a simple tandem repeat polymorphism (STRP in the aromatase (CYP19 gene in breast cancer susceptibility in Nigerian women, a population of indigenous sub-Saharan African ancestry. Methods A case-control study recruiting 250 women with breast cancer and 250 women without the disease from four University Teaching Hospitals in Southern Nigeria was carried out between September 2002 and April 2004. Participants were recruited from the surgical outpatient clinics and surgical wards of the Nigerian institutions. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assay was employed for genotyping and product sizes were detected with an ABI 3730 DNA Analyzer. Results Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that harboring the putative high risk genotypes conferred a 29% increased risk of breast cancer when all women in the study were considered (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83–2.00, although this association was not statistically significant. Subgroup analysis based on menopausal status showed similar results among premenopausal women (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.76–2.41 and postmenopausal women (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 0.64–2.49. The data also demonstrated marked differences in the distribution of (TTTAn repeats in Nigerian women compared with other populations. Conclusion This study has shown that harboring 10 or more repeats of the microsatellite (TTTAn repeats of the CYY19 gene is associated with a modest increased risk of breast cancer in Nigerian women.

  16. PSA and androgen-related gene (AR, CYP17, and CYP19) polymorphisms and the risk of adenocarcinoma at prostate biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos, Rodrigo Mattos; de Jesus, Carlos Márcio Nóbrega; Trindade Filho, José Carlos Souza

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of polymorphisms in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and androgen-related genes (AR, CYP17, and CYP19) on prostate cancer (PCa) risk in selected high-risk patients who underwent prostate biopsy. Blood samples and prostate tissues were obtained...... for DNA analysis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 50-untranslated regions (UTRs) of the PSA (substitution A>G at position-158) and CYP17 (substitution T>C at 50-UTR) genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism assays. The CAG and TTTA repeats...... in the AR and CYP19 genes, respectively, were genotyped by PCR-based GeneScan analysis. Patients with the GG genotype of the PSA gene had a higher risk of PCa than those with the AG or AA genotype (OR=3.79, p=0.00138). The AA genotype was associated with lower PSA levels (6.44 +/- 1.64 ng=mL) compared...

  17. A non-synonymous coding change in the CYP19A1 gene Arg264Cys (rs700519 does not affect circulating estradiol, bone structure or fracture

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    Wang Jenny Z

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of estrogens from androgens is catalyzed by aromatase P450 enzyme, coded by the CYP19A1 gene on chromosome 15q21.2. Genetic variation within the CYP19A1 gene sequence has been shown to alter the function of the enzyme. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a non-synonymous Arg264Cys (rs700519 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP is associated with altered levels of circulating estradiol, areal bone mineral density or fracture. Methods This population- based study of 1,022 elderly Caucasian women (mean age 74.95 ± 2.60 years was genotyped for the rs700519 SNP were analyzed to detect any association with endocrine and bone phenotypes. Results The genotype frequencies were 997 wildtype (97.6%, 24 heterozygous (2.3% and 1 homozygous (0.1%. When individuals were grouped by genotype, there was no association between the polymorphism and serum estradiol (wildtype 27.5 ± 16.0; variants 31.2 ± 18.4, P = 0.27. There was also no association seen on hip bone mineral density (wildtype 0.81 ± 0.12; 0.84 ± 0.14 for variants, P = 0.48 or femoral neck bone mineral density (0.69 ± 0.10 for wildtype; 0.70 ± 0.12 for variants, P = 0.54 before or after correction of the data with age, height, weight and calcium therapy. There were also no associations with quantitative ultrasound measures of bone structure (broadband ultrasound attenuation, speed of sound and average stiffness. Conclusions In a cohort of 1,022 elderly Western Australian women, the presence of Arg264Cys (rs700519 polymorphism was not found to be associated with serum estradiol, bone structure or phenotypes.

  18. Effects of PCB 126 and PCB 153 on secretion of steroid hormones and mRNA expression of steroidogenic genes (STAR, HSD3B, CYP19A1) and estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ) in prehierarchical chicken ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechman, Andrzej; Batoryna, Marta; Antos, Piotr A; Hrabia, Anna

    2016-12-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of dioxin-like PCB 126 and non-dioxin-like PCB 153 on basal and ovine LH (oLH)-stimulated testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) secretion and expression of steroidogenic genes (STAR, HSD3B and CYP19A1) and estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ) in white (WF) and yellowish (YF) prehierarchical follicles of the hen ovary. Steroid concentrations in a medium and gene expression in follicles following 6h of exposition were determined by RIA and real-time qPCR, respectively. Both PCBs increased basal and oLH-stimulated T secretion by the WF follicles. PCB 126 reduced basal E2 secretion by the WF follicles. PCB 153 elevated but PCB 126 reduced oLH-stimulated E2 secretion by the prehierarchical follicles. PCB 126 increased basal STAR and HSD3B and reduced CYP19A1 mRNA expression in these follicles. PCB 153 increased basal expression of STAR and HSD3B in YF follicles, but diminished HSD3B mRNA levels in the WF. The studied PCBs had an opposite effect on basal and oLH-stimulated CYP19A1 mRNA expression in prehierarchical follicles. Both PCBs modulated basal and inhibited oLH-stimulated ERα and ERβ gene expression in the prehierarchical follicles. In conclusion, data of the current study demonstrate the congener-specific effects of PCBs on sex steroid secretion by prehierarchical follicles of the chicken ovary, which are at least partly related to STAR, HSD3B and CYP19A1 gene expression. It is suggested that PCBs, by influencing follicular steroidogenesis and expression of estrogen receptors, may impair development and selection of yellowish follicles to the preovulatory hierarchy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ekspresi Gen CYP19 Aromatase, Estrogen, Androgen pada penderita Periodontitis Agresif

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    Dahlia Herawati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kepadatan tulang tubuh ditentukan oleh gen CYP19 aromatase, hormon estrogen dan androgen. Pada periodontitis agresif terjadi perkembangan cepat kerusakan tulang alveolar, dan kerusakan tulang alveoler tersebut tidak diimbangioleh regenerasi tulang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menunjukkan ekspresi gen CYP19 aromatase, estrogen, androgen pada penderita periodontitis agresif agar dapat untuk menjadi pertimbangan pada saat melakukan perawatan periodontal. Metode penelitian, pemeriksaan ekspresi gen aromatse CYP19 berasal dari spesimen tulang alveolar menggunakan imunohistokimia, pengukuran hormon estrogen dan androgen dari serum menggunakan Vidas: Elfa. Hasil penelitian ekspresi gene CYP19 aromatase pada periodontitis agresif menunjukkan gambaran lebih rendah densitasnya dibandingkan pada nonperiodontitis. Estrogen dan androgen pad aperiodontitis agresif ada kecenderungan lebih rendah dibandingkan pada nonperiodontitis. Kesimpulan regenerasi tulang alveoler pad a periodontitis agresif terhambat karena sedikitnya gen CYP19 aromatase dan hormon estrogen dan androgen yang berperan pada pembentukan tulang alveoler kurang memadai.

  20. Knockout of Zebrafish Ovarian Aromatase Gene (cyp19a1a) by TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 Leads to All-male Offspring Due to Failed Ovarian Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Esther Shuk-Wa; Zhang, Zhiwei; Qin, Mingming; Ge, Wei

    2016-11-23

    Sexual or gonadal differentiation is a complex event and its mechanism remains elusive in teleosts. Despite its complexity and plasticity, the process of ovarian differentiation is believed to involve gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a) in nearly all species studied. However, most data concerning the role of aromatase have come from gene expression analysis or studies involving pharmacological approaches. There has been a lack of genetic evidence for the importance of aromatase in gonadal differentiation, especially the timing when the enzyme starts to exert its effect. This is due to the lack of appropriate loss-of-function approaches in fish models for studying gene functions. This situation has changed recently with the development of genome editing technologies, namely TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9. Using both TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9, we successfully established three mutant zebrafish lines lacking the ovarian aromatase. As expected, all mutant fish were males, supporting the view that aromatase plays a critical role in directing ovarian differentiation and development. Further analysis showed that the ovarian aromatase did not seem to affect the formation of so-called juvenile ovary and oocyte-like germ cells; however, it was essential for further differentiation of the juvenile ovary into the true ovary.

  1. Oestrogen at the neonatal stage is critical for the reproductive ability of male mice as revealed by supplementation with 17beta-oestradiol to aromatase gene (Cyp19) knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, K; Okada, T; Takeda, K; Akira, S; Saibara, T; Shiraishi, M; Onishi, S; Shizuta, Y

    2001-03-01

    Aromatase P450 (CYP19) is an enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to oestrogens. We generated CYP19 knockout (ArKO) mice by targeted disruption of Cyp19 and studied the role of oestrogens in male reproductive ability. Approximately 85% of ArKO males were unable to sire offspring. However, no obvious difference was found in testicular and epididymal weights, numbers of sperm in the epididymis or the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs in vitro between wild-type and ArKO males. An examination of mating behaviour demonstrated that ArKO males showed an impairment in mounting behaviour against sexually mature females. The inability of more than 90% of ArKO males to sire offspring was reversed by repeated subcutaneous injections of 17beta-oestradiol when initiated on the day of birth. The effects of 17beta-oestradiol on reproduction were concentration dependent and evident when supplementation was initiated on day 7, but not on day 15 after birth. These findings suggest that oestrogens acting during neonatal life are required for normal mating behaviour in adulthood.

  2. Overexpression of OsCYP19-4 increases tolerance to cold stress and enhances grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dae Hwa; Lee, Sang Sook; Park, Hyun Ji; Lyu, Jae Il; Chong, Won Seog; Liu, Jang Ryol; Kim, Beom-Gi; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    AtCYP19-4 (also known as CYP5) was previously identified as interacting in vitro with GNOM, a member of a large family of ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors that is required for proper polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1. The present study demonstrated that OsCYP19-4, a gene encoding a putative homologue of AtCYP19-4, was up-regulated by several stresses and showed over 10-fold up-regulation in response to cold. The study further demonstrated that the promoter of OsCYP19-4 was activated in response to cold stress. An OsCYP19-4-GFP fusion protein was targeted to the outside of the plasma membrane via the endoplasmic reticulum as determined using brefeldin A, a vesicle trafficking inhibitor. An in vitro assay with a synthetic substrate oligomer confirmed that OsCYP19-4 had peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, as was previously reported for AtCYP19-4. Rice plants overexpressing OsCYP19-4 showed cold-resistance phenotypes with significantly increased tiller and spike numbers, and consequently enhanced grain weight, compared with wild-type plants. Based on these results, the authors suggest that OsCYP19-4 is required for developmental acclimation to environmental stresses, especially cold. Furthermore, the results point to the potential of manipulating OsCYP19-4 expression to enhance cold tolerance or to increase biomass. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. CYP19A1 fine-mapping and Mendelian randomization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Deborah J; O'Mara, Tracy A; Glubb, Dylan M

    2016-01-01

    Candidate gene studies have reported CYP19A1 variants to be associated with endometrial cancer and with estradiol (E2) concentrations. We analyzed 2937 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6608 endometrial cancer cases and 37 925 controls and report the first genome wide-significant associat......Candidate gene studies have reported CYP19A1 variants to be associated with endometrial cancer and with estradiol (E2) concentrations. We analyzed 2937 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6608 endometrial cancer cases and 37 925 controls and report the first genome wide......-significant association between endometrial cancer and a CYP19A1 SNP (rs727479 in intron 2, P=4.8×10−11). SNP rs727479 was also among those most strongly associated with circulating E2 concentrations in 2767 post-menopausal controls (P=7.4×10−8). The observed endometrial cancer odds ratio per rs727479 A-allele (1.15, CI......=1.11–1.21) is compatible with that predicted by the observed effect on E2 concentrations (1.09, CI=1.03–1.21), consistent with the hypothesis that endometrial cancer risk is driven by E2. From 28 candidate-causal SNPs, 12 co-located with three putative gene-regulatory elements and their risk alleles...

  4. CYP19A1 fine-mapping and Mendelian randomization: estradiol is causal for endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Deborah J; O'Mara, Tracy A; Glubb, Dylan M; Painter, Jodie N; Cheng, Timothy; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Doody, Deborah; Dennis, Joe; Webb, Penelope M; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Hodgson, Shirley; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Maranian, Mel J; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Dörk, Thilo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dürst, Matthias; Runnebaum, Ingo; Zhao, Hui; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Amant, Frederic; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Dowdy, Sean C; Winham, Stacey J; Salvesen, Helga B; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Werner, Henrica M J; Ashton, Katie; Proietto, Tony; Otton, Geoffrey; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Tham, Emma; Liu, Tao; Mints, Miriam; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Attia, John; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Nyholt, Dale R; Henders, Anjali K; Hopper, John L; Traficante, Nadia; Ruebner, Matthias; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Meindl, Alfons; Brauch, Hiltrud; Lindblom, Annika; Lambrechts, Diether; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Couch, Fergus J; Giles, Graham G; Kristensen, Vessela N; Cox, Angela; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Bojesen, Stig E; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Pharoah, Paul D P; Dunning, Alison M; Tomlinson, Ian; Dowsett, Mitch; Easton, Douglas F; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2016-01-01

    Candidate gene studies have reported CYP19A1 variants to be associated with endometrial cancer and with estradiol (E2) concentrations. We analyzed 2937 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6608 endometrial cancer cases and 37 925 controls and report the first genome wide-significant association between endometrial cancer and a CYP19A1 SNP (rs727479 in intron 2, P=4.8×10−11). SNP rs727479 was also among those most strongly associated with circulating E2 concentrations in 2767 post-menopausal controls (P=7.4×10−8). The observed endometrial cancer odds ratio per rs727479 A-allele (1.15, CI=1.11–1.21) is compatible with that predicted by the observed effect on E2 concentrations (1.09, CI=1.03–1.21), consistent with the hypothesis that endometrial cancer risk is driven by E2. From 28 candidate-causal SNPs, 12 co-located with three putative gene-regulatory elements and their risk alleles associated with higher CYP19A1 expression in bioinformatical analyses. For both phenotypes, the associations with rs727479 were stronger among women with a higher BMI (Pinteraction=0.034 and 0.066 respectively), suggesting a biologically plausible gene-environment interaction. PMID:26574572

  5. Mutation of foxl2 or cyp19a1a Results in Female to Male Sex Reversal in XX Nile Tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianbo; Li, Mengru; Ma, He; Liu, Xingyong; Shi, Hongjuan; Li, Minghui; Wang, Deshou

    2017-08-01

    It is well accepted that Forkhead box protein L2 (Foxl2) and aromatase (Cyp19a1; the enzyme responsible for estrogen synthesis) are critical for ovarian development in vertebrates. Knockouts of Foxl2 and Cyp19a1 in goat, mouse, and zebrafish have revealed similar but not identical functions across species. Functional analyses of these two genes in other animals are needed to elucidate their conserved roles in vertebrate sexual development. In this study, we established foxl2 and cyp19a1a mutant lines in Nile tilapia. Both foxl2-/- and cyp19a1a-/- XX fish displayed female-to-male sex reversal. Sf1, Dmrt1, and Gsdf were upregulated in the foxl2-/- and the cyp19a1a-/- XX gonads. Downregulation of Cyp19a1a and serum estradiol-17β level, and upregulation of Cyp11b2 and serum 11-ketotestosterone level were observed in foxl2-/- XX fish. The mutant phenotype of foxl2-/- XX individuals could be rescued by 17β-estradiol treatment from 5 to 30 days after hatching (dah). Upregulation of Star1, the enzyme involved in androgen production in tilapia, was also observed in the foxl2-/- XX gonad at 30 and 90 dah. In vitro promoter analyses consistently demonstrated that Foxl2 could suppress the transcription of star1 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, compared with the control XX gonad, fewer germ cells were detected in the foxl2-/- XX, cyp19a1a-/- XX, and control XY gonads 10 dah. These results demonstrate that Foxl2 promotes ovarian development by upregulating Cyp19a1a expression and repressing male pathway gene expression. These results extend the study of Foxl2 and Cyp19a1a loss of function to a commercially important fish species. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  6. Expression Levels of PPARγ and CYP-19 in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Primary Granulosa Cells: Influence of ω-3 Fatty Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Zaree

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The omega-3 fatty acid (ω-3 fatty acid such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA is currently used in the clinic as a nutritional supplement in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of EPA on the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and cytochrome P450 aromatase (encoded by the CYP-19 in primary cultured granulosa cells (GC from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF, and also to compare these effects with those in GC of PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, human GC were isolated, primary cultured in vitro, exposed to a range of concentrations of the EPA and investigated with respect to gene expression levels of PPARγ and CYP-19 using real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The participants (n=30 were the patients admitted to the IVF Center in February-March 2013 at Alzahra Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, who were divided into two groups as PCOS (n=15 and non-PCOS (n=15 women (controls. Results: All doses of the EPA significantly induced PPARγ mRNA gene expression level as compared to the control recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH alone condition. High doses of EPA in the presence of rFSH produced a stimulatory effect on expression level of PPARγ (2.15-fold, P=0.001 and a suppressive effect (0.56-fold, P=0.01 on the expression level of CYP-19, only in the PCOS GC. Conclusion: EPA and FSH signaling pathway affect differentially on the gene expression levels of PPARγ and CYP-19 in PCOS GC. Altered FSH-induced PPARγ activity in PCOS GC may modulate the CYP-19 gene expression in response to EPA, and possibly modulates the subsequent steroidogenesis of these cells.

  7. Effects of Neonicotinoids on Promoter-Specific Expression and Activity of Aromatase (CYP19) in Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma (H295R) and Primary Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron-Beaudoin, Élyse; Denison, Michael S; Sanderson, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme aromatase (CYP19; cytochrome P450 19) in humans undergoes highly tissue- and promoter-specific regulation. In hormone-dependent breast cancer, aromatase is over-expressed via several normally inactive promoters (PII, I.3, I.7). Aromatase biosynthesizes estrogens, which stimulate breast cancer cell proliferation. The placenta produces estrogens required for healthy pregnancy and the major placental CYP19 promoter is I.1. Exposure to certain pesticides, such as atrazine, is associated with increased CYP19 expression, but little is known about the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on CYP19. We developed sensitive and robust RT-qPCR methods to detect the promoter-specific expression of CYP19 in human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) and primary umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells, and determined the potential promoter-specific disruption of CYP19 expression by atrazine and the commonly used neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam. In H295R cells, atrazine concentration-dependently increased PII- and I.3-mediated CYP19 expression and aromatase catalytic activity. Thiacloprid and thiamethoxam induced PII- and I.3-mediated CYP19 expression and aromatase activity at relatively low concentrations (0.1-1.0 µM), exhibiting non-monotonic concentration-response curves with a decline in gene induction and catalytic activity at higher concentrations. In HUVEC cells, atrazine slightly induced overall (promoter-indistinct) CYP19 expression (30 µM) and aromatase activity (≥ 3 µM), without increasing I.1 promoter activity. None of the neonicotinoids increased CYP19 expression or aromatase activity in HUVEC cells. Considering the importance of promoter-specific (over)expression of CYP19 in disease (breast cancer) or during sensitive developmental periods (pregnancy), our newly developed RT-qPCR methods will be helpful tools in assessing the risk that neonicotinoids and other chemicals may pose to exposed women. © The Author 2015

  8. DNA methylation of the gonadal aromatase (cyp19a promoter is involved in temperature-dependent sex ratio shifts in the European sea bass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Navarro-Martín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex ratio shifts in response to temperature are common in fish and reptiles. However, the mechanism linking temperature during early development and sex ratios has remained elusive. We show in the European sea bass (sb, a fish in which temperature effects on sex ratios are maximal before the gonads form, that juvenile males have double the DNA methylation levels of females in the promoter of gonadal aromatase (cyp19a, the enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens. Exposure to high temperature increased the cyp19a promoter methylation levels of females, indicating that induced-masculinization involves DNA methylation-mediated control of aromatase gene expression, with an observed inverse relationship between methylation levels and expression. Although different CpGs within the sb cyp19a promoter exhibited different sensitivity to temperature, we show that the increased methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter, which occurs in the gonads but not in the brain, is not a generalized effect of temperature. Importantly, these effects were also observed in sexually undifferentiated fish and were not altered by estrogen treatment. Thus, methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter is the cause of the lower expression of cyp19a in temperature-masculinized fish. In vitro, induced methylation of the sb cyp19a promoter suppressed the ability of SF-1 and Foxl2 to stimulate transcription. Finally, a CpG differentially methylated by temperature and adjacent to a Sox transcription factor binding site is conserved across species. Thus, DNA methylation of the aromatase promoter may be an essential component of the long-sought-after mechanism connecting environmental temperature and sex ratios in vertebrate species with temperature-dependent sex determination.

  9. (CYP19) gene in Iranian women with endometriosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hajar Saber

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... uterus, such as the pelvic floor or around the fallopian tubes and ovaries [1]. The prevalence in ... overall cancer risk, with particular elevation of ovarian cancer risk [3]. Two principal explanations for the .... 23 (21%)], with 94 (85%) of 110 complaining of chronic pelvic pain, 65 (59.1%) having dyspareunia.

  10. Genotypic and allelic variability in CYP19A1 among populations of African and European ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Starlard-Davenport

    Full Text Available CYP19A1 facilitates the bioconversion of estrogens from androgens. CYP19A1 intron single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may alter mRNA splicing, resulting in altered CYP19A1 activity, and potentially influencing disease susceptibility. Genetic studies of CYP19A1 SNPs have been well documented in populations of European ancestry; however, studies in populations of African ancestry are limited. In the present study, ten 'candidate' intronic SNPs in CYP19A1 from 125 African Americans (AA and 277 European Americans (EA were genotyped and their frequencies compared. Allele frequencies were also compared with HapMap and ASW 1000 Genomes populations. We observed significant differences in the minor allele frequencies between AA and EA in six of the ten SNPs including rs10459592 (p<0.0001, rs12908960 (p<0.0001, rs1902584 (p = 0.016, rs2470144 (p<0.0001, rs1961177 (p<0.0001, and rs6493497 (p = 0.003. While there were no significant differences in allele frequencies between EA and CEU in the HapMap population, a 1.2- to 19-fold difference in allele frequency for rs10459592 (p = 0.004, rs12908960 (p = 0.0006, rs1902584 (p<0.0001, rs2470144 (p = 0.0006, rs1961177 (p<0.0001, and rs6493497 (p = 0.0092 was observed between AA and the Yoruba (YRI population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD blocks and haplotype clusters that is unique to the EA population but not AA was also observed. In summary, we demonstrate that differences in the allele frequencies of CYP19A1 intron SNPs are not consistent between populations of African and European ancestry. Thus, investigations into whether CYP19A1 intron SNPs contribute to variations in cancer incidence, outcomes and pharmacological response seen in populations of different ancestry may prove beneficial.

  11. Involvement of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in atrazine action on FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 expression in rat granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Glisic, Branka; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa, E-mail: nebojsa.andric@dbe.uns.ac.rs

    2013-07-01

    Worldwide used herbicide atrazine is linked to reproductive dysfunction in females. In this study, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of atrazine action in the ovary using a primary culture of immature granulosa cells. In granulosa cells, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activates both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascades, with cAMP pathway being more important for luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA expression. We report that 48 h after atrazine exposure the FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA expression and estradiol synthesis were decreased, with LHR mRNA being more sensitive to atrazine than CYP19A1 mRNA. Inadequate acquisition of LHR in the FSH-stimulated and atrazine-exposed granulosa cells renders human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ineffective to stimulate amphiregulin (Areg), epiregulin (Ereg), and progesterone receptor (Pgr) mRNA expression, suggesting anti-ovulatory effect of atrazine. To dissect the signaling cascade involved in atrazine action in granulosa cells, we used U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of ERK1/2. U0126 prevents atrazine-induced decrease in LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in the FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. ERK1/2 inactivation restores the ability of hCG to induce expression of the ovulatory genes in atrazine-exposed granulosa cells. Cell-based ELISA assay revealed that atrazine does not change the FSH-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in granulosa cells. The results from this study reveal that atrazine does not affect but requires ERK1/2 phosphorylation to cause decrease in the FSH-induced LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in immature granulosa cells, thus compromising ovulation and female fertility. - Highlights: • Atrazine inhibits estradiol production in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine inhibits LHR and Cyp19a1 mRNA expression in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine

  12. Methadone: A Substrate and Mechanism-Based Inhibitor of CYP19 (Aromatase)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bies, Robert; Kamden, Landry K.; Desta, Zeruesenay; Flockhart, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The peripheral conversion of testosterone to estradiol by aromatase is the primary source of endogenous estrogen in postmenopausal women. Studies indicating that placental aromatase is able to metabolize methadone to its primary metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1, 5-dimethyl-3, 3-diphenylpyrrolidin (EDDP), led us to test the hypothesis that methadone is able to act as an inhibitor of aromatase. Using recombinant human CYP19, we examined the ability of methadone to bring about either reversible or mechanism-based inhibition of the conversion of testosterone to estradiol. To test for reversible inhibition, racemic methadone or its metabolite EDDP or 2-ethyl-5-methyl-3, 3-diphenylpyrroline (EMDP) was incubated for 30 min with testosterone at the Km (4 μM). To test for mechanism-based inhibition, microsomal preincubations were performed for up to 30 min using racemic methadone (1–1000 μM), R- or S-methadone (0.5–500 μM), or EDDP or EMDP (10 and 100 μM) followed by incubation with testosterone at a Vmax concentration (50 μM). Racemic methadone, EDDP, and EMDP did not act as competitive inhibitors of CYP19. Preincubation of methadone, EDDP, or EMDP with CYP19 resulted in time- and concentration-dependent inhibition, indicating a mechanism-based reaction that destroys CYP19 activity. The KI and kinact values for racemic methadone were calculated to be 40.6 ± 2.8 μM and 0.061 ± 0.001 min−1, respectively. No stereoselectivity was observed. Methadone is metabolized by CYP19 and may act as a potent inhibitor of CYP19 in vivo. These findings may contribute to variability in methadone clearance, to drug-drug interactions, and to side effects observed in individual patients. PMID:20410453

  13. Polymorphisms of CYP17A1, CYP19, and androgen in Brazilian women with uterine leiomyomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosa, Fabíola Encinas; Canevari, Renata de Azevedo; Ambrosio, Eliane Papa

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uterine leiomyomas are common, benign, smooth muscle tumors representing a significant public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate CYP17A1, CYP19, and androgen (AR) polymorphisms, their relative risks for uterine leiomyomas and possible associations with clinical p...

  14. CYP19 Genetic Polymorphism Haplotype AASA Is Associated with a Poor Prognosis in Premenopausal Women with Lymph Node-Negative, Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hsin Kuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the critical role of CYP19 in estrogen synthesis, we investigated the influence of CYP19 gene polymorphisms on the clinical outcome of lymph node- (LN- negative, hormone receptor- (HR- positive early breast cancers. Genotyping for the CYP19 polymorphisms rs4646 (A/C, rs1065779 (A/C, CYP19 (TTTAn (short allele/long (S/L allele using the 7 TTTA repeat polymorphism as the cut-off, and rs1870050 (A/C was performed on 296 patients with LN-negative, HR-positive breast cancers. All patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Associations were examined between these 4 genotypes and 6 common haplotypes of CYP19 and distant disease-free survival (DDFS, disease-free survival (DFS, and overall survival (OS. Patients were divided into the 6 subhaplotypes of CCLA (41.1%, AASA (17.1%, CASA (11.9%, CCLC (8.9%, CCSA (7.5%, AASC (8.9%, and others (4.6%. In premenopausal patients, haplotype AASA was significantly associated with a poor DDFS (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR, 3.3; P=0.001, DFS (aHR, 2.5; P=0.0008, and OS (aHR, 2.9; P=0.0004 after adjusting for age, tumor size, tumor grade, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, chemotherapy, pathology, adjuvant hormone therapy, menopausal status, and radiotherapy. Furthermore, haplotype AASA remained a negative prognostic factor for premenopausal patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in terms of DDFS (aHR, 4.5; P=0.0005, DFS (HR, 3.2; P=0.003, and OS (HR, 6.4; P=0.0009. However, in postmenopausal patients, haplotype AASA was not associated with a poor prognosis, whereas the AASC haplotype was significantly associated with a poor DFS (aHR, 3.1; P=0.03 and OS (aHR, 4.4; P=0.01. Our results indicate that, in patients with LN-negative, HR-positive breast cancers, genetic polymorphism haplotype AASA is associated with poor survival of premenopausal women but does not affect survival of postmenopausal women.

  15. Genetic variation in CYP19A1 and risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions among women in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu; Sakoda, Lori C; Doherty, Jennifer A; Loomis, Melissa M; Fish, Sherianne; Ray, Roberta M; Lin, Ming Gang; Fan, Wenhong; Zhao, Lue Ping; Gao, Dao Li; Stalsberg, Helge; Feng, Ziding; Thomas, David B

    2008-12-01

    CYP19A1 encodes for aromatase, which irreversibly converts androgens to estrogens; variation in this gene may affect individual susceptibility to breast cancer and other sex hormone-dependent outcomes. In a case-control study nested within a breast self-examination trial conducted in China, we examined whether CYP19A1 polymorphisms (rs1870049, rs1004982, rs28566535, rs936306, rs11636639, rs767199, rs4775936, rs11575899, rs10046, and rs4646) were associated with risk of breast cancer and fibrocystic breast conditions. Cases were diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 614) or fibrocystic breast conditions (n = 465) during 1989 to 2000. Controls were free of breast disease during the same period (n = 879). Presence of proliferative changes within the extratumoral tissue of women with breast cancer and the lesions of women with fibrocystic conditions only was assessed. None of the polymorphisms were associated with overall risk of breast cancer or fibrocystic breast conditions. Differences in breast cancer risk, however, were observed by proliferation status. The risk of breast cancer with (but not without) proliferative fibrocystic conditions was increased among women homozygous for the minor allele of rs1004982 (C), rs28566535 (C), rs936306 (T), and rs4775936 (C) relative to those homozygous for the major allele [age-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals), 2.19 (1.24-3.85), 2.20 (1.27-3.82), 1.94 (1.13-3.30), and 1.95 (1.07-3.58), respectively]. Also, haplotypes inferred using all polymorphisms were not associated with overall risk of either outcome, although some block-specific haplotypes were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer with concurrent proliferative fibrocystic conditions. Our findings suggest that CYP19A1 variation may enhance breast cancer development in some women, but further confirmation is warranted.

  16. Alcohol-related breast cancer in postmenopausal women - effect of CYP19A1, PPARG and PPARGC1A polymorphisms on female sex-hormone levels and interaction with alcohol consumption and NSAID usage in a nested case-control study and a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Jensen, Ditte Marie; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of breast cancer (BC), and the underlying mechanism is thought to be sex-hormone driven. In vitro and observational studies suggest a mechanism involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in a complex with peroxisome......19A1 is associated with risk of BC in a case-control study group nested within the Danish "Diet, Cancer and Health" cohort (ncases = 687 and ncontrols = 687) and searched for gene-gene interaction between CYP19A1 and PPARGC1A, and CYP19A1 and PPARG, and gene-alcohol and gene-NSAID interactions...

  17. Effects of Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 (FGF9) on Steroidogenesis and Gene Expression and Control of FGF9 mRNA in Bovine Granulosa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Nicole B.

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression of fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF9) is decreased in granulosa cells (GC) of cystic follicles compared with normal dominant follicles in cattle. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of FGF9 on GC steroidogenesis, gene expression, and cell proliferation and to determine the hormonal control of GC FGF9 production. GC were collected from small (1–5 mm) and large (8–22 mm) bovine follicles and treated in vitro with various hormones in serum-free medium for 24 or 48 h. In small- and large-follicle GC, FGF9 inhibited (P 0.10) on CYP19A1 or StAR mRNA. In the presence of a 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor, trilostane, FGF9 also decreased (P 0.10) on FGF9 mRNA abundance. TNFα and wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site family member-3A decreased (P hormonally regulated, and FGF9 may act as an autocrine regulator of ovarian function by slowing follicular differentiation via inhibiting IGF-I action, gonadotropin receptors, the cAMP signaling cascade, and steroid synthesis while stimulating GC proliferation in cattle. PMID:22798350

  18. DNA polymorph isms in the bovine thyroglobulin gene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease mutation (Ricketts et ai., 1985a; 1985b; 1987). The bovine thyroglobulin gene has recently been localized to chromosome 14, which makes knowledge of RR.,Ps and their frequencies in this gene particularly useful for linkage analysis studies (Threadgillet aI., 1990). lbe DNA from thirty-two Afrikander cattle (the ...

  19. Identifying and Prioritizing Genes involved in Bovine Mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Li

    and integrate different layers of biological data, attempting to make a systematic inference of underlying genes to bovine mastitis. Robust and flexible methods have been implemented in data summarization and integration for gene prioritization, which can be applied to study various complex traits in different...

  20. Effects of octylphenol on the expression of StAR, CYP17 and CYP19 in testis of Rana chensinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yao; Li, Xin-Yi; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Hui

    2017-04-01

    It has been proposed that a decline in sperm quality is associated with exposure to environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity. Seeking possible explanations for this effect, this study investigated the effects of octylphenol (OP) on the synthesis of steroid hormones in amphibian. Rana chensinensis were exposed to 10(-8), 10(-7) and 10(-6)mol/L OP after 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. The cDNA fragments of StAR (274bp), CYP17 (303bp) and CYP19 (322bp) were cloned. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that positive signals of StAR, CYP17, CYP19 mRNA and proteins mainly in the Leydig cells of testes. Real-time PCR showed that up-regulation of StAR and CYP19, and down-regulation of CYP17 after exposure to 10(-8), 10(-7) and 10(-6)mol/L OP. The results suggest that OP can alter transcriptions of StAR, CYP17 and CYP19, thus disturb the expressions of StAR, P450c17 and P450arom, thereby adversely affect steroid synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of bovine growth hormone gene polymorphism of local and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of bovine growth hormone gene polymorphism of local and Holstein cattle breeds in Kerman province of Iran using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... RFLPs in this segment were studied using AluI restriction enzyme.

  2. Haplotype combination of the bovine PCSK1 gene sequence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prohormone convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 gene. (PCSK1) plays a role in body mass control. Recent associa- tion studies have shown that three common nonsynonymous. SNPs are linked to increase risk of obesity and therefore it has been the focus of this study. Hence, in this study, polymorphisms of the bovine ...

  3. Mutational and Evolutionary Analyses of Bovine Reprimo Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 1230-/T and 1264-/A. The percent identity and similarity between the amino acid sequence of bovine RPRM and RPRM genes of other mammals were higher than 90% (91-100% and 94-100%, respectively), except in the duckbill platypus where percent identity and similarity indices were 78% and 81%, respectively.

  4. Genes involved in bovine milk-fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schennink, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes that underlie the genetic variation in bovine milk-fat composition. The fat composition of milk samples from approximately 2,000 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows in their first lactation was measured by gas chromatography.

  5. Novel SNPs polymorphism of bovine CACNA2D1 gene and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mastitis is a major cause of economic loss in dairy cattle. In this study, the bovine CACNA2D1 gene was taken as a candidate gene for mastitis resistance. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine CACNA2D1 gene and evaluate the association of these SNPs with ...

  6. Novel SNPs polymorphism of bovine CACNA2D1 gene and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-07

    Mar 7, 2011 ... Mastitis is a major cause of economic loss in dairy cattle. In this study, the bovine CACNA2D1 gene was taken as a candidate gene for mastitis resistance. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine CACNA2D1 gene and evaluate the association of these.

  7. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin increases aromatase (CYP19) mRNA stability in MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ming Yan; Huang, Hui; Leung, Lai K

    2010-04-12

    Dioxins are industrial pollutants that can be bio-accumulative in our food chain. Humans can be exposed to this class of pollutant through contaminated food, air, drinking water, etc. Displaying both pro- and anti-estrogenic properties, these pollutants are also known as endocrine disruptors. The link between breast cancer and TCDD exposure has not been resolved, although TCDD is classified as 'known human carcinogen'. Estrogen is a documented risk factor for breast carcinogenesis. In the present study, effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) on estrogen synthesis was investigated in the breast cancer cells MCF-7. Our results showed that TCDD increased the aromatase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis verified the induced expression by 2-3-fold; however, gene reporter assay revealed that the promoter activity of exons I.3 and II was not elevated. Further investigation indicated that TCDD slowed down the CYP19 mRNA degradation with concurrent activation of ERK. The ERK inhibitor U0126 could reverse the extended stability of the transcripts. In summary this study demonstrated that TCDD might induce a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism of gene expression in breast cancer cells.

  8. Bovine Mammary Gene Expression Profiling during the Onset of Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanyuan; Lin, Xueyan; Shi, Kerong; Yan, Zhengui; Wang, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactogenesis includes two stages. Stage I begins a few weeks before parturition. Stage II is initiated around the time of parturition and extends for several days afterwards. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand the molecular events underlying these changes, genome-wide gene expression profiling was conducted using digital gene expression (DGE) on bovine mammary tissue at three time points (on approximately day 35 before parturition (−35 d), day 7 before parturition (−7 d) and day 3 after parturition (+3 d)). Approximately 6.2 million (M), 5.8 million (M) and 6.1 million (M) 21-nt cDNA tags were sequenced in the three cDNA libraries (−35 d, −7 d and +3 d), respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the three cDNA libraries included 8,662, 8,363 and 8,359 genes, respectively. With a fold change cutoff criteria of ≥2 or ≤−2 and a false discovery rate (FDR) of ≤0.001, a total of 812 genes were significantly differentially expressed at −7 d compared with −35 d (stage I). Gene ontology analysis showed that those significantly differentially expressed genes were mainly associated with cell cycle, lipid metabolism, immune response and biological adhesion. A total of 1,189 genes were significantly differentially expressed at +3 d compared with −7 d (stage II), and these genes were mainly associated with the immune response and cell cycle. Moreover, there were 1,672 genes significantly differentially expressed at +3 d compared with −35 d. Gene ontology analysis showed that the main differentially expressed genes were those associated with metabolic processes. Conclusions The results suggest that the mammary gland begins to lactate not only by a gain of function but also by a broad suppression of function to effectively push most of the cell's resources towards lactation. PMID:23990904

  9. Bovine mammary gene expression profiling during the onset of lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lactogenesis includes two stages. Stage I begins a few weeks before parturition. Stage II is initiated around the time of parturition and extends for several days afterwards. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the molecular events underlying these changes, genome-wide gene expression profiling was conducted using digital gene expression (DGE on bovine mammary tissue at three time points (on approximately day 35 before parturition (-35 d, day 7 before parturition (-7 d and day 3 after parturition (+3 d. Approximately 6.2 million (M, 5.8 million (M and 6.1 million (M 21-nt cDNA tags were sequenced in the three cDNA libraries (-35 d, -7 d and +3 d, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the three cDNA libraries included 8,662, 8,363 and 8,359 genes, respectively. With a fold change cutoff criteria of ≥ 2 or ≤-2 and a false discovery rate (FDR of ≤ 0.001, a total of 812 genes were significantly differentially expressed at -7 d compared with -35 d (stage I. Gene ontology analysis showed that those significantly differentially expressed genes were mainly associated with cell cycle, lipid metabolism, immune response and biological adhesion. A total of 1,189 genes were significantly differentially expressed at +3 d compared with -7 d (stage II, and these genes were mainly associated with the immune response and cell cycle. Moreover, there were 1,672 genes significantly differentially expressed at +3 d compared with -35 d. Gene ontology analysis showed that the main differentially expressed genes were those associated with metabolic processes. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the mammary gland begins to lactate not only by a gain of function but also by a broad suppression of function to effectively push most of the cell's resources towards lactation.

  10. Effects of bovine oviduct epithelial cells, fetal calf serum and bovine serum albumin on gene expression in single bovine embryos produced in the synthetic oviduct fluid culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mona E; Øzdas, Øzen Banu; Farstad, Wenche; Tverdal, Aage; Olsaker, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    In this study the synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) system with bovine oviduct epithelial cell (BOEC) co-culture is compared with an SOF system with common protein supplements. One thousand six hundred bovine embryos were cultured in SOF media supplemented with BOEC, fetal calf serum (FCS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Eight different culture groups were assigned according to the different supplementation factors. Developmental competence and the expression levels of five genes, namely glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP), connexin43 (Cx43), (2)-actin (ACTB) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), analysed as mRNA by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, were measured on bovine embryos cultured for 9 days. Gene expression of these in vitro-produced embryos was compared with the gene expression of in vivo-produced embryos. There was no significant difference found in embryo developmental competence between the Day 9 embryos in BOEC co-culture, FCS and BSA supplements in SOF media. However, differences in gene expression were observed. With respect to gene expression in in vivo and in vitro embryos, BOEC co-culture affected the same genes as did supplementation with FCS and BSA. HSP was the only gene that differed significantly between in vitro and in vivo embryos. When the different in vitro groups were compared, a significant difference between the BOEC co-culture and the FCS supplementation groups due to Glut-1 expression was observed.

  11. Differential neutrophil gene expression in early bovine pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizaki Keiichiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In food production animals, especially cattle, the diagnosis of gestation is important because the timing of gestation directly affects the running of farms. Various methods have been used to detect gestation, but none of them are ideal because of problems with the timing of detection or the accuracy, simplicity, or cost of the method. A new method for detecting gestation, which involves assessing interferon-tau (IFNT-stimulated gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL, was recently proposed. PBL fractionation methods were used to examine whether the expression profiles of various PBL populations could be used as reliable diagnostic markers of bovine gestation. Methods PBL were collected on days 0 (just before artificial insemination, 7, 14, 17, 21, and 28 of gestation. The gene expression levels of the PBL were assessed with microarray analysis and/or quantitative real-time reverse transcription (q PCR. PBL fractions were collected by flow cytometry or density gradient cell separation using Histopaque 1083 or Ficoll-Conray solutions. The expression levels of four IFNT-stimulated genes, interferon-stimulated protein 15 kDa (ISG15, myxovirus-resistance (MX 1 and 2, and 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS1, were then analyzed in each fraction through day 28 of gestation using qPCR. Results Microarray analysis detected 72 and 28 genes in whole PBL that were significantly higher on days 14 and 21 of gestation, respectively, than on day 0. The upregulated genes included IFNT-stimulated genes. The expression levels of these genes increased with the progression of gestation until day 21. In flow cytometry experiments, on day 14 the expression levels of all of the genes were significantly higher in the granulocyte fraction than in the other fractions. Their expression gradually decreased through day 28 of gestation. Strong correlations were observed between the expression levels of the four genes in the granulocyte

  12. Differential neutrophil gene expression in early bovine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizaki, Keiichiro; Shichijo-Kizaki, Ayumi; Furusawa, Tadashi; Takahashi, Toru; Hosoe, Misa; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi

    2013-02-05

    In food production animals, especially cattle, the diagnosis of gestation is important because the timing of gestation directly affects the running of farms. Various methods have been used to detect gestation, but none of them are ideal because of problems with the timing of detection or the accuracy, simplicity, or cost of the method. A new method for detecting gestation, which involves assessing interferon-tau (IFNT)-stimulated gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), was recently proposed. PBL fractionation methods were used to examine whether the expression profiles of various PBL populations could be used as reliable diagnostic markers of bovine gestation. PBL were collected on days 0 (just before artificial insemination), 7, 14, 17, 21, and 28 of gestation. The gene expression levels of the PBL were assessed with microarray analysis and/or quantitative real-time reverse transcription (q) PCR. PBL fractions were collected by flow cytometry or density gradient cell separation using Histopaque 1083 or Ficoll-Conray solutions. The expression levels of four IFNT-stimulated genes, interferon-stimulated protein 15 kDa (ISG15), myxovirus-resistance (MX) 1 and 2, and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS1), were then analyzed in each fraction through day 28 of gestation using qPCR. Microarray analysis detected 72 and 28 genes in whole PBL that were significantly higher on days 14 and 21 of gestation, respectively, than on day 0. The upregulated genes included IFNT-stimulated genes. The expression levels of these genes increased with the progression of gestation until day 21. In flow cytometry experiments, on day 14 the expression levels of all of the genes were significantly higher in the granulocyte fraction than in the other fractions. Their expression gradually decreased through day 28 of gestation. Strong correlations were observed between the expression levels of the four genes in the granulocyte fractions obtained with flow cytometry and with density

  13. CYP19A1 polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in the BIG 1-98 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyland-Jones, Brian; Gray, Kathryn P; Abramovitz, Mark

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether CYP19A1 polymorphisms are associated with abnormal activity of aromatase and with musculoskeletal and bone side effects of aromatase inhibitors. DNA was isolated from tumor specimens of 4861 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer enrolled in the BIG 1......-98 trial to receive tamoxifen and/or letrozole for 5 years. Tumors were genotyped for six CYP19A1 polymorphisms using PCR-based methods. Associations with breast cancer-free interval (BCFI), distant recurrence-free interval (DRFI), musculoskeletal and bone adverse events (AEs) were assessed using Cox...... proportional hazards models. All statistical tests were two-sided. No association between the CYP19A1 genotypes and BCFI or DRFI was observed overall. A reduced risk of a breast cancer event for tamoxifen-treated patients with rs700518 variants was observed (BCFI CC/TC vs. TT: HR 0.53, 95 % CI 0...

  14. Targeting the human lysozyme gene on bovine αs1- casein gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... activity of lysozyme in transfected cells culture medium was 180 U/ml. To obtain the gene targeted cells line, bovine fetal fibroblasts were isolated and transfected with linear targeting vector (21.9 kb) using nucleofector device, which the transfection rate was about 25%. After seven rounds of independent cell transfection, ...

  15. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of various breeds under local conditions of management. (Hale, 1974b). AdditionaIly, this procedure has been used to assess the production of LH by the bovine anterior pituitary in vitro and to study the relationships between this production and the activity of the pineal- hypothalamic axis (Hayes, Knight & Symington, 1974;.

  16. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  17. Contribution of polymorphisms in ESR1, ESR2, FSHR, CYP19A1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Migraine, a highly prevalent headache disorder, is regarded as a polygenic multifactorial disease. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes that involved in sex hormone metabolism may comprise risk for migraine, but the results of previous genetic association studies are conflicting. The aim of this study was to ...

  18. Impairments of mecA gene detection in bovine Staphylococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Dayanne Araújo; Coelho, Irene da Silva; da Motta, Cássia Couto; Rojas, Anna Carolina Coelho Marín; Dubenczuk, Felipe Carlos; Coelho, Shana de Mattos de Oliveira; de Souza, Miliane Moreira Soares

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance, especially to beta-lactams, favors treatment failures and its persistence in herd environment. This work aimed to develop a more specific primer for mecA gene detection based on the comparison of the conserved regions from distinct host origins and also investigated the presence of homologue mecA(LGA251) in bovine strains. A total of 43 Staphylococcus spp. were included in this study, comprising 38 bovine S. aureus, two human and three equine coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). Phenotypical methicillin-resistance detection was performed through oxacillin agar-screening and cefoxitin disk-diffusion test. None isolate tested positive for mecA(LGA251) gene. For mecA gene PCR, new primers were designed based on the sequences of human S. aureus (HE681097) and bovine S. sciuri (AY820253) mecA. The new primers based on the S. aureus mecA sequence amplified fragments of human and equine CNS and the ones based on S. sciuri mecA sequence only yielded fragments for S. aureus bovine strains. Multiples alignments of mecA gene sequences from bovine, human and equine revealed punctual but significant differences in bovine strains that can lead to the mecA gene detection impairment. The observed divergences of mecA gene sequences are not a matter of animal or human origin, it is a specificity of bovine samples.

  19. The Effects of Exercise on Expression of CYP19 and StAR mRNA in Steroid-Induced Polycystic Ovaries of Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaie, Fatemeh; Khazali, Homayoun; Hedayati, Mehdi; Akbarnejad, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent female endocrine disorder that affects 5-10% of women. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligo-/anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and aromatase (CYP19) mRNA in the ovaries of an estradiol valerate (EV)-induced PCOS rat model, and the effect of treadmill and running wheel (voluntary) exercise on these parameters. In this experimental study, we divided adult female Wistar rats that weighed approximately 220 ± 20 g initially into control (n=10) and PCOS (n=30). Subsequently, PCOS group were divided to PCOS, PCOS with treadmill exercise (P-ExT), and PCOS with running wheel exercise (P-ExR) groups (n=10 per group). The expressions of StAR and CYP19 mRNA in the ovaries were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA using SPSS software, version 16. The data were assessed at α=0.05. There was significantly lower mRNA expression of CYP19 in the EV-induced PCOS, running wheel and treadmill exercise rats compared to the control group (PStAR in the ovaries of the PCOS group indicated an increasing trend compared to the control group, however this was not statistically significant (P=0.810). We observed that 8 weeks of running wheel and treadmill exercises could not statistically decrease StAR mRNA expression compared to the PCOS group (P=0.632). EV-induced PCOS in rats decreased CYP19 mRNA expression, but had no effect on StAR mRNA expression. We demonstrated that running wheel and moderate treadmill exercise could not modify CYP19 and StAR mRNA expressions.

  20. Bovine gene polymorphisms related to fat deposition and meat tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R.S. Fortes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, thyroglobulin and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase play important roles in fat metabolism. Fat deposition has an influence on meat quality and consumers' choice. The aim of this study was to determine allele and genotype frequencies of polymorphisms of the bovine genes, which encode leptin (LEP, thyroglobulin (TG and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1. A further objective was to establish the effects of these polymorphisms on meat characteristics. We genotyped 147 animals belonging to the Nelore (Bos indicus, Canchim (5/8 Bos taurus + 3/8 Bos indicus, Rubia Gallega X Nelore (1/2 Bos taurus + 1/2 Bos indicus, Brangus Three-way cross (9/16 Bos taurus + 7/16 Bos indicus and Braunvieh Three-way cross (3/4 Bos taurus + 1/4 Bos indicus breeds. Backfat thickness, total lipids, marbling score, ribeye area and shear force were fitted, using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS software. The least square means of genotypes and genetic groups were compared using Tukey's test. Allele frequencies vary among the genetic groups, depending on Bos indicus versus Bos taurus influence. The LEP polymorphism segregates in pure Bos indicus Nelore animals, which is a new finding. The T allele of TG is fixed in Nelore, and DGAT1 segregates in all groups, but the frequency of allele A is lower in Nelore animals. The results showed no association between the genotypes and traits studied, but a genetic group effect on these traits was found. So, the genetic background remains relevant for fat deposition and meat tenderness, but the gene markers developed for Bos taurus may be insufficient for Bos indicus.

  1. Analysis of polymorphic microsatellites within the bovine and ovine prion protein (PRNP) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldermann, H; Preuss, S; Eckert, J; Han, Y; Ollesch, K

    2003-08-01

    Twenty-four microsatellite sites with at least three repeats were found in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) and 23 in the ovine PRNP gene. Eight microsatellite sites were polymorphic in cattle and six in sheep with up to 10 alleles per site. In many cases allelic DNA fragments had variants in microsatellite sites and in flanking regions. Distances between microsatellite sites in eight genes from cattle and sheep occurred on average every 0.9 kb. The numerous polymorphic microsatellite sites will improve analysis of phylogenetic origin of different PRNP alleles and trait association studies for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie.

  2. From molecule to behavior: Brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) characterization, expression analysis and its relation with social status and male agonistic behavior in a Neotropical cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramallo, Martín R; Morandini, Leonel; Birba, Agustina; Somoza, Gustavo M; Pandolfi, Matías

    2017-03-01

    The enzyme aromatase, responsible for the conversion of C19 androgens to C18 estrogens, exists as two paralogue copies in teleost fish: Cyp19a1a mostly expressed in the gonads, referred as gonadal aromatase, and Cyp19a1b, mostly expressed in the brain, accordingly known as brain aromatase. The neural localization of Cyp19a1b is greatly contained within the social behavior network and mesolimbic reward system in fish, suggesting a strong role of estrogen synthesis in the regulation of social behavior. In this work we aimed to analyze the variation in cyp19a1b expression in brain and pituitary of males of a highly social cichlid, Cichlasoma dimerus (locally known as chanchita), and its relation with inter-individual variability in agonistic behavior in a communal social environment. We first characterized chanchita's cyp19a1b mRNA and deduced amino acid sequence, which showed a high degree of conservation when compared to other teleost brain aromatase sequences, and its tissue expression patterns. Within the brain, Cyp19a1b was solely detected at putative radial glial cells of the forebrain, close to the brain ventricles. We then studied the relative expression levels of cyp19a1b by Real Time PCR in the brain and pituitary of males of different social status, territorial vs. non-territorial, and its relationship with an index of agonistic behavior. We found that even though, brain aromatase expression did not differ between types of males, pituitary cyp19a1b expression levels positively correlated with the index of agonistic behavior. This suggests a novel role of the pituitary in the regulation of social behavior by local estrogen synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression of the Bovine NK-Lysin Gene Family and Activity against Respiratory Pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Chen

    Full Text Available Unlike the genomes of many mammals that have a single NK-lysin gene, the cattle genome contains a family of four genes, one of which is expressed preferentially in the lung. In this study, we compared the expression of the four bovine NK-lysin genes in healthy animals to animals challenged with pathogens known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq. The expression of several NK-lysins, especially NK2C, was elevated in challenged relative to control animals. The effects of synthetic peptides corresponding to functional region helices 2 and 3 of each gene product were tested on both model membranes and bio-membranes. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that these peptides adopted a more helical secondary structure upon binding to an anionic model membrane and liposome leakage assays suggested that these peptides disrupt membranes. Bacterial killing assays further confirmed the antimicrobial effects of these peptides on BRD-associated bacteria, including both Pasteurella multocida and Mannhemia haemolytica and an ultrastructural examination of NK-lysin-treated P. multocida cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed the lysis of target membranes. These studies demonstrate that the expanded bovine NK-lysin gene family is potentially important in host defense against pathogens involved in bovine respiratory disease.

  4. Remodeling epigenetic modifications at tumor suppressor gene promoters with bovine oocyte extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenfei; Yue, Yongli; Han, Pengyong; Sa, Rula; Ren, Xiaolv; Wang, Jie; Bai, Haidong; Yu, Haiquan

    2013-09-01

    Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes by aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications at their promoter regions plays an important role in the initiation and progression of cancer. The therapeutic effect of the widely used epigenetic drugs, including DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and histone deacetylase inhibitors, remains unsatisfactory. One important underlying factor in the ineffectiveness of these drugs is that their actions lack specificity. To investigate whether oocyte extract can be used for epigenetic re-programming of cancer cells, H460 human lung cancer cells were reversibly permeabilized and incubated with bovine oocyte extract. Bisulfite sequencing showed that bovine oocyte extract induced significant demethylation at hypermethylated promoter CpG islands of the tumor suppressor genes RUNX3 and CDH1; however, the DNA methylation levels of repetitive sequences were not affected. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that bovine oocyte extract significantly reduced transcriptionally repressive histone modifications and increased transcriptionally activating histone modifications at the promoter regions of RUNX3 and CDH1. Bovine oocyte extract reactivated the expression of RUNX3 and CDH1 at both the messenger RNA and the protein levels without up-regulating the transcription of pluripotency-associated genes. At the functional level, anchorage-independent proliferation, migration and invasion of H460 cells was strongly inhibited. These results demonstrate that bovine oocyte extract reactivates epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes by remodeling the epigenetic modifications at their promoter regions. Bovine oocyte extract may provide a useful tool for investigating epigenetic mechanisms in cancer and a valuable source for developing novel safe therapeutic approaches that target epigenetic alterations. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic variability of bovine GHR, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 genes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identification of genetic polymorphisms in the genes that play a crucial role in regulatiing growth and development of livestock enables us to evaluate the biological similarities and to acquire a better perspective of quantitative traits. The present study was undertaken to characterize genetic variability in the bovine ...

  6. Haplotypes of bovine FoxO1 gene sequence variants and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Online resources. Haplotypes of bovine FoxO1 gene sequence variants and association with growth traits in Qinchuan cattle. Yujia Sun Jing Xue Wenjiao Guo Mingxun Li Yongzhen Huang Xianyong Lan Chuzhao Lei Chunlei Zhang Hong Chen. Volume 92 Online resources ...

  7. Two novel SNPs in the coding region of bovine VDR gene and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Online resources. Two novel SNPs in the coding region of bovine VDR gene and their associations with growth traits. Yuan Gao Dong Liu Wei Ma Aimin Li Xianyong Lan Chunlei Zhang Chuzhao Lei Hong Chen. Volume 92 Online resources 2013 pp e53-e59 ...

  8. Splice variants and promoter methylation status of the Bovine Vasa Homology (Bvh) gene may be involved in bull spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Hua; Zhou, Yang; Li, Yingxia; Li, Qifa

    2013-01-01

    Background Vasa is a member of the DEAD-box protein family that plays an indispensable role in mammalian spermatogenesis, particularly during meiosis. Bovine vasa homology (Bvh) of Bos taurus has been reported, however, its function in bovine testicular tissue remains obscure. This study aimed to reveal the functions of Bvh and to determine whether Bvh is a candidate gene in the regulation of spermatogenesis in bovine, and to illustrate whether its transcription is regulated by alternative sp...

  9. Gene expression profiles of vitrified in vitro- and in vivo-derived bovine blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Digdem Aktoprakligil; Agca, Cansu; Aksu, Soner; Bagis, Haydar; Akkoc, Tolga; Caputcu, Arzu Tas; Arat, Sezen; Taskin, Ali Cihan; Kizil, Sedat H; Karasahin, Tahir; Akyol, Numan; Satilmis, Muharrem; Sagirkaya, Hakan; Ustuner, Burcu; Nur, Zekeriya; Agca, Yuksel

    2012-09-01

    Vitrification is becoming a preferred method for pre-implantation embryo cryopreservation. The objective of this study was to determine the differentially expressed genes of in vivo- and in vitro-produced bovine embryos after vitrification. In vitro- (IVF) and in vivo-derived (IVV) bovine blastocysts were identified as follows: in vitro-produced fresh (IVF-F), in vitro-produced vitrified (IVF-V), in vivo-derived fresh (IVV-F), in vivo-derived vitrified (IVV-V). The microarray results showed that 53 genes were differentially regulated between IVF and IVV, and 121 genes were differentially regulated between fresh and vitrified blastocysts (P vitro bovine blastocyst production protocols used in this study caused no major gene expression differences compared to those of in vivo-produced blastocysts. After vitrification, however, in vitro-produced blastocysts showed major gene expression differences compared to in vivo blastocysts. This study suggests that in vitro-produced embryos are of comparable quality to their in vivo counterparts. Vitrification of in vitro blastocysts, on the other hand, causes significant up-regulation of genes that are involved in stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Genetic diversity and virulence genes in Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ambrósio Loures

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most common and costly infectious diseases in dairy cattle worldwide. This is a multifactorial illness caused by different microorganisms, including virus, yeasts, algae, parasites, and several species of bacteria. Among these bacteria, Streptococcus uberis is an important environmental pathogen that is responsible for a large range of clinical and subclinical mammary infections, especially in intensively managed herds. Despite the increasing importance of this pathogen in the etiology of bovine mastitis, data on its virulence and diversity in Brazilian dairy herds are scarce. The aims of the present study were to investigate the virulence characteristics of S. uberis isolated from bovine mastitis and to assess the molecular epidemiology of the Brazilian isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. In this work, 46 strains of S. uberis isolated from bovine mastitis from 26 Brazilian dairy herds were evaluated regarding their genetic diversity by PFGE using with the SmaI enzyme. Additionally, the presence of the virulence genes skc and pauA, which encode plasminogen activators, and the gene sua, which encodes an adhesion molecule in mammary epithelial cells, were assessed by PCR. Our results showed a high genetic diversity in the population, displaying many different patterns in the PFGE analysis. A high proportion of strains was positive for virulence genes in the sampled population (sua [100%], pauA [91%], and skc [91%]. The high frequency of skc, pauA, and sua genes among the studied strains suggests the importance of these virulence factors, possibly helping S. uberis in the colonization of the bovine mammary gland. Surveys of the genetic and molecular characteristics of this pathogen can improve our knowledge of bacterial activity and identify molecules that have roles in the establishment of the infection. This might help in the development of more effective measures to control and prevent bovine mastitis.

