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Sample records for bovine carcass weight

  1. Comparison of the effects explained by variations in the bovine PLAG1 and NCAPG genes on daily body weight gain, linear skeletal measurements and carcass traits in Japanese Black steers from a progeny testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiba, Hiroshi; Setoguchi, Kouji; Watanabe, Toshio; Kinoshita, Akihiro; Mizoshita, Kazunori; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Takasuga, Akiko

    2013-07-01

    The c.1326T>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the NCAPG gene, which leads to an amino acid change of Ile442 to Met442, was previously identified as a candidate causative variation for a bovine carcass weight quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 6, which was associated with linear skeletal measurement gains and daily body weight gain at puberty. Recently, we identified the stature quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) in the PLAG1-CHCHD7 intergenic region as the causative variations for another carcass weight QTL on chromosome 14. This study aimed to compare the effects of the two QTL on growth and carcass traits using 768 Japanese Black steers from a progeny testing program and to determine whether a genetic interaction was present between them. The FJX_250879 SNP representing the stature QTL was associated with linear skeletal measurements and average daily body weight gain at early and late periods during adolescence. A genetic interaction between FJX_250879 and NCAPG c.1326T>G was detected only for body and rump lengths. Both were associated with increased carcass weight and Longissimus muscle area, and NCAPG c.1326T>G was also associated with reduced subcutaneous fat thickness and increased carcass yield estimate. These results will provide useful information to improve carcass weight in Japanese Black cattle. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Retrospective study on bovine whole carcass and liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limited information exists in literature on the major reasons for whole carcass and organ condemnations in Ghana. A retrospective study spanning January 2002 to December 2013 was conducted at the Kumasi Abattoir to determine the pattern of bovine whole carcass, liver condemnation, and to estimate the direct financial ...

  3. Comparison of bacterial communities in leachate from decomposing bovine carcasses

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    Seung Hak Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Burial is associated with environmental effects such as the contamination of ground or surface water with biological materials generated during the decomposition process. Therefore, bacterial communities in leachates originating from the decomposing bovine carcasses were investigated. Methods To understand the process of bovine (Hanwoo carcass decomposition, we simulated burial using a lab-scale reactor with a volume of 5.15 m3. Leachate samples from 3 carcasses were collected using a peristaltic pump once a month for a period of 5 months, and bacterial communities in samples were identified by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results We obtained a total of 110,442 reads from the triplicate samples of various sampling time points (total of 15 samples, and found that the phylum Firmicutes was dominant at most sampling times. Differences in the bacterial communities at the various time points were observed among the triplicate samples. The bacterial communities sampled at 4 months showed the most different compositions. The genera Pseudomonas and Psychrobacter in the phylum Proteobacteria were dominant in all of the samples obtained after 3 months. Bacillaceae, Clostridium, and Clostridiales were found to be predominant after 4 months in the leachate from one carcass, whereas Planococcaceae was found to be a dominant in samples obtained at the first and second months from the other two carcasses. The results showed that potentially pathogenic microbes such as Clostridium derived from bovine leachate could dominate the soil environment of a burial site. Conclusion Our results indicated that the composition of bacterial communities in leachates of a decomposing bovine shifted continuously during the experimental period, with significant changes detected after 4 months of burial.

  4. Predicting carcass cut yield by carcass weight and visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strydom

    similar residual standard deviation values (rsd) for predicting saleable yield with different VIA systems when. The South ... carcass on lean yield is mostly a result of different ways of investigating the matter and different definitions ... By contrast, they defined conformation as thickness of the muscle, intermuscular fat and.

  5. Whole genome association study identifies regions of the bovine genome and biological pathways involved in carcass trait performance in Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Anthony G; Berry, Donagh P; Creevey, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Four traits related to carcass performance have been identified as economically important in beef production: carcass weight, carcass fat, carcass conformation of progeny and cull cow carcass weight. Although Holstein-Friesian cattle are primarily utilized for milk production, they are also an important source of meat for beef production and export. Because of this, there is great interest in understanding the underlying genomic structure influencing these traits. Several genome-wide association studies have identified regions of the bovine genome associated with growth or carcass traits, however, little is known about the mechanisms or underlying biological pathways involved. This study aims to detect regions of the bovine genome associated with carcass performance traits (employing a panel of 54,001 SNPs) using measures of genetic merit (as predicted transmitting abilities) for 5,705 Irish Holstein-Friesian animals. Candidate genes and biological pathways were then identified for each trait under investigation. Following adjustment for false discovery (q-value 0.5) with at least one of the four traits. In total, 557 unique bovine genes, which mapped to 426 human orthologs, were within 500kbs of QTL found associated with a trait using the Bayesian approach. Using this information, 24 significantly over-represented pathways were identified across all traits. The most significantly over-represented biological pathway was the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. A large number of genomic regions putatively associated with bovine carcass traits were detected using two different statistical approaches. Notably, several significant associations were detected in close proximity to genes with a known role in animal growth such as glucagon and leptin. Several biological pathways, including PPAR signaling, were shown to be involved in various aspects of bovine carcass performance. These core genes and biological processes may form the

  6. Microsatellite markers associated with body and carcass weights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsatellite markers are presently used in selection to facilitate the genetic improvement of growth and carcass traits in chickens. The genetic improvement of six weeks live body and carcass weights of Cairo B-2 line, after six generation of selection, was compared with the control line (C line). Cairo B-2 line had higher ...

  7. The effect of Bovine Growth Hormone on Growth, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Dairy Heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Foldager, John

    1993-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of bovine growth hormone (bGH) on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of dairy heifers. Nine monozygotic twin pairs of Friesian or Red Danish cattle were used, and pair-fed diet consisting of grass silage, barley and soybean meal. Within each pair...... fat by 13% (P dairy heifers around puberty stimulated growth and reduced carcass fattening...

  8. Survey on Sarcocystis in bovine carcasses slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt

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    Ali Meawad Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of Sarcocystis sp. infection in cattle and buffalo carcasses slaughtered at El-Kharga abattoir, New Valley Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The slaughtered animals were daily inspected for Sarcocystis macrocysts through a year (2015. Macroscopic Sarcocystis was detected from a total of 2120 cattle and buffalo carcasses. In addition, 100 meat samples were collected from female cattle and buffalo (50 each and were examined microscopically for sarcocystosis. Results: The overall incidence of Sarcocystis macrocyst among bovine carcasses was 159/2120 (7.5%. Total incidence in cattle was 149/2000 (7.45%, whereas it was 10/120 (8.33% in buffalo carcasses. Concerning gender, the overall prevalence of Sarcocystis infection was 127/1790 (7.09% in male and 32/330 (9.69% in females bovine carcasses. The highest detection rate of Sarcocystis lesions was from the esophagus (76.3% followed by throat muscles (35.3%, tongue (33.8%, and diaphragm muscles (18.71%. Macrocysts from cattle were identified to Sarcocystis hirsuta, whereas Sarcocystis fusiformis was identified from buffalo carcasses. By microscopic examination, 18 (36% of 50 female cattle carcasses harbor Sarcocystis sp., whereas 11 (22% of buffalo carcasses were harbored Sarcocystis microcysts. Conclusion: A high incidence of Sarcocystis infection was detected among slaughtered bovines in El-Kharga abattoir, Egypt. Sarcocystis macrocysts were a higher incidence in female elder animals macrocysts were identified to S. hirsuta in cattle and S. fusiformis in buffaloes. Sarcocystosis constitute a major cause of economic losses at El-Kharga abattoir. Beef meat may carry health risks to consumers.

  9. Survey onSarcocystisin bovine carcasses slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ali Meawad; Elshraway, Nagwa Thabet; Youssef, Ahmed Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of Sarcocystis sp. infection in cattle and buffalo carcasses slaughtered at El-Kharga abattoir, New Valley Governorate, Egypt. The slaughtered animals were daily inspected for Sarcocystis macrocysts through a year (2015). Macroscopic Sarcocystis was detected from a total of 2120 cattle and buffalo carcasses. In addition, 100 meat samples were collected from female cattle and buffalo (50 each) and were examined microscopically for sarcocystosis. The overall incidence of Sarcocystis macrocyst among bovine carcasses was 159/2120 (7.5%). Total incidence in cattle was 149/2000 (7.45%), whereas it was 10/120 (8.33%) in buffalo carcasses. Concerning gender, the overall prevalence of Sarcocystis infection was 127/1790 (7.09%) in male and 32/330 (9.69%) in females bovine carcasses. The highest detection rate of Sarcocystis lesions was from the esophagus (76.3%) followed by throat muscles (35.3%), tongue (33.8%), and diaphragm muscles (18.71%). Macrocysts from cattle were identified to Sarcocystis hirsuta , whereas Sarcocystis fusiformis was identified from buffalo carcasses. By microscopic examination, 18 (36%) of 50 female cattle carcasses harbor Sarcocystis sp., whereas 11 (22%) of buffalo carcasses were harbored Sarcocystis microcysts. A high incidence of Sarcocystis infection was detected among slaughtered bovines in El-Kharga abattoir, Egypt. Sarcocystis macrocysts were a higher incidence in female elder animals macrocysts were identified to S. hirsuta in cattle and S. fusiformis in buffaloes. Sarcocystosis constitute a major cause of economic losses at El-Kharga abattoir. Beef meat may carry health risks to consumers.

  10. Seasonal and annual variations in body weight and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Records kept by the Bauchi Meat Company, on 2,264 cattle slaughtered for meat, from 1982 to 1984, were analysed to study the influence of season and year on the weight of the body, carcass, bones, wholesale and retail cuts, and dressing percentage. Both season and year showed significant (P< 0.01) influence on traits ...

  11. Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers fed different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight and carcass characteristics of broilers was investigated in a feeding experiment using 135 broilers of Abor acre strain in a completely randomised design that lasted for eight weeks at the Teaching and Research farm, Department of Agricultural education, Federal College of Education (Technical) Akoka Lagos ...

  12. Visual and chemical tissue markers for bovine carcass components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lary, R.Y.; Byers, F.M.; Cross, H.R.; Schelling, G.T.; Petersen, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    A two-component, nontoxic, quantifiable animal/carcass tracing system was developed using riboflavin as an on-premises, initial carcass identifier visible under longwave ultraviolet (UV) light and deuterium oxide (D 2 O) as a tracer analytically quantified via fixed wavelength infrared spectrophotometry. Twenty-four cull cows and heifers were allocated into eight antemortem treatment groups (1, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 h) for evaluation of the efficacy of riboflavin and D 2 O as tissue tracers in postmortem meat tissues. All cattle were slaughtered using conventional procedures and inspection. To study postmortem riboflavin marker changes due to constant light exposure over time, fluorescence and emission intensity scores were obtained by a trained panel 24, 48, and 168 h postslaughter. The riboflavin marker intensity rating means for UV fluorescence were classified as identifiable on all carcasses when evaluated under UV light, but were classified as not identifiable when evaluated under ambient light. Deuterium oxide levels in all tissue water samples, regardless of antemortem infusion group, contained D 2 O concentrations at least 2.5 times greater than those found in background water. Deuterium oxide was shown to disperse rapidly throughout living tissues. Correlations within animals for D 2 O levels from blood and muscle were all highly significant (r = .99)

  13. Genetic parameters for EUROP carcass traits within different groups of cattle in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickey, J.M.; Keane, M.G.; Kenny, D.A.; Cromie, A.R.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to test the ability of systems of weighing and classifying bovine carcasses used in commercial abattoirs in Ireland to provide information that can be used for the purposes of genetic evaluation of carcass weight, carcass fatness class, and carcass conformation

  14. Effect of hot carcass weight on loin, ham, and belly quality from pigs sourced from a commercial processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine the predictive abilities of HCW for loin, ham, and belly quality of 7,684 pigs with carcass weights ranging from 53.2 to 129.6 kg. Carcass composition, subjective loin quality, and ham face color were targeted on all carcasses, whereas in-plant instrumental loin color ...

  15. Effect of hot carcass weight on fresh loin, ham, and belly quality from pigs sourced from a commercial processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to quantify the effect of HCW on pork primal quality of 7,684 pigs with carcass weights ranging from 53.2 to 129.6 kg. Carcass composition, subjective loin quality, and ham face color were collected on all carcasses. In-plant instrumental loin color and belly quality analyses were ...

  16. Genetic estimation of hot carcass weight in indigenous Matebele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameter estimation for simple carcass traits has been confined to the improved goat breeds worldwide unlike in the unimproved breeds in developing countries where goats are numerous. Variance components for additive direct, additive maternal, permanent environmental maternal effects, the covariance ...

  17. Intake, Digestibility, Body Weight and Carcass Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted over 90 days feeding and 7 days digestibility trials at Enda Selassie ATVET College to assess the effect of supplementation on feed utilization and carcass characteristics in tef (Eragrostis tef) straw based feeding of Tigray rams. The rams were arranged in a randomized complete block design ...

  18. Effects of lowering dietary fiber before marketing on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, M D; Derouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Houser, T A; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D

    2014-01-01

    A total of 264 pigs (initially 41.0 kg BW) were used in a 90-d study to determine the effects of lowering dietary fiber before market on pigs fed high dietary fiber [provided by wheat middlings (midds) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)] on growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights of growing-finishing pigs. Pens of pigs were randomly allotted by initial BW and sex to 1 of 6 treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 7 or 8 pigs per pen. A positive control (corn-soybean meal-based) diet containing no DDGS or midds (9.3% NDF) and a negative control diet with 30% DDGS and 19% midds (19% NDF) were fed throughout the entire trial (d 0 to 90). The other 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with the main effects of length of fiber reduction (23 or 47 d before marketing) and fiber level fed during the reduction period (low or medium). Pigs on these treatments were fed the negative control before the reduction treatment. The medium-fiber diet contained 15% DDGS and 9.5% midds (14.2% NDF) with the low-fiber diet was the positive control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of the low-fiber diets lowered overall ADFI (linear, P = 0.03) and improved G:F (linear, P fiber level for the last 23 d did not influence growth performance; however, lowering the fiber level improved carcass yield (P = 0.002), with a greater response (P fiber diet was fed for 23 d. Jowl fat iodine value (IV) decreased when the longer lower fiber diets were fed (linear, P fiber diet during the fiber reduction period than pigs fed the medium-fiber diet during the same time period; however, increasing the time lower fiber diets were fed from 23 to 47 d further reduced (P fiber level decreased full large intestine weight (linear, P = 0.005) with a greater response (P = 0.04) when the low-fiber diet was fed during the reduction period instead of the medium-fiber diet. In summary, lowering the fiber level before marketing can

  19. Effects of weight at slaughter and sex on the carcass characteristics of Florida suckling kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Francisco; Perea, J; García, A; Acero, R

    2007-03-01

    The effect of slaughter weight and sex on some carcass traits of suckling kids of the Florida breed was evaluated. A total of 60 kids (30 male and 30 female), fed exclusively on milk replacers, were slaughtered at 7-8kg (group 1), 10-11kg (group 2) or 14-15kg (group 3) of liveweight (mean weights of 7.6kg, 10.8kg and 14.4kg, respectively). Higher slaughter weights decreased the percentage of subproducts (blood, skin, head, feet) and internal organs (lungs+traquea, heart, liver, spleen, thymus) but significantly increased the percentage of intestine and fat depots (omental fat and mesenteric fat). Higher slaughter weights also increased carcass measures (L 40.5 vs 49.1; F 22.5 vs 25.9; G 10.4 vs 14.2; Wr 10.1 vs 13.9; Wth 8.0 vs 10.5; Th 16.5 vs 199; B 32.3 vs 42.4; PT 41.5 vs 50.8), compactness carcass index (96.6 vs 152.3) and compactness leg index (27.5 vs 44.1). Sex only significantly affected the percentages of feet, internal organs, omental fat, measure L, carcass compactness index and hind limb compactness index. The meat colour and fat colour were mainly scored as pale and white respectively in the carcasses of the lightest animals, whereas heavier kids were scored as pink and cream. Slaughter weight also influenced significantly the carcass fatness (score 1 in lightest kids and 2 or 3 in heavier ones). There were no significant (p>0.05) differences between slaughter weight group and sex in dressing percentages. Percentages corresponding to the long leg, back and neck (30-33%, 18-19% and 8-10%, respectively) decreased when the slaughter weight increased, whereas the ribs (23-25%) and the flank (10-11%) increased slightly. The carcasses comprised 57-58% muscle, 22-25% bone, 5-6% subcutaneous fat and 9-12% intermuscular fat. The percentage muscle stayed the same with increasing slaughter weight, whereas the bone decreased and the fat increased. The carcasses of the heavier females contained less lean and more fat than the males. The bone percentage was

  20. Effect of age and carcass weight on quality traits of m. rectus abdominis from Charolais heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellies-Oury, M P; Dumont, R; Perrier, G; Roux, M; Micol, D; Picard, B

    2017-04-01

    In practice cattle may be slaughtered at different combinations of age and weight. As each of these factors could affect meat quality traits, the present work aimed to identify which combination can be expected to increase overall meat quality of m. rectus abdominis of Charolais heifers. Totally, 40 heifers were slaughtered either at 26±1 or at 36±1 months of age. Young heifers were sampled at two different carcass weights (349±12 and 394±8 kg). Old heifers were also sampled at two different carcass weights (397±6 and 451±9 kg). The m. rectus abdominis was excised 24 h postmortem to determine metabolic enzyme activities, myosin heavy-chain isoform proportions, lipid contents, collagen content and collagen solubility. Shear force measurements were evaluated on raw and broiled meat after 14 days of ageing. Meat quality traits scored between 0 and 10 by sensory analysis. Increasing slaughter age from 26 to 36 months had no impact on either raw/broiled shear force (0.31⩽P⩽0.47) and/or meat quality traits (0.62⩽P⩽0.91) or on physicochemical properties of heifer's meat samples. Increasing carcass weight for a similar slaughter age of 26 months had also impact neither on meat quality traits (0.52⩽P⩽0.91) nor on muscular properties. On the contrary, increasing carcass weight for a similar slaughter age of 36 months had induced a decrease of muscular shear force (raw muscle; P=0.009) and a concomitant decrease of total collagen content (P=0.03). Nevertheless, no significant impact on meat quality traits was revealed by the sensorial panel (0.13⩽P⩽0.49). Metabolic enzyme activities (0.13⩽P⩽0.86) and myosin heavy-chain proportions (0.13⩽P⩽0.96) were not significantly impacted by slaughter age and carcass weight. Thus, the impact of increasing carcass weight and/or slaughter age in young Charolais heifers has a limited impact on meat quality traits and associated muscular characteristics. Modulating heifer's cycles (age and/or carcass weight in

  1. The Effect of Utilization of Sweet Potato Flour as Energy Source of Broiler Feed at Finisher Period to Carcass Weight, Chest Weight, Thigh Weight and Abdominal Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonok Supartini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current research is was to know the effect of feeding sweet potato flour as a source of energy to carcass weight, chest weight, thigh weight, and abdominal fat.The material of the research were 80 finisher male broiler with initial weight of 963.37 ± 31.23 g. Completely Randomized Design (CRD used for research method which consisted of 4 treatment, namely feeding without sweet potato flour (P0, with concentration of sweet potato flour of 10% (P1, 20% (P2 and 30% (P3.The parameter of research were carcass weight, chest weight,thigh weight and abdominal fat. The results showed that the gift effect of sweet potato flour to carcass weight were P0 1199.4%; P1 1138.98%; P2 1076.6; P3 1038.2; chest weight of P0 358.08; P1 366.6; P2 337.8; and P3 323.4%; thigh weight of P0 479.8; P1 472.94; P2 468.4; and P3 442; and abdominal fat of P0 33.2; P1 35.6; P2 25.4; P3 27.8. It could be concluded that the concentration of 10% sweet potato flour from total feeding gave the best treatment.   Keywords : sweet potato flour, carcass weight, chest weight, thigh weight, abdominal fat

  2. Influence of immunocastration (Bopriva® in weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore

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    Nayara Andreo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of immunocastration on body weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Nellore beef cattle. Eighty Nellore beef cattle, with initial body weight of 357±8.63 kg, were placed in feedlots and distributed in two treatments (40 animals per treatments as follow: one - non-vaccinated bulls and two - immunocastrated bulls (Bopriva®, Pfizer Animal Health. The animals placed on treatment two were vaccinated in two doses, first application 30 days before they arrive on the feedlots and second on the day they arrive on feedlots. After 67 days of experimental period, was calculated the daily gain of live weight in kg/day of the 80 animals and selected 20 animals from each treatment for the slaughter and carcass evaluations, and ten from each group for the meat analyzes. The data were submitted to analysis of variance. Immunocastrated animals showed lower daily weight gain, hot carcass weight, carcass yield, pH, leg thickness, muscle depth, loin muscle area, carcass muscle percentage, shear force and moisture. However, this animals had higher concentration of lactate and cortisol blood, chest depth, fat thickness, finishing degree, a *, b * and c*, liquid loss in thawing process, myofibrillar fragmentation index and ether extract of meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulss. The immunocastration (Bopriva® is an alternative for improving the quality of meat by the higher fat deposition and by the reduction of the shear force of the meat when compared to non-vaccinated bulls.

  3. Effects of cooling temperature and hot carcass weight on the quality of lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muela, E; Sañudo, C; Campo, M M; Medel, I; Beltrán, J A

    2010-01-01

    The effects of cooling temperature (CT) (0-2, 2-4, or 4-6 degrees C) and hot carcass weight (HCW) (either or= 12.0 kg) on weight loss (WL) and meat quality were evaluated in 60 lamb carcasses of Rasa Aragonesa breed. Carcasses were exposed to CT throughout 90 h. WL was assessed at 18, 42, 66, and 90 h post-slaughter. pH, colour, instrumental measurement of texture, oxidation, and sensory parameters were evaluated in longissimus thoracis et lumborum aged for 96 h following standard methods. Sensory test involved a trained test panel. No significant interactive effects among the parameters evaluated were detected in the study. The lower the CT, the higher the WL after 90 h in storage (0.25% lost each 2 degrees C decrease), the higher final pH, and the lower lightness, the higher hue and chroma of the meat. Toughness was higher in meat cooled at 2-4 degrees C than in meat cooled at temperatures above or below this range. Neither oxidation nor sensory variables were affected by CT. Regarding on HCW, light carcasses exhibited higher WL (2.39% versus 2.04% after 90 h of cooling), higher final pH, and lower levels of oxidation than did heavier carcasses. Neither colour nor instrumental measurement of texture was affected by HCW. Lamb and fat odour and metallic and acid flavour intensities were significantly greater in the heavier carcasses, although it did not affect overall acceptability. Both CT and HCW should be considered as main effects on lamb quality, especially CT.

  4. Effect of Different Slaughter Weights on Slaughter and Carcass Traits of Male Karayaka Lambs Reared under Intensive Production System

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    Yüksel Aksoy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the carcass traits of Karayaka lambs slaughtered at different slaughter weights (SWs and to find out optimum SWs. Male Karayaka lambs with 20 kg live weight (n=30 constituted the animal material of the study. Lambs were randomly divided into five SW groups; 30 (GI; n=6, 35 (GII; n=6, 40 (GIII; n=6; 45 (GIV; n=6 and 50 (GV; n=6 kg. Lamb fattening feed (concentrate feed, ad libitum and forage (lentil straw, 100g/lamb/day were used as the feed material. Lambs were sent to slaughter at target SWs. Following the slaughter, non-carcass components, tailless hot and cold carcass weights were taken. Carcasses were separated into six sections as leg, foreleg, back, loin, neck and others. Physical dissection was performed to investigate carcass composition. Only the differences in carcass dressing and skin percentages of slaughter groups were not found to be significant. Increasing carcass fat percentages and decreasing carcass lean and bone percentages were observed with increasing SWs. Considering the consumer preferences, current findings revealed that Karayaka lambs should be sent to slaughter at weights between 30-35 kg. However, considering the red meat deficit of the country, current market conditions and producer preferences, the optimum SW for Karayaka lambs were recommended to be between 40-45 kg.

  5. Slaughter weight did not alter carcass characteristics and meat quality of crossbred heifers supplemented and finished in a pasture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cesar Andreotti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to evaluate the animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of crossbred heifers slaughtered at three different body weights. The heifers were slaughtered with 330 (Light, 360 (Medium and 400 (Heavy kg body weight. The final weight, average daily gain and carcass weight were greater for HEA heifers, intermediate for MED heifers and lower for LIG heifers. However, carcass dressing and pH were similar for the three heifers groups. Dripping loss, dissection loss and the muscle, fat and bone percentages on the 6th rib did not alter by slaughter weight. Slaughter weight did not affect the colour, shear force and lipid oxidation of meat. In conclusion, heavy heifers finished in pasture and that were concentrate-supplemented had better animal performance; however, the carcass characteristics and meat quality were similar for the three heifers groups.

  6. Feed Intake, Weight Gain and Carcass Yield Characteristics of Intact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dressing percentage (DP) and rib eye muscle area. Concentrate supplementation of goats resulted in high (P < 0.05) dry matter, crude protein and metabolizable energy intake, which was reflected in increased (P < 0.05) average daily weight gain (ADWG) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE). The empty body weight, hot ...

  7. The Supplementation of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO in The Ration To Increase Carcass Weight and Decrease Duck Meat Cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Siti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out at Kediri, Tabanan Regency and Animal Nutrition Laboratory to study the effect of the supplementation VCO in the ration to increase carcass weight and decrease duck meat cholesterol. The experiment used a completely randomized design (CRD with five treatments and four replicates. Each of the replicate used five male Balinese ducks with the same weight. The five treatments were diets without VCO as a control (A, ration with 1% VCO (B, ration with 2% VCO (C, ration with 3% VCO (D and ration with 4% VCO (E respectively. Ration and water offered ad libitum. The variables measured were carcass weight, physical carcass composition and meat cholesterol. The result of this experiment showed that the carcass weight, the carcass percentage, the percentage of carcass meat in the B, C, D and E treatments were not significantly (P>0.05 higher than the control, so the percentage of fat carcass subcutan (including skin and carcass bone percentage were not significantly (P>0.05 lower than the control. Triglyceride in treatment 3% VCO in diets (D was significantly (P0.05 higher than the control. The total cholesterol content and LDL in those four treatments were not significantly (P>0.05 lower than the control. From the result of this experiment can be concluded that the supplementation of 1-4% VCO in the ration has not increased to the carcass weight and decreased the duck meat cholesterol.   Keywords : VCO, duck, carcass weight, and  meat cholesterol

  8. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for the prediction of hot carcass weight in buffalo calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Iannuzzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young buffalo male calves were fed ad libitum with a total mix ration and with vitamin-mineral integration for 14 months. Seven days before slaughter, the animals were weighed and bioelectrical impedance measurements were collected in live animals. Physical and chemical characteristics were assessed on the Longissimus dorsi muscle after slaughter. Correlations and regression equations were calculated to determine the possible use of bioelectrical impedance for evaluating hot carcass weight. Bioelectrical impedance analysis at different frequencies, simple correlation and analysis of regression were examined for all the data collected, supporting the possibility of hot carcass weight prediction with equation at multifrequency. The results show that, probably due to the variability in animal live weight, the distribution of the colour parameters was not normally distributed. Moreover, using different frequencies of resistance and reactance, hot carcass weight in buffalo may be predicted with the following equation: Y=98.47–8.84(Rs100KHz+4.41(Rs1000 KHz-116.27(Xc5 KHz+51.04(Xc50 KHz+20.30(Xc100 KHz-33.92(Xc500 KHz+9.01(Xc1000 KHz±ε (Adjusted R Square value of .907 and SE of 5.728 However, further studies are required to improve the technique also in buffalo, after standardization of the method.