  11. Mapping of the transcription start site (TSS and identification of SNPs in the bovine neuropeptide Y (NPY gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeney Torres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropeptide Y is a key neurotransmitter of the central nervous system which plays a vital role in the feed energy homeostasis in mammals. Mutations in the regulatory and coding regions of the bovine NPY gene can potentially affect the neuronal regulation of appetite and feeding behaviour in cattle. The objectives of this experiment were to: a fully characterize the bovine NPY gene transcript and b identify the SNP diversity in both coding and non-coding regions of the NPY gene in a panel of Bos taurus and B. indicus cattle. Results Bovine NPY gene consists of four exons (99, 188, 81 and 195 nucleotides and three introns. The promoter region of the NPY gene consists of TATA and GC boxes which are separated from the transcription start site (TSS by 29 and ~100 nt, respectively. Analyses of the tissue specific expression of the bovine NPY gene revealed the presence of highly abundant NPY gene transcripts in the arcuate nucleus, cerebral and cerebellar regions of the bovine brain. We identified a total of 59 SNPs in the 8.4 kb region of the bovine NPY gene. Seven out of nine total SNPs in the promoter region affect binding of putative transcription factors. A high level of nucleotide diversity was evident in the promoter regions (2.84 × 10-3 compared to the exonic (1.44 × 10-3, intronic (1.30 × 10-3 and 3' untranslated (1.26 × 10-3 regions. Conclusion The SNPs identified in different regions of bovine NPY gene may serve as a basis for understanding the regulation of the expression of the bovine NPY gene under a variety of physiological conditions and identification of genotypes with high feed energy conversion efficiency.

  12. Mapping of the transcription start site (TSS) and identification of SNPs in the bovine neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Bojlul; Sweeney, Torres

    2008-12-23

    Neuropeptide Y is a key neurotransmitter of the central nervous system which plays a vital role in the feed energy homeostasis in mammals. Mutations in the regulatory and coding regions of the bovine NPY gene can potentially affect the neuronal regulation of appetite and feeding behaviour in cattle. The objectives of this experiment were to: a) fully characterize the bovine NPY gene transcript and b) identify the SNP diversity in both coding and non-coding regions of the NPY gene in a panel of Bos taurus and B. indicus cattle. Bovine NPY gene consists of four exons (99, 188, 81 and 195 nucleotides) and three introns. The promoter region of the NPY gene consists of TATA and GC boxes which are separated from the transcription start site (TSS) by 29 and ~100 nt, respectively. Analyses of the tissue specific expression of the bovine NPY gene revealed the presence of highly abundant NPY gene transcripts in the arcuate nucleus, cerebral and cerebellar regions of the bovine brain. We identified a total of 59 SNPs in the 8.4 kb region of the bovine NPY gene. Seven out of nine total SNPs in the promoter region affect binding of putative transcription factors. A high level of nucleotide diversity was evident in the promoter regions (2.84 x 10(-3)) compared to the exonic (1.44 x 10(-3)), intronic (1.30 x 10(-3)) and 3' untranslated (1.26 x 10(-3)) regions. The SNPs identified in different regions of bovine NPY gene may serve as a basis for understanding the regulation of the expression of the bovine NPY gene under a variety of physiological conditions and identification of genotypes with high feed energy conversion efficiency.

  13. The rs4646 and rs12592697 Polymorphisms in CYP19A1 Are Associated with Disease Progression among Patients with Breast Cancer from Different Racial/ethnic Backgrounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reina Armamento-Villareal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer, we evaluated the association between CYP19A1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on disease progression in women with breast cancer from different racial/ethnic backgrounds. This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 327 women with breast cancer in the Expanded Breast Cancer Registry program of the University of New Mexico. Stored DNA samples were analyzed for CYP19A1 SNPs using a custom designed microarray panel. Genotype-phenotype correlations were analyzed. Of the 384 SNPs, 2 were associated with clinically significant outcomes, the rs4646 and rs12592697. The T allele for the rs4646 was associated with advanced stage of the disease at the time of presentation (odds ratio OR:1.8, confidence intervals CI: 1.05-3.13, p<0.05 and a more progressive disease (OR: 2.1 CI: 1.1-4.0, p=0.04. For the rs12592697, the variant T allele was more frequent in Hispanic women and associated with a more progressive disease (OR: 2.05 CI: 1.0-4.0, p=0.04. However, further analysis according to menopausal status showed that the association between these 2 SNPs with disease progression or the stage at diagnosis are confined only to postmenopausal women. The odds ratios of disease progression among postmenopausal women carrying the T allele for the rs4646 and rs12592697 are 3.05 (1.21, 7.74, p=0.02 and 3.80 (1.24, 11.6, p=0.02, respectively. Regardless, differences in disease progression among the different genotypes for both SNPs disappeared after adjustment for treatment. In summary, the rs4646 and the rs12592697 SNPs in CYP19A1 are associated with differences in disease progression in postmenopausal women. However, treatment appears to mitigate the differences in genetic risk.ClinicalTrials.govs Identifier: NCT00322894(https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00322894?term=new+mexico+breast+cancer+registry&rank=1

  14. Mapping of the transcription start site (TSS) and identification of SNPs in the bovine neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney Torres; Bahar Bojlul

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Neuropeptide Y is a key neurotransmitter of the central nervous system which plays a vital role in the feed energy homeostasis in mammals. Mutations in the regulatory and coding regions of the bovine NPY gene can potentially affect the neuronal regulation of appetite and feeding behaviour in cattle. The objectives of this experiment were to: a) fully characterize the bovine NPY gene transcript and b) identify the SNP diversity in both coding and non-coding regions of the N...

  15. Disruption of the 37-kDa/67-kDa laminin receptor gene in bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 37-kDa/67-kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR), also known as ribosomal protein SA (RPSA), acts as a cell surface receptor for prions and plays an important role in internalization of cellular prion protein. In this study, we knocked out the part of prion binding sites (aa 161-205) by gene targeting in the bovine fetal fibroblasts ...

  16. Central nervous system gene expression changes in a transgenic mouse model for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tortosa Raül

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gene expression analysis has proven to be a very useful tool to gain knowledge of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, particularly in the initial or preclinical stages. With the aim of finding new data on the events occurring in the Central Nervous System in animals affected with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, a comprehensive genome wide gene expression study was conducted at different time points of the disease on mice genetically modified to model the bovine species brain in terms of cellular prion protein. An accurate analysis of the information generated by microarray technique was the key point to assess the biological relevance of the data obtained in terms of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy pathogenesis. Validation of the microarray technique was achieved by RT-PCR confirming the RNA change and immunohistochemistry techniques that verified that expression changes were translated into variable levels of protein for selected genes. Our study reveals changes in the expression of genes, some of them not previously associated with prion diseases, at early stages of the disease previous to the detection of the pathological prion protein, that might have a role in neuronal degeneration and several transcriptional changes showing an important imbalance in the Central Nervous System homeostasis in advanced stages of the disease. Genes whose expression is altered at early stages of the disease should be considered as possible therapeutic targets and potential disease markers in preclinical diagnostic tool development. Genes non-previously related to prion diseases should be taken into consideration for further investigations.

  17. Analysis of development-related gene expression in cloned bovine blastocysts with different developmental potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangping; Amarnath, Dasari; Kato, Yoko; Tsunoda, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    The high incidence of abnormalities in cloned calves is a most serious problem for bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) technology. Because there is little information on the differences in mRNA expression in cloned blastocysts with donor cells of different sex and origin, we compared development-related gene expression in two types of cloned bovine blastocysts with different potentials to develop into normal calves, a female adult cumulus cell line (high potential to develop into live calves) and a male fibroblast cell line (low potential to develop into live calves) to examine the correlation between the normality of cloned calves and blastocyst mRNA expression patterns. We analyzed 12 genes involved in apoptosis, growth factor signaling, metabolism, and DNA methylation in blastocysts originating from two types of donor cells and in vitro-fertilized blastocysts using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of the pro-apoptotic Bax gene and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Glut-1 genes in fibroblast-derived blastocysts was significantly higher than in cumulus cell-derived and in vitro-fertilized blastocysts. The high Bcl-2 and Glut-1 gene expression suggests that some embryonic cells with damaged DNA in fibroblast-derived blastocysts are not removed, and their descendants later manifest abnormal placenta or fetus formation. Transfer of pre-selected cloned blastocysts into recipients is required, however, to determine whether the expression pattern of these apoptosis-related genes reflects differences in the potential to develop into normal calves.

  18. Evolution of the bovine TLR gene family and member associations with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen A Fisher

    Full Text Available Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR gene family occupy key roles in the mammalian innate immune system by functioning as sentries for the detection of invading pathogens, thereafter provoking host innate immune responses. We utilized a custom next-generation sequencing approach and allele-specific genotyping assays to detect and validate 280 biallelic variants across all 10 bovine TLR genes, including 71 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and one putative nonsense SNP. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and specialized beef and dairy breeds could not be differentiated despite an average polymorphism density of 1 marker/158 bp. Collectively, 160 tagSNPs and two tag insertion-deletion mutations (indels were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at 280 variable sites for both Bos subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 118 tagSNPs and 1 tagIndel predictively captured 100% of the variation at 235 variable sites for B. t. taurus. Polyphen and SIFT analyses of amino acid (AA replacements encoded by bovine TLR SNPs indicated that up to 32% of the AA substitutions were expected to impact protein function. Classical and newly developed tests of diversity provide strong support for balancing selection operating on TLR3 and TLR8, and purifying selection acting on TLR10. An investigation of the persistence and continuity of linkage disequilibrium (r2≥0.50 between adjacent variable sites also supported the presence of selection acting on TLR3 and TLR8. A case-control study employing validated variants from bovine TLR genes recognizing bacterial ligands revealed six SNPs potentially eliciting small effects on susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium spp paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. The results of this study will broadly impact domestic cattle research by providing the necessary foundation to

  19. The influence of bovine milk high or low in isoflavones on hepatic gene expression in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanild, Mette Tingleff; Nielsen, Tina Skau

    2012-01-01

    Isoflavones have generated much attention due to their potential positive effects in various diseases. Phytoestrogens especially equol can be found in bovine milk, as feed ration for dairy cows is comprised of plants containing phytoestrogens. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes...... in hepatic gene expression after dietary intake of milk high and low in isoflavones. In addition to pelleted feed female NMRI mice were offered water, water added either 17β-estradiol, equol, Tween 80, and milk high and low in isoflavone content for a week. Gene expression was analyzed using an array q......PCR kit. It was revealed that Tween 80 and 17β-estradiol upregulated both phase I and phase II genes to the same extent whereas equol alone, high and low isoflavone milk did not alter the expression of phase I genes but decreased the expression of phase II genes. This study shows that dietary isoflavones...

  20. Analysis of the expression of putatively imprinted genes in bovine peri-implantation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Alexopoulos, N.I.; Cooney, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    imprinted genes (Ata3, Dlk1, Gnas, Grb10, Magel2, Mest-1, Ndn and Sgce) in bovine peri-implantation embryos. Two embryonic developmental stages were examined, Day 14 and Day 21. The gene expression pattern of single embryos was recorded for in vivo, in vitro produced (IVP) and parthenogenetic embryos....... The IVP embryos allow us to estimate the effect of in vitro procedures and the analysis of parthenogenetic embryos provides provisional information on maternal genomic imprinting. Among the 8 genes investigated, only Mest-1 showed differential expression in Day 21 parthenogenetic embryos compared...... to in vivo and IVP counterparts, indicating maternal imprinting of this gene. In addition, our expression analysis of single embryos revealed a more heterogeneous gene expression in IVP than in in vivo developed embryos, adding further to the hypothesis of transcriptional dysregulation induced by in vitro...

  1. Developmental competence and gene expression of immature oocytes following liquid helium vitrification in bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Yi; Li, Xiao-Xia; Xu, Ya-Kun; Wu, Hua; Zheng, Jun-Jun; Yu, Xue-Li

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an effective ultra-rapid vitrification method and evaluate its effect on maturation, developmental competence and development-related gene expression in bovine immature oocytes. Bovine cumulus oocyte complexes were randomly allocated into three groups: (1) controls, (2) liquid nitrogen vitrification, and (3) liquid helium vitrification. Oocytes were vitrified and then warmed, the percentage of morphologically normal oocytes in liquid helium group (89.0%) was significantly higher (Pvitrification had higher cleavage and blastocyst rates (41.1% and 10.0%) than that of liquid nitrogen vitrification (33.0% and 4.5%; Pvitrification. Expression of GDF9 and BAX in the liquid helium vitrification group was not significantly different from that of the control, however there were significant differences between the liquid nitrogen vitrification group and control. In conclusion, it was feasible to use liquid helium for vitrifying bovine immature oocytes. There existed an association between the compromised developmental competence and the altered expression levels of these genes for the vitrified oocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcription of ribosomal RNA genes is initiated in the third cell cycle of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anne Sørig; Avery, Birthe; Dieleman, Steph J.

    2006-01-01

    Transcription from the embryos own ribosomal genes is initiated in most species at the same time as the maternal-embryonic transition. Recently data have indicated that a minor activation may take place during the third embryonic cell cycle in the bovine, one cell cycle before the major activation...... bovine embryos were investigated to allow comparison of transcription initiation. Signs of active transcription of rRNA were observed in the third cell cycle in 29% of the in vitro produced embryos (n=35) and in 58% of the in vivo developed embryos (n=11). Signs of active transcription of rRNA were...... not apparent in the early phase of the fourth cell cycle but restarted later on. All embryos in the fifth or later cell cycles were all transcribing rRNA. The signs of rRNA synthesis during the third and fourth embryonic cell cycles could be blocked by actinomycin D, which is a strong inhibitor of RNA...

  3. Frequency, virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria spp. isolated from bovine clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hossein; Radmehr, Behrad

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria spp. isolated from bovine clinical mastitis in Iran. Listeria spp. were detected in 21/207 bovine mastitic milk samples from dairy farms in Iran, comprising L. monocytogenes (n=17), L. innocua (n=3) and L. ivanovii (n=1). L. monocytogenes isolates were grouped into serogroups '4b, 4d, 4e', '1/2a, 3a', '1/2b, 3b, 7' and '1/2c, 3c'; all harboured inlA, inlC and inlJ virulence genes. Listeria spp. were most frequently resistant to penicillin G (14/21 isolates, 66.7%) and tetracyclines (11/21 isolates, 52.4%). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of thromboxane A2 receptor gene and thromboxane A2 synthase in bovine corpora lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Z M; Rao, C V; Chakraborty, C

    1992-08-01

    Studies were undertaken to investigate the expression of thromboxane (TXA2) receptor gene, from mRNA to functional receptor protein in terms of ligand binding, along with the cellular and subcellular distribution of the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the ligand for the receptors. Bovine corpora lutea contained a single TXA2 receptor mRNA transcript of 2.8 kb. All the cell types in bovine corpora lutea contained immunoreactive TXA2 synthase, TXB2, TXA2 receptor transcripts, and receptor protein that bound the TXA2 antagonist 9,11-dimethylmethano-11,12-methano-16 (3-iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-13-14-dihydro-13-aza-15 alpha beta-omega-tetranor TXA2. The large luteal cells (20-35 microns) contained more receptor transcripts, receptor protein, and immunoreactive TXA2 synthase than did the small luteal cells (12-19 microns), luteal blood vessels, and nonluteal cells (7-12 microns). After correction for the cellular area differences, small luteal cells were seen to contain more receptor protein than did large luteal cells and nonluteal cells. All the cells showed an increase of TXA2 receptors and catalytically active TXA2 synthase from mid-luteal phase to early pregnancy, suggesting the possibility that TXA2 could be a luteotropic eicosanoid. Bovine lung homogenates (a positive control), bovine luteal plasma membranes-mitochondria-lysosomes fraction, rough-smooth endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi fraction, and highly purified nuclei contained 65-kDa immunoreactive protein, presumably representing TXA2 synthase. In addition, the luteal fractions, but not bovine lung, contained other small and large molecular-size immunoreactive proteins. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that immunoreactive TXA2 synthase was present primarily in plasma membranes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear membranes, and chromatin; and immunoreactive TXB2 was present primarily in different-size vesicles and nuclear chromatin. In summary, the present studies demonstrate for the first time that

  5. Association of an ACSL1 gene variant with polyunsaturated fatty acids in bovine skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, Philipp; Nuernberg, Karin; Kuehn, Christa; Weikard, Rosemarie

    2011-11-11

    The intramuscular fat deposition and the fatty acid profiles of beef affect meat quality. High proportions of unsaturated fatty acids are related to beef flavor and are beneficial for the nutritional value of meat. Moreover, a variety of clinical and epidemiologic studies showed that particularly long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from animal sources have a positive impact on human health and disease. To screen for genetic factors affecting fatty acid profiles in beef, we initially performed a microsatellite-based genome scan in a F(2) Charolais × German Holstein resource population and identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fatty acid composition in a region on bovine chromosome 27 where previously QTL affecting marbling score had been detected in beef cattle populations. The long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1) gene was identified as the most plausible functional and positional candidate gene in the QTL interval due to its direct impact on fatty acid metabolism and its position in the QTL interval. ACSL1 is necessary for synthesis of long-chain acyl-CoA esters, fatty acid degradation and phospholipid remodeling. We validated the genomic annotation of the bovine ACSL1 gene by in silico comparative sequence analysis and experimental verification. Re-sequencing of the complete coding, exon-flanking intronic sequences, 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) and partial promoter region of the ACSL1 gene revealed three synonymous mutations in exons 6, 7, and 20, six noncoding intronic gene variants, six polymorphisms in the promoter region, and four variants in the 3' UTR region. The association analysis identified the gene variant in intron 5 of the ACSL1 gene (c.481-233A>G) to be significantly associated with the relative content of distinct fractions and ratios of fatty acids (e.g., n-3 fatty acids, polyunsaturated, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, trans vaccenic acid) in skeletal muscle. A tentative association of the ACSL1 gene variant with

  6. Association of an ACSL1 gene variant with polyunsaturated fatty acids in bovine skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widmann Philipp

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intramuscular fat deposition and the fatty acid profiles of beef affect meat quality. High proportions of unsaturated fatty acids are related to beef flavor and are beneficial for the nutritional value of meat. Moreover, a variety of clinical and epidemiologic studies showed that particularly long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from animal sources have a positive impact on human health and disease. Results To screen for genetic factors affecting fatty acid profiles in beef, we initially performed a microsatellite-based genome scan in a F2 Charolais × German Holstein resource population and identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL for fatty acid composition in a region on bovine chromosome 27 where previously QTL affecting marbling score had been detected in beef cattle populations. The long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1 gene was identified as the most plausible functional and positional candidate gene in the QTL interval due to its direct impact on fatty acid metabolism and its position in the QTL interval. ACSL1 is necessary for synthesis of long-chain acyl-CoA esters, fatty acid degradation and phospholipid remodeling. We validated the genomic annotation of the bovine ACSL1 gene by in silico comparative sequence analysis and experimental verification. Re-sequencing of the complete coding, exon-flanking intronic sequences, 3' untranslated region (3'UTR and partial promoter region of the ACSL1 gene revealed three synonymous mutations in exons 6, 7, and 20, six noncoding intronic gene variants, six polymorphisms in the promoter region, and four variants in the 3' UTR region. The association analysis identified the gene variant in intron 5 of the ACSL1 gene (c.481-233A>G to be significantly associated with the relative content of distinct fractions and ratios of fatty acids (e.g., n-3 fatty acids, polyunsaturated, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, trans vaccenic acid in skeletal muscle. A tentative association

  7. Deletion mutation in Drosophila ma-l homologous, putative molybdopterin cofactor sulfurase gene is associated with bovine xanthinuria type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T; Ihara, N; Itoh, T; Fujita, T; Sugimoto, Y

    2000-07-21

    Defective xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) activity in humans results in xanthinuria and xanthine calculus accumulation in kidneys. Bovine xanthinuria was demonstrated in a local herd and characterized as xanthinuria type II, similar to the Drosophila ma-l mutations, which lose activities of molybdoenzymes, XDH, and aldehyde oxidase, although sulfite oxidase activity is preserved. Linkage analysis located the disease locus at the centromeric region of bovine chromosome 24, where a ma-l homologous, putative molybdopterin cofactor sulfurase gene (MCSU) has been physically mapped. We found that a deletion mutation at tyrosine 257 in MCSU is tightly associated with bovine xanthinuria type II.

  8. Differential Gene Expression Segregates Cattle Confirmed Positive for Bovine Tuberculosis from Antemortem Tuberculosis Test-False Positive Cattle Originating from Herds Free of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ailam; Steibel, Juan P.; Coussens, Paul M.; Grooms, Daniel L.; Bolin, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Antemortem tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) currently used in the US measure cell-mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium bovis. Postmortem tests for bTB rely on observation of gross and histologic lesions of bTB, followed by bacterial isolation or molecular diagnostics. Cumulative data from the state of Michigan indicates that 98 to 99% of cattle that react positively in antemortem tests are not confirmed positive for bTB at postmortem examination. Understanding the fundamental differences in gene regulation between antemortem test-false positive cattle and cattle that have bTB may allow identification of molecular markers that can be exploited to better separate infected from noninfected cattle. An immunospecific cDNA microarray was used to identify altered gene expression (P ≤ 0.01) of 122 gene features between antemortem test-false positive cattle and bTB-infected cattle following a 4-hour stimulation of whole blood with tuberculin. Further analysis using quantitative real-time PCR assays validated altered expression of 8 genes that had differential power (adj  P ≤ 0.05) to segregate cattle confirmed positive for bovine tuberculosis from antemortem tuberculosis test-false positive cattle originating from herds free of bovine tuberculosis. PMID:22701814

  9. Differential Gene Expression Segregates Cattle Confirmed Positive for Bovine Tuberculosis from Antemortem Tuberculosis Test-False Positive Cattle Originating from Herds Free of Bovine Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailam Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antemortem tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB currently used in the US measure cell-mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium bovis. Postmortem tests for bTB rely on observation of gross and histologic lesions of bTB, followed by bacterial isolation or molecular diagnostics. Cumulative data from the state of Michigan indicates that 98 to 99% of cattle that react positively in antemortem tests are not confirmed positive for bTB at postmortem examination. Understanding the fundamental differences in gene regulation between antemortem test-false positive cattle and cattle that have bTB may allow identification of molecular markers that can be exploited to better separate infected from noninfected cattle. An immunospecific cDNA microarray was used to identify altered gene expression (≤0.01 of 122 gene features between antemortem test-false positive cattle and bTB-infected cattle following a 4-hour stimulation of whole blood with tuberculin. Further analysis using quantitative real-time PCR assays validated altered expression of 8 genes that had differential power (adj  ≤0.05 to segregate cattle confirmed positive for bovine tuberculosis from antemortem tuberculosis test-false positive cattle originating from herds free of bovine tuberculosis.

  10. Effect of bromochloromethane and fumarate on phylogenetic diversity of the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase gene in bovine rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumori, Makoto; Matsui, Hiroki; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Shinkai, Takumi; Takenaka, Akio; Denman, Stuart E; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2014-01-01

    Effect of the methane inhibitor, bromochloromethane (BCM) and dietary substrate, fumarate, on microbial community structure of acetogen bacteria in the bovine rumen was investigated through analysis of the formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase gene (fhs). The fhs sequences obtained from BCM-untreated, BCM-treated, fumarate-untreated and fumarate-treated bovine rumen were categorized into homoacetogens and nonhomoacetogenic bacteria by homoacetogen similarity scores. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that most of the fhs sequences categorized into homoacetogens were divided into nine clusters, which were in close agreement with a result shown in a self-organizing map. The diversity of the fhs sequences from the BCM-treated rumen was significantly different from those from BCM-non-treated rumen. Principal component analysis also showed that addition of BCM to the rumen altered the population structure of acetogenic bacteria significantly but the effect of fumarate was comparatively minor. These results indicate that BCM affects diversity of actogens in the bovine rumen, and changes in acetogenic community structure in response to methane inhibitors may be caused by different mechanisms. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Lack of sequence variation in sporadic bovine leucosis in regions of tumour suppressor genes p53 and p16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, B; Grüneis, C; Brem, G; Reifinger, M; Schaffner, G; Hochsteiner, W

    2001-08-01

    Regions of the promoter and exons 5-8 of the tumour suppressor gene p53 were analysed in 25 cases of sporadic bovine leucosis. The study included 17 cases of juvenile leucosis, five cases of adult leucosis and three cases of skin leucosis. Exon 2 of tumour suppressor gene p16 was also investigated in the same samples. No sequence variations were present in the analysed areas of the genes. In p53, this fact represents a clear difference in comparison with enzootic bovine leucosis. In p16, no comparative data are available.

  12. The steroid metabolite 16(β)-OH-androstenedione generated by CYP21A2 serves as a substrate for CYP19A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunzig, J; Milhim, M; Schiffer, L; Khatri, Y; Zapp, J; Sánchez-Guijo, A; Hartmann, M F; Wudy, S A; Bernhardt, R

    2017-03-01

    The 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2) is a steroidogenic enzyme crucial for the synthesis of mineralo- and glucocorticoids. It is described to convert progesterone as well as 17-OH-progesterone, through a hydroxylation at position C21, into 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxycortisol (RSS), respectively. In this study we unraveled CYP21A2 to have a broader steroid substrate spectrum than assumed. Utilizing a reconstituted in vitro system, consisting of purified human CYP21A2 and human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) we demonstrated that CYP21A2 is capable to metabolize DOC, RSS, androstenedione (A4) and testosterone (T). In addition, the conversion of A4 rendered a product whose structure was elucidated through NMR spectroscopy, showing a hydroxylation at position C16-beta. The androgenic properties of this steroid metabolite, 16(β)-OH-androstenedione (16bOHA4), were investigated and compared with A4. Both steroid metabolites were shown to be weak agonists for the human androgen receptor. Moreover, the interaction of 16bOHA4 with the aromatase (CYP19A1) was compared to that of A4, indicating that the C16 hydroxyl group does not influence the binding with CYP19A1. In contrast, the elucidation of the kinetic parameters showed an increased Km and decreased kcat value resulting in a 2-fold decreased catalytic efficiency compared to A4. These findings were in accordance with our docking studies, revealing a similar binding conformation and distance to the heme iron of both steroids. Furthermore, the product of 16bOHA4, presumably 16-hydroxy-estrone (16bOHE1), was investigated with regard to its estrogenic activity, which was negligible compared to estradiol and estrone. Finally, 16bOHA4 was found to be present in a patient with 11-hydroxylase deficiency and in a patient with an endocrine tumor. Taken together, this study provides novel information on the steroid hormone biosynthesis and presents a new method to detect further potential relevant novel steroid metabolites

  13. Expression of aromatase in radial glial cells in the brain of the Japanese eel provides insight into the evolution of the cyp191a gene in Actinopterygians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ru Jeng

    Full Text Available The cyp19a1 gene that encodes aromatase, the only enzyme permitting conversion of C19 aromatizable androgens into estrogens, is present as a single copy in the genome of most vertebrate species, except in teleosts in which it has been duplicated. This study aimed at investigating the brain expression of a cyp19a1 gene expressed in both gonad and brain of Japanese eel, a basal teleost. By means of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we show that cyp19a1 is expressed only in radial glial cells of the brain and in pituitary cells. Treatments with salmon pituitary homogenates (female or human chorionic gonadotrophin (male, known to turn on steroid production in immature eels, strongly stimulated cyp19a1 messenger and protein expression in radial glial cells and pituitary cells. Using double staining studies, we also showed that aromatase-expressing radial glial cells exhibit proliferative activity in both the brain and the pituitary. Altogether, these data indicate that brain and pituitary expression of Japanese eel cyp19a1 exhibits characteristics similar to those reported for the brain specific cyp19a1b gene in teleosts having duplicated cyp19a1 genes. This supports the hypothesis that, despite the fact that eels also underwent the teleost specific genome duplication, they have a single cyp19a1 expressed in both brain and gonad. Such data also suggest that the intriguing features of brain aromatase expression in teleost fishes were not gained after the whole genome duplication and may reflect properties of the cyp19a1 gene of ancestral Actinopterygians.

  14. Novel polymorphisms in the bovine ß-lactoglobulin gene and their effects on ß-lactoglobulin protein concentration in milk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganai, N.A.; Bovenhuis, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to detect new polymorphisms in the bovine ß-lactoglobulin (ß-LG) gene with significant effects on ß-LG protein concentration. Genomic DNA samples from 22 proven bulls were screened for polymorphisms in the coding and promoter regions of the ß-LG gene. In total, 50

  15. Comparative genomics and the role of lateral gene transfer in the evolution of bovine adapted Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Vincent P; Lang, Ping; Bitar, Paulina D Pavinski; Lefébure, Tristan; Schukken, Ynte H; Zadoks, Ruth N; Stanhope, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    In addition to causing severe invasive infections in humans, Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B Streptococcus (GBS), is also a major cause of bovine mastitis. Here we provide the first genome sequence for S. agalactiae isolated from a cow diagnosed with clinical mastitis (strain FSL S3-026). Comparison to eight S. agalactiae genomes obtained from human disease isolates revealed 183 genes specific to the bovine strain. Subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening for the presence/absence of a subset of these loci in additional bovine and human strains revealed strong differentiation between the two groups (Fisher exact test: pother mastitis-causing species of bacteria provided strong evidence for two cases of interspecies LGT within the shared bovine environment: bovine S. agalactiae with Streptococcus uberis (nisin U operon) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (lactose operon). We also found evidence for LGT, involving the salivaricin operon, between the bovine S. agalactiae strain and either Streptococcus pyogenes or Streptococcus salivarius. Our findings provide insight into mechanisms facilitating environmental adaptation and acquisition of potential virulence factors, while highlighting both the key role LGT has played in the recent evolution of the bovine S. agalactiae strain, and the importance of LGT among pathogens within a shared environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Delayed-onset enzootic bovine leukosis possibly caused by superinfection with bovine leukemia virus mutated in the pol gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tadaaki; Inoue, Emi; Mori, Hiroshi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2015-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL), to which animals are most susceptible at 4-8 years of age. In this study, we examined tumor cells associated with EBL in an 18-year-old cow to reveal that the cells carried at least two different copies of the virus, one of which was predicted to encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) lacking ribonuclease H activity and no integrase. Such a deficient enzyme may exhibit a dominant negative effect on the wild-type RT and cause insufficient viral replication, resulting in delayed tumor development in this cow.

  17. Variants within the 5'-flanking regions of bovine milk protein genes: I. κ-casein-encoding gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, T A; Wagner, V; Geldermann, H

    1994-09-01

    In order to identify DNA variants within the 5'-flanking region of the bovine κ-casein (κCn)-encoding gene, this area of the gene from 13 cows belonging to seven breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, German Simmental, Jersey, Galloway, Scottish Highland and Ceylon Dwarf Zebu) was analysed. For each individual, about 1 kb of the 5'-flanking region including exon I was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The biotinylated PCR product was immobilized on magnetic beads followed by direct bidirectional sequencing using an automated DNA sequencer. Fifteen DNA variants were identified, some of which are located within potential regulatory sites and possibly involved in the expression of the κ-casein encoding gene.

  18. Identification of reference genes for relative quantification of circulating microRNAs in bovine serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Seon Bae

    Full Text Available Circulating microRNAs in body fluids have been implicated as promising biomarkers for physiopathology disorders. Currently, the expression levels of circulating microRNAs are estimated by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Use of appropriate reference microRNAs for normalization is critical for accurate microRNA expression analysis. However, no study has systematically investigated reference genes for evaluating circulating microRNA expression in cattle. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of appropriate reference microRNAs for use in the normalization of circulating microRNA levels in bovine serum. We evaluated the expression stability of ten candidate reference genes in bovine serum by using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper statistical algorithms. The results consistently showed that a combination of miR-93 and miR-127 provided the most stably expressed reference. The suitability of these microRNAs was validated, and even when compared among different genders or breeds, the combination of miR-93 and miR-127 was ranked as the most stable microRNA reference. Therefore, we conclude that this combination is the optimal endogenous reference for reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based detection of microRNAs in bovine serum. The data presented in this study are crucial to successful biomarker discovery and validation for the diagnosis of physiopathological conditions in cattle.

  19. Genetic characterization of complete open reading frame of glycoprotein C gene of bovine herpesvirus 1

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    Saurabh Majumder

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To characterize one of the major glycoprotein genes viz., glycoprotein C (gC; UL44, unique long region 44 of bovineherpesvirus 1(BoHV1 of Indian origin at genetic and phylogenetic level.Materials and Methods: A bovine herpesvirus 1 isolate viz., (BoHV1/IBR 216 II/ 1976/ India maintained at Division ofVirology, IVRI, Mukteswar was used for the current study. The DNA was extracted using commercial kit and the completeORF of gC gene was amplified, cloned, and sequenced by conventional Sanger sequencing method. The sequence wasgenetically and phylogenetically analysed using various bioinformatic tools. The sequence was submitted in the Genbankwith accession number Kc756965.Results: The complete ORF of gC gene was amplified and sequenced. It showed 100% sequence homology with referencecooper strain of BoHV1 and divergence varied from 0% to 2.7% with other isolates of BoHV1. The isolate under study haddivergence of 9.2%, 13%, 26.6%, and 9.2% with BoHV5 (Bovine herpesvirus 5, CvHV1 (Cervid herpesvirus 1, CpHV1(Caprine herpesvirus 1, and BuHV1 (Bubaline herpesvirus 1, respectively.Conclusion: This is the first genetic characterization of complete open reading frame (ORF of glycoprotein C gene (UL44 ofIndian isolate of BoHV1. The gC gene of BoHV1 is highly conserved among all BoHV1 isolates and it can be used as a targetfor designing diagnostic primers for the specific detection of BoHV1.

  20. Reciprocal complementation of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 lacking either the membrane or fusion gene.

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    Takada, Marina; Matsuura, Ryosuke; Kokuho, Takehiro; Tsuboi, Takamitsu; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Takeuchi, Kaoru

    2017-11-01

    Two defective bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) strains were generated, one lacking the membrane (M) protein gene and expressing EGFP (ΔM-EGFP) and the other lacking the fusion (F) protein gene and expressing mStrawberry (ΔF-mSB), by supplying deficient proteins in trans. When Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells were co-infected with ΔM-EGFP and ΔF-mSB at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1, complemented viruses were easily obtained. Complemented viruses grew as efficiently as wild-type BPIV3 and could be passaged in MDBK cell cultures even at an MOI of 0.01, possibly due to multiploid virus particles containing genomes of both ΔM-EGFP and ΔF-mSB. This reciprocal complementation method using two defective viruses would be useful to express large or multiple proteins in cell cultures using paramyxovirus vectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE in bovine trypanotolerance: preliminary results

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    David Berthier

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Africa, trypanosomosis is a tsetse-transmitted disease which represents the most important constraint to livestock production. Several indigenous West African taurine (Bos taurus breeds, such as the Longhorn (N'Dama cattle are well known to control trypanosome infections. This genetic ability named "trypanotolerance" results from various biological mechanisms under multigenic control. The methodologies used so far have not succeeded in identifying the complete pool of genes involved in trypanotolerance. New post genomic biotechnologies such as transcriptome analyses are efficient in characterising the pool of genes involved in the expression of specific biological functions. We used the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE technique to construct, from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of an N'Dama cow, 2 total mRNA transcript libraries, at day 0 of a Trypanosoma congolense experimental infection and at day 10 post-infection, corresponding to the peak of parasitaemia. Bioinformatic comparisons in the bovine genomic databases allowed the identification of 187 up- and down- regulated genes, EST and unknown functional genes. Identification of the genes involved in trypanotolerance will allow to set up specific microarray sets for further metabolic and pharmacological studies and to design field marker-assisted selection by introgression programmes.

  2. Study on the polymorphism of bovine lactoferrin gene and its relationship with mastitis.

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    Li, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Dong-Xiao; Li, Ning

    2004-05-01

    Mastitis is a major cause of economic loss to the dairy industry. Lactoferrin (Lf) is known to contribute to resistance against bacterial infections. Hence, we decided to characterize the relevance between mastitis resistance and the variants of Lf gene. By using PCR-SSCP, five fragments within 5' region and all exons of bovine lactoferrin gene were amplified and identified the nucleotide diversity. For the five segments within the 5'-region: Lf5'-1, Lf5'-2, Lf5'-3, Lf5'-4, and Lf5'-5 from upstream to downstream, we found that three had base variation. Totally, mutations were observed in Lf5'-1, Lf5'-3, and Lf5'-5, exons 4, 8, 9, 11, 15, and intron 4. We analyzed the effects of all mutated loci on milk production traits with least squares method.

  3. Characterization of the IGF2 Imprinted Gene Methylation Status in Bovine Oocytes during Folliculogenesis.

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    Anelise dos Santos Mendonça

    Full Text Available DNA methylation reprogramming occurs during mammalian gametogenesis and embryogenesis. Sex-specific DNA methylation patterns at specific CpG islands controlling imprinted genes are acquired during this window of development. Characterization of the DNA methylation dynamics of imprinted genes acquired by oocytes during folliculogenesis is essential for understanding the physiological and genetic aspects of female gametogenesis and to determine the parameters for oocyte competence. This knowledge can be used to improve in vitro embryo production (IVP, specifically because oocyte competence is one of the most important aspects determining the success of IVP. Imprinted genes, such as IGF2, play important roles in embryo development, placentation and fetal growth. The aim of this study was to characterize the DNA methylation profile of the CpG island located in IGF2 exon 10 in oocytes during bovine folliculogenesis. The methylation percentages in oocytes from primordial follicles, final secondary follicles, small antral follicles, large antral follicles, MII oocytes and spermatozoa were 73.74 ± 2.88%, 58.70 ± 7.46%, 56.00 ± 5.58%, 65.77 ± 5.10%, 56.35 ± 7.45% and 96.04 ± 0.78%, respectively. Oocytes from primordial follicles showed fewer hypomethylated alleles (15.5% than MII oocytes (34.6% (p = 0.039; spermatozoa showed only hypermethylated alleles. Moreover, MII oocytes were less methylated than spermatozoa (p<0.001. Our results showed that the methylation pattern of this region behaves differently between mature oocytes and spermatozoa. However, while this region has a classical imprinted pattern in spermatozoa that is fully methylated, it was variable in mature oocytes, showing hypermethylated and hypomethylated alleles. Furthermore, our results suggest that this CpG island may have received precocious reprogramming, considering that the hypermethylated pattern was already found in growing oocytes from primordial follicles. These results

  4. Transcriptional reprogramming of gene expression in bovine somatic cell chromatin transfer embryos

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    Page Grier P

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful reprogramming of a somatic genome to produce a healthy clone by somatic cells nuclear transfer (SCNT is a rare event and the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly defined. When serial or successive rounds of cloning are performed, blastocyst and full term development rates decline even further with the increasing rounds of cloning. Identifying the "cumulative errors" could reveal the epigenetic reprogramming blocks in animal cloning. Results Bovine clones from up to four generations of successive cloning were produced by chromatin transfer (CT. Using Affymetrix bovine microarrays we determined that the transcriptomes of blastocysts derived from the first and the fourth rounds of cloning (CT1 and CT4 respectively have undergone an extensive reprogramming and were more similar to blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF than to the donor cells used for the first and the fourth rounds of chromatin transfer (DC1 and DC4 respectively. However a set of transcripts in the cloned embryos showed a misregulated pattern when compared to IVF embryos. Among the genes consistently upregulated in both CT groups compared to the IVF embryos were genes involved in regulation of cytoskeleton and cell shape. Among the genes consistently upregulated in IVF embryos compared to both CT groups were genes involved in chromatin remodelling and stress coping. Conclusion The present study provides a data set that could contribute in our understanding of epigenetic errors in somatic cell chromatin transfer. Identifying "cumulative errors" after serial cloning could reveal some of the epigenetic reprogramming blocks shedding light on the reprogramming process, important for both basic and applied research.

  5. The Influence of Bovine Milk High or Low in Isoflavones on Hepatic Gene Expression in Mice

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    Mette T. Skaanild

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones have generated much attention due to their potential positive effects in various diseases. Phytoestrogens especially equol can be found in bovine milk, as feed ration for dairy cows is comprised of plants containing phytoestrogens. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in hepatic gene expression after dietary intake of milk high and low in isoflavones. In addition to pelleted feed female NMRI mice were offered water, water added either 17-estradiol, equol, Tween 80, and milk high and low in isoflavone content for a week. Gene expression was analyzed using an array qPCR kit. It was revealed that Tween 80 and 17-estradiol upregulated both phase I and phase II genes to the same extent whereas equol alone, high and low isoflavone milk did not alter the expression of phase I genes but decreased the expression of phase II genes. This study shows that dietary isoflavones can regulate the transcription of especially phase II liver enzymes which potentially could give rise to an increase in reactive oxygen metabolites that may contribute to the development of cancer.

  6. Identification of the Bovine Growth Hormone Gene and Alui Loci Polymorphism by PCR – RFLP Method

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    Nina Moravčíková

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was detection of polymorphism in the bovine growth hormone gene using PCR – RFLP asan efficient method for genetic analysis of polymorphism. A polymorphic site of the growth hormone gene (AluIpolymorphism that results in an amino acid change at position 127 of the protein chain (leucine, L to valine, V hasbeen linked to differences in circulating metabolites and metabolic hormones and to milk yield traits. The growthhormone gene is a candidate gene for body weight and weight gain in cattle since it plays a fundamental role ingrowth regulation. The polymorphism of growth hormone gene was studied in a group of 58 bulls of Slovak spottedbreed. A strategy employing PCR was used to amplify 428 bp products from blood samples. Digestion of PCRproducts with restriction enzyme AluI revealed two alleles: allele L was 265, 96, 51, 16 fragments and allele V was265, 147 and 16. Three patterns were observed and with frequencies 0.404, 0.473 and 0.123 for LL, LV and VV,respectively. The frequency of alleles L was 0.6404 and V was 0.3596.

  7. Polymorphisms in the bovine hemoglobin-beta gene provide evidence for gene-flow between wild species of Bos (Bibos) and domestic cattle in Southeast Asia.

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    Tanaka, Kazuaki; Takizawa, Tatsuya; Dorji, Tashi; Amano, Takashi; Mannen, Hideyuki; Maeda, Yoshizane; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Namikawa, Takao

    2011-02-01

    The electrophoretic variation in bovine hemoglobin-beta (HBB) is one of the most investigated genetic markers. The presence of a unique HBB variant, HBB(X), in Southeast Asian cattle has been reputed as a sign of gene-flow from wild bovine species. In this study, we analyzed the DNA sequences of HBB genes in domestic and wild bovine species to verify this belief. Isoelectric focusing of HBB chain revealed that the HBB(X) in domestic cattle had dimorphism and was separated into HBB(X1) and HBB(X2). The HBB(X1) had the same DNA sequence of the common HBB variant in gayal (Bos gaurus frontalis), while some of the HBB(X2) were identical with that of Cambodian banteng (Bos javanicus birmanicus). As a result, we confirmed that the bovine HBB variants can be a good indicator of introgression between wild and domestic cattle. The HBB(X1) was always predominant to HBB(X2) in the continental populations, suggesting that the gaur had contributed to the gene pool of domestic cattle in this region much more than the banteng. On the other hand, the mitochondrial DNA analysis could not detect gene-flow from wild species. Autosomal markers that can trace the phylogeny between alleles are suitable for the assessment of bovine interspecific introgression. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Combined analysis of DNA methylome and transcriptome reveal novel candidate genes with susceptibility to bovine Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis.

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    Song, Minyan; He, Yanghua; Zhou, Huangkai; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xizhi; Yu, Ying

    2016-07-14

    Subclinical mastitis is a widely spread disease of lactating cows. Its major pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). In this study, we performed genome-wide integrative analysis of DNA methylation and transcriptional expression to identify candidate genes and pathways relevant to bovine S. aureus subclinical mastitis. The genome-scale DNA methylation profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes in cows with S. aureus subclinical mastitis (SA group) and healthy controls (CK) were generated by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation combined with microarrays. We identified 1078 differentially methylated genes in SA cows compared with the controls. By integrating DNA methylation and transcriptome data, 58 differentially methylated genes were shared with differently expressed genes, in which 20.7% distinctly hypermethylated genes showed down-regulated expression in SA versus CK, whereas 14.3% dramatically hypomethylated genes showed up-regulated expression. Integrated pathway analysis suggested that these genes were related to inflammation, ErbB signalling pathway and mismatch repair. Further functional analysis revealed that three genes, NRG1, MST1 and NAT9, were strongly correlated with the progression of S. aureus subclinical mastitis and could be used as powerful biomarkers for the improvement of bovine mastitis resistance. Our studies lay the groundwork for epigenetic modification and mechanistic studies on susceptibility of bovine mastitis.

  9. Influence of Sex on Basal and Dickkopf-1 Regulated Gene Expression in the Bovine Morula.

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    Denicol, Anna C; Leão, Beatriz C S; Dobbs, Kyle B; Mingoti, Gisele Z; Hansen, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Sex affects function of the developing mammalian embryo as early as the preimplantation period. There were two goals of the current objective. The first was to determine the degree and nature of differences in gene expression between female and male embryos in the cow at the morula stage of development. The second objective was to determine whether DKK1, a molecule known to alter differentiation of the blastocyst, would affect gene expression differently for female and male morulae. In Experiment 1, female and male embryos were treated with DKK1 at Day 5 after insemination. Morulae were harvested 24 h after treatment, pooled in groups of 20 for microarray analysis and RNA subjected to analysis of gene expression by microarray hybridization. There were 662 differentially expressed genes between females and males and 128 of these genes had a fold change ≥ 1.5 between the two sexes. Of the genes upregulated in females, 49.5% were located in the X chromosome. Functional analysis predicted that cell survival was greater in female embryos. Experiment 2 involved a similar design except that transcripts for 12 genes previously reported to be affected by sex, DKK1 or the interaction were quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Expression of all genes tested that were affected by sex in experiment 1 was affected in a similar manner in Experiment 2. In contrast, effects of DKK1 on gene expression were largely not repeatable in Experiment 2. The exception was for the Hippo signaling gene AMOT, which was inhibited by DKK1. In Experiment 3, embryos produced by fertilization with unsorted sperm were treated with DKK1 at Day 5 and abundance of transcripts for CDX2, GATA6, and NANOG determined at Days 5, 6 and 7 after insemination. There was no effect of DKK1 on expression of any of the three genes. In conclusion, female and male bovine embryos have a different pattern of gene expression as early as the morula stage, and this is due to a large extent to expression

  10. Relationship of the bovine growth hormone gene to carcass traits in Japanese black cattle.

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    Tatsuda, K; Oka, A; Iwamoto, E; Kuroda, Y; Takeshita, H; Kataoka, H; Kouno, S

    2008-02-01

    The bovine growth hormone gene (bGH) possesses three haplotypes, A, B and C, that differ by amino acid mutations at positions 127 and 172 in the fifth exon: (leucine 127, threonine 172), (valine 127, threonine 172) and (valine 127, methionine 172) respectively. The correlation between meat quality or carcass weight and these haplotypes was investigated in Japanese black cattle. Altogether, 940 bGH haplotypes were compared with respect to six carcass traits: carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, rib thickness, subcutaneous fat thickness, beef marbling score and beef colour. The frequency of the B haplotype was higher (0.421) than that of A (0.269) and C (0.311). High carcass weight and low beef marbling were associated with haplotype A (p cattle could be used to improve the selection of meat traits.

  11. Variants within the 5'-flanking region and the intron I of the bovine growth hormone gene.

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    Hecht, C; Geldermann, H

    1996-10-01

    In order to identify DNA variants potentially involved in the regulation of the expression of the bovine growth hormone gene, the 5'-flanking, the 5'-untranslated and the signal peptide coding regions of 15 cows (four German Friesian, two German Simmental, two Jersey, two Galloway, two Scottish Highland, two Charolais and one Ceylon Dwarf Zebu) were analysed. For each animal a region of about 1.2 kb was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Six sites of variable nucleotides were identified in the 5'-flanking region of the gene and one in the intron I. Some of these variable sites are also potential binding sites for trans-acting factors (CAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), polyoma virus enhancer A binding protein 3 (PEA3), thyroid hormone response element (TRE)) and therefore possibly involved in the expression of the growth hormone gene. PCR amplification of specific alleles (PASA) tests for two of the sites (G2, G3) were established and the genotypes for these variants were analysed in 190 cows. The frequencies of the C alleles of the sites G2 and G3 were 0.63 and 0.76, respectively.

  12. Polymorphism in spa gene of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis.

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    Bhati, Taruna; Nathawat, Prerna; Sharma, Sandeep Kumar; Yadav, Rahul; Bishnoi, Jyoti; Kataria, Anil Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The virulence-associated protein-A of Staphylococcus aureus, encoded by spa gene shows a variation in length in different strains. In this study, the spa gene variation in S. aureus strains was studied which were isolated from subclinical cases of bovine mastitis. About 38 isolatesof S. aureus were recovered from Holstein-Friesian (HF) crossbred (n=16) and Rathi cattle (n=22) with subclinical mastitis as per standard procedures, and these isolates were subjected to amplification of spa gene (X-region) by polymerase chain reaction and calculation of number of tandem repeats were done. Of the 16 isolates from H-F crossbred cattle, all with the exception of one isolate produced spa amplicon. Seven isolates produced amplicons of 200 bp, one produced 160 bp, and other seven produced spa amplicon of 150 bp with calculated number of 6, 5, and 4 repeats, respectively, whereas nine different types of amplicons were produced by 22 S. aureus isolates from Rathi cattle, viz., 280, 250, 240, 200, 190, 180, 170, 150, and 140 bp with 10, 8, 8, 6, 6, 6, 5, 4, and 4 repeats, respectively. One of the isolates from Rathi cattle produced two spa amplicons (150 and 190 bp). A greater polymorphism was observed in the S. aureus isolates from Rathi cattle than from H-F crossbreds with subclinical mastitis.

  13. Detection of toxic shock toxin (tst gene in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine milk samples

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    S. Baniardalan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative pathogen of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle all over the world. This agent produces a variety of extracellular toxins and virulence factors in-cluding toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1 which is the major cause of toxic shock syndrome (TSS. In the present study, 76 S. aureus isolates have been obtained from milk samples collected from 7 dairy herds in Hamedan province of Iran. The isolates were identified based on the biochemical and molecular methods using PCR amplification of the femA gene. The staphylococcal isolates were also examined for the presence of TSST-1 (tst encoding gene. This gene was detected in only one S. aureus isolate (1.3%. The results revealed that S. aureus strains causing bovine mastitis may potentially produce staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, indicating that it is very important to follow the presence of TSST-1 producing S. aureus isolates in foodstuffs to protect consumers against the risk of toxic shock syndrome

  14. The constitutive expression of the V gene of Parainfluenza virus 5 affects the growth properties of bovine herpesvirus 5

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    Francisco Esmaile de Sales Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of the expression of Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5 V protein in bovine cells on the replication of Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5. Growth properties of BoHV-5 were evaluated in parental and PIV5 transfected cells. In one-step growth experiments, the BoHV-5 reached higher titers at earlier time points in the transfected cells when compared to the parental cells. The mean plaque size produced by the BoHV-5 in transfected cells was larger than the parental cells. This indicated that the expression of the PIV5 V gene facilitated the release and cell-to-cell spread of BoHV-5 in bovine cells.

  15. Comparative genomics and the role of lateral gene transfer in the evolution of bovine adapted Streptococcus agalactiae

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    Richards, Vincent P.; Lang, Ping; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Lefébure, Tristan; Schukken, Ynte H.; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to causing severe invasive infections in humans, Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B Streptococcus (GBS), is also a major cause of bovine mastitis. Here we provide the first genome sequence for S. agalactiae isolated from a cow diagnosed with clinical mastitis (strain FSL S3-026). Comparison to eight S. agalactiae genomes obtained from human disease isolates revealed 183 genes specific to the bovine strain. Subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening for the presence/absence of a subset of these loci in additional bovine and human strains revealed strong differentiation between the two groups (Fisher exact test: p Streptococcus uberis (nisin U operon) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (lactose operon). We also found evidence for LGT, involving the salivaricin operon, between the bovine S. agalactiae strain and either Streptococcus pyogenes or Streptococcus salivarius. Our findings provide insight intomechanismsfacilitatingenvironmentaladaptationandacquisitionofpotential virulence factors, while highlighting both the key role LGT has played in the recent evolution of the bovine S. agalactiae strain, and the importance of LGT among pathogens within a shared environment. PMID:21536150

  16. Electronic Northern Analysis of Genes and Modeling of Gene Networks Underlying Bovine Milk Fat Production.

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    Ganguly, Bhaskar; Ambwani, Tanuj Kumar; Rastogi, Sunil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Milk fat is one of the most important economic traits in dairy animals. Yet, the biological machinery involved in milk fat synthesis remains poorly understood. In the present study, expression profiling of 45 genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and secretion was performed using a computational approach to identify those genes that are differentially expressed in mammary tissue. Transcript abundance was observed for genes associated with nine bioprocesses, namely, fatty acid import into cells, xenobiotic and cholesterol transport, acetate and fatty acid activation and intracellular transport, fatty acid synthesis and desaturation, triacylglycerol synthesis, sphingolipid synthesis, lipid droplet formation, ketone body utilization, and regulation of transcription in mammary, skin, and muscle tissue. Relative expression coefficient of the genes was derived based on the transcript abundance across the three tissue types to determine the genes that were preferentially expressed during lactation. 13 genes (ACSS1, ACSS2, ADFP, CD36, FABP3, FASN, GPAM, INSIG1, LPL, SCD5, SPTLC1, SREBF1, and XDH) showed higher expression in the mammary tissue of which 6 (ADFP, FASN, GPAM, LPL, SREBF1, and XDH) showed higher expression during adulthood. Further, interaction networks were mapped for these genes to determine the nature of interactions and to identify the major genes in the milk fat biosynthesis and secretion pathways.

  17. Electronic Northern Analysis of Genes and Modeling of Gene Networks Underlying Bovine Milk Fat Production

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    Bhaskar Ganguly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat is one of the most important economic traits in dairy animals. Yet, the biological machinery involved in milk fat synthesis remains poorly understood. In the present study, expression profiling of 45 genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and secretion was performed using a computational approach to identify those genes that are differentially expressed in mammary tissue. Transcript abundance was observed for genes associated with nine bioprocesses, namely, fatty acid import into cells, xenobiotic and cholesterol transport, acetate and fatty acid activation and intracellular transport, fatty acid synthesis and desaturation, triacylglycerol synthesis, sphingolipid synthesis, lipid droplet formation, ketone body utilization, and regulation of transcription in mammary, skin, and muscle tissue. Relative expression coefficient of the genes was derived based on the transcript abundance across the three tissue types to determine the genes that were preferentially expressed during lactation. 13 genes (ACSS1, ACSS2, ADFP, CD36, FABP3, FASN, GPAM, INSIG1, LPL, SCD5, SPTLC1, SREBF1, and XDH showed higher expression in the mammary tissue of which 6 (ADFP, FASN, GPAM, LPL, SREBF1, and XDH showed higher expression during adulthood. Further, interaction networks were mapped for these genes to determine the nature of interactions and to identify the major genes in the milk fat biosynthesis and secretion pathways.

  18. Evaluation of bovine chemerin (RARRES2 gene variation on beef cattle production traits

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    Amanda K Lindholm-Perry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A previous study in cattle based on >48,000 markers identified markers on chromosome 4 near the chemerin gene associated with average daily feed intake (ADFI in steers (P<0.008. Chemerin is an adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans, representing a strong candidate gene potentially underlying the observed association. To evaluate whether the bovine chemerin gene is involved in feed intake, 16 markers within and around the gene were tested for association in the same resource population. Eleven were nominally significant for ADFI (P<0.05 and two were significant after Bonferroni correction. Two and five SNP in this region were nominally significant for the related traits of average daily gain (ADG and residual feed intake (RFI, respectively. All markers were evaluated for effects on meat quality and carcass phenotypes. Many of the markers associated with ADFI were associated with hot carcass weight (HCW, adjusted fat thickness (AFT, and marbling (P<0.05. Marker alleles that were associated with lower ADFI were also associated with lower HCW, AFT, and marbling. Markers associated with ADFI were genotyped in a validation population of steers representing 14 breeds to determine predictive merit across populations. No consistent relationships for ADFI were detected. To determine whether cattle feed intake or growth phenotypes might be related to chemerin transcript abundance, the expression of chemerin was evaluated in adipose of 114 heifers that were siblings of the steers in the discovery population. Relative chemerin transcript abundance was not correlated with ADFI, ADG, or RFI, but associations with body condition score and yearling weight were observed. We conclude that variation in the chemerin gene may underlie observed association in the resource population, but that additional research is required to determine if this variation is widespread among breeds and to develop robust markers with predictive merit across

  19. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

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    Elena Xerxa

    Full Text Available Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE, are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD, a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic

  20. The effects of quercetin on microRNA and inflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bovine neutrophils

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    Phongsakorn Chuammitri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate gene expression of microRNA (miRNA milieus (MIRLET7E, MIR17, MIR24-2, MIR146A, and MIR181C, inflammatory cytokine genes (interleukin 1β [IL1B], IL6, CXCL8, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF], and the pathogen receptor toll-like receptor (TLR4 in bovine neutrophils under quercetin supplementation. Materials and Methods: Isolated bovine neutrophils were incubated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide under quercetin treatment or left untreated. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of the miRNAs and messenger RNA (mRNA transcripts in neutrophils. Results: Quercetin-treated neutrophils exhibited a remarkable suppression in MIR24-2, MIR146A, and MIR181C expression. Similarly, mRNA expression of IL1B, IL6, CXCL8, TLR4, and TNF genes noticeably declined in the quercetin group. Many proinflammatory genes (IL1B, IL6, and CXCL8 and the pathogen receptor TLR4 had a negative correlation with MIR146A and MIR181C as revealed by Pearson correlation. Conclusion: Interaction between cognate mRNAs and miRNAs under quercetin supplementation can be summarized as a positive or negative correlation. This finding may help understand the effects of quercetin either on miRNA or gene expression during inflammation, especially as a potentially applicable indicator in bovine mastitis.

  1. Differential Gene Expression Analysis of Bovine Macrophages after Exposure to the Penicillium Mycotoxins Citrinin and/or Ochratoxin A

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    Kristen M. Brennan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins produced by fungal species commonly contaminate livestock feedstuffs, jeopardizing their health and diminishing production. Citrinin (CIT and ochratoxin A (OTA are mycotoxins produced by Penicillium spp. and commonly co-occur. Both CIT and OTA can modulate immune response by inhibiting cell proliferation and differentiation, altering cell metabolism, and triggering programmed cell death. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of sublethal exposure (i.e., the concentration that inhibited cell proliferation by 25% (IC25 to CIT, OTA or CIT + OTA on the bovine macrophage transcriptome. Gene expression was determined using the Affymetrix Bovine Genome Array. After 6 h of exposure to CIT, OTA or CIT + OTA, the number of differentially expressed genes (DEG, respectively, was as follows: 1471 genes (822 up-regulated, 649 down-regulated, 5094 genes (2611 up-regulated, 2483 down-regulated and 7624 genes (3984 up-regulated, 3640 down-regulated. Of these, 179 genes (88 up-regulated, 91 down-regulated were commonly expressed between treatments. After 24 h of exposure to CIT, OTA or CIT + OTA the number of DEG, respectively, was as follows: 3230 genes (1631 up-regulated, 1599 down-regulated, 8558 genes (4167 up-regulated, 4391 down-regulated, and 10,927 genes (6284 up-regulated, 4643 down-regulated. Of these, 770 genes (247 up-regulated, 523 down-regulated were commonly expressed between treatments. The categorization of common biological functions and pathway analysis suggests that the IC25 of both CIT and OTA, or their combination, induces cellular oxidative stress, a slowing of cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Collectively, these effects contribute to inhibiting bovine macrophage proliferation.

  2. Gene networks driving bovine milk fat synthesis during the lactation cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loor Juan J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular events associated with regulation of milk fat synthesis in the bovine mammary gland remain largely unknown. Our objective was to study mammary tissue mRNA expression via quantitative PCR of 45 genes associated with lipid synthesis (triacylglycerol and phospholipids and secretion from the late pre-partum/non-lactating period through the end of subsequent lactation. mRNA expression was coupled with milk fatty acid (FA composition and calculated indexes of FA desaturation and de novo synthesis by the mammary gland. Results Marked up-regulation and/or % relative mRNA abundance during lactation were observed for genes associated with mammary FA uptake from blood (LPL, CD36, intracellular FA trafficking (FABP3, long-chain (ACSL1 and short-chain (ACSS2 intracellular FA activation, de novo FA synthesis (ACACA, FASN, desaturation (SCD, FADS1, triacylglycerol synthesis (AGPAT6, GPAM, LPIN1, lipid droplet formation (BTN1A1, XDH, ketone body utilization (BDH1, and transcription regulation (INSIG1, PPARG, PPARGC1A. Change in SREBF1 mRNA expression during lactation, thought to be central for milk fat synthesis regulation, was ≤2-fold in magnitude, while expression of INSIG1, which negatively regulates SREBP activation, was >12-fold and had a parallel pattern of expression to PPARGC1A. Genes involved in phospholipid synthesis had moderate up-regulation in expression and % relative mRNA abundance. The mRNA abundance and up-regulation in expression of ABCG2 during lactation was markedly high, suggesting a biological role of this gene in milk synthesis/secretion. Weak correlations were observed between both milk FA composition and desaturase indexes (i.e., apparent SCD activity with mRNA expression pattern of genes measured. Conclusion A network of genes participates in coordinating milk fat synthesis and secretion. Results challenge the proposal that SREBF1 is central for milk fat synthesis regulation and highlight a pivotal

  3. Characterization of the bovine gene LIPE and possible influence on fatty acid composition of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goszczynski, Daniel Estanislao; Mazzucco, Juliana Papaleo; Ripoli, María Verónica; Villarreal, Edgardo Leopoldo; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés; Mezzadra, Carlos Alberto; Melucci, Lilia Magdalena; Giovambattista, Guillermo

    2014-12-01

    LIPE is an intracellular neutral lipase, which is capable of hydrolyzing a variety of esters and plays a key role in the mobilization of fatty acids from diacylglycerols. The objectives of this study were to characterize the genetic polymorphism of bovine LIPE gene and to evaluate the possible association between three SNPs in the coding regions of this gene with the fatty acid composition of meat in a cattle population. Forty-three unrelated animals from different cattle breeds were re-sequenced and 21 SNPs were detected over approximately 2600 bp, five of these SNPs were novel. Three SNPs were selected, on the basis of evolutionary conservation, to perform validation and association studies in a crossbred cattle population. Our results may suggest a possible association of SNP1 with contents of oleic acid and total monounsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01), and SNP2 and SNP3 with Heneicosylic acid content (p < 0.01), may be helpful to improve the quality of meat and improve health.