  9. Effect of adult weight and CT-based selection on carcass traits of growing rabbits

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    Roberto Riovanto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the carcass traits of different genotypes. Maternal line (M; n=31; adult weight/AW/4.0-4.5kg (selected for number of kits born alive, Pannon White (P; n=32; AW: 4.3-4.8kg, and Large type line (L, n=32; AW: 4.8-5.4kg (P and L were selected for carcass traits based on CT/Computer tomography/data rabbits were analysed. Rabbits were slaughtered at 11 wk of age. P rabbits showed the highest dressing out percentage (M=60.2, P=61.3 and L=61.1%, with a significant difference between groups M and P, P<0.05, the lowest ratio of fore part (M=26.0, P=25.7 and L=26.9%, differences were significant between groups M-P and L, P<0.05, and the largest ratio of the hind part (M=37.3, P=38.2 and L=37.2%, differences were significant between groups M-L and P, P<0.05 to the reference carcass. It can be concluded that carcass traits were influenced by CT-based selection.

  10. Haematology, Carcass and Relative Organ Weights of Growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    1Department of Animal Nutrition and Biotechnology,. 2Department of Animal Production and Health,. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology,. P.M.B.4000 .... bled after cutting of the jugular vein with sharp knife, and evisceration was carried out immediately. Bled weight, eviscerated. Feeding regimes and rabbit ...

  11. Polymorphisms in the bovine leptin promoter associated with serum leptin concentration, growth, feed intake, feeding behavior, and measures of carcass merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Li, C; Yu, J; Hansen, C; Keisler, D H; Moore, S S

    2005-01-01

    Leptin is the hormone product of the obese gene synthesized and secreted predominantly by white adipocytes. It functions as a lipostatic signal regulating BW, food intake, energy expenditure, reproduction, and certain immune system functions. Although previous studies have identified polymorphisms in the coding regions of the leptin gene in cattle that show considerable associations with feed intake, milk quality and quantity, and carcass fatness, no such associations have been reported for the leptin promoter. The current study reports associations between SNP in the 5' untranslated promoter region of the bovine leptin gene with serum leptin concentration, growth, BW, feed intake, feeding behavior, and carcass merit in hybrid cattle (n = 150). The study showed that animals with the TT genotype of a less frequent cytosine/thymine (C/ T) substitution (UASMS2; frequency of thymine allele equals 0.21) detected at position 528 in the bovine leptin promoter (GenBank Accession No. AB070368) show 48 and 39% increases in serum leptin concentration (P < 0.001), 39 and 31% increases in backfat thickness (P < 0.001), and 13 and 9% increase in marbling score (P = 0.01), compared with CC or CT genotypes, respectively. Animals with the TT genotype also show significantly higher feed intake (P < 0.001), growth rate, metabolic BW (P < 0.05), and live weight at slaughter (P < 0.10). Animals with the GG genotype of a more frequent cytosine/guanine (C/G) substitution (UASMS3; frequency of G allele equals 0.59) at position 1759 in the bovine leptin promoter (GenBank Accession No. AB070368) also show higher feed intake (P = 0.001), growth rate (P < 0.10), and BW (P < 0.01). The thymine allele of UASMS2 and the guanine allele of UASMS3 were separately associated with higher feeding duration (P < 0.05). The two SNP show significant linkage disequilibrium and could also be relevant in predicting other characteristics, such as milk yield and quality in cattle. These results, however

  12. Genetic parameters for body weight, carcass chemical composition and yield in a broiler-layer cross developed for QTL mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Beatriz do Nascimento; Ramos, Salvador Boccaletti; Savegnago, Rodrigo Pelicioni; Ledur, Mônica Corrêa; Nones, Kátia; Klein, Claudete Hara; Munari, Danísio Prado

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations of body weight at 6 weeks of age (BW6), as well as final carcass yield, and moisture, protein, fat and ash contents, using data from 3,422 F2 chickens originated from reciprocal cross between a broiler and a layer line. Variance components were estimated by the REML method, using animal models for evaluating random additive genetic and fixed contemporary group (sex, hatch and genetic group) effects. The heritability estimates (h2) for BW6, carcass yield and percentage of carcass moisture were 0.31 ± 0.07, 0.20 ± 0.05 and 0.33 ± 0.07, respectively. The h2 for the percentages of protein, fat and ash on a dry matter basis were 0.48 ± 0.09, 0.55 ± 0.10 and 0.36 ± 0.08, respectively. BW6 had a positive genetic correlation with fat percentage in the carcass, but a negative one with protein and ash contents. Carcass yield, thus, appears to have only low genetic association with carcass composition traits. The genetic correlations observed between traits, measured on a dry matter basis, indicated that selection for carcass protein content may favor higher ash content and a lower percentage of carcass fat. PMID:21931515

  13. Genetic gain for body weight, feed conversion and carcass traits in selected broiler strains

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    GS Schmidt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Swine and Poultry Research Center (Embrapa Suínos e Aves maintains a chicken breeding program for meat production since 1985. Two control lines (LLc and PPc are maintained, whereas two male lines (TT and ZZ and three female lines (PP, VV and KK have been selected. This paper reports the genetic gain after 15 generations of combined selection (mass and independent culling levels in order to develop the commercial broiler stocks Embrapa 021 and Embrapa 022. Selection pressure has been exerted on weight gain, carcass traits and fertility. In addition, female lines have also been selected for egg production, whereas males have been selected for feed efficiency since 1992. All lines have been selected for breast area instead of carcass traits since 1999. The genetic gain was estimated as the deviation between selected lines and the respective unselected lines at 42 days of age. In female lines, body weight improved 504, 548 and 587 g; average breast area increased 27.60; 16.99 and 26.43 cm²; adjusted feed conversion (42-49 d improved -1.46; -0.97 and 1.76 units, and egg production varied 6.99; 7.12 and -3.43% units for PP, VV and KK, respectively. In male lines, body weight improved 758 and 408 g; average breast area increased 31.95 and 19.38 cm², and adjusted feed conversion improved (42-49 d -0.99 and 1.26 for TT and ZZ, respectively. This breeding program has been effective to generate genetic gain and to develop two commercial products, Embrapa 021 (standard and Embrapa 022 (high yield. Nevertheless, feed efficiency is still not satisfactory.

  14. Effect of slaughter weight on the carcass value of young crossbred ('Polish Holstein Friesian' x 'Limousin' steers and bulls

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    Zenon Nogalski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from others factors, carcass quality is determined by the animal's age and body weight (BW at the end of the fattening period. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum finishing weight of young crossbred 'Polish Holstein Friesian' (PHF x 'Limousin' (LIM steers and bulls, based on their slaughter value. The experimental materials comprised 60 animals, including 30 bulls and 30 steers, fed farm-made feeds. At 2 or 3 wk of age, one half of calves were castrated. Bloodless castration was carried out using a rubber elastrator. Calves were reared under a conventional system, and were fattened semi-intensively. Daily gains ranged from 800 to 950 g. Calves were fattened to 450, 500, 550, or 600 kg BW. Carcass value was estimated after slaughter. Fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography in fat extracted from samples of muscle longissimus dorsi (MLD. Bulls, compared with steers, were characterized by a higher slaughter value, including a higher carcass dressing percentage by 1.07-2.60%, higher carcass conformation, and lower carcass fatness. In steers, an increase in live BW was accompanied by a considerable increase in fat content (higher than bulls, as confirmed by a significant (p ≤ 0.01 interaction. The intramuscular fat of bulls was characterized by higher concentrations of fatty acids delivering health benefits, and a more desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA ratio. Fat from bulls contained higher levels of PUFAs by 2.34 g 100 g-1 on average. Semi-intensive fattening of PHF x LIM bulls to slaughter weight of 600 kg BW is recommended due to an increase in carcass value. Steers should be fattened to slaughter weight of 500-550 kg BW to prevent excessive fat deposition.

  15. Effect of hot carcass weight on loin, ham, and belly quality from pigs sourced from a commercial processing facility,.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsh, B N; Arkfeld, E K; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to determine the predictive abilities of HCW for loin, ham, and belly quality of 7,684 pigs with carcass weights ranging from 53.2 to 129.6 kg. Carcass composition, subjective loin quality, and ham face color were targeted on all carcasses, whereas in-plant instrumental loin color and belly quality were assessed on 52.0 and 47.5% of carcasses, respectively. Loin chop slice shear force (SSF), cured ham quality, and adipose iodine value (IV) were evaluated on at least 10% of the population. The slope of regression lines and coefficients of determination between HCW and quality traits were computed using PROC REG of SAS and considered significant at ≤ 0.05. As HCW increased, boneless loins became darker and redder, evidenced by lower L* (β = -0.0243, ham face color ( ham face L* values and 0.47% of the variability in a* values. Heavier carcasses produced thicker and firmer bellies, with HCW accounting for 37.81% of the variability in belly thickness (β = 0.0272, ham quality explained by HCW was poor (≤5.60%), suggesting that HCW is a poor predictor of the primal quality of pigs within this weight range. Nonetheless, HCW was a moderate predictor of belly quality traits. The findings of this study suggest that increasing HCW did not compromise loin, ham, or belly quality attributes.

  16. Innovative retail merchandising strategies to accommodate for the growing trend of heavier carcass weights in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, S E; Nicholson, K L; Nicholson, J D W; Griffin, D B; Lawrence, T E; Wasser, B E; Savell, J W

    2011-08-01

    Three subprimals from beef carcasses, Average (mean=340.6kg) and Heavy weight (mean=461.6kg), were cut using Innovative versus Conventional cutting styles. Longer (Pmerchandise heavyweight beef must account for the decreased primary saleable yields and increased labor requirements through increased retail pricing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of two myostatin (MSTN mutations on weight gain and lamb carcass classification in Norwegian White Sheep (Ovis aries

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    Blichfeldt Thor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to estimate the effect of two myostatin (MSTN mutations in Norwegian White Sheep, one of which is close to fixation in the Texel breed. Methods The impact of two known MSTN mutations was examined in a field experiment with Norwegian White Sheep. The joint effect of the two MSTN mutations on live weight gain and weaning weight was studied on 644 lambs. Carcass weight gain from birth to slaughter, carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat classes were calculated in a subset of 508 lambs. All analyses were carried out with a univariate linear animal model. Results The most significant impact of both mutations was on conformation and fat classes. The largest difference between the genotype groups was between the wild type for both mutations and the homozygotes for the c.960delG mutation. Compared to the wild types, these mutants obtained a conformation score 5.1 classes higher and a fat score 3.0 classes lower, both on a 15-point scale. Conclusions Both mutations reduced fatness and increased muscle mass, although the effect of the frameshift mutation (c.960delG was more important as compared to the 3'-UTR mutation (c.2360G>A. Lambs homozygous for the c.960delG mutation grew more slowly than those with other MSTN genotypes, but had the least fat and the largest muscle mass. Only c.960delG showed dominance effects.

  18. Pastures, calf production and carcass weights of reindeer calves in the Oraniemi co-operative, Finnish Lapland

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    Jouko Kumpula

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climatic and density-dependent factors on calf production and carcass weights of reindeer calves were studied between the years 1965-87 in the Oraniemi co-operative, Finnish Lapland (67°50´N. The Oraniemi area is divided into five pasture regions, in which the annual home range of the reindeer varied from 300 to 600 km2. The more than trebled reindeer density over the period 1965-87 in Oraniemi had no detrimental effect on calf production (range 15-74 calves/100 females, nor on the mean carcass weight of the calves in 1974-87 (range 16.8-23.2 kg. The annual variations in calf% were explained best by snow conditions during the previous winter and spring and their effects on the nutritional status of the females. The carcass weights of the calves were greater following a warm, rainy May and lower following a warm, rainy June and July. The weather in spring affects the emergence of green vegetation, which is reflected in the condition of females and their milk production, while the weather in early and mid-supper probably affects the quantities of blood-sucking insects and their activity. Carcass weights upon slaughtering rose from September to the beginning of December but then fell quickly. The differences in reindeer densities between the five pasture regions was not reflected in the calf% over the period 1984-87, but the carcass weights of calves were lower following high densities in the pasture regions, especially in the winter pastures.

  19. The effect of slaughter weight and fattening intensity on changes in carcass fatness in young Holstein-Friesian bulls

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    Zenon Nogalski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body weight (BW at slaughter and fattening intensity on carcass fatness and meat fatty acid profile in young Holstein- Friesian bulls. One-hundred bulls fattened on two levels of intensity a semi-intensive (SI and an intensive (I were used. Fattening was carried out to BW of 500, 550, 600, 650 and 700 kg. Live ultrasound measurements were performed to determine back fat thickness. Carcass dressing percentage, carcass conformation and fatness, intramuscular fat content of m. longissimus dorsi and fatty acid profile (by gas chromatography were determined after slaughter. Intensively fattened bulls were characterised by a greater carcass dressing percentage – by 1.17% on average, greater carcass conformation scores, greater external fat thickness and a greater intramuscular fat content than bulls SI fattened. Fat from intensively fattened bulls contained higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs – by 0.96/100 g on average. Semi-intensive fattening contributed to a decrease in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and to a significant increase in the concentrations of C18:2 and C20:4 fatty acids. Regardless of the fattening intensity, the n- 6/n-3 ratio was greater in heavier animals. The best results were achieved when young Holstein-Friesian bulls were fattened intensively to BW of 650 kg.

  20. Study on the Association between Tail Lesion Score, Cold Carcass Weight, and Viscera Condemnations in Slaughter Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Harley, Sarah; Hanlon, Alison; O'Connell, Niamh Elizabeth; More, Simon John; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight, and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every third pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome, and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5-point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia, and abscess), heart (pericarditis), and liver (ascariasis) condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector (VI). Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score, and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, while the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥1) were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥3). Pleurisy (13.7%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%) showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0-75%). Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05) ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia, and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05) at a batch level. VI shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05) at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post-mortem meat inspection

  1. Study on the association between tail lesion score, cold carcass weight and viscera condemnations in slaughter pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Lemos Teixeira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every 3rd pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5 point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia and abscess, heart (pericarditis and liver (ascariasis condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector. Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, whereas the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥ 1 were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥ 3. Pleurisy (13.7% followed by pneumonia (10.4% showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0 to 75%. Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05 ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05 at a batch level. Veterinary inspector shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05 at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post mortem meat

  2. Seasonal prevalence of potentially positive non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bovine hides and carcasses in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Byron D; Echeverry, Alejandro; García, Lyda G; Brashears, M Todd; Miller, Markus F; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of potentially positive Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bovine hides and carcasses in three abattoirs in Costa Rica was estimated. Two export facilities (A and B) and one non-export establishment (C) were visited during the dry and rainy seasons of 2013. Swabs of hides pre-eviscerated and treated (180-220 peroxyacetic acid spray) carcasses were tested for the potential presence of STEC serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. The prevalence on hides during the rainy season was 86.7, 96.7 and 96.7% for facilities A, B, and C, respectively. During the dry season, the prevalence on hides was significantly lower in plants A and B (40% and 26.7%, respectively), but was marginally associated with the season in plant C (76.7%, P=0.0523). The prevalence of non-O157 STEC markers on treated carcasses was low (0 to 3.3%), suggesting that all plants were effective in minimizing the target non-O157 STEC in beef destined for export and for domestic consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of late castration, zeranol and breed group on growth, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of late maturing bovine males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Ford, J J

    1983-04-01

    A total of 280 young bulls representing five breed groups with an average age of about 1 yr were assigned to five experimental treatments as follows: (1) emasculator castration at d 0, (2) surgical castration at d 0, (3) intact, (4) intact and implanted at d 0 and 70 with 36 mg of zeranol and (5) intact and implanted at d 0 with 72 mg zeranol. All animals were slaughtered and carcass data were collected after a feeding period of 141 d. Method of castration did not affect rate of gain. Intact males not implanted with zeranol gained 38.6% more (P less than .01) during the 141 d period than castrate males. Intact males from the two zeranol implant treatment groups did not differ from each other in gain, but averaged 11.1% more (P less than .01) during the 141 d period than males from the intact treatment group not implanted. Castrate males required 40.4% more (P less than .01) metabolizable energy (ME) and dry matter (DM)/kg gain than intact males not implanted, but intact males implanted with zeranol did not require less (P greater than .05) ME or DM/kg gain than intact males not implanted. Males castrated at about 1 yr showed a progressive decrease in secondary sex characteristics during the 141 d feeding period, while males from the three intact treatments showed a progressive increase. Zeranol did not have an effect on testicular weight or on aggressive male behavioral characteristics. Castrate males had greater (P less than .01) fat thickness at 12th rib, higher (P less than .01) marbling score and lower (P less than .01) cutability and retail product percentage than the males from the three intact treatments, which did not differ (P greater than .05) from each other in traits associated with carcass composition. The effect of treatment on lean color score, though significant, was not of major importance; all treatments produced meat of acceptable color. The longissimus muscle of castrate males had a finer texture (P less than .01) than longissimus muscle from

  4. Tactical decisions of concentrate level, slaughter age and carcass weight of bulls of five beef breeds under Norwegian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BONESMO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Beef production based on suckler cow breeds is a relatively new production system in Norway as in most Nordic countries. To ensure the continuation of this production, profitable management practices designed for Norwegian conditions have to be established. Thus a simulation model was developed that integrates the daily feed intake, the daily live weight (LW gain, silage net energy concentration for beef production (feed units beef (FUb kg?1 dry matter and price, concentrate level and price, and carcass price for bulls of the country's five most common beef breeds. In this work the model was combined with production statistics to find general recommendations in the finishing of beef bulls under Norwegian conditions. Among all the five breeds the Limousin bulls had the highest estimated mean daily return and the Hereford bulls the lowest estimated mean daily return from 20 g concentrate kg?1 LW0.75 for the 940 FUb kg?1 silage dry matter, and from 40 g concentrate kg?1 LW0.75 for the 800 FUb kg?1 silage dry matter. Our estimated optimal slaughter ages and carcass weights shows that it pays to more intensively feed during the finishing period for all five breeds. Current farming practice in Norway for the five major breeds studied is that slaughter age is at least two months later with lighter carcass weights than the results expected from following our model estimated recommendations.

  5. Effects of Different Plant Species and Different Sowing Dates on Forage Yield, Grazing Capacity and Estimated Carcass Weight in the Continental Climate Zones

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKMAKÇI, Sadık; AYDINOĞLU, Bilal; ARSLAN, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the effects of artificial sowing with various plant species and different sowing dates on forage yield, grazing capacity and estimated carcass weight in rangelands under continental dry conditions. Artificial rangelands were established on Akpınar plateau near Kemer-Burdur 1675 m above sea level using 4 different plant species sown at 5 different sowing dates. Later, grazing capacity and carcass weight were estimated in terms of forage yield. The results s...

  6. The Effect of Soursop (Announa Muricata L. Leaves Powder on Diameter of Muscle Fiber, Lipid Cell, Body Weight Gain and Carcass Percentage of Tegal Duck

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    Elly Tugiyanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the supplementation of soursop leaves powder (Annona muricata L. on body weight gain and carcass percentage of male Tegal duck. Research was conducted from 29 November 2015 to 3 January 2016 in duck cage in Sokaraja Kulon, Purwokerto. One hundred male Tegal duck were fed basal feed consisted of 30% corn, 7% soy bean meal, 6,1% vegetable oil, 17% poultry meat meal, 38,2% ricebran, 0,1% L-lysin HCL, 0,3% DL-methionin, 0,2% topmix, 0,1% NaCl, and 1% CaCO3. Experimental research used completely randomized design with treatments composed of basal feed plus 0, 5, 10, and 15% soursop leaves meal, each with 5 replicates. The observed variables were diameter of muscle fiber, lipid cell, body weight gain, and carcass percentage. The obtained data were subject to analysis of variance followed by orthogonal polynomial test. Result showed that treatments affected non significantly (P>0.05 to the diameter of chest muscle fiber, carcass percentage and carcass but significantly affected (P<0,05 body weight gain with equation Y  =  427,74  - 67,10 X  + 2,27 X2..  Conclusively, supplementation of soursop leaves meal (Annona muricata L. in feed has not been able to increase the muscle fiber diameter of intermuscular lipid cell, carcass percentage and carcass parts. Excessive supplement even lowers the body weight gain of male Tegal duck.

  7. Myostatin mRNA expression and its association with body weight and carcass traits in Yunnan Wuding chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L X; Dou, T F; Li, Q H; Rong, H; Tong, H Q; Xu, Z Q; Huang, Y; Gu, D H; Chen, X B; Ge, C R; Jia, J J

    2016-12-02

    Myostatin (MSTN) is expressed in the myotome and developing skeletal muscles, and acts to regulate the number of muscle fibers. Wuding chicken large body, developed muscle, high disease resistance, and tender, delicious meat, and are not selected for fast growth. Broiler chickens (Avian broiler) are selected for fast growth and have a large body size and high muscle mass. Here, 240 one-day-old chickens (120 Wuding chickens and 120 broilers) were examined. Twenty chickens from each breed were sacrificed at days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150. Breast and leg muscle samples were collected within 20 min of sacrifice to investigate the effects of MSTN gene expression on growth performance and carcass traits. Body weight, carcass traits, and skeletal muscle mass in Wuding chickens were significantly (P chickens at all time points. Breast muscle MSTN mRNA was lower in Wuding chickens than in broilers before day 30 (P chicken than in broilers (P chicken than in broilers at all ages except for day 60 (P chickens than in the fast growing broilers. In contract, leg muscle MSTN mRNA level has a greater effect in broilers than in Wuding chickens. MSTN regulates growth performance and carcass traits in chickens.

  8. Effect of propolis alcoholic extract on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits

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    Joseli Alves Ferreira Zanato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of different rates of propolis alcoholic extract (PAE on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits. Forty White New Zealand rabbits were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of four treatments and ten replicates per treatment. The rabbits were allocated individually in wire cages containing a nipple drinker and a semi-automatic feeder. The treatments were: T1 = control, T2 = 1ml of ethanol, T3 = 0.8ml of PAE, and T4 = 1.5ml of PAE. Commercial feed and water were provided ad libitum to the animals, and the treatment with cereal alcohol and PAE was administered orally using a 2ml syringe. It was concluded that the addition of PAE to the rabbits’ feeding resulted in weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH similar to those of animals which received the diets with ethanol without any addition, except for the paw weight, that was higher in the rabbits which were given PAE, and for the gastric system, that had a higher weight in the rabbits which received no addition to their diet.

  9. Divergent selection on 63-day body weight in the rabbit: response on growth, carcass and muscle traits

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    Combes Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of selection for growth rate on weights and qualitative carcass and muscle traits were assessed by comparing two lines selected for live body weight at 63 days of age and a cryopreserved control population raised contemporaneously with generation 5 selected rabbits. The animals were divergently selected for five generations for either a high (H line or a low (L line body weight, based on their BLUP breeding value. Heritability (h2 was 0.22 for 63-d body weight (N = 4754. Growth performance and quantitative carcass traits in the C group were intermediate between the H and L lines (N = 390. Perirenal fat proportion (h2 = 0.64 and dressing out percentage (h2 = 0.55 ranked in the order L Semitendinosus muscle, and the mean diameter of the constitutive myofibres were reduced in the L line only (N = 140. In the Longissimus muscle (N = 180, the ultimate pH (h2 = 0.16 and the maximum shear force reached in the Warner-Braztler test (h2 = 0.57 were slightly modified by selection.

  10. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Coding Region of Bovine Chemerin Gene and Their Associations with Carcass Traits in Japanese Black Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Yamauchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemerin, highly expressed in adipose and liver tissues, regulates glucose and lipid metabolism and immunity in these tissues in ruminants and mice. Our previous reports showed that chemerin is involved in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue as an adipokine. The aim of the present study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the coding region of the chemerin gene and to analyze their effects on carcass traits and intramuscular fatty acid compositions in Japanese Black cattle. The SNPs in the bovine chemerin gene were detected in 232 Japanese Black steers (n = 161 and heifers (n = 71 using DNA sequencing. The results revealed five novel silent mutations: NM_001046020: c.12A>G (4aa, c.165GT (92aa, c.321 A>G (107aa, and c.396C>T (132aa. There was no association between 4 of the SNPs (c.12A>G [4aa], c.165GG [107aa], and c.396C>T and carcass traits or intramuscular fatty acid compositions. Regarding the remaining SNP, c.276C>T, we found that cattle with genotype CC had a higher beef marbling score than that of cattle with genotype CT, whereas cattle with genotype CT had a higher body condition score (pT SNP is small. It is suggested that the c.276C>T SNP of the chemerin gene has potential in cattle breeding using modern methods, such as marker assisted selection. So, further functional and physiological research elucidating the impact of the chemerin gene on bovine lipid metabolism including fatty acid synthesis will help in understanding these results.

  11. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine leptin and leptin receptor genes with growth and ultrasound carcass traits in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, R C G; Ferraz, J B S; Meirelles, F V; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C; Cucco, D C; Mattos, E C; Rezende, F M; Silva, S L

    2012-10-11

    Given the important role of leptin in metabolism, we looked for a possible association of leptin and leptin receptor polymorphisms with carcass and growth traits in Nellore cattle. We examined associations of leptin and leptin receptor SNPs with ultrasound carcass (longissimus dorsi muscle area (ribeye area), backfat thickness and rump fat thickness and growth traits (weaning weight adjusted to 210 days of age, yearling weight adjusted to 550 days of age, weight gain of weaning to yearling and scrotal circumference adjusted to 550 days of age) of 2162 Bos primigenius indicus (Nellore) animals. Allele and genotypic frequencies were calculated for each marker. Allele substitution, additive and dominance effects of the polymorphisms were also evaluated. Some alleles of the molecular markers had low frequencies, lower than 1%, in the sample analyzed, although the same polymorphisms described for B. p. taurus cattle were found. Due to very low allelic frequencies, the E2JW, A59V and UASMS2 markers were not included in the analysis, because they were almost fixed. E2FB was found to be significantly associated with weight gain, ribeye area and backfat thickness. The promoter region markers, C963T and UASMS1, were also found to be significantly associated with ribeye area. T945M was significantly associated with weight gain. We conclude that the leptin and receptor gene markers would be useful for marker-assisted selection.

  12. Effects of withdrawing high-fiber ingredients before marketing on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and intestinal weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Kyle F; DeRouchey, Joel M; Tokach, Mike D; Dritz, Steve S; Goodband, Robert D; Woodworth, Jason C

    2018-02-15

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the duration of high-fiber ingredient removal from finishing pig diets before marketing to restore carcass yield and carcass fat iodine value (IV), similar to pigs continuously fed a corn-soybean meal diet. In experiment 1, 288 pigs (initially 38.4 ± 0.3 kg body weight [BW]) were used in an 88-d study and fed either a low-fiber corn-soybean meal diet from day 0 to 88 or a high-fiber diet containing 30% corn distillers dried grains with solubles and 19% wheat middlings until day 20, 15, 10, 5, or 0 before slaughter and switched to the low-fiber corn-soybean meal diet thereafter. Diets were not balanced for net energy. From day 0 to 88, pigs continuously fed the high-fiber diet tended to have increased average daily feed intake (P = 0.072) and decreased G:F and carcass yield (P = 0.001) compared with pigs fed the low-fiber corn-soybean meal diet. Pigs continuously fed the high-fiber diet had greater (P < 0.010) IV of jowl, backfat, belly, and ham collar fat than those fed the low-fiber corn-soybean meal diet throughout. As days of withdrawal increased, pigs previously fed the high-fiber diet had increased carcass yield (quadratic; P = 0.039). Pigs continuously fed the high-fiber diet had heavier (percentage of hot carcass weight [HCW]) full large intestines (P = 0.003) than pigs fed the corn-soybean meal diet. Full large intestine weight decreased (linear; P = 0.018) as withdrawal time increased. Belly fat IV tended (linear; P = 0.080) to improve as withdrawal time increased. In experiment 2, a total of 1,089 pigs (initially 44.5 ± 0.1 kg BW) were used in a 96-d study with the same dietary treatments as in experiment 1, except pigs were fed the high-fiber diet until day 24, 19, 14, 9, or 0 before slaughter and then switched to the corn-soybean meal diet. Pigs fed the high-fiber diet throughout had decreased average daily gain and G:F (P = 0.001) compared with those fed the low-fiber corn-soybean meal diet. For pigs

  13. Response to selection and genetic parameters of body and carcass weights in Japanese quail selected for 4-week body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaldari, M; Pakdel, A; Yegane, H Mehrabani

    2010-01-01

    dams were used as parents for the next generation. Data were collected over 2 consecutive hatches for 4 generations, and 1,554 records from 151 sires and 285 dams were used to estimate the genetic parameters. The genetic improvement of 4-wk BW was 9.6, 8.8, and 8.2 g in generations 2, 3, and 4...... to improve carcass traits. Also, intense selection resulting in high rates of inbreeding might result in decreased response to selection due to inbreeding depression....