  4. Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing Reveals Functional Genes and Microbiome Associated with Bovine Digital Dermatitis.

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    Martin Zinicola

    Full Text Available Metagenomic methods amplifying 16S ribosomal RNA genes have been used to describe the microbial diversity of healthy skin and lesion stages of bovine digital dermatitis (DD and to detect critical pathogens involved with disease pathogenesis. In this study, we characterized the microbiome and for the first time, the composition of functional genes of healthy skin (HS, active (ADD and inactive (IDD lesion stages using a whole-genome shotgun approach. Metagenomic sequences were annotated using MG-RAST pipeline. Six phyla were identified as the most abundant. Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were the predominant bacterial phyla in the microbiome of HS, while Spirochetes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were highly abundant in ADD and IDD. T. denticola-like, T. vincentii-like and T. phagedenis-like constituted the most abundant species in ADD and IDD. Recruitment plots comparing sequences from HS, ADD and IDD samples to the genomes of specific Treponema spp., supported the presence of T. denticola and T. vincentii in ADD and IDD. Comparison of the functional composition of HS to ADD and IDD identified a significant difference in genes associated with motility/chemotaxis and iron acquisition/metabolism. We also provide evidence that the microbiome of ADD and IDD compared to that of HS had significantly higher abundance of genes associated with resistance to copper and zinc, which are commonly used in footbaths to prevent and control DD. In conclusion, the results from this study provide new insights into the HS, ADD and IDD microbiomes, improve our understanding of the disease pathogenesis and generate unprecedented knowledge regarding the functional genetic composition of the digital dermatitis microbiome.

  5. Virulence Gene Pool Detected in Bovine Group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae Isolates by Use of a Group A S. pyogenes Virulence Microarray ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato, Márcia G.; Nerlich, Andreas; Bergmann, René; Bexiga, Ricardo; Nunes, Sandro F.; Vilela, Cristina L.; Santos-Sanches, Ilda; Chhatwal, Gursharan S.

    2011-01-01

    A custom-designed microarray containing 220 virulence genes of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) was used to test group C Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (GCS) field strains causing bovine mastitis and group C or group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (GCS/GGS) isolates from human infections, with the latter being used for comparative purposes, for the presence of virulence genes. All bovine and all human isolates carried a fraction of the 220 genes (23% and 39%, respectively). The virulence genes encoding streptolysin S, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the plasminogen-binding M-like protein PAM, and the collagen-like protein SclB were detected in the majority of both bovine and human isolates (94 to 100%). Virulence factors, usually carried by human beta-hemolytic streptococcal pathogens, such as streptokinase, laminin-binding protein, and the C5a peptidase precursor, were detected in all human isolates but not in bovine isolates. Additionally, GAS bacteriophage-associated virulence genes encoding superantigens, DNase, and/or streptodornase were detected in bovine isolates (72%) but not in the human isolates. Determinants located in non-bacteriophage-related mobile elements, such as the gene encoding R28, were detected in all bovine and human isolates. Several virulence genes, including genes of bacteriophage origin, were shown to be expressed by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Phylogenetic analysis of superantigen gene sequences revealed a high level (>98%) of identity among genes of bovine GCS, of the horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, and of the human pathogen GAS. Our findings indicate that alpha-hemolytic bovine GCS, an important mastitis pathogen and considered to be a nonhuman pathogen, carries important virulence factors responsible for virulence and pathogenesis in humans. PMID:21525223

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant and proinflammatory gene expression in bovine mammary tissue during the periparturient period

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aitken, S. L; Karcher, E. L; Rezamand, P; Gandy, J. C; VandeHaar, M. J; Capuco, A. V; Sordillo, L. M

    2009-01-01

    * Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, and Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824 Bovine Functional Genomics Laboratory, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705 1...

  7. Transcript levels of several epigenome regulatory genes in bovine somatic donor cells are not correlated with their cloning efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenli; Sadeghieh, Sanaz; Abruzzese, Ronald; Uppada, Subhadra; Meredith, Justin; Ohlrichs, Charletta; Broek, Diane; Polejaeva, Irina

    2009-09-01

    Among many factors that potentially affect somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryo development is the donor cell itself. Cloning potentials of somatic donor cells vary greatly, possibly because the cells have different capacities to be reprogrammed by ooplasma. It is therefore intriguing to identify factors that regulate the reprogrammability of somatic donor cells. Gene expression analysis is a widely used tool to investigate underlying mechanisms of various phenotypes. In this study, we conducted a retrospective analysis investigating whether donor cell lines with distinct cloning efficiencies express different levels of genes involved in epigenetic reprogramming including histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1), -2 (HDAC2); DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1), -3a (DNMT3a),-3b (DNMT3b), and the bovine homolog of yeast sucrose nonfermenting-2 (SNF2L), a SWI/SNF family of ATPases. Cell samples from 12 bovine donor cell lines were collected at the time of nuclear transfer experiments and expression levels of the genes were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our results show that there are no significant differences in expression levels of these genes between donor cell lines of high and low cloning efficiency defined as live calving rates, although inverse correlations are observed between in vitro embryo developmental rates and expression levels of HDAC2 and SNF2L. We also show that selection of stable reference genes is important for relative quantification, and different batches of cells can have different gene expression patterns. In summary, we demonstrate that expression levels of these epigenome regulatory genes in bovine donor cells are not correlated with cloning potential. The experimental design and data analysis method reported here can be applied to study any genes expressed in donor cells.

  8. Circulating cell-free mature microRNAs and their target gene prediction in bovine metritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, Vanmathy; Kastelic, John

    2016-01-01

    Uterine infections in dairy cows are common after calving, reduce fertility and cause substantial economic losses. Conventional diagnosis (based on clinical signs) and treatment can be challenging. Serum microRNA (miRNA) profiles serve as non-invasive biomarkers in several pathological conditions including inflammatory diseases. The objective was to identify differentially expressed serum miRNAs in cows with metritis and normal uterus (four cows per group), integrate miRNAs to their target genes, and categorize target genes for biological processes involved in bacterial infection and inflammatory responses. Out of 84 bovine-specific, prioritized miRNAs analyzed, 30 were differentially expressed between metritis and normal cows (p ≤ 0.05, fold regulation ≥2 magnitudes). Bta-miR-15b, bta-miR-17-3p, bta-miR-16b, bta-miR-148a, bta-miR-26b, bta-miR-101 and bta-miR-29b were highly up-regulated whereas bta-miR-148b, bta-miR-199a-3p, bta-miR-122, bta-miR-200b and bta-miR-10a were highly down-regulated in cows with metritis compared to cows with normal uterus. Highly scored target genes of up-regulated and down-regulated miRNAs were categorized for various biological processes, including biological regulation, cellular process, developmental process, metabolic process, localization, multicellular organismal process, response to stimulus, immune system process, cellular components organization, apoptotic process, biological adhesion, developmental process, and locomotion that are critical to combat bacterial infections and provoke inflammatory responses. PMID:27404038

  9. Effect of vitrification using the Cryotop method on the gene expression profile of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Leme, Ligiane; Dufort, Isabelle; Spricigo, José Felipe Warmling; Braga, Thiago Felipe; Sirard, Marc-André; Franco, Maurício Machaim; Dode, Margot Alves Nunes

    2016-03-01

    The present study analyzed the changes in gene expression induced by the Cryotop vitrification technique in bovine blastocyst-stage embryos, using Agilent EmbryoGENE microarray slides. Bovine in vitro-produced embryos were vitrified and compared with nonvitrified (control) embryos. After vitrification, embryos were warmed and cultured for an additional 4 hours. Survived embryos were used for microarray analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) quantification. Survival rates were higher (P vitrification seems to be the activation of the apoptosis pathway in some cells. Indeed, FOSL1 is part of the activating protein 1 transcription factor complex and is implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Therefore, our results suggest that a limited increase in the rate of apoptosis was the only detectable response of the embryos to vitrification stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Down-regulation of selected Blood-brain Barrier Specific Genes from Capillaries to Bovine In Vitro Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldeman, Charlotte; Saaby, Lasse; Brodin, Birger

    the in vivo gene expression of brain capillary endothelial cells. Primary bovine endothelial cells and rat astrocytes were cultured in different culture configurations and the mRNA expression of selected genes (vWF, Glut-1, P-gp, claudin-1,-5, occludin, JAM-1, LAT-1, SLC16A1, MRP-1,-4, BCRP, ZO-1, AP, TPA...... and SLCO4A1) was investigated by qPCR and compared with the expression in freshly isolated bovine capillaries. Occludin was the only tight junction protein where a decrease in mRNA expression from capillaries to culture configurations was observed. JAM-1 and ZO-1 maintained mRNA expression, while...

  11. Characterization of ovine hepatic gene expression profiles in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide using a bovine cDNA microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boermans Herman J

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During systemic gram-negative bacterial infections, lipopolysaccharide (LPS ligation to the hepatic Toll-like receptor-4 complex induces the production of hepatic acute phase proteins that are involved in the host response to infection and limit the associated inflammatory process. Identifying the genes that regulate this hepatic response to LPS in ruminants may provide insight into the pathogenesis of bacterial diseases and eventually facilitate breeding of more disease resistant animals. The objective of this research was to profile the expression of ovine hepatic genes in response to Escherichia coli LPS challenge (0, 200, 400 ng/kg using a bovine cDNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Results Twelve yearling ewes were challenged iv with E. coli LPS (0, 200, 400 ng/kg and liver biopsies were collected 4–5 hours post-challenge to assess hepatic gene expression profiles by bovine cDNA microarray and qRT-PCR analyses. The expression of CD14, C3, IL12R, NRAMP1, SOD and IGFBP3 genes was down regulated, whereas the expression of ACTHR, IFNαR, CD1, MCP-1 and GH was increased during LPS challenge. With the exception of C3, qRT-PCR analysis of 7 of these genes confirmed the microarray results and demonstrated that GAPDH is not a suitable housekeeping gene in LPS challenged sheep. Conclusion We have identified several potentially important genes by bovine cDNA microarray and qRT-PCR analyses that are differentially expressed during the ovine hepatic response to systemic LPS challenge. Their potential role in regulating the inflammatory response to LPS warrants further investigation.

  12. Effects of increased milking frequency on gene expression in the bovine mammary gland

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    Sonstegard Tad S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has demonstrated that increased milking frequency of dairy cattle during the first few weeks of lactation enhances milk yield, and that the effect persists throughout the entire lactation period. The specific mechanisms controlling this increase in milk production are unknown, but suggested pathways include increased mammary epithelial cell number, secretory capacity, and sensitivity to lactogenic hormones. We used serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE and microarray analysis to identify changes in gene expression in the bovine mammary gland in response to 4× daily milking beginning at d 4 of lactation (IMF4 relative to glands milked 2× daily (Control to gain insight into physiological changes occurring within the gland during more frequent milking. Results Results indicated changes in gene expression related to cell proliferation and differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling, metabolism, nutrient transport, and immune function in IMF4 versus Control cows. In addition, pathways expected to promote neovascularization within the gland appeared to be up regulated in IMF4 cows. To validate this finding, immunolocalization of Von Willebrandt's factor (VWF, an endothelial cell marker, and its co-localization with the nuclear proliferation antigen Ki67 were evaluated in mammary tissue sections at approximately d 7 and d 14 of lactation in cows milked 4× daily versus Controls to estimate endothelial cell abundance and proliferation within the gland. Consistent with expression of genes related to neovascularization, both abundance of VWF and its co-localization with Ki67 appeared to be elevated in cows milked 4× daily, suggesting persistent increased milk yield in response to increased milking frequency may be mediated or complemented by enhanced mammary ECM remodeling and neovascularization within the gland. Conclusion Additional study is needed to determine whether changes in ECM remodeling and

  13. A glycoprotein E gene-deleted bovine herpesvirus 1 as a candidate vaccine strain

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    M. Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 defective in glycoprotein E (gE was constructed from a Brazilian genital BoHV-1 isolate, by replacing the full gE coding region with the green fluorescent protein (GFP gene for selection. Upon co-transfection of MDBK cells with genomic viral DNA plus the GFP-bearing gE-deletion plasmid, three fluorescent recombinant clones were obtained out of approximately 5000 viral plaques. Deletion of the gE gene and the presence of the GFP marker in the genome of recombinant viruses were confirmed by PCR. Despite forming smaller plaques, the BoHV-1△gE recombinants replicated in MDBK cells with similar kinetics and to similar titers to that of the parental virus (SV56/90, demonstrating that the gE deletion had no deleterious effects on replication efficacy in vitro. Thirteen calves inoculated intramuscularly with BoHV-1△gE developed virus neutralizing antibodies at day 42 post-infection (titers from 2 to 16, demonstrating the ability of the recombinant to replicate and to induce a serological response in vivo. Furthermore, the serological response induced by recombinant BoHV-1△gE could be differentiated from that induced by wild-type BoHV-1 by the use of an anti-gE antibody ELISA kit. Taken together, these results indicated the potential application of recombinant BoHV-1 △gE in vaccine formulations to prevent the losses caused by BoHV-1 infections while allowing for differentiation of vaccinated from naturally infected animals.

  14. Butyrate induces profound changes in gene expression related to multiple signal pathways in bovine kidney epithelial cells

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    Li CongJun

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global gene expression profiles of bovine kidney epithelial cells regulated by sodium butyrate were investigated with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. The bovine microarray with 86,191 distinct 60mer oligonucleotides, each with 4 replicates, was designed and produced with Maskless Array Synthesizer technology. These oligonucleotides represent approximately 45,383 unique cattle sequences. Results 450 genes significantly regulated by butyrate with a median False Discovery Rate (FDR = 0 % were identified. The majority of these genes were repressed by butyrate and associated with cell cycle control. The expression levels of 30 selected genes identified by the microarray were confirmed using real-time PCR. The results from real-time PCR positively correlated (R = 0.867 with the results from the microarray. Conclusion This study presented the genes related to multiple signal pathways such as cell cycle control and apoptosis. The profound changes in gene expression elucidate the molecular basis for the pleiotropic effects of butyrate on biological processes. These findings enable better recognition of the full range of beneficial roles butyrate may play during cattle energy metabolism, cell growth and proliferation, and possibly in fighting gastrointestinal pathogens.

  15. Enterotoxin genes in coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Guimarães, Felipe; Nóbrega, Diego Borin; Richini-Pereira, Virginia Bodelão; Marson, Pâmela Merlo; de Figueiredo Pantoja, José Carlos; Langoni, Helio

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the main staphylococcal species causing bovine mastitis in 10 Brazilian dairy herds and study their capability to produce enterotoxins. Herds were selected based on size and use of milking technology, and farms were visited once during the study. All mammary glands of all lactating cows were screened using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and a strip cup. A single aseptic milk sample (20 mL) was collected from all CMT-positive quarters. Identification of Staphylococcus spp. was performed using conventional microbiology, and PCR was used to determine the presence of enterotoxin-encoding genes (sea, seb, sec, and sed). Of the 1,318 CMT-positive milk samples, Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 263 (19.9%). Of these isolates, 135 (51%) were coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) and 128 (49%) were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). Eighteen different species of CNS were isolated, among which S. warneri, S. epidermidis and S. hyicus were the most frequent. The distribution of Staphylococcus species was different among herds: S. epidermidis was found in 8 herds, S. warneri was found in 7 herds, and S. hyicus in 6 herds. Some of the CNS species (S. saprophyticus ssp. saprophyticus, S. auricularis, S. capitis, and S. chromogenes) were isolated in only one of the farms. Genes related to production of enterotoxins were found in 66% (n=85) of all CNS and in 35% of the CPS isolates. For both CNS and CPS isolates, the most frequently identified enterotoxin genes were sea, seb, and sec; the prevalence of sea differed between CPS (9.5%) and CNS (35.1%) isolates. Staphylococcus warneri isolates showed a greater percentage of sea than seb, sec, or sed, whereas S. hyicus isolates showed a greater percentage of sea than sec. Over 60% of CNS belonged to 3 major species, which carried 62.2 to 81.3% of the enterotoxin genes. The high prevalence highlights the potential for food poisoning caused by these species. For

  16. Oocyte maturation, embryo development and gene expression following two different methods of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Mehdi; Kafi, Mojtaba; Ebrahimi, Bita; Fatehi, Roya; Jamalzadeh, Mahboobeh

    2017-03-01

    To examine the maturational competence, embryo development and expression of genes involved in oocyte maturation and cumulus expansion (GDF9, BMP15, HAS2, TNFAIP6, FGF17 and FSHr) following two standard methods of bovine COCs vitrification. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from slaughtered ovaries and then distributed into three groups: non-vitrified COCs (control), vitrification 1 group (V1); vitrification was performed by 15% ethylene glycol (EG) and 15% DMSO in holding media (TCM-199 with 20% FCS); and vitrification 2 group (V2); vitrification was performed by 40% EG in holding media. After vitrification, COCs were warmed in two steps and cultured and then evaluated for nuclear maturation, embryo development and gene expressions. The mean (±SD) percentages of nuclear maturation and blastocyst/cleaved were higher in control group (79.5 ± 8.0 and 31.0 ± 5.1%) than the V1 (34.8 ± 9.1 and 4.4 ± 5.1%) and V2 (47.8 ± 11.7 and 7.1 ± 5.8%) groups (P vitrification groups (P vitrification procedure and conditions. Using EG alone for vitrification of bovine immature COCs, resulted in higher expression of GDF9, BMP15 and production of more in vitro matured and cleaved oocytes.

  17. Investigation of Virulence Genes by PCR in Stapylococcus aureus Isolates Originated from Subclinical Bovine Mastitis in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Karahan, Mehmet Nuri Acik1* and Burhan Cetinkaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize coagulase (coa positive Staphylococcus aureus strains (n=92 isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis in Turkey by PCR amplification of clumping factor A (clfA and protein A (spa genes. All the coa-positive S. aureus isolates were determined to harbor the genes encoding the IgG binding region (spa-IgG and the X region (spa-X of spa. On the other hand, 84 (91.3% isolates were positive for clfA gene. These three genes displayed size polymorphisms. It was concluded that spa gene polymorphisms for S. aureus, when used together with coa-PCR, can be proposed as good alternatives to conventional methods in typing S. aureus isolates of bovine origin which may provide valuable data for the development of effective control strategies against staphylococcal mastitis. The results of the present study showed that S. aureus isolates responsible for the mastitis cases in Turkey were genetically diverse.

  18. The effect of vitrification of immature bovine oocytes to the subsequent in vitro development and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Marwa S; Baron, E; Carvalhais, I; Chaveiro, A; Pavani, K; da Silva, F Moreira

    2015-12-01

    Immature bovine oocytes were vitrified using the cryotop method and their post-warming survivability and capability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryonic development were evaluated. In addition throughout the embryonic 2-cell, 4-cell, morula and blastocyst stages, the expression of four developmentally important genes (Cx43, CDH1, DNMT1 and HSPA14) was analysed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immature oocytes (n = 550) were randomly assigned to non-vitrified (fresh) or cryotop vitrification groups using ethylene glycol (EG) with 1,2 propanediol (PROH) or dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). After warming, oocytes survivability, embryo cleavage and embryonic developmental rates were not statistically different between the two cryoprotectants groups. However, the DMSO group had a lower (P vitrification of immature bovine oocytes, both for embryonic developmental competence and at the molecular level. Moreover, PROH showed some advantage over DMSO as a cryoprotectant.

  19. Splice variants and promoter methylation status of the Bovine Vasa Homology (Bvh) gene may be involved in bull spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hua; Zhou, Yang; Li, Yingxia; Li, Qifa

    2013-07-01

    Vasa is a member of the DEAD-box protein family that plays an indispensable role in mammalian spermatogenesis, particularly during meiosis. Bovine vasa homology (Bvh) of Bos taurus has been reported, however, its function in bovine testicular tissue remains obscure. This study aimed to reveal the functions of Bvh and to determine whether Bvh is a candidate gene in the regulation of spermatogenesis in bovine, and to illustrate whether its transcription is regulated by alternative splicing and DNA methylation. Here we report the molecular characterization, alternative splicing pattern, expression and promoter methylation status of Bvh. The full-length coding region of Bvh was 2190 bp, which encodes a 729 amino acid (aa) protein containing nine consensus regions of the DEAD box protein family. Bvh is expressed only in the ovary and testis of adult cattle. Two splice variants were identified and termed Bvh-V4 (2112 bp and 703 aa) and Bvh-V45 (2040 bp and 679 aa). In male cattle, full-length Bvh (Bvh-FL), Bvh-V4 and Bvh-V45 are exclusively expressed in the testes in the ratio of 2.2:1.6:1, respectively. Real-time PCR revealed significantly reduced mRNA expression of Bvh-FL, Bvh-V4 and Bvh-V45 in testes of cattle-yak hybrids, with meiotic arrest compared with cattle and yaks with normal spermatogenesis (P Bvh in the testes of cattle-yak hybrids was significantly greater than in cattle and yaks (P Bvh was isolated and characterized. These data suggest that Bvh functions in bovine spermatogenesis, and that transcription of the gene in testes were regulated by alternative splice and promoter methylation.

  20. Identification of genes differentially expressed in myogenin knock-down bovine muscle satellite cells during differentiation through RNA sequencing analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs consisting of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin (MyoG and MRF4 characterizes various phases of skeletal muscle development including myoblast proliferation, cell-cycle exit, cell fusion and the maturation of myotubes to form myofibers. Although it is well known that the function of MyoG cannot be compensated for other MRFs, the molecular mechanism by which MyoG controls muscle cell differentiation is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to profile changes in gene expression in response to MyoG knock-down (MyoGkd in primary bovine muscle satellite cells (MSCs. RESULTS: About 61-64% of the reads of over 42 million total reads were mapped to more than 13,000 genes in the reference bovine genome. RNA-Seq analysis identified 8,469 unique genes that were differentially expressed in MyoGkd. Among these genes, 230 were up-regulated and 224 were down-regulated by at least four-fold. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC and pathway analysis of all up- and down-regulated genes identified overrepresentation for cell cycle and division, DNA replication, mitosis, organelle lumen, nucleoplasm and cytosol, phosphate metabolic process, phosphoprotein phosphatase activity, cytoskeleton and cell morphogenesis, signifying the functional implication of these processes and pathways during skeletal muscle development. The RNA-Seq data was validated by real time RT-PCR analysis for eight out of ten genes as well as five marker genes investigated. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first RNA-Seq based gene expression analysis of MyoGkd undertaken in primary bovine MSCs. Computational analysis of the differentially expressed genes has identified the significance of genes such as SAP30-like (SAP30L, Protein lyl-1 (LYL1, various matrix metalloproteinases, and several glycogenes in myogenesis. The results of the present study widen our knowledge of the molecular basis of skeletal muscle

  1. Genotyping and study of the pauA and sua genes of Streptococcus uberis isolates from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrig, Melina S; Ambroggio, María B; Buzzola, Fernanda R; Marcipar, Iván S; Calvinho, Luis F; Veaute, Carolina M; Barbagelata, María Sol

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the clonal relationship among 137 Streptococcus uberis isolates from bovine milk with subclinical or clinical mastitis in Argentina and to assess the prevalence and conservation of pauA and sua genes. This information is critical for the rational design of a vaccine for the prevention of bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis. The isolates were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The 137 isolates exhibited 61 different PFGE types and 25 distinct RAPD profiles. Simpson's diversity index was calculated both for PFGE (0.983) and for RAPD (0.941), showing a high discriminatory power in both techniques. The analysis of the relationship between pairs of isolates showed 92.6% concordance between both techniques indicating that any given pair of isolates distinguished by one method tended to be distinguished by the other. The prevalence of the sua and pauA genes was 97.8% (134/137) and 94.9% (130/137), respectively. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the sua and pauA genes from 20 S. uberis selected isolates, based on their PFGE and RAPD types and geographical origin, showed an identity between 95% and 100% with respect to all reference sequences registered in GenBank. These results demonstrate that, in spite of S. uberis clonal diversity, the sua and pauA genes are prevalent and highly conserved, showing their importance to be included in future vaccine studies to prevent S. uberis bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations between polymorphisms in the NICD domain of bovine NOTCH1 gene and growth traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Zhang, Chenge; Lai, Xinsheng; Xue, Jing; Lan, Xianyong; Lei, Chuzhao; Jia, Yutang; Chen, Hong

    2017-05-01

    NOTCH1 is one of the four mammalian Notch receptors, which is involved in the Notch signaling pathway. Specifically, NOTCH1 promotes the proliferation of myogenic precursor cells, and the NICD domain of NOTCH1 can impair regeneration of skeletal muscles. However, similar research on the bovine NOTCH1 gene is lacking. In this study, we detected the polymorphisms of the bovine NOTCH1 gene in a total of 448 individuals from Chinese Qinchuan cattle with DNA pooling, forced PCR-RFLP, and DNA sequencing methods. Five novel SNPs were identified within the NICD domain, and eight haplotypes comprising combinations of these five SNPs were studied as well. The association analysis of SNPs' effects with growth traits revealed that g.A48250G was significantly associated with body height, body weight, and height at hip cross, and that g.A49239C only showed significant associations with body height. This suggests that the NOTCH1 gene is a strong candidate gene that could be utilized as a promising marker in beef cattle breeding programs.

  3. Molecular Characterization and Transcriptional Regulation Analysis of the Bovine PDHB Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anning; Zhang, Yaran; Zhao, Zhidong; Wang, Mingming; Zan, Linsen

    2016-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase beta subunit (PDHB) is a subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), which catalyzes pyruvate into acetyl-CoA and provides a linkage between the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and the glycolysis pathway. Previous studies demonstrated PDHB to be positively related to the intramuscular fat (IMF) content. However, the transcriptional regulation of PDHB remains unclear. In our present study, the cDNA of bovine PDHB was cloned and the genomic structure was analyzed. The phylogenetic tree showed bovine PDHB to be closely related to goat and sheep, and least related to chicken. Spatial expression pattern analysis revealed the products of bovine PDHB to be widely expressed with the highest level in the fat of testis. To understand the transcriptional regulation of bovine PDHB, 1899 base pairs (bp) of the 5'-regulatory region was cloned. Sequence analysis neither found consensus TATA-box nor CCAAT-box in the 5'-flanking region of bovine PDHB. However, a CpG island was predicted from nucleotides -284 to +117. Serial deletion constructs of the 5'-flanking region, evaluated in dual-luciferase reporter assay, revealed the core promoter to be located 490bp upstream from the transcription initiation site (+1). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) in combination with asite-directed mutation experiment indicated both myogenin (MYOG) and the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPß) to be important transcription factors for bovine PDHB in skeletal muscle cells and adipocytes. Our results provide an important basis for further investigation of the bovine PDHB function and regulation in cattle.

  4. Molecular Characterization and Transcriptional Regulation Analysis of the Bovine PDHB Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anning Li

    Full Text Available The pyruvate dehydrogenase beta subunit (PDHB is a subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1, which catalyzes pyruvate into acetyl-CoA and provides a linkage between the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA and the glycolysis pathway. Previous studies demonstrated PDHB to be positively related to the intramuscular fat (IMF content. However, the transcriptional regulation of PDHB remains unclear. In our present study, the cDNA of bovine PDHB was cloned and the genomic structure was analyzed. The phylogenetic tree showed bovine PDHB to be closely related to goat and sheep, and least related to chicken. Spatial expression pattern analysis revealed the products of bovine PDHB to be widely expressed with the highest level in the fat of testis. To understand the transcriptional regulation of bovine PDHB, 1899 base pairs (bp of the 5'-regulatory region was cloned. Sequence analysis neither found consensus TATA-box nor CCAAT-box in the 5'-flanking region of bovine PDHB. However, a CpG island was predicted from nucleotides -284 to +117. Serial deletion constructs of the 5'-flanking region, evaluated in dual-luciferase reporter assay, revealed the core promoter to be located 490bp upstream from the transcription initiation site (+1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP in combination with asite-directed mutation experiment indicated both myogenin (MYOG and the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPß to be important transcription factors for bovine PDHB in skeletal muscle cells and adipocytes. Our results provide an important basis for further investigation of the bovine PDHB function and regulation in cattle.

  5. Possible Associations between Bovine Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism and Reproductive Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marina Unanian

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The polymorphism of the bovine growth hormone gene (bGH was studied in 211 Nellore pure breed males for association with reproductive traits. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentrations were collected monthly from 10 until 16 months of age. Additionally, testicular growth rates were calculated. DNA was amplified by PCR and digested using Msp I and Hae III restriction enzymes. Every polymorphism presented two alleles. The predominant alleles were D (0.85 and F (0.98, respectively, and genotype EE - bGH/Hae III was missing. Significant association (PEm 211 machos da raça Nelore, PO, foi estudada a associação entre os polimorfismos do gene do hormônio de crescimento bovino (bGH e características reprodutivas. Para o estudo foram realizadas medições mensais da circunferência escrotal e concentração de testosterona dos 10 aos 16 meses de idade e, ainda foi calculada a taxa de crescimento testicular. O DNA foi amplificado por PCR e digerido com as enzimas de restrição Msp I e Hae III. Cada um dos polimorfismos obtidos apresentou dois alelos. Os aleleo D (0,85 e F (0,98 predominaram na população estudada. Não foram encontrados animais portadores do genótipo EE do polimorfismo bGH/Hae III. Houve associação significativa (P<0,05 entre o polimorfismo bGH/Msp I, a circunferência escrotal e o crescimento testicular após a puberdade e, ainda, entre o polimorfismo do bGH/Hae III e a concentração da testosterona na puberdade. Os resultados sugerem que os polimorfismos bGH/Msp I e bGH/Hae III poderiam ser considerados marcadores do desenvolvimento testicular e o aparecimento da puberdade. Pela importância das observações, em função do reduzido tamanho da amostra, os estudos devem prosseguir.

  6. Construction of four double gene substitution human x bovine rotavirus reassortant vaccine candidates: each bears two outer capsid human rotavirus genes, one encoding P serotype 1A and the other encoding G serotype 1, 2, 3, or 4 specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Y; Jones, R W; Chanock, R M; Kapikian, A Z

    1997-04-01

    Previously, four human x bovine rotavirus reassortant candidate vaccines, each of which derived ten genes from bovine rotavirus UK strain and only the outer capsid protein VP7-gene from human rotavirus strain D (G serotype 1), DS-1 (G serotype 2), P (G serotype 3), or ST3 (G serotype 4), were developed [Midthun et al., (1985): Journal of Virology 53:949-954; (1986): Journal of Clinical Microbiology 24:822-826]. Such human x bovine reassortant vaccines should theoretically provide antigenic coverage for the four epidemiologically most important VP7(G) serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4. In an attempt to increase the antigenicity of VP7-based human x animal reassortant rotavirus vaccines which derive a single VP7-encoding gene from the human strain and the remaining ten genes from the animal strain, we generated double gene substitution reassortants. This was done by incorporating another protective antigen (VP4) of an epidemiologically important human rotavirus by crossing human rotavirus Wa strain (P serotype 1A), with each of the human x bovine single VP7-gene substitution rotavirus reassortants. In this way four separate double gene substitution rotavirus reassortants were generated. Each of these reassortants bears the VP4-encoding gene from human rotavirus Wa strain, the VP7-encoding gene from human rotavirus strain D, DS-1, P, or ST3, and the remaining nine genes from bovine rotavirus strain UK. The safety, antigenicity, and protective efficacy of individual components as well as combinations of strains are currently under evaluation.

  7. Spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cells exhibit a distinct gene expression pattern from the breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qianqian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous immortalisation of cultured mammary epithelial cells (MECs is an extremely rare event, and the molecular mechanism behind spontaneous immortalisation of MECs is unclear. Here, we report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME65Cs and the changes in gene expression associated with BME65Cs cells. Results BME65Cs cells maintain the general characteristics of normal mammary epithelial cells in morphology, karyotype and immunohistochemistry, and are accompanied by the activation of endogenous bTERT (bovine Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase and stabilisation of the telomere. Currently, BME65Cs cells have been passed for more than 220 generations, and these cells exhibit non-malignant transformation. The expression of multiple genes was investigated in BME65Cs cells, senescent BMECs (bovine MECs cells, early passage BMECs cells and MCF-7 cells (a human breast cancer cell line. In comparison with early passage BMECs cells, the expression of senescence-relevant apoptosis-related gene were significantly changed in BME65Cs cells. P16INK4a was downregulated, p53 was low expressed and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was reversed. Moreover, a slight upregulation of the oncogene c-Myc, along with an undetectable level of breast tumor-related gene Bag-1 and TRPS-1, was observed in BME65Cs cells while these genes are all highly expressed in MCF-7. In addition, DNMT1 is upregulated in BME65Cs. These results suggest that the inhibition of both senescence and mitochondrial apoptosis signalling pathways contribute to the immortality of BME65Cs cells. The expression of p53 and p16INK4a in BME65Cs was altered in the pattern of down-regulation but not "loss", suggesting that this spontaneous immortalization is possibly initiated by other mechanism rather than gene mutation of p53 or p16INK4a. Conclusions Spontaneously immortalised BME65Cs cells maintain many characteristics of normal BMEC cells and

  8. Toll-like receptor 2 gene polymorphisms in Chinese Holstein cattle and their associations with bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqin; Xue, Yun; Hu, Zhigang; Zhou, Feng; Ma, Beibei; Long, Ta; Xue, Qiao; Liu, Huisheng

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated whether there was an association between polymorphisms within the Toll-like receptor 2 gene (TLR2) of Chinese Holstein cattle and susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis (BTB). In a case-control study including 210 BTB cases and 237 control cattle, we found only two common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the entire coding region of the TLR2 gene, A631G (rs95214857) and T1707C (rs1388116488). Additionally, the allele and genotype distributions of A631G and T1707C were not different between case and control groups, indicated that these SNPs were not associated with susceptibility to BTB. These results suggested that polymorphisms in the TLR2 gene might not play a significant role in the BTB risk in Chinese Holstein cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of bovine coronavirus on the basis of comparative analyses of the S gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lihong; Hägglund, Sara; Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil

    2006-01-01

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV), a group 2 member of the genus Coronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, is an important pathogen in cattle worldwide. It causes diarrhea in adult animals (winter dysentery), as well as enteric and respiratory diseases in calves. The annual occurrence of BCoV epidemics in...

  10. Disruption of the 37-kDa/67-kDa laminin receptor gene in bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... State Key Laboratories for Agrobiotechnology, Key Lab of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis, Ministry of Agriculture,. National Animal ... disease (CJD) in humans, scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in .... With the development of cloning techniques, transgenic animals can be ...

  11. Expression of bovine genes associated with local and systemic immune response to infestation with the Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, Jaime L; Riggs, Penny K; Olafson, Pia U; Ivanov, Ivan; Holman, Patricia J

    2014-10-01

    The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum Linnaeus 1758 (Acari; Ixodidae), causes considerable production losses to the southern U.S. cattle industry due to reduced weight, infertility, secondary infections at bite wound sites, damaged hides, and potentially death, as these ticks tend to infest livestock in large numbers. Increasing environmental concerns, along with the potential for chemical residue in food products, have led to more emphasis on alternative tick control strategies, such as selective breeding practices and anti-tick vaccines. To enable progress toward these goals, a better understanding of bovine host immune mechanisms elicited by ticks is needed. In this study, 7 calves were phenotyped as susceptible, moderately resistant, or highly resistant to adult A. americanum ticks. Tick bite-site biopsies and blood leukocytes were collected at multiple time points throughout 3 successive tick infestations. Gene expression at tick bite-site biopsies was assessed by microarray analysis over 3 time points for each phenotype group. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR expression analysis evaluated 11 candidate genes in tick bite-site biopsies, and 6 in blood leukocytes. Regression curve estimates calculated from the expression values generated by qRT-PCR in tick bite-sites identified correlations between several candidate genes. Increased expression of IGHG1, IL6, IL1α, and IL1RN in bovine tick bite-site biopsies suggests that Th2 differentiation may be important for the local bovine response to A. americanum ticks. Strong correlations in expression for IL1α and IL1β, for IL1α and IL1RN, and for IL1α and TLR4 were found in biopsies from the tick-resistant phenotypes. The up-regulation of IL12 and IL23 in blood leukocytes from Lone Star tick-infested calves of all phenotypes suggests a possible systemic recruitment of memory T cells. This study provides novel insight concerning the bovine immune response to Lone Star ticks and a basis for future

  12. Up-regulation of gonadotropin mRNA-expression at the onset of gametogenesis in the roach (Rutilus rutilus): evidence for an important role of brain-type aromatase (cyp19a1b) in the pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubiroha, Achim; Kroupova, Hana; Wuertz, Sven; Kloas, Werner

    2012-09-15

    The present study characterized changes in key parameters of reproduction in adult roach (Rutilus rutilus) from Lake Grosser Mueggelsee (Berlin, Germany) during natural gametogenesis. Fish of both sexes were sampled in monthly intervals between April and August in order to cover the onset of gametogenesis. Investigated parameters included gonad histology, plasma levels of 17β-oestradiol (E2), testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P) as well as the expression of gonadotropin subunits in the pituitary. Furthermore, the mRNA-expression of brain-type aromatase (cyp19a1b), androgen receptor (ar), and estrogen receptor isoforms was studied at the pituitary level. The onset of gametogenesis - as indicated by follicles with cortical alveoli in females and first spermatogonia B in males - was observed in July, accompanied by a significant up-regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone β (fshβ) mRNA in the pituitary in both sexes. On the other hand, luteinizing hormone β (lhβ) mRNA increased later on in August. In males, the increase of fshβ mRNA in July coincided with a rise in plasma 11-KT concentrations. In females, E2 in plasma increased later, not until August, shortly before true vitellogenesis (late cortical alveoli stage). Expression of sex steroid receptors in the pituitary revealed only minor seasonal fluctuations. Most pronounced, ar mRNA displayed the highest level pre-spawning in both sexes. Interestingly, cyp19a1b mRNA-expression in the pituitary increased in parallel with fshβ already before any changes in plasma E2 or T occurred. These data suggest an important role of pituitary FSH and aromatase at the onset of gametogenesis in the roach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relative gene expression of fatty acid synthesis genes at 60 days postpartum in bovine mammary epithelial cells of Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Janmeda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aim of the study was to study the relative gene expression of genes associated with fatty acid synthesis at 60 days postpartum (pp in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MECs of Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 healthy Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes of each breed were selected at random from Livestock Research Station, Navsari and Cattle Breeding Farm, Junagadh, Gujarat, respectively, for this study. Milk sample was collected from each selected buffalo at day 60 pp from these two breeds to study relative gene expression of major milk fat genes using non-invasive approach of obtaining primary bovine MECs (pBMEC from milk samples. Results: In this study overall, the relative expression of the six major milk lipogenic genes butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A1 (BTN1A1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD, lipoprotein lipase (LPL, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase mitochondrial (GPAM, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACACA, and lipin (LPIN did not show changes in expression patterns at 60th day of lactation in both Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes. Conclusion: The pBMEC can be successfully recovered from 1500 ml of milk of Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes using antibody-mediated magnetic bead separation and can be further used for recovering RNA for down step quantification of major milk lipogenic gene expression. The relative expression of the six major milk lipogenic genes BTN1A1, SCD, LPL, GPAM, ACACA, and LPIN did not show changes in expression patterns in both Surti and Jafarabadi buffaloes, suggesting expression levels of lipogenic genes are maintained almost uniform till peak lactation without any significant difference.

  14. Osmotic challenge and expression of aquaporin 3 and Na/K ATPase genes in bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Luiz Sergio Almeida; Boite, Mariana Cortes; Wohlres-Viana, Sabine; Mota, Gustavo Bruno; Serapiao, Raquel Varela; Sa, Wanderlei Ferreira; Viana, Joao Henrique Moreira; Nogueira, Luiz Altamiro Garcia

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of culture media and stage of development in the osmotic ability of in vitro-fertilized bovine embryos and the expression of aquaporin 3 (Aqp3) and Na/K ATPase isoform 1 (ATPAse1) genes in embryos (i) with different ability to undergo rehydration and (ii) following vitrification. In experiment 1, in vitro fertilized presumptive zygotes were co-cultured in SOFaac or modified CR2aa medium and embryos at blastocyst and expanded blastocyst stages at day 7 post-insemination were exposed to NaCl hypertonic medium (900 mOsm) for 5 min following 120 min of culture in isotonic medium in order to evaluate dehydration and rehydration, respectively. No difference (P>0.05) on blastocyst rate was found between CR2aa and SOFaac medium but embryos co-cultured in SOFaac medium underwent greater (PEmbryos at expanded blastocyst stage underwent greater dehydration but slower rehydration than embryos at blastocysts stage (P0.05) on relative amount of transcripts was found in either genes. In the experiment 3, expanded blastocysts produced in a co-culture system were vitrified, warmed and then cultured for 72 h for analysis of embryo survival and amount of Aqp3 and ATPase1 transcripts. Lower (Pembryo survival rate was found for vitrified-warmed embryos (57.9%) than for their fresh counterparts (84.6%). There was no difference on expression of ATPase1 gene but lower (Pembryos. In conclusion, embryo ability to undergo shrinkage and swelling is influenced by medium used in a co-culture system and by embryo stage. Rehydrating ability of embryos after exposure to NaCl hypertonic medium is not associated with variations on expression of Aqp3 and ATPase1 genes, but the vitrification can alter gene expression of in vitro-fertilized bovine embryos produced in a co-culture system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inefficient viral replication of bovine leukemia virus induced by spontaneous deletion mutation in the G4 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hironobu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Nikaido, Sae; Sato, Reiichiro; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Tsukamoto, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, which is highly prevalent in several regions of the world and significantly impacts the livestock industry. In BLV infection, the proviral load in the blood reflects disease progression. Although the BLV genome is highly conserved among retroviruses, genetic variation has been reported. However, the relationship between proviral load and genetic variation is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the changes in proviral load in BLV-infected cattle in Japan and then identified and analysed a BLV strain pvAF967 that had a static proviral load. First, examining the proviral load in the aleukaemic cattle in 2014 and 2015, cow AF967 showed a static proviral load, while the other cows showed significant increases in proviral load. Sequencing the provirus in cow AF967 showed a deletion of 12 nt located in the G4 gene. An in vitro assay system using BLV molecular clone was set up to evaluate viral replication and production. In this in vitro assay, the deletion mutation in the G4 gene resulted in a significant decrease in viral replication and production. In addition, we showed that the deletion mutation did not affect the viral transcriptional activity of Tax protein, which is also important for virus replication. The emergence of strain pvAF967 that showed a static proviral load, combined with other retrovirus evolutionary traits, suggests that some BLV strains may have evolved to be symbiotic with cattle.

  16. [Detection and differentiation of the bovine parainfluenza-3 virus strains studied by amplification and sequencing of the HN gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecherov, A E; Aianot, P K; Timina, A M; Lisitsin, V V

    2003-01-01

    A possibility of using the amplification of gene HN fragment in combination with nucleotide cDNA sequencing for the purpose of identification and strain differentiation of bovine parainfluenza-3 virus was demonstrated. A comparative analysis of the primary structure in the studied HN gene fragment revealed 2 genetic groups among the investigated virus' strains and isolates. Group 1 is made up of Northern American viral strains and of Russian isolates, whose primary structure has a high level of homology to the primary SF-4/32 strain structure; group 2 comprises the virus' Russian isolates with a high level of homology to the mentioned strains to Japanese strains' sequences. The biggest differences between the studied strains and the viral isolates amounted to around 8%, when the nucleotide sequences were compared, and to around 4%, when the corresponding amino-acid sequences were compared.

  17. Bovine NR1I3 gene polymorphisms and its association with feed efficiency traits in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Pâmela A; Gomes, Rodrigo C; Santana, Miguel H A; Silva, Saulo L; Leme, Paulo R; Mudadu, Maurício A; Regitano, Luciana C A; Meirelles, Flávio V; Ferraz, José B S; Fukumasu, Heidge

    2014-12-01

    The Nuclear receptor 1 family I member 3 (NR1I3), also known as the Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR), was initially characterized as a key regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. However, recent biochemical and structural data suggest that NR1I3 is activated in response to metabolic and nutritional stress in a ligand-independent manner. Thus, we prospected the Bovine NR1I3 gene for polymorphisms and studied their association with feed efficiency traits in Nellore cattle. First, 155 purebred Nellore bulls were individually measured for Residual Feed Intake (RFI) and the 25 best (High Feed Efficiency group, HFE) and the 25 worst animals (Low Feed Efficiency group, LFE) were selected for DNA extraction. The entire Bovine NR1I3 gene was amplified and polymorphisms were identified by sequencing. Then, one SNP different between HFE and LFE groups was genotyped in all the 155 animals and in another 288 animals totalizing 443 Nellore bulls genotyped for association of NR1I3 SNPs with feed efficiency traits. We found 24 SNPs in the NR1I3 gene and choose a statistically different SNP between HFE and LFE groups for further analysis. Genotyping of the 155 animals showed a significant association within SNP and RFI (p = 0.04), Residual Intake and BW Gain (p = 0.04) and Dry Matter Intake (p = 0.01). This SNP is located in the 5'flanking promoter region of NR1I3 gene and different alleles alter the binding site for predicted transcriptional factors as HNF4alpha, CREM and c-MYB, leading us to conclude that NR1I3 expression and regulation might be important to feed efficiency.

  18. Bovine NR1I3 gene polymorphisms and its association with feed efficiency traits in Nellore cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Pâmela A.; Gomes, Rodrigo C.; Santana, Miguel H.A.; Silva, Saulo L.; Leme, Paulo R.; Mudadu, Maurício A.; Regitano, Luciana C.A.; Meirelles, Flávio V.; Ferraz, José B.S.; Fukumasu, Heidge

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Nuclear receptor 1 family I member 3 (NR1I3), also known as the Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR), was initially characterized as a key regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. However, recent biochemical and structural data suggest that NR1I3 is activated in response to metabolic and nutritional stress in a ligand-independent manner. Thus, we prospected the Bovine NR1I3 gene for polymorphisms and studied their association with feed efficiency traits in Nellore cattle. First, 155 purebred Nellore bulls were individually measured for Residual Feed Intake (RFI) and the 25 best (High Feed Efficiency group, HFE) and the 25 worst animals (Low Feed Efficiency group, LFE) were selected for DNA extraction. The entire Bovine NR1I3 gene was amplified and polymorphisms were identified by sequencing. Then, one SNP different between HFE and LFE groups was genotyped in all the 155 animals and in another 288 animals totalizing 443 Nellore bulls genotyped for association of NR1I3 SNPs with feed efficiency traits. We found 24 SNPs in the NR1I3 gene and choose a statistically different SNP between HFE and LFE groups for further analysis. Genotyping of the 155 animals showed a significant association within SNP and RFI (p = 0.04), Residual Intake and BW Gain (p = 0.04) and Dry Matter Intake (p = 0.01). This SNP is located in the 5′flanking promoter region of NR1I3 gene and different alleles alter the binding site for predicted transcriptional factors as HNF4alpha, CREM and c-MYB, leading us to conclude that NR1I3 expression and regulation might be important to feed efficiency. PMID:25606404

  19. In vitro production of bovine embryos: cumulus/granulosa cell gene expression patterns point to early atresia as beneficial for oocyte competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Razza, Eduardo; Pedersen, Hanne S.

    2017-01-01

    In vitro production (IW) of bovine embryos has become widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. Here, we review novel data on cumulus/granulosa cell gene expression, as determined by RNAseq on cellular material from pooled follicular fluids at the single animal level, a...

  20. Genotyping of Pasteurella multocida ovine and bovine isolates from Iran based on PCR-RFLP of ompH gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghanizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida, A Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacterium, is a causative animal pathogen in porcine atrophic rhinitis and avian fowl cholera. The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains of many different protein in very high copy numbers. One of the major outer membrane, the H proteins have functional as high immunogenicity and antigenicity. In this study to increase information about epidemiology of ovine and bovine P. multocida, the 24 isolates from sheep and nine isolates from cattle were investigated by PCR-RFLP analysis of the ompH gene. In all 33 isolates, digestion of the amplified fragment of ompH gene by using EcoRI, cfoI and HindIII produced 3, 5 and 3 different restriction patterns respectively. Sixteen RFLP patterns were found among 33 investigated P.multocida isolates. This study showed that, the PCR RFLP based on ompH gene is potentially a useful method for typing of P. multocida isolates from sheep and cattle. The RFLP patterns of this gene exhibited extensive restriction site heterogeneity, which may be particularly suitable for fingerprinting of P. multocida isolates.Considering ompH protein as a protective immunogenic moiety of P.ultocida, the results of this study showed a heterogenic bacteria and this means the possibility to produce a multivalent vaccine to be protective against diseases caused by this organism in sheep and cattle in Iran.

  1. Effect of Diet Supplementation on the Expression of Bovine Genes Associated with Fatty Acid Synthesis and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep J. Joseph

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are of important nutritional and health benefit to human. Food products of animal origin are their major dietary source and their concentration increases with high concentrate diets fed to animals. To examine the effects of diet supplementation on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, 28 Angus steers were fed either pasture only, pasture with soybean hulls and corn oil, pasture with corn grain, or high concentrate diet. At slaughter, samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue were collected, from which RNA was extracted. Relative abundance of gene expression was measured using Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome array. An ANOVA model nested within gene was used to analyze the background adjusted, normalized average difference of probe-level intensities. To control experiment wise error, a false discovery rate of 0.01 was imposed on all contrasts. Expression of several genes involved in the synthesis of enzymes related to fatty acid metabolism and lipogenesis such as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD, fatty acid synthetase (FASN, lipoprotein lipase (LPL, fatty-acyl elongase (LCE along with several trancription factors and co-activators involved in lipogenesis were found to be differentially expressed. Confirmatory RT-qPCR was done to validate the microarray results, which showed satisfactory correspondence between the two platforms. Results show that changes in diet by increasing dietary energy intake by supplementing high concentrate diet have effects on the transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in fat metabolism which in turn has effects on fatty acid content in the carcass tissue as well as carcass quality. Corn supplementation either as oil or grain appeared to significantly alter the expression of genes directly associated with fatty acid synthesis.

  2. A splice site variant in the bovine RNF11 gene compromises growth and regulation of the inflammatory response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Sartelet

    Full Text Available We report association mapping of a locus on bovine chromosome 3 that underlies a Mendelian form of stunted growth in Belgian Blue Cattle (BBC. By resequencing positional candidates, we identify the causative c124-2A>G splice variant in intron 1 of the RNF11 gene, for which all affected animals are homozygous. We make the remarkable observation that 26% of healthy Belgian Blue animals carry the corresponding variant. We demonstrate in a prospective study design that approximately one third of homozygous mutants die prematurely with major inflammatory lesions, hence explaining the rarity of growth-stunted animals despite the high frequency of carriers. We provide preliminary evidence that heterozygous advantage for an as of yet unidentified phenotype may have caused a selective sweep accounting for the high frequency of the RNF11 c124-2A>G mutation in Belgian Blue Cattle.

  3. Comparative genomic mapping of the bovine Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT tumour suppressor gene: characterization of a 2 Mb BAC contig covering the locus, complete annotation of the gene, analysis of cDNA and of physiological expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussaha Mekki

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Fragile Histidine Triad gene (FHIT is an oncosuppressor implicated in many human cancers, including vesical tumors. FHIT is frequently hit by deletions caused by fragility at FRA3B, the most active of human common fragile sites, where FHIT lays. Vesical tumors affect also cattle, including animals grazing in the wild on bracken fern; compounds released by the fern are known to induce chromosome fragility and may trigger cancer with the interplay of latent Papilloma virus. Results The bovine FHIT was characterized by assembling a contig of 78 BACs. Sequence tags were designed on human exons and introns and used directly to select bovine BACs, or compared with sequence data in the bovine genome database or in the trace archive of the bovine genome sequencing project, and adapted before use. FHIT is split in ten exons like in man, with exons 5 to 9 coding for a 149 amino acids protein. VISTA global alignments between bovine genomic contigs retrieved from the bovine genome database and the human FHIT region were performed. Conservation was extremely high over a 2 Mb region spanning the whole FHIT locus, including the size of introns. Thus, the bovine FHIT covers about 1.6 Mb compared to 1.5 Mb in man. Expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and Northern blot, and was found to be ubiquitous. Four cDNA isoforms were isolated and sequenced, that originate from an alternative usage of three variants of exon 4, revealing a size very close to the major human FHIT cDNAs. Conclusion A comparative genomic approach allowed to assemble a contig of 78 BACs and to completely annotate a 1.6 Mb region spanning the bovine FHIT gene. The findings confirmed the very high level of conservation between human and bovine genomes and the importance of comparative mapping to speed the annotation process of the recently sequenced bovine genome. The detailed knowledge of the genomic FHIT region will allow to study the role of FHIT in bovine cancerogenesis

  4. The Necessity of OCT-4 and CDX2 for Early Development and Gene Expression Involved in Differentiation of Inner Cell Mass and Trophectoderm Lineages in Bovine Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Kazuki; Emura, Natsuko; Fujii, Takashi; Hirayama, Hiroki; Kageyama, Soichi; Hashizume, Tsutomu; Sawai, Ken

    2016-10-01

    The functions of POU class 5 transcription factor 1 (Oct-4) and caudal-type homeobox 2 (Cdx2) in the differentiation of the murine inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) have been described in detail. However, little is known about the roles of OCT-4 and CDX2 in preimplantation bovine embryos. To elucidate their functions during early development in bovine embryos, we performed OCT-4 and CDX2 downregulation using RNA interference. We injected OCT-4- or CDX2-specific short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) into bovine zygotes. The rate of blastocyst development of OCT-4-downregulated embryos was lower compared with uninjected or control siRNA-injected embryos. Gene expression analysis revealed decreased CDX2 and fibroblast growth factor 4 expression in OCT-4-downregulated embryos. CDX2-downregulated embryos developed to the blastocyst stage; however, in most cases, blastocoel formation was delayed. Gene expression analysis revealed decreased GATA3 expression and elevated NANOG expression in CDX2-downregulated embryos. In conclusion, OCT-4 and CDX2 are essential for early development and gene expression involved in differentiation of ICM and TE lineages in bovine embryos.

  5. Polymorphisms in bovine immune genes and their associations with somatic cell count and milk production in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magee David A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, is a major source of economic loss on dairy farms. The aim of this study was to quantify the associations between two previously identified polymorphisms in the bovine toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 and chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1 genes and mammary health indictor traits in (a 246 lactating dairy cow contemporaries representing five breeds from one research farm and (b 848 Holstein-Friesian bulls that represent a large proportion of the Irish dairy germplasm. To expand the study, a further 14 polymorphisms in immune genes were included for association studies in the bull population. Results TLR4-2021 associated (P SERPINA1 haplotype with superior genetic merit for milk protein yield and milk fat percentage (P Conclusion Of the sixteen polymorphisms in seven immune genes genotyped, just CXCR1-777 tended to associate with SCS, albeit only in the on-farm study. The lack of an association between the polymorphisms with SCS in the Holstein-Friesian data set would question the potential importance of these variants in selection for improved mastitis resistance in the Holstein-Friesian cow.

  6. Regulatory polymorphisms in the bovine Ankyrin 1 gene promoter are associated with tenderness and intra-muscular fat content

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aslan, Ozlem

    2010-12-15

    Abstract Background Recent QTL and gene expression studies have highlighted ankyrins as positional and functional candidate genes for meat quality. Our objective was to characterise the promoter region of the bovine ankyrin 1 gene and to test polymorphisms for association with sensory and technological meat quality measures. Results Seven novel promoter SNPs were identified in a 1.11 kb region of the ankyrin 1 promoter in Angus, Charolais and Limousin bulls (n = 15 per breed) as well as 141 crossbred beef animals for which meat quality data was available. Eighteen haplotypes were inferred with significant breed variation in haplotype frequencies. The five most frequent SNPs and the four most frequent haplotypes were subsequently tested for association with sensory and technological measures of meat quality in the crossbred population. SNP1, SNP3 and SNP4 (which were subsequently designated regulatory SNPs) and SNP5 were associated with traits that contribute to sensorial and technological measurements of tenderness and texture; Haplotype 1 and haplotype 4 were oppositely correlated with traits contributing to tenderness (P < 0.05). While no single SNP was associated with intramuscular fat (IMF), a clear association with increased IMF and juiciness was observed for haplotype 2. Conclusion The conclusion from this study is that alleles defining haplotypes 2 and 4 could usefully contribute to marker SNP panels used to select individuals with improved IMF\\/juiciness or tenderness in a genome-assisted selection framework.

  7. Effects of bovine prolactin gene polymorphism within exon 4 on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, polymorphism of prolactin gene was analyzed as a candidate gene responsible for variation and genetic trends in milk yield and composition traits. Genomic DNAs were extracted from 268 semen samples belonged to Iranian Holstein bulls. Genotyping for the prolactin gene using PCRRFLP technique and RsaI ...

  8. Comparative analysis of vertebrate EIF2AK2 (PKR genes and assignment of the equine gene to ECA15q24–q25 and the bovine gene to BTA11q12–q15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharkikh Andrey A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The structures of the canine, rabbit, bovine and equine EIF2AK2 genes were determined. Each of these genes has a 5' non-coding exon as well as 15 coding exons. All of the canine, bovine and equine EIF2AK2 introns have consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. In the equine EIF2AK2 gene, a unique single nucleotide polymorphism that encoded a Tyr329Cys substitution was detected. Regulatory elements predicted in the promoter region were conserved in ungulates, primates, rodents, Afrotheria (elephant and Insectifora (shrew. Western clawed frog and fugu EIF2AK2 gene sequences were detected in the USCS Genome Browser and compared to those of other vertebrate EIF2AK2 genes. A comparison of EIF2AK2 protein domains in vertebrates indicates that the kinase catalytic domains were evolutionarily more conserved than the nucleic acid-binding motifs. Nucleotide substitution rates were uniform among the vertebrate sequences with the exception of the zebrafish and goldfish EIF2AK2 genes, which showed substitution rates about 20% higher than those of other vertebrates. FISH was used to physically assign the horse and cattle genes to chromosome locations, ECA15q24–q25 and BTA11q12–15, respectively. Comparative mapping data confirmed conservation of synteny between ungulates, humans and rodents.

  9. Quadruple or quintuple conversion of hlb, sak, sea (or sep), scn, and chp genes by bacteriophages in non-beta-hemolysin-producing bovine isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Rina; Nakatani, Kazue; Ikeya, Nanami; Kito, Yukiko; Kaidoh, Toshio; Takeuchi, Shotaro

    2007-05-16

    In 13 of 43 non-beta-hemolysin-producing bovine isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, two truncated beta-hemolysin (hlb) genes were demonstrated by PCR and sequencing, and one truncated hlb gene was located beside the integrase (int) gene of phage origin. The staphylokinase (sak) gene was detected in all 13 isolates in which the truncated hlb genes were detected by PCR. Enterotoxin A (sea) and enterotoxin P (sep) genes were also detected in 5 and 2 of the 13 isolates, respectively. Moreover, the scn and chp genes encoding staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN) and chemotaxis inhibitory protein of S. aureus (CHIPS) were detected in 13 and 4 of the 13 isolates, respectively. The bacteriophage induced by mitomycin C treatment was able to lysogenize one beta-hemolysin-producing isolate of S. aureus, and the sak and scn genes were detected from the lysogenized isolate. These results suggest quadruple or quintuple conversion of hlb, sak, sea (or sep), scn, and chp genes by bacteriophages among non-beta-hemolysin-producing bovine isolates of S. aureus.

  10. Short communication: Detection of stx2 and elt genes in bovine milk by using a multiplex PCR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, R D S; Campos, A C; Puño-Sarmiento, J J; Maluta, R P; Rocha, S P D; Kobayashi, R K T; Nakazato, G

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to detect 2 important toxin genes from diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in bovine milk using a new multiplex PCR. To standardize the multiplex PCR, the stx2 and elt genes were investigated for the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), respectively. The DNA template was prepared with a thermal procedure (boiling) and a commercial kit. Samples consisted of UHT and pasteurized milk, both skimmed, and STEC and ETEC were tested in concentrations between 10 1 and 10 9 cfu/mL. With the thermal procedure, the multiplex PCR system detected both pathotypes of E. coli at 10 9 cfu/mL in UHT and pasteurized milk. When the commercial kit was used for template preparation, STEC and ETEC could be detected at concentrations as low as 10 4 cfu/mL in UHT and pasteurized milk. Negative controls (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Escherichia coli strain APEC 13) were not amplified with the multiplex PCR. These results indicate that the multiplex PCR was a rapid (less than 6 h) and efficient method to detect STEC and ETEC in milk using different methods for DNA preparation; however, the commercial kit was more sensitive than the thermal procedure. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of the bovine papillomavirus type 1, 2 and 4 L1 genes in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, A L S; Mariz, F C; Souza, H M; Cordeiro, M N; Coimbra, E C; Leitão, M C G; Nascimento, L M; Stocco, R C; Beçak, W; Freitas, A C

    2012-08-16

    Papillomaviruses are known to cause benign or malignant lesions in various animals. In cattle, bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiologic agent of papillomatosis and neoplasia of the upper gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder. Currently, there are no standard diagnostic tests or prophylactic vaccines. Protection against papillomavirus infection is conferred by neutralizing antibodies directed towards the major structural protein L1. These antibodies can be efficiently induced by immunization with virus-like particles that are formed spontaneously after L1 gene expression in recombinant systems. The yeast Pichia pastoris is known to provide an efficient system for expression of proteins due to reduced cost and high levels of protein production. We evaluated P. pastoris for expression of the L1 gene from BPV1, BPV2 and BPV4. After methanol induction, the recombinants were able to produce L1 proteins of the three different BPV types. To increase heterologous L1 protein levels, a codon optimization strategy was used for production under bioreactor conditions. The BPV1 L1 protein was identified by monoclonal antibody anti-6xHis. This is the first report of BPV L1 expression in yeast.

  12. Polymorphisms in bovine immune genes and their associations with somatic cell count and milk production in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, Christine; Daly, Mairead; Childs, Stuart; Berry, Donagh P; Magee, David A; McCarthy, Tommie V; Giblin, Linda

    2010-11-05

    Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, is a major source of economic loss on dairy farms. The aim of this study was to quantify the associations between two previously identified polymorphisms in the bovine toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1) genes and mammary health indictor traits in (a) 246 lactating dairy cow contemporaries representing five breeds from one research farm and (b) 848 Holstein-Friesian bulls that represent a large proportion of the Irish dairy germplasm. To expand the study, a further 14 polymorphisms in immune genes were included for association studies in the bull population. TLR4-2021 associated (P milk protein and fat percentage in late lactation (P milk within the bull population. CXCR1-777 significantly associated (P milk fat and protein yield and also tended to associate with increased (P milk yield. A SERPINA1 haplotype with superior genetic merit for milk protein yield and milk fat percentage (P importance of these variants in selection for improved mastitis resistance in the Holstein-Friesian cow.

  13. Prevalence of coagulase gene polymorphism in Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Dangler, C. A.; Sordillo, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the coagulase gene. A variable region of the coagulase gene was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by AluI restriction enzyme digestion. A total of 15 different RFLP patterns were observed. The predominant pattern was found in 35...

  14. Effects of genetic variants of the bovine WNT8A gene on nine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As a member of the WNT gene family, Wnt8A encodes secreted signalling proteins and responds to many biological processes.However, similar research on the effects of genetic variations of Wnt8A gene on growth traits is lacking. Therefore, in this study, polymorphisms of Wnt8A were detectedin 396 animals from Chinese ...

  15. Two novel SNPs in the coding region of bovine VDR gene and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, ... In this study by. DNA pool sequencing and PCR-RFLP methods we identi- fied two sequence variants (SV1: g.45515T>C, exon 7; SV2: g.53558C>A, exon 8) of the VDR gene ... Keywords. association; cattle; growth traits; polymorphisms; VDR gene.

  16. , , , , , and Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS/Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001 carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases. Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001 stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism.

  17. DNA sequence polymorphisms in a panel of eight candidate bovine imprinted genes and their association with performance traits in Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies in mice and humans have shown that imprinted genes, whereby expression from one of the two parentally inherited alleles is attenuated or completely silenced, have a major effect on mammalian growth, metabolism and physiology. More recently, investigations in livestock species indicate that genes subject to this type of epigenetic regulation contribute to, or are associated with, several performance traits, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In the present study, a candidate gene approach was adopted to assess 17 validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their association with a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Irish Holstein-Friesian artificial insemination sires. These SNPs are located proximal to, or within, the bovine orthologs of eight genes (CALCR, GRB10, PEG3, PHLDA2, RASGRF1, TSPAN32, ZIM2 and ZNF215) that have been shown to be imprinted in cattle or in at least one other mammalian species (i.e. human/mouse/pig/sheep). Results Heterozygosities for all SNPs analysed ranged from 0.09 to 0.46 and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (P ≤ 0.01) were observed at four loci. Phenotypic associations (P ≤ 0.05) were observed between nine SNPs proximal to, or within, six of the eight analysed genes and a number of performance traits evaluated, including milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, culled cow and progeny carcass weight, angularity, body conditioning score, progeny carcass conformation, body depth, rump angle, rump width, animal stature, calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. Notably, SNPs within the imprinted paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3) gene cluster were associated (P ≤ 0.05) with calving, calf performance and fertility traits, while a single SNP in the zinc finger protein 215 gene (ZNF215) was associated with milk protein percentage (P ≤ 0.05), progeny carcass weight (P ≤ 0.05), culled cow carcass weight (P ≤ 0.01), angularity (P

  18. DNA sequence polymorphisms in a panel of eight candidate bovine imprinted genes and their association with performance traits in Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullen Michael P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in mice and humans have shown that imprinted genes, whereby expression from one of the two parentally inherited alleles is attenuated or completely silenced, have a major effect on mammalian growth, metabolism and physiology. More recently, investigations in livestock species indicate that genes subject to this type of epigenetic regulation contribute to, or are associated with, several performance traits, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In the present study, a candidate gene approach was adopted to assess 17 validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and their association with a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Irish Holstein-Friesian artificial insemination sires. These SNPs are located proximal to, or within, the bovine orthologs of eight genes (CALCR, GRB10, PEG3, PHLDA2, RASGRF1, TSPAN32, ZIM2 and ZNF215 that have been shown to be imprinted in cattle or in at least one other mammalian species (i.e. human/mouse/pig/sheep. Results Heterozygosities for all SNPs analysed ranged from 0.09 to 0.46 and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (P ≤ 0.01 were observed at four loci. Phenotypic associations (P ≤ 0.05 were observed between nine SNPs proximal to, or within, six of the eight analysed genes and a number of performance traits evaluated, including milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, culled cow and progeny carcass weight, angularity, body conditioning score, progeny carcass conformation, body depth, rump angle, rump width, animal stature, calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. Notably, SNPs within the imprinted paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3 gene cluster were associated (P ≤ 0.05 with calving, calf performance and fertility traits, while a single SNP in the zinc finger protein 215 gene (ZNF215 was associated with milk protein percentage (P ≤ 0.05, progeny carcass weight (P ≤ 0.05, culled cow carcass weight (P ≤ 0

  19. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in bovine preimplantation embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Zeveren Alex

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time quantitative PCR is a sensitive and very efficient technique to examine gene transcription patterns in preimplantation embryos, in order to gain information about embryo development and to optimize assisted reproductive technologies. Critical to the succesful application of real-time PCR is careful assay design, reaction optimization and validation to maximize sensitivity and accuracy. In most of the studies published GAPD, ACTB or 18S rRNA have been used as a single reference gene without prior verification of their expression stability. Normalization of the data using unstable controls can result in erroneous conclusions, especially when only one reference gene is used. Results In this study the transcription levels of 8 commonly used reference genes (ACTB, GAPD, Histone H2A, TBP, HPRT1, SDHA, YWHAZ and 18S rRNA were determined at different preimplantation stages (2-cell, 8-cell, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst in order to select the most stable genes to normalize quantitative data within different preimplantation embryo stages. Conclusion Using the geNorm application YWHAZ, GAPD and SDHA were found to be the most stable genes across the examined embryonic stages, while the commonly used ACTB was shown to be highly regulated. We recommend the use of the geometric mean of those 3 reference genes as an accurate normalization factor, which allows small expression differences to be reliably measured.

  20. Effects of bovine prolactin gene polymorphism within exon 4 on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    mamogenesis), lactogenesis, maintenance of milk secretion (galactopoiesis) and expression of milk protein genes (Horseman et al., 1997). It is also primarily responsible for synthesis of lactose, lipids and all other major components of ...

  1. Geographical variation in the presence of genes encoding superantigenic exotoxins and beta-hemolysin among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Europe and USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, H. D.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, N. E.

    2002-01-01

    The object was to examine the geographical variation in the presence of superantigenic exotoxins and beta-hemolysin among epidemiologically independent Staphyirrcoccus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis. A total of 462 S. aureus isolates from nine European countries and USA were examined...... for the presence of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E, and H, toxic shock toxin-1 (TSST-1), and beta-hemolysin, and 128 of these were examined for exfoliative toxins A and B. The detection was done by PCR. Phenotypic methods were used to confirm the PCR-results. None of the 128 isolates carried...... for the individual exotoxins. The genes encoding enterotoxin C, TSST-1, and enterotoxin D were the most common superantigens. The present and earlier studies demonstrate that the superantigenic exotoxins that were investigated in this study, do not play a role in the pathogenesis of bovine S. aureus mastitis...

  2. Melatonin improves the quality of in vitro produced (IVP) bovine embryos: implications for blastocyst development, cryotolerance, and modifications of relevant gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Tian, XiuZhi; Zhou, YanHua; Tan, DunXian; Zhu, ShiEn; Dai, YunPing; Liu, GuoShi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the potential effects of melatonin on the kinetics of embryo development and quality of blastocyst during the process of in vitro bovine embryo culture. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were fertilized after in vitro maturation. The presumed zygotes were cultured in in vitro culture medium supplemented with or without 10(-7) M melatonin. The cleavage rate, 8-cell rate and blastocyst rate were examined to identify the kinetics of embryo development. The hatched blastocyst rate, mortality rate after thawing and the relevant transcript abundance were measured to evaluate the quality of blastocyst. The results showed that melatonin significantly promoted the cleavage rate and 8-cell embryo yield of in vitro produced bovine embryo. In addition, significantly more blastocysts were observed by Day 7 of embryo culture at the presence of melatonin. These results indicated that melatonin accelerated the development of in vitro produced bovine embryos. Following vitrification at Day 7 of embryo culture, melatonin (10(-7) M) significantly increased the hatched blastocyst rate from 24 h to 72 h and decreased the mortality rate from 48 h to 72 h after thawing. The presence of melatonin during the embryo culture resulted in a significant increase in the gene expressions of DNMT3A, OCC, CDH1 and decrease in that of AQP3 after thawing. In conclusion, melatonin not only promoted blastocyst yield and accelerated in vitro bovine embryo development, but also improved the quality of blastocysts which was indexed by an elevated cryotolerance and the up-regulated expressions of developmentally important genes.

  3. Melatonin improves the quality of in vitro produced (IVP bovine embryos: implications for blastocyst development, cryotolerance, and modifications of relevant gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the potential effects of melatonin on the kinetics of embryo development and quality of blastocyst during the process of in vitro bovine embryo culture. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs were fertilized after in vitro maturation. The presumed zygotes were cultured in in vitro culture medium supplemented with or without 10(-7 M melatonin. The cleavage rate, 8-cell rate and blastocyst rate were examined to identify the kinetics of embryo development. The hatched blastocyst rate, mortality rate after thawing and the relevant transcript abundance were measured to evaluate the quality of blastocyst. The results showed that melatonin significantly promoted the cleavage rate and 8-cell embryo yield of in vitro produced bovine embryo. In addition, significantly more blastocysts were observed by Day 7 of embryo culture at the presence of melatonin. These results indicated that melatonin accelerated the development of in vitro produced bovine embryos. Following vitrification at Day 7 of embryo culture, melatonin (10(-7 M significantly increased the hatched blastocyst rate from 24 h to 72 h and decreased the mortality rate from 48 h to 72 h after thawing. The presence of melatonin during the embryo culture resulted in a significant increase in the gene expressions of DNMT3A, OCC, CDH1 and decrease in that of AQP3 after thawing. In conclusion, melatonin not only promoted blastocyst yield and accelerated in vitro bovine embryo development, but also improved the quality of blastocysts which was indexed by an elevated cryotolerance and the up-regulated expressions of developmentally important genes.

  4. Cycloheximide induces expression of the human interferon beta 1 gene in mouse cells transformed by bovine papillomavirus-interferon beta 1 recombinants.

    OpenAIRE

    Maroteaux, L; Chen, L.; Mitrani-Rosenbaum, S; Howley, P M; Revel, M

    1983-01-01

    Mouse cells transformed by a bovine papillomavirus recombinant vector containing the human interferon (IFN) beta 1 (IFN-beta 1) gene could be induced to produce human as well as mouse IFNs. The optimal conditions for induction of human IFN and of its mRNA in these transformants resembled those needed for mouse IFN: high concentrations of DEAE-dextran and low concentrations of polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid. Superinduction by inhibitors of protein synthesis which strongly stimula...

  5. Bayesian Modeling of MPSS Data: Gene Expression Analysis of Bovine Salmonella Infection

    KAUST Repository

    Dhavala, Soma S.

    2010-09-01

    Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) is a high-throughput, counting-based technology available for gene expression profiling. It produces output that is similar to Serial Analysis of Gene Expression and is ideal for building complex relational databases for gene expression. Our goal is to compare the in vivo global gene expression profiles of tissues infected with different strains of Salmonella obtained using the MPSS technology. In this article, we develop an exact ANOVA type model for this count data using a zero-inflatedPoisson distribution, different from existing methods that assume continuous densities. We adopt two Bayesian hierarchical models-one parametric and the other semiparametric with a Dirichlet process prior that has the ability to "borrow strength" across related signatures, where a signature is a specific arrangement of the nucleotides, usually 16-21 base pairs long. We utilize the discreteness of Dirichlet process prior to cluster signatures that exhibit similar differential expression profiles. Tests for differential expression are carried out using nonparametric approaches, while controlling the false discovery rate. We identify several differentially expressed genes that have important biological significance and conclude with a summary of the biological discoveries. This article has supplementary materials online. © 2010 American Statistical Association.

  6. [Prokaryotic expression of HN gene of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 and the establishment of indirect ELISA method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Long; Ren, Ya-Chao; Zhu, Zhan-Bo; Hou, Xi-Lin; Wang, Mi; Geng, Jing; Piao, Fan-Ze; Li, Sen

    2012-01-01

    The prokaryotic expression plasmid pQE30-HN of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein gene of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) strain HJ-1 was expressed by IPTG induction in E. coli XL1Blue. The recombinant HN protein(rHN) was purified by electroeluting method, and used as coated antigen. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect the antibody valence of BPIV3. The best working conditions of ELISA were as follows: the antigen concentration was 6 microg/mL; the serum dilution was 1:50; the blocking reagent was 5% skimmed milk; the blocking time was 60 min at 37 degrees C; the second antibody concentration was 1:10 000; The cut-off value was 0.30. The method revealed a good specificity, no cross-reaction to the positive sera of BCV, IBRV or BRSV was observed. We applied the method to detect 323 serum samples of dairy cow in Heilongjiang Province, the seropositivity rate of BPIV3 was about 58%. The indirect ELISA established provided a technological basis for the development of ELISA kit.

  7. Haplotypes of bovine FoxO1 gene sequence variants and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    339. Tran H., Brunet A., Griffith E. C. and Greenberg M. E. 2003 The many forks in FOXO's road. Sci. STKE. RE5. Weigel D., Jurgens G., Kuttner F., Seifert E. and Jackle H. 1989. The homeotic gene fork head encodes a nuclear protein and is.

  8. Effects of genetic variants of the bovine WNT8A gene on nine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yong-Zhen Huang

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... Keywords. polymorphisms; Wnt8A gene; growth traits; Qinchuan cattle. Introduction. Wnt/β-catenin signalling has been discovered in many animals, which plays an important role in carcinogene- sis and foetal development (Moon et al. 1997; Peifer and. Polakis 2000). Wnt proteins are a family of paracrine.

  9. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding bovine interleukin-10 receptor alpha are associated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelton David F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Johne's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Since this pathogen has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human IBDs, the goal of this study was to assess whether single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs in several well-known candidate genes for human IBD are associated with susceptibility to MAP infection in dairy cattle. Methods The bovine candidate genes, interleukin-10 (IL10, IL10 receptor alpha/beta (IL10RA/B, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1, TGFB receptor class I/II (TGFBR1/2, and natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (SLC11A1 were sequenced for SNP discovery using pooled DNA samples, and the identified SNPs were genotyped in a case-control association study comprised of 242 MAP negative and 204 MAP positive Holstein dairy cattle. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of SNPs and reconstructed haplotypes with MAP infection status. Results A total of 13 SNPs were identified. Four SNPs in IL10RA (984G > A, 1098C > T, 1269T > C, and 1302A > G were tightly linked, and showed a strong additive and dominance relationship with MAP infection status. Haplotypes AGC and AAT, containing the SNPs IL10RA 633C > A, 984G > A and 1185C > T, were associated with an elevated and reduced likelihood of positive diagnosis by serum ELISA, respectively. Conclusions SNPs in IL10RA are associated with MAP infection status in dairy cattle. The functional significance of these SNPs warrants further investigation.

  10. Identification and characterization of bovine regulator of telomere length elongation helicase gene (RTEL: molecular cloning, expression distribution, splice variants and DNA methylation profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ShaoHua

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic basis of telomere length heterogeneity among mammalian species is still not well understood. Recently, a gene named regulator of telomere length elongation helicase (RTEL was identified and predicted to be an essential participant in species-specific telomere length regulation in two murine species. To obtain broader insights into its structure and biological functions and to ascertain whether RTEL is also a candidate gene in the regulation of telomere length diversity in other mammalian species, data from other mammals may be helpful. Results Here we report the cDNA cloning, genomic structure, chromosomal location, alternative splicing pattern, expression distribution and DNA methylation profile of the bovine homolog of RTEL. The longest transcript of bovine RTEL is 4440 nt, encompassing 24.8 kb of genomic sequence that was mapped to chromosome 13q2.2. It encodes a conserved helicase-like protein containing seven characterized helicase motifs in the first 750 aa and a PIP box in the C-terminus. Four splice variants were identified within the transcripts in both the coding and 5'-untranslated regions; Western blot revealed that the most abundant splice variant SV-1 was translated to a truncated isoform of RTEL. The different 5'UTRs imply alternative transcription start sites in the promoter; Bovine RTEL was transcribed at the blastocyst stage, and expression levels were highest in adult testis, liver and ovary. DNA methylation analysis of tissues that differed significantly in expression level indicated that relatively low DNA methylation is associated with higher expression. Conclusion In this study, we have identified and characterized a bovine RTEL homolog and obtained basic information about it, including gene structure, expression distribution, splice variants and profile of DNA methylation around two putative transcription start sites. These data may be helpful for further comparative and functional analysis

  11. Expression profiles for six zebrafish genes during gonadal sex differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Morthorst, Jane E.; Andersen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    the precise timing of expression of six genes previously suggested to be associated with sex differentiation in zebrafish. The current study investigates the expression of all six genes in the same individual fish with extensive sampling dates during sex determination and -differentiation. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: The mechanism of sex determination in zebrafish is largely unknown and neither sex chromosomes nor a sex-determining gene have been identified. This indicates that sex determination in zebrafish is mediated by genetic signals from autosomal genes. The aim of this study was to determine......: In the present study, we have used quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the expression of ar, sox9a, dmrt1, fig alpha, cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b during the expected sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation period. The expression of the genes expected to be high in males (ar, sox9a and dmrt1a) and high...

  12. Plasmid transfection in bovine cells: Optimization using a realtime monitoring of green fluorescent protein and effect on gene reporter assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Johan S; Bionaz, Massimo

    2017-08-30

    Gene reporter technology (GRT) has opened several new avenues for monitoring biological events including the activation of transcription factors, which are central to the study of nutrigenomics. However, this technology relies heavily on the insertion of foreign plasmid DNA into the nuclei of cells (i.e., transfection), which can be very challenging and highly variable among cell types. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal conditions to generate reliable GRT assay data on bovine immortalized cell lines, Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) and bovine mammary epithelial alveolar (MACT) cells. Results are reported for two experiments. In Experiment 1, using 96 well-plate and a robotic inverted fluorescent microscope, we compared transfection efficiency among commercially available transfection reagents (TR) Lipofectamine® 3000 (Lipo3), Lipofectamine® LTX (LipoLTX), and TransIT-X2® (TransX2), three doses of TR (i.e., 0.15, 0.3, and 0.4μL/well), and three doses of Green Fluorescent Protein plasmid DNA (i.e., 10, 25, and 50ng/well). Transfection efficiency and mortality rate were analyzed using CellProfiler software. Transfection efficiency increased until the end of the experiment (20h post-transfection) at which point MACT had greater transfection than MDBK cells (16.3% vs. 2.2%). It is unclear the reason for the low transfection in MDBK cells. Maximal transfection efficiency was obtained with 0.3μL/well of LipoLTX plus 25ng/well of plasmid DNA (ca. 29.5±1.9%) and 0.15μL/well of LipoLTX plus 25ng/well of plasmid DNA (ca. 4.0±0.4%) for MACT and MDBK cells, respectively. The higher amount of TR and DNA was generally associated with higher cell mortality. Using high, medium, and low transfection efficiency conditions determined in Experiment 1, we performed a GRT assay for peroxisome proliferator-activated response element (PPRE) luciferase in MACT and MDBK cells treated with 10nM or 100nM of synthetic Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor

  13. Impact of intramammary treatment on gene expression profiles in bovine Escherichia coli mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Anja Sipka; Suzanne Klaessig; Duhamel, Gerald E.; Jantijn Swinkels; Pascal Rainard; Ynte Schukken

    2014-01-01

    Clinical mastitis caused by E. coli accounts for significant production losses and animal welfare concerns on dairy farms worldwide. The benefits of therapeutic intervention in mild to moderate cases are incompletely understood. We investigated the effect of intramammary treatment with cefapirin alone or in combination with prednisolone on gene expression profiles in experimentally-induced E. coli mastitis in six mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows. Cows were challenged with E. coli in 3 qua...

  14. Impact of intramammary treatment on gene expression profiles in bovine Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipka, Anja; Klaessig, Suzanne; Duhamel, Gerald E; Swinkels, Jantijn; Rainard, Pascal; Schukken, Ynte

    2014-01-01

    Clinical mastitis caused by E. coli accounts for significant production losses and animal welfare concerns on dairy farms worldwide. The benefits of therapeutic intervention in mild to moderate cases are incompletely understood. We investigated the effect of intramammary treatment with cefapirin alone or in combination with prednisolone on gene expression profiles in experimentally-induced E. coli mastitis in six mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows. Cows were challenged with E. coli in 3 quarters and received 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin in one quarter and 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin together with 20 mg prednisolone in another quarter. At 24 h (n = 3) or 48 h (n = 3) post-challenge, tissue samples from control and treated quarters were collected for microarray analysis. Gene expression analysis of challenged, un-treated quarters revealed an up-regulation of transcripts associated with immune response functions compared to un-challenged quarters. Both treatments resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts compared to challenged, un-treated quarters most prominently for genes representing Chemokine and TLR-signaling pathways. Gene expression of Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein (LBP), CCL2 and CXCL2 were only significantly down-regulated in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters compared to un-treated controls. Down-regulation of chemokines was further confirmed on the basis of protein levels in milk whey for CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8 in both treatments with a greater decrease in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters. The data reveal a significant effect of treatment on cell recruitment with a more pronounced effect in cefapirin-prednisolone treated quarters. Provided a rapid bacteriological clearance, combination therapy may prevent neutrophil-induced tissue damage and promote recovery of the gland.

  15. Impact of intramammary treatment on gene expression profiles in bovine Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Sipka

    Full Text Available Clinical mastitis caused by E. coli accounts for significant production losses and animal welfare concerns on dairy farms worldwide. The benefits of therapeutic intervention in mild to moderate cases are incompletely understood. We investigated the effect of intramammary treatment with cefapirin alone or in combination with prednisolone on gene expression profiles in experimentally-induced E. coli mastitis in six mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows. Cows were challenged with E. coli in 3 quarters and received 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin in one quarter and 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin together with 20 mg prednisolone in another quarter. At 24 h (n = 3 or 48 h (n = 3 post-challenge, tissue samples from control and treated quarters were collected for microarray analysis. Gene expression analysis of challenged, un-treated quarters revealed an up-regulation of transcripts associated with immune response functions compared to un-challenged quarters. Both treatments resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts compared to challenged, un-treated quarters most prominently for genes representing Chemokine and TLR-signaling pathways. Gene expression of Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein (LBP, CCL2 and CXCL2 were only significantly down-regulated in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters compared to un-treated controls. Down-regulation of chemokines was further confirmed on the basis of protein levels in milk whey for CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8 in both treatments with a greater decrease in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters. The data reveal a significant effect of treatment on cell recruitment with a more pronounced effect in cefapirin-prednisolone treated quarters. Provided a rapid bacteriological clearance, combination therapy may prevent neutrophil-induced tissue damage and promote recovery of the gland.

  16. Cationized bovine serum albumin as gene carrier: Influence of specific secondary structure on DNA complexibility and gene transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianwei; Li, Bangbang; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Youxiang

    2016-07-01

    In this research, BSA, one of the natural rigid globular proteins with ca. 51% of α-helix secondary structure, was utilized to prepare cationized BSA (cBSA) as gene carrier. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) or polyethylenimine (PEI1800) was grafted to BSA with different grafting levels. Based on the circular dichoism (CD) spectra, all cBSA remained α-helical structure to some degree. This was exciting to endow cBSA with quite different DNA complexibility and cellular biology behavior from the random coiled and flexible polycations such as PEI and poly-l-lysine (PLL). Strangely, the DNA condensability decreased with the increment of TEPA or PEI1800 grafting level. Also, the cBSA could condense DNA effectively to form irregular nanoparticles around 50-200nm above N/P ratio of 10. On account of the excellent hydration of BSA, the cBSA/DNA complexes revealed good colloidal stability under physiological salt condition. Cell culture experiments indicated this BSA-based gene carrier possessed good cellular compatibility. Surprisingly, cBSA/DNA complexes could be uptaken excellently by up to 90% cells. This might be owing to the agitation effect of α-helical structure and the positive potential of these complexes. BSA-PEI1800/DNA complexes with quick endosome escape even had transfection efficiency as high as PEI25k/DNA complexes. Overall, this paper provided us the potential of cBSA as gene carrier and might have some instructions in the design of protein-based gene delivery system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bovine mastitis: prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile and detection of genes associated with biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Paula Casanova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil currently ranks as one of the world leaders in food production and exportation. This scenario encourages the development of animal and plant health programs to ensure the production of safe food, helping the country to become an international provider of food for excellence. However, some health problems in dairy production, such as mastitis, have garnered increasing concern. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of bovine mastitis in select properties located in the western Santa Catarina region, to assess the susceptibility profile to antimicrobial agents used for treatment and to check for the presence of genes (icaA and icaD associated with biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. In 148 milk samples collected, 72.97% had bacterial growth (n = 108. Among the isolated microorganisms, 21.62% (n = 32 were classified as Staphylococcus aureus, 18.91% (n = 28 as Staphylococcus sp. coagulase negative, 7.43% (n = 11 as Corynebacterium sp., 6.76% (n = 10 as Staphylococcus sp. coagulase positive, 5.41% (n = 8 as Nocardia sp. and 12.83% (n = 19 classified in different bacterial genera. Among the isolates submitted for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, it was observed that 8.95% (n = 6/67 had resistance to amoxicillin, 8.04% (n = 7/87 to ampicillin, 5.88% (n = 5/85 to cephalothin, 3.40% (n = 3/88 to ceftiofur and enrofloxacin, 20.45% (n = 18/88 to streptomycin, 17.04% (n = 15/88 to gentamicin and lincomycin, 31.81% (n = 28/88 to neomycin, 14.94% (n = 13/87 to penicillin and 25% (n = 22/88 to tetracycline. Staphylococcus sp. coagulase negative isolates showed higher multidrug resistance when compared to those of S. aureus and Staphylococcus sp. coagulase positive. Thirty-one strains of S. aureus isolates were genotypically tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, yielding a positive result for the icaA gene in 83.87% of the samples, 80.64% positive for icaD and 74.19% of these showed both genes. The results reinforce the importance

  18. Sequence analysis of the 5′ third of glycoprotein C gene of South American bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traesel, C.K.; Bernardes, L.M. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Spilki, F.R. [Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Weiblen, R.; Flores, E.F. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2015-03-06

    Bovine herpesviruses 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) share high genetic and antigenic similarities, but exhibit marked differences in tissue tropism and neurovirulence. The amino-terminal region of glycoprotein C (gC), which is markedly different in each of the viruses, is involved in virus binding to cellular receptors and in interactions with the immune system. This study investigated the genetic and antigenic differences of the 5′ region of the gC (5′ gC) gene (amino-terminal) of South American BoHV-1 (n=19) and BoHV-5 (n=25) isolates. Sequence alignments of 374 nucleotides (104 amino acids) revealed mean similarity levels of 97.3 and 94.2% among BoHV-1 gC (gC1), respectively, 96.8 and 95.6% among BoHV-5 gC (gC5), and 62 and 53.3% between gC1 and gC5. Differences included the absence of 40 amino acid residues (27 encompassing predicted linear epitopes) scattered throughout 5′ gC1 compared to 5′ gC5. Virus neutralizing assays testing BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 antisera against each isolate revealed a high degree of cross-neutralization between the viruses, yet some isolates were neutralized at very low titers by heterologous sera, and a few BoHV-5 isolates reacted weakly with either sera. The virus neutralization differences observed within the same viral species, and more pronounced between BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, likely reflect sequence differences in neutralizing epitopes. These results demonstrate that the 5′ gC region is well conserved within each viral species but is divergent between BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, likely contributing to their biological and antigenic differences.

  19. Prevalence and genotypic characterization of bovine Echinococcus granulosus isolates by using cytochrome oxidase 1 (Co1) gene in Hyderabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Muhammad; Akhter, Nasreen; Bhutto, Bachal; Arijo, Abdullah; Ali Gadahi, Javaid

    2017-05-30

    Cystic echinococcosis is an important zoonotic disease; it has serious impacts on animals as well as human health throughout the world. Genotypic characterization of Echinocossus granulosus (E. granulosus) in buffaloes has not been addressed in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the incidence and genotypic characterization of bovine E. granulosus. Out of 832 buffaloes examined, 112 (13.46%) were found infected. The favorable site for hydatid cyst development was liver (8.65%) followed by lungs (4.80%). The rate of cystic echinococcosis was found higher in females 14.43% than males 9.77%. The females above seven years aged were more infected as compared to the young ones. The partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) gene was used for identification and molecular analysis of buffalo's E. granulosus isolates. The alignment of redundant sequences were compared with already identified 10 genotypes available at National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of all randomly selected buffalo isolates were belong to the G1- G3 complex (E. granulosus sensu stricto). All sequences were diverse from the reference sequence. No one showed complete identity to the buffalo strain (G3), representing substantial microsequence variability in G1, G2 and G3 genotypes. We evaluated the echinococcal infectivity and first time identification of genotypes in buffaloes in Sindh, Pakistan. This study will lead to determine accurate source of this zoonotic disease to humans in Pakistan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sequence Evolution and Expression of the Androgen Receptor and Other Pathway-Related Genes in a Unisexual Fish, the Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, and Its Bisexual Ancestors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Zhu

    Full Text Available The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa originated from a single hybridization of two bisexual ancestors, Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna. As a gynogenetic species, the Amazon molly needs to copulate with a heterospecific male, but the genetic information of the sperm-donor does not contribute to the next generation, as the sperm only acts as the trigger for the diploid eggs' embryogenesis. Here, we study the sequence evolution and gene expression of the duplicated genes coding for androgen receptors (ars and other pathway-related genes, i.e., the estrogen receptors (ers and cytochrome P450, family19, subfamily A, aromatase genes (cyp19as, in the Amazon molly, in comparison to its bisexual ancestors. Mollies possess-as most other teleost fish-two copies of the ar, er, and cyp19a genes, i.e., arα/arβ, erα/erβ1, and cyp19a1 (also referred as cyp19a1a/cyp19a2 (also referred to as cyp19a1b, respectively. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among the ancestral bisexual species were generally predicted not to alter protein function. Some derived substitutions in the P. mexicana and one in P. formosa are predicted to impact protein function. We also describe the gene expression pattern of the ars and pathway-related genes in various tissues (i.e., brain, gill, and ovary and provide SNP markers for allele specific expression research. As a general tendency, the levels of gene expression were lowest in gill and highest in ovarian tissues, while expression levels in the brain were intermediate in most cases. Expression levels in P. formosa were conserved where expression did not differ between the two bisexual ancestors. In those cases where gene expression levels significantly differed between the bisexual species, P. formosa expression was always comparable to the higher expression level among the two ancestors. Interestingly, erβ1 was expressed neither in brain nor in gill in the

  1. Sequential Analysis of Global Gene Expression Profiles in Immature and In vitro Matured Bovine Oocytes: Potential Molecular Markers of Oocyte Maturation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mamo, Solomon

    2011-03-16

    Abstract Background Without intensive selection, the majority of bovine oocytes submitted to in vitro embryo production (IVP) fail to develop to the blastocyst stage. This is attributed partly to their maturation status and competences. Using the Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Array, global mRNA expression analysis of immature (GV) and in vitro matured (IVM) bovine oocytes was carried out to characterize the transcriptome of bovine oocytes and then use a variety of approaches to determine whether the observed transcriptional changes during IVM was real or an artifact of the techniques used during analysis. Results 8489 transcripts were detected across the two oocyte groups, of which ~25.0% (2117 transcripts) were differentially expressed (p < 0.001); corresponding to 589 over-expressed and 1528 under-expressed transcripts in the IVM oocytes compared to their immature counterparts. Over expression of transcripts by IVM oocytes is particularly interesting, therefore, a variety of approaches were employed to determine whether the observed transcriptional changes during IVM were real or an artifact of the techniques used during analysis, including the analysis of transcript abundance in oocytes in vitro matured in the presence of α-amanitin. Subsets of the differentially expressed genes were also validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the gene expression data was classified according to gene ontology and pathway enrichment. Numerous cell cycle linked (CDC2, CDK5, CDK8, HSPA2, MAPK14, TXNL4B), molecular transport (STX5, STX17, SEC22A, SEC22B), and differentiation (NACA) related genes were found to be among the several over-expressed transcripts in GV oocytes compared to the matured counterparts, while ANXA1, PLAU, STC1and LUM were among the over-expressed genes after oocyte maturation. Conclusion Using sequential experiments, we have shown and confirmed transcriptional changes during oocyte maturation. This dataset provides a unique reference resource

  2. Molecular identification of airborne bacteria associated with aerial spraying of bovine slurry waste employing 16S rRNA gene PCR and gene sequencing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Yuki; Maeda, Yasunori; Rao, Juluri R; Matsuda, Motoo; Xu, Jiru; Moore, Peter J A; Millar, B Cherie; Rooney, Paul J; Goldsmith, Colin E; Loughrey, Anne; McMahon, M Ann S; McDowell, David A; Moore, John E

    2010-03-01

    Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the universal 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was performed on a collection of 38 bacterial isolates, originating from air sampled immediately adjacent to the agricultural spreading of bovine slurry. A total of 16 bacterial genera were identified including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative genera. Gram-positive organisms accounted for 34/38 (89.5%) of total bacterial numbers consisting of 12 genera and included Staphylococcus (most common genus isolated), Arthrobacter (2nd most common genus isolated), Brachybacterium, Exiguobacterium, Lactococcus, Microbacterium and Sporosarcina (next most common genera isolated) and finally, Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Frigoribacterium, Mycoplana and Pseudoclavibacter. Gram-negative organisms accounted for only 4/38 (10.5%) bacterial isolates and included the following genera, Brevundimonas, Lysobacter, Psychrobacter and Rhizobium. No gastrointestinal pathogens were detected. Although this study demonstrated a high diversity of the microorganisms present, only a few have been shown to be opportunistically pathogenic to humans and none of these organisms described have been described previously as having an inhalational route of infection and therefore we do not believe that the species of organisms identified pose a significant health and safety threat for immunocompetant individuals. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence for positive selection on the E2 gene of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fangqiang; Zhang, Chuyu

    2007-12-01

    Despite the growing interest in the molecular epidemiology of pestivirus, there have been few attempts to determine which regions of the pestivirus genome are subject to positive selection, although this may be a key indicator of the nature of the interaction between host and virus. By using likelihood-based methods for phylogenetic inference, the positive selection pressure of BVDV-1 E2 gene were assessed and a site-by-site analysis of the dN/dS ratio was performed, to identify specific codons undergoing diversifying positive selection. The overall omega was 0.20, indicating that most sites were subject to strong purifying selection and five positively selected sites (886, 888, 905, 944, and 946) were identified. It is surprising to find that all the potential positively selected sites fall within the C-terminal of E2, and out of the N-terminal of E2 which is thought to be surface-exposed and therefore prime targets for host antibody response. In conclusion, these results suggest that selection favoring avoidance of antibody recognition has not been a major factor in the history of BVDV-1. Further analysis is necessary to see if amino acid substitutions in the BVDV-1 positively selected sites can lead to change of host tropism or\\and escape from epitope-specific CD8 T-cell response.

  4. Molecular Characterization of Bovine SMO Gene and Effects of Its Genetic Variations on Body Size Traits in Qinchuan Cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Ran; Gui, Lin-Sheng; Li, Yao-Kun; Jiang, Bi-Jie; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zan, Lin-Sen

    2015-07-27

    Smoothened (Smo)-mediated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway governs the patterning, morphogenesis and growth of many different regions within animal body plans. This study evaluated the effects of genetic variations of the bovine SMO gene on economically important body size traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Altogether, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-8) were identified and genotyped via direct sequencing covering most of the coding region and 3'UTR of the bovine SMO gene. Both the p.698Ser.>Ser. synonymous mutation resulted from SNP1 and the p.700Ser.>Pro. non-synonymous mutation caused by SNP2 mapped to the intracellular C-terminal tail of bovine Smo protein; the other six SNPs were non-coding variants located in the 3'UTR. The linkage disequilibrium was analyzed, and five haplotypes were discovered in 520 Qinchuan cattle. Association analyses showed that SNP2, SNP3/5, SNP4 and SNP6/7 were significantly associated with some body size traits (p 0.05). Meanwhile, cattle with wild-type combined haplotype Hap1/Hap1 had significantly (p < 0.05) greater body length than those with Hap2/Hap2. Our results indicate that variations in the SMO gene could affect body size traits of Qinchuan cattle, and the wild-type haplotype Hap1 together with the wild-type alleles of these detected SNPs in the SMO gene could be used to breed cattle with superior body size traits. Therefore, our results could be helpful for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding programs.

  5. Identification of bovine leukemia virus tax function associated with host cell transcription, signaling, stress response and immune response pathway by microarray-based gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arainga Mariluz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus type I. The Tax protein of BLV is a transcriptional activator of viral replication and a key contributor to oncogenic potential. We previously identified interesting mutant forms of Tax with elevated (TaxD247G or reduced (TaxS240P transactivation effects on BLV replication and propagation. However, the effects of these mutations on functions other than transcriptional activation are unknown. In this study, to identify genes that play a role in the cascade of signal events regulated by wild-type and mutant Tax proteins, we used a large-scale host cell gene-profiling approach. Results Using a microarray containing approximately 18,400 human mRNA transcripts, we found several alterations after the expression of Tax proteins in genes involved in many cellular functions such as transcription, signal transduction, cell growth, apoptosis, stress response, and immune response, indicating that Tax protein has multiple biological effects on various cellular environments. We also found that TaxD247G strongly regulated more genes involved in transcription, signal transduction, and cell growth functions, contrary to TaxS240P, which regulated fewer genes. In addition, the expression of genes related to stress response significantly increased in the presence of TaxS240P as compared to wild-type Tax and TaxD247G. By contrast, the largest group of downregulated genes was related to immune response, and the majority of these genes belonged to the interferon family. However, no significant difference in the expression level of downregulated genes was observed among the Tax proteins. Finally, the expression of important cellular factors obtained from the human microarray results were validated at the RNA and protein levels by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting

  6. The Effect of Lysophosphatidic Acid during In Vitro Maturation of Bovine Oocytes: Embryonic Development and mRNA Abundances of Genes Involved in Apoptosis and Oocyte Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Boruszewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined whether LPA can be synthesized and act during in vitro maturation of bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs. We found transcription of genes coding for enzymes of LPA synthesis pathway (ATX and PLA2 and of LPA receptors (LPAR 1–4 in bovine oocytes and cumulus cells, following in vitro maturation. COCs were matured in vitro in presence or absence of LPA (10−5 M for 24 h. Supplementation of maturation medium with LPA increased mRNA abundance of FST and GDF9 in oocytes and decreased mRNA abundance of CTSs in cumulus cells. Additionally, oocytes stimulated with LPA had higher transcription levels of BCL2 and lower transcription levels of BAX resulting in the significantly lower BAX/BCL2 ratio. Blastocyst rates on day 7 were similar in the control and the LPA-stimulated COCs. Our study demonstrates for the first time that bovine COCs are a potential source and target of LPA action. We postulate that LPA exerts an autocrine and/or paracrine signaling, through several LPARs, between the oocyte and cumulus cells. LPA supplementation of maturation medium improves COC quality, and although this was not translated into an enhanced in vitro development until the blastocyst stage, improved oocyte competence may be relevant for subsequent in vivo survival.

  7. Coordinated Role of Toll-Like Receptor-3 and Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene-I in the Innate Response of Bovine Endometrial Cells to Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa C. Carneiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus-4 (BoHV-4 and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infect the uterus of cattle, often resulting in reduced fertility, or abortion of the fetus, respectively. Here, exposure of primary bovine endometrial cells to BoHV-4 or BVDV modulated the production of inflammatory mediators. Viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs are detected via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs. However, the relative contribution of specific PRRs to innate immunity, during viral infection of the uterus, is unclear. Endometrial epithelial and stromal cells constitutively express the PRR Toll-like receptor (TLR-3, but, the status of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, a sensor of cytosolic nucleic acids, is unknown. Primary endometrial epithelial and stromal cells had low expression of RIG-I, which was increased in stromal cells after 12 h transfection with the TLR3 ligand Poly(I:C, a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, short interfering RNA targeting TLR3, or interferon (IFN regulatory transcription factor 3, an inducer of type I IFN transcription, reduced Poly(I:C-induced RIG-I protein expression and reduced inflammatory mediator secretion from stromal cells. We conclude that antiviral defense of endometrial stromal cells requires coordinated recognition of PAMPs, initially via TLR3 and later via inducible RIG-I.

  8. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine Toll-like receptor 1 gene and association with health traits in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bovine mastitis remains the most common and costly disease of dairy cattle worldwide. A complementary control measure to herd hygiene and vaccine development would be to selectively breed cattle with greater resistance to mammary infection. Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1 has an integral role for the initiation and regulation of the immune response to microbial pathogens, and has been linked to numerous inflammatory diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the bovine TLR1 gene (boTLR1 are associated with clinical mastitis (CM. Selected boTLR1 SNPs were analysed within a Holstein Friesian herd. Significant associations were found for the tagging SNP -79 T > G and the 3'UTR SNP +2463 C > T. We observed favourable linkage of reduced CM with increased milk fat and protein, indicating selection for these markers would not be detrimental to milk quality. Furthermore, we present evidence that some of these boTLR1 SNPs underpin functional variation in bovine TLR1. Animals with the GG genotype (from the tag SNP -79 T > G had significantly lower boTLR1 expression in milk somatic cells when compared with TT or TG animals. In addition, stimulation of leucocytes from GG animals with the TLR1-ligand Pam3csk4 resulted in significantly lower levels of CXCL8 mRNA and protein. SNPs in boTLR1 were significantly associated with CM. In addition we have identified a bovine population with impaired boTLR1 expression and function. This may have additional implications for animal health and warrants further investigation to determine the suitability of identified SNPs as markers for disease susceptibility.

  9. BRCA1: a new candidate gene for bovine mastitis and its association analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms and milk somatic cell score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhengrong; Chu, Guiyan; Dan, Yang; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Gao, Huijiang; Li, Junya; Xu, Shangzhong; Liu, Zhihua

    2012-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is a very complex and common disease of dairy cattle and a major source of economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. In this study, the bovine breast cancer 1, early onset gene (BRCA1) was taken as a candidate gene for mastitis resistance. The main object of this study was to investigate whether the BRCA1 gene was associated with mastitis in cattle. Through DNA sequencing, Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and Created Restriction Site PCR (CRS-PCR) methods, three SNPs (G22231T, T25025A, and C28300A) were detected and twenty-four combinations of these SNPs were observed. The single SNP and their genetic effects on somatic cell score (SCS) were evaluated and a significant association with SCS was found in C28300A. The mean of genotype EE was significantly lower than those of genotypes EF and FF. The results of combined genotypes analysis of three SNPs showed that BBDDFF genotype with the highest SCS were easily for the mastitis susceptibility, whereas AACCEE genotype with the lowest SCS were favorable for the mastitis resistance. The information provided in the present study will be very useful for improving mastitis resistance in dairy cattle by marker-assisted selection.

  10. Vitrification of bovine blastocysts pretreated with sublethal hydrostatic pressure stress: evaluation of post-thaw in vitro development and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira Filho, E; Caixeta, E S; Pribenszky, C; Molnar, M; Horvath, A; Harnos, A; Franco, M M; Rumpf, R

    2011-01-01

    Sublethal stress treatment has been reported to enhance gametes' performance in subsequent procedures, such as cryopreservation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different equilibration times between the termination of a sublethal hydrostatic pressure (HP) stress treatment and the initiation of vitrification on the post-thaw survival, continued in vitro development, hatching rate and gene expression of selected candidate genes of in vitro-produced (IVP) expanded bovine blastocysts. Day 7 IVP blastocysts were subjected to 600 bar pressure for 60 min at 32°C. Immediately after pressure treatment (HP0h) or after 1 or 2h incubation (HP1h and HP2h groups, respectively), embryos were either vitrified and warmed using the open pulled straw method, followed by 72 h in vitro culture or were stored at -80°C until gene expression analysis. Re-expansion and hatching rates after vitrification-warming were significantly (Pbovine embryos.

  11. High and low-virulent bovine Pasteurella multocida capsular type A isolates exhibit different virulence gene expression patterns in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nengzhang; Long, Qingshan; Du, Huihui; Zhang, Jixin; Pan, Tingting; Wu, Chenlu; Lei, Guihua; Peng, Yuanyi; Hardwidge, Philip R

    2016-11-30

    Pasteurella multocida capsular type A causes respiratory disease in cattle. P. multocida virulence gene expression patterns, especially among different virulent isolates, during in vitro and in vivo growth are poorly understood. Here we show that the highly virulent bovine P. multocida capsular type A isolate PmCQ2 exhibits a significantly higher growth rate in mice, as compared with a strain of lower virulence, P. multocida capsular type A isolate PmCQ6. Among the six known and potential virulence genes (ompA, ompH, pfhB2, hasR, pm0979, and pm0442) investigated, most genes were expressed more highly in both isolates when grown in vivo as compared with in vitro, with ompH and pm0442 having the highest magnitude of expression. Virulence gene expression was higher in PmCQ6 than in PmCQ2 during in vitro growth. However, in mice, most virulence genes were expressed more highly in PmCQ2 as compared with PmCQ6. Virulence gene expression was highest in the liver and lowest in the lung, but was uncorrelated to bacterial loads. This study indicates that individual pathogenic capacity of P. multocida isolates is associated with the virulence gene expression patterns in vivo growth but not in vitro, and the investigation of virulence gene expression in pathogen should be performed in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Congenital bovine spinal dysmyelination is caused by a missense mutation in the SPAST gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo; Nissen, Peter H.; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

     Bovine spinal dysmyelination (BSD) is a recessive congenital neurodegenerative disease in cattle (Bos taurus) characterized by pathological changes of the myelin sheaths in the spinal cord. The occurrence of BSD is a longstanding problem in the American Brown Swiss (ABS) breed and in several...

  13. Identification of ABC transporter genes conferring combined pleuromutilin-lincosamide-streptogramin A resistance in bovine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, Sarah; Kadlec, Kristina; Feßler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan

    2015-06-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of combined pleuromutilin-lincosamide-streptogramin A resistance in 26 unrelated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from dairy cows suffering from mastitis. The 26 pleuromutilin-resistant staphylococcal isolates were screened for the presence of the genes vga(A), vga(B), vga(C), vga(E), vga(E) variant, sal(A), vmlR, cfr, lsa(A), lsa(B), lsa(C), and lsa(E) by PCR. None of the 26 isolates carried the genes vga(B), vga(C), vga(E), vga(E) variant, vmlR, cfr, lsa(A), lsa(B), or lsa(C). Two Staphylococcus haemolyticus and single Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus lentus, and Staphylococcus hominis were vga(A)-positive. Twelve S. aureus, two Staphylococcus warneri, as well as single S. lentus and S. xylosus carried the lsa(E) gene. Moreover, single S. aureus, S. haemolyticus, S. xylosus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were positive for both genes, vga(A) and lsa(E). The sal(A) gene was found in a single Staphylococcus sciuri. All ABC transporter genes were located in the chromosomal DNA, except for a plasmid-borne vga(A) gene in the S. epidermidis isolate. The genetic environment of the lsa(E)-positive isolates was analyzed using previously described PCR assays. Except for the S. warneri and S. xylosus, all lsa(E)-positive isolates harbored a part of the previously described enterococcal multiresistance gene cluster. This is the first report of the novel lsa(E) gene in the aforementioned bovine CoNS species. This is also the first identification of the sal(A) gene in a S. sciuri from a case of bovine mastitis. Moreover, the sal(A) gene was shown to also confer pleuromutilin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Occurrence of genes coding for MSCRAMM and biofilm-associated protein Bap in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis and relationship with somatic cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Eveline; Melville, Priscilla A; Saidenberg, André B S; Laes, Marco A; Gonsales, Fernanda F; Salaberry, Sandra R S; Gregori, Fabio; Brandão, Paulo E; dos Santos, Franklin G B; Lincopan, Nilton E; Benites, Nilson R

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate aspects of the epidemiology of bovine subclinical mastitis through the assessment of genes encoding MSCRAMM (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules - a group of adhesins) and protein Bap (implicated in biofilm formation), in coagulase-positive (CPS) and coagulase-negative (CNS) Staphylococcus isolated from subclinical mastitis. Milk samples were collected for microbiological exams, somatic cell count (SCC) and a survey of the genes coding for MSCRAMM (cna, eno, ebpS, fnbA, fnbB and fib) and biofilm-associated protein Bap (bap) in 106 Staphylococcus spp. isolates using PCR. The frequencies of occurrence of eno (82.1%), fnbA (72.6%), fib (71.7%) and bap (56.6%) were higher (P < 0.0001) compared with the other assessed genes (cna, ebpS and fnbB). The higher frequency of occurrence (P < 0.005) of the bap gene in CNS compared with CPS suggests that in these species biofilm formation is an important mechanism for the persistence of the infection. The medians of the SCCs in the samples where eno, fnbA, fib and bap genes were detected were higher compared with Staphylococcus without the assessed genes (P < 0.05) and negative samples (P < 0.01), which indicated that the presence of these MSCRAMM may be related to a higher intensity of the inflammatory process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of a doublet missense substitution in the bovine LRP4 gene as a candidate causal mutation for syndactyly in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, A; Gautier, M; Chadi, S; Grohs, C; Floriot, S; Gallard, Y; Caste, G; Ducos, A; Eggen, A

    2006-11-01

    Syndactyly in Holstein cattle is an autosomal recessive abnormality characterized by the fusion of the functional digits. This disorder has been previously mapped to the telomeric part of bovine chromosome 15. Here, we describe the fine-mapping of syndactyly in Holstein cattle to a 3.5-Mb critical interval using a comparative mapping approach and an extended pedigree generated by embryo transfer. We report genetic evidence for the exclusion of two genes previously suggested as candidates (EXT2 and ALX4) and describe the identification of a doublet mutation in complete linkage disequilibrium with syndactyly in one gene of the critical interval: LRP4. Finally, based on recent discoveries concerning the mouse mutants dan and mdig and a mouse knockout for Lrp4, we present solid evidence that the subsequent substitution in LRP4 exon 33 is a strong candidate causal mutation for syndactyly in Holstein cattle.

  16. Pan-genomic analysis of bovine monocyte-derived macrophage gene expression in response to in vitro infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, an intestinal disease of ruminants with major economic consequences. Infectious bacilli are phagocytosed by host macrophages upon exposure where they persist, resulting in lengthy subclinical phases of infection that can lead to immunopathology and disease dissemination. Consequently, analysis of the macrophage transcriptome in response to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection can provide valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie Johne’s disease. Here, we investigate pan-genomic gene expression in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) purified from seven age-matched females, in response to in vitro infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (multiplicity of infection 2:1) at intervals of 2 hours, 6 hours and 24 hours post-infection (hpi). Differentially expressed genes were identified by comparing the transcriptomes of the infected MDM to the non-infected control MDM at each time point (adjusted P-value threshold ≤ 0.10). 1050 differentially expressed unique genes were identified 2 hpi, with 974 and 78 differentially expressed unique genes detected 6 and 24 hpi, respectively. Furthermore, in the infected MDM the number of upregulated genes exceeded the number of downregulated genes at each time point, with the fold-change in expression for the upregulated genes markedly higher than that for the downregulated genes. Inspection and systems biology analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed an enrichment of genes involved in the inflammatory response, cell signalling pathways and apoptosis. The transcriptional changes associated with cellular signalling and the inflammatory response may reflect different immuno-modulatory mechanisms that underlie host-pathogen interactions during infection. PMID:22455317

  17. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Coding Region of Bovine Chemerin Gene and Their Associations with Carcass Traits in Japanese Black Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Yamauchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemerin, highly expressed in adipose and liver tissues, regulates glucose and lipid metabolism and immunity in these tissues in ruminants and mice. Our previous reports showed that chemerin is involved in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue as an adipokine. The aim of the present study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the coding region of the chemerin gene and to analyze their effects on carcass traits and intramuscular fatty acid compositions in Japanese Black cattle. The SNPs in the bovine chemerin gene were detected in 232 Japanese Black steers (n = 161 and heifers (n = 71 using DNA sequencing. The results revealed five novel silent mutations: NM_001046020: c.12A>G (4aa, c.165GT (92aa, c.321 A>G (107aa, and c.396C>T (132aa. There was no association between 4 of the SNPs (c.12A>G [4aa], c.165GG [107aa], and c.396C>T and carcass traits or intramuscular fatty acid compositions. Regarding the remaining SNP, c.276C>T, we found that cattle with genotype CC had a higher beef marbling score than that of cattle with genotype CT, whereas cattle with genotype CT had a higher body condition score (pT SNP is small. It is suggested that the c.276C>T SNP of the chemerin gene has potential in cattle breeding using modern methods, such as marker assisted selection. So, further functional and physiological research elucidating the impact of the chemerin gene on bovine lipid metabolism including fatty acid synthesis will help in understanding these results.

  18. Alcohol-related breast cancer in postmenopausal women - effect of CYP19A1, PPARG and PPARGC1A polymorphisms on female sex-hormone levels and interaction with alcohol consumption and NSAID usage in a nested case-control study and a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Jensen, Ditte Marie; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of breast cancer (BC), and the underlying mechanism is thought to be sex-hormone driven. In vitro and observational studies suggest a mechanism involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in a complex with peroxisome...... proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) and interaction with aromatase (encoded by CYP19A1). Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) may also affect circulating sex-hormone levels by modifying PPARγ activity. In the present study we assessed whether genetic variation in CYP...... and the PPARγ stimulator Ibuprofen on sex-hormone levels following alcohol intake in postmenopausal women (n = 25) using linear regression. Genetic variations in CYP19A1 were associated with hormone levels (estrone: P rs11070844 = 0.009, estrone sulphate: P rs11070844 = 0.01, P rs749292 = 0.004, P rs1062033 = 0...

  19. Effect of liquid helium vitrification on the ultrastructure and related gene expression of mature bovine oocytes after vitrifying at immature stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua; Yu, Xue-Li; Guo, Xian-Fei; Zhang, Fan; Pei, Xu-Zhe; Li, Xiao-Xia; Han, Wen-Xia; Li, Ying-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the developmental potential of and the ultrastructural changes and gene expression differences resulting from liquid helium (LHe; -269 °C) vitrification in immature bovine oocytes. Immature oocytes were randomly divided into three groups: fresh oocytes (control, negative control), oocytes vitrified in liquid nitrogen (LN group, positive control), and oocytes vitrified in LHe (LHe group). In experiment 1, the rates of normal morphology, maturation, cleavage, and blastocyst in the LHe group were higher than those in the LN group (87.1% vs. 80.5%, 51% vs. 48%, 41.7% vs. 36.8%, and 13% vs. 8.5%, respectively; P vitrification, but more severe degeneration was observed in the LN group, such as formation of several lipid droplets, swelling of mitochondria, and absence of cortical granules. Compared with the LN group, fewer lipid droplets, relatively intact mitochondria, and clustered cortical granules were distributed in the cytoplasm of oocytes in the LHe group. In experiment 3, the mRNA expression levels of p53, CDC20, Eg5, and Npm2 were investigated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Expression levels of the kinesin Eg5 and the apoptotic gene p53 expression levels were higher in the LN group compared with the control and LHe groups (P  0.05), the CDC20 expression in the LN and LHe groups were lower than control group (P 0.05). In conclusion, LHe vitrification decreased the negative effect of cryoinjury on the ultrastructure of some organelles and the expression of some related genes, thereby improving the viability of immature bovine oocytes compared to LN vitrification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. OPTIMISATION OF TOTAL RNA EXTRACTION FROM BOVINE OOCYTES AND EMBRYOS FOR GENE EXPRESSION STUDIES AND EFFECTS OF CRYOPROTECTANTS ON TOTAL RNA EXTRACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, K C; Baron, E E; Faheem, M; Chaveiro, A; Da Silva, F Moreira

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression is required for understanding bovine oocytes meiotic maturation as well as the potential of embryonic development. In the present study a standardized reagent protocol for total RNA extraction was designed for bovine oocytes and embryos, which is considered specific and less expensive. For such purpose oocytes (n = 795) recovered from about 80 ovaries were divided in three groups: Group 1 modified Trizol (MTP, n = 355); Group 2 Guanidinium thiocyanate protocol (GNTC, n = 140) and Group 3 Commercial Kit protocol (CKP, n = 60). Oocytes belonging to group 1 (n = 100) and 3 (n = 20) were subjected to vitrification using two cryoprotectants 1,2 propandiol (PROH) or Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The 240 remaining oocytes were divided into 3 groups in which 100 were used, in fresh, for in vitro fertilization, and 140 oocytes were vitrified using PROH (n = 70) and DMSO (n = 70) as cryoprotectants, being then fertilized in vitro after thawing. Embryos were used nine days after fertilization. Gene amplification (SDHA, (GAPDH and DNMT1) was performed in oocytes, and gene quantification (DNMT1) in in vitro produced embryos at the stage of blastocyst (n = 10). Efficiency of the extraction was further compared. The purity of all samples to different protocols ranged from 1.10 to 1.25 for GNTC protocol; from 2.05 to 2.63 for the CKP and from 1.50 to 2.11 for the developed MTP, being the last one nearest to the expected purity levels for RNA samples (1.7 to 2.0). On average, for 30 fresh oocytes, from spectrophotometer readings, total RNA concentration was 127.8 ± 9.3 ng μl(-1) for MTP, against 46.4 ± 9.5 ng μl(-1) from CKP and 476 ± 12.9 ng μl(-1) for GNTC protocol. Using the MTP to evaluate RNA in 30 vitrified/thawed oocytes, resulted in a total RNA concentration of 61.3 ± 3.3 ng μl(-1) and 40.0 μ 12.4 ng μ(-1), respectively for DMSO and PROH. Regarding total RNA concentration and purity, in blastocyst stage, more purity was observed in DMSO as compared to

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of a partial L1 gene from bovine papillomavirus type 1 isolated from naturally occurring papilloma cases in the northwestern region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timurkan, M Ozkan; Alcigir, M Eray

    2017-06-28

    This study was aimed at the molecular characterisation of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) isolated from papilloma cases in the northwestern region of Turkey. BPV-1 is a widely occurring oncogenic virus in cattle and is associated with benign epithelial neoplasia which causes significant economic losses in dairy and beef cattle because of treatment costs. In this study, 29 suspected papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in northwestern Turkey. These samples underwent molecular characterisation via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis as well as macroscopic and histopathological examination. The histopathological examinations confirmed papilloma as the main lesion type in the specimens. Of the 29 papilloma-like tissue samples that were collected, 11 (i.e. 37.93%) were detected as positive and determined as containing BPV-1 (11 of 11, 100%). Using a partial sequence for the L1 gene acquired from GenBank, phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of BPV-1 and revealed that the infection might have originated in cross bred domestic and imported cattle. This study provides potentially useful information on the origin and spread of this disease. Its results can potentially aid in the development of appropriate control measures and therapeutic or vaccination strategies against the BPV-1 strain of bovine papillomatosis.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of a partial L1 gene from bovine papillomavirus type 1 isolated from naturally occurring papilloma cases in the northwestern region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ozkan Timurkan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at the molecular characterisation of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1 isolated from papilloma cases in the northwestern region of Turkey. BPV-1 is a widely occurring oncogenic virus in cattle and is associated with benign epithelial neoplasia which causes significant economic losses in dairy and beef cattle because of treatment costs. In this study, 29 suspected papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in northwestern Turkey. These samples underwent molecular characterisation via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing analysis as well as macroscopic and histopathological examination. The histopathological examinations confirmed papilloma as the main lesion type in the specimens. Of the 29 papilloma-like tissue samples that were collected, 11 (i.e. 37.93% were detected as positive and determined as containing BPV-1 (11 of 11, 100%. Using a partial sequence for the L1 gene acquired from GenBank, phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of BPV-1 and revealed that the infection might have originated in cross bred domestic and imported cattle. This study provides potentially useful information on the origin and spread of this disease. Its results can potentially aid in the development of appropriate control measures and therapeutic or vaccination strategies against the BPV-1 strain of bovine papillomatosis.