  14. Determination of extended spectrum β-lactamases/AmpC β-lactamases and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli isolates obtained from bovine carcasses in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Montes de Oca, Saúl; Talavera-Rojas, Martín; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Barba-León, Jeannette; Vazquez-Navarrete, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    Food-borne bacterial infections have worldwide importance, and a great variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms, mainly of the chromosome type, have rapidly developed. Antimicrobial resistance was determined in this study in terms of the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), plasmid AmpC β-lactamases (pAmpC), and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) from 155 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from bovine carcasses from two states in Mexico (states of Mexico and Jalisco). Isolates were challenged with β-lactam antimicrobials (ampicillin, ceftazidime, and cefotaxime) and quinolones (nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin). The presence of the bla TEM, bla SHV, bla CTX-M, bla OXA , bla CMY, bla MOX, bla LAT, bla BIL, qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA genes was examined by PCR. Clonal relationship was determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The highest resistance was found to be to nalidixic acid (64 %), followed by ampicillin (32 %), ciprofloxacin (10 %), and ceftazidime and cefotaxime (both 1.3 %). bla CMY (n = 1), bla TEM (n = 24), qnrB (n = 9), and qnrS (n = 7) genes were detected. PFGE analysis showed that the majority of isolates had a different genotypic profile. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of the qnrB, qnrS, and bla CMY genes in E. coli isolated from bovine meat in Mexico.

  15. Carcass physical composition and meat quality of holstein calves, terminated in different finishing systems and slaughter weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Vincenzi dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazil sacrifices many dairy calves at birth, which can become a very serious problem merchandising. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the physical carcass composition and meat quality characteristics of Holstein calves in feedlot or pasture with supplementation, slaughtered at 140, 180, 220 or 260 kg body weight. In the early termination calves had on average 57 kg and 58 days of age. The confined animals were fed forage (corn and concentrated, in the ratio of 40:60 and concentrated pasture supplemented with 1% body weight. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 2 x 4 (two feeding systems x four slaughter weights. It was observed a significant interaction between slaughter weight and finishing system only for the texture of the meat. The finished animals on pasture showed improved texture with increased weight, whereas the confined animals did not affect the weight. Animals finished on pasture had higher muscle percentage (69.48% vs 66.57%, and lower fat percentage (9.58% and 9.75 kg vs 13.20% and 13.08 kg compared to confined animals. There was a linear increase in the total amount of muscle, bone and fat, muscle / bone ratio, compared edible portion / bone, palatability and juiciness when increased slaughter weight. The percentage of bone and meat coloring decreased linearly with the increase of slaughter weight. The proportion of muscle and fat, showed quadratic behavior. The animals of dairy breeds are excellent producers of lean meat, with good smoothness, flavor and juiciness.

  16. The effects of sex and slaughter weight on growth performance and carcass traits of pigs intended for dry-cured ham from Teruel (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, M A; García-Belenguer, E; Ariño, L

    2008-08-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 200) from Duroc sires mated to Landrace x Large White dams, with a mean BW of 107.0 +/- 2.4 kg and intended for highquality dry-cured hams (Teruel ham) from Spain, were used to investigate the effects of sex (barrows and gilts) and slaughter weight (SW; 120, 125, 130, 135, and 140 kg of BW) on growth performance and carcass characteristics. For productive performance, there were 5 treatments based on 5 SW; each treatment was replicated 4 times and the replicate was a pen made up of 5 barrows and 5 gilts allotted together. For carcass traits, there were 10 treatments based on 2 sexes and 5 SW; each treatment was replicated 20 times and the replicate was a carcass. Barrows had fatter carcasses (P We can conclude that barrows were better than gilts when intended for Teruel ham. Furthermore, an increase in SW up to 130 kg in pigs impaired growth performance but improved some aspects of carcass quality that are required by the Teruel ham industry.

  17. The Impact of Feeding Diets of High or Low Energy Concentration on Carcass Measurements and the Weight of Primal and Subprimal Lean Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Schinckel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pigs from four sire lines were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.15 to 3.21 Mcal ME/kg corn-soybean meal-based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.41 to 3.45 Mcal ME/kg with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Barrows (N = 2,178 and gilts (N = 2,274 were fed either high energy (HE or low energy (LE diets from 27 kg BW to target BWs of 118, 127, 131.5 and 140.6 kg. Carcass primal and subprimal cut weights were collected. The cut weights and carcass measurements were fitted to allometric functions (Y = A CWB of carcass weight. The significance of diet, sex or sire line with A and B was evaluated by linearizing the equations by log to log transformation. The effect of diet on A and B did not interact with sex or sire line. Thus, the final model was B where Diet = −0.5 for the LE and 0.5 for HE diets and A and B are sire line-sex specific parameters. cut weight = (1+bD(Diet A(CW Diet had no affect on loin, Boston butt, picnic, baby back rib, or sparerib weights (p>0.10, bD = −0.003, −0.0029, 0.0002, 0.0047, −0.0025, respectively. Diet affected ham weight (bD = −0.0046, p = 0.01, belly weight (bD = 0.0188, p = 0.001 three-muscle ham weight (bD = −0.014, p = 0.001, boneless loin weight (bD = −0.010, p = 0.001, tenderloin weight (bD = −0.023, p = 0.001, sirloin weight (bD = −0.009, p = 0.034, and fat-free lean mass (bD = −0.0145, p = 0.001. Overall, feeding the LE diets had little impact on primal cut weight except to decrease belly weight. Feeding LE diets increased the weight of lean trimmed cuts by 1 to 2 percent at the same carcass weight.

  18. Live animal and carcass characteristics of South African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sex, age and pre-slaughter conditioning on live animal, carcass dimensions and carcass composition were evaluated. The goats were large with live weight, carcass weight and carcass dimensions in the range of the large breeds of southern Africa. They had a high lean and low fat content. Intact males were ...

  19. Molecular Weights of Bovine and Porcine Heparin Samples: Comparison of Chromatographic Methods and Results of a Collaborative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Sabrina; Risi, Giulia; Guerrini, Marco; Carrick, Kevin; Szajek, Anita Y; Mulloy, Barbara

    2017-07-19

    In a collaborative study involving six laboratories in the USA, Europe, and India the molecular weight distributions of a panel of heparin sodium samples were determined, in order to compare heparin sodium of bovine intestinal origin with that of bovine lung and porcine intestinal origin. Porcine samples met the current criteria as laid out in the USP Heparin Sodium monograph. Bovine lung heparin samples had consistently lower average molecular weights. Bovine intestinal heparin was variable in molecular weight; some samples fell below the USP limits, some fell within these limits and others fell above the upper limits. These data will inform the establishment of pharmacopeial acceptance criteria for heparin sodium derived from bovine intestinal mucosa. The method for MW determination as described in the USP monograph uses a single, broad standard calibrant to characterize the chromatographic profile of heparin sodium on high-resolution silica-based GPC columns. These columns may be short-lived in some laboratories. Using the panel of samples described above, methods based on the use of robust polymer-based columns have been developed. In addition to the use of the USP's broad standard calibrant for heparin sodium with these columns, a set of conditions have been devised that allow light-scattering detected molecular weight characterization of heparin sodium, giving results that agree well with the monograph method. These findings may facilitate the validation of variant chromatographic methods with some practical advantages over the USP monograph method.

  20. Molecular Weights of Bovine and Porcine Heparin Samples: Comparison of Chromatographic Methods and Results of a Collaborative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Bertini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a collaborative study involving six laboratories in the USA, Europe, and India the molecular weight distributions of a panel of heparin sodium samples were determined, in order to compare heparin sodium of bovine intestinal origin with that of bovine lung and porcine intestinal origin. Porcine samples met the current criteria as laid out in the USP Heparin Sodium monograph. Bovine lung heparin samples had consistently lower average molecular weights. Bovine intestinal heparin was variable in molecular weight; some samples fell below the USP limits, some fell within these limits and others fell above the upper limits. These data will inform the establishment of pharmacopeial acceptance criteria for heparin sodium derived from bovine intestinal mucosa. The method for MW determination as described in the USP monograph uses a single, broad standard calibrant to characterize the chromatographic profile of heparin sodium on high-resolution silica-based GPC columns. These columns may be short-lived in some laboratories. Using the panel of samples described above, methods based on the use of robust polymer-based columns have been developed. In addition to the use of the USP’s broad standard calibrant for heparin sodium with these columns, a set of conditions have been devised that allow light-scattering detected molecular weight characterization of heparin sodium, giving results that agree well with the monograph method. These findings may facilitate the validation of variant chromatographic methods with some practical advantages over the USP monograph method.

  1. Crescimento de regiões da carcaça de cordeiros abatidos com diferentes pesos Growth of carcass parts in slaughter lambs with different weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Furtado da Silva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no Setor de Ovinocultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, objetivando determinar o crescimento das principais partes da carcaça e suas proporções em relação ao peso de corpo vazio e peso de carcaça fria de cordeiros abatidos com diferentes pesos. Foram utilizados 22 cordeiros machos inteiros, filhos de carneiros Texel e ovelhas cruzas (Texel x Ideal. Destes, quatro foram abatidos no início do experimento (24 horas após o nascimento, seis ao desmame (45 dias de idade e os remanescentes aos 28 (6 animais ou 33 kg (6 animais. Os cordeiros foram confinados em baias individuais, com suas respectivas mães, até o desmame. A determinação do crescimento dos cortes da carcaça foi realizada através de equações alométricas, utilizando-se o logaritmo do peso de cada região da carcaça, em função do logaritmo do PCF ou PCV. As proporções de quarto, paleta e pescoço, em relação ao PCV, foram semelhantes (P>0,05 nos pesos de abates estudados, no entanto, houve diferença (PThis work was performed at the Ovine Section of Animal Science Department, at Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the growth of the carcass cuts and percentages in relation to the empty body weight and cold carcass weight of lambs slaughtered at different weights. Twenty-two intact male lambs, sired by Texel males, from crossbreed Texel-Ideal dams were used. Four lambs were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (24 hours after birth and three groups of six lambs were slaughtered at weaning and when reaching the weight of 28 and 33kg. The lambs were confined in individual stall together, with their respective mothers until weaning (45 days of age. To study the growth of the different cuts of the carcass, regression equation of the log. of the weight of each part, as a function of the log. of the empty body weight or cold carcass weight were

  2. Estimation of genetic parameters for carcass traits in Japanese quail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of some carcass characteristics in the Japanese quail. For this aim, carcass weight (Cw), breast weight (Bw), leg weight (Lw), abdominal fat weight (AFw), carcass yield (CP), breast percentage (BP), leg percentage (LP) and abdominal fat percentage (AFP) were ...

  3. Improving smallholder food security through investigations of carcass composition and beef marketing of buffalo and cattle in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Phonvisay, Aloun; Bush, Russell David; Windsor, Peter Andrew

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the carcass composition of Lao indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos indicus), then examined trends in bovine meat marketing following review of records of beef production and prices in the two major cities of Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK) provinces in northern Laos. Samples from 41 buffalo and 81 cattle (n = 122) were collected from animals slaughtered in May-June 2014, with live weights, carcass weights and other carcass-related variables collected. The animals were classified into four age cohort groups (6 years) with quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits determined. There were significant differences in buffalo and cattle predicted mean carcass weights between age classification categories (p = 0.003 and 0.001) but not in dressing percentages (p = 0.1 and 0.1). The carcass weight of buffalo was 104 (±23.1)-176 (±12.0) kg compared to 65 (±8.7)-84 (±6.5) kg of cattle, with dressing percentages of 37-40 and 39-42 %, respectively. Despite an average bovine meat price increase of 42-48 % between 2011 and 2013, there was a reduction in the numbers of large ruminants slaughtered in the surveyed cities of LPB (11 %) and XK (7 %), with bovine meat availability per person of 5.2-6.6 kg (LPB) and 3.0-3.8 kg (XK). Improving the sustainability of the bovine meat supply in Laos requires a systems approach involving improvements to animal health and production, livestock marketing, plus the critical development of improved slaughterhouse facilities enabling a meat-processing sector to emerge. This development pathway is of particular importance for building the capacity of Laos to reduce food insecurity and alleviate the poverty of its largely rural smallholder community.

  4. Relationship between carcass weight, adipose tissue\\ud androstenone level and expression of the hepatic 3bhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in entire commercial pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolau-Solano, S. I.; Wittington, F. M.; Wood, J. D.; Doran (nee Udovikova), O.; University of Bristol

    2007-01-01

    Boar taint is a major meat-quality defect in pigs and is due to excessive accumulation of skatole and androstenone in adipose tissue. The present work investigated the relationship between carcass weight, levels of skatole and androstenone in adipose tissue, and expression of the hepatic androstenone-metabolising enzyme 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3b-HSD), in 22 entire male and 22 entire female crossbred pigs (Large White (40%)3Landrace (40%)3Duroc (20%)). Animals of each gender were div...

  5. Identification of unprecedented anticancer properties of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (HMW-bLf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzi Ebrahim

    Full Text Available With the successful clinical trials, multifunctional glycoprotein bovine lactoferrin is gaining attention as a safe nutraceutical and biologic drug targeting cancer, chronic-inflammatory, viral and microbial diseases. Interestingly, recent findings that human lactoferrin oligomerizes under simulated physiological conditions signify the possible role of oligomerization in the multifunctional activities of lactoferrin molecule during infections and in disease targeting signaling pathways. Here we report the purification and physicochemical characterization of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (≥250 kDa, from bovine colostrum, a naturally enriched source of lactoferrin. It showed structural similarities to native monomeric iron free (Apo lactoferrin (∼78-80 kDa, retained anti-bovine lactoferrin antibody specific binding and displayed potential receptor binding properties when tested for cellular internalization. It further displayed higher thermal stability and better resistance to gut enzyme digestion than native bLf monomer. High molecular weight bovine lactoferrin was functionally bioactive and inhibited significantly the cell proliferation (p<0.01 of human breast and colon carcinoma derived cells. It induced significantly higher cancer cell death (apoptosis and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cells than the normal intestinal cells. Upon cellular internalization, it led to the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression and degradation of actin. In order to identify the cutting edge future potential of this bio-macromolecule in medicine over the monomer, its in-depth structural and functional properties need to be investigated further.

  6. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of three Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breed affected the weights of internal fat depots. The findings indicate that breed affected the carcass characteristics of the three Ethiopian goat breeds. Keywords: Indigenous goats; carcass yield; carcass composition; primal cuts; non-carcass components. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol. 37 (4) 2007: pp.221- ...

  7. Effect of gender on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat and fat composition of pigs slaughtered at 125 kg of live weight destined to Teruel (Spain ham production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Garitano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Duroc x (Landrace x Large White barrows (n=60 and gilts (n=72, that consumed the same feed during the experimental period (25-125 kg of live weight were used. The duration of experimental period was 130 and 143 days for barrows and gilts respectively. The average daily gain and average daily feed intake were significantly higher (P<0.05 in barrows than in gilts, but no significant differences between sexes were observed for the feed conversion efficiency. The gender had not significant influence on carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass inner length, ham length and perimeter, but fat thickness at the level of Gluteus medius muscle and the last rib were significantly higher (P <0.05 in barrows than in gilts. The number of thighs removed per pig in the slaughterhouse was significantly higher in gilts than in barrows. The intramuscular fat (IMF percentage in Longissimus dorsi muscle was significantly higher in barrows than in gilts. The C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1 n-9, C20:1 and Σ MUFA proportions were significantly higher (P<0.05 in barrows than in gilts, while C10:0, C18:2 n-6, Σ n-6 and Σ PUFA proportions were higher in gilts than in barrows. Positive relations among IMF and C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 n-9, Σ SFA and Σ MUFA fatty acids were observed, whereas negative relations among IMF and C18:2 n-6 and PUFA fatty acids were detected. These results indicate that meat and fat quality was slightly better in barrows than in gilts.

  8. A comparison of the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in beef from cattle younger than 21 months in Japan with that in beef from the United States as assessed by the carcass maturity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Smith, Gary C

    2008-04-01

    After the detection of the first case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United States in December 2003, the Japanese government halted all imports of U.S. beef. The BSE risk in beef is partly dependent on the slaughter age of the cattle from which it is derived. In Japan, all cattle 21 months old and older are screened using a rapid diagnostic test, while in the United States, routine BSE testing is not done at any age of slaughter cattle. In the United States, there is no nationally mandated cattle identification system that enables cattle younger than 21 months to be identified. Therefore, all beef potentially produced for export to Japan must be from cattle that are age verified as younger than 21 months old or be classified by the U.S. Department of Agriculture using a carcass maturity score, which in turn is related to the age of the animal from which the beef is derived. After consulting the Food Safety Commission, the Japanese government decided on 12 December 2005 to allow importation of beef from the United States derived from cattle with a carcass maturity score of < or =A40 and from which specified risk materials are removed. In this study, a stochastic model was used to simulate the interval of time from slaughter to the predicted clinical onset of BSE in an infected animal. A simulation result, based on the assumption that the BSE prevalence is equivalent in the two countries, revealed that there was no increased risk of BSE infectivity in beef coming from carcasses with a maturity score of < or =A40 in the United States, compared with beef from cattle younger than 21 months slaughtered in Japan.

  9. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits...

  10. Características das carcaças e componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros terminados em pastagem ou confinamento = Carcass characteristics and live weight components in lambs finished on pasture or feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Machado Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar as características da carcaça e os não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros em quatro sistemas: cordeiros desmamados aos 60 dias mantidos em pastagem; cordeiros + ovelhas em pastagem; cordeiros + ovelhas em pastagem + concentrado em creep feeding (1% PV; cordeiros desmamados aos 60 dias e confinados. Os cordeiros foram abatidos quando a média de peso vivo do tratamento alcançou entre 32-34 kg. Após o abate, foram coletados e pesados os não-componentes da carcaça. Obtiveram-se pesos, rendimentos emedidas objetivas das carcaças e por cálculos a compacidade de perna e carcaça. A metodologia para determinar o momento de abate promoveu grande variação (7 a 14 kg no peso vivo final entre os animais do mesmo tratamento. Houve correlação significativa (p This experiment had the objective to evaluate the carcass characteristics and the non-carcass components of lambs on four systems: lambs weaned at 60 days of age kept on pasture; lambs + ewes kept on pasture; lambs + ewe + concentrate in creep feeding; lambs weaned at 60 days and kept on feedlot. Lambs were slaughteredwhen mean live weight from the tratament reached 32-34 kg. After slaughter, the noncarcass components were collected and weighed. The weight, yield and carcass measures were obtained, while leg and carcass compacity was calculated. The elected methodology fordetermining slaughter time resulted in large variation (7 to 14 kg in the slaughter weight of lambs from the same treatments. There was a significant (p < 0.05 positive correlation between hot (r = 0.83 and cold (r = 0.85 carcass weights, and slaughtered weight. Lambsweaned and finished on pasture showed lower (p < 0.05 hot carcass dressing (42.3%, cold carcass dressing (40.2%, carcass biological dressing (51.8% and thorax width (22.99 cm and higher (p < 0.05 gastrointestinal content (5.6 kg. The presence of dams had aninfluence in systems were there was no weaning, in regard to carcass

  11. Influência da raça, sexo e peso/idade sobre o rendimento da carcaça em cordeiros The influence of breed, sex and weight/age on carcass yield in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Moreira Osório

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou quantificar e comparar o rendimento da carcaça em cordeiros machos e fêmeas, abatidos com 63-73 dias de idade (peso de carcaça fria entre 6,5 kg e 7,9 kg e 80-90 dias de idade (peso de carcaça fria entre 8,0 kg e 9,5 kg, procedentes das raças Rasa Aragonesa, Ojinegra de Teruel e Roya Bilbilitana. Não foi verificada diferença de rendimentos de carcaça entre as raças; por outro lado, as fêmeas apresentaram rendimentos superiores aos machos; assim como os cordeiros de maior idade/peso de carcaça apresentaram rendimentos superiores aos de menor idade/peso de carcaça. As raças que participam da denominação específica de qualidade "Ternasco de Aragón" (Rasa Aragonesa, Ojinegra de Teruel e Roya Bilbilitana apresentam rendimentos de carcaça semelhantes. Entretanto, o sexo e a idade/peso de carcaça são fatores de variação do rendimento de carcaça que devem ser considerados para uma uniformização e comercialização de um produto de qualidade.This study aimed to compare and quantify carcass yield of male and female lambs of the following breeds: Rasa Aragonesa, Ojinegra de Teruel and Roya Bilbilitana. Animals were slaughtered, one group at 63-73 days of age (cool carcass weight between 6.5 and 7.3 kg and another when 80-90 days of age (cool carcass weight between 8.0 and 9.5 kg. Carcass yield has not been influenced by breed. On the other hand, females have shown yields higher than the males; as well as lambs of higher age/weight of carcass did show higher yields than those of lower age/weight of carcass. These breeds, which comprise the ones that receive the specific denomination for quality "Ternasco de Aragón", show similar carcass yields. However, sex and age/weight of carcass are variation factors of carcass yields which should be considered for a standardization and selling of a quality product.

  12. Maternal and paternal genomes differentially affect myofibre characteristics and muscle weights of bovine fetuses at midgestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidong Xiang

    Full Text Available Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80-96% and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82-89% and 56-93%, respectively. Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05 explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA of fast myotubes (68%, while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01. Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001 or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86% with nested maternal weight effect (5-6%, P<0.05, was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001 or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001 genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01 and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05 on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass (P

  13. Direct and social genetic effects on body weight at 270 days and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostellato, R; Sartori, C; Bonfatti, V; Chiarot, G; Carnier, P

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate covariance components for BW at 270 d (BW270) and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs using models accounting for social effects and to compare the ability of such models to fit the data relative to models ignoring social interactions. Phenotypic records were from 9,871 pigs sired by 293 purebred boars mated to 456 crossbred sows. Piglets were born and reared at the same farm and randomly assigned at 60 d of age to groups (6.1 pigs per group on average) housed in finishing pens, each having an area of 6 m(2). The average additive genetic relationship among group mates was 0.11. Pigs were slaughtered at 277 ± 3 d of age and 169.7 ± 13.9 kg BW in groups of nearly 70 animals each. Four univariate animal models were compared: a basic model (M1) including only direct additive genetic effects, a model (M2) with nonheritable social group (pen) effects in addition to effects in M1, a model (M3) accounting for litter effects in addition to M2, and a model (M4) accounting for social genetic effects in addition to effects in M3. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of covariance components were obtained for BW270; carcass backfat depth; carcass lean meat content (CLM); iodine number (IOD); and linoleic acid content (LIA) of raw ham subcutaneous fat; subcutaneous fat depth in the proximity of semimembranosus muscle (SFD1) and quadriceps femoris muscle (SFD2); and linear scores for ham round shape (RS), subcutaneous fat (SF), and marbling. Likelihood ratio tests indicated that, for all traits, M2 fit the data better than M1 and that M3 was superior to M2 except for SFD1 and SFD2. Model M4 was significantly better than M3 for BW270 (P quality traits ranged from 6.8 (RS) to 11.2% (SF). Direct and social genetic effects on BW270 were uncorrelated, whereas there was a negative genetic covariance between direct and social effects on CLM, IOD, RS, and SF, which reduced the total heritable variance. This variance, measured relative

  14. effects of tail docking on fattening performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *

    Karakaş lambs at birth improved weight gain and desirable carcass characteristics compared to those of .... weight gain in fattening, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics (Gürsoy & Özcan, 1982; Cengiz & Arık,. 1994 ... The proportion of the muscle, bone and fat in the carcass was estimated by physical dissection and.

  15. Comparative study of intraperitoneal adhesions related to light-weight polypropylene mesh and type I polymerized and purified bovine collagen coated light-weight polypropylene mesh in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Diego Paim Carvalho; Santos, Clarissa; Nunes, Cristiana Buzelin; Buzelin, Marcelo Araújo; Petroianu, Andy; Figueiredo, Luiza Ohasi de; Motta, Andreia Souto da; Gaspar, Cristiane de Barros; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of light-weight polypropylene mesh coated with polymerized and purified bovine type I collagen (Surgidry HNB) in the treatment of abdominal wall defect and the degree of adhesion formation. Two types of polypropylene mesh were implanted after creation of defect measuring 6.0cm X 5.5cm in the anterior abdominal wall of 32 male New Zealand breed rabbits, divided in two groups (n = 32): (1) light-weigh macroporous polypropylene, (2) type I polymerized and purified bovine collagen coated light-weigh macroporous polypropylene. These animals were further accessed for adhesions, histological evaluation of inflammation and wall's thickness. The percentage of the area adhered in group 1 (62.31 ± 16.6) was higher compared to group 2 (22.19 ± 14.57) (p polypropylene mesh showed to be effective in the repair of abdominal wall defects and reducing adhesion formation.

  16. Serum Biochemistry, Organ Weight, Carcass Characteristics, Organoleptic Properties and Villi Morphometry of Nera Black Cocks fed Varying Levels of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Kayode Ojediran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A total number of sixty-four (28 weeks old matured Nera black cocks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary groups. Diet T1 (control had no Moringa Oleifera leaf meal (MOLM inclusion while diets T2, T3 and T4 contained graded levels of MOLM at 10%, 20% and 30% replacement for soya bean meal (w/w respectively  in a completely randomized design. All the serum biochemistry parameters evaluated differs significantly (P≤0.05 except albumin and cholesterol (P>0.05 among the dietary treatments. The weight of the kidney, heart, pancrease, proventriculus and spleen were influenced by the dietary treatments (P≤0.05. The weights of breast and empty gizzard increased (P≤0.05 linearly with MOLM inclusion while the wings, thigh and drum stick compared (P≤0.05 with those fed the control diet. The villi length and muscle thickness were significantly (P≤0.05 influenced by MOLM inclusion. The MOLM supplemented birds had longer villi than birds in the control group. The result of the this study showed that replacement of soybean meal with MOLM up to 30% inclusion in the diets of Nera black cocks was not detrimental to organ weights, carcass characteristics, sensory attributes and villi morphometrics. However, some serum parameters were adversely affected.

  17. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: IX. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and cow efficiency ratios based on harvest, carcass, and wholesale cut weight outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M E; Lancaster, P A; Rutledge, J J; Cundiff, L V

    2018-03-06

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least one calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned three calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments. Individual feed consumption was measured at 28-d intervals from the time females were placed on the experiment at 240 d of age until three calves were weaned or the dams had reached 5 yr of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual BW gain (RG) of heifers that subsequently became dams were determined based on ADG and DMI from 240 d of age to first calving. Various measures of cow efficiency were calculated on either a life cycle or actual lifetime basis using ratios of progeny and dam weight outputs to progeny and dam feed inputs. The correlation between RFI and DMI was large and positive (r = 0.67; P cow efficiency ratios that included harvest weight, carcass weight, or weight of trimmed wholesale cuts as measures of output ranged from -0.05 (P > 0.10) to -0.17 (P cows. Correlations of RG with life cycle and actual lifetime cow efficiency ratios ranged from 0.08 (P > 0.10) to 0.23 (P cows. The correlations were stronger when cow salvage value was included in the measures of cow efficiency. Correlations of DMI and mid-test metabolic BW (MMW) with life cycle cow efficiency ratios that did not include cow salvage value as output ranged from -0.15 (P cow efficiency ratios varied from -0.20 (P cow efficiency ratios. Correlations of RFI with carcass grade, backfat thickness, marbling score, and kidney fat of progeny indicated that heifers with superior RFI would tend to produce leaner offspring.