  3. Complete sequence of a plasmid from a bovine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus harbouring a novel ica-like gene cluster in addition to antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feßler, Andrea T; Zhao, Qin; Schoenfelder, Sonja; Kadlec, Kristina; Brenner Michael, Geovana; Wang, Yang; Ziebuhr, Wilma; Shen, Jianzhong; Schwarz, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The multiresistance plasmid pAFS11, obtained from a bovine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolate, was completely sequenced and analysed for its structure and organisation. Moreover, the susceptibility to the heavy metals cadmium and copper was determined by broth macrodilution. The 49,189-bp plasmid harboured the apramycin resistance gene apmA, two copies of the macrolide/lincosamide/streptogramin B resistance gene erm(B) (both located on remnants of a truncated transposon Tn917), the kanamycin/neomycin resistance gene aadD, the tetracycline resistance gene tet(L) and the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK. The latter three genes were part of a 7,284-bp segment which was bracketed by two copies of IS431. In addition, the cadmium resistance operon cadDX as well as the copper resistance genes copA and mco were located on the plasmid and mediated a reduced susceptibility to cadmium and copper. Moreover, a complete novel ica-like gene cluster of so far unknown genetic origin was detected on this plasmid. The ica-like gene cluster comprised four different genes whose products showed 64.4-76.9% homology to the Ica proteins known to be involved in biofilm formation of the S. aureus strains Mu50, Mu3 and N315. However, 96.2-99.4% homology was seen to proteins from S. sciuri NS1 indicating an S. sciuri origin. The finding of five different antibiotic resistance genes co-located on a plasmid with heavy metal resistance genes and an ica-like gene cluster is alarming. With the acquisition of this plasmid, antimicrobial multiresistance, heavy metal resistances and potential virulence properties may be co-selected and spread via a single horizontal gene transfer event. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Activation of the endogenous p53 growth inhibitory pathway in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells by expression of the bovine papillomavirus E2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, E S; Naeger, L K; DiMaio, D

    1996-02-15

    We previously showed that expression of the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) E2 gene results in a dramatic inhibition of the proliferation of several human cervical carcinoma cell lines, including HeLa cells which contain human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18 DNA. We have assessed the status of endogenous G1 cell cycle regulatory proteins, including the tumor suppressor proteins, p53 and p105Rb, in order to investigate growth regulatory pathways in HeLa cells following E2 expression. The p53 tumor suppressor protein is stabilized following the introduction of the E2 gene into HeLa cells. This results in the induction of the p53-responsive gene encoding the cyclin dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor, p21/WAF1, complex formation between p21/WAF1 and cdk2 and reduction of in vitro cdk2/cyclin E kinase activity. The reduced cdk kinase activity is accompanied by the accumulation of the growth inhibitory hypophosphorylated form of the tumor suppressor protein, p105Rb. The level of the p105Rb-regulated transcription factor, E2F1, is reduced, as is transcription of a variety of E2F1-regulated genes, including B-myb. Thus, the p53 growth inhibitory pathway has evidently not accumulated mutations in HeLa cells but rather appears intact. However, this pathway remains dormant, until it is mobilized by appropriate manipulations, such as the expression of the BPV E2 protein.

  5. Polymorphisms in catechol-O-methyltransferase and cytochrome p450 subfamily 19 genes predispose towards Madurella mycetomatis-induced mycetoma susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Wendy W J; Fahal, Ahmed; Tavakol, Mehri; van Belkum, Alex

    2010-11-01

    Mycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis is a devastating and neglected disease which primarily affects males. Since this predominance cannot be easily explained by behaviour differences between men and women, other factors, including sex hormones, could be the cause. To monitor for possible deficiencies in hormone synthesis among mycetoma patients, we investigated the types and allele frequencies of the genes encoding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), cytochrome p450 subfamily 1 (CYP1B1), cytochrome p450 subfamily 17 (CYP17), cytochrome p450 subfamily 19 (CYP19) and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3B (HSD3B). Significant differences in allele distribution were demonstrated for CYP19 (P=0.004) and COMT (P=0.005), as well as gender dimorphism for both CYP19 and COMT polymorphisms. The COMT polymorphism was associated with lesion size. The genotypes obtained for COMT and CYP19 were connected with higher 17β-estradiol production, which was confirmed by significantly elevated serum levels of 17β-estradiol in male patients. In contrast, lowered levels of dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA) were found in mycetoma patients. The in vitro growth of M. mycetomatis was not influenced by 17β-estradiol, progesterone, DHEA and testosterone. The differences in hormone levels we noted between mycetoma patients and healthy controls did not directly affect the fungus itself. Indirect effects on the patients' hormone regulated immune states are the more likely explanations for mycetoma susceptibility.

  6. Preimplantation development and expression of Hsp-70 and Bax genes in bovine blastocysts derived from oocytes matured in alpha-MEM supplemented with growth factors and synthetic macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vireque, A A; Camargo, L S A; Serapião, R V; Rosa E Silva, A A M; Watanabe, Y F; Ferreira, E M; Navarro, P A A S; Martins, W P; Ferriani, R A

    2009-03-01

    In vitro culture conditions affect both the maternal and embryonic expression of genes and is likely to alter both oocyte and embryo developmental competence. The search for better and less variable culture conditions simulating those in vivo has led to the development of defined culture media, with lower impact on the molecular reprogramming of oocytes and embryos. We evaluated embryo development and relative abundance (RA) of Hsp-70 and Bax transcripts in bovine blastocysts produced from oocytes matured in a chemically defined IVM system with synthetic polymers. Immature cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured for 22-24h in alpha-MEM supplemented with IGF-1, insulin, 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), or 0.1% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), but without FSH or LH. The control group consisted of COCs matured in TCM plus FSH and 10% estrous cow serum. After fertilization, presumptive zygotes were co-cultured with cumulus cells until 224 h post-insemination. Total RNA was isolated from embryo pools, reverse transcribed into cDNA, and subjected to transcript analysis by real-time PCR. Cleavage rate was higher (P<0.05) for the control group (68.3%) than for the PVA (54.4%) and PVP-40 (58.3%) groups. Nevertheless, there was no difference among the PVA, PVP-40 and control groups in blastocyst or hatching rates. Similarly, no difference in relative abundance of Hsp-70 and Bax transcripts was detected in comparison to the control group. We inferred that bovine oocytes can be matured in serum- and gonadotrophin-free medium supplemented with PVA or PVP, enriched with IGF-I and insulin, without altering post-cleavage development and relative abundance of some genes associated with stress and apoptosis.

  7. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the bovine lactoferrin gene influence milk somatic cell score and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yongjiang; Zhu, Xiaorui; Xing, Shiyu; Zhang, Meirong; Zhang, Huimin; Wang, Xiaolong; Karrow, Niel; Yang, Liguo; Yang, Zhangping

    2015-12-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein found in cow's milk that plays an important role in preventing mastitis caused by intramammary infection. In this study, 20 Chinese Holstein cows were selected randomly for PCR amplification and sequencing of the bovine lactoferrin gene promoter region and used for SNP discovery in the region between nucleotide positions -461 to -132. Three SNPs (-270T>C, -190G>A and -156A>G) were identified in bovine lactoferrin, then Chinese Holstein cows (n=866) were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY (Sequenom Inc., San Diego, CA) based on the previous SNP information in this study, and the associations between SNPs or haplotype and milk somatic cell score (SCS) and production traits were analyzed by the least squares method in the GLM procedure of SAS. SNPs -270T>C and -156A>G showed close linkage disequilibrium (r(2)=0.76). The SNP -190G>A showed a significant association with SCS, and individuals with genotype GG had higher SCS than genotypes AG and AA. Associations were found between the SNPs -270T>C and -190G>A with SCS and the milk composition. The software MatInspector revealed that these SNPs were located within several potential transcription factor binding sites, including NF-κB p50, KLF7 and SP1, and may alter gene expression, but further investigation will be required to elucidate the biological and practical relevance of these SNPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Variants in hormone biosynthesis genes and risk of endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Bayuga, Sharon; Sima, Camelia; Bandera, Elisa V.; Pulick, Katherine; Faulkner, Shameka; Tommasi, Diana; Egan, Daniel; Roy, Pampa; Wilcox, Homer; Asya, Ali; Modica, Ippolito; Asad, Haider; Soslow, Robert; Zauber, Ann G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the risk associated with variants in three genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, and CYP19A1, in the population-based case control study of Estrogen, Diet, Genetics, and Endometrial Cancer. This study was conducted in New Jersey in 2001–2006 with 417 cases and 402 controls. For CYP11A1, there was no association between the number of [TTTTA]n repeats (D15S520) and risk. For CYP17A1, risk was somewhat lower among women with the C/C genotype at T-34C (rs743572) (adjusted OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.41–1.02). For CYP19A1, risk was lower among women homozygous for the 3-base pair deletion (rs11575899) in exon 4 (adjusted OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.26–0.76), while the number of [TTTA]n repeats was not significantly related to risk: the adjusted OR for n=7/7 repeats vs n>7/>7 repeats was 0.81 (95% CI 0.54–1.23). In stratified analyses, results for CYP19A1 were stronger among women with higher (>27.4) body mass index: for the homozygous deletion, OR=0.30 (95% CI 0.15–0.62); for the n=7/7 genotype, OR=0.49 (95% CI 0.26–0.93). The interaction between the n=7/7 genotype and BMI was statistically significant (p=0.01). The insertion/deletion variant in CYP19A1 appears to be related to risk of endometrial cancer; risk associated with variants in this gene may vary according to BMI. PMID:18437511

  9. MicroRNA 17-92 cluster regulates proliferation and differentiation of bovine granulosa cells by targeting PTEN and BMPR2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Eryk; Hoelker, Michael; Neuhoff, Christiane; Tholen, Ernst; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie

    2016-10-01

    Granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation are key developmental steps involved in the formation of the dominant follicle eligible for ovulation. This process is, in turn, regulated by spatiotemporally emerging molecular events. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the molecular signatures believed to regulate granulosa cell function by fine-tuning gene expression. Previously, we showed that the miR-17-92 cluster was differentially expressed in granulosa cells from subordinate and dominant follicles at day 19 of the estrous cycle. However, the role of this miRNA cluster in bovine follicular cell function is not known. Therefore, in the present study, we investigate the role of the miR-17-92 cluster in granulosa cell function by using an in vitro model. Target prediction and luciferase assay analysis revealed that the miR-17-92 cluster coordinately regulated the PTEN and BMPR2 genes. Overexpression of the miR-17-92 cluster by using a mimic promoted granulosa cell proliferation and reduced the proportion of differentiated cells. However, cluster inhibition resulted in decreased proliferation and increased differentiation in granulosa cells. This was further supported by expression analysis of marker genes of proliferation and differentiation. The role of the miR-17-92 cluster was cross-validated by selective knockdown of its target genes by the short interfering RNA technique. Suppression of the PTEN and BMPR2 genes revealed similar phenotypic and molecular alterations as observed when the granulosa cells were transfected with the miR-17-92 cluster mimic. Thus, the miR-17-92 cluster is involved in granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation by coordinately targeting the PTEN and BMPR2 genes.

  10. Agouti revisited: transcript quantification of the ASIP gene in bovine tissues related to protein expression and localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Albrecht

    Full Text Available Beside its role in melanogenesis, the agouti signaling protein (ASIP has been related to obesity. The potentially crucial role in adipocyte development makes it a tempting candidate for economic relevant, fat related traits in farm animals. The objective of our study was to characterize the mRNA expression of different ASIP transcripts and of putative targets in different bovine tissues, as well as to study consequences on protein abundance and localization. ASIP mRNA abundance was determined by RT-qPCR in adipose and further tissues of cattle representing different breeds and crosses. ASIP mRNA was up-regulated more than 9-fold in intramuscular fat of Japanese Black cattle compared to Holstein (p<0.001. Further analyses revealed that a transposon-derived transcript was solely responsible for the increased ASIP mRNA abundance. This transcript was observed in single individuals of different breeds indicating a wide spread occurrence of this insertion at the ASIP locus in cattle. The protein was detected in different adipose tissues, skin, lung and liver, but not in skeletal muscle by Western blot with a bovine-specific ASIP antibody. However, the protein abundance was not related to the observed ASIP mRNA over-expression. Immuno-histochemical analyses revealed a putative nuclear localization of ASIP additionally to the expected cytosolic signal in different cell types. The expression of melanocortin receptors (MCR 1 to 5 as potential targets for ASIP was analyzed by RT-PCR in subcutaneous fat. Only MC1R and MC4R were detected indicating a similar receptor expression like in human adipose tissue. Our results provide evidence for a widespread expression of ASIP in bovine tissues at mRNA and, for the first time, at protein level. ASIP protein is detectable in adipocytes as well as in further cells of adipose tissue. We generated a basis for a more detailed investigation of ASIP function in peripheral tissues of various mammalian species.

  11. Efficient edition of the bovine PRNP prion gene in somatic cells and IVF embryos using the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, R J; Fernandez-Martín, R; Savy, V; Canel, N G; Gismondi, M I; Kues, W A; Carlson, D F; Fahrenkrug, S C; Niemann, H; Taboga, O A; Ferraris, S; Salamone, D F

    2016-11-01

    The recently developed engineered nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease (Cas) 9, provide new opportunities for gene editing in a straightforward manner. However, few reports are available regarding CRISPR application and efficiency in cattle. Here, the CRISPR/Cas9 system was used with the aim of inducing knockout and knock-in alleles of the bovine PRNP gene, responsible for mad cow disease, both in bovine fetal fibroblasts and in IVF embryos. Five single-guide RNAs were designed to target 875 bp of PRNP exon 3, and all five were codelivered with Cas9. The feasibility of inducing homologous recombination (HR) was evaluated with a reporter vector carrying EGFP flanked by 1 kbp PRNP regions (pHRegfp). For somatic cells, plasmids coding for Cas9 and for each of the five single-guide RNAs (pCMVCas9 and pSPgRNAs) were transfected under two different conditions (1X and 2X). For IVF zygotes, cytoplasmic injection was conducted with either plasmids or mRNA. For plasmid injection groups, 1 pg pCMVCas9 + 0.1 pg of each pSPgRNA (DNA2X) was used per zygote. In the case of RNA, two amounts (RNA1X and RNA2X) were compared. To assess the occurrence of HR, a group additionally cotransfected or coinjected with pHRegfp plasmid was included. Somatic cell lysates were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and surveyor assay. In the case of embryos, the in vitro development and the genotype of blastocysts were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. In somatic cells, 2X transfection resulted in indels and large deletions of the targeted PRNP region. Regarding embryo injection, higher blastocyst rates were obtained for RNA injected groups (46/103 [44.6%] and 55/116 [47.4%] for RNA1X and RNA2X) than for the DNA2X group (26/140 [18.6%], P < 0.05). In 46% (26/56) of the total sequenced blastocysts, specific gene editing was

  12. A large-scale electrophoresis- and chromatography-based determination of gene expression profiles in bovine brain capillary endothelial cells after the re-induction of blood-brain barrier properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duban-Deweer Sophie

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs form the physiological basis of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The barrier function is (at least in part due to well-known proteins such as transporters, tight junctions and metabolic barrier proteins (e.g. monoamine oxidase, gamma glutamyltranspeptidase and P-glycoprotein. Our previous 2-dimensional gel proteome analysis had identified a large number of proteins and revealed the major role of dynamic cytoskeletal remodelling in the differentiation of bovine BCECs. The aim of the present study was to elaborate a reference proteome of Triton X-100-soluble species from bovine BCECs cultured in the well-established in vitro BBB model developed in our laboratory. Results A total of 215 protein spots (corresponding to 130 distinct proteins were identified by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, whereas over 350 proteins were identified by a shotgun approach. We classified around 430 distinct proteins expressed by bovine BCECs. Our large-scale gene expression analysis enabled the correction of mistakes referenced into protein databases (e.g. bovine vinculin and constitutes valuable evidence for predictions based on genome annotation. Conclusions Elaboration of a reference proteome constitutes the first step in creating a gene expression database dedicated to capillary endothelial cells displaying BBB characteristics. It improves of our knowledge of the BBB and the key proteins in cell structures, cytoskeleton organization, metabolism, detoxification and drug resistance. Moreover, our results emphasize the need for both appropriate experimental design and correct interpretation of proteome datasets.

  13. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... products to revise the conditions for the importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines...

  14. Expression of Hormonal Carcinogenesis Genes and Related Regulatory microRNAs in Uterus and Ovaries of DDT-Treated Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, T S; Kononchuk, V V; Gulyaeva, L F

    2017-10-01

    The insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is a nonmutagenic xenobiotic compound able to exert estrogen-like effects resulting in activation of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) followed by changed expression of its downstream target genes. In addition, studies performed over recent years suggest that DDT may also influence expression of microRNAs. However, an impact of DDT on expression of ER, microRNAs, and related target genes has not been fully elucidated. Here, using real-time PCR, we assessed changes in expression of key genes involved in hormonal carcinogenesis as well as potentially related regulatory oncogenic/tumor suppressor microRNAs and their target genes in the uterus and ovaries of female Wistar rats during single and chronic multiple-dose DDT exposure. We found that applying DDT results in altered expression of microRNAs-221, -222, -205, -126a, and -429, their target genes (Pten, Dicer1), as well as genes involved in hormonal carcinogenesis (Esr1, Pgr, Ccnd1, Cyp19a1). Notably, Cyp19a1 expression seems to be also regulated by microRNAs-221, -222, and -205. The data suggest that epigenetic effects induced by DDT as a potential carcinogen may be based on at least two mechanisms: (i) activation of ERα followed by altered expression of the target genes encoding receptor Pgr and Ccnd1 as well as impaired expression of Cyp19a1, affecting, thereby, cell hormone balance; and (ii) changed expression of microRNAs resulting in impaired expression of related target genes including reduced level of Cyp19a1 mRNA.

  15. Effects of short- and long-chain fatty acids on the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase and other lipogenic genes in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, A A A; Dijkstra, J; Liesman, J S; Vandehaar, M J; Lock, A L; van Vuuren, A M; Hendriks, W H; van Baal, J

    2013-09-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in the bovine mammary gland introduces a cis-double bond at the Δ9 position in a wide range of fatty acids (FA). Several long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) inhibit expression of SCD, but information on the effect of short-chain fatty acids on mammary SCD expression is scarce. We used a bovine mammary cell line (MAC-T) to assess the effect of acetic acid (Ac) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) in comparison with the effect of various long-chain fatty acids on the mRNA expression of the lipogenic enzymes SCD, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN) and their associated gene regulatory proteins sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), insulin-induced gene 1 protein (INSIG1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA)and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) by quantitative real-time PCR. MAC-T cells were treated for 12 h without FA additions (CON) or with either 5 mM Ac, 5 mM BHBA, a combination of 5 mM Ac + 5 mM BHBA, 100 μM C16:0, 100 μM C18:0, 100 μM C18:1 cis-9, 100 μM C18:1 trans-11, 100 μM C18:2 cis-9,12 or 100 μM C18:3 cis-9,12,15. Compared with control, mRNA expression of SCD1 was increased by Ac (+61%) and reduced by C18:1 cis-9 (-61%), C18:2 cis-9,12 (-84%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (-88%). In contrast to native bovine mammary gland tissue, MAC-T cells did not express SCD5. Expression of ACACA was increased by Ac (+44%) and reduced by C18:2 cis-9,12 (-48%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (-49%). Compared with control, FASN expression was not significantly affected by the treatments. The mRNA level of SREBF1 was not affected by Ac or BHBA, but was reduced by C18:1 cis-9 (-44%), C18:1 trans-11 (-42%), C18:2 cis-9,12 (-62%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (-68%) compared with control. Expression of INSIG1 was downregulated by C18:0 (-37%), C18:1 cis-9 (-63%), C18:1 trans-11 (-53%), C18:2 cis-9,12 (-81%) and C18:3 cis-9,12,15 (-91%). Both PPARA and PPARD

  16. Recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, R C; Gatei, M H; Good, M F; Boyle, D B; Lavin, M F

    1993-01-01

    ...) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VV vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with BLV...

  17. Genotypic and phenotypic β-lactam resistance and presence of PVL gene in Staphylococci from dry bovine udder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodkumar Kulangara

    Full Text Available Dairy cows affected with subclinical mastitis can be sources of virulent, antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococci to humans because of the excretion of the bacteria through their milk. This study focussed on the phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance patterns of Staphylococci isolated from dairy cows in early dry period. Among 96 isolates of Gram positive cocci from 157 cows, 76 were identified as Coagulase Negative Staphylococci and the remaining 20 were Staphylococcus aureus. Typical amplicons of coagulase gene were obtained for all 20 samples of S. aureus with three major coagulase types being identified as giving 627 bp (40%, 910 bp (35% and 710 bp (25% long PCR products. The groEL gene was amplified in PCR of all 76 isolates of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci, and incubation of PCR products with restriction enzyme PvuII yielded three distinct PCR-RFLP fragment patterns bearing resemblance to S. chromogenes and S. hyicus. Highest sensitivity of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci was noted for Azithromycin (92.5% and the least to Tetracyclines (76.3%, whereas for S. aureus, it was Cefoperazone (95% and Azithromycin (72.2% respectively. Phenotypic resistance to Oxacillin (25 isolates, and Cefoxitin (11 isolates was detected by dilution method with a commercial strip (Ezy MICTM. Genotypic resistance to β-Lactam antibiotics was found in 65 (34 with mecA gene and 31 with blaZ gene isolates. Eighteen isolates possessed both the genes, with the PVL gene for virulence being detected in five of them. Nine isolates which had mecA gene were phenotypically susceptible to oxacillin while phenotypic resistance to oxacillin was observed in seven isolates that did not have either mecA or blaZ gene. This is the first report of persistent Staphylococcal infections possessing PVL gene and high level of genotypic resistance to β-Lactam antibiotics in small- holder dairy cattle from India.

  18. Expression profiles for six zebrafish genes during gonadal sex differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen Lene J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism of sex determination in zebrafish is largely unknown and neither sex chromosomes nor a sex-determining gene have been identified. This indicates that sex determination in zebrafish is mediated by genetic signals from autosomal genes. The aim of this study was to determine the precise timing of expression of six genes previously suggested to be associated with sex differentiation in zebrafish. The current study investigates the expression of all six genes in the same individual fish with extensive sampling dates during sex determination and -differentiation. Results In the present study, we have used quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the expression of ar, sox9a, dmrt1, fig alpha, cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b during the expected sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation period. The expression of the genes expected to be high in males (ar, sox9a and dmrt1a and high in females (fig alpha and cyp19a1a was segregated in two groups with more than 10 times difference in expression levels. All of the investigated genes showed peaks in expression levels during the time of sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation. Expression of all genes was investigated on cDNA from the same fish allowing comparison of the high and low expressers of genes that are expected to be highest expressed in either males or females. There were 78% high or low expressers of all three "male" genes (ar, sox9a and dmrt1 in the investigated period and 81% were high or low expressers of both "female" genes (fig alpha and cyp19a1a. When comparing all five genes with expected sex related expression 56% show expression expected for either male or female. Furthermore, the expression of all genes was investigated in different tissue of adult male and female zebrafish. Conclusion In zebrafish, the first significant peak in gene expression during the investigated period (2–40 dph was dmrt1 at 10 dph which indicates involvement of this gene

  19. Genotypes, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated in Bovine Subclinical Mastitis from Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Memon§, Yongchun Yang§, Jam Kashifa, Muhammad Yaqoob, Rehana Buriroa, Jamila Soomroa, Wang Liping and Fan Hongjie*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the genotypes, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance traits of 34 Staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical mastitis in Eastern China. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC results showed resistance to erythromycin in all isolates. A high frequency of Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA; 29% was observed and these isolates were also highly resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol than methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA isolates. Thirteen pathogenic factors and seven resistance genes including mecA and blaZ gene were checked through PCR. The spaX gene was found in all isolates, whereas cna, spaIg, nuc, clfA, fnbpB, hlA, hlB and seA were present in 35, 79, 85, 59, 35, 85, 71 and 38% isolates, respectively. Nine isolates carried a group of 8 different virulence genes. Moreover, macrolide resistance genes ermB and ermC were present in all isolates. High resistance rate against methicillin was found but no isolate was positive for mecA gene, whereas blaZ and tetK were detected in 82 and 56% isolates, respectively. Genes; fnbpA, seB, seC, seD, dfrK and tetM were not found in any isolate. The statistical association between phenotypic resistance and virulence genes showed, clfA, fnbpB, hlB and seA, were potentially associated with penicillin G, ciprofloxacin, methicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim and oxytetracycline resistance (P≤0.05. REP-PCR based genotyping showed seven distinct genotypes (A-G prevalent in this region. This study reports the presence of multidrug resistant S. aureus in sub-clinical mastitis which were also highly virulent that could be a major obstacle in the treatment of mastitis in this region of China.

  20. Identification of immediate early gene products of bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) as dominant antigens recognized by CD8 T cells in immune cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jane; MacHugh, Niall D; Sheldrake, Tara; Nielsen, Morten; Morrison, W Ivan

    2017-07-01

    In common with other herpes viruses, bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) induces strong virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses. However, there is a paucity of information on the antigenic specificity of the responding T-cells. The development of a system to generate virus-specific CD8 T-cell lines from BHV-1-immune cattle, employing Theileria-transformed cell lines for antigen presentation, has enabled us to address this issue. Use of this system allowed the study to screen for CD8 T-cell antigens that are efficiently presented on the surface of virus-infected cells. Screening of a panel of 16 candidate viral gene products with CD8 T-cell lines from 3 BHV-1-immune cattle of defined MHC genotypes identified 4 antigens, including 3 immediate early (IE) gene products (ICP4, ICP22 and Circ) and a tegument protein (UL49). Identification of the MHC restriction specificities revealed that the antigens were presented by two or three class I MHC alleles in each animal. Six CD8 T-cell epitopes were identified in the three IE proteins by screening of synthetic peptides. Use of an algorithm (NetMHCpan) that predicts the peptide-binding characteristics of restricting MHC alleles confirmed and, in some cases refined, the identity of the epitopes. Analyses of the epitope specificity of the CD8 T-cell lines showed that a large component of the response is directed against these IE epitopes. The results indicate that these IE gene products are dominant targets of the CD8 T-cell response in BHV-I-immune cattle and hence are prime-candidate antigens for the generation of a subunit vaccine.

  1. Screening somatic cell nuclear transfer parameters for generation of transgenic cloned cattle with intragenomic integration of additional gene copies that encode bovine adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong; Li, Hejuan; Wang, Ying; Yan, Xingrong; Sheng, Xihui; Chang, Di; Qi, Xiaolong; Wang, Xiangguo; Liu, Yunhai; Li, Junya; Ni, Hemin

    2017-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is frequently used to produce transgenic cloned livestock, but it is still associated with low success rates. To our knowledge, we are the first to report successful production of transgenic cattle that overexpress bovine adipocyte-type fatty acid binding proteins (A-FABPs) with the aid of SCNT. Intragenomic integration of additional A-FABP gene copies has been found to be positively correlated with the intramuscular fat content in different farm livestock species. First, we optimized the cloning parameters to produce bovine embryos integrated with A-FABP by SCNT, such as applied voltage field strength and pulse duration for electrofusion, morphology and size of donor cells, and number of donor cells passages. Then, bovine fibroblast cells from Qinchuan cattle were transfected with A-FABP and used as donor cells for SCNT. Hybrids of Simmental and Luxi local cattle were selected as the recipient females for A-FABP transgenic SCNT-derived embryos. The results showed that a field strength of 2.5 kV/cm with two 10-μs duration electrical pulses was ideal for electrofusion, and 4-6th generation circular smooth type donor cells with diameters of 15-25 μm were optimal for producing transgenic bovine embryos by SCNT, and resulted in higher fusion (80%), cleavage (73%), and blastocyst (27%) rates. In addition, we obtained two transgenic cloned calves that expressed additional bovine A-FABP gene copies, as detected by PCR-amplified cDNA sequencing. We proposed a set of optimal protocols to produce transgenic SCNT-derived cattle with intragenomic integration of ectopic A-FABP-inherited exon sequences.

  2. A gene-based high-resolution comparative radiation hybrid map as a framework for genome sequence assembly of a bovine chromosome 6 region associated with QTL for growth, body composition, and milk performance traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Pascal

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of different quantitative trait loci (QTL for various phenotypic traits, including milk production, functional, and conformation traits in dairy cattle as well as growth and body composition traits in meat cattle, have been mapped consistently in the middle region of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6. Dense genetic and physical maps and, ultimately, a fully annotated genome sequence as well as their mutual connections are required to efficiently identify genes and gene variants responsible for genetic variation of phenotypic traits. A comprehensive high-resolution gene-rich map linking densely spaced bovine markers and genes to the annotated human genome sequence is required as a framework to facilitate this approach for the region on BTA6 carrying the QTL. Results Therefore, we constructed a high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH map for the QTL containing chromosomal region of BTA6. This new RH map with a total of 234 loci including 115 genes and ESTs displays a substantial increase in loci density compared to existing physical BTA6 maps. Screening the available bovine genome sequence resources, a total of 73 loci could be assigned to sequence contigs, which were already identified as specific for BTA6. For 43 loci, corresponding sequence contigs, which were not yet placed on the bovine genome assembly, were identified. In addition, the improved potential of this high-resolution RH map for BTA6 with respect to comparative mapping was demonstrated. Mapping a large number of genes on BTA6 and cross-referencing them with map locations in corresponding syntenic multi-species chromosome segments (human, mouse, rat, dog, chicken achieved a refined accurate alignment of conserved segments and evolutionary breakpoints across the species included. Conclusion The gene-anchored high-resolution RH map (1 locus/300 kb for the targeted region of BTA6 presented here will provide a valuable platform to guide high-quality assembling and

  3. Technical note: Evaluation of endogenous control gene expression in bovine neutrophils by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR using microfluidics gene expression arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookenden, M A; Walker, C G; Kuhn-Sherlock, B; Murray, A; Dukkipati, V S R; Heiser, A; Roche, J R

    2017-08-01

    Reverse-transcription quantitative-PCR (RT-qPCR) is commonly used for assessing the cellular response to changes in physiologic and pathologic conditions. The selection of stable endogenous control genes is an important step of any RT-qPCR study, as expression can vary depending on the experimental environment. Our objective was to identify endogenous control genes in circulating neutrophils isolated from cows during the peripartum period. To do this, we used microfluidics gene expression arrays (Fluidigm, San Francisco, CA) for RT-qPCR analysis. Selection of the endogenous control genes was based on previous research investigating gene expression in neutrophils. The selected genes included ACTB, B2M, G6PD, GAPDH, GCH1, GOLGA5, OSBPL2, PGK1, RPL13A, RPL19, RPS9, SDHA, SMUG1, SNRPA, TBP, UXT, and YWHAZ. Four genes (GAPDH, GOLGA5, PGK1, and UXT) did not provide satisfactory quantification results using the selected method and were therefore excluded from the analyses. The suitability of the remaining 13 genes for use as endogenous control genes was assessed using geNorm and Normfinder. The gene pair with the greatest stability using geNorm was RPL13A and RPL19, whereas Normfinder ranked RPL19 and YWHAZ as the most stable pair. The 2 genes deemed most suitable for the experimental design were RPL19 and YWHAZ, which were selected for subsequent gene expression analysis. This study highlights that genes used as endogenous controls for relative quantification should be assessed on an experimental basis, even if the genes have been used in previous research. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  5. Inhibition of JAK-STAT ERK/MAPK and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Induces a Change in Gene Expression Profile of Bovine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Malaver-Ortega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs fall in two states, one highly undifferentiated, the naïve state, and the primed state, characterized by the inability to contribute to germinal lineage. Several reports have demonstrated that these states can be modified by changes to the cell culture conditions. With the advent of nuclear reprogramming, bovine induced pluripotent stem cells (biPSCs have been generated. These cells represent examples of a transient-intermediate state of pluripotency with remarkable characteristics and biotechnological potential. Herein, we generated and characterized biPSC. Next, we evaluated different culture conditions for the ability to affect the expression of the set of core pluripotent transcription factors in biPSC. It was found that the use of 6-bromoindirubin-3-oxime and Sc1 inhibitors alone or in combination with 5-AzaC induced significantly higher levels of expression of endogenous REX1, OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2. Furthermore, LIF increased the levels of expression of OCT4 and REX1, compared with those cultured with LIF + bFGF. By contrast, bFGF decreased the levels of expression for both REX1 and OCT4. These results demonstrate that the biPSC gene expression profile is malleable by modification of the cell culture conditions well after nuclear reprogramming, and the culture conditions may determine their differentiation potential.

  6. Inhibition of JAK-STAT ERK/MAPK and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Induces a Change in Gene Expression Profile of Bovine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaver-Ortega, Luis F; Sumer, Huseyin; Liu, Jun; Verma, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) fall in two states, one highly undifferentiated, the naïve state, and the primed state, characterized by the inability to contribute to germinal lineage. Several reports have demonstrated that these states can be modified by changes to the cell culture conditions. With the advent of nuclear reprogramming, bovine induced pluripotent stem cells (biPSCs) have been generated. These cells represent examples of a transient-intermediate state of pluripotency with remarkable characteristics and biotechnological potential. Herein, we generated and characterized biPSC. Next, we evaluated different culture conditions for the ability to affect the expression of the set of core pluripotent transcription factors in biPSC. It was found that the use of 6-bromoindirubin-3-oxime and Sc1 inhibitors alone or in combination with 5-AzaC induced significantly higher levels of expression of endogenous REX1, OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2. Furthermore, LIF increased the levels of expression of OCT4 and REX1, compared with those cultured with LIF + bFGF. By contrast, bFGF decreased the levels of expression for both REX1 and OCT4. These results demonstrate that the biPSC gene expression profile is malleable by modification of the cell culture conditions well after nuclear reprogramming, and the culture conditions may determine their differentiation potential.

  7. Evolutionary patterns of two major reproduction candidate genes (Zp2 and Zp3 reveal no contribution to reproductive isolation between bovine species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beja-Pereira Albano

    2011-01-01

    genes or genomic regions contributing to reproductive isolation between species often evolve rapidly and show little or no gene flow between species, these results demonstrate that, particularly, those sequenced exons of the Zp2 and the Zp3 did not show any contribution to reproductive isolation between the bovine species studied here.

  8. Deep sequencing-based transcriptional analysis of bovine mammary epithelial cells gene expression in response to in vitro infection with Staphylococcus aureus stains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is an important etiological organism in chronic and subclinical mastitis in lactating cows. Given the fundamental role the primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pBMECs play as a major first line of defense against invading pathogens, their interactions with S. aureus was hypothesized to be crucial to the establishment of the latter's infection process. This hypothesis was tested by investigating the global transcriptional responses of pBMECs to three S. aureus strains (S56,S178 and S36 with different virulent factors, using a tag-based high-throughput transcriptome sequencing technique. Approximately 4.9 million total sequence tags were obtained from each of the three S. aureus-infected libraries and the control library. Referenced to the control, 1720, 219, and 427 differentially expressed unique genes were identified in the pBMECs infected with S56, S178 and S36 S. aureus strains respectively. Gene ontology (GO and pathway analysis of the S56-infected pBMECs referenced to those of the control revealed that the differentially expressed genes in S56-infected pBMECs were significantly involved in inflammatory response, cell signalling pathways and apoptosis. In the same vein, the clustered GO terms of the differentially expressed genes of the S178-infected pBMECs were found to comprise immune responses, metabolism transformation, and apoptosis, while those of the S36-infected pBMECs were primarily involved in cell cycle progression and immune responses. Furthermore, fundamental differences were observed in the levels of expression of immune-related genes in response to treatments with the three S. aureus strains. These differences were especially noted for the expression of important pro-inflammatory molecules, including IL-1α, TNF, EFNB1, IL-8, and EGR1. The transcriptional changes associated with cellular signaling and the inflammatory response in this study may reflect different immunomodulatory mechanisms

  9. Expression profile of genes as indicators of developmental competence and quality of in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer bovine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cánepa

    Full Text Available Reproductive biotechnologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT enable improved reproductive efficiency of animals. However, the birth rate of in vitro-derived embryos still lags behind that of their in vivo counterparts. Thus, it is critical to develop an accurate evaluation and prediction system of embryo competence, both for commercial purposes and for scientific research. Previous works have demonstrated that in vitro culture systems induce alterations in the relative abundance (RA of diverse transcripts and thus compromise embryo quality. The aim of this work was to analyze the RA of a set of genes involved in cellular stress (heat shock protein 70-kDa, HSP70, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress (immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein, Bip; proteasome subunit β5, PSMB5 and apoptosis (BCL-2 associated X protein, Bax; cysteine aspartate protease-3, Caspase-3 in bovine blastocysts produced by IVF or SCNT and compare it with that of their in vivo counterparts. Poly (A + mRNA was isolated from three pools of 10 blastocysts per treatment and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The RA of three of the stress indicators analyzed (Bax, PSMB5 and Bip was significantly increased in SCNT embryos as compared with that of in vivo-derived blastocysts. No significant differences were found in the RA of HSP70 and Caspase-3 gene transcripts. This study could potentially complement morphological analyses in the development of an effective and accurate technique for the diagnosis of embryo quality, ultimately aiding to improve the efficiency of assisted reproductive techniques (ART.

  10. Expression Pattern of Inflammatory Response Genes and Their Regulatory MicroRNAs in Bovine Oviductal Cells in Response to Lipopolysaccharide: Implication for Early Embryonic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sally; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Rings, Franca; Hoelker, Michael; Neuhoff, Christiane; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we used an in vitro model to investigate the response of the oviduct with respect to inflammatory mediators and their regulatory microRNAs in case of bacterial infection and subsequent association with embryo survival. For this, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, cultured primary bovine oviductal cells (BOEC) were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24h and the temporal expression pattern of inflammatory mediators and their regulatory microRNAs were measured at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48h after LPS treatment. Intriguingly, the temporal patterns of all miRNAs except miR-21 were significantly up-regulated at 6h after LPS treatment. Whereas, we observed significant overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-1 beta (IL1β) after LPS challenge for 24h. On the other hand, the expression level of essential elements like oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) was significantly decreased in challenged groups compared with control. Moreover, miR-155, miR-146a, miR-223, miR-21, miR-16 and miR-215 have shown a clear suppression in challenged group after LPS treatment. In the 2nd experiment there were four groups of blastocysts produced, namely embryo+LPS free media, embryo+LPS, BOEC+embryo and BOEC+embryo+LPS. The suboptimal oviduct environment due to LPS challenge is found to have a significant influence on the expression of inflammatory response genes (TNFα and CSF1), stress response genes (SOD and CAT), mitochondrial activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and apoptotic level either in cultured or co-cultured blastocysts. Collectively, LPS challenge led to aberrant changes in oviductal transcriptome profile, which could lead to a suboptimal environment for embryo development. PMID:25764515

  11. Effects of cell culture techniques on gene expression and cholesterol efflux in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells derived from milk and tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, D; Potzel, A; Beck, M; Meyer, H H D; Viturro, E; Kliem, H

    2012-10-01

    Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMEC) are often used in cell culture to study metabolic and inflammatory processes in the udder of dairy cows. The most common source is udder tissue from biopsy or after slaughter. However, it is also possible to culture them from milk, which is non-invasive, repeatable and yields less contamination with fibroblasts. Generally, not much is known about the influence of cell origin and cell culture techniques such as cryopreservation on pbMEC functionality. Cells were extracted from milk and udder tissue to evaluate if milk-derived pbMEC are a suitable alternative to tissue-derived pbMEC and to test what influence cryopreservation has. The cells were cultivated for three passages and stored in liquid nitrogen. The relative gene expression of the five target genes kappa-casein, lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), lactoferrin, lysozyme (LYZ1) and the prolactin receptor normalised with keratin 8 showed a tendency to decrease in the tissue cultures, but not in the milk-derived cultures, suggesting a greater influence of the cultivation process on tissue-derived cells, freezing lowered expression levels in both cultures. Overall expression of LAP and LYZ1 tended to be higher in milk cells. Cholesterol efflux was measured to compare passages one to seven in milk-derived cells. Passage number did not alter the efflux rate (p ≤ 0.05). We showed for the first time that the extraction of pbMEC from milk can be a suitable alternative to tissue extraction.

  12. Effect of short term diet restriction on gene expression in the bovine hypothalamus using next generation RNA sequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Daragh; Diskin, Michael G; Kenny, David A; Creevey, Christopher J; Keogh, Kate; Waters, Sinead M

    2017-11-09

    Negative energy balance (NEB) is an imbalance between energy intake and energy requirements for lactation and body maintenance affecting high-yielding dairy cows and is of considerable economic importance due to its negative impact on fertility and health in dairy herds. It is anticipated that the cow hypothalamus experiences extensive biochemical changes during the early post partum period in an effort to re-establish metabolic homeostasis. However, there is variation in the tolerance to NEB between individual cows. In order to understand the genomic regulation of ovulation in hypothalamic tissue during NEB, mRNA transcriptional patterns between tolerant and sensitive animals were examined. A short term dietary restriction heifer model was developed which induced abrupt onset of anoestrus in some animals (Restricted Anovulatory; RA) while others maintained oestrous cyclicity (Restricted Ovulatory; RO). A third control group (C) received a higher level of normal feeding. A total of 15,295 genes were expressed in hypothalamic tissue. Between RA and C groups 137 genes were differentially expressed, whereas between RO and C, 32 genes were differentially expressed. Differentially expressed genes were involved in the immune response and cellular motility in RA and RO groups, respectively, compared to C group. The largest difference between groups was observed in the comparison between RA and RO heifers, with 1094 genes shown to be significantly differentially expressed (SDE). Pathway analysis showed that these SDE genes were associated with 6 canonical pathways (P interaction was the most significant. Within the comparisons the main over-represented pathway functions were immune response including neuroprotection (CXCL10, Q1KLR3, IFIH1, IL1 and IL8; RA v C and RA v RO); energy homeostasis (AgRP and NPY; RA v RO); cell motility (CADH1, DSP and TSP4; RO v C) and prevention of GnRH release (NTSR1 IL1α, IL1β, NPY and PACA; RA v RO). This information will assist in

  13. Knock-in fibroblasts and transgenic blastocysts for expression of human FGF2 in the bovine β-casein gene locus using CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-mediated homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Hee; Kim, Yeong Ji; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Se Eun; Kim, Jiwoo; Park, Min Jee; Lee, Hong-Gu; Park, Se Pill; Kang, Man-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Many transgenic domestic animals have been developed to produce therapeutic proteins in the mammary gland, and this approach is one of the most important methods for agricultural and biomedical applications. However, expression and secretion of a protein varies because transgenes are integrated at random sites in the genome. In addition, distal enhancers are very important for transcriptional gene regulation and tissue-specific gene expression. Development of a vector system regulated accurately in the genome is needed to improve production of therapeutic proteins. The objective of this study was to develop a knock-in system for expression of human fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) in the bovine β-casein gene locus. The F2A sequence was fused to the human FGF2 gene and inserted into exon 3 of the β-casein gene. We detected expression of human FGF2 mRNA in the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells by RT-PCR and human FGF2 protein in the culture media using western blot analysis when the knock-in vector was introduced. We transfected the knock-in vector into bovine ear fibroblasts and produced knock-in fibroblasts using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system. Moreover, the CRISPR/Cas9 system was more efficient than conventional methods. In addition, we produced knock-in blastocysts by somatic cell nuclear transfer using the knock-in fibroblasts. Our knock-in fibroblasts may help to create cloned embryos for development of transgenic dairy cattle expressing human FGF2 protein in the mammary gland via the expression system of the bovine β-casein gene.

  14. Short communication: new alleles of the bovine kappa-casein gene revealed by resequencing and haplotype inference analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S Y; Costa, V; Azevedo, M; Baig, M; Malmakov, N; Luikart, G; Erhardt, G; Beja-Pereira, A

    2008-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that extensive undiscovered genetic diversity exists in important functional genes from domestic and wild cattle species (Bos spp.). We resequenced 483 bp of a key exon (exon IV) from the kappa (kappa)-casein gene (CSN3) for a panel of samples of domestic cattle from 8 countries and a close relative species, the gayal (Bos frontalis). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. Haplotype inference revealed 12 haplotypes, of which 8 were newly discovered. Among these 8 new haplotypes, 5 differed by one nonsynonymous mutation and 3 differed by one silent mutation from previously well-characterized CSN3 alleles. From those, one was shared by the gayal and Zebu, was different from CSN3*B at position Ile136Thr, and showed a close phylogenetic relationship with the banteng, gaur, and yak. The other 7 new haplotypes were detected in our panel of worldwide local cattle breeds but were absent from previously reported commercial breeds. These results support the hypothesis that genetic diversity at the coding region of CSN3 has been underestimated. This study also highlights how important it is to resequence functionally important genes in worldwide local cattle breeds, many of which are threatened by extinction or replacement by commercial breeds.

  15. mRNA expression pattern of selected candidate genes differs in bovine oviductal epithelial cells in vitro compared with the in vivo state and during cell culture passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh Mesgaran, Sadjad; Sharbati, Jutta; Einspanier, Ralf; Gabler, Christoph

    2016-08-15

    The mammalian oviduct provides the optimal environment for gamete maturation including sperm capacitation, fertilization, and development of the early embryo. Various cell culture models for primary bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) were established to reveal such physiological events. The aim of this study was to evaluate 17 candidate mRNA expression patterns in oviductal epithelial cells (1) in transition from in vivo cells to in vitro cells; (2) during three consecutive cell culture passages; (3) affected by the impact of LOW or HIGH glucose content media; and (4) influenced by different phases of the estrous cycle in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the release of a metabolite and proteins from BOEC at two distinct cell culture passage numbers was estimated to monitor the functionality. BOEC from 8 animals were isolated and cultured for three consecutive passages. Total RNA was extracted from in vivo and in vitro samples and subjected to reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction to reveal mRNA expression of selected candidate genes. The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), oviduct-specific glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) and interleukin 8 (IL8) by BOEC was measured by EIA or ELISA after 24 h. Almost all candidate genes (prostaglandin synthases, enzymes of cellular metabolism and mucins) mRNA expression pattern differed compared in vivo with in vitro state. In addition, transcription of most candidate genes was influenced by the number of cell culture passages. Different glucose medium content did not affect mRNA expression of most candidate genes. The phase of the estrous cycle altered some candidate mRNA expression in BOEC in vitro at later passages. The release of PGE2 and OVGP1 between passages did not differ. However, BOEC in passage 3 released significantly higher amount of IL8 compared with cells in passage 0. This study supports the hypothesis that candidate mRNA expression in BOEC was influenced by transition from the in vivo situation

  16. Morphology, sex steroid level and gene expression analysis in gonadal sex reversal of triploid female (XXX) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gefeng; Huang, Tianqing; Jin, Xian; Cui, Cunhe; Li, Depeng; Sun, Cong; Han, Ying; Mu, Zhenbo

    2016-02-01

    In non-mammalian vertebrates, estrogens and expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 play critical roles in maintaining ovary differentiation and development, while dmrt1 and sox9 are male-specific genes in testicular differentiation and are highly conserved. In order to deeply understand the morphological change, sex steroids level and molecular mechanism of triploid female gonadal reversal in rainbow trout, we studied the ovary morphology, tendency of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) levels and the relative expressions of dmrt1, cyp19a1, sox9 and foxl2 in juvenile and adult fish. Our results demonstrated that the development of triploid female gonads in rainbow trout went through arrested development, oocytes dedifferentiation, ovary reconstruction and sex reversal finally. During early gonadal development (154-334 days post-fertilization), the expressions of foxl2 and cyp19a1 increased linearly, while expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 were extremely suppressed, and E2 level was higher, while T level was lower. During the mid-to-late period of triploid female gonadal development (574-964 days post-fertilization), the expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 remained high and were very close to the quantity of diploid male genes, and T levels were even reaching diploid male plasma concentrations, while expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 were decreased, leading to decrease in E2 level. We realized that the development model of rainbow trout triploid female gonads was extremely rare, and the regulatory mechanism was very special. Genes involved in gonadal development and endogenous estrogens are pivotal factors in fish natural sex reversal.

  17. Differences in cumulus cell gene expression indicate the benefit of a pre-maturation step to improve in-vitro bovine embryo production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieci, Cecilia; Lodde, Valentina; Labreque, Rémi; Dufort, Isabelle; Tessaro, Irene; Sirard, Marc-André; Luciano, Alberto M

    2016-12-01

    Does the gene expression profile of cumulus cells (CC) accompanying oocytes with different degrees of chromatin compaction within the germinal vesicle (GV) reflect the oocyte's quality and response in culture during in-vitro embryo production (IVP). The transcriptomic profile of the CC is related to oocyte competence, setting the stage for the development of customized pre-maturation strategies to improve IVP. Oocytes complete the acquisition of their competence during antral follicle development. During this period, the chromatin configuration within the GV changes dynamically and is indicative of oocyte's developmental potential. The interactions between somatic and germ cells modulate chromatin morphology and function and are critical for acquisition of oocyte competence. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were isolated from 0.5 to 6 mm antral follicles. Surrounding CC were separated from the oocyte and classified as GV0, GV1, GV2 and GV3 according to the degree of the oocyte's chromatin compaction. RNA extracted from CC of each group was amplified and hybridized on a bovine embryo-specific 44 K Agilent slide. The CC_GV1, CC_GV2 and CC_GV3 classes were each hybridized against the CC_GV0 class, representing an early oocyte differentiation stage with poor development competence. The data were normalized and fold changes of the differentially expressed genes were determined. Microarray data were validated using quantitative RT-PCR on selected targets. Microarray data were further analyzed through: (i) between-group analysis (BGA), which classifies the samples according to their transcriptomic profiles; (ii) cluster analysis according to the expression profile of each gene; and (iii) Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to study gene regulation patterns and predicted functions. Furthermore, CC of each GV group were cultured and apoptotic cells were assessed after 3 h by caspase analysis. Finally, based on the analysis of CC transcriptomic profiles and the

  18. Comparison of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 allele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) gene encodes cell surface glycoproteins that initiate immune responses by presenting processed antigenic peptides to CD4 T helper cells. DRB3 is the most polymorphic bovine MHC class II gene which encodes the peptide-binding groove. Since different alleles favor the ...

  19. Computational identification of fertility functions of bovine Reprimo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The domain structure of bovine RPRM protein was predicted using simple modular architecture research tool (SMART). Protein tertiary structures (3D structures) of bovine RPRM gene and other cattle fertility genes were predicted with Phyre2 software. To have structural and functional similarity, it has been found that protein ...

  20. Effect of the anatomical site on telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in bovine adipose tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Tomoya, E-mail: toyamada@affrc.go.jp; Higuchi, Mikito; Nakanishi, Naoto

    2015-08-07

    Adipose tissue growth is associated with preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. Telomere length is a biological marker for cell proliferation. Preadipocyte factor-1 (pref-1) is specifically expressed in preadipocytes and acts as a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the fat depot-specific differences in telomere length and pref-1 gene expression in various anatomical sites (subcutaneous, intramuscular and visceral) of fattening Wagyu cattle. Visceral adipose tissue expressed higher pref-1 mRNA than did subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length in visceral adipose tissue tended to be longer than that of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues. The telomere length of adipose tissue was not associated with adipocyte size from three anatomical sites. No significant correlation was found between the pref-1 mRNA level and the subcutaneous adipocyte size. In contrast, the pref-1 mRNA level was negatively correlated with the intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size. These results suggest that anatomical sites of adipose tissue affect the telomere length and expression pattern of the pref-1 gene in a fat depot-specific manner. - Highlights: • Visceral adipose tissue express higher pref-1 mRNA than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length in visceral adipose tissue is longer than other anatomical sites. • Telomere length of adipose tissue is not associated with adipocyte size. • Pref-1 mRNA is negatively correlated with intramuscular and visceral adipocyte size.

  1. Development of a modified straw method for vitrification of in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts and various genes expression in between the methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, A-Na; Lee, Sang-Ryeul; Jeon, Jeong-Seon; Park, Han-Seul; Lee, Sang-Ho; Jin, Jong-In; Sessions, Benjamin R; Wang, Zhongde; White, Kenneth L; Kong, Il-Keun

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated a modified plastic straw loading method for vitrification of in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts. A modified straw was used with a depressed area on its inner surface to which embryos attach. In vitro-produced blastocysts were randomly assigned into three groups: (i) blastocysts attached to the inner surface of a plastic straw (aV), (ii) blastocysts attached to the inner surface of a modified plastic straw (maV), and (iii) non-vitrified blastocysts (control). The recovery rates were not significantly different between aV and maV groups (95.8% vs. 94.3%). The post-thaw survival rate did not significantly differ between aV and maV groups (86.4% vs. 88.2%). The total cell numbers of blastocyst was higher in control than in aV and maV groups (142 ± 21.8 vs. 117 ± 29.7 and 120 ± 25.2; P < 0.05), but not significantly differ between aV and maV groups. The mRNA levels of pro-apoptosis related genes Bax and Caspase-3 were higher in aV and maV than in control (P < 0.05). By contrast, the mRNA levels of anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and of antioxidant-related genes MnSOD and Prdx5 were lower in aV and maV than in control (P < 0.05). Confocal microscopy analysis of Golgi apparatus and mitochondria showed that the fluorescence intensity of Golgi apparatus and mitochondria was higher in control than in aV and maV groups. In conclusion, both aV and maV methods can be used to successfully vitrify IVP blastocysts, with maV method to be preferable because of its easiness in embryo loading. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Complete suppression of viral gene expression is associated with the onset and progression of lymphoid malignancy: observations in Bovine Leukemia Virus-infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burny Arsène

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During malignant progression, tumor cells need to acquire novel characteristics that lead to uncontrolled growth and reduced immunogenicity. In the Bovine Leukemia Virus-induced ovine leukemia model, silencing of viral gene expression has been proposed as a mechanism leading to immune evasion. However, whether proviral expression in tumors is completely suppressed in vivo was not conclusively demonstrated. Therefore, we studied viral expression in two selected experimentally-infected sheep, the virus or the disease of which had features that made it possible to distinguish tumor cells from their nontransformed counterparts. Results In the first animal, we observed the emergence of a genetically modified provirus simultaneously with leukemia onset. We found a Tax-mutated (TaxK303 replication-deficient provirus in the malignant B-cell clone while functional provirus (TaxE303 had been consistently monitored over the 17-month aleukemic period. In the second case, both non-transformed and transformed BLV-infected cells were present at the same time, but at distinct sites. While there was potentially-active provirus in the non-leukemic blood B-cell population, as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture and injection into naïve sheep, virus expression was completely suppressed in the malignant B-cells isolated from the lymphoid tumors despite the absence of genetic alterations in the proviral genome. These observations suggest that silencing of viral genes, including the oncoprotein Tax, is associated with tumor onset. Conclusion Our findings suggest that silencing is critical for tumor progression and identify two distinct mechanisms-genetic and epigenetic-involved in the complete suppression of virus and Tax expression. We demonstrate that, in contrast to systems that require sustained oncogene expression, the major viral transforming protein Tax can be turned-off without reversing the transformed phenotype. We propose that suppression

  3. Comparison of tamoxifen and letrozole response in mammary preneoplasia of ER and aromatase overexpressing mice defines an immune-associated gene signature linked to tamoxifen resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabydeen, Sarah A; Kang, Keunsoo; Díaz-Cruz, Edgar S; Alamri, Ahmad; Axelrod, Margaret L; Bouker, Kerrie B; Al-Kharboosh, Rawan; Clarke, Robert; Hennighausen, Lothar; Furth, Priscilla A

    2015-01-01

    Response to breast cancer chemoprevention can depend upon host genetic makeup and initiating events leading up to preneoplasia. Increased expression of aromatase and estrogen receptor (ER) is found in conjunction with breast cancer. To investigate response or resistance to endocrine therapy, mice with targeted overexpression of Esr1 or CYP19A1 to mammary epithelial cells were employed, representing two direct pathophysiological interventions in estrogen pathway signaling. Both Esr1 and CYP19A1 overexpressing mice responded to letrozole with reduced hyperplastic alveolar nodule prevalence and decreased mammary epithelial cell proliferation. CYP19A1 overexpressing mice were tamoxifen sensitive but Esr1 overexpressing mice were tamoxifen resistant. Increased ER expression occurred with tamoxifen resistance but no consistent changes in progesterone receptor, pSTAT3, pSTAT5, cyclin D1 or cyclin E levels in association with response or resistance were found. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was employed to seek a transcriptome predictive of tamoxifen resistance using these models and a second tamoxifen-resistant model, BRCA1 deficient/Trp53 haploinsufficient mice. Sixty-eight genes associated with immune system processing were upregulated in tamoxifen-resistant Esr1- and Brca1-deficient mice, whereas genes related to aromatic compound metabolic process were upregulated in tamoxifen-sensitive CYP19A1 mice. Interferon regulatory factor 7 was identified as a key transcription factor regulating these 68 immune processing genes. Two loci encoding novel transcripts with high homology to human immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 1 were uniquely upregulated in the tamoxifen-resistant models. Letrozole proved to be a successful alternative to tamoxifen. Further study of transcriptional changes associated with tamoxifen resistance including immune-related genes could expand our mechanistic understanding and lead to biomarkers predictive of escape or response to endocrine therapies.

  4. Effect of transfection and co-incubation of bovine sperm with exogenous DNA on sperm quality and functional parameters for its use in sperm-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, María Elena; Sánchez-Villalba, Esther; Delgado, Andrea; Felmer, Ricardo

    2017-02-01

    Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is based on the capacity of sperm to bind exogenous DNA and transfer it into the oocyte during fertilization. In bovines, the progress of this technology has been slow due to the poor reproducibility and efficiency of the production of transgenic embryos. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different sperm transfection systems on the quality and functional parameters of sperm. Additionally, the ability of sperm to bind and incorporate exogenous DNA was assessed. These analyses were carried out by flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy, and motility parameters were also evaluated by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Transfection was carried out using complexes of plasmid DNA with Lipofectamine, SuperFect and TurboFect for 0.5, 1, 2 or 4 h. The results showed that all of the transfection treatments promoted sperm binding and incorporation of exogenous DNA, similar to sperm incorporation of DNA alone, without affecting the viability. Nevertheless, the treatments and incubation times significantly affected the motility parameters, although no effect on the integrity of DNA or the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed. Additionally, we observed that transfection using SuperFect and TurboFect negatively affected the acrosome integrity, and TurboFect affected the mitochondrial membrane potential of sperm. In conclusion, we demonstrated binding and incorporation of exogenous DNA by sperm after transfection and confirmed the capacity of sperm to spontaneously incorporate exogenous DNA. These findings will allow the establishment of the most appropriate method [intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF)] of generating transgenic embryos via SMGT based on the fertilization capacity of transfected sperm.