  18. Animal Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Bulls (1/2 Purunã vs 1/2 Canchim Slaughtered at 16 and 22 Months Old, and Three Different Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current study aimed to evaluate the performance of bulls (1/2 Purunã vs 1/2 Canchim slaughtered at two ages and three different weights. One hundred and thirteen bulls were divided into two slaughter ages (16 and 22 months and three different slaughter weights (light, 422 kg; medium, 470 kg; and heavy, 550 kg. The body weight was higher for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. Daily gain, carcass weight and dressing were higher for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. Feed intake was higher for bulls slaughtered at 22 months although feed efficiency was better for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. Carcass characteristics were better for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. The percentages of muscle, fat and bone and meat characteristics were similar between two slaughter ages. Feed intake and animal performance was lower for lighter animals. Feed conversion and carcass dressing were similar in the three slaughter weights. Muscle percentage was higher for heavier animals but fat and bone percentages were lower. Slaughter weight had no effect on meat characteristics.

  19. Procedures for evaluating pork carcass and cut composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemens, A.L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Five studies were completed to investigate various production and evaluation procedures related to pork carcass composition and meat quality. A comparison of market hog characteristics of pigs selected by feeder pig frame size or current USDA feeder pig standards was made. In general, feeder pig frame size did differentiate between carcass skeletal traits (i.e., carcass length, radius length). However, frame sizing did not improve on current feeder pig grades in discriminating between carcass composition characteristics. Liquid scintillation of potassium-40 was used to estimate pork carcass composition of 124 boars barrows and gilts, ranging from 23 to 114 kg live weight. Pigs were counted live, slaughtered and one side of the carcass was counted. The side was then ground and sampled for percent protein, fat and moisture. Carcass weight and {sup 40}K determined potassium of the carcass explain more of the variation in carcass composition than live animal traits. Carcass measurements were used to determine value and percentages of fat standardized lean, protein, fat and moisture in the carcass using 265 barrow and gilt carcasses. In a separate study, belly composition was estimated from carcass and belly parameters (n = 338). Ribbed carcasses measurements were almost always superior to unribbed carcass measurements when estimating carcass or belly composition. Tenth rib fat depth was the most useful single variable for predicting belly fat, protein, moisture and lean. Some precision and accuracy were lost when using parameters from unribbed carcasses to estimate carcass or belly composition as compared to including parameters from ribbed carcasses. The sensory and nutritive value of cooked pork center loin chops and roasts were investigated. Levels of fat cover and internal temperature did not greatly affect cholesterol content.

  20. Procedures for evaluating pork carcass and cut composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, A.L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Five studies were completed to investigate various production and evaluation procedures related to pork carcass composition and meat quality. A comparison of market hog characteristics of pigs selected by feeder pig frame size or current USDA feeder pig standards was made. In general, feeder pig frame size did differentiate between carcass skeletal traits (i.e., carcass length, radius length). However, frame sizing did not improve on current feeder pig grades in discriminating between carcass composition characteristics. Liquid scintillation of potassium-40 was used to estimate pork carcass composition of 124 boars barrows and gilts, ranging from 23 to 114 kg live weight. Pigs were counted live, slaughtered and one side of the carcass was counted. The side was then ground and sampled for percent protein, fat and moisture. Carcass weight and 40 K determined potassium of the carcass explain more of the variation in carcass composition than live animal traits. Carcass measurements were used to determine value and percentages of fat standardized lean, protein, fat and moisture in the carcass using 265 barrow and gilt carcasses. In a separate study, belly composition was estimated from carcass and belly parameters (n = 338). Ribbed carcasses measurements were almost always superior to unribbed carcass measurements when estimating carcass or belly composition. Tenth rib fat depth was the most useful single variable for predicting belly fat, protein, moisture and lean. Some precision and accuracy were lost when using parameters from unribbed carcasses to estimate carcass or belly composition as compared to including parameters from ribbed carcasses. The sensory and nutritive value of cooked pork center loin chops and roasts were investigated. Levels of fat cover and internal temperature did not greatly affect cholesterol content

  1. The Influence of Propolis as Supplement Diet on Broiler Meat Growth Performance, Carcass Body Weight, Chemical Composition and Lipid Oxidation Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was aimed to study the effect of the propolis extract as supplement diet on the broiler chickens growth performance, breast and thigh weights, meat chemical composition and lipid oxidation stability. A total of 120 chicks in one day old, which were divided into 4 groups (n = 30 for 42 days.To the experimental groups were added propolis extract in doses of 200 mg.kg−1 (II, 300 mg.kg−1 (III and 400 mg.kg−1 (IV. At the end of the experiment the results were shown that the body weight gain after 21 and 42 days has been increased and there were found significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 between control and experimental groups also the feed intake has been increased and there were (P ≤ 0.05. The FCR was higher in the control group. The carcass body weight breast and thigh weights were increased and there were no significant differences while, the abdominal fat and liver weights were decreased. No significant difference was occurred on chemical composition of breast and thigh muscles, whereasthe muscle moisture tends to increase and fat content and energy value were decreased. Interestingly, thelipid oxidation stability measured as TBARS during the freezing storage for 6 months has been decreasedmalondialdehyde (MDA in the experimental groups and there were found significant (P ≤ 0.05 in the breast musclesbetween control group and experimental groups. From the present study were concluded after administration the propolis extract that broilergrowth performance has been increased and the lipid oxidation (MDA during the freezing storage (−18 °C have been decreased.

  2. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, A.; O'Neill, C.J.; Thomson, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified...... recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results: Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic...... correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive...

  3. THE EFFECT OF ANDROSTENEDIONE ON CROWTH, CARCASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slaughter weight (kg). No. of days fed/pig. ** ADG (kg/day). Feed conversion (kg feed/kg wt gain). Dressing percentage. Carcass length (cm). Av. Backfat thickness (cm). Av. C & K measurement (cm). Eye muscle surface area (sq cm). ** Eye muscle mass (surf. area x carcass length). * Fat % in three rib cut. Muscle % in three ...

  4. A comparison between the body composition, carcass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jasper

    The body composition, carcass characteristics and retail cuts of 61 Dormers (21 rams and 40 ewes) and 35 South ... The effects of breed, age and live weight on the carcass composition and retail cuts of meat-type lambs have been ..... Some effects of nutrition and castration on meat production from male Suffolk cross.

  5. Carcass quality traits of three different pig genotypes, White Mangulica, Duroc × White Mangulica and Large White pigs, reared under intensive conditions and slaughtered at 150 kg live weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivić, M.; Tomović, V.; Šević, R.; Jokanović, M.; Škaljac, S.; Džinić, N.; Šojić, B.; Tasić, T.; Ikonić, P.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of breed on carcass composition was studied for autochthonous purebred White Mangulica (WM), crossbred Duroc x White Mangulica (DWM) and purebred Large White (LW) pigs. Pigs were slaughtered at a target body weight of about 150 kg. After slaughter, carcass yield, backfat thickness, the thickness of the lumbar muscle and chilling loss were measured and calculated. WM pigs had the highest percentage of carcass yield, while DWM produced an intermediate carcass yield, between those of the pure breeds. The backfat thickness was highest in WM pigs, compared to DWM and LW pigs (67, 41 and 27 mm, respectively, P pigs had respectively the lowest and the highest thickness of the lumbar muscle (62 and 72 mm), with DWM pigs at an intermediate position (69 mm). As regards chilling loss, WM and DWM pigs showed better results than LW pigs (1.74, 1.75 and 1.92 %, respectively). Overall, evidence of additive genetic effects was present for all investigated parameters, with crosses showing intermediate values between pure breeds.

  6. SID tryptophan levels and B6 vitamin supplementation do not change blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and meat quality of barrows (70-100kg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilha, L D; Huepa, L M D; Fachinello, M R; Pozza, M S S; Vasconcellos, R S; Bonagurio, L P; Marcato, S M; Pozza, P C

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan and B6 on blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and longissimus lumborum quality of barrows (70-100kg). Sixty-four crossbred barrows averaging 70.77±2.07kg were distributed in a 4×2 factorial with four SID tryptophan levels (0.130, 0.155, 0.180, and 0.205%) and two B6 levels (1 and 5mg/kg) in eight replicates of one animal each. The meat lightness degree answered linearly (P=0.015) to SID tryptophan levels and the shear force answered quadratically (P=0.050), with estimates of a higher value (31.67N) at 0.163% SID tryptophan. Although B6 showed positive effects (Ptryptophan requirement for barrows (70-100kg) was not higher than 0.130% (4.07g/day) and did not change due to B6. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative trait locus affecting birth weight on bovine chromosome 5 in a F2 Gyr x Holstein population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gasparin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Segregation between a genetic marker and a locus influencing a quantitative trait in a well delineated population is the basis for success in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL. To detect bovine chromosome 5 (BTA5 birth weight QTL we genotyped 294 F2 Gyr (Bos indicus x Holstein (Bos taurus crossbreed cattle for five microsatellite markers. A linkage map was constructed for the markers and an interval analysis for the presence of QTL was performed. The linkage map indicated differences in the order of two markers relative to the reference map (http://www.marc.usda.gov. Interval analysis detected a QTL controlling birth weight (p < 0.01 at 69 centimorgans (cM from the most centromeric marker with an effect of 0.32 phenotypic standard-error. These results support other studies with crossbred Bos taurus x Bos indicus populations.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study for Identifying Loci that Affect Fillet Yield, Carcass, and Body Weight Traits in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Gao, Guangtu; Baranski, Matthew; Moen, Thomas; Cleveland, Beth M; Kenney, P Brett; Vallejo, Roger L; Palti, Yniv; Leeds, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Fillet yield (FY, %) is an economically-important trait in rainbow trout aquaculture that affects production efficiency. Despite that, FY has received little attention in breeding programs because it is difficult to measure on a large number of fish and cannot be directly measured on breeding candidates. The recent development of a high-density SNP array for rainbow trout has provided the needed tool for studying the underlying genetic architecture of this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for FY, body weight at 10 (BW10) and 13 (BW13) months post-hatching, head-off carcass weight (CAR), and fillet weight (FW) in a pedigreed rainbow trout population selectively bred for improved growth performance. The GWAS analysis was performed using the weighted single-step GBLUP method (wssGWAS). Phenotypic records of 1447 fish (1.5 kg at harvest) from 299 full-sib families in three successive generations, of which 875 fish from 196 full-sib families were genotyped, were used in the GWAS analysis. A total of 38,107 polymorphic SNPs were analyzed in a univariate model with hatch year and harvest group as fixed effects, harvest weight as a continuous covariate, and animal and common environment as random effects. A new linkage map was developed to create windows of 20 adjacent SNPs for use in the GWAS. The two windows with largest effect for FY and FW were located on chromosome Omy9 and explained only 1.0-1.5% of genetic variance, thus suggesting a polygenic architecture affected by multiple loci with small effects in this population. One window on Omy5 explained 1.4 and 1.0% of the genetic variance for BW10 and BW13, respectively. Three windows located on Omy27, Omy17, and Omy9 (same window detected for FY) explained 1.7, 1.7, and 1.0%, respectively, of genetic variance for CAR. Among the detected 100 SNPs, 55% were located directly in genes (intron and exons). Nucleotide sequences of intragenic SNPs were blasted to the Mus musculus genome to create a

  9. Evaluation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product as an alternative to monensin on growth performance, cost of gain, and carcass characteristics of heavy-weight yearling beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swyers, K L; Wagner, J J; Dorton, K L; Archibeque, S L

    2014-06-01

    Two hundred fifty-two cross-bred yearling steers (406 ± 24 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (7 pens/treatment) to evaluate the effects of dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SFP) and monensin (MON) on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Dietary treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial were 1) with or without SFP and 2) with or without MON. Finishing diets contained 19.7% of DM as dried distiller's grains with solubles. Both SFP and MON were added in the total mixed ration in place of an equal amount of cornmeal (DM basis; target intake = 2.8 g of SFP and 33 mg of MON/kg of dietary DM). Each treatment group was offered ad libitum access to a transition ration from d 1 to 8 and then to the finishing ration from d 9 to 125. Body weights were collected on d 0, 28, 56, 84, 110, and 125. Initial and final BW was an average of 2-d weights (d -1 and 0 and d 124 and 125, respectively). Steers were shipped for harvest on d 125. Overall ADG was decreased (P = 0.03) in steers supplemented with SFP, but final BW was similar among treatments. Feeding SFP was associated with lighter (P SFP (P = 0.82) or MON (P = 0.35), but numerical decreases in 12th rib fat thickness among cattle receiving SFP or MON alone contributed to a tendency (P = 0.07) for greater 12 rib fat thickness when SFP and MON were provided. There was no effect of treatment on cost of gain (P ≥ 0.21). The effects of SFP in the current study may have been limited in heavy yearling steers due to consumption of a finishing diet containing 19.7% dried distiller's grains with solubles.

  10. Influência dos sistemas de pastagem e confinamento na contaminação microbiana de carcaças bovinas Influence of pasture and feedlot systems in microbial contamination of bovine carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda B.B. Jardim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contaminação microbiana do couro e da superfície de carcaças bovinas, provenientes de bovinos em diferentes sistemas de engorda: extensiva em pastagem e intensiva em confinamento. Foram utilizados 40 bovinos sadios, da raça nelore, sendo metade proveniente de pastagem e a outra metade de confinamento, que foram abatidos em matadouro-frigorífico sob Serviço de Inspeção Federal, localizado no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A coleta das amostras realizou-se pela técnica de esfregaço de superfície nas carcaças utilizando-se de suabe. As contagens médias (log10 UFC/cm² de aeróbios mesófilos e anaeróbios facultativos, coliformes totais e E. coli foram: antes da esfola, 3,72, 1,27 e 0,86; após a esfola, 1,89, 0,40 e 0,40, e após a lavagem, 2,19, 0,55 e 0,42, respectivamente, para os bovinos de pastagem; antes da esfola, 3,31, 0,65 e 0,64; após a esfola, 1,78, 0,40 e 0,40, e após a lavagem, 1,82, 0,41 e 0,40 para os bovinos de confinamento. Evidenciou-se, pela análise microbiológica, que as amostras provenientes de bovinos em pastagem apresentaram contagens médias superiores, e no caso do couro, essas diferenças foram estatisticamente significativas. Essa constatação foi confirmada pela observação visual de que os animais de confinamento apresentavam o couro "mais limpo" no momento do abate.The objective of this research work was to evaluate the microbial contamination of hide and surface from bovine carcasses coming from cattle under two different feeding systems: extensive, in pasture, and intensive, in feedlot. Forty healthy bovine animals from nelore breed were selected, the one-half being from pasture and the other one-half from feedlot. They were slaughtered under the Federal Inspection Service, in the slaughterhouse located in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The sample collection was carried out through the surface smear technique by using swab on carcasses. The average

  11. Carcass and non-carcass components of Santa Ines lambs subjected to food restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrielle Albuquerque dos Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex class (castrated; non-castrated and level of food restriction (0%, 30% and 60% of ad libitum consumption on the quantitative composition of carcass and non-carcass components of Santa Ines lambs. A completely randomized 3x2 design (restriction level x sex class was used to evaluate thirty lambs approximately two months of age with an average initial body weight of 13 ± 1.49 kg. When the average body weight of the animals in one of the treatment groups reached 28 kg, all animals were slaughtered. Sex class had effect on body weight at slaughter, empty body weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight. The weight of the leg was greater in non-castrated animals. There was linear decreased effect according to increasing levels of restriction for the carcass cuts, except for leg and rear loin yield. There was statistic difference between sex class for the weights of kidneys, paw, and large intestine of non-castrated animals (P < 0.05. There was a negative linear association between level of food restriction and mass of blood, head, leather, paw, rumen, reticulum, abomasum, small intestine, large intestine; perirenal, omental, mesenteric and heart fat. The quantitative composition of carcass and non-carcass components of Santa Ines lambs is influenced by sex class and food restriction level.

  12. Contextual Analysis of CT Scanned Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Lars Bager

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the weight of tissue types in pig carcasses is generally only available after manual dissection. The use of computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated to be a promising approach to gain knowledge on the lean meat weight (Romvari, 2005), but less effort has been put into gaining...... not consider the spatial context in CT scan. Applying contextual methods from the field of image analysis we hope to make a virtual dissection of pig carcasses....

  13. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected on body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality and carcass characteristics. There were no significant difference (p>0.05) in the body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. Also there were no significant (P>0.05) differences ...

  14. Virtual dissection of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann

    2009-01-01

    carcasses were weighed and CT-scanned. The explained variance of the model was R-2 = 0.9994 with a root-mean-squared error of prediction of 83.6 g. Applying this method as a reference will ensure a more robust calibration of sensors for measuring the LMP, which is less prone to variation induced by manual...... is applied to classify volume elements of full body CT-scans of pig carcasses into three tissue types. A linear model describes the relation between voxels and the full weight of the half carcass, which can be determined more accurately than that of the lean meat content. Two hundred and ninety-nine half pig...

  15. Feed intake and weight changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus crossbred steers following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b challenge under production conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366) that were challenge...

  16. Effects of dietary l-methionine supplementation on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and muscular antioxidant capacity and myogenic gene expression in low birth weight pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Zhang, H; Chen, Y P; Ying, Z X; Su, W P; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary Met supplementation on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and muscular antioxidant capacity and myogenic gene expression in low birth weight (LBW) pigs. Thirty normal birth weight (NBW) and 60 LBW female piglets were selected at birth. In each litter, after weaning, 1 of the LBW piglets (LBW-CON group) and 1 of the NBW piglets (NBW-CON group) were fed the basal diets and 1 LBW littermate was fed the basal diet supplemented with Met (LBW-MET group). Thus, all pigs were distributed into groups of 3 treatments × 6 replicates (pens) × 5 piglets per replicate up to 180 d of age. Compared with NBW-CON pigs, LBW-CON pigs had decreased ADG ( = 0.004) and ADFI ( supplemented diets had a greater amount of reduced glutathione (GSH; = 0.009) but a lower level of MDA ( = 0.015) in the LM compared with the LBW-CON pigs. Methionine supplementation increased the pH at 24 h postmortem (pH) value ( = 0.004) but reduced the drip loss at both 24 ( = 0.016) and 48 h ( = 0.005) postmortem of LBW-MET pigs in comparison with the LBW-CON pigs. The Met-supplemented diets increased the -adenosyl-methionine content ( = 0.006), DNA methyltransferase activity ( = 0.007), and CpG methylation levels of the sites +27 ( = 0.008) and +160 ( = 0.009) of myostatin (MSTN) exon 1 but decreased the mRNA expression of MSTN ( = 0.011) in the LM of the LBW-MET group compared with the LM of the LBW-CON group. Additionally, when compared with the LBW-CON group, the area of LM ( = 0.037) was significantly increased in the LBW-MET group, in parallel with the upregulated mRNA abundance of myogenin ( = 0.025), myocyte enhancer factor 2A ( = 0.036), and myocyte enhancer factor 2D ( = 0.015). In conclusion, Met supplementation increases pH and decreases drip loss in the LM of LBW-MET pigs, along with a greater GSH content but a lower MDA accumulation. Also, the LBW-MET pigs showed a greater LM area, which may be

  17. Influência do peso vivo, da idade e do sexo sobre características de carcaças de equinos Influence of body weight, age and sex on characteristics of carcasses of equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Furtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as características quantitativas de carcaças de equinos, classificaram-se 72 equinos sem raça definida segundo o peso vivo, a idade e o sexo. Foram determinados o peso de carcaça fria, a quebra ao resfriamento, o rendimento de carcaça, os pesos de dianteiro e traseiro e a relação músculo/ossos. O modelo estatístico foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 x 3, com dois sexos, três faixas etárias e três faixas de peso vivo. A maior faixa de peso correspondeu a maior peso de carcaça, com média de 201,71 kg; e a maior relação músculo/osso, com 77,69%. A menor quebra ao resfriamento foi observada na menor faixa de peso, com 2,03%. A média para rendimento de carcaça foi de 51,20%, para dianteiro 54,86% e para traseiro 45,06%. Houve interação entre sexo e idade dos animais para a variável rendimento de carcaça, que foi maior nos machos jovens (até 8 anos que nos mais velhos e nas fêmeas. Portanto, no abate de equinos, é recomendável priorizar animais jovens e mais pesados, por apresentarem maior quantidade de carne tipo exportação.With the objective of evaluating the quantitative characteristics of carcasses of equines, 72 undefined breed equines were classified by body weight, age and sex. It was determined cold carcass weight, cooling loss, carcass yield, front and back weight and muscle/bone ratio. The statistical model used was a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 x 3 factorial scheme, with the two sexes, three age ranges and three ranges of body weights. The highest weight range corresponded to the highest carcass weight with average of 201.71 kg, and the highest muscle/bone ratio with 77.69%. The lowest cooling loss was observed in the lowest weight range, with 2.03%. The average for carcass yield was of 51.20%, for front and back, 54.86% and 45.06%, respectively. There was an interaction between sex and age of the animals for carcass yield variable, which was higher in

  18. Ganho de peso, características da carcaça e componentes não-carcaça de cordeiros da raça Texel terminados em diferentes sistemas alimentares Weight gain, carcass characteristics and non carcass components of lambs of breed Texel finished in different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Carvalho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes sistemas alimentares sobre o ganho de peso, as características da carcaça e os componentes não-carcaça de cordeiros em fase de terminação. Foram utilizados 18 cordeiros, machos castrados, da raça Texel, distribuídos aleatoriamente nos seguintes tratamentos: T1 = confinamento; T2 = pastagem com suplementação e T3 = pastagem sem suplementação. Os animais confinados foram alimentados com uma dieta contendo feno de Tifton-85 e concentrado na proporção de 40:60 na matéria seca. A pastagem utilizada foi Tifton-85. Os animais suplementados receberam o mesmo alimento concentrado oferecido no confinamento na proporção de 2% do peso vivo. Aos 144 dias de idade, após jejum de 12 horas, realizaram-se os abates. Foram verificados menores peso final (PThe objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the weight gain, characteristics of the carcass and non carcass components of lambs in termination phase. Eighteen lambs were used, castrated males, of the breed Texel, distributed randomly in the following treatments: T1 = confinement; T2 = pasture with supplementation and T3 = pasture without supplementation. The confined animals had been fed with a diet containing Tifton-85 hay and concentrated in the ratio of 40:60 in dry matter. The used pasture was Tifton-85. The supplemented animals received the same concentrated feed offered in the confinement in the ratio from 2% of live weight. To the 144 days of age, after fastening of 12 hours, the lambs were slaughtered. It was verified lesser final weight (P<0.05, daily weight gain, hot carcass weight, hot carcass yield, weight and proportion of rib and weights of hindquarter, shoulder and neck (P<0.01, in the lambs finished in the pasture, when compared with those confined or supplemented in condition of grazing. The proportions of hindquarter and shoulder had been bigger in the lambs finished in

  19. Effects of color temperatures (Kelvin) of LED bulbs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ocular welfare indices of broilers grown to heavy weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited data are available for comparing light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs that are currently available in commercial broiler production facilities. We evaluated the effects of color temperatures (Kelvin) of LED bulbs on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ocular welfare indices of broil...

  20. Large Pelagic Carcass Weights (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Swordfish have been a commercially caught species since the early 1800s. During this early stage of the fishery, harpoon was the principal gear and the fishing was...

  1. Crescimento de cordeiros abatidos com diferentes pesos: osso, músculo e gordura da carcaça e de seus cortes Growth of lambs slaughtered at different weights: bone, muscle and fat of the carcass and its cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Furtado da Silva

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no Setor de Ovinocultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, objetivando determinar as quantidades de osso, músculo e gordura da carcaça e o crescimento de osso e músculo da carcaça e dos diferentes cortes da mesma. Foram utilizados 22 cordeiros machos inteiros, filhos de carneiros Texel e ovelhas cruza (Texel x Ideal. Desses, quatro/oram abatidos no início do experimento (24 horas após o nascimento, e os restantes, ao desmame (45 dias de idade e aos 28 e 33kg. Os cordeiros foram confinados em baias individuais, com suas respectivas mães, até o desmame (45 dias de idade. A determinação do crescimento dos tecidos da carcaça e de seus cortes (quarto, paleta, costela, espinhaço e pescoço foi realizada através de equações alométricas, utilizando-se o logaritmo do peso de osso ou músculo, em função do logaritmo do peso de corpo vazio (PCV ou peso de carcaça fria (PCF. As quantidades de osso e músculo aumentaram (P0,05 com a elevação do peso de carcaça fria. A proporção de gordura aumentou do nascimento ao desmame (PThis experiment was developed at the Ovine Section of Animal Science Department, at Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil- The purpose of this experiment was to determine the quantity of bone, muscle and fat of the carcass, and the growth ofbone and muscle of the carcass, and of the carcass cuts. Twenty-two intact mate lambs, sired by Texel males, from crossbreed Texel -Ideal dams were used. Four lambs were siaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (24 hours after birth and groups of six lambs were siaughtered at weaning and when reaching 28 and 33kg. The lambs were kept in individual stalls together with their respective mothers until weaning (45 days of age. To study the growth of the carcass tissues and carcass cuts (hindquarter, shoulder, rib, backbone, neck, regression equations of the log of weight of each tissue, as a function of the log of

  2. Weight gain potential affects pregnancy rates in bovine embryo recipients raised under pasture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carlos Antonio de Carvalho; Palhao, Miller Pereira; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina Silva; Ribeiro, Josiane Rossi; Fonseca e Silva, Fabyano; Viana, Joao Henrique Moreira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of differences in body weight gain after embryo transfer on the pregnancy rates of crossbred heifers used as recipients and raised under a grazing system. The study was performed during the dry (April to September) and the rainy (October to March) seasons. The embryos transferred were produced by in vitro fertilization. The body weight of each recipient was measured immediately before the embryo transfer and 23 to 25 days later, when the diagnosis of pregnancy was performed by ultrasonography. The associations among initial body weight (IBW), daily body weight gain (DWG), season, and pregnancy rate were evaluated using a logistic procedure that included the effect of the IBW, season, and linear and quadratic effects of the DWG. Altogether, there was no effect of season and pregnancy rates did not change between the dry and rainy seasons (42.3 vs. 45.8%, respectively; P > 0.05). However, the pregnancy rate was greater in the recipients with daily body weight gains over 250 g/day, regardless of the season. In addition, the pregnancy rate of the recipients was better (P heifer to become pregnant according to DWG is explained by the follow equation: P(y = 1) = (Exp((-1.06703 + 0.0108 * DWG - 0.00002 * DWG ^ 2)))/(1 + Exp((-1.6703 + 0.0108 * DWG - 0.00002 * DWG ^ 2))). In conclusion, body weight gain potential is a critical factor for the pregnancy rates of in vitro embryo recipients managed under grazing systems.

  3. Predicting Acorn-Grass Weight Gain Index using non-destructive Near Infrared Spectroscopy in order to classify Iberian pig carcasses according to feeding regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Marín, D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The classification of Iberian pig carcasses into different commercial categories according to feeding regime was evaluated by means of a non-destructive analysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS. A quantitative approach was used to predict the Acorn-Grass Weight Gain Index (AGWGI, and a set of criteria was established for commercial classification purposes. A total of 719 animals belonging to various batches, reflecting a wide range of feeding regimes, production systems and years, were analyzed with a view to developing and evaluating quantitative NIRS models. Results for the external validation of these models indicate that NIRS made clear differentiation of batches as a function of three feeding regimes possible with high accuracy (Acorn, Recebo and Feed, on the basis of the mean representative spectra of each batch. Moreover, individual analysis of the animals showed a broad consensus between field inspection information and the classification based on the AGWGI NIRS prediction, especially for extreme categories (Acorn and Feed.La clasificación en distintas categorías comerciales según régimen alimenticio de canales de cerdo Ibérico fue evaluada mediante el análisis no destructivo de muestras de tejido adiposo subcutáneo por Espectroscopía del Infrarrojo Cercano (NIRS. Partiendo de una aproximación cuantitativa para predecir el Índice de Reposición en Montanera (IRM se establecieron una serie de criterios para proceder a su clasificación comercial. Se analizaron un total de 719 animales pertenecientes a diversas partidas, que recogen una amplia variabilidad de muestras de distintos regímenes alimenticios, campañas y sistemas productivos, para el desarrollo y evaluación de los modelos NIRS cuantitativos. Los resultados de validación externa de los modelos indicaron que es posible discriminar con una gran exactitud entre partidas de distintos categorías (Bellota, Recebo y Cebo, en base

  4. Volume 10 No. 7 July 2010 2866 CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-07-07

    Jul 7, 2010 ... weighing scales to determine live and carcass weights. This preliminary study was conducted using 35 animals to provide a means of a more accurate estimation of live and carcass weights of three tropical cattle beef cattle; the Zebu (Plate1), the humpless. West African shorthorn (WASH) (Plate2) and the ...