  5. Effects of BPA and E2 on expression profiles of genes related to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengling; Li, Zhaoxin; Wang, Qingyin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2013-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly viewed as persistent pollutants, similar to natural hormones in function. This paper describes the expression profiles of 7 genes ( DMRT, VTG GnRHR FSHR CYP17A CYP19A, and CYP19B) involved in sex steroid synthesis and action as well as sexual development in adult male and female Cynoglossus semilaevis, after exposure to different concentrations of Bisphenol A (BPA) and 17β-estradiol (E2). Both BPA (1, 10, 50, 125, and 250 mg/kg) and E2 (0.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) induced changes in target gene expression, although the estrogenic effects of E2 as a model estrogen were stronger. Among the 7 genes, VTG CYP17A and CYP19 responded strongly to BPA or E2 exposure and can thus serve as reference biomarkers for estrogenic EDCs exposure in marine teleosts. These data will provide a window to establish a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal model in C. semilaevis to better understand the effect pathways of EDCs.

  6. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is caused by a number of Mycobacterium species, of which Mycobacterium bovis, causing 'bovine tuberculosis' is ... KEY WORDS: Mycobacterium bovis, Zoonosis, Holeta, Ethiopia causing 'bovine tuberculosis ..... isolation of infected animals in which communal grazing and watering practiced.

  7. Comparison of gene-based rare variant association mapping methods for quantitative traits in a bovine population with complex familial relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Calus, Mario P L; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sahana, Goutam

    2016-08-17

    There is growing interest in the role of rare variants in the variation of complex traits due to increasing evidence that rare variants are associated with quantitative traits. However, association methods that are commonly used for mapping common variants are not effective to map rare variants. Besides, livestock populations have large half-sib families and the occurrence of rare variants may be confounded with family structure, which makes it difficult to disentangle their effects from family mean effects. We compared the power of methods that are commonly applied in human genetics to map rare variants in cattle using whole-genome sequence data and simulated phenotypes. We also studied the power of mapping rare variants using linear mixed models (LMM), which are the method of choice to account for both family relationships and population structure in cattle. We observed that the power of the LMM approach was low for mapping a rare variant (defined as those that have frequencies lower than 0.01) with a moderate effect (5 to 8 % of phenotypic variance explained by multiple rare variants that vary from 5 to 21 in number) contributing to a QTL with a sample size of 1000. In contrast, across the scenarios studied, statistical methods that are specialized for mapping rare variants increased power regardless of whether multiple rare variants or a single rare variant underlie a QTL. Different methods for combining rare variants in the test single nucleotide polymorphism set resulted in similar power irrespective of the proportion of total genetic variance explained by the QTL. However, when the QTL variance is very small (only 0.1 % of the total genetic variance), these specialized methods for mapping rare variants and LMM generally had no power to map the variants within a gene with sample sizes of 1000 or 5000. We observed that the methods that combine multiple rare variants within a gene into a meta-variant generally had greater power to map rare variants compared

  8. Functional and gene network analyses of transcriptional signatures characterizing pre-weaned bovine mammary parenchyma or fat pad uncovered novel inter-tissue signaling networks during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Harris A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neonatal bovine mammary fat pad (MFP surrounding the mammary parenchyma (PAR is thought to exert proliferative effects on the PAR through secretion of local modulators of growth induced by systemic hormones. We used bioinformatics to characterize transcriptomics differences between PAR and MFP from ~65 d old Holstein heifers. Data were mined to uncover potential crosstalk through the analyses of signaling molecules preferentially expressed in one tissue relative to the other. Results Over 9,000 differentially expressed genes (DEG; False discovery rate ≤ 0.05 were found of which 1,478 had a ≥1.5-fold difference between PAR and MFP. Within the DEG highly-expressed in PAR vs. MFP (n = 736 we noted significant enrichment of functions related to cell cycle, structural organization, signaling, and DNA/RNA metabolism. Only actin cytoskeletal signaling was significant among canonical pathways. DEG more highly-expressed in MFP vs. PAR (n = 742 belong to lipid metabolism, signaling, cell movement, and immune-related functions. Canonical pathways associated with metabolism and signaling, particularly immune- and metabolism-related were significantly-enriched. Network analysis uncovered a central role of MYC, TP53, and CTNNB1 in controlling expression of DEG highly-expressed in PAR vs. MFP. Similar analysis suggested a central role for PPARG, KLF2, EGR2, and EPAS1 in regulating expression of more highly-expressed DEG in MFP vs. PAR. Gene network analyses revealed putative inter-tissue crosstalk between cytokines and growth factors preferentially expressed in one tissue (e.g., ANGPTL1, SPP1, IL1B in PAR vs. MFP; ADIPOQ, IL13, FGF2, LEP in MFP vs. PAR with DEG preferentially expressed in the other tissue, particularly transcription factors or pathways (e.g., MYC, TP53, and actin cytoskeletal signaling in PAR vs. MFP; PPARG and LXR/RXR Signaling in MFP vs. PAR. Conclusions Functional analyses underscored a reciprocal influence in

  9. LATENCIA DEL HERPESVIRUS BOVINO-1: EL PAPEL DE LOS TRANSCRITOS RELACIONADOS CON LATENCIA (RL Bovine Herpesvirus-1: The Role of Latency-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIÁN RUIZ

    Full Text Available El herpesvirus bovino-1 es un virus de distribución mundial causante de graves pérdidas económicas debidas principalmente a la disminución de la eficiencia y en los indicadores de salud y productividad de cualquier hato ganadero infectado. Luego de la infección inicial del tracto respiratorio de los animales, el virus establece un estado de latencia viral en las neuronas sensoriales del ganglio trigémino y en los centros germinales de las tonsilas faríngeas. Periódicamente, el virus es reactivado y excretado en secreciones a través de las cuales puede infectar a otros animales susceptibles. Durante dicho estado de latencia hay disminución dramática de la expresión de genes virales, llevando solo a la expresión de dos transcritos: El RNA codificado por el gen relacionado con latencia (RL y el ORF-E viral. Múltiples estudios demuestran como el RL y el ORF-E están involucrados en la regulación del complejo ciclo de latencia y reactivación de la infección. La presente revisión de literatura se enfocará en describir y analizar los distintos estudios que han llevado a dilucidar el papel jugado por el gen RL y el ORF-E, sus transcritos y sus productos proteicos en el establecimiento, mantenimiento y reactivación de la latencia del HVB-1.Bovine herpesvirus-1 is a world wide spread virus that causes significant economic losses due mainly to a decrease in the efficiency and in the health and productivity indicators in all the infected herds. After a primary infection of the respiratory tract of the animals, the virus establishes viral latency state in sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia and germinal centers of pharyngeal tonsils. Periodically, the virus reactivates from latency, is shed through secretions, and can infect other susceptible animals. During latency there is a dramatic reduction of viral gen expression; only two transcripts are abundantly expressed: the latency related (LR RNA and the viral ORF-E. Multiple studies have

  10. Full Genome Characterization of Novel DS-1-Like G8P[8] Rotavirus Strains that Have Emerged in Thailand: Reassortment of Bovine and Human Rotavirus Gene Segments in Emerging DS-1-Like Intergenogroup Reassortant Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratana Tacharoenmuang

    Full Text Available The emergence and rapid spread of unusual DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant rotavirus strains have been recently reported in Asia, Australia, and Europe. During rotavirus surveillance in Thailand in 2013-2014, novel DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant strains having G8P[8] genotypes (i.e., strains KKL-17, PCB-79, PCB-84, PCB-85, PCB-103, SKT-107, SWL-12, NP-130, PCB-656, SKT-457, SSKT-269, and SSL-55 were identified in stool samples from hospitalized children with severe diarrhea. In this study, we determined and characterized the complete genomes of these 12 strains (seven strains, KKL-17, PCB-79, PCB-84, PCB-85, PCB-103, SKT-107, and SWL-12, found in 2013 (2013 strains, and five, NP-130, PCB-656, SKT-457, SSKT-269, and SSL-55, in 2014 (2014 strains. On full genomic analysis, all 12 strains showed a unique genotype constellation comprising a mixture of genogroup 1 and 2 genes: G8-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. With the exception of the G genotype, the unique genotype constellation of the 12 strains (P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 was found to be shared with DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant strains. On phylogenetic analysis, six of the 11 genes of the 2013 strains (VP4, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP3, and NSP5 appeared to have originated from DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant strains, while the remaining four (VP7, VP6, VP1, and NSP2 and one (NSP4 gene appeared to be of bovine and human origin, respectively. Thus, the 2013 strains appeared to be reassortant strains as to DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant, bovine, bovine-like human, and/or human rotaviruses. On the other hand, five of the 11 genes of the 2014 strains (VP4, VP2, VP3, NSP1, and NSP3 appeared to have originated from DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant strains, while three (VP7, VP1, and NSP2 and one (NSP4 were assumed to be of bovine and human origin, respectively. Notably, the remaining two genes, VP6 and NSP5, of the 2014 strains appeared to have originated from locally

  11. Identification of immediate early gene products of bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) as dominant antigens recognized by CD8 T cells in immune cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Jane; MacHugh, Niall D.; Sheldrake, Tara

    2017-01-01

    In common with other herpes viruses, bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) induces strong virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses. However, there is a paucity of information on the antigenic specificity of the responding T-cells. The development of a system to generate virus-specific CD8 T-cell lines from BH...

  12. Effects of short- and long-chain fatty acids on the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase and other lipogenic genes in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.A.A.; Dijkstra, J.; Liesman, J.S.; VandeHaar, M.J.; Lock, A.L.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Baal, van J.

    2013-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in the bovine mammary gland introduces a cis-double bond at the ¿9 position in a wide range of fatty acids (FA). Several long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) inhibit expression of SCD, but information on the effect of short-chain fatty acids on mammary SCD

  13. Inhibition of human aromatase complex (CYP19) by antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Naja Wessel; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Birkved, Franziska Maria A Kramer

    2008-01-01

    of 1.4-49.7 mM. Carbamazepine, gabapentin, primidone, topiramate and vigabatrin showed no inhibition. Additionally, binary drug combinations were tested to investigate if combination therapy could potentiate the aromatase inhibition. Additive inhibition was seen in combination experiments...... with valproate and phenobarbital. When adding carbamazepine to a range of valproate concentrations no additional inhibition was seen. The data for some of the AEDs show that side effects on steroid synthesis in humans due to inhibition of aromatase should be considered....

  14. Candidate gene expression in Bos indicus ovarian tissues: pre-pubertal and post-pubertal heifers in diestrus

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    Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15 and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1 and TGFB2 and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1, and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1 could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase. Six post-pubertal (POST heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six pre-pubertal (PRE heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1 and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1 and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the down-regulation of LHR and up-regulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Up-regulation of IGF1 expression pre-puberty, compared to post-puberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0

  15. Increasing of blastocyst rate and gene expression in co-culture of bovine embryos with adult adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Moysés S; Nascimento, Hamilton S; Costa, Mayra P R; Costa, Nathália N; Brito, Karynne N L; Lopes, Cinthia T A; Santos, Simone S D; Cordeiro, Marcela S; Ohashi, Otávio M

    2016-10-01

    Despite advances in the composition of defined embryo culture media, co-culture with somatic cells is still used for bovine in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in many laboratories worldwide. Granulosa cells are most often used for this purpose, although recent work suggests that co-culture with stem cells of adult or embryonic origin or their derived biomaterials may improve mouse, cattle, and pig embryo development. In experiment 1, in vitro produced bovine embryos were co-cultured in the presence of two concentrations of bovine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal cells (b-ATMSCs; 103 and 104 cells/mL), in b-ATMSC preconditioned medium (SOF-Cond), or SOF alone (control). In experiment 2, co-culture with 104 b-ATMSCs/mL was compared to the traditional granulosa cell co-culture system (Gran). In experiment 1, co-culture with 104 b-ATMSCs/mL improved blastocyst rates in comparison to conditioned and control media (p culture with 104 b-ATMSCs/mL improved not only blastocyst rates but also quality as assessed by increased total cell numbers and mRNA expression levels for POU5F1 and G6PDH (p culture of bovine embryos with b-ATMSCs was more beneficial than the traditional co-culture system with granulosa cells. We speculate that the microenvironmental modulatory potential of MSCs, by means of soluble substances and exosome secretions, could be responsible for the positive effects observed. Further experiments must be done to evaluate if this beneficial effect in vitro also translates to an increase in offspring following embryo transfer. Moreover, this study provides an interesting platform to study the basic requirements during preimplantation embryo development, which, in turn, may aid the improvement of embryo culture protocols in bovine and other species.

  16. Negative regulation of the bovine papillomavirus E5, E6, and E7 oncogenes by the viral E1 and E2 genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Vande Pol, S B; Howley, P. M.

    1995-01-01

    Papillomaviruses induce benign squamous epithelial lesions that infrequently are associated with uncontrolled growth or malignant conversion. The virus-encoded oncogenes are clearly under negative regulation since papillomaviruses can latently infect cells and since different levels of viral oncogene expression are seen within the layers of differentiating infected epitheliomas. We used bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) to investigate the mechanisms involved in the negative regulation of t...

  17. Characterization of gonadal transcriptomes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus reveals differentially expressed genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Tao

    Full Text Available Four pairs of XX and XY gonads from Nile tilapia were sequenced at four developmental stages, 5, 30, 90, and 180 days after hatching (dah using Illumina Hiseq(TM technology. This produced 28 Gb sequences, which were mapped to 21,334 genes. Of these, 259 genes were found to be specifically expressed in XY gonads, and 69 were found to be specific to XX gonads. Totally, 187 XX- and 1,358 XY-enhanced genes were identified, and 2,978 genes were found to be co-expressed in XX and XY gonads. Almost all steroidogenic enzymes, including cyp19a1a, were up-regulated in XX gonads at 5 dah; but in XY gonads these enzymes, including cyp11b2, were significantly up-regulated at 90 dah, indicating that, at a time critical to sex determination, the XX fish produced estrogen and the XY fish did not produce androgens. The most pronounced expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes was observed at 30 and 90 dah for XX and XY gonads, corresponding to the initiation of germ cell meiosis in the female and male gonads, respectively. Both estrogen and androgen receptors were found to be expressed in XX gonads, but only estrogen receptors were expressed in XY gonads at 5 dah. This could explain why exogenous steroid treatment induced XX and XY sex reversal. The XX-enhanced expression of cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b at all stages suggests an important role for estrogen in female sex determination and maintenance of phenotypic sex. This work is the largest collection of gonadal transcriptome data in tilapia and lays the foundation for future studies into the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and maintenance of phenotypic sex in non-model teleosts.

  18. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of bovine UQCC and its association with body measurement traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Zhao, Shuanping

    2010-01-01

    models of height as well as other stature indexes. We have cloned the cDNA sequence coding UQCC gene in bovine. Genomic structural analysis indicated that bovine UQCC shares a high similarity with human UQCC. Furthermore, Real-Time PCR analysis show that the expression of bovine UQCC is remarkably...... measurement traits in bovine reproduction and breeding, and provide data for establishing of an animal model using cattle to study big animal body type....

  19. Expression profiles for six zebrafish genes during gonadal sex differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Morthorst, Jane Ebsen; Andersen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanism of sex determination in zebrafish is largely unknown and neither sex chromosomes nor a sex-determining gene have been identified. This indicates that sex determination in zebrafish is mediated by genetic signals from autosomal genes. The aim of this study was to determine...... the precise timing of expression of six genes previously suggested to be associated with sex differentiation in zebrafish. The current study investigates the expression of all six genes in the same individual fish with extensive sampling dates during sex determination and -differentiation. RESULTS...... "female" genes (fig alpha and cyp19a1a). When comparing all five genes with expected sex related expression 56% show expression expected for either male or female. Furthermore, the expression of all genes was investigated in different tissue of adult male and female zebrafish. CONCLUSION: In zebrafish...

  20. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing on...

  1. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule document...

  2. Comparison of Virulence Gene Identification, Ribosomal Spacer PCR, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Cases of Subclinical Bovine Mastitis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Pamela R F; Middleton, John R; Fox, Lawrence K

    2016-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in dairy cattle worldwide. The objectives of this study were to determine if recently described S. aureus genotype B was present among previously characterized isolates from cases of bovine intramammary infection in the United States and to compare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to the combination of ribosomal spacer PCR (RS-PCR) and virulence gene identification for typing of S. aureus strains. The hypothesis was that isolates that were previously characterized as contagious would be identified as genotype B and that the results of the two strain-typing methods would be comparable. Isolates were selected from a collection of S. aureus isolates from eight dairy farms. Mammary quarter milk somatic cell count (SCC) and N-acetyl-β-d-gluconaminidase (NAGase) activity data were known and used to evaluate strain pathogenicity. RS-PCR was performed with conventional gel electrophoresis, and PCR was used for toxin gene identification. RS-PCR patterns were associated with a specific virulence gene pattern, as previously reported. Five RS-PCR banding patterns were identified. None of the isolates were characterized as genotype B. No association between RS-PCR types and milk SCC was found; however, NAGase activity was significantly higher in milk from mammary glands infected with RS-PCR banding type 1 (RSP type 1) than in milk from those infected with RSP type 2. The discriminatory power values were 1.0 and 0.46 for PFGE and RS-PCR, respectively. These data suggest that genotype B may have a limited geographic distribution and that PFGE is more discriminatory than RS-PCR performed with conventional gel electrophoresis for typing of S. aureus isolates of bovine origin. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2006-08-31

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. Although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable N. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms in bovine transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) and solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1 (SLC40A1) genes and their association with beef iron content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Q; Tait, R G; Mayes, M S; Garrick, D J; Liu, Q; Van Eenennaam, A L; Mateescu, R G; Van Overbeke, D L; Garmyn, A J; Beitz, D C; Reecy, J M

    2012-04-01

    Beef is considered to be an excellent source of dietary iron. However, little is known about the genetic control of beef iron content. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) and solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1 (SLC40A1) could influence skeletal muscle iron content. The objective of this study was to use Angus cattle to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exons and flanking regions of the bovine TFR2 and SLC40A1 genes and to evaluate the extent to which genetic variation in them was associated with bovine longissimus dorsi muscle iron content. Ten novel SNPs were identified in TFR2, of which one SNP tended to be associated (P  0.99), from which two haplotypes, TGC and CAT, were defined. Beef from individuals that were homozygous for the TGC haplotype had significantly (P < 0.001) higher iron content than did beef from CAT homozygous or heterozygous individuals. The estimated size of effect of the identified haplotypes was 0.3% of the phenotypic variance. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for genetic control of beef iron concentration. Moreover, SNPs identified in SLC40A1, rs134388440, rs136347850 and rs137555693 might be useful markers for the selection of Angus cattle for altered iron content. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. A Report on Bovine Ephemeral Fever Virus in Turkey: Antigenic Variations of Different Strains of EFV in the 1985 and 2012 Outbreaks Using Partial Glycoprotein Gene Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğuzoğlu, T Ç; Ertürk, A; Çizmeci, Ş G; Koç, B T; Akça, Y

    2015-10-01

    We described the aetiological agents of outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) that occurred in 1985 and 2012 in Turkey, and identify mutations in the viruses from both outbreaks. Outbreaks have emerged periodically every 4-5 years in the same regions in Turkey. Because these regions are located in a subtropical climatic zone, good conditions for vector populations exist. The results of this study show that the BEFVs from outbreaks in Turkey vary significantly. Effective prevention will require a vaccine that contains BEFVs from different genetic clusters. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Zebrafish sex determination and differentiation: Involvement of FTZ-F1 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsson Per-Erik

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sex determination is the process deciding the sex of a developing embryo. This is usually determined genetically; however it is a delicate process, which in many cases can be influenced by environmental factors. The mechanisms controlling zebrafish sex determination and differentiation are not known. To date no sex linked genes have been identified in zebrafish and no sex chromosomes have been identified. However, a number of genes, as presented here, have been linked to the process of sex determination or differentiation in zebrafish. The zebrafish FTZ-F1 genes are of central interest as they are involved in regulating interrenal development and thereby steroid biosynthesis, as well as that they show expression patterns congruent with reproductive tissue differentiation and function. Zebrafish can be sex reversed by exposure to estrogens, suggesting that the estrogen levels are crucial during sex differentiation. The Cyp19 gene product aromatase converts testosterone into 17 beta-estradiol, and when inhibited leads to male to female sex reversal. FTZ-F1 genes are strongly linked to steroid biosynthesis and the regulatory region of Cyp19 contains binding sites for FTZ-F1 genes, further linking FTZ-F1 to this process. The role of FTZ-F1 and other candidates for zebrafish sex determination and differentiation is in focus of this review.

  7. Estrogen and progesterone-related gene variants and colorectal cancer risk in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Marc J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Observational studies and randomized trials have suggested that estrogens and/or progesterone may lower the risk for colorectal cancer. Inherited variation in the sex-hormone genes may be one mechanism by which sex hormones affect colorectal cancer, although data are limited. Method We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes encoding 3 hormone receptors (ESR1, ESR2, PGR and 5 hormone synthesizers (CYP19A1 and CYP17A1, HSD17B1, HSD17B2, HSD17B4 among 427 women with incident colorectal cancer and 871 matched controls who were Caucasians of European ancestry from 93676 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational cohort. A total of 242 haplotype-tagging and functional SNPs in the 8 genes were included for analysis. Unconditional logistic regression with adjustment for age and hysterectomy status was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results We observed a weak association between the CYP17A1 rs17724534 SNP and colorectal cancer risk (OR per risk allele (A = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.09-1.78, corrected p-value = 0.07. In addition, a suggestive interaction between rs17724534 and rs10883782 in 2 discrete LD blocks of CYP17A1 was observed in relation to colorectal cancer (empirical p value = 0.04. Moreover, one haplotype block of CYP19A1 was associated with colorectal cancer (corrected global p value = 0.02, which likely reflected the association with the tagging SNP, rs1902584, in the block. Conclusion Our findings offer some support for a suggestive association of CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 variants with colorectal cancer risk.

  8. The (CA)n polymorphism of ERβ gene is associated with FtM transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rosa; Esteva, Isabel; Gómez-Gil, Esther; Rumbo, Teresa; Almaraz, Mari Cruz; Roda, Ester; Haro-Mora, Juan-Jesús; Guillamón, Antonio; Pásaro, Eduardo

    2014-03-01

    Transsexualism is a gender identity disorder with a multifactorial etiology. Neurodevelopmental processes and genetic factors seem to be implicated. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of the sex hormone-related genes ERβ (estrogen receptor β), AR (androgen receptor), and CYP19A1 (aromatase) in the etiology of female-to-male (FtM) transsexualism. In 273 FtMs and 371 control females, we carried out a molecular analysis of three variable regions: the CA repeats in intron 5 of ERβ; the CAG repeats in exon 1 of AR, and the TTTA repeats in intron 4 of CYP19A1. We investigated the possible influence of genotype on transsexualism by performing a molecular analysis of the variable regions of genes ERβ, AR, and CYP19A1 in 644 individuals (FtMs and control females). FtMs differed significantly from control group with respect to the median repeat length polymorphism ERβ (P = 0.002) but not with respect to the length of the other two studied polymorphisms. The repeat numbers in ERβ were significantly higher in FtMs than in control group, and the likelihood of developing transsexualism was higher (odds ratio: 2.001 [1.15-3.46]) in the subjects with the genotype homozygous for long alleles. There is an association between the ERβ gene and FtM transsexualism. Our data support the finding that ERβ function is directly proportional to the size of the analyzed polymorphism, so a greater number of repeats implies greater transcription activation, possibly by increasing the function of the complex hormone ERβ receptor and thereby encouraging less feminization or a defeminization of the female brain and behavior. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  10. Changes in brain ribonuclease (BRB) messenger RNA in granulosa cells (GCs) of dominant vs subordinate ovarian follicles of cattle and the regulation of BRB gene expression in bovine GCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentis, J L; Schreiber, N B; Gilliam, J N; Schutz, L F; Spicer, L J

    2016-04-01

    Brain ribonuclease (BRB) is a member of the ribonuclease A superfamily that is constitutively expressed in a range of tissues and is the functional homolog of human ribonuclease 1. This study was designed to characterize BRB gene expression in granulosa cells (GCs) during development of bovine dominant ovarian follicles and to determine the hormonal regulation of BRB in GCs. Estrous cycles of Holstein cows (n = 18) were synchronized, and cows were ovariectomized on either day 3 to 4 or day 5 to 6 after ovulation during dominant follicle growth and selection. Ovaries were collected, follicular fluid (FFL) was aspirated, and GCs were collected for RNA isolation and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Follicles were categorized as small (1-5 mm; pooled per ovary), medium (5-8 mm; individually collected), or large (8.1-17 mm; individually collected) based on surface diameter. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in FFL. Abundance of BRB messenger RNA (mRNA) in GCs was 8.6- to 11.8-fold greater (P dominant E2-active (FFL E2 > P4) follicles. In the largest 4 follicles, GCs BRB mRNA abundance was negatively correlated (P 0.10) abundance of BRB mRNA in GCs; thyroxine and luteinizing hormone increased (P < 0.05), whereas prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) decreased (P < 0.05) BRB mRNA abundance in small-follicle GCs. Treatment of small-follicle GCs with recombinant human RNase1 increased (P < 0.05) GCs numbers and E2 production. In conclusion, BRB is a hormonally and developmentally regulated gene in bovine GCs and may regulate E2 production during follicular growth in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. BOLA-DRB3 gene polymorphisms influence bovine leukaemia virus infection levels in Holstein and Holstein × Jersey crossbreed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignano, H A; Beribe, M J; Caffaro, M E; Amadio, A; Nani, J P; Gutierrez, G; Alvarez, I; Trono, K; Miretti, M M; Poli, M A

    2017-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infections, causing persistent lymphocytosis and lethal lymphosarcoma in cattle, have reached high endemicity on dairy farms. We observed extensive inter-individual variation in the level of infection (LI) by assessing differences in proviral load in peripheral blood. This phenotypic variation appears to be determined by host genetics variants, especially those located in the BoLA-DRB3 MHCII molecule. We performed an association study using sequencing-based typed BOLA-DRB3 alleles from over 800 Holstein and Holstein × Jersey cows considering LI in vivo and accounting for filial relationships. The DBR3*0902 allele was associated with a low level of infection (LLI) (cows. Moreover, we identified two BOLA-DRB3 alleles associated with a HLI, which is compatible with a highly contagious profile. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. Investigating the etiology of bovine digital dermatitis by a combination of 16S rRNA gene analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Rasmussen, Marianne; Capion, Nynne

    Bovine digital dermatitis, the cause of lameness and wasting in cattle, was first reported in 1974. Today, this disease has considerable negative effects on animal welfare and production economy in many parts of the world. A bacterial etiology of digital dermatitis is now well documented......, and the current view on this disease points towards a complicated etiology involving co-infection of more than one, and probably multiple species belonging to the genus Treponema. Still, the pathogenic role of each of the digital dermatitis-associated phylotypes remains unclear. The aim of this investigation...... was to obtain a better understanding of digital dermatitis in general, including possible predisposing skin alternations and the role of the bacteria Dichelobacter nodosus. Finally, we wanted to determine if any Treponema phylotypes could be singled out as having a particularly prominent role in the etiology...

  13. Glycoprotein-G-gene-based molecular and phylogenetic analysis of rabies viruses associated with a large outbreak of bovine rabies in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnelutti, Juliana F; de Quadros, João M; Martins, Mathias; Batista, Helena B C R; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F

    2017-12-01

    A large outbreak of hematophagous-bat-associated bovine rabies has been occurring in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the southernmost Brazilian state, since 2011, with official estimates exceeding 50,000 cattle deaths. The present article describes a genetic characterization of rabies virus (RABV) recovered from 59 affected cattle and two sheep, from 56 herds in 16 municipalities (2012-2016). Molecular analysis was performed using the nucleotide (nt) and predicted amino acid (aa) sequences of RABV glycoprotein G (G). A high level of nt and aa sequence identity was observed among the examined G sequences, ranging from 98.4 to 100%, and from 97.3 to 100%, respectively. Likewise, high levels of nt and aa sequence identity were observed with bovine (nt, 99.8%; aa, 99.8%) and hematophagous bat (nt, 99.5%; aa, 99.4%) RABV sequences from GenBank, and lower levels were observed with carnivore RABV sequences (nt, 92.8%; aa, 88.1%). Some random mutations were observed in the analyzed sequences, and a few consistent mutations were observed in some sequences belonging to cluster 2, subcluster 2b. The clustering of the sequences was observed in a phylogenetic tree, where two distinct clusters were evident. Cluster 1 comprised RABV sequences covering the entire study period (2012 to 2016), but subclusters corresponding to different years could be identified, indicating virus evolution and/or introduction of new viruses into the population. In some cases, viruses from the same location obtained within a short period grouped into different subclusters, suggesting co-circulation of viruses of different origins. Subcluster segregation was also observed in sequences obtained in the same region during different periods, indicating the involvement of different viruses in the cases at different times. In summary, our results indicate that the outbreaks occurring in RS (2012 to 2016) probably involved RABV of different origins, in addition to a possible evolution of RABV isolates within this

  14. Generation and characterization of six single VP4 gene substitution reassortant rotavirus vaccine candidates: each bears a single human rotavirus VP4 gene encoding P serotype 1A[8] or 1B[4] and the remaining 10 genes of rhesus monkey rotavirus MMU18006 or bovine rotavirus UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Yasutaka; Jones, Ronald W; Chanock, Robert M; Kapikian, Albert Z

    2002-10-04

    The global disease burden of rotavirus diarrhea in infants and young children has stimulated interest in the biological and clinical characteristics of these agents, leading to intensive efforts to develop a vaccine. A rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-based quadrivalent vaccine ("RotaShield") was licensed and administered to about 1 million infants and found to be highly effective. However, it was withdrawn because of a link with intussusception. This vaccine was developed according to a modified "Jennerian" approach in which one of the two major outer capsid proteins (VP7) shares neutralization specificity with one of the four epidemiologically important human rotavirus serotypes. The other outer capsid protein (VP4) is derived solely from RRV and is distinct from the VP4 of the four human rotavirus serotypes of epidemiologic importance. In an effort to further increase the immunogenicity of the existing VP7-based RRV quadrivalent vaccine, we generated three single VP4 gene substitution reassortant rotavirus candidate vaccines, each of which bears a single human rotavirus VP4 gene encoding P serotype 1A[8] or 1B[4] specificity while the remaining 10 genes are derived from the rhesus rotavirus. By incorporating one or two of these strains into the quadrivalent vaccine, a pentavalent or hexavalent RRV-based vaccine could be formulated thus providing antigenic coverage not only for VP7 serotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 but also for VP4 serotype 1A[8] or 1B[4], thus possibly augmenting its immunogenicity. Similarly, three single VP4 gene (P1A[8] or P1B[4]) substitution reassortants have also been generated in a background of 10 bovine (UK) rotavirus genes for addition to a second generation UK-based quadrivalent vaccine.

  15. Atrazine alters expression of reproductive and stress genes in the developing hypothalamus of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russart, Kathryn L G; Rhen, Turk

    2016-07-29

    Atrazine is an herbicide used to control broadleaf grasses and a suspected endocrine disrupting chemical. Snapping turtles lay eggs between late May and early June, which could lead to atrazine exposure via field runoff. Our goal was to determine whether a single exposure to 2ppb or 40ppb atrazine during embryogenesis could induce short- and long-term changes in gene expression within the hypothalamus of snapping turtles. We treated eggs with atrazine following sex determination and measured gene expression within the hypothalamus. We selected genes a priori for their role in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axes of the endocrine system. We did not identify any changes in gene expression 24-h after treatment. However, at hatching AR, Kiss1R, and POMC expression was upregulated in both sexes, while expression of CYP19A1 and PDYN was increased in females. Six months after hatching, CYP19A1 and PRLH expression was increased in animals treated with 2ppb atrazine. Our study shows persistent changes in hypothalamic gene expression due to low-dose embryonic exposure to the herbicide atrazine with significant effects in both the HPG and HPA axes. Effects reported here appear to be conserved among vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal Low-protein Diet Alters Ovarian Expression of Folliculogenic and Steroidogenic Genes and Their Regulatory MicroRNAs in Neonatal Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyan Sui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy may give rise to female offspring with disrupted ovary functions in adult age. Neonatal ovary development predisposes adult ovary function, yet the effect of maternal nutrition on the neonatal ovary has not been described. Therefore, here we show the impact of maternal protein restriction on the expression of folliculogenic and steroidogenic genes, their regulatory microRNAs and promoter DNA methylation in the ovary of neonatal piglets. Sows were fed either standard-protein (SP, 15% crude protein or low-protein (LP, 7.5% crude protein diets throughout gestation. Female piglets born to LP sows showed significantly decreased ovary weight relative to body weight (p<0.05 at birth, which was accompanied with an increased serum estradiol level (p<0.05. The LP piglets demonstrated higher ratio of bcl-2 associated X protein/B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 mRNA (p<0.01, which was associated with up-regulated mRNA expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4 (p<0.05 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA (p<0.05. The steroidogenic gene, cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1 was significantly down-regulated (p<0.05 in LP piglets. The alterations in ovarian gene expression were associated with a significant down-regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor mRNA expression (p<0.05 in LP piglets. Moreover, three microRNAs, including miR-423-5p targeting both CYP19A1 and PCNA, miR-378 targeting CYP19A1 and miR-210 targeting BMP4, were significantly down-regulated (p<0.05 in the ovary of LP piglets. These results suggest that microRNAs are involved in mediating the effect of maternal protein restriction on ovarian function through regulating the expression of folliculogenic and steroidogenic genes in newborn piglets.

  17. Development of Non-Viral, Trophoblast-Specific Gene Delivery for Placental Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura Abd Ellah

    Full Text Available Low birth weight is associated with both short term problems and the fetal programming of adult onset diseases, including an increased risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Placental insufficiency leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR contributes to the prevalence of diseases with developmental origins. Currently there are no therapies for IUGR or placental insufficiency. To address this and move towards development of an in utero therapy, we employ a nanostructure delivery system complexed with the IGF-1 gene to treat the placenta. IGF-1 is a growth factor critical to achieving appropriate placental and fetal growth. Delivery of genes to a model of human trophoblast and mouse placenta was achieved using a diblock copolymer (pHPMA-b-pDMAEMA complexed to hIGF-1 plasmid DNA under the control of trophoblast-specific promoters (Cyp19a or PLAC1. Transfection efficiency of pEGFP-C1-containing nanocarriers in BeWo cells and non-trophoblast cells was visually assessed via fluorescence microscopy. In vivo transfection and functionality was assessed by direct placental-injection into a mouse model of IUGR. Complexes formed using pHPMA-b-pDMAEMA and CYP19a-923 or PLAC1-modified plasmids induce trophoblast-selective transgene expression in vitro, and placental injection of PLAC1-hIGF-1 produces measurable RNA expression and alleviates IUGR in our mouse model, consequently representing innovative building blocks towards human placental gene therapies.

  18. Enzootic bovine leucosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, L

    1978-09-02

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is associated with infection by bovine leucosis virus. The incubation period is measured in years and a minority of infected animals develop clinical signs. The disease is widespread in Europe and elsewhere and can cause significant economic loss. The epidemiology is incompletely understood and findings from one cattle production system may not be directly applicable to another. Major control programmes exist in Denmark and West Germany and control schemes are being developed elsewhere. Eradication of enzootic bovine leucosis has been established as a goal in the EEC and research is revealing the ways in which this goal may be attained. To be effective, control and epidemiological monitoring must be interactive. Recently introduced serological tests, of improved sensitivity, provide a valuable tool.

  19. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  20. Bovine Host Genetic Variation Influences Rumen Microbial Methane Production with Best Selection Criterion for Low Methane Emitting and Efficiently Feed Converting Hosts Based on Metagenomic Gene Abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Roehe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Methane produced by methanogenic archaea in ruminants contributes significantly to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The host genetic link controlling microbial methane production is unknown and appropriate genetic selection strategies are not developed. We used sire progeny group differences to estimate the host genetic influence on rumen microbial methane production in a factorial experiment consisting of crossbred breed types and diets. Rumen metagenomic profiling was undertaken to investigate links between microbial genes and methane emissions or feed conversion efficiency. Sire progeny groups differed significantly in their methane emissions measured in respiration chambers. Ranking of the sire progeny groups based on methane emissions or relative archaeal abundance was consistent overall and within diet, suggesting that archaeal abundance in ruminal digesta is under host genetic control and can be used to genetically select animals without measuring methane directly. In the metagenomic analysis of rumen contents, we identified 3970 microbial genes of which 20 and 49 genes were significantly associated with methane emissions and feed conversion efficiency respectively. These explained 81% and 86% of the respective variation and were clustered in distinct functional gene networks. Methanogenesis genes (e.g. mcrA and fmdB were associated with methane emissions, whilst host-microbiome cross talk genes (e.g. TSTA3 and FucI were associated with feed conversion efficiency. These results strengthen the idea that the host animal controls its own microbiota to a significant extent and open up the implementation of effective breeding strategies using rumen microbial gene abundance as a predictor for difficult-to-measure traits on a large number of hosts. Generally, the results provide a proof of principle to use the relative abundance of microbial genes in the gastrointestinal tract of different species to predict their influence on traits e

  1. In depth analysis of genes and pathways of the mammary gland involved in the pathogenesis of bovine Escherichia coli-mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Rontved, Christine M.; Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    2011-01-01

    infection is necessary. To this end, we performed a global gene-expression analysis of mammary gland tissue collected from dairy cows that had been exposed to a controlled E. coli infection. Biopsy samples of healthy and infected utter tissue were collected at T=24h post-infection (p.i.) and at T=192h p.......i. to represent the acute phase response (APR) and chronic stage, respectively. Differentially expressed (DE) genes for each stage were analyzed and the DE genes detected at T=24h were also compared to data collected from two previous E. coli mastitis studies that were carried out on post mortem tissue. Results...... Nine-hundred-eighty-two transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in infected tissue at T=24 (P

  2. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The

  3. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  4. Sex differentiation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.: morphological and gene expression studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugen Trine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In differentiated gonochoristic species, a bipotential gonad develops into an ovary or testis during sex differentiation. Knowledge about this process is necessary to improve methods for masculinizing genetically female Atlantic cod for the subsequent purpose of producing all-female populations. Methods Gonads were examined histologically in juveniles from 14 to 39 mm total body length (TL. Number and size of germ cells were determined in a subset of the samples. Relevant genes were cloned, and mRNA levels determined by qPCR of amh, cyp19a1a; dax1 (nr0b2; shp (nr0b2a and sox9b in a mixed-sex and an all-female population ranging from 12–49 mm TL. Results Individuals between 14–20 mm TL could be separated in two subgroups based on gonad size and germ cell number. Ovarian cavity formation was observed in some individuals from 18–20 mm TL. The mixed sex population displayed bimodal expression patterns as regards cyp19a1a (starting at 12 mm TL and amh (starting at 20 mm TL mRNA levels. After approximately 30 mm TL, cyp19a1a and amh displayed a gradual increase in both sexes. No apparent, sex-dependent expression patterns were found for dax1, shp or sox9b transcripts. However, shp levels were high until the larvae reached around 35 mm TL and then dropped to low levels, while dax1 remained low until 35 mm TL, and then increased sharply. Conclusions The morphological sex differentiation in females commenced between 14–20 mm TL, and ovarian cavities were evident by 18–20 mm TL. Testis development occurred later, and was morphologically evident after 30 mm TL. This pattern was corroborated with sexually dimorphic expression patterns of cyp19a1a from 12–13 mm TL, and a male-specific increase in amh from 20 mm TL.

  5. Effects of thyroid endocrine manipulation on sex-related gene expression and population sex ratios in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prakash; Tang, Song; Mayer, Gregory D.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone reportedly induces masculinization of genetic females and goitrogen treatment delays testicular differentiation (ovary-to-testis transformation) in genetic males of Zebrafish. This study explored potential molecular mechanisms of these phenomena. Zebrafish were treated with thyroxine (T4, 2 nM), goitrogen [methimazole (MZ), 0.15 mM], MZ (0.15 mM) and T4 (2 nM) (rescue treatment), or reconstituted water (control) from 3 to 33 days postfertilization (dpf) and maintained in control water until 45 dpf. Whole fish were collected during early (25 dpf) and late (45 dpf) testicular differentiation for transcript abundance analysis of selected male (dmrt1, amh, ar) and female (cyp19a1a, esr1, esr2a, esr2b) sex-related genes by quantitative RT-PCR, and fold-changes relative to control values were determined. Additional fish were sampled at 45 dpf for histological assessment of gonadal sex. The T4 and rescue treatments caused male-biased populations, and T4 alone induced precocious puberty in ∼50% of males. Male-biased sex ratios were accompanied by increased expression of amh and ar and reduced expression of cyp19a1a, esr1, esr2a, and esr2b at 25 and 45 dpf and, unexpectedly, reduced expression of dmrt1 at 45 dpf. Goitrogen exposure increased the proportion of individuals with ovaries (per previous studies interpreted as delay in testicular differentiation of genetic males), and at 25 and 45 dpf reduced the expression of amh and ar and increased the expression of esr1 (only at 25 dpf), esr2a, and esr2b. Notably, cyp19a1a transcript was reduced but via non-thyroidal pathways (not restored by rescue treatment). In conclusion, the masculinizing activity of T4 at the population level may be due to its ability to inhibit female and stimulate male sex-related genes in larvae, while the inability of MZ to induce cyp19a1a, which is necessary for ovarian differentiation, may explain why its “feminizing” activity on gonadal

  6. Detection of virulence-associated genes characteristic of intestinal Escherichia coli pathotypes, including the enterohemorrhagic/enteroaggregative O104:H4, in bovines from Germany and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Adriana; Geue, Lutz; Gómez-Barrero, Susana; Barth, Stefanie; Bárcena, Carmen; Hamm, Katharina; Porrero, M Concepción; Valverde, Aránzazu; Cantón, Rafael; Menge, Christian; Gortázar, Christian; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2015-08-01

    Cattle are reservoirs of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli; however, their role in the epidemiology of other pathogenic E. coli remains undefined. A new set of quantitative real-time PCR assays for the direct detection and quantification of nine virulence-associated genes (VAGs) characteristic of the most important human E. coli pathotypes and four serotype-related genes (wzxO104 , fliCH4 , rbfO157 , fliCH7 ) that can be used as a surveillance tool for detection of pathogenic strains was developed. A total of 970 cattle fecal samples were collected in slaughterhouses in Germany and Spain, pooled into 134 samples and analyzed with this tool. stx1, eae and invA were more prevalent in Spanish samples whereas bfpA, stx2, ehxA, elt, est and the rbfO157 /fliCH7 combination were observed in similar proportions in both countries. Genes characteristic of the hybrid O104:H4 strain of the 2011 German outbreak (stx2/aggR/wzxO104 /fliCH4 ) were simultaneously detected in six fecal pools from one German abattoir located near the outbreak epicenter. Although no isolate harboring the full stx2/aggR/wzxO104 /fliCH4 combination was cultured, sequencing of the aggR positive PCR products revealed 100% homology to the aggR from the outbreak strain. Concomitant detection by this direct approach of VAGs from a novel human pathogenic E. coli strain in cattle samples implies that the E. coli gene pool in these animals can be implicated in de novo formation of such highly-virulent strains. The application of this set of qPCRs in surveillance studies could be an efficient early-warning tool for the emergence of zoonotic E. coli in livestock. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Effects of Incubation Temperature on the Expression of Sex-Related Genes in the Chinese Pond Turtle, Mauremys reevesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen-Qi; Mu, Yi; Valenzuela, Nicole; Du, Wei-Guo

    2017-08-23

    Despite widespread temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in reptiles, it is still unclear how the molecular network responds to temperature variation and drives the sexual fate. Profiling of sex-related genes is the first step in understanding the sex determination system in reptiles. In this study, we cloned the full-length coding sequences of Cyp19a1, Foxl2, Rspo1, Sf1, and Sox9 in an Asian freshwater turtle (Mauremys reevesii) with TSD and identified the expression patterns of these genes and Dmrt1 at different incubation temperatures to understand their roles in urogenital development. Our results showed that Cyp19a1, Foxl2, and Rspo1 were expressed in the adrenal-kidney-gonadal complex at a high level in females, while Sf1 and Dmrt1 were highly expressed in males. In addition, Foxl2 and Rspo1 showed sex-dimorphic expression in the presumed early thermosensitive period (TSP), Dmrt1 was upregulated at the beginning of the presumed TSP, and Sox9 did not show sex-dimorphic expression until the end of the presumed TSP. These results suggest that Foxl2 and Rspo1 are probably upstream genes involved in female sex determination and that Dmrt1 may be a key factor in male sex determination. Therefore, our study provides a solid foundation for further investigations on the molecular mechanism underlying sex determination in M. reevesii. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Characterization of Bovine 5′-flanking Region during Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jeong Jang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESCs have been used as a powerful tool for research including gene manipulated animal models and the study of developmental gene regulation. Among the critical regulatory factors that maintain the pluripotency and self-renewal of undifferentiated ESCs, NANOG plays a very important role. Nevertheless, because pluripotency maintaining factors and specific markers for livestock ESCs have not yet been probed, few studies of the NANOG gene from domestic animals including bovine have been reported. Therefore, we chose mouse ESCs in order to understand and compare NANOG expression between bovine, human, and mouse during ESCs differentiation. We cloned a 600 bp (−420/+181 bovine NANOG 5′-flanking region, and tagged it with humanized recombinant green fluorescent protein (hrGFP as a tracing reporter. Very high GFP expression for bovine NANOG promoter was observed in the mouse ESC line. GFP expression was monitored upon ESC differentiation and was gradually reduced along with differentiation toward neurons and adipocyte cells. Activity of bovine NANOG (−420/+181 promoter was compared with already known mouse and human NANOG promoters in mouse ESC and they were likely to show a similar pattern of regulation. In conclusion, bovine NANOG 5-flanking region functions in mouse ES cells and has characteristics similar to those of mouse and human. These results suggest that bovine gene function studied in mouse ES cells should be evaluated and extrapolated for application to characterization of bovine ES cells.

  9. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A

    2010-11-01

    Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI(3)V) is a long-recognized, currently underappreciated, endemic infection in cattle populations. Clinical disease is most common in calves with poor passive transfer or decayed maternal antibodies. It is usually mild, consisting of fever, nasal discharge, and dry cough. Caused at least partly by local immunosuppressive effects, bPI(3)V infection is often complicated by coinfection with other respiratory viruses and bacteria, and is therefore an important component of enzootic pneumonia in calves and bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle. Active infection can be diagnosed by virus isolation from nasal swabs, or IF testing on smears made from nasal swabs. Timing of sampling is critical in obtaining definitive diagnostic test results. Parenteral and intranasal modified live vaccine combination vaccines are available. Priming early in calfhood with intranasal vaccine, followed by boosting with parenteral vaccine, may be the best immunoprophylactic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  11. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Díaz Ismael Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  12. Postnatal exposure to flutamide affects CDH1 and CTNNB1 gene expression in adult pig epididymis and prostate and alters metabolism of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorowska, E; Zarzycka, M; Chojnacka, K; Bilinska, B; Hejmej, A

    2014-03-01

    In both epididymis and prostate the dynamic cross-talk between the cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. Functionality of the male reproductive organs may be affected by exposure to specific chemicals, so-called 'reprotoxicants'. In this study we tested whether early postnatal and prepubertal exposure to anti-androgen flutamide altered the expression of adherens junction genes encoding E-cadherin (CDH1) and β-catenin (CTNNB1) in adult pig epididymis and prostate. In addition, the expression of mRNAs and proteins for 5α-reductase (ST5AR2) and aromatase (CYP19A1) were examined to show whether flutamide alters metabolism of testosterone. Thus, flutamide was injected into male piglets between Days 2 and 10 and between Days 90 and 98 postnatally (PD2 and PD90; 50 mg/kg bw), tissues that were obtained on postnatal Day 270. To assess the expression of the genes and proteins, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were performed respectively. Moreover, adherens junction proteins were localized by immunohistochemistry. In response to flutamide, CDH1 and CTNNB1 expressions were down-regulated along the epididymis, mostly in PD2 group (p < 0.001, p < 0.01). In the prostate, CDH1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly down-regulated (p < 0.01), whereas CTNNB1 mRNA was slightly up-regulated in both flutamide-treated groups. CTNNB1 protein level was markedly elevated in both PD2 (p < 0.001) and PD90 (p < 0.01) groups. In the epididymis, the expression of ST5AR2 and CYP19A1 was down- and up-regulated, respectively (p < 0.05), whereas in the prostate evident decrease in CYP19A1 expression (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.05) was demonstrated. In both tissues, membranous immunolocalization of CTNNB1 suggests its involvement in cell-cell adhesion. Overall, flutamide administration resulted in suppression of androgen action in the epididymis and prostate leading to deregulation of CDH1 and CTNNB1 gene expressions which is probably

  13. Radiation hybrid mapping of genes and newly identified microsatellites in candidate regions for bovine arthrogryposis-palatoschisis and progressive ataxia based on comparative data from man, mouse and rat

    OpenAIRE

    Duchesne, Amandine; Eggen, Andre

    2005-01-01

    A comparative pathology and mapping strategy was used to initiate a study on two bovine genetic diseases: arthrogryposis-palatoschisis and progressive ataxia, which affect mainly Charolais cattle. Bibliographic studies provided information on the pathology of these diseases, which helped to define similar diseases in other species. Animals affected by bovine arthrogryposis-palatoschisis display similar symptoms to those of muscular dysgenesis, mouse mutants and animals with progressive ataxia...

  14. A Polymorphism at the 3'-UTR Region of the Aromatase Gene Is Associated with the Efficacy of the Aromatase Inhibitor, Anastrozole, in Metastatic Breast Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Yuan Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen-related genes and the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene play a critical role in estrogen metabolism, and those polymorphisms are associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer. However, little is known about the association between these polymorphisms and the efficacy of anastrozole. The aim was to investigate the impact of the genetic polymorphisms, CYP19A1, 17-β-HSD-1 and FTO, on the response to anastrozole in metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC and to evaluate the impact of those polymorphisms on various clinicopathologic features. Two-hundred seventy-two women with hormone receptor-positive MBC treated with anastrozole were identified retrospectively. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and genotyped for five variants in three candidate genes. Time to progression was improved in patients carrying the variant alleles of rs4646 when compared to patients with the wild-type allele (16.40 months versus 13.52 months; p = 0.049. The rs4646 variant alleles were significantly associated with longer overall survival (37.3 months versus 31.6 months; p = 0.007. This relationship was not observed with the rs10046, rs2830, rs9926298 and rs9939609 polymorphisms. The findings of this study indicate that rs4646 polymorphism in the CYP19A1 gene may serve as a prognostic maker of the response to anastrozole in patients with MBC who are treated with anastrozole.

  15. Association between Genes BoLA-DRB3.2*8 and BoLA-DRB3.2*12 with Resistance and BoLA-DRB3.2*16 with Susceptibility to Infection by Bovine Leukemia Virus

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    C Úsuga-Monroy*, JJ Echeverri Zuluaga and A López-Herrera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV is a retrovirus that affects the immune system of cattle as their target cells are B lymphocytes. Some polymorphisms at the BoLA-DRB 3.2 gene have been associated with resistance/susceptibility to diseases. The objective of this research was to determine the polymorphisms at the BoLA-DRB 3.2 gene and associate them with resistance (R, neutrality (N or susceptibility (S to BLV in a Holstein cow population.500 blood samples were taken. Nested PCR was performed for detecting BLV virus and PCR-RFLP was performed to identify alleles of gene BoLA-DRB 3.2. Susceptibility was determined using odds ratio (OR and P value. According to their genotype, cows were classified in homozygous (R/R, N/N, or S/S and heterozygous (R/N, R/S, N/S. BLV molecular prevalence was 44%. The most frequent allele was BoLA-DRB3.2*22 (16.8%, alleles associated with resistance to BLV were BoLA-DRB3.2*8 (OR=1.489; P<0.10 and BoLA-DRB3.2*12 (OR=3.897; P<0.10 and allele BoLA-DRB3.2*16 (OR=0.710; P<0.10 was associated with susceptibility. Allele BoLA-DRB3.2*8 had the highest allelic frequency for negative cows (0.19. 63.7% of cows with genotype RN and 70% of cows with genotype RR were resistant to infection by BLV. Alleles R and S have a dominant effect on allele N (P<0.05. The use of reliable diagnostic techniques in conjunction with identification of resistant or susceptible animals can monitor the progress of the disease in dairy herds. Alleles BoLA-DRB3.2*8 and *12 were positively related to the disease and therefore cows have low risk of infection, unlike allele BoLA-DRB3.2*16 which was negatively related and animals have high risk for the disease.

  16. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  17. Genome-wide association study for birth weight in Nellore cattle points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits and calving difficulty. One region of the cattle genome, located on Bos primigenius taurus chromosome 14 (BTA14), has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains orthologous genes affecting human height. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for BW in Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenius indicus) was performed using estimated breeding values (EBVs) of 654 progeny-tested bulls genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results The most significant SNP (rs133012258, PGC = 1.34 × 10-9), located at BTA14:25376827, explained 4.62% of the variance in BW EBVs. The surrounding 1 Mb region presented high identity with human, pig and mouse autosomes 8, 4 and 4, respectively, and contains the orthologous height genes PLAG1, CHCHD7, MOS, RPS20, LYN, RDHE2 (SDR16C5) and PENK. The region also overlapped 28 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously reported in literature by linkage mapping studies in cattle, including QTLs for birth weight, mature height, carcass weight, stature, pre-weaning average daily gain, calving ease, and gestation length. Conclusions This study presents the first GWAS applying a high-density SNP panel to identify putative chromosome regions affecting birth weight in Nellore cattle. These results suggest that the QTLs on BTA14 associated with body size in taurine cattle (Bos primigenius taurus) also affect birth weight and size in zebu cattle (Bos primigenius indicus). PMID:23758625

  18. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bovine papillomavirus type 4 L1 gene transfection in a Drosophila S2 cell expression system: absence of L1 protein expression Transfecção em células de Drosophila S2 usando o gene L1 do Papilomavírus Bovino tipo 4: ausência de expressão da proteína L1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Bentim Góes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of a bovine papillomavirus (BPV vaccine is an outstanding challenge. BPV protein L1 gene transfection in the Drosophila melanogaster S2 cell expression system failed to produce L1 protein notwithstanding correct L1 gene insertion. Severe genetic inbalance in the host cell line, including cytogenetic alterations, may account for the lack of protein expression.O desenvolvimento de uma vacina para papilomavirus bovino (BPV consiste em grande desafio. A transfecção do gene codificante da proteína L1 de BPV em sistema de células S2 de Drosophila melanogaster não logrou sucesso, apesar da correta inserção da seqüência gênica em vetor apropriado.Graves alterações genéticas na linhagem celular S2, que incluem aberrações cromossômicas, provavelmente estão relacionadas à ausência da expressão da proteína desejada.

  20. MspI polymorphism of bovine growth hormone gene on locus-2 and its effect on daily gain of body weight

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    BAHARUDIN TAPPA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to identify growth hormone gene variation of Indonesian native cattle, PO cattle, and to know the effect of the variation on growth rate (daily gain of the cattle. White blood cells were extracted from the samples of total blood by buffy coat method. DNA was then extracted from white blood cells using Wizard Genomic Purification kit. PCR-RFLP using MspI restriction enzyme was employed to detect polymorphic site on locus 2 of GH gen continued with sequencing for some representative genotypes. Phenotypic data of growth rate (daily gain measured for 90 days, while sex and age were used as supporting phenotypic data. All data were then analysed statistically using Anova model implemented in JMP program from SAS. The result of the analysis indicated that MspI polymorphism affect growth rate significantly (P=0.01, in which MspI (+- genotype resulted in best growth of PO cattle. Age and sex were also affect growth of the cattle.

  1. Variants within the 5'-flanking regions of bovine milk-protein-encoding genes. III. Genes encoding the Ca-sensitive caseins αs1, α s2 and β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, T A; Geldermann, H

    1996-10-01

    The 5'-flanking regions of the Ca-sensitive casein-encoding gene family were analysed for DNA variants by automated DNA sequencing of 13 cows belonging to seven breeds. About 1 kbp of each 5'-flanking region, including non-coding exon I, was amplified by PCR and sequenced bidirectionally. A total number of 34 variable sites (17 for the α s1, 10 for the α s2, and 7 for the β casein encoding gene) was identified. Variants were computer-analysed for location in putative regulatory sites in order to predict potential influences on gene expression.

  2. Production and use of bovine DNA libraries: DNA-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmann, H P; Fuhrmann, H; Huttel, K; Geldermann, H

    1990-03-01

    An important part in the use of genomic DNA libraries is the sequencing of identified clones for detailed information. In this study, methods for DNA sequence analysis were elaborated and employed for the k-casein gene, a bovine milk protein. The results encourage further research.

  3. Bovine papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid: a novel eucaryotic cloning vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, N; Gruss, P; Law, M F; Khoury, G; Howley, P M

    1981-01-01

    A novel eucaryotic vector derived from the transforming region of bovine papilloma virus was established and demonstrated to be highly effective for introducing foreign genes into animal cells. The foreign deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is replicated and actively transcribed as an episome, and the transcripts are translated into an authentic gene product. We have constructed a DNA hybrid molecule, BPV69T-rI1, containing the transforming region of bovine papilloma virus DNA and the rat preproinsulin gene I (rI1), and used it to transform susceptible mouse cells. DNA hybridization analysis has demonstrated the presence of multiple unintegrated copies of hybrid DNA molecules, with the bovine papilloma virus 1 DNA segment and the rI1 gene covalently linked in selected transformed cell lines. S1 nuclease analysis revealed the presence of a correctly spliced coding segment of the preproinsulin transcript similar or identical in its electrophoretic mobility to that of messenger ribonucleic acid produced in rat insulinoma cells. Significant levels of a protein immunoreactive with anti-insulin serum were detected by radioimmunoassay in the culture medium of transformed cells. Immunoprecipitation analysis in conjunction with competitive binding to bovine proinsulin established the identity of the protein as that of rat proinsulin. Images PMID:6100967

  4. Identification, localization, and sequencing of fetal bovine VASA homolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Rachel A; Parks, John E

    2007-10-01

    The vasa gene, first described in Drosophila, is purported to be important in germ cell development. Vasa is present across several invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, including frogs, fish, chickens, and humans. Vasa, a DEAD (asparagine-glutamine-alanine-asparagine) box protein shown to function as an RNA helicase in vitro, has not been investigated previously in fetal stage cattle. Total RNA was extracted from bovine fetal gonads obtained at 35-55 days, 55-80 days, and 80-120 days of gestation to amplify a 296 bp reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) product using primers for human vasa. The complete coding sequence of bovine vasa was cloned with 5' and 3' random amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) and subsequently identified as bovine vasa homolog (BVH). Northern blot analysis revealed that among the tissues examined (gonad, liver, heart, brain, and femur), the vasa gene was expressed in the gonad. This localization, the conserved pattern of gene expression, and the gene sequence suggests that BVH plays a role in bovine germ cell development as proposed for other mammalian species.

  5. Proteomic analysis of bovine blastocoel fluid and blastocyst cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Linnert; Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Beck, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The understanding of the early mammalian development is a prerequisite for the advancement of in vitro fertilization and improvement of derivation and culturing of embryonic stem cells. While, whole genome transcriptomic analysis on bovine blastocysts has identified genes active in early...

  6. On the possible involvement of bovine serum albumin precursor in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... mass finger printing analysis technique, herein we report the identification of a 70 kDa size protein (bovine serum albumin precursor, BSAP) .... Total cytoplasmic proteins from CHO cells were isolated using conventional cell ..... 2002 HIV-1 integration in the human genome favors active genes and local ...

  7. Calf form bovine leukosis with lameness in a Holstein heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Miura, Saori; Nakanishi, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-09-01

    A 12-month-old Holstein heifer with anorexia, lameness, and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes was suspected of having bovine leukosis. Although lymphocytosis was not observed, cytology of fine needle aspirate from a superficial cervical node, and increased serum lactate dehydrogenase and thymidine kinase activities, strongly suggested lymphosarcoma. Increased numbers of mononuclear cells as well as mitotic cells were observed in synovial fluid collected from swollen joints. Pathological examination confirmed B-cell calf form bovine leukosis and joint swelling related to neoplastic cell infiltration. Both interleukin-2 receptor and thymidine kinase 1 genes were highly expressed in cells from superficial cervical lymph node aspirate.

  8. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  9. [In vitro study of the interactions between bovine herpesvirus 4 and the bovine host cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplasschen, A

    1999-01-01

    This work was devoted to the study of the interactions between bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV-4) and bovine cells in vitro. It led to the discovery of two interesting properties of BVH-4 replication cycle: first, the cellular receptor heparan sulfate was proven to mediate BVH-4 binding to target cells. This is the first description of the implication of heparan sulfate in the binding process of a gammaherpesvirus. Second, using synchronised cells, the replication of BVH-4 DNA was proven to be dependent on the S phase of the cell cycle. This dependence could explain some properties of BVH-4 infection in vitro and could play an important role in the biology of the infection in vivo. Finally, in order to produce monoclonal antibodies against BVH-4 IE1 and IE2 proteins, the genes coding for these proteins were cloned and expressed in prokaryotic cells.

  10. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W

    2006-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival.

  11. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

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    Laurel J Gershwin

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  12. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Laurel J; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Anderson, Mark L; McEligot, Heather A; Shao, Matt X; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Taylor, Jeremy F; Neibergs, Holly L; Womack, James

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  13. The Role of MicroRNAs in Bovine Infection and Immunity

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    Nathan eLawless

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that are recognised as critical regulators of immune gene expression during infection. Many immunologically significant human miRNAs have been found to be conserved in agriculturally important species, including cattle. Discovering how bovine miRNAs mediate the immune defence during infection is critical to understanding the aetiology of the most prevalent bovine diseases. Here, we review current knowledge of miRNAs in the bovine genome, and discuss the advances in understanding of miRNAs as regulators of immune cell function, and bovine immune response activation, regulation, and resolution. Finally, we consider the future perspectives on miRNAs in bovine viral disease, their role as potential biomarkers and in therapy.

  14. Cytoskeleton remodling and alterations in smooth muscle contractility in the bovine jejunum during the early stage of Cooperia oncophora infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes of the genus Cooperia are arguably the most important parasites of cattle. We characterized the bovine jejunal transcriptome in response to C. oncophora infection using RNA-seq technology. Approximately 71% of the 25,670 bovine genes were detected in the jejunal transcript...

  15. Bovine respiratory disease associated with Histophilus somni and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a beef cattle feedlot from Southeastern Brazil

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    Selwyn Arligton Headley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is a complex multifactorial and multi-etiological disease entity that is responsible for the morbidity and mortality particularly in feedlot cattle from North America. Information relative to the occurrence of BRD in Brazil and the associated infectious agents are lacking. This study investigated the participation of infectious agents of BRD in a beef cattle feedlot from Southeastern Brazil. Nasopharyngeal swabs of 11% (10/90 of cattle (n, 450 with clinical manifestations of respiratory distress were analyzed by targeting specific genes of the principal infectious pathogens of BRD. In addition, pulmonary fragments of one the animals that died were collected for histopathological and molecular diagnoses. The nucleic acids of Histophilus somni and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV were identified in 20% (2/10 of the nasopharyngeal swabs of the animals with respiratory distress; another contained only BRSV RNA. Moreover, the nucleic acids of both infectious agents were amplified from the pulmonary fragments of the animal that died with histopathological evidence of bronchopneumonia and interstitial pneumonia; the nasopharyngeal swab of this animal also contained the nucleic acids of both pathogens. Additionally, all PCR and/or RT-PCR assays designed to detect the specific genes of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus -1, bovine parainfluenza virus-3, and bovine coronavirus yielded negative results. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the isolates of H. somni circulating in Brazil are similar to those identified elsewhere, while there seem to be diversity between the isolates of BRSV within cattle herds from different geographical locations of Brazil.

  16. Production of Bioactive Recombinant Bovine Chymosin in Tobacco Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yi Wei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chymosin (also known as rennin plays an essential role in the coagulation of milk in the cheese industry. Chymosin is traditionally extracted from the rumen of calves and is of high cost. Here, we present an alternative method to producing bovine chymosin from transgenic tobacco plants. The CYM gene, which encodes a preprochymosin from bovine, was introduced into the tobacco nuclear genome under control of the viral 35S cauliflower mosaic promoter. The integration and transcription of the foreign gene were confirmed with Southern blotting and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR analyses, respectively. Immunoblotting analyses were performed to demonstrate expression of chymosin, and the expression level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results indicated recombinant bovine chymosin was successfully expressed at an average level of 83.5 ng/g fresh weight, which is 0.52% of the total soluble protein. The tobacco-derived chymosin exhibited similar native milk coagulation bioactivity as the commercial product extracted from bovine rumen.

  17. Characterisation and application of a bovine U6 promoter for expression of short hairpin RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalrymple Brian P

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of small interfering RNA (siRNA molecules in animals to achieve double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi has recently emerged as a powerful method of sequence-specific gene knockdown. As DNA-based expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA for RNAi may offer some advantages over chemical and in vitro synthesised siRNA, a number of vectors for expression of shRNA have been developed. These often feature polymerase III (pol. III promoters of either mouse or human origin. Results To develop a shRNA expression vector specifically for bovine RNAi applications, we identified and characterised a novel bovine U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA promoter from bovine sequence data. This promoter is the putative bovine homologue of the human U6-8 snRNA promoter, and features a number of functional sequence elements that are characteristic of these types of pol. III promoters. A PCR based cloning strategy was used to incorporate this promoter sequence into plasmid vectors along with shRNA sequences for RNAi. The promoter was then used to express shRNAs, which resulted in the efficient knockdown of an exogenous reporter gene and an endogenous bovine gene. Conclusion We have mined data from the bovine genome sequencing project to identify a functional bovine U6 promoter and used the promoter sequence to construct a shRNA expression vector. The use of this native bovine promoter in shRNA expression is an important component of our future development of RNAi therapeutic and transgenic applications in bovine species.

  18. Construction and characterization of a bovine herpesvirus 5 mutant with a deletion of the gI, gE and US9 genes Construção e caracterização de um mutante herpesvírus bovino 5 com uma deleção nos genes gI, gE e US9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 is a important cause of viral encephalitis in cattle in South America. Within the framework of developing a differential vaccine against BoHV-5, a deletion mutant was constructed based on a Brazilian BoHV-5 isolate. The target of the deletions were genes that code proteins implicated in the neurovirulence of BoHV-5, the glycoprotein I (gI, glycoprotein E (gE and membrane protein US9. To construct the deletion mutant of BoHV-5, the flanking regions of all three genes were cloned in a prokaryotic plasmid. This deletion fragment was co-transfected with the viral DNA into bovine cells. Identification of deletion mutants was performed by immunostaining with an anti-gE monoclonal antibody. One of the gE negative viral populations found was purified, amplified and further examined by restriction endonuclesase analysis of its genomic DNA. The plaque sizes and penetration kinetics of the deletion mutant and wild type viruses were compared. The plaque sizes of the deletion mutant were significantly smaller than those of the parental strain (p O herpesvírus bovino 5 (BoHV-5 é uma causa importante de encefalite viral em bovinos na América do Sul. Buscando o desenvolvimento de uma vacina diferencial contra o BoHV-5, um mutante deletado foi construído com base em um isolado brasileiro deste vírus. O alvo das deleções foram genes que codificam proteínas implicadas na neurovirulência do BoHV-5, a glicoproteína I (gI, a glicoproteína E (gE e a proteína de membrana US9. Para construir o mutante deletado de BoHV-5, as regiões flanqueadoras dos três genes foram clonadas em um plasmídeo procarioto. Este fragmento de deleção foi co-transfectado com o DNA viral em células de bovinos. A identificação dos mutantes deletados foi feita por meio da técnica de imunoperoxidase com um anticorpo monoclonal anti-gE. Uma das populacões virais gE negativas encontradas foi purificada, amplificada e seu genoma foi examinado por an

  19. Contamination of milk by enterococci and coliforms from bovine faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagkli, D M; Vancanneyt, M; Vandamme, P; Hill, C; Cogan, T M

    2007-11-01

    To determine the contribution of enterococci and coliforms from bovine faeces and teats to contamination of raw milk. Putative enterococci (n = 301) and coliforms (n = 365) were isolated from bovine faeces (n = 20), cows' teats (n = 20), the raw milk (n = 1) and the milking environment (n = 4) on one farm. The clonal relationships of each bacterial group were investigated using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis of genomic macrorestriction fragments. Representatives of the different clusters of enterococci were identified by molecular techniques including rep-PCR, SDS protein profiling, Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (FAFLP), phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) sequence analysis and/or 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Coliforms were identified by API 20E strips. The majority of the bovine faecal enterococcal isolates were identified as a potential new species of Aerococcus (100 isolates); E. faecium (28 isolates), and Aerococcus viridans (28 isolates) were also found. All coliform isolates from the bovine faeces were identified as Escherichia coli. The coliforms present in the milk were Hafnia alvei, Serratia liquefaciens, Yersinia enterocolitica and Enterobacter amnigenus. No E. coli, Enterococcus or Aerococcus from the bovine faeces were found in the milk. A single clone of H. alvei was found in the water, the milking equipment and the milk, suggesting that the water was the source of the organism in the milk. No vancomycin-resistant aerococci or enterococci were found while most of the isolates tested showed the presence of at least one virulence gene. The milk-sock retained strains that adhered to particulate faecal material. Coliforms were present at approx. 2 orders of magnitude greater than enterococci in the bovine faeces. The results imply that bovine faeces are not an important source of contamination of raw milk with enterococci or coliforms. The results confirm those of two previous studies (Gelsomino et al. 2001, Int J Food Microbiol71, 177

  20. Overexpression and Knockdown of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Disrupt the Expression of Steroidogenic Enzyme Genes and Early Embryonic Development in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianfeng Tan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is an important environmental stressor leading to endocrine disruption and reproductive impairment in fish. Although the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 is known to regulate the transcription of various genes mediating oxygen homeostasis, its role in modulating steroidogenesis-related gene expression remains poorly understood. In this study, the regulatory effect of HIF-1 on the expression of 9 steroidogenic enzyme genes was investigated in zebrafish embryos using a “gain-of-function and loss-of-function” approach. Eight of the genes, CYP11a, CYP11b2, 3β-HSD, HMGCR, CYP17a1, 17β-HSD2, CYP19a , and CYP19b , were found to be differentially upregulated at 24 and 48 hpf following zHIF-1α-ΔODD overexpression (a mutant zebrafish HIF-1α protein with proline-414 and proline-557 deleted. Knockdown of zHIF-1α also affected the expression pattern of the steroidogenic enzyme genes. Overexpression of zHIF-1α and hypoxia exposure resulted in downregulated StAR expression but upregulated CYP11a and 3β-HSD expression in zebrafish embryos. Conversely, the expression patterns of these 3 genes were reversed in embryos in which zHIF-1α was knocked down under normoxia, suggesting that these 3 genes are regulated by HIF-1. Overall, the findings from this study indicate that HIF-1–mediated mechanisms are likely involved in the regulation of specific steroidogenic genes.

  1. Polymorphisms and haplotypes in the bovine neuropeptide Y, growth hormone receptor, ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor 2, and uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 genes and their associations with measures of growth, performance, feed efficiency, and carcass merit in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, E L; Nkrumah, J D; Murdoch, B M; Li, C; Wang, Z; Fu, A; Moore, S S

    2008-01-01

    Genes that regulate metabolism and energy partitioning have the potential to influence economically important traits in farm animals, as do polymorphisms within these genes. In the current study, SNP in the bovine neuropeptide Y (NPY), growth hormone receptor (GHR), ghrelin (GHRL), uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3), IGF2, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), and GH genes were evaluated for associations with growth, feed efficiency, and carcass merit in beef steers. In total, 24 SNP were evaluated for associations with these traits and haplotypes were constructed within each gene when 2 or more SNP showed significant associations. An A/G SNP located in intron 4 of the GHR gene had the largest effects on BW of the animals (dominance effect P feed efficiency (allele substitution effect P feed conversion ratio (FCR; P residual feed intake, FCR, and partial efficiency of growth (P changes, these SNP could be linked to other yet to be detected causative mutations or nearby QTL. It will be very important to verify these results in other cattle populations.

  2. Effects of platelet-rich plasma in a model of bovine endometrial inflammation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Marini, M G; C.; Perrini; Esposti, P.; Corradetti, B.; Bizzaro, D.; Riccaboni, P.; Fantinato, E.; Urbani, G.; Gelati, G.; Cremonesi, F.; Lange-Consiglio, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Endometritis reduces fertility and is responsible for major economic losses in beef and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate an alternative therapy using platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP was tested in vivo, after bovine intrauterine administration, and in vitro on endometrial cells. Methods Bovine endometrial cells were cultured until passage (P) 10 with 5?% or 10?% PRP. Effect of PRP on endometrial cell proliferation and on the expression of genes [prostaglandin-...

  3. Antihelmintic Resistance For Gastrointestinal Bovine Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Vásquez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN, in domestic animals, especially in bovines are a very important factor that affects their productivity, because cattle production systems have intervened in the relationship between gastrointestinal parasites (PGI and the host, breaking therefore the ecological balance between them. In many opportunities the development of parasitic populations have been favored or a parasitic population have been led to extinction, it has made that these populations express genes that would not express under normal conditions, favoring thus, resistance to medications that were made to their destruction. NGI are highly important in all cattle exploitations, but their inappropriate handling, mainly in the pharmacological aspect, has created vermifuge resistance by some parasitic populations. This article will determine the importance of the vermifuge resistance in cattle exploitations, as a factor of risk for the control of parasitic populations. The most important antihelmintic groups used in bovine are Benzimidazoles, Levamisol and Ivermectine and with these products resistance has been reported by parasitic populations such as in Haemochus contortus, Trichostrongylus. colubriformis, Ostertagia circumcicta, Ostertagia ostertagi. Different risk factors were classified in extrinsic (which don’t depend on the gastrointestinal parasite and intrinsic (which depend directly on gastrointestinal parasites related with genetics which occupy a great importance in the development of the vermifuge resistance.

  4. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  5. One-step multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine parainfluenza virus 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonur, Leenadevi; Maley, Madeleine; Gilray, Janice; Crook, Tara; Laming, Ellie; Turnbull, Dylan; Nath, Mintu; Willoughby, Kim

    2012-03-28

    Detection of respiratory viruses in veterinary species has traditionally relied on virus detection by isolation or immunofluorescence and/or detection of circulating antibody using ELISA or serum neutralising antibody tests. Multiplex real time PCR is increasingly used to diagnose respiratory viruses in humans and has proved to be superior to traditional methods. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in housed cattle and virus infections can play a major role. We describe here a one step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) to detect the viruses commonly implicated in BRD. A mRT-qPCR assay was developed and optimised for the simultaneous detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPI3 i & ii) nucleic acids in clinical samples from cattle. The assay targets the highly conserved glycoprotein B gene of BoHV-1, nucleocapsid gene of BRSV and nucleoprotein gene of BPI3. This mRT-qPCR assay was assessed for sensitivity, specificity and repeatability using in vitro transcribed RNA and recent field isolates. For clinical validation, 541 samples from clinically affected animals were tested and mRT-qPCR result compared to those obtained by conventional testing using virus isolation (VI) and/or indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The mRT-qPCR assay was rapid, highly repeatable, specific and had a sensitivity of 97% in detecting 102 copies of BRSV, BoHV-1 and BPI3 i & ii. This is the first mRT-qPCR developed to detect the three primary viral agents of BRD and the first multiplex designed using locked nucleic acid (LNA), minor groove binding (MGB) and TaqMan probes in one reaction mix. This test was more sensitive than both VI and IFAT and can replace the aforesaid methods for virus detection during outbreaks of BRD.

  6. Recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R C; Gatei, M H; Good, M F; Boyle, D B; Lavin, M F

    1993-10-01

    Recently published studies on the development and use of recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) vaccines incorporating either the complete envelope (env) gene or only a fragment of the env gene consisting of the coding sequence for the env glycoprotein 51 (gp51) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VV vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with BLV. The evidence for this protection is based on the lack of persistence of high titres of anti-gp51 antibodies compared with unvaccinated BLV infected controls, on the enhanced CD4 proliferative responses to specific BLV gp51 synthetic peptides in the vaccinated sheep, and on the inability to detect BLV pro-virus by polymerase chain reaction in the vaccinated sheep after 4 months following challenge infection compared with continual detection in unvaccinated sheep over a 16 month trial period. It has been suggested that cell-mediated immune responses may be an important aspect of protective immunity against BLV infection and it has been reported that large tracts of amino acid sequences within the env and pol genes are highly conserved in different isolates from different countries which is of importance in designing peptide derived vaccines.

  7. Gangliosides Are Essential for Bovine Adeno-Associated Virus Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Michael; Chiorini, John A.

    2006-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are promising gene therapy vectors. We have recently identified a bovine adeno-associated virus (BAAV) that demonstrates unique tropism and transduction activity compared to primate AAVs. To better understand the entry pathway and cell tropism of BAAV, we have characterized the initial cell surface interactions required for transduction with BAAV vectors. Like a number of AAVs, BAAV requires cell surface sialic acid groups for transduction and virus ...

  8. Bovine Genome Database: supporting community annotation and analysis of the Bos taurus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Childs Kevin L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org has been to support the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (BGSAC in the annotation and analysis of the bovine genome. We were faced with several challenges, including the need to maintain consistent quality despite diversity in annotation expertise in the research community, the need to maintain consistent data formats, and the need to minimize the potential duplication of annotation effort. With new sequencing technologies allowing many more eukaryotic genomes to be sequenced, the demand for collaborative annotation is likely to increase. Here we present our approach, challenges and solutions facilitating a large distributed annotation project. Results and Discussion BGD has provided annotation tools that supported 147 members of the BGSAC in contributing 3,871 gene models over a fifteen-week period, and these annotations have been integrated into the bovine Official Gene Set. Our approach has been to provide an annotation system, which includes a BLAST site, multiple genome browsers, an annotation portal, and the Apollo Annotation Editor configured to connect directly to our Chado database. In addition to implementing and integrating components of the annotation system, we have performed computational analyses to create gene evidence tracks and a consensus gene set, which can be viewed on individual gene pages at BGD. Conclusions We have provided annotation tools that alleviate challenges associated with distributed annotation. Our system provides a consistent set of data to all annotators and eliminates the need for annotators to format data. Involving the bovine research community in genome annotation has allowed us to leverage expertise in various areas of bovine biology to provide biological insight into the genome sequence.

  9. Genetic analysis of lactoferrin content in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, V M-R; Soyeurt, H; Gengler, N; Colinet, F G; Georges, M V; Bertozzi, C; Portetelle, D; Renaville, R

    2009-05-01

    Bovine lactoferrin (LF) is mainly present in milk and shows important physiological and biological functions. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability and correlation values of LF content in bovine milk with different economic traits as milk yield (MY), fat and protein percentages, and somatic cell score (SCS). Variance components of the studied traits were estimated by REML using a multiple-trait mixed model. The obtained heritability (0.22) for LF content predicted using mid-infrared spectrometry (pLF) suggested the possibility of animal selection based on the increase of LF content in milk. The phenotypic and genetic correlation values calculated between pLF and SCS were moderate (0.31 and 0.24, respectively). Furthermore, a preliminary study of bovine LF gene polymorphism effects was performed on the same production traits. By PCR, all exons of the LF gene were amplified and then sequenced. Three new polymorphisms were detected in exon 2, exon 11, and intron 8. We examined the effects of LF gene polymorphisms of exons 2, 4, 9, 11, and 15, and intron 8 on pLF, MY, fat and protein percentages, and SCS. The different observed effects did not reach a significant level probably because of the characteristics of the studied population. However, the results were promising, and LF may be a potential indicator of mastitis. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of genetic selection based on LF content on the improvement of mastitis resistance.

  10. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  11. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, B.E.C.; Somerville, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep has not been identified under natural conditions at the time of writing and remains a hypothetical issue. However, rumours about the possible finding of a BSE-like isolate in sheep have led to great unrest within the sheep industry, among the general

  12. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-14

    A cattle dashboard has recently been developed to share surveillance information gathered from submissions to the Great Britain veterinary diagnostic network. Data relating to Scotland come from the SAC C VS. This article, by Tim Geraghty, relates to cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in Scotland, as summarised on the APHA Cattle Dashboard. British Veterinary Association.

  13. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  14. Identification of lactoferrin in bovine tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M H; Brightman, A H; Fenwick, B W; Rider, M A

    1996-09-01

    To determine whether bovine tear film contains the iron-binding glycoprotein, lactoferrin. 40 Adult Hereford, Angus, and Simmental cattle. Protein analysis: pooled bovine tears were used for protein analysis (size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] fractionation). HPLC was used for tear analysis. A diode array detector was used (215 and 280 microns) for chromatogram analysis and comparisons. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE): protein electrophoresis was performed, using 7.5% running gels with 4% stacking gels. Molecular weight of proteins in the unknown samples was determined as recommended by the manufacturer of the standards. Protein sequencing: amino acid sequencing, using automated Edman degradation of HPLC purified protein, was performed. The sequence obtained was compared with the known protein sequence of bovine lactoferrin. HPLC analysis of whole bovine tears resulted in a consistent chromatogram. Peak collection was performed to recover a protein from the bovine tear film with chromatogram characteristics nearly identical to purified bovine lactoferrin. Silver-stained SDS-PAGE of this peak revealed a band with molecular mass consistent with bovine lactoferrin (estimated mass of 78 kd). The first 13 amino acid residues of this protein were identical to the amino acid sequence of bovine lactoferrin. Analysis of whole bovine tears, using size exclusion HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and amino acid sequencing, provided evidence that bovine tears contain lactoferrin. Lactoferrin probably exerts a bacteriostatic effect in bovine tear film. Locally produced lactoferrin may bathe the ocular surface and sequester iron from potential pathogens.

  15. Bovine leukemia virus: current perspectives

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    Juliarena MA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marcela Alicia Juliarena,1 Clarisa Natalia Barrios,1 Claudia María Lützelschwab,1 Eduardo Néstor Esteban,2 Silvina Elena Gutiérrez1 1Department of Animal Health and Preventive Medicine, Veterinary Research Center of Tandil (CIVETAN, CIC-CONICET, Faculty of Veterinary Science, National University of the Center of Buenos Aires Province, Tandil, Argentina; 2BIOALPINA Program (GENIAL/COTANA, Colonia Alpina, Argentina Abstract: Enzootic bovine leukosis, caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV, is the most common neoplasm of dairy cattle. Although beef and dairy cattle are susceptible to BLV infection and BLV-associated lymphosarcoma, the disease is more commonly detected in dairy herds, mostly because of the management practices in dairy farms. The pathogenicity of BLV in its natural host, the bovine, depends mainly on the resistance/susceptibility genetics of the animal. The majority of infected cattle are asymptomatic, promoting the extremely high dissemination rate of BLV in many bovine populations. The important productive losses caused by the BLV, added to the health risk of maintaining populations with a high prevalence of infection with a retrovirus, generates the need to implement control measures. Different strategies to control the virus have been attempted. The most effective approach is to identify and cull the totality of infected cattle in the herd. However, this approach is not suitable for herds with high prevalence of infection. At present, no treatment or vaccine has proven effective for the control of BLV. Thus far, the genetic selection of resistant animals emerges as a natural strategy for the containment of the BLV dissemination. In natural conditions, most of the infected, resistant cattle can control the infection, and therefore do not pass the virus to other animals, gradually decreasing the prevalence of the herd. Keywords: bovine leukemia virus, control, genetic resistance, BoLA-DRB3

  16. Transcriptional analysis implicates endoplasmic reticulum stress in bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Tang

    Full Text Available Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE is a fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative disease of cattle. To date, the disease process is still poorly understood. In this study, brain tissue samples from animals naturally infected with BSE were analysed to identify differentially regulated genes using Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Arrays. A total of 230 genes were shown to be differentially regulated and many of these genes encode proteins involved in immune response, apoptosis, cell adhesion, stress response and transcription. Seventeen genes are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and 10 of these 17 genes are involved in stress related responses including ER chaperones, Grp94 and Grp170. Western blotting analysis showed that another ER chaperone, Grp78, was up-regulated in BSE. Up-regulation of these three chaperones strongly suggests the presence of ER stress and the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR in BSE. The occurrence of ER stress was also supported by changes in gene expression for cytosolic proteins, such as the chaperone pair of Hsp70 and DnaJ. Many genes associated with the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the autophagy-lysosome system were differentially regulated, indicating that both pathways might be activated in response to ER stress. A model is presented to explain the mechanisms of prion neurotoxicity using these ER stress related responses. Clustering analysis showed that the differently regulated genes found from the naturally infected BSE cases could be used to predict the infectious status of the samples experimentally infected with BSE from the previous study and vice versa. Proof-of-principle gene expression biomarkers were found to represent BSE using 10 genes with 94% sensitivity and 87% specificity.

  17. Comparative experimental infection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii in bovine trophoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cláudia E; Mol, Juliana P S; Garcia, Luize N N; Costa, Luciana F; Santos, Renato L; Paixão, Tatiane A

    2017-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, facultative intracellular and invasive bacterium that has tropism to the placenta, and causes fetal morbidity and mortality in several mammalian species. While infection with L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii are known as important causes of abortion and reproductive failure in cattle, the pathogenesis of maternal-fetal listeriosis in this species is poorly known. This study used the bovine chorioallantoic membrane explant model to investigate the kinetics of L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovii, and L. innocua infections in bovine trophoblastic cells for up to 8 h post infection. L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii were able to invade and multiply in trophoblastic cells without causing cell death or inducing expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Although L. innocua was unable to multiply in bovine trophoblastic cells, it induced transcription of the pro-inflammatory mediator CXCL6. This study demonstrated for the first time the susceptibility of bovine trophoblastic cells to L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii infection.

  18. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Thymann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial...... exposure to formula feeding after some days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods After receiving TPN for 2 days, preterm pigs were fed formula (FORM, n = 14), bovine colostrum (COLOS, n = 6), or formula (6 h) followed by bovine colostrum (FCOLOS, n = 14). Intestinal lesions, function, and structure...... and FCOLOS pigs, relative to FORM pigs. Intestinal gene expression of serum amyloid A, IL-1β, -6 and -8, and bacterial abundance, correlated positively with NEC severity of the distal small intestine. Conclusions Bovine colostrum restores intestinal function after initial formula-induced inflammation...

  19. Human milk protein production in xenografts of genetically engineered bovine mammary epithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignani, Eugenio; Eirew, Peter; Accornero, Paolo; Eaves, Connie J; Baratta, Mario

    2010-10-19

    In the bovine species milk production is well known to correlate with mammary tissue mass. However, most advances in optimizing milk production relied on improvements of breeding and husbandry practices. A better understanding of the cells that generate bovine mammary tissue could facilitate important advances in milk production and have global economic impact. With this possibility in mind, we show that a mammary stem cell population can be functionally identified and isolated from the bovine mammary gland. We also demonstrate that this stem cell population may be a promising target for manipulating the composition of cow's milk using gene transfer. We show that the in vitro colony-forming cell assay for detecting normal primitive bipotent and lineage-restricted human mammary clonogenic progenitors are applicable to bovine mammary cells. Similarly, the ability of normal human mammary stem cells to regenerate functional bilayered structures in collagen gels placed under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient mice is shared by a subset of bovine mammary cells that lack aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. We also find that this activity is a distinguishing feature of luminal-restricted bovine progenitors. The regenerated structures recapitulate the organization of bovine mammary tissue, and milk could be readily detected in these structures when they were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis. Transplantation of the bovine cells transduced with a lentivirus encoding human β-CASEIN led to expression of the transgene and secretion of the product by their progeny regenerated in vivo. These findings point to a common developmental hierarchy shared by human and bovine mammary glands, providing strong evidence of common mechanisms regulating the maintenance and differentiation of mammary stem cells from both species. These results highlight the potential of novel engineering and transplant strategies for a variety of commercial applications including the production of

  20. Effect of trifloxystrobin on hatching, survival, and gene expression of endocrine biomarkers in early life stages of medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lifei; Wang, Huili; Liu, Huijun; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Trifloxystrobin is a systemic broad-spectrum foliar strobilurin fungicides that enters the aquatic environment during agricultural application. It is highly toxic and poses a potential risk to aquatic organisms, whereas the effect on the development of early life stages of fish are unclear. In this study, hatchability, time to hatching, and larval mortality were measured. Additionally, the expression of biomarker genes, including those involved in sex hormone pathways (er, vtg, cyp17, and cyp19a), thyroid hormone pathways (trα and dio2), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathways (ahr and cyp1a), was determined after embryos of medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to different levels of trifloxystrobin (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg/L) for 28 days. The results showed that there were significant differences between controls and the 100 μg/L treatment group in both hatchability and time to hatching of fertilized eggs (ptrifloxystrobin exposure. Moreover, the mRNA levels of the er gene were significantly up-regulated at levels of trifloxystrobin above 1 μg/L treatment groups. Up-regulation of vtg, cyp17, and cyp19a mRNA levels was observed in the larvae at the lower concentration treatment groups. The mRNA levels of cyp1a genes were significantly up-regulated at all of the treatment groups. These results suggest that trifloxystrobin is a potential endocrine disruptor through effects on the sex hormone pathway and xenobiotic metabolism. The changes in cyp1a expression can be used as a highly sensitive biomarker to assess trifloxystrobin contamination in the early life stages of fish. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Analysis of recent segmental duplications in the bovine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Congjun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duplicated sequences are an important source of gene innovation and structural variation within mammalian genomes. We performed the first systematic and genome-wide analysis of segmental duplications in the modern domesticated cattle (Bos taurus. Using two distinct computational analyses, we estimated that 3.1% (94.4 Mb of the bovine genome consists of recently duplicated sequences (≥ 1 kb in length, ≥ 90% sequence identity. Similar to other mammalian draft assemblies, almost half (47% of 94.4 Mb of these sequences have not been assigned to cattle chromosomes. Results In this study, we provide the first experimental validation large duplications and briefly compared their distribution on two independent bovine genome assemblies using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH. Our analyses suggest that the (75-90% of segmental duplications are organized into local tandem duplication clusters. Along with rodents and carnivores, these results now confidently establish tandem duplications as the most likely mammalian archetypical organization, in contrast to humans and great ape species which show a preponderance of interspersed duplications. A cross-species survey of duplicated genes and gene families indicated that duplication, positive selection and gene conversion have shaped primates, rodents, carnivores and ruminants to different degrees for their speciation and adaptation. We identified that bovine segmental duplications corresponding to genes are significantly enriched for specific biological functions such as immunity, digestion, lactation and reproduction. Conclusion Our results suggest that in most mammalian lineages segmental duplications are organized in a tandem configuration. Segmental duplications remain problematic for genome and assembly and we highlight genic regions that require higher quality sequence characterization. This study provides insights into mammalian genome evolution and generates a valuable

  2. Effects of TDCPP or TPP on gene transcriptions and hormones of HPG axis, and their consequences on reproduction in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoshan; Ji, Kyunghee; Jo, Areum; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho

    2013-06-15

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) belong to the group of triester organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), which have been used in a wide range of consumer products. These chemicals have been frequently detected in effluents, surface water, and fish, and hence their potential adverse effects on aquatic ecosystem are of concern. The present study was conducted to investigate the reproduction-related effects and possible molecular mechanisms of TDCPP and TPP using a 21 day reproduction test employing adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). After 21 d of exposure to TDCPP or TPP, significant decrease in fecundity along with significant increases of plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations, vitellogenin (VTG) levels, and E2/testosterone (T) and E2/11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) ratios were observed. The transcriptional profiles of several genes of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis changed as well after the exposure, but the trend was sex-dependent. In male fish, gonadotropin-releasing hormone2 (GnRH2), GnRHR3, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19B, estrogen receptor α (ERα), ER2 β1, and follicle stimulating hormone β (FSHβ) were upregulated in the brain, while luteinizing hormone β (LHβ) and androgen receptor (AR) were downregulated. Corresponding to the upregulation of FSHβ and downregulation of LHβ in the brain, FSHR was upregulated and LHR was downregulated in the testis. Among the genes that regulate the steroidogenesis pathway, transcription of hydroxyl methyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGRA), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD) decreased, while transcription of CYP11A, CYP17, and CYP19A increased. In female fish, transcription ofGnRH2 and GnRHR3 decreased, but FSHβ, LHβ, CYP19B, ERα, ER2β1, and AR transcription increased in the brain. In the ovary, FSHR and LHR were significantly upregulated, and most steroidogenic genes were significantly upregulated. The observed

  3. Contribution of polymorphisms in ESR1, ESR2, FSHR, CYP19A1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-03-04

    Mar 4, 2016 ... Patients with obesity, diabetes and other neu- rologic or psychiatric disorders were excluded. The control group consisted of 141 volunteers who applied to the other outpatients at Dicle University. A complete medical history was recorded and they were examined. The controls were genetically unrelated to ...

  4. Screening of selected pesticides for inhibition of CYP19 aromatase activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, A.M.; Hnida, C.; Breinholt, V.

    2000-01-01

    Many pesticides are able to block or activate the steroid hormone receptors and/or to affect the levels of sex hormones, thereby potentially affecting the development or expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. This emphasizes the relevance of screening pesticides for a wide......, and triadimenol were identified as weak aromatase inhibitors. In conclusion, seven out of 22 tested pesticides turned out to be weak to moderate aromatase inhibitors in vitro, indicating the relevance of elucidating the endocrine effects in vivo of these compounds....

  5. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 and retinoic acid trigger bovine VASA homolog expression in differentiating bovine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaver-Ortega, Luis F; Sumer, Huseyin; Jain, Kanika; Verma, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the earliest identifiable and completely committed progenitors of female and male gametes. They are obvious targets for genome editing because they assure the transmission of desirable or introduced traits to future generations. PGCs are established at the earliest stages of embryo development and are difficult to propagate in vitro--two characteristics that pose a problem for their practical application. One alternative method to enrich for PGCs in vitro is to differentiate them from pluripotent stem cells derived from adult tissues. Here, we establish a reporter system for germ cell identification in bovine pluripotent stem cells based on green fluorescent protein expression driven by the minimal essential promoter of the bovine Vasa homolog (BVH) gene, whose regulatory elements were identified by orthologous modelling of regulatory units. We then evaluated the potential of bovine induced pluripotent stem cell (biPSC) lines carrying the reporter construct to differentiate toward the germ cell lineage. Our results showed that biPSCs undergo differentiation as embryoid bodies, and a fraction of the differentiating cells expressed BVH. The rate of differentiation towards BVH-positive cells increased up to tenfold in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein 4 or retinoic acid. Finally, we determined that the expression of key PGC genes, such as BVH or SOX2, can be modified by pre-differentiation cell culture conditions, although this increase is not necessarily mirrored by an increase in the rate of differentiation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  7. A catalogue of novel bovine long noncoding RNA across 18 tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambros T Koufariotis

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA have been implicated in diverse biological roles including gene regulation and genomic imprinting. Identifying lncRNA in bovine across many differing tissue would contribute to the current repertoire of bovine lncRNA, and help further improve our understanding of the evolutionary importance and constraints of these transcripts. Additionally, it could aid in identifying sites in the genome outside of protein coding genes where mutations could contribute to variation in complex traits. This is particularly important in bovine as genomic predictions are increasingly used in genetic improvement for milk and meat production. Our aim was to identify and annotate novel long non coding RNA transcripts in the bovine genome captured from RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq data across 18 tissues, sampled in triplicate from a single cow. To address the main challenge in identifying lncRNA, namely distinguishing lncRNA transcripts from unannotated genes and protein coding genes, a lncRNA identification pipeline with a number of filtering steps was developed. A total of 9,778 transcripts passed the filtering pipeline. The bovine lncRNA catalogue includes MALAT1 and HOTAIR, both of which have been well described in human and mouse genomes. We attempted to validate the lncRNA in libraries from three additional cows. 726 (87.47% liver and 1,668 (55.27% blood class 3 lncRNA were validated with stranded liver and blood libraries respectively. Additionally, this study identified a large number of novel unknown transcripts in the bovine genome with high protein coding potential, illustrating a clear need for better annotations of protein coding genes.

  8. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN BOVINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. M Marinho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to show the main scientific advances achieved in the area of Artificial Insemination (AI within animal reproduction and how these can improve reproductive efficiency and productive of the Brazilian cattle herd. With knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the control of reproductive physiology, in levels endocrine, cellular and molecular, it was possible the development of reproductive biotechnologies, standing out the IA, It has been used on a large scale, by allow the multiplication of animals superior genetically , increase the birthrate and be particularly effective in adjusting the breeding season in cattle. Artificial insemination has an important role in animal genetic improvement; it is the main and more viable middle of spread of genes worldwide when compared to other methods how technologies of embryos and the natural breeding. There are several advantages in using artificial insemination in herd both of cutting as milkman, as herd genetic improvement in lesser time and at a low cost through the use of semen of demonstrably superior sires for production, well as in the control and decrease of diseases which entail reproductive losses and consequently productive, by allowing the creator The crossing of zebuine females with bulls of European breeds and vice-versa, through the use of semen, increasing the number of progeny of a reproducer superior

  9. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( ...

  10. Bacteriocins of Non-aureus Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Domonique A; Barkema, Herman W; Naushad, Sohail; De Buck, Jeroen

    2017-09-01

    Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), the bacteria most commonly isolated from the bovine udder, potentially protect the udder against infection by major mastitis pathogens due to bacteriocin production. In this study, we determined the inhibitory capability of 441 bovine NAS isolates (comprising 26 species) against bovine Staphylococcus aureus Furthermore, inhibiting isolates were tested against a human methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolate using a cross-streaking method. We determined the presence of bacteriocin clusters in NAS whole genomes using genome mining tools, BLAST, and comparison of genomes of closely related inhibiting and noninhibiting isolates and determined the genetic organization of any identified bacteriocin biosynthetic gene clusters. Forty isolates from 9 species (S. capitis, S. chromogenes, S. epidermidis, S. pasteuri, S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri, S. simulans, S. warneri, and S. xylosus) inhibited growth of S. aureus in vitro, 23 isolates of which, from S. capitis, S. chromogenes, S. epidermidis, S. pasteuri, S. simulans, and S. xylosus, also inhibited MRSA. One hundred five putative bacteriocin gene clusters encompassing 6 different classes (lanthipeptides, sactipeptides, lasso peptides, class IIa, class IIc, and class IId) in 95 whole genomes from 16 species were identified. A total of 25 novel bacteriocin precursors were described. In conclusion, NAS from bovine mammary glands are a source of potential bacteriocins, with >21% being possible producers, representing potential for future characterization and prospective clinical applications.IMPORTANCE Mastitis (particularly infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus) costs Canadian dairy producers $400 million/year and is the leading cause of antibiotic use on dairy farms. With increasing antibiotic resistance and regulations regarding use, there is impetus to explore bacteriocins (bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides) for treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. We

  11. Relationships of bovine ephemeral fever epizootics to population immunity and virus variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Lu-Jen; Lee, Ming-Shiuh; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Lee, Fan

    2014-10-10

    Bovine ephemeral fever is an arthropod-borne bovine viral disease caused by infection with bovine ephemeral fever virus which belongs to genus Ephemerovirus within the family Rhabdoviridae. In this study, serological data and virological information about the disease and the virus, spanning from 2001 to 2013, were employed to analyze the relationships of bovine ephemeral fever epizootics to population immunity and virus variation. National and regional surveillance data indicated that 2 of the 3 major epizootics and 87% regional outbreaks were associated with lower neutralizing antibody titers and immunity coverage, reflecting the importance of population immunity for the control of bovine ephemeral fever. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparison demonstrated that Taiwanese bovine ephemeral fever viruses were >96.0% and >97.6% similar to the East Asian isolates in nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. These analyses supported that the Taiwanese viruses shared the same gene pool with the strains of the other East Asian countries, mainly Japan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neospora caninum and complex vertebral malformation as possible causes of bovine fetal mummification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Mohamed Elshabrawy; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Akita, Masashi; Nishibori, Masahide

    2009-04-01

    Bovine neosporosis, caused by Neospora caninum is a leading cause of abortion in cattle. We postulated that neosporosis could lead to fetal death and mummification. Fifteen mummified fetuses were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the mutation in the bovine SLC35A3 gene that causes complex vertebral malformation (CVM) and the pNC-5 gene which identifies N. caninum infection. DNA was extracted from the mummified fetuses and the sex of the mummies was determined by PCR. The CVM mutation was not detected in the mummified fetuses, but 4 fetuses were positive for N. caninum infection. The ages of the mummies with N. caninum infection were 100, 113, 123, and 131 days. Twelve of the 15 mummified fetuses were male. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of N. caninum as a possible cause of bovine fetal mummification.

  13. Methicillin resistant staphylococci associated with bovine mastitis and their zoonotic importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vishnupriya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to determine the zoonotic importance of methicillin resistant staphylococci associated with bovine mastitis and their potential role in transmission to animal handlers. Materials and Methods: A total of 158 milk samples from bovine mastitis cases and 126 nasal swabs from the animal handlers were sampled in and around Pondicherry (Southern India. The Presence of Staphylococcal organism was confirmed by PCR amplification using the genus specific primers and among the isolated Staphylococci; methicillin resistance was identified by genetic amplification of mec A methicillin resistant gene. Then the amplified gene from the bacteria expressing the mecA gene (PBP2a (~2kb fragment was further sequenced using four sets of primer pairs and aligned for determining their genetic relatedness between the sequences. Both phenotypic and genotypic analysis was carried out for the six MRS isolates (three bovine and three human in this study. Results: Out of 158 mastitis milk samples; 96 and 19 bovine isolates were found to be positive for Staphylococcal genus specific PCR and methicillin resistant (mecA gene PCR, respectively. Similarly, Out of 126 human nasal swabs, 64 and 13 human isolates were found to be positive for Staphylococcal genus specific PCR and mec A gene PCR, respectively. Among the 160 staphylococcal isolates (Bovine and Human origin; 51 were identified as coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS and remaining as coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS. The results obtained in this study revealed the presence of many species of Staphylococci but the predominant species were Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. The Sequence analysis of the mec A gene of human isolates obtained in this study had a maximum identity (99% -100% with the bovine isolates. Conclusion: The phenotypic and genotypic analysis carried out for the six MRS (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococci isolates in this study were indistinguishable

  14. Polymorphisms in Phase I and Phase II genes and breast cancer risk and relations to persistent organic pollutant exposure: a case–control study in Inuit women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Eiberg, Hans; Long, Manhai

    2014-01-01

    ); CYP19A1 (C> T; rs10046) and CYP19A1 ((TTTA)n repeats) polymorphisms and BRCA1 founder mutation using TaqMan allelic discrimination method and polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism. The χ2 –test was used to compare categorical variables between cases and controls...

  15. One-step multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine parainfluenza virus 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonur Leenadevi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of respiratory viruses in veterinary species has traditionally relied on virus detection by isolation or immunofluorescence and/or detection of circulating antibody using ELISA or serum neutralising antibody tests. Multiplex real time PCR is increasingly used to diagnose respiratory viruses in humans and has proved to be superior to traditional methods. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in housed cattle and virus infections can play a major role. We describe here a one step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR to detect the viruses commonly implicated in BRD. Results A mRT-qPCR assay was developed and optimised for the simultaneous detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1 and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPI3 i & ii nucleic acids in clinical samples from cattle. The assay targets the highly conserved glycoprotein B gene of BoHV-1, nucleocapsid gene of BRSV and nucleoprotein gene of BPI3. This mRT-qPCR assay was assessed for sensitivity, specificity and repeatability using in vitro transcribed RNA and recent field isolates. For clinical validation, 541 samples from clinically affected animals were tested and mRT-qPCR result compared to those obtained by conventional testing using virus isolation (VI and/or indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Conclusions The mRT-qPCR assay was rapid, highly repeatable, specific and had a sensitivity of 97% in detecting 102 copies of BRSV, BoHV-1 and BPI3 i & ii. This is the first mRT-qPCR developed to detect the three primary viral agents of BRD and the first multiplex designed using locked nucleic acid (LNA, minor groove binding (MGB and TaqMan probes in one reaction mix. This test was more sensitive than both VI and IFAT and can replace the aforesaid methods for virus detection during outbreaks of BRD.

  16. (Npro) protein of bovine viral d

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep, and causes significant respiratory and reproductive disease worldwide. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 along with the border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belong to the genus ...

  17. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia saginata and has a global distribution. This zoonosis usually causes only mild disease in humans, but has an important economic impact on the meat sector as bovine carcasses that are found to be infected are either condemned or undergo ...

  18. Comparison of bacterial communities in leachate from decomposing bovine carcasses

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    Seung Hak Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Burial is associated with environmental effects such as the contamination of ground or surface water with biological materials generated during the decomposition process. Therefore, bacterial communities in leachates originating from the decomposing bovine carcasses were investigated. Methods To understand the process of bovine (Hanwoo carcass decomposition, we simulated burial using a lab-scale reactor with a volume of 5.15 m3. Leachate samples from 3 carcasses were collected using a peristaltic pump once a month for a period of 5 months, and bacterial communities in samples were identified by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results We obtained a total of 110,442 reads from the triplicate samples of various sampling time points (total of 15 samples, and found that the phylum Firmicutes was dominant at most sampling times. Differences in the bacterial communities at the various time points were observed among the triplicate samples. The bacterial communities sampled at 4 months showed the most different compositions. The genera Pseudomonas and Psychrobacter in the phylum Proteobacteria were dominant in all of the samples obtained after 3 months. Bacillaceae, Clostridium, and Clostridiales were found to be predominant after 4 months in the leachate from one carcass, whereas Planococcaceae was found to be a dominant in samples obtained at the first and second months from the other two carcasses. The results showed that potentially pathogenic microbes such as Clostridium derived from bovine leachate could dominate the soil environment of a burial site. Conclusion Our results indicated that the composition of bacterial communities in leachates of a decomposing bovine shifted continuously during the experimental period, with significant changes detected after 4 months of burial.

  19. Single Laboratory Comparison of Host-Specific PCR Assays for the Detection of Bovine Fecal Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are numerous PCR-based methods available to detect bovine fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each method targets a different gene and microorganism leading to differences in method performance, making it difficult to determine which approach is most suitable for field appl...

  20. Three novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the bovine LHX3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    ) in the four Chinese bovine breeds. Significant statistical differences in genotypic frequencies for exon II and its flanking region of the LHX3 gene implied that the polymorphic locus was significantly associated with cattle breeds by the χ2-test ...

  1. Genomic study of the mammary gland in bovines acclimated to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mammary gland tissue was used for transcriptomic studies. Prolactin and GH plasmatic ... From the 4608 transcripts in the BLO-Bovine EST (Michigan State University, US) databank that were used in this experiment, 105 differentially expressed genes were identified in at least one of the groups. Among these, the authors ...

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine MHC region of Japanese Black cattle are associated with bovine leukemia virus proviral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Sasaki, Shinji; Meripet, Polat; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Aida, Yoko

    2017-04-04

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma that has spread worldwide and causes serious problems for the cattle industry. The BLV proviral load, which represents the BLV genome integrated into host genome, is a useful index for estimating disease progression and transmission risk. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BLV proviral load in Japanese Black cattle. The study examined 93 cattle with a high proviral load and 266 with a low proviral load. Three SNPs showed a significant association with proviral load. One SNP was detected in the CNTN3 gene on chromosome 22, and two (which were not in linkage disequilibrium) were detected in the bovine major histocompatibility complex region on chromosome 23. These results suggest that polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex region affect proviral load. This is the first report to detect SNPs associated with BLV proviral load in Japanese Black cattle using whole genome association study, and understanding host factors may provide important clues for controlling the spread of BLV in Japanese Black cattle.

  3. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  4. Gut transcriptome of replete adult female cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, feeding upon a Babesia bovis-infected bovine host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heekin, Andrew M; Guerrero, Felix D; Bendele, Kylie G; Saldivar, Leo; Scoles, Glen A; Dowd, Scot E; Gondro, Cedric; Nene, Vishvanath; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Brayton, Kelly A

    2013-09-01

    As it feeds upon cattle, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is capable of transmitting a number of pathogenic organisms, including the apicomplexan hemoparasite Babesia bovis, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis. The R. microplus female gut transcriptome was studied for two cohorts: adult females feeding on a bovine host infected with B. bovis and adult females feeding on an uninfected bovine. RNA was purified and used to generate a subtracted cDNA library from B. bovis-infected female gut, and 4,077 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced. Gene expression was also measured by a microarray designed from the publicly available R. microplus gene index: BmiGI Version 2. We compared gene expression in the tick gut from females feeding upon an uninfected bovine to gene expression in tick gut from females feeding upon a splenectomized bovine infected with B. bovis. Thirty-three ESTs represented on the microarray were expressed at a higher level in female gut samples from the ticks feeding upon a B. bovis-infected calf compared to expression levels in female gut samples from ticks feeding on an uninfected calf. Forty-three transcripts were expressed at a lower level in the ticks feeding upon B. bovis-infected female guts compared with expression in female gut samples from ticks feeding on the uninfected calf. These array data were used as initial characterization of gene expression associated with the infection of R. microplus by B. bovis.

  5. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  6. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Complete genome sequence of Deltapapillomavirus 4 (bovine papillomavirus 2 from a bovine papillomavirus lesion in Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Daudt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2 from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8 and two late (L1 and L2 genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available.

  8. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene expression construct: Development, nanodelivery and effect on reproduction in air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathor, Pravesh Kumar; Bhat, Irfan Ahmad; Rather, Mohd Ashraf; Gireesh-Babu, Pathakota; Kumar, Kundan; Purayil, Suresh Babu Padinhate; Sharma, Rupam

    2017-11-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is responsible for the relocation of cholesterol across mitochondrial membrane in vertebrates and is, therefore, a key factor in regulating the rate and timing of steroidogenesis. In the present study, we developed chitosan nanoparticle (CNP) conjugated StAR gene construct (CNP-pcDNA4-StAR) in a eukaryotic expression vector, pcDNA4/HisMax A. CNPs of 135.4nm diameter, 26.7mV zeta potential and 0.381 polydispersity index were used for conjugation. The loading efficiency (LE) of pcDNA4-StAR construct with CNPs was found to be 86%. After the 24h of intramuscular injection, the CNP-pcDNA4-StAR plasmid could be detected from testis, brain, kidney and muscle tissues of Clarias batrachus. The transcript levels of important reproductive genes viz. cyp11a1, cyp17a1, 3β-hsd, 17β-hsd and cyp19a1 in CNP-pcDNA4-StAR treated group were initially low up to 24h, but significantly increased subsequently up to 120h. In naked pcDNA4-StAR treated group, the mRNA level of 3β-hsd, 17β-hsd and cyp19a1 increased initially up to 24h, while cyp11a1 and cyp17a1 increased up to 48h and then started declining. Similar results were obtained for 11-Ketotestosterone and 17β-estradiol. The results indicate relatively long lasting effects of nano-conjugated construct compared to the construct alone. Furthermore, the histopathology of gonads and liver authenticates its possible role in the gonadal development in fish without any adverse effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  10. Generation of Active Bovine Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT in E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Liang Kuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic gene encoding bovine terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT was generated, cloned into an expression vector and expressed in E.coli. The effects of altering culture and induction conditions on the nature of recombinant protein production were investigated. This led to the expression of active recombinant bovine TdT in E.coli. After purification and characterisation, the activity of the enzyme was assessed in a biological assay for apoptosis. The process described in this report enables the economical production of TdT for high throughput applications.

  11. Generation of Active Bovine Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT in E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Liang Kuan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic gene encoding bovine terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT was generated, cloned into an expression vector and expressed in E.coli. The effects of altering culture and induction conditions on the nature of recombinant protein production were investigated. This led to the expression of active recombinant bovine TdT in E.coli. After purification and characterisation, the activity of the enzyme was assessed in a biological assay for apoptosis. The process described in this report enables the economical production of TdT for high throughput applications.

  12. Clinical and subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection in a dairy cattle herd in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Girja S; Simulundu, Edgar; Mwiinga, Danstan; Samui, Kenny L; Mweene, Aaron S; Kajihara, Masahiro; Mangani, Alfred; Mwenda, Racheal; Ndebe, Joseph; Konnai, Satoru; Takada, Ayato

    2017-04-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) and is responsible for substantial economic losses in cattle globally. However, information in Africa on the disease is limited. Here, based on clinical, hematological, pathological and molecular analyses, two clinical cases of EBL were confirmed in a dairy cattle herd in Zambia. In contrast, proviral DNA was detected by PCR in five apparently healthy cows from the same herd, suggesting subclinical BLV infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene showed that the identified BLV clustered with Eurasian genotype 4 strains. This is the first report of confirmed EBL in Zambia.

  13. Nucleolar changes in bovine nucleotransferred embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, V; Vignon, X; LeBourhis, D; Renard, J P; Fléchon, J E

    2002-02-01

    This study focused on nucleolar changes in bovine embryos reconstructed from enucleated mature oocytes fused with blastomeres of morulae or with cultured, serum unstarved bovine fetal skin fibroblasts (embryonic vs. somatic cloning). The nucleotransferred (NT) embryos were collected and fixed at time intervals of 1-2 h (early 1-cell stage), 10-15 h (late 1-cell stage), 22-24 h (2-cell stage), 37-38 h (4-cell stage), 40-41 h (early 8-cell stage), 47-48 h (late 8-cell stage), and 55 h (16-cell stage) after fusion. Immunocytochemistry by light and electron microscopy was used for structure-function characterization of nucleolar components. Antibodies against RNA, protein B23, protein C23, and fibrillarin were applied. In addition, DNA was localized by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) technique, and the functional organization of chromatin was determined with the nick-translation immunogold approach. The results show that fully reticulated (active) nucleoli observed in donor cells immediately before fusion as well as in the early 1-cell stage after fusion were progressively transformed into nucleolar bodies displaying decreasing numbers of vacuoles from the 2- to 4-cell stage in both types of reconstructed embryos. At the late 8-cell stage, morphological signs of resuming nucleolar activity were detected. Numerous new small vacuoles appeared, and chromatin blocks reassociated with the nucleolar body. During this period, nick-translation technique revealed numerous active DNA sites in the periphery of chromatin blocks associated with the nucleolar body. Fully reticulated nucleoli were again observed as early as the 16-cell stage of embryonic cloned embryos. In comparison, the embryos obtained by fetal cloning displayed a lower tendency to develop, mainly during the first cell cycle and during the period of presumed reactivation. Correlatively, the changes in nucleolar morphology (desegregation and rebuilding) were at least delayed in many somatic NT

  14. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five bovine...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is...

  16. Genomic analysis offers insights into the evolution of the bovine TRA/TRD locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelley, Timothy K; Degnan, Kathryn; Longhi, Cassandra W; Morrison, W Ivan

    2014-11-19

    The TRA/TRD locus contains the genes for V(D)J somatic rearrangement of TRA and TRD chains expressed by αβ and γδ T cells respectively. Previous studies have demonstrated that the bovine TRA/TRD locus contains an exceptionally large number of TRAV/TRDV genes. In this study we combine genomic and transcript analysis to provide insights into the evolutionary development of the bovine TRA/TRD locus and the remarkable TRAV/TRDV gene repertoire. Annotation of the UMD3.1 assembly identified 371 TRAV/TRDV genes (distributed in 42 subgroups), 3 TRDJ, 6 TRDD, 62 TRAJ and single TRAC and TRDC genes, most of which were located within a 3.5 Mb region of chromosome 10. Most of the TRAV/TRDV subgroups have multiple members and several have undergone dramatic expansion, most notably TRDV1 (60 genes). Wide variation in the proportion of pseudogenes within individual subgroups, suggest that differential 'birth' and 'death' rates have been used to form a functional bovine TRAV/TRDV repertoire which is phylogenetically distinct from that of humans and mice. The expansion of the bovine TRAV/TRDV gene repertoire has predominantly been achieved through a complex series of homology unit (regions of DNA containing multiple gene) replications. Frequent co-localisation within homology units of genes from subgroups with low and high pseudogene proportions suggest that replication of homology units driven by evolutionary selection for the former may have led to a 'collateral' expansion of the latter. Transcript analysis was used to define the TRAV/TRDV subgroups available for recombination of TRA and TRD chains and demonstrated preferential usage of different subgroups by the expressed TRA and TRD repertoires, indicating that TRA and TRD selection have had distinct impacts on the evolution of the TRAV/TRDV repertoire. Both TRA and TRD selection have contributed to the evolution of the bovine TRAV/TRDV repertoire. However, our data suggest that due to homology unit duplication TRD

  17. Construction and characterization of a glycoprotein E deletion mutant of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2 strain isolated in Brazil Construção e caracterização de uma amostra de BoHV-1.2 isolada no Brasil com uma deleção no gene da glicoproteína E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Franco

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction and characterization of a Brazilian strain of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2a (BoHV-1.2a with a deletion of the glycoprotein E (gE gene. The deletion was introduced by co-transfection of a deletion fragment containing the 5´and 3´gE flanking regions and genomic DNA of wild type BoHV-1 into bovine cells. Isolation of gE deletion mutant was performed by immunoperoxidase staining with an anti-gE monoclonal antibody. Viral clones were plaque purified and further examined by restriction endonuclesase digestion and Southern blot hybridization. This gE deletion mutant will be evaluated as a vaccinal virus, in order to determine its potential use for a differential vaccine.Este artigo descreve a construção e caracterização de uma amostra de um herpesvírus bovino tipo 1.2a (BoHV-1.2a que apresenta uma deleção na região genômica que codifica a glicoproteína E (gE. A deleção gênica foi induzida através da co-transfecção de um fragmento de deleção, contendo as regiões 5´e 3´flanqueadoras da gE, com o DNA viral intacto de uma amostra viral isolada de um animal que apresentava doença respiratória. O isolamento do vírus gE negativo (gE- foi realizado com auxílio da técnica de imunoperoxidase em que foi utilizado como anticorpo primário um anticorpo monoclonal anti-gE. O vírus gE- foi purificado e o DNA isolado desta amostra foi examinado através das técnicas de análise por enzimas de restrição e "Southern blot". Esta amostra gE- será avaliada como candidata para compor uma vacina diferencial contra a rinotraqueíte infecciosa dos bovinos.

  18. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell proliferation and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Zas Sandra L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare, and decrease economic losses to dairy farmers. The main objective of this study was to determine the most affected gene networks and pathways in mammary tissue in response to an intramammary infection (IMI with S. uberis and relate these with other physiological measurements associated with immune and/or metabolic responses to mastitis challenge with S. uberis O140J. Results Streptococcus uberis IMI resulted in 2,102 (1,939 annotated differentially expressed genes (DEG. Within this set of DEG, we uncovered 20 significantly enriched canonical pathways (with 20 to 61 genes each, the majority of which were signaling pathways. Among the most inhibited were LXR/RXR Signaling and PPARα/RXRα Signaling. Pathways activated by IMI were IL-10 Signaling and IL-6 Signaling which likely reflected counter mechanisms of mammary tissue to respond to infection. Of the 2,102 DEG, 1,082 were up-regulated during IMI and were primarily involved with the immune response, e.g., IL6, TNF, IL8, IL10, SELL, LYZ, and SAA3. Genes down-regulated (1,020 included those associated with milk fat synthesis, e.g., LPIN1, LPL, CD36, and BTN1A1. Network analysis of DEG indicated that TNF had positive relationships with genes involved with immune system function (e.g., CD14, IL8, IL1B, and TLR2 and negative relationships with genes involved with lipid metabolism (e.g., GPAM, SCD, FABP4, CD36, and LPL and antioxidant activity (SOD1. Conclusion Results provided novel information into the early signaling and metabolic pathways in mammary tissue that are associated with the innate immune response to S. uberis infection. Our study indicated that IMI challenge with S. uberis (strain O140J elicited

  19. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  20. Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification combined with lateral-flow dipstick assay for detection of bovine ephemeral fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Peili; Zhao, Guimin; Wang, Hongmei; He, Chengqiang; Huan, Yanjun; He, Hongbin

    2017-12-26

    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), identified as the causative pathogen of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), is responsible for increasing numbers of epidemics/outbreaks and has a significant harmful effect on the livestock industry. Therefore, a rapid detection assay is imperative for BEFV diagnosis. In this study, we described the development of lateral-flow dipstick isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (LFD-RPA) assays for detection of BEFV. RPA primers and LF probes were designed by targeting the specific G gene, and the amplification product can be visualized on a simple lateral flow dipstick with the naked eyes. The amplification reaction was performed at 38 °C for 20 min and LFD incubation time within 5 min. The detection limit of this assay was 8 copies per reaction, and there was no cross-reactivity with other bovine infectious viruses such as bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine coronavirus, bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, bovine vesicular stomatitis virus. In addition, the assay was performed with total 128 clinical specimens and the diagnostic results were compared with conventional RT-PCR, real-time quantative(q) PCR. The result showed that the coincidence rate of BEFV LFD-RPA and real-time qPCR was 96.09% (123/128), which was higher than conventional RT-PCR. The RPA combined with LFD assay probably provides a rapid and sensitive alternative for diagnosis of BEFV infections outbreak. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  2. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  3. Regulation of the bovine SCD5 promoter by EGR2 and SREBP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengi, Andrea J; Corl, Benjamin A

    2012-05-04

    In rodents, the transcription factors early growth response 2 (EGR2) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1a (SREBP1a) regulate transcription of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 (SCD2) gene during peripheral nerve myelination, which may be important for synthesis of the lipid component of myelin. Most non-rodent genomes do not contain the SCD2 gene, but rather express SCD5 in brain and nervous tissues. In this paper, we asked whether bovine SCD5 is regulated in a similar manner to rodent SCD2. Expression of EGR2 did not result in an increase in endogenous SCD5 mRNA expression in JEG3 cells, but did result in activation of truncated bovine SCD5 promoter luciferase reporter constructs. Similar results were obtained with expression of the active form of SREBP1a; however, unlike rodent SCD2, there was no synergistic activation of the bovine SCD5 promoter reporters when EGR2 and SREBP1a were co-expressed. Mutation of the putative EGR2 binding site in the SCD5 promoter abolished activation by SREBP1a, suggesting that EGR2 and SREBP1a bind to the same site in the SCD5 promoter. Finally, we have identified a region of the bovine SCD5 promoter between 505 and 305 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start site that appears to be important for maintaining basal levels of transcription of this gene. While it appears that there are some differences between the regulation of rodent SCD2 and bovine SCD5, the promoters of both genes can be activated by EGR2 and SREBP1a. This is the first report of potential regulators of SCD5 transcription. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress in bovine granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield, John J; Iacovides, Sossi M

    2017-09-02

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of bovine granulosa cells to generate reactive oxygen intermediates in response to lipopolysaccharide. We hypothesized that granulosa cells increase reactive oxygen intermediates in response to Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide in a similar manner to immune cells. Bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and granulosa cells were cultured in the presence of lipopolysaccharide. Oxidative stress was evaluated using the fluorescent marker dye CellROX, and oxidative stress-related genes were measured using real-time RT-PCR. As expected, peripheral blood mononuclear cells increased oxidative stress in response to lipopolysaccharide as measured by accumulation of the fluorescent marker dye CellROX. While granulosa cells demonstrate the capacity to increase accumulation of CellROX dye in response to a positive control menadione, lipopolysaccharide had no effect on accumulation of CellROX dye. The expression of GSR, SOD1, and SOD2 were variable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with lipopolysaccharide but were consistently upregulated when co-incubated with the antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine. The expression of oxidative stress-related genes was not altered in granulosa cells, with the exception of elevated SOD1 following lipopolysaccharide exposure in the absence of antioxidant. Combined, these data suggest that while reactive stress is important in pathogen killing and inflammation in immune cells, granulosa cells do not increase oxidative stress in response to lipopolysaccharide.