  5. Observations on growth, body dimensions and carcass traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over all ages studied, NI differed markedly from LW in live weight, body length, height , depth and ham dimensions but this difference was much less between males than between females. In NI boars serially slaughtered, live and carcass weights doubled between 7 and 10 mouths of age while dressing percent and carcass ...

  6. Association analysis of CAPN1 gene variants with carcass and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... the cattle industry. Key words: Bovine, CAPN1 gene, Carcass and meat quality traits, SNPs. INTRODUCTION. Carcass and meat quality traits, which are influenced by multiple ... value assessment of beef cattle industry. Selection of ..... tenderness marker test to include cattle of Bos indicus, Bos taurus,.

  7. Effect of chick weight on performance and carcass yield of broilers Influência do peso inicial sobre o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça e cortes de frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J.C. Lara

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of weight classes (light, medium and heavy of Ross chicks on performance and carcass yield and main cuts, was studied using a completely randomized design with six replicates of 30 males and 30 females each. The chicks were fed on the same diets during the growing period (1-43 days. The live weight, feed intake, feed:weight gain ratio, viability, carcass yield and main cuts (breast, whole leg, wing and back and percentages of giblets (gizzard, liver, heart and guts were analyzed. The heavy weight class chicks were heavier (P0.05. The males showed higher carcass yield than the females of medium and heavy weight classes chicks. The whole leg yield of heavy weight class chicks was higher than the medium weight class chicks (PEstudou-se a influência do peso de pintos da linhagem Ross sobre o desempenho de 1 a 43 dias de idade e sobre os rendimentos de carcaça e de cortes nobres. Pintos das categorias de peso leve, média e pesada foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em seis repetições de 30 machos e 30 fêmeas cada. As rações utilizadas foram as mesmas para todos os tratamentos. Avaliaram-se o peso vivo, o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar, a viabilidade, os rendimentos de carcaça e de cortes (peito, coxa, asa e dorso e a porcentagem de vísceras (moela, coração, fígado e intestinos. As aves da categoria pesada apresentaram maior peso (P0,05. Quanto ao rendimento de carcaça, os machos foram superiores às fêmeas nas categorias média e pesada. O rendimento de coxa mais sobrecoxa na categoria pesada foi maior do que na categoria média (P<0,05. Os tratamentos influenciaram o peso corporal, o consumo de ração, os rendimentos de carcaça e coxa mais sobrecoxa e não influenciaram a conversão alimentar, a viabilidade, o rendimento de peito e a porcentagem de vísceras.

  8. Effects of feeding different varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) straws with concentrate supplement on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegi, Teklu; Tolera, Adugna; Wamatu, Jane; Animut, Getachew; Rischkowsky, Barbara

    2017-12-19

    A study was conducted to evaluate the varietal differences among faba bean straws and also to assess the potentials of faba bean straws supplemented with concentrate fed at the rate 70% straws and 30% concentrate mixture on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of the animals. Forty yearling Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight of 19.85+0.29 kg (mean + SD were grouped in a randomized complete block design into eight blocks of five animals each based on their initial body weight. Straws include in the study were from Mosisa (T1M), Walki (T2W), Degaga (T3D), Shallo (T4S) and local (T5L) varieties of faba bean and concentrate (2:1 ratio of wheat bran to "noug" seed cake). The experiment consisted of seven days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trials followed by evaluation of carcass parameters at the end. Local variety had lower (Pgain and feed conversion efficiency than sheep fed local and Shallo straws. Slaughter body weight and empty body weight were higher (P0.05) by variety of the faba bean straws. There is significant varietal differences between faba bean straws both in quality and quantity. Similarly, significant variation observed among sheep in feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency among sheep fed different straws of faba bean varieties with concentrate supplement. Based on these results, Walki and Mosisa varieties could be recommended as pulse crop rotation with cereals in the study area.

  9. Effect of replacing soybean protein with protein from ensiled stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw. var. guianensis) on growth performance, carcass traits and organ weights of exotic (Landrace × Yorkshire) and native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaensombath, Lampheuy; Neil, Maria; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-03-01

    The present study examined the impact of replacing crude protein (CP) from soybean with CP from ensiled stylo (ES) on growth performance, carcass traits and organ weights in Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) and Moo Lath (ML) native Lao pigs. Twenty-four castrated male pigs, 12 of each breed, were allocated to the diet treatments according to a completely randomised 3 × 2 factorial (three ES levels × two breeds) arrangement, with four pigs per diet treatment. Pigs were kept in individual pens and fed at 4 % dry matter of body weight for 98 days. The control diet was formulated with soybean meal as the main CP source, and in the other two experimental diets, CP from soybean was replaced at 25 % (ES25) and 50 % (ES50) by CP from ES. Calculated metabolisable energy intake decreased with ES50 diet, while dry matter intake (DMI) and CP intake (CPI) were the highest in ES25 diet (P  0.05). In conclusion, ES can replace up to 50 % of soybean CP in the diet of growing Lao LY and ML pigs without negative effects on performance and carcass traits.

  10. Effect of substitution of concentrate mix with Sesbania sesban on feed intake, digestibility, body weight change, and carcass parameters of Arsi-Bale sheep fed a basal diet of native grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Wondwosen; Melaku, Solomon; Mekasha, Yoseph

    2013-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of substitution of concentrate mix with Sesbania sesban on feed intake, digestibility, average daily gain (ADG), and carcass parameters of Arsi-Bale sheep. The experiment employed 25 male sheep with mean (±standard error) initial body live weight (BLW) of 19.1 ± 0.09 kg. The experiment consisted of 7 days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trials followed by carcass evaluation. The experiment employed a randomized complete block design with five treatments and five blocks. Treatments comprised of grass hay alone fed ad libitum (GHA; control), GHA + 100 % concentrate mix (CM) consisting of wheat bran and noug seed cake at a ratio of 2:1 (0 S. sesban), GHA + 67 % CM + 33 % S. sesban (33 S. sesban), GHA + 33 % CM + 67 % S. sesban (67 S. sesban), and GHA + 100 % S. sesban (100 S. sesban). Total dry matter intake (DMI) was higher (p < 0.001) for sheep in 0 S. sesban-100 S. sesban (800-821 g/day) compared to sheep in control (611 g/day). However, the effect of S. sesban inclusion (0 S. sesban-100 S. sesban) on total DMI was quadratic, and DMI declined after 67 S. sesban. Digestibility of DM, organic matter (p < 0.01), and crude protein were higher (p < 0.001) in supplemented group compared to the control. ADG, feed conversion efficiency (ADG/DMI), slaughter BLW, hot carcass weight, and total edible offals were higher (p < 0.05-0.001) for sheep in 0 S. sesban-100 S. sesban than those in control. Increased level of S. sesban inclusion, in general, reduced growth and carcass parameters in this study. However, there was no difference between 0 S. sesban and 33 S. sesban in most parameters studied. Thus, it can be concluded that S. sesban could substitute a concentrate when it accounted for up to 33 % of the mix.

  11. Biocontained carcass composting for control of infectious disease outbreak in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tim; Xu, Weiping; Alexander, Trevor W; Gilroyed, Brandon H; Inglis, G Douglas; Larney, Francis J; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2010-05-06

    Intensive livestock production systems are particularly vulnerable to natural or intentional (bioterrorist) infectious disease outbreaks. Large numbers of animals housed within a confined area enables rapid dissemination of most infectious agents throughout a herd. Rapid containment is key to controlling any infectious disease outbreak, thus depopulation is often undertaken to prevent spread of a pathogen to the larger livestock population. In that circumstance, a large number of livestock carcasses and contaminated manure are generated that require rapid disposal. Composting lends itself as a rapid-response disposal method for infected carcasses as well as manure and soil that may harbor infectious agents. We designed a bio-contained mortality composting procedure and tested its efficacy for bovine tissue degradation and microbial deactivation. We used materials available on-farm or purchasable from local farm supply stores in order that the system can be implemented at the site of a disease outbreak. In this study, temperatures exceeded 55 degrees C for more than one month and infectious agents implanted in beef cattle carcasses and manure were inactivated within 14 days of composting. After 147 days, carcasses were almost completely degraded. The few long bones remaining were further degraded with an additional composting cycle in open windrows and the final mature compost was suitable for land application. Duplicate compost structures (final dimensions 25 m x 5 m x 2.4 m; L x W x H) were constructed using barley straw bales and lined with heavy black silage plastic sheeting. Each was loaded with loose straw, carcasses and manure totaling approximately 95,000 kg. A 40-cm base layer of loose barley straw was placed in each bunker, onto which were placed 16 feedlot cattle mortalities (average weight 343 kg) aligned transversely at a spacing of approximately 0.5 m. For passive aeration, lengths of flexible, perforated plastic drainage tubing (15 cm diameter) were

  12. Estimação pelo método Bayesiano de parâmetros genéticos de peso vivo e características de carcaça em avestruzes Estimation by the Bayesian method of genetic parameters of live weight and carcass traits of ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar parâmetros genéticos de características de desempenho e carcaça de avestruzes criados comercialmente, foi utilizado o método Bayesiano, por meio do algoritmo amostrador de Gibbs, disponível no programa MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling for Animal Models. Foram estimadas as herdabilidades e correlações genéticas para: peso vivo ao nascer (PN; peso vivo corrigido aos 190 dias (P190 e aos 360 dias (P360 de idade; peso vivo pré-abate (PVO; perda de peso durante o transporte e jejum (PTA; peso de carcaça (PCA; e rendimento de carcaça (RCA. As herdabilidades respectivas foram 0,11; 0,12; 0,33; 0,05; 0,04; 0,20; 0,05. Para as correlações, foram encontrados os valores de -0,11 entre rendimento de carcaça e peso ao nascer; 0,84 e 0,68 para peso de carcaça com peso aos 190 dias e peso de carcaça com peso aos 360 dias; 0,61 e 0,33 para rendimento de carcaça com peso aos 190 dias e rendimento de carcaça com peso aos 360 dias. Não é viável selecionar para peso ao nascer ou para rendimento de carcaça como é para peso aos 360 dias de idade e peso de carcaça. A seleção para peso aos 360 dias de idade pode melhorar o peso da carcaça, ao passo que a seleção para peso aos 190 dias pode aumentar o rendimento de carcaça.With the objective of estimating genetic parameters of performance and carcass characteristics of commercially reared ostriches in Ourinhos, SP, it was used the Bayesian method, by using Gibbs sampling algorithm, available in the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Models. It was estimated the heritabilities and genetic correlations for: birth live weight (BW, corrected live weight at 190 days (W190 and at 360 days (W360 of age; pre-slaughter live weight (PSW, weight loss during transport and fasting (WLT, carcass weight (CW and carcass dressing (CD. The respective heritabilities were 0.11, 0.12, 0.33, 0.05, 0.04, 0.20, 0.05. For the correlations, it was found values of

  13. PRICE DEVELOPMENTS OF BEEF CARCASSES IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA BĂLAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the classification of cattle carcasses (beef and veal are represented by the correct payment to cattle breeders, according to carcass weight and quality, and standardization, the common language in the international meat trade. The European Union set uniform procedures for quality assessment (the EUROP system, defined by the same parameters in the whole continent. Romania is at the beginning of cattle carcass classification; it is in the third year of reporting on the classification results to the European Commission. In this context, we consider it is very important to analyze these results, for a continuous improvement of carcass quality.

  14. Slaughter and Carcass Traits of White and Multicolor Geese Reared in Backyard in Yozgat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Sarıca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the slaughter and carcass traits of White and Multicolor Geese varieties reared in Yozgat province. 5 female and 5 male geese at six months old age from each variety were slaughtered and their slaughter and carcass traits were presented. Also, phenotypic correlations between carcass traits were calculated. The differences between the slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight, feather, head and foot weights of varieties were found insignificant, while male geese had higher values in terms of these traits. There were no significant differences between varieties and sexes in terms of hot and cold carcass yields and head ratio. Feather and foot ratios were found higher in White geese; whereas, abdominal fat ratio was found higher in Multicolor geese. There were insignificant differences between varieties in terms of carcass part weights, except back weight which was found higher in males. While heart weights of male geese were significantly higher, differences between varieties and sexes in terms of liver and gizzard weight were found insignificant. There were insignificant differences between the carcass parts and edible inner organ ratios of varieties, but breast ratio of females was found higher, while back ratio of males were found higher. Phenotypic correlation coefficients between slaughter weights, carcass weights and hot-cold carcass yields were found significant. Obtained data showed that native geese in the region are suitable for meat production in terms of slaughter and carcass traits.

  15. Peso vivo final, ganho de peso, características de carcaça e concentrações plasmáticas de IGF-I e hormônios tireoideanos de bezerros mestiços Angus-Nelore recebendo somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST até a desmama Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST on production, carcass traits, and plasmatic concentrations of IGF-I and thyroid hormones on pre-weaning crossbred Angus-Nellore calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Costa Cervieri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando estudar o efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST sobre o desempenho, as características de carcaça e as concentrações plasmáticas de IGF-I e hormônios tireoideanos, 36 bezerros mestiços ½ Angus-Nelore com idade de 63 ± 17 dias e pesando 76,8 ± 14,7 kg, criados em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens e suplementados em creep feeding, foram submetidos a dois tratamentos até a desmama (217 dias: I 18 bezerros receberam 1,4 mg/kg de rbST (Boostin® a cada 14 dias; II 18 bezerros controle receberam solução salina. As pesagens e colheitas de sangue foram realizadas a cada 28 dias e, à desmama, foram abatidos cinco animais de cada tratamento, para avaliação das características de carcaça. Os animais tratados apresentaram maior ganho de peso médio diário e peso vivo final, maiores concentrações plasmáticas de IGF-I e T4 que os bezerros controle. Os parâmetros peso de carcaça quente, rendimento de carcaça, pesos de traseiro e dianteiro, gordura peri-renal, peso de fígado, área de olho de lombo, espessura de gordura subcutânea, pesos dos músculos do quarto do traseiro e concentração plasmática de T3 não diferiram entre os tratamentos. A utilização de rbST proporcionou aumento de 7,9% no ganho de peso vivo e alterou o perfil hormonal de bezerros suplementados em creep feeding durante a fase de cria, não refletindo, entretanto, em maior peso ou rendimento de carcaça.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST on production, carcass traits, and plasmatic concentrations of IGF-I and thyroid hormones on crossbred Angus-Nellore male calves. Thirty-six calves averaging 63 ± 17 days old and 76.8 ± 14.7 kg of body weight (BW grazing Brachiaria decumbens and creep fed were randomly assigned (18 calves per treatment to one of two treatments until weaning (217 days as follows: I 1.4 mg of rbST (Boostin®/kg of BW every 14 days or II similar dosage of

  16. Detection of QTL for Carcass Quality on Chromosome 6 by Exploiting Linkage and Linkage Disequilibrium in Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to improve mapping power and resolution for the QTL influencing carcass quality in Hanwoo, which was previously detected on the bovine chromosome (BTA 6. A sample of 427 steers were chosen, which were the progeny from 45 Korean proven sires in the Hanwoo Improvement Center, Seosan, Korea. The samples were genotyped with the set of 2,535 SNPs on BTA6 that were imbedded in the Illumina bovine 50 k chip. A linkage disequilibrium variance component mapping (LDVCM method, which exploited both linkage between sires and their steers and population-wide linkage disequilibrium, was applied to detect QTL for four carcass quality traits. Fifteen QTL were detected at 0.1% comparison-wise level, for which five, three, five, and two QTL were associated with carcass weight (CWT, backfat thickness (BFT, longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA, and marbling score (Marb, respectively. The number of QTL was greater compared with our previous results, in which twelve QTL for carcass quality were detected on the BTA6 in the same population by applying other linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches. One QTL for LMA was detected on the distal region (110,285,672 to 110,633,096 bp with the most significant evidence for linkage (p<10−5. Another QTL that was detected on the proximal region (33,596,515 to 33,897,434 bp was pleiotrophic, i.e. influencing CWT, BFT, and LMA. Our results suggest that the LDVCM is a good alternative method for QTL fine-mapping in detection and characterization of QTL.

  17. Authentication of animal origin of heparin and low molecular weight heparin including ovine, porcine and bovine species using 1D NMR spectroscopy and chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Diehl, Bernd W K; Fareed, Jawed

    2018-02-05

    High resolution (600MHz) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used to distinguish heparin and low-molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) produced from porcine, bovine and ovine mucosal tissues as well as their blends. For multivariate analysis several statistical methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), factor discriminant analysis (FDA), partial least squares - discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were utilized for the modeling of NMR data of more than 100 authentic samples. Heparin and LMWH samples from the independent test set (n=15) were 100% correctly classified according to its animal origin. Moreover, by using 1 H NMR coupled with chemometrics and several batches of bovine heparins from two producers were differentiated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics is an efficient tool for simultaneous identification of animal origin and process based manufacturing difference in heparin products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of carcass bruises as an indicator of welfare in beef cattle and the relation to the economic impact.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huertas, S.M.; van Eerdenburg, F.J.C.M.; Gil, A.; Piaggio, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize bruises in bovine carcasses in Uruguay and to evaluate the economic impact. Thirteen abattoirs were visited during 2 years and bruises were identified, classified, and quantified by zone and degree (depth and size). One hundred carcasses were separated

  19. Feeding of whole cottonseed on performance, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of including different levels of whole cottonseed (WCS) in the finishing diet of lambs on their dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR, kg feed/kg gain), carcass characteristics and small intestinal morphology. Twenty Zandi male lambs (29.8 ...

  20. Performance, carcass characteristic and apparent nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth responses, carcass evaluation and nutrient utilization were estimated. Data obtained were subjected to 2x3 factorial arrangement within the completely randomized design (CRD). Feed: Gain was influenced by the level of the palm kernel by-products during 1-28days of study. The weight gained during the 56 days ...

  1. Haematological, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LW) of 10, 12, 14, and 16kg to determine the effect of live weight at slaughtering on the carcass characteristics and meat quality. Prior to slaughtering, blood samples were collected through jugular vein of each animal to determine the ...

  2. Animal Carcass Pricing Grid. Evidences from the Romanian Pigmeat Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savescu Roxana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Until the introduction of SEUROP system, price negotiation between pig producers and slaughterhouses was based on two subjective criteria: animal weight and visual inspection of the quality of pigs. To ensure producers a fair payment, European Union created the possibility of binding the price on two objective factors: carcass weight and carcass composition. This paper describes the pricing mechanism developed by Romania in order to respond to European Union requirements for ensuring a fair payment to pig producers. It raises the attention on the difficulties encountered by the producers in understanding the way the commercial value of a pig carcass is calculated in case the selling price is negotiated on a flat rate basis or on a lean content basis (per kg of carcass weight or per kg of live weight.

  3. Performance and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits fed bacterial protein meal. ... The inclusion of BPM in diet V reduced the skin weight significantly (p0.05) affected. It was concluded that BPM can ...

  4. Prediction of swine carcass composition by total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbie, A D; Bidner, T D; Matthews, J O; Southern, L L; Page, T G; Persica, M A; Sanders, M B; Monlezun, C J

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine prediction equations that used readings for total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) in the model for estimation of total fat-free lean and total fat weight in the pork carcass. Ultrasound measurements of live hogs were used to select 32 gilts that represented a range in weight, muscling, and fatness. The TOBEC readings were recorded on warm carcass sides, chilled carcass sides, and the untrimmed ham from the left carcass side. Physical dissection and chemical analyses determined fat-free lean and fat weight of the carcass. All of the ham tissues were analyzed separately from the remainder of the carcass tissues to incorporate ham measurements for prediction of total fat-free lean and total fat weight in the entire carcass. Prediction equations were developed using stepwise regression procedures. An equation that used a warm carcass TOBEC reading in the model was determined to be the best warm TOBEC equation (R2 = 0.91; root mean square error = 0.81). A three-variable equation that used chilled carcass TOBEC reading, chilled carcass temperature, and carcass length in the model was determined to be the best chilled TOBEC equation (R2 = 0.93; root mean square error = 0.73). A four-variable equation that included chilled carcass side weight, untrimmed ham TOBEC reading, ham temperature, and fat thickness beneath the butt face of the ham in the model was determined to be the best equation overall (R2 = 0.95; root mean square error = 0.65). The TOBEC and the fat-free lean weight of the ham are excellent predictors of total carcass fat-free lean weight.

  5. Prevalence of carcass bruises as an indicator of welfare in beef cattle and the relation to the economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Stella M; van Eerdenburg, Frank; Gil, Andrés; Piaggio, José

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize bruises in bovine carcasses in Uruguay and to evaluate the economic impact. Thirteen abattoirs were visited during 2 years and bruises were identified, classified, and quantified by zone and degree (depth and size). One hundred carcasses were separated and bruises were cut out and weighed separately. From a total of 15 157 carcasses observed, 60.0% had at least one bruise; 42.0% of these had bruises on both sides. The expensive butt zone was the most damaged, followed by rib, shoulder and loin, respectively. The mean weight and standard error of the condemned trimmed meat was 1602 ± 212 g. It suppose a loss of 899 g per animal slaugtered in Uruguay. In a country sending 2.5 million heads of cattle to be slaughter yearly, this indicates an important financial loss. Improving transport conditions and personnel skills will probably result in a better welfare for the animals as well as better financial profit.

  6. Studies on treatment of radioactive animal carcass, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu; Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi

    1979-01-01

    A new method of waste treatment of animal carcass contaminated with plutonium was proposed. A multi-step process was designed and tested at a laboratory scale which was composed of the following processes; microwave dehydration, heat decomposition and ashing. Microwave dehydration was found the most adequate as the first step of the treatment because of the negligible release of nonvolatile radioactivity. About 70% of body weight was reduced by microwave dehydration. Dehydrated animal carcass was decomposed by graded electric heating under anaerobic condition. Burnable gas and vapour produced by the heat decomposition were oxidized by passing through a reheating tube with excess air. The exhaust gas had no significant radioactivity. The residue of charred carcass was oxidized by heating with excess air. The weight of final product was up to 8% of original wet weight. The proposed multi-step process provided to be adequate for the waste disporsal of Pu contaminated animal carcass. (author)

  7. Beef cuts yield of steer carcasses graded according to conformation and weight Rendimento de cortes cárneos de carcaças de novilhos classificadas de acordo com a conformação e o peso de carcaça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonir Luiz Pascoal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment evaluated total and individual yield of commercial cuts, bones, and trimmings of carcasses from 38 Braford steers at 22 months of age finished in a feedlot. Carcasses were ranked according to three conformation classes (good minus = score 10; good = score 11; good plus = score 12, and three weight classes (heavy = 229.4 kg, intermediate = 205.0 kg, and light = 184.0 kg, ranging from 222.9 to 250.4, 201.5 to 209.0, and 170.0 to 190.3 kg, respectively. Carcass cold shrinkage was not affected by conformation, but it was significantly lower in heavy (1.83% than in intermediate (2.53% and in light carcasses (2.30%, which were not different among each other. Carcass flank percentage was not affected by conformation, but it was significantly higher in heavy (13.93% and intermediate carcasses (13.87% as compared to light carcasses (13.07%. Deboned beef cuts (78.08% of carcasses of steers, bone (16.57%, and trimmings (5.23% yields and losses due to deboning (0.12% were not significantly affected by carcass weight. However, when they were evaluated according to conformation classes, those with better conformation showed higher meat cut yield (78.75 vs 77.92 and 77.29%. Conformation affects meat cut yield of carcasses of young steers while carcass weight does not show this characteristic.Avaliaram-se os rendimentos cárneos total e individual de cortes comerciais, de osso e de retalho de carcaças de 38 novilhos Braford com 22 meses de idade terminados em confinamento. As carcaças foram classificadas de acordo com três classes de conformação (boa menos = 10 pontos; boa = 11 pontos; e boa mais = 12 pontos e três classes de peso (pesadas = 229,40 kg; medianas = 205,04 kg; e leves = 184,00 kg com variação, 222,9 a 250,4; 201,5 a 209,0; e 170,0 a 190,3 kg, respectivamente. A quebra no resfriamento não foi influenciada pela conformação, mas foi significativamente menor nas carcaças pesadas (1,83% em comparação às medianas (2,53% e

  8. Associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass classification within cattle, sheep and pigs slaughtered in a high throughput abattoir were determined. Classes of carcasses from cattle, sheep and pigs delivered for slaughter at this abattoir were recorded and analysed. Significant associations ...

  9. Carcass and non-carcass characteristics of sheep fed on annatto byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Annatto byproduct is the residue from the extraction of powder dye that covers the seed pericarp; after processing, between 94% and 98% of the original product is considered a byproduct. The aim was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of annatto byproduct on the components of sheep body weight. Thirty-two male sheep, not castrated, with initial weight of 23.17 ± 1.45 kg, without a defined breed, were used in randomized blocks in all four treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg?1 of annatto byproduct in the diet dry matter. The increase to 300 g kg?1 of annatto byproduct had a negative linear effect (P < 0.05 for hot carcass weight (kg and cold carcass weight (kg. Increasing levels of annatto byproduct resulted in a linear reduction (P < 0.05 for palette weight (kg, leg weight (kg, carcass compactness index (kg cm?1, liver weight (kg and skin weight (kg. The inclusion of annatto byproduct up to 200 g kg?1 of dry matter in sheep diets did not affect the components of sheep body weight.

  10. Carcass, organ and pathological characteristics of grower pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each diet was fed to a group of six pigs. Results indicated that carcass weight and backfat thickness decreased as level of CPM in the diets increased. Heart, Kidney, Liver and Spleen weights (expressed as percentage of body weight) were significantly higher at the 30 percent level of CPM inclusion. Likewise, Kidney of ...

  11. Carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs as affect by different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... different levels of dietary supplement of rumen degradable ... fed diets supplemented with NS as compared with those lambs fed diet without NS. However, live ..... Performance of Karadi lambs as affected by N. sativa fed with different levels of RDN on weight cuts of half cold carcass weight, fat tail weight ...

  12. Recovery and upgrading bovine rumen protein by extrusion: effect of lipid content on protein disulphide cross-linking, solubility and molecular weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, L C M A; Arêas, J A G

    2010-01-01

    Bovine rumen protein with two levels of residual lipids (1.9% or 3.8%) was subjected to thermoplastic extrusion under different temperatures and moisture contents. Protein solubility in different buffers, disulphide cross-linking and molecular weight distribution were determined on the extrudates. After extrusion, samples with 1.9% residual lipids content had a higher concentration of protein insoluble by undetermined forces, irrespective of feed moisture and processing temperature used. Lipid content of 3.8% in the feed material resulted in more protein participating in the extrudate network through non-covalent interactions (hydrophobic and electrostatic) and disulphide bonds. A small dependency of the extrusion process on moisture and temperature and a marked dependency on lipid content, especially phospholipid, was observed, Electrophoresis under non-reducing conditions showed that protein extrusion with low feed moisture promoted high molecular breakdown inside the barrel, probably due to intense shear force, and further protein aggregation at the die end.