  5. Relaxin-Family Peptide Receptors 1 and 2 Are Fully Functional in the Bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhenzi Dai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In most mammals the peptide hormone relaxin is a key physiological component regulating early pregnancy and birth. However, synteny analysis shows that the gene encoding ovarian relaxin-2 is deleted in cows and sheep. While, these ruminants appear to exhibit a relaxin-like physiology, as in other mammals, until now a molecular understanding of this has been lacking. Cloning and expression analysis of the cognate bovine receptor for relaxin, RXFP1, as well as of the structurally related receptor, RXFP2, in female tissues, shows that these are expressed in a similar way to other mammals. RXFP1 transcripts are found in ovarian theca cells, endometrium, and myometrium, whereas RXFP2 transcripts are expressed in ovarian theca cells, oocytes, as well as in myometrium. Transfection of receptor-expressing gene constructs into HEK293 cells indicates that bovine RXFP1 has a greater EC50 at 10–50 nM for porcine or human relaxin, compared to human RXFP1. For bovine RXFP2, in contrast, the EC50 is <1 nM for its cognate ligand, bovine INSL3, but also 10–30 nM for porcine or human relaxin. Functional analysis shows that bovine myometrial cells are able to respond to exogenous relaxin and INSL3 with a significant increase in cAMP. Although expressing mRNA for both RXFP1 and RXFP2, bovine follicular theca cells only respond to INSL3 with a dose-dependent increase in cAMP. Altogether the results suggest that the cow is able to compensate for the missing hormone, and moreover imply that relaxin analogs could offer an important therapeutic option in treating female ruminant infertility.

  6. Rabbit colony infected with a bovine-like G6P[11] rotavirus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoondermark-van de Ven, Esther; Van Ranst, Marc; de Bruin, Wieke; van den Hurk, Patrick; Zeller, Mark; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Heylen, Elisabeth

    2013-09-27

    Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are the main etiological agent of infantile diarrhea in both humans and animals worldwide. A limited number of studies have investigated the molecular characteristics of RVA strains in stool specimens of rabbits, with only a few lapine RVA strains isolated and (partially) characterized to date. The most common G/P-genotype combinations found in rabbits are G3P[14] and G3P[22]. In this study a RVA strain was isolated from the small intestine of a 9-week-old rabbit from an infected laboratory rabbit colony. The RVA strain RVA/Rabbit-tc/NLD/K1130027/2011/G6P[11] was shown to possess the typical bovine G6 and P[11] genotypes. The complete genome of this unusual lapine strain was sequenced and characterized. Phylogenetic analyses of all 11 gene segments revealed the following genotype constellation: G6-P[11]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A13-N2-T6-E2-H3. The VP1, VP2, VP3, VP6, NSP2 and NSP4 genes all belonged to DS-1-like genotype 2, but clustered more closely to bovine RVA strains than to lapine RVA strains. The NSP1 genotype A13 is typically associated with bovine RVAs, while the NSP3 genotype T6 and the NSP5 genotype H3 have been found in a wide variety of species. However, the isolated strain clustered within bovine(-like) T6 and H3 subclusters. Overall, the data indicate that the RVA strain is most closely related to bovine-like RVA strains and most likely represents a direct interspecies transmission from a cow to a rabbit. Altogether, these findings indicate that a RVA strain with an entirely bovine genome constellation was able to infect and spread in a laboratory rabbit colony. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Virome of US bovine calf serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Yugo, Danielle M; Phan, Tung Gia; Deng, Xutao; Kanevsky, Isis; Opriessnig, Tanja; Woolums, Amelia R; Hurley, David J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Delwart, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Using viral metagenomics we analyzed four bovine serum pools assembled from 715 calves in the United States. Two parvoviruses, bovine parvovirus 2 (BPV2) and a previously uncharacterized parvovirus designated as bosavirus (BosaV), were detected in 3 and 4 pools respectively and their complete coding sequences generated. Based on NS1 protein identity, bosavirus qualifies as a member of a new species in the copiparvovirus genus. Also detected were low number of reads matching ungulate tetraparvovirus 2, bovine hepacivirus, and several papillomaviruses. This study further characterizes the diversity of viruses in calf serum with the potential to infect fetuses and through fetal bovine serum contaminate cell cultures. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 2 and bovine herpesvirus 4 DNA in trigeminal ganglia of naturally infected cattle by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, F S; Franco, A C; Oliveira, M T; Firpo, R; Strelczuk, G; Fontoura, F E; Kulmann, M I R; Maidana, S; Romera, S A; Spilki, F R; Silva, A D; Hübner, S O; Roehe, P M

    2014-06-25

    Establishment of latent infection within specific tissues in the host is a common biological feature of the herpesviruses. In the case of bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2), latency is established in neuronal tissues, while bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) latent virus targets on cells of the monocytic lineage. This study was conducted in quest of BoHV-2, BoHV-4 and OvHV-2 DNA in two hundred trigeminal ganglia (TG) specimens, derived from one hundred clinically healthy cattle, majority of them naturally infected with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5). Total DNA extracted from ganglia was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to amplify part of the genes coding for BoHV-2, and BoHV-4 glycoprotein B and, for OvHV-2, the gene coding for phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase-like protein. BoHV-2 DNA was detected in TG samples of two (2%) and BoHV-4 DNA in nine (9%) of the animals, whereas OvHV-2 DNA could not be detected in any of the TG DNA. The two animals in which BoHV-2 DNA was identified were also co-infected with BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. Within the nine animals in which BoHV-4 DNA was detected, six were also co-infected with BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. This report provides for the first time evidence that viral DNA from BoHV-2 and BoHV-4 can be occasionally detected in TG of naturally infected cattle. Likewise, in this report we provided for the first time evidence that the co-infection of cattle with three distinct bovine herpesviruses might be a naturally occurring phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparison of classical and H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism in wild type and EK211 cattle following intracranial inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006, a case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-H) was diagnosed in a cow that was associated with a heritable polymorphism in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) resulting in a lysine for glutamine amino acid substitution at codon 211 (called E211K) of the prion protein. Although t...

  10. Metabolism and Calcification of Bovine Tooth Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    高木, 亨; 田上, 順次; 中村, 聡; Tohru, Takagi; Junji, TAGAMI; Satoshi, Nakamura; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 生化学講座; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 歯科保存学第1講座; 東京医科歯科大学歯学部 医用器材研究所; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Institute of Medical and Dental Engineering, Faculty of Dentistry Tokyo Medical and Dental University

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mineralization mechanism in developing enamel using pH staining. Unerupted bovine teeth were used for the expriment. The activity of a proteolytic enzyme was evaluated against enamel protein obtainedfrom bovine enamel. Crystals in developing enamel, which were classlfied into neutral zone 1 and 2, acid zone 1 and 2, were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and power X-ray diffractometry. Proteolytic enzyme showed the hig...

  11. Interactions between bovine cornea proteoglycans and collagen.

    OpenAIRE

    Speziale, P.; Bardoni, A; Balduini, C.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of proteoglycan subunits were obtained from bovine cornea, the first mainly composed of proteochondroitin sulphate and the second of proteokeratan sulphate. These two fractions can be obtained from the tissue as an aggregate, and are able to recombine each other after separation, to re-form the original structure. In order to investigate collagen-proteoglycan interactions, type-I collagen was isolated from bovine cornea by pepsin digestion followed by 3.5% (w/v) NaCl precipitation, ...

  12. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell profileration and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey M; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E

    2009-01-01

    with immune system function (e.g., CD14, IL8, IL1B, and TLR2) and negative relationships with genes involved with lipid metabolism (e.g., GPAM, SCD, FABP4, CD36, and LPL) and antioxidant activity (SOD1). Conclusion Results provided novel information into the early signaling and metabolic pathways in mammary...... of lipid synthesis, stress-activated kinase signaling cascades, and PPAR signaling (most likely PPARγ). This latter effect may provide a mechanistic explanation for the inverse relationship between immune response and milk fat synthesis....

  13. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli gains a competitive advantage by using ethanolamine as a nitrogen source in the bovine intestinal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Yolande; Girardeau, J P; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Lyan, Bernard; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Harel, Josée; Martin, Christine

    2011-02-01

    The bovine gastrointestinal tract is the main reservoir for enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) responsible for food-borne infections. Characterization of nutrients that promote the carriage of these pathogens by the ruminant would help to develop ecological strategies to reduce their survival in the bovine gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we show for the first time that free ethanolamine (EA) constitutes a nitrogen source for the O157:H7 EHEC strain EDL933 in the bovine intestinal content because of induction of the eut (ethanolamine utilization) gene cluster. In contrast, the eut gene cluster is absent in the genome of most species constituting the mammalian gut microbiota. Furthermore, the eutB gene (encoding a subunit of the enzyme that catalyses the release of ammonia from EA) is poorly expressed in non-pathogenic E. coli. Accordingly, EA is consumed by EHEC but is poorly metabolized by endogenous microbiota of the bovine small intestine, including commensal E. coli. Interestingly, the capacity to utilize EA as a nitrogen source confers a growth advantage to E. coli O157:H7 when the bacteria enter the stationary growth phase. These data demonstrate that EHEC strains take advantage of a nitrogen source that is not consumed by the resident microbiota, and suggest that EA represents an ecological niche favouring EHEC persistence in the bovine intestine.

  15. Identification and characterization of miRNAs expressed in the bovine ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tholen Ernst

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are the major class of gene-regulating molecules playing diverse roles through sequence complementarity to target mRNAs at post-transcriptional level. Tightly regulated expression and interaction of a multitude of genes for ovarian folliculogenesis could be regulated by these miRNAs. Identification of them is the first step towards understanding miRNA-guided gene regulation in different biological functions. Despite increasing efforts in miRNAs identification across various species and diverse tissue types, little is known about bovine ovarian miRNAs. Here, we report the identification and characterization of miRNAs expressed in the bovine ovary through cloning, expression analysis and target prediction. Results The miRNA library (5'-independent ligation cloning method, which was constructed from bovine ovary in this study, revealed cloning of 50 known and 24 novel miRNAs. Among all identified miRNAs, 38 were found to be new for bovine and were derived from 43 distinct loci showing characteristic secondary structure. While 22 miRNAs precursor loci were found to be well conserved in more than one species, 16 were found to be bovine specific. Most of the miRNAs were cloned multiple times, in which let-7a, let-7b, let-7c, miR-21, miR-23b, miR-24, miR-27a, miR-126 and miR-143 were cloned 10, 28, 13, 4, 11, 7, 6, 4 and 11 times, respectively. Expression analysis of all new and some annotated miRNAs in different intra-ovarian structures and in other multiple tissues showed that some were present ubiquitously while others were differentially expressed among different tissue types. Bta-miR-29a was localized in the follicular cells at different developmental stages in the cyclic ovary. Bio-informatics prediction, screening and Gene Ontology analysis of miRNAs targets identified several biological processes and pathways underlying the ovarian function. Conclusion Results of this study suggest the presence of miRNAs in the

  16. A mRNA landscape of bovine embryos after standard and MAPK-inhibited culture conditions : a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkhof, Bas; Helena T. A. van Tol; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Riemers, Frank M; IJzer, Sascha G; Mashayekhi, Kaveh; Haagsman, Henk P; Roelen, Bernard A. J.; Holstege, FCP

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genes and signalling pathways involved in pluripotency have been studied extensively in mouse and human pre-implantation embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells. The unsuccessful attempts to generate ES cell lines from other species including cattle suggests that other genes and pathways are involved in maintaining pluripotency in these species. To investigate which genes are involved in bovine pluripotency, expression profiles were generated from morula, blastocyst, trophectoderm a...

  17. A mRNA landscape of bovine embryos after standard and MAPK-inhibited culture conditions: a comparative analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkhof, B.; van Tol, H.T.; Groot Koerkamp, M J; Riemers, F M; IJzer, S.G.; Mashayekhi, K.; Haagsman, H P; Roelen, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genes and signalling pathways involved in pluripotency have been studied extensively in mouse and human pre-implantation embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells. The unsuccessful attempts to generate ES cell lines from other species including cattle suggests that other genes and pathways are involved in maintaining pluripotency in these species. To investigate which genes are involved in bovine pluripotency, expression profiles were generated from morula, blastocyst, trophectoderm an...

  18. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat-Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Nishimori, Asami; Maekawa, Naoya; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Goto, Shinya; Nakajima, Chie; Kohara, Junko; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kato, Yukinari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat-bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.

  19. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat–Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Nishimori, Asami; Maekawa, Naoya; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Goto, Shinya; Nakajima, Chie; Kohara, Junko; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kato, Yukinari; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1), is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2) was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals. PMID:28638381

  20. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat–Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Okagawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1, is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2 was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV. Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.

  1. Susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial cells to bovine herpesviruses and pseudocowpox virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Jongejan, F.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial (BUE) cells to bovine herpesvirus (BHV) 1, BHV2, BHV4 and BHV5, and to pseudocowpox virus. the detection limits and growth curves of these viruses in BUE cells were compared with those in Vero,

  2. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all t...

  3. Gene changes may minimize masculinizing and defeminizing influences of exposure to male cotwins in female callitrichine primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A; Frye, Brett; Cavanaugh, Jon; Ren, Dongren; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Rapaport, Lisa; Mickelberg, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in female mammals can be altered by the proximity of male littermates in utero, a phenomenon known as the intrauterine position effect (IUP). Among simian primates, callitrichines (marmosets and tamarins) are likely candidates for IUP, since they exhibit obligate dizygotic twinning and fetuses share extensive vascularization in utero. In this paper, we determined whether female reproductive parameters are altered by gestating with a male twin and evaluated changes in genes associated with anti-Müllerian and steroid hormones in twinning callitrichine primates. We assessed the impact of gestation with male cotwins on reproductive performance and survivorship in female marmosets (Callithrix) and lion tamarins (Leontopithecus), contrasting measures for females gestated with one or more littermates (M+) or no male littermates (0M). We compared targeted coding regions for genes involved in steroidal and anti-Müllerian hormone mediation of sexual differentiation for representatives of twinning callitrichines (Callithrix, Saguinus, and Leontopithecus) with closely related New World primates that produce single births (Saimiri and Callimico). IUP effects in females were absent in female callitrichine primates: age at first ovulation, average litter size, and the proportion of stillborn infants, and lifetime survivorship did not differ between M+ and 0M females. We documented multiple nonsynonymous substitutions in genes associated with steroid synthesis, transport, and cellular action (SRD5A2, CYP19A1, SHBG, and AR) and with anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH and AMHR2) in callitrichines. In the only callitrichine to produce single infants (Callimico), two genes contained nonsynonymous substitutions relative to twinning callitrichines (CYP19A1 and AMRHR2); these substitutions were identical with nontwinning Saimiri and humans, suggesting a reversion to an ancestral sequence. In spite of a shared placental vasculature with opposite-sex twins throughout

  4. Bovine mammary stem cells: cell biology meets production agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuco, A V; Choudhary, R K; Daniels, K M; Li, R W; Evock-Clover, C M

    2012-03-01

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue repair. Accordingly, we and others have attempted to characterize and alter the function of bovine MaSC. In this review, we provide an overview of current knowledge of MaSC gained from studies using mouse and human model systems and present research on bovine MaSC within that context. Recent data indicate that MaSC retain labeled DNA for extended periods because of their selective segregation of template DNA strands during mitosis. Relying on this long-term retention of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled DNA, we identified putative bovine MaSC. These label-retaining epithelial cells (LREC) are in low abundance within mammary epithelium (laser microdissection and subsequent microarray analysis will hopefully provide markers for MaSC and insights into their regulation. Preliminary analyses of gene expression in laser-microdissected LREC and non-LREC are consistent with the concept that LREC represent populations of stem cells and progenitor cells that differ with regard to their properties and location within the epithelial layer. We have attempted to modulate the MaSC number by infusing a solution of xanthosine through the teat canal and into the ductal network of the mammary glands of prepubertal heifers. This treatment increased the number of putative stem cells, as evidenced by an increase in the percentage of LREC and increased telomerase activity within the tissue. The exciting possibility that stem cell expansion can influence milk production is currently under investigation.

  5. MicroRNA Expression during Bovine Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham C. Gilchrist

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Successful fertilization and subsequent embryo development rely on complex molecular processes starting with the development of oocyte competence through maturation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that function as gene regulators in many biological systems, including the oocyte and embryo. In order to further explore the roles of miRNAs in oocyte maturation, we employed small RNA sequencing as a screening tool to identify and characterize miRNA populations present in pools of bovine germinal vesicle (GV oocytes, metaphase II (MII oocytes, and presumptive zygotes (PZ. Each stage contained a defined miRNA population, some of which showed stable expression while others showed progressive changes between stages that were subsequently confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Bta-miR-155, bta-miR-222, bta-miR-21, bta-let-7d, bta-let-7i, and bta-miR-190a were among the statistically significant differentially expressed miRNAs (p < 0.05. To determine whether changes in specific primary miRNA (pri-miRNA transcripts were responsible for the observed miRNA changes, we evaluated pri-miR-155, -222 and let-7d expression. Pri-miR-155 and -222 were not detected in GV oocytes but pri-miR-155 was present in MII oocytes, indicating transcription during maturation. In contrast, levels of pri-let-7d decreased during maturation, suggesting that the observed increase in let-7d expression was likely due to processing of the primary transcript. This study demonstrates that both dynamic and stable populations of miRNAs are present in bovine oocytes and zygotes and extend previous studies supporting the importance of the small RNA landscape in the maturing bovine oocyte and early embryo.

  6. Detection and discrimination of common bovine mastitis-causing streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Alexandre; Albuquerque, Pedro; Araujo, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Niza; Tavares, Fernando

    2013-06-28

    Detection and typing of bovine mastitis pathogens are currently limited by time-consuming and culture-based techniques. In this work, a novel genus-specific DNA marker for Streptococcus and species-specific DNA markers for the prevalent mastitis pathogens Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis were designed and assessed. In order to enable further discrimination of these mastitis-causing streptococci, metabolic and pathogenicity-related genes were used to infer additional functional markers. A total of 12 DNA markers were validated with a set of 50 reference strains and isolates, representative of the Streptococcus genus, of closely related species and of microorganisms with matching habitats. The experimental validation, using dot blot hybridization under high stringency conditions, confirmed the specificity of the selected markers. The broad-spectrum taxonomic marker (ST1) was specific to the Streptococcus genus and the markers selected for S. agalactiae (A1 and A2) and S. uberis (U1 and U2) were shown to be species-specific. The functional markers revealed strain-specific patterns of S. agalactiae and S. uberis. Markers derived from the fructose operon (FO1 and FO3) were specific to bovine isolates of S. agalactiae, and the nisin operon markers (NU1 and NU3) were able to discriminate isolates belonging to S. agalactiae and S. uberis. The virulence-associated markers (V1, V2 and V3) allowed the detection of S. uberis and of closely related species. This work suggests that the combined use of these novel taxa-specific markers coupled with discriminatory functional markers presents a promising approach for the rapid and cost-effective detection and discrimination of common bovine mastitis-causing pathogens, which will contribute to an improved treatment and control of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sanchez, Brian C. [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sepulveda, Maria S., E-mail: mssepulv@purdue.edu [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2009-10-19

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens ({mu}g/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl{sub 2}) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 {mu}g/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 {mu}g/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 {mu}g/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 {mu}g/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  8. Different behavior toward bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection of bovine prion protein transgenic mice with one extra repeat octapeptide insert mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, J; Gutiérrez-Adán, A; Brun, A; Pintado, B; Parra, B; Ramírez, M A; Salguero, F J; Díaz San Segundo, F; Rábano, A; Cano, M J; Torres, J M

    2004-03-03

    In humans, insert mutations within the repetitive octapeptide region of the prion protein gene (Prnp) are often associated with familial spongiform encephalopathies. In this study, transgenic mice expressing bovine PrP (boTg mice) bearing an additional octapeptide insertion to the wild type (seven octapeptide repeats instead of six) showed an altered course of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infection, reflected as reduced incubation times when compared with boTg mice expressing similar levels of the wild-type six-octapeptide protein. In both boTg mouse lines (bo6ORTg and bo7ORTg), incubation times were affected drastically depending on transgene expression levels and the inoculum used. In accordance with the lack of an interspecies barrier to BSE infection, we detected the typical signs of CNS spongiform degeneration by histopathological analysis and the presence of the bovine prion PrP(res) by Western blot or immunohistochemical analyses. When 7OR-PrP(res) was propagated in bo7ORTg mice, a similar earlier onset of clinical signs was observed compared with bo6ORTg mice. Proteins PrP(C) and PrP(res) containing seven octapeptides (7OR-PrP(C) and 7OR-PrP(res)) showed similar protease sensitivity and insolubility in nondenaturing detergents to homologous 6OR-PrP(C) and 6OR-PrP(res). In addition, bo7ORTg mice showed a higher sensitivity than bo6ORTg mice for detecting prion infection in specimens previously diagnosed as negative by conventional biochemical techniques. In the absence of clinical signs of disease, 7OR-PrP(res) could be detected as early as 120 d after inoculation by immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. These findings may help us improve the current mouse bioassays and understand the role of the octapeptide repeat region in susceptibility to disease.

  9. Perfusion-Cultured Bovine Anterior Segments as an Ex Vivo Model for Studying Glucocorticoid-Induced Ocular Hypertension and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Vidales, Tara; Yorio, Thomas; Wordinger, Robert J.; Clark, Abbot F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether perfusion-cultured bovine anterior segments would be a suitable model for glaucoma research. Methods. Fresh bovine eyes were dissected and sealed on a custom-made acrylic dish with an O-ring. Perfusion medium was infused by a syringe pump at a constant infusion rate of 5 μL/min. After intraocular pressure (IOP) was stable, bovine eyes were perfused with medium containing either a vehicle control (0.1% ethanol [ETH]) or dexamethasone (DEX) for up to 7 days. IOP was recorded by a pressure transducer and a computerized system. Perfusion medium was collected for Western immunoblot analysis of myocilin (MYOC). Results. The morphology of the bovine trabecular meshwork after perfusion culture was similar to that of freshly dissected, nonperfused bovine eyes. Treatment with DEX elevated IOP in some bovine eyes, whereas others showed little change. The authors analyzed the data from 18 ETH-treated control eyes and defined 2.82 mm Hg as the threshold of ocular hypertension (OHT), which equals mean pressure change + 2× SD. Approximately 40% (12/29) of the bovine eyes were DEX responders, which is very close to the DEX-responsive rates observed in human and monkey eyes. Western blot data showed that DEX treatment induced the expression of the DEX-inducible gene MYOC only in the perfusion-cultured anterior segments with DEX-induced OHT. Conclusions. OHT can be induced by DEX in perfusion-cultured bovine anterior segments. This is a fast, convenient, affordable, and reliable model for studying DEX-induced OHT and the mechanisms of trabecular outflow. PMID:21911581

  10. Cloning and characterization of a bovine adeno-associated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Katano, Hisako; Bossis, Ioannis; Chiorini, John A

    2004-06-01

    To better understand the relationship between primate adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) and those of other mammals, we have cloned and sequenced the genome of an AAV found as a contaminant in two isolates of bovine adenovirus that was reported to be serologically distinct from primate AAVs. The bovine AAV (BAAV) genome has 4,693 bp, and its organization is similar to that of other AAV isolates. The left-hand open reading frame (ORF) and both inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) have the highest homology with the rep ORF and ITRs of AAV serotype 5 (AAV-5) (89 and 96%, respectively). However, the right-hand ORF was only 55% identical to the AAV-5 capsid ORF; it had the highest homology with the capsid ORF of AAV-4 (76%). By comparing the BAAV cap sequence with a model of an AAV-4 capsid, we mapped the regions of BAAV VP1 that are divergent from AAV-4. These regions are located on the outside of the capsid and are partially located in exposed loops. BAAV was not neutralized by antisera raised against recombinant AAV-2, AAV-4, or AAV-5, and it demonstrated a unique cell tropism profile in four human cancer cell lines, suggesting that BAAV might have transduction activity distinct from that of other isolates. A murine model of salivary gland gene transfer was used to evaluate the in vivo performance of recombinant BAAV. Recombinant BAAV-mediated gene transfer was 11 times more efficient than that with AAV-2. Overall, these data suggest that vectors based on BAAV could be useful for gene transfer applications.

  11. Serological responses in calves to vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhoea and parainfluenza-3 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, M; Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Vignolo, E; Di Pasquale, I

    1996-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Italy, is in charge of assessing the quality, safety and efficacy of veterinary vaccines before and after licensing. To evaluate the relative potency of several vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), the serological responses in vaccinated calves were studied. Vaccination with any of the vaccines under study induced specific antibody titres against the different viral antigens. The differences of the mean antibody titres within and among the test group vaccines were statistically significant. The results confirm and support those obtained by other authors in similar studies, suggesting that serological responses in vaccinated calves can be used as a helpful means of assessing the relative potency of vaccines against viral respiratory diseases of cattle. The criteria allowing such an evaluation are discussed.

  12. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  13. Novel genes involved in pathophysiology of gonadotropin-dependent adrenal tumors in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doroszko, Milena; Chrusciel, Marcin; Belling, Kirstine González-Izarzugaza

    2017-01-01

    reported Gata4 and Lhcgr, we found up-regulated Esr1, Prlr-rs1, and down-regulated Grb10, Mmp24, Sgcd, Rerg, Gnas, Nfatc2, Gnrhr, Igf2 in inhα/Tag adrenal tumors. Sex-steroidogenic enzyme genes expression (Srd5a1, Cyp19a1) was up-regulated in tumors, but adrenal-specific steroidogenic enzyme (Cyp21a1, Cyp......11b1, Cyp11b2) down-regulated. We localized novel Lhcgr transcripts in adrenal cortex parenchyma and in non-steroidogenic A cells, in GDX WT and in intact WT mice. We identified up-regulated Esr1 as a potential novel biomarker of gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical tumors in inhα/Tag mice presenting...... with an inverted adrenal-to-gonadal steroidogenic gene expression profile. A putative normal adrenal remodeling or tumor suppressor role of the down-regulated genes (e.g. Grb10, Rerg, Gnas, and Nfatc2) in the tumors remains to be addressed....

  14. Bovine Eimeria species in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, H; Joachim, A; Tichy, A; Baumgartner, W

    2012-05-01

    Bovine eimeriosis is considered to be of considerable importance for the productivity and health of cattle worldwide. Despite the importance of cattle farming in Austria, little is known in this country about the abundance and distribution of bovine Eimeria spp. The objective of this study was to obtain detailed information about the occurrence of different Eimeria spp. on Austrian dairy farms. Fecal samples from individual calves (n = 868) from 296 farms all over Austria (82 districts) were collected. Additionally, each farmer was questioned about the occurrence of calf diarrhea, and about the knowledge on coccidiosis and possible control measures. On 97.97% of the investigated farms, calves excreted Eimeria oocysts, and 83.67% of the individual samples were positive. After sporulation of positive samples pooled from each farm, 11 Eimeria species were found, with E. bovis (in 65.54% of the samples and 27.74% of the farms), E.zuernii (63.85%/13.86%), E. auburnensis (56.76%/13.41%) and E. ellipsoidalis (54.05%/14.38%) being the most prevalent, followed by E. alabamensis (45.61%/11.56%), E. subspherica (35.14%/5.5.05%), E. cylindrica (33.11%/7.00%), and E. canadensis (31.08%/7.74%). E. wyomingensis, E. pellita and E. bukidnonensis were only found sporadically (3.04-4.73% of the samples and 0.16-0.59% of the farms). Mixed infections were present on all farms (2-9 Eimeria species/farm). Prevalences by state provinces were high throughout with 77.1-87.9% of the samples and 93.8-100% of the farms. Lower Austria had the highest percentage of positive farms, and Vorarlberg the lowest. Individual OPG (oocysts per gram of feces) values were generally low; 75% of the samples had an OPG of 1,000 or less. The highest detected OPG was 72,400. The mean OPG was 2,525 with above average numbers in Tirol, Carinthia, and Lower Austria. The mean OPG values were significantly positively correlated with the cattle density in the different districts. The majority of the samples were from

  15. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of ...

  16. Investigation of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk factors for human infection with bovine tuberculosis among dairy and non-dairy farming neighbour households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya.

  17. A polymorphism at the 3'-UTR region of the aromatase gene defines a subgroup of postmenopausal breast cancer patients with poor response to neoadjuvant letrozole

    OpenAIRE

    Albaladejo Carlos; Campos Josefina; Cervera-Deval Jose; Almenar Sergio; Climent Miguel A; Gavila Joaquin; Ruiz-Simon Amparo; Fernandez-Serra Antonio; Calatrava Ana; Llombart-Cussac Antonio; Guerrero-Zotano Angel; Garcia-Casado Zaida; Llombart-Bosch Antonio; Guillem Vicente; Lopez-Guerrero Jose A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Aromatase (CYP19A1) regulates estrogen biosynthesis. Polymorphisms in CYP19A1 have been related to the pathogenesis of breast cancer (BC). Inhibition of aromatase with letrozole constitutes the best option for treating estrogen-dependent BC in postmenopausal women. We evaluate a series of polymorphisms of CYP19A1 and their effect on response to neoadjuvant letrozole in early BC. Methods We analyzed 95 consecutive postmenopausal women with stage II-III ER/PgR [+] BC treated...

  18. Genetic association of marbling score with intragenic nucleotide variants at selection signals of the bovine genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J; Lee, C

    2016-04-01

    Selection signals of Korean cattle might be attributed largely to artificial selection for meat quality. Rapidly increased intragenic markers of newly annotated genes in the bovine genome would help overcome limited findings of genetic markers associated with meat quality at the selection signals in a previous study. The present study examined genetic associations of marbling score (MS) with intragenic nucleotide variants at selection signals of Korean cattle. A total of 39 092 nucleotide variants of 407 Korean cattle were utilized in the association analysis. A total of 129 variants were selected within newly annotated genes in the bovine genome. Their genetic associations were analyzed using the mixed model with random polygenic effects based on identical-by-state genetic relationships among animals in order to control for spurious associations produced by population structure. Genetic associations of MS were found (Pgenome. Further studies of fine mapping would be useful to incorporate favorable alleles in marker-assisted selection for MS of Korean cattle.

  19. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  20. Ovine rotavirus strain LLR-85-based bovine rotavirus candidate vaccines: construction, characterization and immunogenicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji-Tao; Li, Xin; Liu, Hai-Jun; Yu, Li

    2010-11-20

    Group A bovine rotaviruses (BRVs) are the most important cause of diarrheal diseases in neonatal calves and cause significant morbidity and mortality in the young animals, and epidemiologic surveillance of bovine rotavirus G genotypes conducted in various cattle populations throughout the world has shown that approximately 90% of the bovine rotavirus isolates belong to G6 and G10. Based on the modified Jennerian approach to immunization, we constructed and characterized a reassortant rotavirus stain, which bears a single bovine rotavirus VP7 gene encoding G genotype 6 specificity while the remaining 10 genes are derived from the ovine attenuated rotavirus LLR-85. The reassortant rotavirus strain, named as R191, and its parental virus strain LLR-85 were combined as bivalent vaccine candidates to inoculate the colostrums-deprived neonatal calves for evaluation of the immunogenicity. The calves were orally inoculated with the reassortant R191 (group 1), the parental rotavirus LLR-85 (group 2), or combined the R191 and LLR-85 (group 3), and serum specimens were detected to determine the immune response of IgG and IgA antibodies. Results showed that seroconversion to positivity for IgG and IgA antibodies occurred at postinoculation day (PID) 10 in all of the inoculated calves, and the highest titers of the serum IgG (range 1:800 to 1:6400) and IgA (range 1:800 to 1:3200) antibodies were obtained at PID 21 for all calves. Meanwhile, virus shedding was detected after inoculation, showing that the inoculated virus was positive in 2 of 77 fecal specimens (2.6%) collected from the inoculated calves during the first 7 days of oral inoculation with the rotavirus vaccine candidates. The results suggested that the rotavirus strains R191 and LLR-85 are promising bivalent vaccine candidates for the prevention of bovine G6 and G10 rotavirus infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Histophilus somni Stimulates Expression of Antiviral Proteins and Inhibits BRSV Replication in Bovine Respiratory Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lin

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV followed by Histophilus somni causes more severe bovine respiratory disease and a more permeable alveolar barrier in vitro than either agent alone. However, microarray analysis revealed the treatment of bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2 epithelial cells with H. somni concentrated culture supernatant (CCS stimulated up-regulation of four antiviral protein genes as compared with BRSV infection or dual treatment. This suggested that inhibition of viral infection, rather than synergy, may occur if the bacterial infection occurred before the viral infection. Viperin (or radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2--RSAD2 and ISG15 (IFN-stimulated gene 15--ubiquitin-like modifier were most up-regulated. CCS dose and time course for up-regulation of viperin protein levels were determined in treated bovine turbinate (BT upper respiratory cells and BAT2 lower respiratory cells by Western blotting. Treatment of BAT2 cells with H. somni culture supernatant before BRSV infection dramatically reduced viral replication as determined by qRT PCR, supporting the hypothesis that the bacterial infection may inhibit viral infection. Studies of the role of the two known H. somni cytotoxins showed that viperin protein expression was induced by endotoxin (lipooligosaccharide but not by IbpA, which mediates alveolar permeability and H. somni invasion. A naturally occurring IbpA negative asymptomatic carrier strain of H. somni (129Pt does not cause BAT2 cell retraction or permeability of alveolar cell monolayers, so lacks virulence in vitro. To investigate initial steps of pathogenesis, we showed that strain 129Pt attached to BT cells and induced a strong viperin response in vitro. Thus colonization of the bovine upper respiratory tract with an asymptomatic carrier strain lacking virulence may decrease viral infection and the subsequent enhancement of bacterial respiratory infection in vivo.

  2. Transcriptional profiling of the bovine hepatic response to experimentally induced E. coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Buitenhuis, Bart; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian liver works to keep the body in a state of homeostasis and plays an important role in systemic acute phase response to infections. In this study we investigated the bovine hepatic acute phase response at the gene transcription level in dairy cows with experimentally E. coli-induced ...

  3. Protection against bovine leukosis virus infection in sheep with the BL 20 bovine lymphoblastoid cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D H; Lucas, M H; Sands, J; Wibberley, G

    1982-11-01

    The bovine lymphoblastoid BL 20 cell line derived from a case of sporadic bovine leukosis when inoculated into sheep did not induce an antibody response directed against bovine leukosis virus (BLV) structural proteins. Sheep were inoculated twice with the BL 20 cell line and then challenged with BLV infected lymphocytes. Three out of four sheep challenged four weeks after BL 20 inoculation did not develop BLV antibodies. Of the 12 sheep challenged later, three sheep did not develop BLV antibodies. BLV was isolated from all the seropositive animals and from none of the seronegative animals.

  4. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's Solution...

  5. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosomespecific primers, followed ...

  6. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cultures for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine...

  7. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All...

  8. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.310 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall... as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine...

  9. Effect of melatonin on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Vs 17.67, 15.68, 16.53). In conclusion in this experiment, melatonin cannot improve cumulus cell expansion and nuclear maturation of bovine oocytes. When concentrations is high, melatonin may affect bovine oocytes meiotic maturation at metaphase-1 stage, but it is improbable melatonin be toxic for bovine oocytes.

  10. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY... extending the comment period on a new framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis... bovine brucellosis in the United States. The notice stated that USDA would hold four public meetings...

  11. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to partnering...

  12. Bovine liver slices: A multifunctional in vitro model to study the prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijk, Jeroen C W; Bovee, Toine F H; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Groot, Maria J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Nielen, Michel W F

    2012-09-01

    Biotransformation of inactive prohormones like dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can lead to the formation of potent androgens and subsequent androgenic responses in target tissues. In the present study, precision-cut bovine liver slices were used to study the effects of DHEA on the metabolite, transcript and androgenic activity level. Bovine liver slices were exposed for 6h to various concentrations of DHEA. Changes in androgenic activity of the DHEA containing cell culture media were measured using a yeast androgen bioassay and metabolites were identified using ultra performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOFMS), while gene expression in the DHEA-treated liver slices was examined using bovine microarrays and compared with the profile as obtained with 17ß-testosterone (17ß-T). An increase in androgenic activity was observed in the bioassay upon testing of samples from incubations of DHEA with liver slices and the formation of 4-androstenedione (4-AD), 5-androstene-3ß,17ß-diol, 17ß-T, 7α-hydroxy-DHEA, 7-keto-DHEA and 17α-T could be confirmed by UPLC-TOFMS analysis. Exposure of liver slices to DHEA and the strong androgen 17ß-T resulted in the identification of significantly up- and down-regulated genes and revealed similar gene expression profiles for both compounds. The results indicate that DHEA itself is biologically not very active, but is rapidly converted by the liver slices into the more androgen active compounds 4-AD and 17ß-T. Moreover, the present data highlight the multi-functionality of bovine liver slices as an in vitro bioactivation model, allowing the assessment of androgen activity or gene expression as effect-based endpoints for prohormone exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zade, Jagdish K; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Desai, Sajjad A; Sabale, Rajendra N; Naik, Sameer P; Dhere, Rajeev M

    2014-08-11

    A bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV) containing rotavirus human-bovine (UK) reassortant strains of serotype G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9 has been developed by the Serum Institute of India Ltd, in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA. The vaccine underwent animal toxicity studies and Phase I and II studies in adults, toddlers and infants. It has been found safe and immunogenic and will undergo a large Phase III study to assess efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic......, critical evaluation of the current state of knowledge in this area. Fifty-one eligible studies were identified from the following databases: Medline, Embase, Global Health, the Cochrane Library, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies were heterogeneous with regard...

  15. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes of several species can be divided into different subpopulations with distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Herein, we aim at reviewing published work regarding the heterogeneity of the recently characterized bovine monocyte subsets. As the heterogeneity of human blood monocytes was widely studied and reviewed, this work focuses on comparing bovine monocyte subsets with their human counterparts regarding their phenotype, adhesion and migration properties, inflammatory and antimicrobial functions, and their ability to interact with neutrophilic granulocytes. In addition, the differentiation of monocyte subsets into functionally polarized macrophages is discussed. Regarding phenotype and distribution in blood, bovine monocyte subsets share similarities with their human counterparts. However, many functional differences exist between monocyte subsets from the two species. In contrast to their pro-inflammatory functions in human, bovine non-classical monocytes show the lowest phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation capacity, an absent ability to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β after inflammasome activation, and do not have a role in the early recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. Classical and intermediate monocytes of both species also differ in their response toward major monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5 and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP in vitro. Such differences between homologous monocyte subsets also extend to the development of monocyte-derived macrophages under the influence of chemokines like CCL5 and neutrophil DGP. Whereas the latter induce the differentiation of M1-polarized macrophages in human, bovine monocyte-derived macrophages develop a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. Although only a few bovine clinical trials analyzed the correlation between changes in monocyte composition and disease, they suggest that functional differences between

  16. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Expression Profiles of In Vitro Produced Vitrified Bovine Blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zongliang; Harrington, Patrick; Zhang, Ming; Marjani, Sadie L; Park, Joonghoon; Kuo, Lynn; Pribenszky, Csaba; Tian, Xiuchun Cindy

    2016-02-17

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been used to pre-condition embryos before essential, yet potentially detrimental procedures such as cryopreservation. However, the mechanisms for HHP are poorly understood. We treated bovine blastocysts with three different HHP (40, 60 and 80 MPa) in combination with three recovery periods (0, 1 h, 2 h post HHP). Re-expansion rates were significantly higher at 40 and 60 but lower at 80 MPa after vitrification-warming in the treated groups than controls. Microarray analysis revealed 399 differentially expressed transcripts, representing 254 unique genes, among different groups. Gene ontology analysis indicated that HHP at 40 and 60 MPa promoted embryo competence through down-regulation of genes in cell death and apoptosis, and up-regulation of genes in RNA processing, cellular growth and proliferation. In contrast, 80 MPa up-regulated genes in apoptosis, and down-regulated protein folding and cell cycle-related genes. Moreover, gene expression was also influenced by the length of the recovery time after HHP. The significantly over-represented categories were apoptosis and cell death in the 1 h group, and protein folding, response to unfolded protein and cell cycle in the 2 h group compared to 0 h. Taken together, HHP promotes competence of vitrified bovine blastocysts through modest transcriptional changes.

  17. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Expression Profiles of In Vitro Produced Vitrified Bovine Blastocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zongliang; Harrington, Patrick; Zhang, Ming; Marjani, Sadie L.; Park, Joonghoon; Kuo, Lynn; Pribenszky, Csaba; Tian, Xiuchun (Cindy)

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been used to pre-condition embryos before essential, yet potentially detrimental procedures such as cryopreservation. However, the mechanisms for HHP are poorly understood. We treated bovine blastocysts with three different HHP (40, 60 and 80 MPa) in combination with three recovery periods (0, 1 h, 2 h post HHP). Re-expansion rates were significantly higher at 40 and 60 but lower at 80 MPa after vitrification-warming in the treated groups than controls. Microarray analysis revealed 399 differentially expressed transcripts, representing 254 unique genes, among different groups. Gene ontology analysis indicated that HHP at 40 and 60 MPa promoted embryo competence through down-regulation of genes in cell death and apoptosis, and up-regulation of genes in RNA processing, cellular growth and proliferation. In contrast, 80 MPa up-regulated genes in apoptosis, and down-regulated protein folding and cell cycle-related genes. Moreover, gene expression was also influenced by the length of the recovery time after HHP. The significantly over-represented categories were apoptosis and cell death in the 1 h group, and protein folding, response to unfolded protein and cell cycle in the 2 h group compared to 0 h. Taken together, HHP promotes competence of vitrified bovine blastocysts through modest transcriptional changes. PMID:26883277

  18. Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Mastitis and Close Human Contacts in South African Dairy Herds: Genetic Diversity and Inter-Species Host Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tracy; Kock, Marleen M.; Ehlers, Marthie M.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common etiological agents of contagious bovine mastitis worldwide. The purpose of this study was to genetically characterize a collection of S. aureus isolates (bovine = 146, human = 12) recovered from cases of bovine mastitis and nasal swabs of close human contacts in the dairy environment. Isolates were screened for a combination of clinically significant antimicrobial and virulence gene markers whilst the molecular epidemiology of these isolates and possible inter-species host transmission was investigated using a combination of genotyping techniques. None of the isolates under evaluation tested positive for methicillin or vancomycin resistance encoding genes. Twenty seven percent of the bovine S. aureus isolates tested positive for one or more of the pyrogenic toxin superantigen (PTSAg) genes with the sec and sell genes predominating. Comparatively, 83% of the human S. aureus isolates tested positive for one or more PTSAg genes with a greater variety of genes being detected. Genomic DNA macrorestriction followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of the bovine isolates generated 58 electrophoretic patterns which grouped into 10 pulsotypes at an 80% similarity level. The majority of the bovine isolates, 93.2% (136/146), clustered into four major pulsotypes. Seven sequence types (ST) were identified among the representative bovine S. aureus isolates genotyped, including: ST8 (CC8), ST97 (CC97), ST351 (CC705), ST352 (CC97), ST508 (CC45), ST2992 (CC97) and a novel sequence type, ST3538 (CC97). Based on PFGE analysis, greater genetic diversity was observed among the human S. aureus isolates. Bovine and human isolates from three sampling sites clustered together and were genotypically indistinguishable. Two of the isolates, ST97 and ST352 belong to the common bovine lineage CC97, and their isolation from close human contacts suggests zoonotic transfer. In the context of this study, the third isolate, ST8 (CC8), is

  19. Functional analyses of endometriosis-related polymorphisms in the estrogen synthesis and metabolism-related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Shih Wang

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is determined by genetic factors, and the prevalence of genetic polymorphisms varies greatly depending on the ethnic group studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of 9 genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism and the risks of endometriosis. Three hundred patients with endometriosis and 337 non-endometriotic controls were recruited. Thirty four non-synonymous SNPs, which change amino acid residues, were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. The functions of SNP-resulted amino acid changes were analyzed using multiple web-accessible databases and phosphorylation predicting algorithms. Among the 34 NCBI-listed SNPs, 22 did not exhibit polymorphism in this study of more than 600 Taiwanese Chinese women. However, homozygous and heterozygous mutants of 4 SNPs - rs6165 (genotype GG+GA, 307(Ala/Ala+307(Ala/Thr of FSHR, rs 6166 (genotype GG+GA, 680(Ser/Asn+680(Ser/Ser of FSHR, rs2066479 (genotype AA+AG, 289(Ser/Ser+289(Ser/Gly of HSD17B3 and rs700519 (genotype TT+TC, 264(Cys/Cys+264(Cys/Arg of CYP19, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with decreased risks of endometriosis. Bioinformatics results identified 307(Thr of FSHR to be a site for O-linked glycosylation, 680(Ser of FSHR a phosphorylated site by protein kinase B, and 289(Ser of HSD17B3 a phosphorylated site by protein kinase B or ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1. Results of this study suggest that non-synonymous polymorphisms of FSHR, HSD17B3 and CYP19 genes may modulate the risk of endometriosis in Taiwanese Chinese women. Identification of the endometrosis-preferential non-synonymous SNPs and the conformational changes in those proteins may pave the way for the development of more disease-specific drugs.

  20. Genetic patterns of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, Elina B; Lasagno, Mirta C; Odierno, Liliana M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic relationships among 40 Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Additionally, the association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was investigated. The isolates exhibited 17 PFGE patterns. Different strains were found within and among herds; however, a low number of isolates within the same herd shared an identical PFGE type. No association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was found. However, the detection of specific strains in some herds could indicate that some strains are more virulent than others. Further research needs to be undertaken to elucidate new virulence-associated genes that might contribute to the capability of these strains to produce infection. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of two distinct bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Paul Francis; Gravel, Jennifer Lillian; Mahony, Timothy John

    2008-07-01

    The partial gene sequencing of the matrix (M) protein from seven clinical isolates of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV-3), and the complete sequencing of a representative isolate (Q5592) was completed in this study. Nucleotide sequence analysis was initiated because of the failure of in-house BPIV-3 RT-PCR methods to yield expected products for four of the isolates. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the nucleotide sequences for the M-protein and the entire genome, using all of the available BPIV-3 nucleotide sequences, demonstrated that there were two distinct BPIV-3 genotypes (BPIV-3a and BPIV-3b). These newly identified genotypes have implications for the development of BPIV-3 molecular detection methods and may also impact on BPIV-3 vaccine formulations.

  2. Genetic patterns of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina B Reinoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic relationships among 40 Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Additionally, the association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was investigated. The isolates exhibited 17 PFGE patterns. Different strains were found within and among herds; however, a low number of isolates within the same herd shared an identical PFGE type. No association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was found. However, the detection of specific strains in some herds could indicate that some strains are more virulent than others. Further research needs to be undertaken to elucidate new virulence-associated genes that might contribute to the capability of these strains to produce infection.

  3. Bovine annulus fibrosus cell lines isolated from intervertebral discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kraus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult bovine (Bos taurus intervertebral disc is primarily comprised of two major tissue types: The outer annulus fibrosus (AF and the central nucleus pulposus (NP. We isolated several primary cell lineages of passage (P 0 cells from the AF tissue omitting typically used enzymatic tissue digestion protocols. The cells grow past p10 without signs of senescence in DMEM + 10% FCS on 0.1% gelatin coated/uncoated surfaces of standard cell culture plates and survive freeze-thawing. Preliminary analysis of the AF derived cells for expression of the two structural genes Col1a1 and Col2a1 was performed by PISH recapitulating the expression observed in vivo.

  4. Comparison of transcriptomic landscapes of bovine embryos using RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatib Hasan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in sequencing technologies have opened a new era of high throughput investigations. Although RNA-seq has been demonstrated in many organisms, no study has provided a comprehensive investigation of the bovine transcriptome using RNA-seq. Results In this study, we provide a deep survey of the bovine embryonic transcriptomes, the first application of RNA-seq in cattle. Embryos cultured in vitro were used as models to study early embryonic development in cattle. RNA amplified from limited amounts of starting total RNA were sequenced and mapped to the reference genome to obtain digital gene expression at single base resolution. In particular, gene expression estimates from more than 1.6 million unannotated bases in 1785 novel transcribed units were obtained. We compared the transcriptomes of embryos showing distinct developmental statuses and found genes that showed differential overall expression as well as alternative splicing. Conclusion Our study demonstrates the power of RNA-seq and provides further understanding of bovine preimplantation embryonic development at a fine scale.

  5. Fas-mediated apoptosis is suppressed by calf serum in cultured bovine luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarzynski, Dariusz J; Shibaya, Masami; Tasaki, Yukari; Korzekwa, Anna; Murakami, Shuko; Woclawek-Potocka, Izabela; Majewska, Magdalena; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2007-03-01

    Calf serum (CS) is a common supplement used in cell culture. It has been suggested that CS contains substances protecting cells against apoptosis. To examine whether a culture system including CS is appropriate for studying apoptosis in bovine luteal cells, we examined the influence of CS on the expression of Fas, bcl-2 and bax gene. Since progesterone (P(4)) is known to be an anti-apoptotic factor in bovine luteal cells, the present study was carried out to examine the P(4) effect on apoptosis. Bovine mid-luteal cells were exposed to Fas ligand (Fas L) in the presence or in the absence of P(4) antagonist (onapristone, OP) in a basal medium (BM) containing 5% CS (BM-CS) or BM containing 0.1% BSA (BM-BSA). Although Fas L alone, OP alone or Fas L plus OP did not show any cytotoxic effect on the cells cultured in BM-CS, administration of OP or OP in combination with Fas L resulted in the killing of 30% and 55% of the cells cultured in BM-BSA medium, respectively (pbovine luteal cells by promoting the ratio of bcl-2 to bax expression and by inhibiting Fas expression. Therefore, it may be suggested that CS contains such anti-apoptotic substances (growth factors) amplifying the cell survival pathways in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) in vitro.

  6. Human-to-bovine jump of Staphylococcus aureus CC8 is associated with the loss of a β-hemolysin converting prophage and the acquisition of a new staphylococcal cassette chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Resch

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus can colonize and infect both humans and animals, but isolates from both hosts tend to belong to different lineages. Our recent finding of bovine-adapted S. aureus showing close genetic relationship to the human S. aureus clonal complex 8 (CC8 allowed us to examine the genetic basis of host adaptation in this particular CC. Using total chromosome microarrays, we compared the genetic makeup of 14 CC8 isolates obtained from cows suffering subclinical mastitis, with nine CC8 isolates from colonized or infected human patients, and nine S. aureus isolates belonging to typical bovine CCs. CC8 isolates were found to segregate in a unique group, different from the typical bovine CCs. Within this CC8 group, human and bovine isolates further segregated into three subgroups, among which two contained a mix of human and bovine isolates, and one contained only bovine isolates. This distribution into specific clusters and subclusters reflected major differences in the S. aureus content of mobile genetic elements (MGEs. Indeed, while the mixed human-bovine clusters carried commonly human-associated β-hemolysin converting prophages, the bovine-only isolates were devoid of such prophages but harbored an additional new non-mec staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC unique to bovine CC8 isolates. This composite cassette carried a gene coding for a new LPXTG-surface protein sharing homologies with a protein found in the environmental bacterium Geobacillus thermoglucosidans. Thus, in contrast to human CC8 isolates, the bovine-only CC8 group was associated with the combined loss of β-hemolysin converting prophages and gain of a new SCC probably acquired in the animal environment. Remaining questions are whether the new LPXTG-protein plays a role in bovine colonization or infection, and whether the new SCC could further acquire antibiotic-resistance genes and carry them back to human.

  7. Human-to-bovine jump of Staphylococcus aureus CC8 is associated with the loss of a β-hemolysin converting prophage and the acquisition of a new staphylococcal cassette chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Grégory; François, Patrice; Morisset, Delphine; Stojanov, Milos; Bonetti, Eve J; Schrenzel, Jacques; Sakwinska, Olga; Moreillon, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can colonize and infect both humans and animals, but isolates from both hosts tend to belong to different lineages. Our recent finding of bovine-adapted S. aureus showing close genetic relationship to the human S. aureus clonal complex 8 (CC8) allowed us to examine the genetic basis of host adaptation in this particular CC. Using total chromosome microarrays, we compared the genetic makeup of 14 CC8 isolates obtained from cows suffering subclinical mastitis, with nine CC8 isolates from colonized or infected human patients, and nine S. aureus isolates belonging to typical bovine CCs. CC8 isolates were found to segregate in a unique group, different from the typical bovine CCs. Within this CC8 group, human and bovine isolates further segregated into three subgroups, among which two contained a mix of human and bovine isolates, and one contained only bovine isolates. This distribution into specific clusters and subclusters reflected major differences in the S. aureus content of mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Indeed, while the mixed human-bovine clusters carried commonly human-associated β-hemolysin converting prophages, the bovine-only isolates were devoid of such prophages but harbored an additional new non-mec staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) unique to bovine CC8 isolates. This composite cassette carried a gene coding for a new LPXTG-surface protein sharing homologies with a protein found in the environmental bacterium Geobacillus thermoglucosidans. Thus, in contrast to human CC8 isolates, the bovine-only CC8 group was associated with the combined loss of β-hemolysin converting prophages and gain of a new SCC probably acquired in the animal environment. Remaining questions are whether the new LPXTG-protein plays a role in bovine colonization or infection, and whether the new SCC could further acquire antibiotic-resistance genes and carry them back to human.

  8. New Insights Into the Role of Estrogens in Male Fertility Based on Findings in Aromatase-Deficient Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haipei; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yun; Yin, Yike; Li, Gaofei; Guo, Yin; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2017-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that estrogens are indispensable for male fertility in mammals. Aromatase (encoded by CYP19) catalyzes the final step of estradiol biosynthesis. However, less is known about the role of aromatase in male fertility in nonmammalian species. Fish aromatase is encoded by two separate genes: the gonad-specific cyp19a1a and the brain-specific cyp19a1b. In a recent study, we used transcription activatorlike effector nucleases to systematically generate cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b mutant lines and a cyp19a1a;cyp19a1b double-mutant line in zebrafish and demonstrated that cyp19a1a was indispensable for sex differentiation. In this study, we focused on male fertility in these aromatase-deficient zebrafish. Our results showed that all aromatase-deficient male fish had normal fertility even at 1 year after fertilization. Interestingly, we observed more spermatozoa in the cyp19a1a and double-mutant males than in the wild-type and cyp19a1b mutant males. The whole-body androgen levels, follicle-stimulating hormone β and luteinizing hormone β protein levels in the pituitary, and transcript levels of genes known to be involved in spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in the testes were significantly higher in the cyp19a1a mutant and aromatase double-mutant males than in the wild-type and cyp19a1b mutant males. These results might explain why more spermatozoa were observed in these fish. Collectively, our findings indicate that estrogens are not needed to achieve and maintain normal fertility in male zebrafish. This finding challenges the traditional view that estrogens are indispensable for male fertility. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  9. Evaluation of developmental changes in bovine in vitro produced embryos following exposure to bovine Herpesvirus type 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner Mariana PC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Herpesvirus type-5 (BoHV-5 is a neurovirulent α-Herpesvirus which is potentially pathogenic for cows and suspected to be associated with reproductive disorders. Interestingly, natural transmission of BoHV-5 by contaminated semen was recently described in Australia. Additionally, BoHV-5 was also isolated from the semen of a healthy bull in the same country and incriminated in a natural outbreak of reproductive disease after artificial insemination. In contrast with BoHV-1, experimental exposure of in vitro produced bovine embryos to BoHV-5 does not affect embryo viability and seems to inhibit some pathways of apoptosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for these phenomena are poorly understood. In this study, we examined mitochondrial activity, antioxidant protection, stress response and developmental rates of in vitro produced bovine embryos that were exposed and unexposed to BoHV-5. Methods For this purpose, bovine embryos produced in vitro were assayed for cell markers after experimental infection of oocytes (n = 30; five repetitions, in vitro fertilization and development. The indirect immunofluorescence was employed to measure the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1, anti-oxidant like protein 1 (AOP-1, heat shock protein 70.1 (Hsp 70.1 and also viral antigens in embryos derived from BoHV-5 exposed and unexposed oocytes. The determination of gene transcripts of mitochondrial activity (SOD1, antioxidant protection (AOP-1 and stress response (Hsp70.1 were evaluated using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. MitoTracker Green FM, JC-1 and Hoechst 33342-staining were used to evaluate mitochondrial distribution, segregation patterns and embryos morphology. The intensity of labeling was graded semi-quantitatively and embryos considered intensively marked were used for statistical analysis. Results The quality of the produced embryos was not affected by exposure to BoHV-5. Of the 357

  10. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in reproductive tract and gametes of slaughtered bovine females

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Claudemir de; Freitas,Antonio Carlos de; Brunner,Olga; Góes,Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Cavalcante,Andréa Yaguiu; Beçak,Willy; Santos,Rita de Cassia Stocco dos

    2003-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are described selectively infecting epithelial tissues and are associated with many forms of cancer in different species. Considering the widespread dissemination of papillomatosis in livestock, interest is being centred on possible forms of viral transmission and respective mechanisms. In the present study, we report the detection of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA sequences in female reproductive tract tissues, fluids and oocytes from slaughtered bovines not afflicted by cu...

  11. Prototheca zopfii isolated from bovine mastitis induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Muhammad; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Yanan; Liu, Gang; Ali, Tariq; Deng, Youtian; Sabir, Naveed; Su, Jingliang; Han, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Bovine protothecal mastitis results in considerable economic losses worldwide. However, Prototheca zopfii induced morphological alterations and oxidative stress in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) is not comprehensively studied yet. Therefore, the aim of this current study was to investigate the P. zopfii induced pathomorphological changes, oxidative stress and apoptosis in bMECs. Oxidative stress was assessed by evaluating catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxi...

  12. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-(/sup 14/C)palmitate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and total (/sup 14/C)acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO/sup 2/ and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 ..mu..M). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 ..mu..M and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine.

  13. Developing a vaccine for eradicating contagious bovine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) — also known as lung plague — is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle that has serious economic and trade consequences in sub-Saharan Africa. CBPP kills up to 50% of infected animals, when newly introduced into a population, and many cattle.

  14. Activities for leptin in bovine trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C K; Xie, M M; McCoski, S R; Ealy, A D

    2017-01-01

    Leptin is involved in various reproductive processes in humans and rodents, including placental development and function. The specific ways that leptin in