  13. Molecular Relationship Between BALADI And Crossbred Bovine Female Calves Using AP-PCR And Its Relation To Body Weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-FOOLY, H.A.; EL-MASRY, K.A.; TEAMA, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was conducted in the bovine farm of Experimental Farms Project of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt, which is located in the desert area of Inshas. DNA fingerprinting analysis using arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) is a powerful technique for detecting markers that can be used for establishment of genetic variations, molecular relationships and taxonomy identifications between different animal breeds. In the present study, for detecting the genetic relationship between Egyptian bovine Baladi female and crossbred calves (Brown Swiss Baladi) previously imported, blood samples were collected from 10 animals (5 for each breed), DNA was isolated and AP-PCR technique was applied using four random primers to establish fingerprinting and molecular relationship between the two breeds using radioactive 32 P-dCTP for labelling the fragments amplified in PCR.. The band sharing coefficient between the two groups was calculated, and the quantity of DNA was correlated with average daily gain (ADG). The data showed non- significant correlation between the quantity of DNA and average daily gain. Also, data showed the powerful of the technique for detecting the molecular variations and there is a specific pattern for certain breeds especially when using the Knp-X primer. The present study also revealed that there was a close genetic relationship between the Egyptian Baladi breed and the crossbred calves (Brown Swiss Baladi) in about seventy percent of the genetic materials as represented by band-sharing (BS) = 0.7. In conclusion, the AP-PCR technique is effective in detecting the molecular variations between different breeds and provides a potential tool for studying the molecular relationships. The native Egyptian calves are genetically closely related to crossbred (Brown Swiss Baladi) by about 70%. Further studies on the large scale are needed using different primers for detecting patterns specific for each breed and

  14. Human-Based Human Milk Fortifier as Rescue Therapy in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Demonstrating Intolerance to Bovine-Based Human Milk Fortifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Amanjot; Fast, Sharla; Bonnar, Kari; Baier, Ronald John; Narvey, Michael

    2017-11-01

    To describe the results of utilizing a human milk-based human milk fortifier (HMHMF) as rescue therapy to meet nutritional requirements in very low birth weight and preterm infants demonstrating feeding intolerance to bovine-based human milk fortifier (BHMF) in the Canadian Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) setting. At two Level III NICUs in Winnipeg, MB, Canada, a rescue protocol was implemented to provide HMHMF for infants demonstrating intolerance to BHMF. To qualify for rescue, infants were required to experience two episodes of significant gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms associated with fortification with BHMF. A case series report was conducted retrospectively examining the success of rescue therapy, growth rates, protein, and calorie intakes before and after initiation of HMHMF in seven infants. Seven infants (birth weight 723 ± 247 g, gestation 25.3 ± 3.4 weeks) were treated with rescue fortification with HMHMF. All infants were transitioned off parenteral nutrition (PN) without relapse of GI symptoms. Growth rate, protein, and calorie intakes improved with the use of HMHMF. Very low birth weight and preterm infants with GI intolerance to BHMF were successfully rescued with use of HMHMF. Improvements in growth were achieved without need for supplementation with PN through achievement of sufficient enteral calorie and protein intakes.

  15. Carcass and meat quality of light lambs using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañeque, V; Pérez, C; Velasco, S; Dı X0301 Az, M T; Lauzurica, S; Alvarez, I; Ruiz de Huidobro, F; Onega, E; De la Fuente, J

    2004-08-01

    Eighty-six male light lambs of Manchego breed were used in this study. Principal component (PC) analysis was performed to study the relationship between carcass quality variables (n=22) and between meat quality measures (n=21). The carcass quality was assessed using objective and subjective measurements of conformation and fatness besides the joints proportion and tissues proportion of the leg. The measurements used to evaluate meat quality were pH in longissimus dorsi and semitendinosus muscles, the colour, moisture, water holding capacity, cooking losses, texture and sensorial analysis on longissimus dorsi. The five first PCs explained about 77% of the total variability for carcass measures whereas for meat quality the 74% of the total variability was explained for the eight first PCs. All the carcass measurements showed similar weight to define the first PC, whereas the muscle and bone proportion as well as muscle:bone ratio of the leg were useful to define the second PC. The meat quality measures that were more effective to define the first PC were the meat colour measurements, whereas the sensorial variables defined the second PC. The projection of the carcass quality data in the first two PCs allowed to distinguish clearly between heavier carcasses (higher than 6.5 kg) and lighter carcasses (lower than 5.5 kg). The carcasses with a weight higher than 6.5 kg were on the left side of the figure, where the variables of conformation and fatness lie. The group of medium carcass weight were placed between the two previous groups. The projection of the meat quality data in the first two PCs did not differ between hot carcass weights, although there was a trend, the lighter carcasses lay on the left side of the graph, which implies small differences between meat quality in this range of carcass weight.

  16. The effect of production system (barn and free-range), slaughtering age and gender on carcass traits and meat quality of partridges (Alectoris chukar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamak, U S; Sarica, M; Boz, M A; Ucar, A

    2016-04-01

    1. A total of 400 Alectoris chukar partridges were reared in either barn or free-range production systems and slaughtered at 14, 16 or 18 weeks of age in order to determine the effects of production system, age and gender on carcass traits (live weight, carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass part and edible inner organ percentages at slaughtering) and meat quality (L*, a* and b* meat colour and pH). 2. Production system had a significant effect on both slaughter traits and meat quality. 3. Partridges raised in barn conditions had higher live weights and carcass weights whereas meat quality was better in birds raised in the free-range system.

  17. slaughter and carcass trait

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.Sc.(Agric)-tesis,. Univ. van Stellenbosch. FAHMY, M.M., 1985. The accumulative effect of Finnsheep breeding in crossbreeding schemes: growth and carcass traits. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 65, 811. GREEFF, J.e., & HOFMEYR, J.H., 1988. Finnsheep and their utilization in crosses with the Merino under range conditions in South ...

  18. Performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed peach-palm by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Cabral, Ícaro; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; dos Santos Cruz, Cristiane Leal; Nogueira, Abdon Santos; Souza, Lígia Lins; de Oliveira, Gisele Andrade

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplying the by-product of peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) on performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of feedlot lambs. Twenty Santa Ines lambs of 150 days average age and 22.4 ± 3.4 kg body weight were confined in individual pens. A completely randomized design was utilized with four experimental diets composed of: fresh peach-palm by-product enriched with urea, fresh peach-palm by-product + concentrate, silage of peach-palm by-product + concentrate, and silage of peach-palm by-product enriched with 15 % corn meal + concentrate. Intake was evaluated daily, and at the end of 42 days of experiments, lambs were slaughtered and the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass parts were evaluated. Performance and carcass characteristics showed differences between the animals' intake of total mixed rations (TMR) and only the diet with roughage. For the lambs that intaked TMR, the form of utilization of roughage (fresh or as silage) affected animal performance but did not change the carcass characteristics. Dry matter intake and feed conversion were influenced by the form of utilization of the silage (with and without additive). Providing fresh by-product plus concentrate improves lamb performance but does not interfere in the carcass characteristics, compared with the use of by-product in the form of silage.

  19. Características de carcaça e qualidade de carne de bovinos inteiros ou castrados da raça Nelore, suplementados ou não durante o primeiro inverno Carcass characteristics and meat quality of intact or castrated bovines, supplemented or not during the first winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Malaguido Climaco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar características quantitativas e qualitativas da carcaça e da carne de bovinos inteiros e castrados, suplementados ou não durante o primeiro inverno. Foram utilizados 40 bovinos Nelore, machos, inteiros e castrados, com peso inicial e idade média de 300kg e 14 meses, submetidos a dois tratamentos: SUP - os animais foram mantidos em pasto e receberam suplementação (0,5% do peso vivo constituída por 25% de farelo de soja e 75% de milho em grão triturado, durante o primeiro inverno (01/06/2003 a 21/09/2003; NSU- animais mantidos em pasto, sem suplementação. Após o abate, à idade média de 28 meses, foram avaliadas as características de carcaça. Os animais do tratamento NSU apresentaram maior (P0,05 quanto à espessura de gordura subcutânea entre animais inteiros e castrados (2,20 vs 4,17mm, respectivamente, porém os castrados apresentaram maior (PThis research was aimed at evaluating quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the carcass and meat from intact or castrated beef cattle, supplemented or not supplemented during the first winter. Forty Nellore males, intact or castrated, with initial weight and age of 300kg and 14 months, were submitted to the treatments: 1 SUP - Animals on pasture and supplemented (0.5% of the live body weight with concentrated (25% of soybean meal and 75% of ground corn during the first winter (06/01/2003 to 09/21/2003, and 2 NSU - Animals on pasture, without supplementation. At slaughter, on an average age of 28 months, the carcass characteristics were evaluated. Animals of the NSU treatment presented the largest (P0.05 for fat thickness between castrated and intact animals (4.17 vs 2.20 mm, respectively, however, castrated animals presented greater (P<0.05 fat percentage in the carcass (16.68 vs 11.34% and more tender meat (6.57 vs 7.50kgf than the intact animals. Intact and non-supplemented animals presented backfat thickness lower than required by the

  20. Relationship between phenotype, carcass characteristics and the incidence of dark cutting in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, S; Basarab, J A; Dixon, W T; Bruce, H L

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has suggested that cattle predisposed to dark cutting can be identified from live animal or carcass characteristics. This hypothesis was tested using production and phenotype data from an existing data set collected from heifers (n=467) on study at three farms. Carcasses in the data set graded Canada AAA (n=136), AA (n=296), A (n=14), and B4 (dark cutting, n=21). Farm was identified as significant (P=0.0268) by CATMOD analysis and slaughter weight and carcass weight accounted for the variation in dark cutting frequency across the farms. Analysis of variance indicated that dark cutting heifers had reduced weight at weaning (Pweight carcasses (Pheifers slaughtered at live weight greater than 550kg and in carcasses weighing greater than 325kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CARCASS MARKET VALUE OF FATTENER GILTS AND PRIMIPAROUS GILTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena BIEGNIEWSKA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Study comprised 60 crossbred gilts F1 (PLW x PL, 30 fattener gilts (A and 30 littermate primiparous gilts (B. The fattening was conducted in standard condition from 30 to 108 kg body weight. The primiparous gilts were mated at second oestrus. During pregnancy and lactation period they were reared in standard condition adopted for pregnant and lactating sows. Fattener sows as well as primiparous sows were slaughtered after end of the experiment. Market carcass value was estimated on carcass jointing basis. It was assumed that market value is a function of percentage share of main parts in carcass and their unitary price (PLN/kg. Market carcass value of fattener sows and primiparous sows counted on 100 kg was comparable.

  2. EQUATIONS FOR LEAN SHARE ESTIMATION IN SWINE CARCASSES IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kušec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was performed on 144 pig carcasses selected on the basis of backfat measures obtained by “ZP”- method. There was no stratification according to the carcass weight. One day after slaughter the carcasses were dissected by to EU reference method. The lean share was calculated by equation prescribed by European regulation (Commission Regulation No 3127/94 and estimated by six equations. The first one (MP1 is prescribed by current Croatian regulation (N.N. 119/1999 and the other five were developed on the basis of original data obtained by the experiment. The meat percentage estimated by equation MP1 differed statistically (p<0.01 from mean meat percentage obtained by EU referent method; the current formula significantly overestimates the meatiness of pig carcasses from Croatian population. Original measures of fat and muscle measured for “ZP”- method were used as independent variables in equation MP6. In order to improve the accuracy of estimation, transformed variables were used in equations MP2-MP5. Additional measure of warm carcass weight (T was included as an independent variable to equations MP4 and MP5 but this did not improve their accuracy. Equation MP2 to MP5 satisfy the statistical criterion requested by EU regulations. The equation MP2 and MP5 can be recommended for lean share estimation in pig carcasses of Croatian pig population.

  3. Carcass characteristics of llamas (Lama glama) reared in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez; Maino; Guzmán; Vaquero; Köbrich; Pokniak

    2000-07-01

    Body and carcass composition were studied on 10 male and 10 female naturally reared llamas (Lama glama). Half the animals were young (9-12 months) and the other half adult (>3 year). The average live weights for young and adult males were 104.4 and 100.6kg, and for females 67.6 and 104.6kg, respectively. Average carcass weights for the four groups were 58.9, 56.2, 36.8 and 56.7kg, respectively. Carcass composition for males and females was similar, but males had slightly higher dressing percentages than females (56.1 and 55.8 vs. 54.1 and 54.2 for young and adult males and females, respectively). Carcass length and fat depth at the loin and proportions of cuts in the carcass were similar for both the sexes, except for leg and tail, which were proportionately heavier in young females compared to the other groups. The composition of meat on fresh basis was: moisture 70.2%, protein 20.5%, ether extract 8.23% and ash 3.4%. Age and sex seemed to have no effects on the body and carcass characteristics studied nor on the chemical composition of meat.

  4. Feed Intake and Weight Changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus Crossbred Steers Following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b Challenge Under Production Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Chase A; Downey-Slinker, Erika D; Ridpath, Julia F; Hairgrove, Thomas B; Sawyer, Jason E; Herring, Andy D

    2017-12-12

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers ( n = 366) that were challenged with BVDV Type 1b, and where family lines were stratified across three vaccine treatments of modified live (MLV), killed, (KV) or no vaccine (NON). Pyrexia classification based on 40.0 °C threshold following challenge and vaccine treatment were investigated for potential interactions with sire for weight change and feed intake following challenge. Pyrexia classification affected daily feed intake (ADFI, p = 0.05), and interacted with day ( p gain (ADG) and cumulative feed intake during the first 14 day post-challenge; ADG (CV of 104%) and feed efficiency were highly variable in the 14-day period immediately post-challenge as compared to the subsequent 14-day periods. A sire × vaccine strategy interaction affected ADFI ( p < 0.001), and a sire by time period interaction affected ADG ( p = 0.03) and total feed intake ( p = 0.03). This study demonstrates that different coping responses may exist across genetic lines to the same pathogen, and that subclinical BVDV infection has a measurable impact on cattle production measures.

  5. Feed Intake and Weight Changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus Crossbred Steers Following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b Challenge Under Production Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase A. Runyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366 that were challenged with BVDV Type 1b, and where family lines were stratified across three vaccine treatments of modified live (MLV, killed, (KV or no vaccine (NON. Pyrexia classification based on 40.0 °C threshold following challenge and vaccine treatment were investigated for potential interactions with sire for weight change and feed intake following challenge. Pyrexia classification affected daily feed intake (ADFI, p = 0.05, and interacted with day (p < 0.001 for ADFI. Although low incidence of clinical signs was observed, there were marked reductions in average daily gain (ADG and cumulative feed intake during the first 14 day post-challenge; ADG (CV of 104% and feed efficiency were highly variable in the 14-day period immediately post-challenge as compared to the subsequent 14-day periods. A sire × vaccine strategy interaction affected ADFI (p < 0.001, and a sire by time period interaction affected ADG (p = 0.03 and total feed intake (p = 0.03. This study demonstrates that different coping responses may exist across genetic lines to the same pathogen, and that subclinical BVDV infection has a measurable impact on cattle production measures.

  6. Efficacy of Bovine Lactoferrin Supplementation in Preventing Late-onset Sepsis in low Birth Weight Neonates: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Gathwala, Geeta

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of bovine lactoferrin (BLF) in preventing first episode of late-onset sepsis (LOS) in low birth weight (LBW) neonates. In this study conducted from May 2012 to July 2013 in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary care hospital, inborn asymptomatic neonates, birth with no maternal risk factors for sepsis were randomized to receive BLF or placebo from 1st to 28th day of life. The incidence of culture-proven sepsis and sepsis-attributable mortality after 72 h of life was recorded. Increasing doses of BLF were used with higher birth weights. Incidence of first episode of culture-proven LOS was significantly lower in the BLF group vs. placebo [2/63 (3.2%) vs. 9/67(13.4%); risk ratio, 0.211; 95% CI, 0.044-1.019; p = 0.036]. Statistically significant reduction in the sepsis-attributable mortality was also seen after use of prophylactic BLF [0/63 (0%) vs. 5/67 (7.5%); p = 0.027]. BLF supplementation in LBW neonates reduced the incidence of first episode of LOS. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Method for sampling and analysis of volatile biomarkers in process gas from aerobic digestion of poultry carcasses using time-weighted average SPME and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziel, Jacek A; Nguyen, Lam T; Glanville, Thomas D; Ahn, Heekwon; Frana, Timothy S; Hans van Leeuwen, J

    2017-10-01

    A passive sampling method, using retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME) - gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and time-weighted averaging, was developed and validated for tracking marker volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during aerobic digestion of biohazardous animal tissue. The retracted SPME configuration protects the fragile fiber from buffeting by the process gas stream, and it requires less equipment and is potentially more biosecure than conventional active sampling methods. VOC concentrations predicted via a model based on Fick's first law of diffusion were within 6.6-12.3% of experimentally controlled values after accounting for VOC adsorption to the SPME fiber housing. Method detection limits for five marker VOCs ranged from 0.70 to 8.44ppbv and were statistically equivalent (p>0.05) to those for active sorbent-tube-based sampling. The sampling time of 30min and fiber retraction of 5mm were found to be optimal for the tissue digestion process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of whole cottonseed feeding on performance, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UP Employee

    cottonseed (WCS) in the finishing diet of lambs on their dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain, feed conversion ... in the diet were significant in hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, liver, fat tail, intestinal fat and spleen compared ... in the rumen, it has properties similar to forage fibre sources (Arieli, 1998). Increasing ...

  9. Evaluation of Carcass, Organs, and Organoleptic Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation indicated that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) among the treatment groups in percent dressed carcass weight, ham and trotters. The head of pigs in the control diet differed significantly in weight (p0.05).

  10. Common factors method to predict the carcass composition tissue in kid goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fernanda Barros Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the interrelations among weights and carcass measures of the longissimus lumborum muscle thickness and area, and of sternum tissue thickness, measured directly on carcass and by ultrasound scan. Measures were taken on live animals and after slaughter to develop models of multiple linear regression, to estimate the composition of shoulder blade, from selected variables in 89 kids of both genders and five breed groups, raised in feedlot system. The variables considered relevant and not redundant on the information they carry, for the common factor analysis, were used in the carcass composition estimate development models. The presuppositions of linear regression models relative to residues were evaluated, the estimated residues were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Student t test. Based in these results, the group of 32 initial variables could be reduced to four variables: hot carcass weight, rump perimeter, leg length and tissue height at the fourth sternum bone. The analysis of common factors was shown as an effective technique to study the interrelations among the independent variables. The measures of carcass dimension, alone, did not add any information to hot carcass weight. The carcass muscle weight can be estimated with high precision from simple models, without the need for information related to gender and breed, and they could be built based on carcass weight, which makes it easy to be applied. The fat and bones estimate models were not as accurate.

  11. Carcass and economic value of rabbits raised on ripe Gmelina fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass and economic value of rabbits raised on ripe Gmelina fruit pulp based diets. ... The cost of feed (N/kg), cost of feed consumed (N/animal), cost of feed per weight gain (N/kg weight gain), final weight, fasted weight, percentage weight loss, dressed weight and dressing percentage ranged from 55.07 – 28.21, 407.07 ...

  12. Comparison of variability in pork carcass composition and quality between barrows and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, M F; Arkfeld, E K; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-10-01

    Pigs ( = 8,042) raised in 8 different barns representing 2 seasons (cold and hot) and 2 production focuses (lean growth and meat quality) were used to characterize variability of carcass composition and quality traits between barrows and gilts. Data were collected on 7,684 pigs at the abattoir. Carcass characteristics, subjective loin quality, and fresh ham face color (muscles) were measured on a targeted 100% of carcasses. Fresh belly characteristics, boneless loin weight, instrumental loin color, and ultimate loin pH measurements were collected from 50% of the carcasses each slaughter day. Adipose tissue iodine value (IV), 30-min loin pH, LM slice shear force, and fresh ham muscle characteristic measurements were recorded on 10% of carcasses each slaughter day. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS as a 1-way ANOVA in a randomized complete block design with 2 levels (barrows and gilts). Barn (block), marketing group, production focus, and season were random variables. A 2-variance model was fit using the REPEATED statement of the MIXED procedure, grouped by sex for analysis of least squares means. Homogeneity of variance was tested on raw data using Levene's test of the GLM procedure. Hot carcass weight of pigs (94.6 kg) in this study was similar to U.S. industry average HCW (93.1 kg). Therefore, these data are representative of typical U.S. pork carcasses. There was no difference ( ≥ 0.09) in variability of HCW or loin depth between barrow and gilt carcasses. Back fat depth and estimated carcass lean were more variable ( ≤ 0.0001) and IV was less variable ( = 0.05) in carcasses from barrows than in carcasses from gilts. Fresh belly weight and thickness were more variable ( ≤ 0.01) for bellies of barrows than bellies of gilts, but there was no difference in variability for belly length, width, or flop distance ( ≥ 0.06). Fresh loin subjective color was less variable ( < 0.01) and subjective marbling was more variable ( < 0.0001) in loins

  13. The association of titers to Haemophilus somnus, and other putative pathogens, with the occurrence of bovine respiratory disease and weight gain in feedlot calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S W; Harland, R J; Bateman, K G; Nagy, E

    1998-10-01

    Serum samples were obtained from 602 calves (from 19 groups in four feedlots: three in Ontario, and one in Alberta) upon arrival at the feedlot and 28 d later. Of these calves, 202 developed bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and 400 did not develop BRD. Based on high antibody titers noted upon arrival, we infer that most calves were exposed to Haemophilus somnus prior to arrival at the feedlot. Within a group, calves with high titers on arrival had a reduced risk of developing BRD later. Most calves did not experience titer increases after arrival; however, calves that had stable or increasing titers had a relatively low risk of contracting BRD. The calves at greatest risk of BRD were those with titers on arrival of less than 6.8 units and subsequent titer decreases of more than 1 unit. The effects of both the titer on arrival and the titer change after arrival were stable when the serologic effects of a number of viruses and Mycoplasma agents were considered. Neither antibody titer on arrival nor titer change was related to weight gain differences among calves. Calves with BRD or calves with lower weight on arrival had decreased weight gains in the first 28-day feeding period. The high titers on arrival may have protected most calves against further infection with H. somnus. However, since the calves that developed BRD had large titer increases to a number of viruses and to Pasteurella haemolytica, while having decreased antibody titers to H. somnus, we infer that the existing antibodies were "used up" in combatting the agents, including H. somnus, which may have "caused" the BRD. Calves which were able to increase their antibody levels to H. somnus tended to have a reduced risk of BRD.

  14. Genetic parameters of white striping in relation to body weight, carcass composition, and meat quality traits in two broiler lines divergently selected for the ultimate pH of the pectoralis major muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahhas, Nabeel; Berri, Cécile; Chabault, Marie; Chartrin, Pascal; Boulay, Maryse; Bourin, Marie Christine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth

    2016-04-19

    White striping (WS) is an emerging quality defect with adverse consequences for the sensorial, technological, and nutritional qualities of breast meat in broiler chickens. The genetic determinism of this defect is little understood and thus the aim of the study presented here was to estimate the genetic parameters of WS in relation to other traits of economic importance such as body weight, carcass composition, and technological meat quality in an experimental population consisting of two divergent lines selected for high (pHu + line) or low (pHu- line) ultimate pH (pHu) of the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle. The incidence of WS in the whole population was 50.7%, with 36.7% of broilers being moderately and 14% being severely affected. A higher incidence of moderate (p meat yield (0.68 ± 0.06), but not with the percentage of leg or abdominal fat. Increased body weight and breast muscle yield were significantly associated with increased incidence and severity of WS regardless of the line. Significant rg were observed between WS and several meat quality traits, including breast (0.21 ± 0.08) and thigh (0.31 ± 0.10) pHu, and breast cooking loss (0.30 ± 0.15). WS was also strongly genetically correlated with the intramuscular fat content of the pectoralis major muscle (0.64 ± 0.09), but not with the lipid oxidation index of this muscle. This study highlighted the role of genetics as a major determinant of WS. The estimated genetic correlations showed that WS was more highly related to muscle development than to the overall growth of the body. The positive genetic association reported in this study between WS and muscle pHu indicated a possible relationship between the ability of muscle to store energy as a carbohydrate and its likelihood of developing WS. Finally, the strong genetic determinism of WS suggested that selection can be an efficient means of reducing the incidence of WS and of limiting its undesirable consequences on meat quality in broiler chickens.

  15. Dietary anion variation on absolute weight and carcass and prime cuts yield for broilers in southern of Mato Grosso State, Brazil Variação aniônica na dieta sobre o peso absoluto e rendimento de carcaça e cortes nobres de frangos de corte na região sul de Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Garcia Caramori Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted to determine the best electrolyte balance (EB for broilers considering live weight at 42 days and carcass and prime cuts yield. Eight hundred and sixty-four Cobb male broilers were fed corn-soybean based diets supplemented with NH4Cl to obtain the following EB levels: -50, 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mEq/kg. A block randomized design with six replicates and 24 birds per experimental unit was used. The EB levels affected the live weight at 42 days and the carcass and prime cuts absolute weights, showing that the level of 200 mEq/kg is the most appropriated. The relative weight of carcass and prime cuts were not affect by the EB level. High dietary clorine levels affected the live weight and carcass and prime cuts weights. It is recommended levels of EB of at least 200 mEq/kg for broilers reared at southern of Mato Grosso state, based on the evaluated characteristics.Foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de determinar os melhores valores de balanço eletrolítico (BE para frangos de corte, considerando-se o peso vivo aos 42 dias e o rendimento de carcaça e de cortes nobres. Utilizaram-se 864 pintinhos da marca comercial Cobb, machos, alimentados com rações à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com NH4Cl, a fim de se obterem os seguintes níveis de BE: -50; 0; 50; 100; 150 e 200 mEq/kg. Foi utilizado delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, seis repetições e 24 aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de BE influenciaram o peso vivo aos 42 dias e o peso absoluto da carcaça e dos cortes nobres, demonstrando que 200 mEq/kg é o mais indicado. O peso relativo da carcaça e dos cortes nobres não sofreu influência do nível de BE. Verificou-se que o excesso de cloro nas rações de frangos de corte prejudicou o peso vivo ao abate e o peso da carcaça e dos cortes nobres. Recomenda-se para frangos de corte criados na região sul do estado de Mato Grosso níveis de BE de pelo menos 200 mEq/kg, com base

  16. Studies on treatment of radioactive animal carcass, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Osamu

    1980-01-01

    A method of dehydration for the waste treatment of radioactive animal carcass by microwave heating was developed. A heating apparatus was devised by annexing the microwave output controlling circuit to a 600 W commercial microwave oven, and the aqueous vapour from the animal carcass was collected by duplex cold traps. Body weight of the carcass was reduced to 20-30% by dehydration, and a three-year storage test proved that the dehydrated carcass was very hard to decompose. Time needed for dehydration was about 10 min for a 25 g mouse, and about 1 hr for 668 g dog. Violent rupture of the carcass, and/or fuming due to overheating that had often been observed during dehydration were proved to be avoidable by controlling the microwave output during the process. The ratio of radioactivity ( 60 Co, 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 144 Ce) that escaped from the carcass during dehydration was found to be less than 3 x 10 -4 by a series of experiment. Some related radiation safety problems were discussed. (author)

  17. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia saginata and has a global distribution. This zoonosis usually causes only mild disease in humans, but has an important economic impact on the meat sector as bovine carcasses that are found to be infected are either condemned or undergo...... in order to confirm their sensitivity and cost-effectiveness. Additionally, new methods that can be routinely used should be developed. Preferably, these measures would be validated and in place prior to implementation of the new meat safety assurance system, in a move towards effective, risk-based control...

  18. Relationship between the Porcine Stress Syndrome gene and carcass and performance traits in F2 pigs resulting from divergent crosses

    OpenAIRE

    Band,Guilherme de Oliveira; Guimarães,Simone Eliza Facioni; Lopes,Paulo Sávio; Peixoto,Jane de Oliveira; Faria,Danielle Assis; Pires,Aldrin Vieira; Figueiredo,Frederico de Castro; Nascimento,Carlos Souza do; Gomide,Lúcio Alberto de Miranda

    2005-01-01

    The PSS genotypes of 596 F2 pigs produced by initial mating of Brazilian native boars commercial sows and were characterized by PCR-RFLP and their carcass and performance traits were evaluated. Among the 596 animals analyzed, 493 (82.72%) were characterized as NN and 103 (17.28%) as Nn. With respect to carcass traits, Nn animals presented higher (p < 0.05) right half carcass weight, left half carcass weight, loin depth and loin eye area, and lower shoulder backfat thickness, backfat thickness...

  19. Carcass and non-carcass component yields of crossbred Boer and Brazilian semiarid indigenous goats subjected to different feeding levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Samara Rodrigues; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Yamamoto, Sandra Mari; Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Busato, Karina Costa; Silva, Tiago Santos

    2014-04-01

    The effect of different feeding levels (ad libitum, 25 and 50 % restriction) and genotypes (½ Boer × ½ nondescript breed goats, Canindé, and Moxotó) on carcass quantitative characteristics and non-carcass components (NCC) were evaluated. Forty-five intact male goats were distributed in a 3 × 3 factorial design with five replicates. There was no effect of genotype on carcass weights and yields and retail cuts weights and yields (P > 0.05). Compared to Moxotó, ½ Boer presented better carcass conformation and higher weights (P retail cuts weights and NCC, and soft tissues yields were higher (P 0.05) for these variables. There were interactions of genotype and feeding level. At ad libitum feeding, ½ Boer had higher weights of breast and shank, leg, soft tissues, and gastrointestinal viscera compared to the Moxotó (P strategy for increasing the efficiency of goat meat production in the Brazilian semiarid. Moreover, in times of feed scarcity, farmers may use higher feed restriction levels to keep animals, since for most of the parameters evaluated, there were no differences between the restriction levels.

  20. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  1. THE EFFECT OF ADDING WHOLE WHEAT GRAIN TO FEED MIXTURE ON SLAUGHTER YIELD AND CARCASS COMPOSITION IN GAME PHEASANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIUSZ KOKOSZYŃSKI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The mean body weight of pheasant cocks (1226 g and hens (946.9 g receiving feed mixtures was lower than that of birds fed diets with wheat (♂ 1421.4 g, ♀ 953.2 g. The dressing percentage of both sexes pheasants fed wheat grain also (69.9% was only 0.3% lower than in birds receiving feed mixtures only (70.2%. The carcasses of birds (♂♀ fed the diet with whole wheat grain contained more breast muscles (251.2 g, leg muscles (198.8 g and other carcass components. The carcass percentage of breast muscles, leg muscles, wings and skin with fat was lower, and that of remainders of carcass higher in pheasants receiving wheat grain. In addition, the carcasses of pheasants (♂♀ fed the wheat diets were characterized by a higher weight of meat and fat and lower carcass meat and fat percentage.

  2. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... tissues once the requirements for basal metabolic rate and thermogenesis had been met (Leeson et al., 1996). Carcass, breast meat, drumstick, thigh and wing weights were optimal at different dietary energy levels of. 12.80, 13.23, 13.43, 13.18 and 13.00 MJ ME/kg DM, respectively (Tables 2 and 3).

  3. Effects tethering feeding management system on carcass, organ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The albumin, globulin and cholesterol values did not vary significantly (p< 0.05) between the treatment groups. The results of this study showed that periodic tethering feeding management system was not detrimental to the carcass, organ weight characteristics and serum metabolites of growing West African dwarf goats.

  4. Carcass characteristics of tropical beef cattle breeds (West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... This preliminary study was conducted using 35 animals to provide a means of a more accurate estimation of live and carcass weights of three tropical cattle beef cattle; the Zebu (Plate1), the humpless West African shorthorn (WASH) (Plate2) and the Sanga ...

  5. Short communication: Effect of breed on performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the effect of breed on growth performance and carcass characteristics in Mexican hair sheep, 48 lambs (average 38.9 ± 1.56 kg body weight, BW) were used in a completely randomized experimental design. The breed types assessed were 16 Pelibuey (PB), 16 Pelibuey x Katahdin (PB-KT) crossbred and 16 ...

  6. Performance response, carcass evaluation and economic benefit of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the performance, carcass quality, haematological indices and economics of production of rabbits fed dietary sorghum offal substitute for maize grain. A total of forty (40) weaned rabbits with a mean weight range of 820-850 g were randomly distributed to five treatment ...

  7. Relationships between carcass traits and offal components in local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... 24 weeks old and used for carcass and offal composition study. Data collected were live weight, ... Key words: Body composition, correlation, indigenous chicken, principal components analysis. INTRODUCTION. Poultry is one of the ...... musculaire : impact sur la qualité des viandes. Office 2006-2007, 44 p.

  8. Carcass Production of Cattle Slaughtered at Salatiga City Slaughter House, Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbowati, E.; Lestari, C. M. S.; Ma’ruf, M. J.; Sutaryo, S.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the breed, age, sex, slaughter weight, carcass weight, and carcass percentage of cattle which was slaughtered at Slaughter House in Salatiga, Central Java. The materials used in the study were 156 head of catlle. The sampling used was incidental sampling to identify the breed, age, sex, slaughter weight and carcass weight. The data gathered were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the sex of all the cattle slaughtered were male. The breeds of the cattle were Frisian Holstein Grade (70.51%), Simmental (15.38+3.21), Simmental-Ongole Grade (5.13%), and Limousine-Ongole Grade (5.77%). The average age of the cattle were 2.34 year old, with an average of slaughter weight of 529.34 kg, while the averages of carcass weight were 277.61 kg. The average of carcass percentage was as high as 52.56%. The conclusion of the study was the highest number of breeds of the cattle slaughtered at Slaughter House in Salatiga were young Frisian Holstein, the body weights were included in large frame score, and the carcass percentage were moderate.

  9. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: a poultry welfare and economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A; Kuttappan, V A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Urbano, T; Matté, F; Layton, S; Kallapura, G; Latorre, J; Morales, B E; Prado, O; Vicente, J L; Barton, J; Andreatti Filho, R L; Lovato, M; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-02-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes.

  10. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: A poultry welfare and economic perspective1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A.; Kuttappan, V. A.; Hernandez-Velasco, X.; Urbano, T.; Matté, F.; Layton, S.; Kallapura, G.; Latorre, J.; Morales, B. E.; Prado, O.; Vicente, J. L.; Barton, J.; Filho, R. L. Andreatti; Lovato, M.; Hargis, B. M.; Tellez, G.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes. PMID:24570468

  11. Development of Real-Time PCR to Monitor Groundwater Contaminated by Fecal Sources and Leachate from the Carcass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    The 2010 outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in South Korea caused about 4,054 carcass burial sites to dispose the carcasses. Potential environmental impacts by leachate of carcass on groundwater have been issued and it still needs to be studied. Therefore, we tried to develop robust and sensitive tool to immediately determine a groundwater contamination by the leachate from carcass burial. For tracking both an agricultural fecal contamination source and the leachate in groundwater, competitive real-time PCR and PCR method were developed using various PCR primer sets designed to detect E. Coli uidA gene and mtDNA(cytochrome B, cytB) of the animal species such as ovine, porcine, caprine, and bovine. The designed methods were applied to tract the animal species in livestock wastewater and leachate of carcass under appropriate PCR or real-time PCR condition. In the result, mtDNA primer sets for individual (Cow or Pig) and multiple (Cow and Pig) amplification, and E. Coli uidA primers for fecal source amplification were specific and sensitive to target genes. To determine contamination source, concentration of amplified mtDNA and uidA was competitively quantified in Livestock wastewater, leachate of carcass, and groundwater. The highest concentration of mtDNA and uidA showed in leachate of carcass and livestock wastewater, respectively. Groundwater samples possibly contaminated by leachate of carcass were analyzed by this assay and it was able to prove contamination source.

  12. Prediction of Carcass Composition Using Carcass Grading Traits in Hanwoo Steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooyoung; Won, Seunggun; Lee, Jeongkoo; Kim, Jongbok

    2016-09-01

    The prediction of carcass composition in Hanwoo steers is very important for value-based marketing, and the improvement of prediction accuracy and precision can be achieved through the analyses of independent variables using a prediction equation with a sufficient dataset. The present study was conducted to develop a prediction equation for Hanwoo carcass composition for which data was collected from 7,907 Hanwoo steers raised at a private farm in Gangwon Province, South Korea, and slaughtered in the period between January 2009 and September 2014. Carcass traits such as carcass weight (CWT), back fat thickness (BFT), eye-muscle area (EMA), and marbling score (MAR) were used as independent variables for the development of a prediction equation for carcass composition, such as retail cut weight and percentage (RC, and %RC, respectively), trimmed fat weight and percentage (FAT, and %FAT, respectively), and separated bone weight and percentage (BONE, and %BONE), and its feasibility for practical use was evaluated using the estimated retail yield percentage (ELP) currently used in Korea. The equations were functions of all the variables, and the significance was estimated via stepwise regression analyses. Further, the model equations were verified by means of the residual standard deviation and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) between the predicted and observed values. As the results of stepwise analyses, CWT was the most important single variable in the equation for RC and FAT, and BFT was the most important variable for the equation of %RC and %FAT. The precision and accuracy of three variable equation consisting CWT, BFT, and EMA were very similar to those of four variable equation that included all for independent variables (CWT, BFT, EMA, and MAR) in RC and FAT, while the three variable equations provided a more accurate prediction for %RC. Consequently, the three-variable equation might be more appropriate for practical use than the four-variable equation

  13. Pork carcass composition: I. Interrelationships of compositional end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensen, K; Ellis, M; Brewer, M S; Novakofski, J; McKeith, F K

    1998-09-01

    Thirty pork carcasses were used to evaluate the interrelationships between compositional end points and the accuracy of predicting various end points from one another. Right sides were fabricated into Boston butt, picnic, anterior belly, posterior belly, anterior loin, posterior loin, and ham. Carcass composition was determined on the right side using physical dissection and chemical analyses of soft tissue. Left sides were ground (whole-side grind). Linear measures and chemical composition were made on left sides. Using dissectable components, high (r > .85) correlations occurred between percentage of fat-free lean and percentage of lipid, percentage of dissectable fat, and lipid in the whole-side grind; between weights of dissectable lean and fat-free lean; and between weights of lipid in the whole-side grind and lipid, dissectable fat, and dissectible lean. Dissectable lean percentage and fat (percentage and weight) could be predicted using weight of lipid, weight of fat-free lean, and side weight. Any physical measure could be accurately estimated from any compositional end point (r2 = .79 to .93). Regression equations using 10th-rib linear measures and hot carcass weights predicted compositional end points with R2 > or = .80, with the exception of dissectable lean (R2 = .56).

  14. Desempenho, características de carcaça e resultado econômico de cordeiros criados em creep feeding com silagem de grãos úmidos de milho Live weight gain, carcass traits and economic results on lambs fed with high moisture corn silage in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar níveis de substituição (0; 50 e 100% do milho grão seco moído pela silagem de grãos úmidos de milho na ração de cordeiros alimentados em creep feeding. Vinte e quatro cordeiros Suffolk foram avaliados quanto ao desempenho, pesos e rendimentos das carcaças. Também foi realizada uma análise econômica. As rações foram fornecidas ad libitum, sendo suas sobras pesadas para o cálculo do consumo médio por animal. Ao atingirem 28 kg de peso vivo, os cordeiros foram submetidos a jejum por 16 horas e, então, novamente pesados para se obter o peso vivo ao abate. Após o abate, os animais foram eviscerados para se obterem os pesos e rendimentos de carcaça quente. As carcaças permaneceram por 24 horas em câmara de refrigeração, sendo novamente pesadas para se obterem os rendimentos de carcaça fria e as perdas por resfriamento. Os resultados revelaram que não houve efeito dos níveis de substituição sobre ganho médio diário de peso vivo, idade ao abate, pesos e rendimentos das carcaças quentes e frias, indicando que a silagem de grãos úmidos de milho pode ser utilizada em substituição ao milho moído na alimentação de cordeiros. Como o peso ao abate foi pré-fixado, as variações nas idades ao abate fizeram com que essa variável exercesse influência sobre os desempenhos, pesos e rendimentos e, quanto maiores essas idades, piores os resultados dos parâmetros avaliados. O tratamento com 50% de silagem de grãos úmidos apresentou os melhores resultados econômicos e o tratamento sem silagem de grãos úmidos foi o de menor rentabilidade.The experiment was carried to study three levels (0, 50 e 100% of high moisture corn silage replacing dry corn grain in rations of lambs fed in creep feeding. Twenty four Suffolk lambs were evaluated to live weight (LW gain and carcasses dressing-outs percentage. It was performed an economical analysis too. Rations in creep feeding were fed ad

  15. Performance, carcass traits and costs of Suffolk lambs finishing systems with early weaning and controlled suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rodrigo Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance, carcass traits and finishing costs of Suffolk lambs were evaluated in three systems: (1 lambs weaned with 22 kg of body weight (BW and supplemented with concentrate on pasture until slaughter; (2 lambs weaned with 22 kg BW and fed in feedlot until slaughter; (3 lambs maintained in controlled nursing after 22 kg BW and creep fed in feedlot until slaughter. Average daily gain (ADG was 224 g/d for lambs weaned and supplemented with concentrate on pasture, 386 g/d for lambs weaned in feedlot and 481 g/d for lambs under controlled nursing. Empty body weight and visceral fat deposition were highest in lambs from feedlot systems. Carcass weights and carcass yields were highest for lambs in controlled nursing. Finishing total costs were highest in controlled nursing and lowest in the system with weaning in feedlot. High concentrate diet associated with controlled nursing in feedlot allowed lambs to reach the growth potential and carcasses with higher weights, higher yields and higher fat content. After weaning, lambs in feedlot fed with high concentrate diet had higher weight gain than lambs supplemented with concentrate on pasture. Carcasses produced under these two systems presented the same characteristics. The system with weaning in feedlot showed the lowest cost per kg carcass.

  16. Effects of dietary protein concentration and ractopamine hydrochloride on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) is used in the feedlot industry to increase daily gain, feed efficiency, and hot carcass weight with minimal negative effects on carcass quality. However, little work has been done to determine whether additional protein is needed in the diet to maximize the benefit ...

  17. Carcass traits and saleable meat yield of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; Thomson, P C; Hopkins, D L

    2015-09-01

    Carcass traits and saleable meat yield (SMY) of female and castrated male alpacas in Australia at 18, 24 and 36 months of age were investigated. Fifty huacaya alpacas, evenly distributed across 14, 20, 32 month ages and two genders, were grazed on coastal summer pastures for four months. Dressing percentage and carcass length were collected at slaughter. At 24h post-mortem the carcasses were prepared into four SMY combinations. Thirty six month animals had heavier hot carcass weights (33.7 ± 1 kg) and longer carcasses (81.2 ± 0.7 cm) as expected. The percentage of total carcass bone (17.5 ± 0.2%), fat trim (1.4 ± 0.1%) and meat trim (7.8 ± 0.4%) was assessed as a proportion of cold carcass weight. The proportion of fat increased and bone decreased with age. Females had more trim than males. SMY decreased in females and increased in males with age across all combinations suggesting that males are preferable for meat production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ganho de peso e características de carcaça de bovinos Nelore castrados ou não-castrados terminados em confinamento Weight gain and characteristics of carcass of castrated or non-castrated Nellore cattle finished in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredson Vieira e Silva

    2008-12-01

    ético.The objective of this work was to evaluate weight gain and carcass characteristics Nellore cattle, castrated or non-castrated, finished in confinement. It was used Thirty six animals with 24 months old and initial 445.30 kg BW (non-castrated or 449.57 kg BW (castrated at 400 kg BW. The animals were slaughtered at 50 days of confinement, when reached 516.30 kg BW (non-castrated and 506.86 kg BW (castrated. Non-castrated animals did not have an increase in final BW, but showed higher weight gain (1.42 and 1.15 kg. Hot carcass weight (272.77 and 261.89 kg and cold carcass weight (266.13 and 258.24 kg did not differ between non-castrated and castrated animals. Non-castrated animals showed higher hot carcass yield (52.88 vs. 51.65% however, cold carcass yield was similar between groups (51.55 and 52.39%, due to smaller chilling loss in castrated animals (2.43 vs. 1.40%. Special hindquarter absolute weights (133.07 and 131.55 kg, forequarter (105.65 and 100.09 kg and spare ribs (27.41 and 26.60 kg did not differ between non-castrated and castrated animals. Forequarter relative values castrated animals were higher than the non-castrated (50.93 versus 50.00%. The striploin of non-castrated animals was heavier than that of castrated (8.41 vs. 7.90 kg. Fat thickness (2.05 vs. 2.21 mm and loin eye area (66.98 versus 67.48 cm² did not differ between non-castrated and castrated animals. Cold carcass pH in predetermined time until setting of rigor mortis is also similar between and non-castrated and castrated animals. Non-castrated and castrated animals have satisfactory carcass weight, but have not fat thickness less than 3 mm, when confined for 50 days with diet based on sugar cane and concentrate. To match the fat thickness, the diet of the animals must be balanced with higher energy level.

  19. Comparing Growth and Carcass Traits of Slow Growing Chicken Parents with Pure Egg Type Parents and Commercial Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Sarica, Musa; Yamak, Umut Sami; Boz, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    In this study, growth and carcass traits of slow growing parents werecompared with commercial broilers and pure parents. Two egg type parents and a commercial meat parent were used incrossings. Male-female mixed 144 chickens pergenotype were reared on litter in a house divided into 1.5 x 1.5 m pens. Live weight, carcass weight, carcass part ratios,abdominal fat and edible inner organ weights were determined in four dam andthree sire line chickens. Colour as measured by L*, a*,b* values and pH...

  20. Características de carcaça de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus em quatro classes de peso ao abate - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2069 Evaluation of characteristics of carcass of Nile tilapias (“Oreochromis niloticus” in four classes of abate weight - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2069

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro João Lacerda de Almeida

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar características de carcaça de tilápias do Nilo. Foram utilizados 199 exemplares em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. As variáveis estudadas foram: pesos dos peixes ao abate e eviscerado, comprimento e altura dos peixes; peso e tamanho da cabeça; peso dos filés; índice de seleção fenotípico (Índice de Perfil = comprimento dividido pela altura; Índice de Cabeça = comprimento dividido pelo comprimento da cabeça, e os rendimentos de carcaça e filé. Os pesos dos peixes ao abate, nas classes estudadas, influíram (p 0,05 pelo peso dos peixes ao abate. O peso do filé tem correlação (p The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of carcass of Nile tilapia. 199 Nile tilapias were used in an completely randomized design. The studied variables were: weights of the fish and weights headless visceral, length and height of the fish; the weigh and size of the head; the weigh of the fillets; phenotype index of selection (Index of Profile = length divided by the height; Index of Head = length divided by the head's length, the carcass and fillet yielding. The weights of the fish in slaughter, in the studied classes, influenced (P 0.05 influenced by the weight of fish in slaughter. The weight of the fillet has correlation (P < 0.01 with all the studied variables. When increasing the weight of the fillet there is a decrease of the profile index. The correlation between height of the fish and weight of the fillet is lightly larger than the correlation with the length. The carcass and fillet yielding don't depend on the weight with that Nile tilapias are slaughter. Only the amount of fillet in the carcass is related with these weights. The fillet yielding is more related with the height than with the length.

  1. BACTÉRIAS DO GÊNERO Listeria EM CARNE E ÁGUA RESIDUÁRIA DE LAVAGEM DE CARCAÇA DE UM MATADOURO-FRIGORÍFICO E EM CARNE MOÍDA COMERCIALIZADA NA CIDADE DE GOIÂNIA - GO BACTERIA OF THE GENUS Listeria IN MEAT AND RESIDUAL WASHING CARCASS WATER IN A FRIGORIFIC ABATTOIR AND BOVINE MINCED MEAT COMMERCIALIZED IN GOIÂNIA-GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Timo Iaria

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com vistas ao isolamento, à identificação e à caracterização sorológica de bactérias do gênero Listeria, foram colhidas em um matadouro-frigorífico de grande porte, sob inspeção federal, 70 amostras de tecido muscular bovino e 30 amostras de água residuária oriunda da lavagem de meias-carcaças. Nenhuma cepa de Listeria foi isolada a partir das amostras de carne bovina, mas uma amostra de água residuária (3,33% revelou-se positiva, sendo a cepa identificada bioquímica e sorologicamente como L. innocua 6a. Foram também analisadas 50 amostras de carne bovina moída, adquiridas no mercado varejista de Goiânia - GO, das quais 24 (48% mostraram-se positivas para Listeria spp. Destas amostras positivas foram isoladas 24 cepas, sendo 22 (91,8% de L. innocua 6a, uma (4,1% de L. innocua não tipável sorologicamente e uma (4,41% de L. monocytogenes 1/2b.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Listeria; carne; carne moída; carcaça.

    With the aim to isolate, identify and carry out serological characterization of’ bacteria of the genus Listeria, 70 samples of bovine muscle tissue and 30 samples of residual washing water of halves carcasses were collected in a large slaughterhouse, under Federal Inspection. No Listeria strain was isolated from samples of bovine meat, but one sample of residual water (3.33% was positive, being the strain identified biochemical and serologically as L. innocua 6a. Fifty samples were also analysed of bovine minced meat acquired in the market of Goiânia - GO, from which 24 (48% showed positive for Listeria spp. From these positive samples 24 strains were isolated, being 22 (91.8% of L. innocua 6a, one (4.1% of L. innocua not tipable and one (4.1% of

  2. Predicting the carcass composition of lambs by a simultaneous equations model

    OpenAIRE

    Cadavez, Vasco

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop models to predict lamb carcass composition by simultaneous equations model (SEM), and to compare t he efficiency of the ordinary least squares (OLS), weight least squares (WLS), and seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) estimators. Forty male lambs, 22 of Churro Galego Bragançano Portuguese local breed and 18 of Suffolk breed were used. Lambs were slaughtered and carcasses were weighed approximately 30 min after slaughter in orde...

  3. Associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zimmy

    2015-08-01

    Aug 1, 2015 ... the other hand are intended for milk production which can influence their carcass quality traits (lean-to-fat ratio, dressing percentage and conformation) and consequently their meat quality traits (taste, colour and texture). However, at this abattoir it was mentioned that farmers raise dairy cattle specifically for ...

  4. Ganho de peso, característica da carcaça e dos demais componentes corporais de cordeiros confinados, alimentados com distintos teores de uréia Weight gain, carcass traits and other body components from feedlot lambs, fed diets with different levels of urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Sobolow de Souza

    2004-08-01

    finished in feedlot randomly allocated in four groups according to urea levels (0.0; 0.4; 0.8 and 1.2% of total dry matter. Animals were slaughtered with 32kg of live weight. There was no difference among urea levels for the following parameters: daily weight gain, live weight at slaughter, hot and chilled carcass weights, percentage of weight losses during chilling, commercial and biological carcass dressing out, non-carcass components weights, body condition and conformation, and fat deposition. However, for the skin weight (kg the 0.0% level was lower than the 0.8% level. There were not observed differences among treatments for the following variables: muscle pH at three moments, morphometric and carcass cut proportions. The leg length of the lambs fed diet with 0.8% urea was lower than that of 0.0% level. For leg compacity, 0.8% was smaller than the leg length of those fed with 0.o% urea. It was concluded that growing levels of urea utilization is viable and did not affect the variables that were analyzed in this work.

  5. Predicting beef carcass retail products of Mediterranean buffaloes by real-time ultrasound measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. De Castro Mourão

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight Mediterranean buffaloes bulls were scanned with real-time ultrasound (RTU, slaughtered, and fabricated into retail cuts to determine the potential for ultrasound measures to predict carcass retail yield. Ultrasound measures of fat thickness, ribeye area and rump fat thickness were recorded three to five days prior to slaughter. Carcass measurements were taken, and one side of each carcass was fabricated into retail cuts. Stepwise regression analysis was used to compare possible models for prediction of either kilograms or percent retail product from carcass mesaurements and ultrasound measures. Results indicate that possible prediction models for percent or kilograms of retail products using RTU measures were similar in their predictive power and accuracy when compared to models derived from carcass measurements. Both fat thickness and ribeye area were over-predicted when measured ultrasonically compared to measurements taken on the carcass in the cooler. The mean absolute differences for both traits are larger than the mean differences, indicating that some images were interpreted to be larger and some smaller than actual carcass measurements. Ultrasound measurements of REA and FT had positive correlations with carcass measures of the same traits (r=.96 for REA and r=.99 for FT. Standard errors of prediction currently are being used as the standard to certify ultrasound technicians for accuracy. Regression equations using live weight (LW, rib eye area (REAU and subcutaneous fat thickness (FTU between 12th and 13 th ribs and also over the biceps femoris muscle (FTP8 by ultrasound explained 95% of the variation in the hot carcass weight when measure immediately before slaughter.

  6. Genetic Parameter Estimates of Carcass Traits under National Scale Breeding Scheme for Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChangHee Do

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carcass and price traits of 72,969 Hanwoo cows, bulls and steers aged 16 to 80 months at slaughter collected from 2002 to 2013 at 75 beef packing plants in Korea were analyzed to determine heritability, correlation and breeding value using the Multi-Trait restricted maximum likelihood (REML animal model procedure. The traits included carcass measurements, scores and grades at 24 h postmortem and bid prices at auction. Relatively high heritability was found for maturity (0.41±0.031, while moderate heritability estimates were obtained for backfat thickness (0.20±0.018, longissimus muscle (LM area (0.23±0.020, carcass weight (0.28±0.019, yield index (0.20±0.018, yield grade (0.16±0.017, marbling (0.28±0.021, texture (0.14±0.016, quality grade (0.26±0.016 and price/kg (0.24±0.025. Relatively low heritability estimates were observed for meat color (0.06±0.013 and fat color (0.06±0.012. Heritability estimates for most traits were lower than those in the literature. Genetic correlations of carcass measurements with characteristic scores or quality grade of carcass ranged from −0.27 to +0.21. Genetic correlations of yield grade with backfat thickness, LM area and carcass weight were 0.91, −0.43, and −0.09, respectively. Genetic correlations of quality grade with scores of marbling, meat color, fat color and texture were −0.99, 0.48, 0.47, and 0.98, respectively. Genetic correlations of price/kg with LM area, carcass weight, marbling, meat color, texture and maturity were 0.57, 0.64, 0.76, −0.41, −0.79, and −0.42, respectively. Genetic correlations of carcass price with LM area, carcass weight, marbling and texture were 0.61, 0.57, 0.64, and −0.73, respectively, with standard errors ranging from ±0.047 to ±0.058. The mean carcass weight breeding values increased by more than 8 kg, whereas the mean marbling scores decreased by approximately 0.2 from 2000 through 2009. Overall, the results suggest that genetic improvement of

  7. Effect of breed (wool and hair and sex on the carcass quality of suckling lambs under intensive management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Camacho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcasses of twenty lambs (10 males and 10 females from the Canaria Hair breed (CHB and another twenty (10 males and 10 females from the Canaria breed (CB of 9.91±0.73 kg and 9.87±0.80 kg live weight, respectively, were studied. In the principal component (PC analysis, the projection of carcass measurement data in the first PC allowed for clearly distinguishing between CB and CHB. In the analysis of variance, breed effect was observed in the morphology of the carcass: CB lambs showed the longest carcasses and CHB lambs showed the widest carcasses. Due to their wider rump and shorter legs, CHB lambs presented a more compact leg index. The carcasses from Canaria lambs had the highest fat score, the heaviest shoulder and the highest total fat percentage. The carcasses from CHB lambs showed a higher lean percentage. The carcass yield, conformation, degree of fatness and tissue composition were similar in both sexes. However, significant differences in the commercial cut yield were observed: males showed heavier shoulders than females. The effect of sex on carcass quality is unimportant. The breeds are different in important characteristics for the market, such as fatness. This fact is of significant interest because it diversifies the offer and means that different markets can be satisfied.

  8. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D 10 ) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N 0 to 0.1 N 0 . Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  9. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Validity of methods

    Experiments were carried out In which it was assessed which Salmonella isolation method is the most productive one In the examination of broiler carcasses. Refrigerated, refrigerated and radiated (2.50 kGy), frozen and frozen and

  10. Quality Inspection of Poultry Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract A machine vision is feasible for grading poultry production as well as for identifying parts of poultry carcasses at the processing line. Several different machine vision systems including color, multi-, and hyper-spectral imaging, have been developed and tested for poultry quali...

  11. Carcass composition of Venda indigenous scavenging chickens under village management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raphulu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Four Venda indigenous scavenging (VIS chickens (one young male and one young female of 10–16 weeks of age, a mature cockerel and a mature hen were randomly purchased from each of six adjacent rural villages during three different seasons (autumn, winter and spring to determine the meat yield and carcass chemical composition. A total of 72 chickens were slaughtered and feathers, head, neck, viscera, feet and lungs were removed. The live body weight, dressed carcass weight and also the mass of the breast without wings, thighs and drumsticks were recorded with bones and skin. The muscle tissues of the breast and both legs without tendons and fat were sampled for chemical analysis and were analysed for dry matter, ether extract, crude protein and ash. The carcass weight, dressing %, mass of the breast, mass of the thighs, mass of the drumsticks, breast yield, thighs yield and drumsticks yield of both grower and adult VIS chickens were not influenced by season. The crude protein of the grower chickens breast muscles and fat content of the adult chicken leg muscles differed with season. The meat from VIS chickens provided a constant nutrient (crude protein supply throughout the year to the rural communities.

  12. DNA sequence polymorphisms in a panel of eight candidate bovine imprinted genes and their association with performance traits in Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullen Michael P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in mice and humans have shown that imprinted genes, whereby expression from one of the two parentally inherited alleles is attenuated or completely silenced, have a major effect on mammalian growth, metabolism and physiology. More recently, investigations in livestock species indicate that genes subject to this type of epigenetic regulation contribute to, or are associated with, several performance traits, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In the present study, a candidate gene approach was adopted to assess 17 validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and their association with a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Irish Holstein-Friesian artificial insemination sires. These SNPs are located proximal to, or within, the bovine orthologs of eight genes (CALCR, GRB10, PEG3, PHLDA2, RASGRF1, TSPAN32, ZIM2 and ZNF215 that have been shown to be imprinted in cattle or in at least one other mammalian species (i.e. human/mouse/pig/sheep. Results Heterozygosities for all SNPs analysed ranged from 0.09 to 0.46 and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (P ≤ 0.01 were observed at four loci. Phenotypic associations (P ≤ 0.05 were observed between nine SNPs proximal to, or within, six of the eight analysed genes and a number of performance traits evaluated, including milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, culled cow and progeny carcass weight, angularity, body conditioning score, progeny carcass conformation, body depth, rump angle, rump width, animal stature, calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. Notably, SNPs within the imprinted paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3 gene cluster were associated (P ≤ 0.05 with calving, calf performance and fertility traits, while a single SNP in the zinc finger protein 215 gene (ZNF215 was associated with milk protein percentage (P ≤ 0.05, progeny carcass weight (P ≤ 0.05, culled cow carcass weight (P ≤ 0

  13. Correlations among Stress Parameters, Meat and Carcass Quality Parameters in Pigs

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    Marija Dokmanovic

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Relationships among different stress parameters (lairage time and blood level of lactate and cortisol, meat quality parameters (initial and ultimate pH value, temperature, drip loss, sensory and instrumental colour, marbling and carcass quality parameters (degree of rigor mortis and skin damages, hot carcass weight, carcass fat thickness, meatiness were determined in pigs (n = 100 using Pearson correlations. After longer lairage, blood lactate (p<0.05 and degree of injuries (p<0.001 increased, meat became darker (p<0.001, while drip loss decreased (p<0.05. Higher lactate was associated with lower initial pH value (p<0.01, higher temperature (p<0.001 and skin blemishes score (p<0.05 and more developed rigor mortis (p<0.05, suggesting that lactate could be a predictor of both meat quality and the level of preslaughter stress. Cortisol affected carcass quality, so higher levels of cortisol were associated with increased hot carcass weight, carcass fat thickness on the back and at the sacrum and marbling, but also with decreased meatiness. The most important meat quality parameters (pH and temperature after 60 minutes deteriorated when blood lactate concentration was above 12 mmol/L.

  14. Genetic Relationships of Carcass Traits with Retail Cut Productivity of Hanwoo Cattle

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    Daeyoung Koh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate genetic correlation between carcass grading and retail productivity traits and to estimate the correlated response on retail productivity traits through selection for carcass grading traits in order to assess the efficacy of indirect selection. Genetic parameters were estimated with the data from 4240 Hanwoo steers using mixed models, and phenotypes included carcass weight (CWT, back fat thickness (BFT, eye muscle area (EMA, marbling (MAR, and estimated lean yield percentage (ELP as the carcass grading traits, and weight and portion of retail cuts (RCW and RCP, trimmed fats (TFW and TFP and trimmed bones (TBW and TBP as the lean productivity traits. The CWT had positive genetic correlations with RCW (0.95 and TFW (0.73, but its genetic correlation with RCP was negligible (0.02. The BFT was negatively correlated with RCP (−0.63, but positively correlated with TFW and TFP (0.77 and 0.70. Genetic correlations of MAR with TFW and TFP were low. Among the carcass grading traits, only EMA was positively correlated with both RCW (0.60 and RCP (0.72. The EMA had a relatively strong negative genetic correlation with TFW (−0.64. The genetic correlation coefficients of ELP with RCP, TFW, and TFP were 0.76, −0.90, and −0.82, respectively. These correlation coefficients suggested that the ELP and EMA might be favorable traits in regulating lean productivity of carcass.

  15. Crambe meal in supplements for culling cows: animal performance and carcass characteristics

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    Kennyson Alves de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the replacement of soybean meal by crambe crushed in concentrated supplement at proportions 0, 5, 10, 15%, on the performance and carcass traits of grazing cows is assessed. Within a completely randomized design, twenty Nellore cows, fed on Brachiaria humidicola, were supplemented during the rain-drought transition period and monitored with regard to weight and body conditions every 28 days. Total forage mass and percentages of leaf, stem and senescent material were quantified in loco. The estimation of forage quality consumed by animals was performed by the simulated grazing method. There were no significant differences between the levels of inclusion of crambe crushed on animal performance or carcass characteristics. Replacement did not affect weight, carcass yield, Brazilian commercial cuts, morphometric measures of carcass, characteristics of loins, thickness of carcass fat, perirenal-pelvic fat and total meat. Replacement of soybean meal by crambe crushed up to 15% in the concentrated supplement does not affect performance and carcass characteristics of cows finished on pasture.

  16. Effects of various pre-slaughter conditions on pig carcasses and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gender, slaughter weight, stocking density, lairage time and season on carcass and meat quality parameters in a low-input production system. The study was conducted on 400 slaughter pigs (200 barrows and 200 gilts) with live weight of 115.0 ± 4.70 kg. Barrows had ...

  17. The Effect of Chinese Propolis Supplementation on Ross Broiler Performance and Carcass Characteristics

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    Usama T. Mahmoud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Ether Extract of Propolis (EEP on Ross (308 broiler performance and carcass characteristics. This experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments (different levels of propolis including 0, 100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg diet for 6 weeks. The mean weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. In addition At 42 days old the total body weight, total body weight gain, carcass and some internal organs relative weights were recorded. The results clarified that, the weight gain was significantly reduced in the 4th and 6th week (P0.05 reduced for propolis fed birds in comparison to those fed control diet, Furthermore, inclusion of 100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg diet Propolis significantly reduced body weight at 42 days old and total body weight gain in comparison to control diet (P < 0.05. Under the condition of this experiment, prolonged use of propolis had adverse effect on performance of broilers. Also, all doses of propolis had non-significant negative effect on liver, heart, gizzard and carcass relative weight. In conclusion, EEP has no beneficial effect on performance and Carcass characteristics of Broilers.

  18. Association, effects and validation of polymorphisms within the NCAPG - LCORL locus located on BTA6 with feed intake, gain, meat and carcass traits in beef cattle

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    Lindholm-Perry Amanda K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previously reported genome-wide association study based on a high-density bovine SNP genotyping array, 8 SNP were nominally associated (P ≤ 0.003 with average daily gain (ADG and 3 of these were also associated (P ≤ 0.002 with average daily feed intake (ADFI in a population of crossbred beef cattle. The SNP were clustered in a 570 kb region around 38 Mb on the draft sequence of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6, an interval containing several positional and functional candidate genes including the bovine LAP3, NCAPG, and LCORL genes. The goal of the present study was to develop and examine additional markers in this region to optimize the ability to distinguish favorable alleles, with potential to identify functional variation. Results Animals from the original study were genotyped for 47 SNP within or near the gene boundaries of the three candidate genes. Sixteen markers in the NCAPG-LCORL locus displayed significant association with both ADFI and ADG even after stringent correction for multiple testing (P ≤ 005. These markers were evaluated for their effects on meat and carcass traits. The alleles associated with higher ADFI and ADG were also associated with higher hot carcass weight (HCW and ribeye area (REA, and lower adjusted fat thickness (AFT. A reduced set of markers was genotyped on a separate, crossbred population including genetic contributions from 14 beef cattle breeds. Two of the markers located within the LCORL gene locus remained significant for ADG (P ≤ 0.04. Conclusions Several markers within the NCAPG-LCORL locus were significantly associated with feed intake and body weight gain phenotypes. These markers were also associated with HCW, REA and AFT suggesting that they are involved with lean growth and reduced fat deposition. Additionally, the two markers significant for ADG in the validation population of animals may be more robust for the prediction of ADG and possibly the correlated trait ADFI

  19. Ractopamine hydrochloride on performance and carcass traits of confined Nellores cattle

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    João Luis Kill

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four levels of inclusion (0; 450; 900 and 1,350g T-1 of Ractopamine hydrochloride was assessed concerning weight gain, feed conversion, dry matter intake, carcass traits and quality of castrated male cattle meat in confinement. Forty Nellore steers were used, with an average age of 26 months and initial average weight of 423.4±2.7kg, in a randomized block experimental design with four treatments and ten replications. The diet was fixed with the ratio of forage to concentrate dry matter of 75.3:24.7. A Linear positive effect observed was the inclusion of Ractopamine on daily weight gain and linear negative effect on feed conversion, highlighting the improvements with the increasing inclusion of Ractopamine hydrochloride. In relation to carcass traits, the linear effect was negative for fat thickness and no differences were found regarding the hot carcass weight ; carcass yield; area, width and depth of rib eye area of the Longissimus dorsi muscle, and noble courts. In relation to dry matter intake, the comparison of the treatments demonstrated that Ractopamine didn't influence negatively, which highlights its positive effect on the animal performance. The use of Ractopamine improves performance and decreases de amount of superficial fat in male nellore carcass in confinement.

  20. Carcass yield, meat color and muscle pH evolution in rabbits

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    Hernandez-Bautista, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determinate the carcass yield, color and pH evolution of different rabbit breeds (New Zealand G1, California G2, and Nueva ZealandCalifornia G3. Two different studies were performed with animal of 100 days-old and live weight (PV of 2.5 kg. In the study I carcass weight and non-meat components were determined, and the cold carcass weight (CF was recorded. Hot carcass yield (CC was determined, besides pH and color (L*a*b* in B. femoris (BF and L. lumborum (LB muscles. In the study II the L. dorsi (LD muscle pH was monitored. Higher PV, CF, CC and empty carcass weight were found in G2. The L*, a* and b* intensity of LB and BF muscles was higher in G1. In study II the pH decreased with post mortem time and stabilized before 24 h with a 6.16 value for G2 and 6.21 for G1.

  1. Carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets containing silage of different genotypes of sorghum

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    Juraci Marcos Alves Suassuna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five feedlot lambs (without defined breed, aged between 5 and 7 months, with average live weight of 17.7±3.7 kg were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of diets containing different genotypes of sorghum on morphometric measurements and qualitative characteristics of carcass and yields of primal cuts. The animals stayed in individual indoor pens for 42 days and slaughtered at an average weight of 26.24 kg. No significant differences were observed on morphometric measurements, hot (11.67 kg and cold (11.39 kg carcass weight, hot (44.46% and cold (43.37% carcass yields, biological yield and on cooling losses. There was also no significant effect of silages of different genotypes of sorghum on the weights and yields of retail cuts (neck, shoulder, rib, loin and leg and on the subjective evaluation of carcasses. It is possible to finish sheep without defined breed feeding them diets based on silages of sorghum, resulting in carcasses with high yield and good conformation.

  2. Diet cationic variation on absolute weight, carcass yield and noble broilers cuts Variação catiônica na dieta sobre o peso absoluto, rendimento de carcaça e cortes nobres de frangos de corte na região sul de Mato Grosso

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    José Geraldo Vargas Júnior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted at Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Cuiabá in order to determine the best electrolyte balance (EB for broilers, based on the live weight at 42 days, the carcass yield and noble cuts. 720 male broilers with 42-day-old, from Coob commercial line, were used. The birds were reared in floor, covered with shaving woods and fed with corn soybean rations, supplemented with NH4Cl, in order to obtain the following levels of EB: - 50; 0; 50; 100; 150 e 200 mEq/kg. A block randomized design was used with six replicates and 24 birds per experimental unit. The EB levels affect the live weight at 42 days, the carcass absolute weight and also the noble cuts, showing that the levels between 270 up to 300 mEq/kg should be the most appropriated. The relative weight of carcass and noble cuts were not affected by the EB level. It was verified that the simultaneous adition of both sodium and potassium is more indicated to obtain the best value of EB, for those characteristic evaluated.Foi realizado um experimento, no Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Cuiabá, com o objetivo de determinar os melhores valores de balanços eletrolíticos (BE para frangos de corte, com base no peso vivo aos 42 dias, no rendimento de carcaça e dos cortes nobres. Utilizaram-se 720 pintos da linhagem Cobb, machos, criados em boxes em um galpão de alvenaria, cobertos com maravalha e alimentados com rações à base de milho e farelo de soja, suplementadas com K2CO3 e NaHCO3, a fim de se obter os seguintes níveis de BE: - 200; 250; 300; 350 e 400 mEq/kg. Foi utilizado delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições e 24 aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de BE influenciaram o peso vivo aos 42 dias, o peso absoluto da carcaça e dos cortes nobres, e indicaram que níveis entre 270 a 300 mEq/kg seriam os mais recomendados. O peso relativo da carcaça e dos cortes nobres não sofreram influência do nivel de BE

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF CATTLE CARCASSES SLAUGHTERED IN SINOP-MT

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    I. O. Arruda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of classification and typication of cattle carcasses has been a great reference in the meat selection concept with the highest degree of quality, using characteristic grouping of parameters that differ according to sex, maturity, weight, conformation and finish. The referent study was to evaluate the characteristics of cattle carcasses slaughtered in a period of drought in the north of Mato Grosso, specifically in the city of Sinop, during the month of August 2015 were evaluated in 2250 cattle carcasses of animals of various classes and maturities, which mostly were female 77.15%, followed by non-castrated males and barrows with 16.93% and 5.91% respectively. Analyzing the class of uncastrated male animals, it can be seen that the non castration gave an early slaughter. The weight gain, and in finish shaping, as advanced maturity, and character had differences (P <0.05. Figures show that young animals with a nutritional management can have both gains as adult animals.

  4. Prediction of non-carcass components in cattle

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    Luiz Fernando Costa e Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop equations to predict chemical composition of head, limbs, hide and blood in cattle. A database containing 335 animals from 10 trials, with 221 Nellore, 38 Nellore-Simmental and 76 Nellore-Angus (96 steers, 118 heifers and 121 bulls animals was used. Models were constructed to estimate water, ether extract (EE, crude protein (CP, ash and macrominerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium in the non-carcass parts of cattle. A stepwise procedure was conducted to determine the most significant variables within each model. Subsequently, a random coefficient model was used to construct the equation using studies as random effect, and sex and breed as fixed effects. The visceral fat was the most important variable in the prediction models developed, affecting EE and water in head and limbs; head CP; and hide and blood water. Carcass dressing affected head EE and water and water in the limbs. Carcass weight had significant influence on head CP and hide EE; it was also affected by hide percentage in empty body weight (EBW. The percentage of OV in EBW influenced hide water. Lastly, EBW had influence only on hide sodium. Sex affected the EE of head and limbs. No breed effect was observed on any of the equations obtained. The estimation of the composition of head, limbs, hind and blood is possible and recommended, once they do not have great relevance to the estimation of EBW composition.

  5. Etude de la composition de la carcasse de taurillons Ankole en fonction de l'âge ou poids vif et de l'embouche de courte durée

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    Pozy, P.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of carcass composition of Ankole bulls according to weight or age and to duration of fattening period. Thirty two young bulls divided into 2 categories of live weight were used to study the effect of the initial weight and of an intensive fattening period on the composition of the carcass. The slaughterings were carried out in Bujumbura, according to the techniques usually done for the carving of the carcass. A short period of intensive fattening does not improve the composition of the carcass into pieces of great value in butchery.

  6. Commercial Cuts of Carcass of Thin-Tailed Lambs and Sheep Fed Complete Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaeti, N.; Lestari, C. M. S.; Purbowati, E.

    2018-02-01

    This research was conducted to examine the commercial cuts of thin tailed lambs and sheep fed complete feed. This study used 6 male thin tailed sheep aged ±11 months with average body weight of 23,01 ± 1,91 kg (CV 8,31%) and 6 male thin tailed lambs aged ±4 months with average body weight of 15,41 ± 2,11 kg (CV 13,72%). They were fed a complete feed as much as 3.5% from body weight. Fed contained 12% crude protein (CP) and 55% total digestible nutrients (TDN) and was given ad libitum. The animals were raised for 12 weeks and slaughtered being carcass. Commercial cuts were obtained from a half right body part of each sheep carcass and divided into eight commercial cuts, i.e., neck, shoulder, fore shank, breast, flank, rack, loin and leg. The collected data was analysed using t- test in 5% level. The results showed that slaughter weight, carcass weight and half carcass weight were significantly different (P0.05). All of the weight commercial cuts of thin tailed lambs and sheep were significantly different (P0.05). The percentage of neck and leg were significantly different (P<0.05), while the other commercial cuts were not significantly different (P<0.05). Based on the result, it can be concluded that commercial cuts of sheep is better than lambs.

  7. Performance and carcass characteristics of dairy steers fed diets containing crude glycerin

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    Raylon Pereira Maciel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to assess the effects of including 0, 79.8, 159.8, and 240.0 g kg-1 crude glycerin in the total diet dry matter on the 84 days feedlot performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters, and carcass characteristics of crossbred dairy steers. Experimental diets were composed of 98.5 g kg-1 of sorghum silage and 901.5 g kg-1 of concentrate. Twenty-four crossbred dairy steers (337.3±39.8 kg body weight and 15 months of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and six replicates. The intake and digestibility of the dry matter and nutrients were not altered by including crude glycerin in the diet. Crude glycerol levels did not affect the final weight (430.2 kg, daily weight gain (1.38 kg day-1, total weight gain (97.2 kg, hot carcass weight (218.9 kg, cold carcass weight (215.2 kg, hot carcass yield (0.50 kg 100 kg-1 BW, longissimus dorsi area (62.86 cm², subcutaneous fat thickness (4.05 mm, and carcass physical composition. Concentrations of serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and creatinine were not altered by including crude glycerin in the diet. Crude glycerin can be added to high concentrate diet up to 240 g kg-1 without changing the animal performance, apparent digestibility of nutrients, the main carcass characteristics, and blood parameters of finishing crossbred dairy steers.

  8. Carcass characteristics and tissue composition of commercial cuts of lambs fed with banana crop residues

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    Tânia Dayana do Carmo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of substitution of Cynodon hay with banana plantation residue hay on the carcass characteristics and tissue composition of commercial cuts of feedlot Santa Inês lambs. Twenty-five whole lambs were used, with an average age of five months and an initial live weight of 26.95 kg (± 1.5, distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (1 = 40% Cynodon spp. hay + 60% concentrate; 2 = 20% banana leaf hay + 20% Cynodon spp. hay + 60% concentrate; 3 = 40% banana leaf hay + 60% concentrate; 4 = 20% banana pseudostem hay + 20% Cynodon spp. hay + 60% concentrate; 5 = 40% banana pseudostem hay + 60% concentrate and five repetitions. The lambs were slaughtered on day 69 of the experiment. The variables evaluated were: live weight without fasting (LWWF, live weight post-fasting (LWPF, morphometric measurements in vivo and postmortem, hot and cold carcass weights (HCW, CCW, hot and cold carcass yield (HCY, CCY, biological performance and weight loss by chilling. The carcasses were divided into eight commercial cuts: neck, shoulder, foreshank and hindshank, breast and flank, loin, leg and rack. The leg, shoulder and loin were dissected into muscle, fat and bone. The animals fed on pseudostem hay showed higher LWWF, LWPF, body length, HCW and CCW; however, the HCY, CCY, morphometric measurements and commercial cut weights and yields were not altered by the treatments. The use of pseudostem hay allows for heavier carcasses; however, the use of coproducts changed the characteristics and carcass yield of the assessed commercial cuts.

  9. Rendimento de Carcaça, Mensurações e Peso de Cortes Comerciais de Cordeiros Santa Inês e Bergamácia Alimentados com Dejetos de Suínos em Confinamento Dressing Percentage, Measures of Carcass and Weight of Commercial Joint Santa Ines and Bergamacia Lambs Fed with Swine Wastes in Confinement

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    Marcus Vinicius Morais de Oliveira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 21 cordeiros das raças Santa Inês e Bergamácia, confinados por um período de 75 dias, sendo alimentados com dietas contendo 24% de dejetos de suínos, na forma de biju (dejeto obtido pela raspagem e varredura do piso das baias de crescimento e terminação ou dejeto peneirado seco - DPS (dejeto obtido através da peneiração da parte sólida do material contido na lâmina d'água e na água da lavagem das baias. Os animais foram abatidos aos 210 dias de idade, sendo determinados o peso e o rendimento das carcaças, suas mensurações e o peso dos cortes comerciais. As diferentes dietas não afetaram o peso ao abate (PA, peso de carcaça quente (PCQ, rendimento de carcaça quente (RCQ, peso de carcaça fria (PCF, rendimento de carcaça fria (RCF e percentual de perda ao resfriamento (PPR. Os cordeiros da raça Bergamácia apresentaram maior PA, PCQ e PCF. Não foram verificadas diferenças entre as dietas ou entre as raças para os parâmetros: comprimento total, comprimento da perna, comprimento total da perna, comprimento interno, perímetro da garupa e largura de garupa. No entanto, foi verificada maior profundidade de tórax e espessura de gordura subcutânea nos cordeiros da raça Bergamácia. Também não foi encontrado nenhum efeito das dietas e das raças para os cortes paleta, carré, peito/fralda, lombo, pernil, braço anterior e braço posterior.Twenty-one lambs of the Santa Ines and Bergamacia breeds were confined by a period of 75 days and fed diets containing 24% of swine wastes, in biju form (obtained by the scratching and sweeping of the floor of the growth stalls and termination or dry sifted wastes - DSW (obtained through the sifting of the solid part of the material contained in the sheet of water and in the water of the wash of the stalls. The animals were slaughtered at 210 days of age, being determined the weight and measures of carcass, dressing percentage and commercial joints. There was no diet

  10. Biometria da carcaça e peso de vísceras e de órgãos internos de bovinos mestiços alimentados com diferentes volumosos e fontes protéicas Effects of feeding different forage and protein sources on carcass biometry and organ and internal organs weights for steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Macitelli

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta bovinos machos, com peso médio de 371 kg, foram distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizado com esquema fatorial 3x3, dos quais quatro foram abatidos no início do experimento como referência, para avaliar a biometria das carcaças e o peso de vísceras e órgãos internos quando alimentados com diferentes fontes protéicas (uréia, Amiferm e farelo de soja e volumosos (cana-de-açúcar e a silagem de milho e pastagem de capim Brachiaria brizantha. Não houve interação significativa volumosos x fontes protéicas e não houve diferença significativa entre as fontes protéicas para os parâmetros estudados. Para os volumosos, os pesos (em porcentagem do peso do corpo vazio - % PCV do conteúdo estomacal (CRROA e do conteúdo gastrintestinal (CGI foram significativamente maiores para os animais alimentados com cana-de-açúcar (7,52 e 8,59% PCV, respectivamente e não diferiram entre os alimentados com silagem de milho e capim, com médias de 5,10% PCV, para CRROA, e 5,89% PCV para CGI. Os animais mantidos em pastagem não apresentaram compacidade das carcaças diferente dos animais alimentados com os outros volumosos, enquanto os alimentados com cana-de-açúcar mostraram ser menos compactos que os alimentados com silagem de milho. As fontes protéicas também influenciaram a compacidade, que foi menor nos animais que receberam Amiferm e iguais para os que receberam uréia e farelo de soja. Conclui-se que os animais alimentados com cana-de-açúcar apresentam maior enchimento dos compartimentos digestivos e carcaças menos compactas.Forty steers averaging 371 kg BW were allotted to a randomized block design with a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, where four steers were slaughtered as reference, to evaluate the effects of feeding different protein sources (urea, amiferm, soybean meal and forage (sugar cane, corn silage and pasture Bracharia brizantha on carcass biometry and viscera and internal organs weights. Diets were

  11. Evaluation of performance characteristics in a diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. II. Carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K; Johnson, M H

    1988-02-01

    Evaluations of steer and heifer progeny from a diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle over 5 yr are presented. Traits evaluated included final weight, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, dressing percentage and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. Progeny of Simmental sires were heavier at slaughter than those with Brahman sires (P less than .05), but no differences were found for carcass weight. Dressing percentage was higher for Limousin crosses compared with progeny of other sire breeds (P less than .05). Similar results were found for dam breeds, except that progeny of Limousin dams had heavier carcasses with a higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) than Brahman crosses. Crosses of Limousin and Simmental had larger ribeye areas (P less than .05) compared with calves of the other breeds. Progeny of Polled Hereford dams had higher marbling scores and were fatter than progeny of dams of other breeds (P less than .05). Heterosis estimates were significant for all Brahman crosses for final weight, carcass weight and ribeye area, but these contrasts were negligible for other traits. Estimates of general combining ability were positive and significant for Simmental for final weight, carcass weight, ribeye area and marbling score and were significant and negative for Limousin for final weight, fat thickness and yield grade. Maternal values were generally small.

  12. RESEARCHES ON THE PHENOTYPIC CORRELATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT MEASUREMENTS ON THE CARCASS OF RABBITS

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    DANIELA MARCELA TOBĂ (GOINA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to get more experimental data on newmethodologies for rabbit meat production evaluation. The trial was carried out on30 rabbits. The rabbits were weaned at 35 days, having an average live weight of499.11+25.98 g. Rabbits were all slaughtered on the same day, that was on the 84th day of living (at this time the average live weight was 1701.7+34.07, andsome linear measurements (body length, loin width, chest width, carcass lengthchest dept and hind leg length were performed on cold carcasses. The rabbitshave been kept in wire fattening cages: 6 rabbits / cage.

  13. Effect of Tumbling Marination on Marinade Uptake of Chicken Carcass and Parts Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J U-chupaj

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of marination on marinade uptake of chicken carcasses and to determine the meat quality of carcass parts. In total, 45 eviscerated chicken carcasses were divided into three marinating treatments: no marination, marination in water, marination in non-phosphate and low-salt solution (NPLS. The study showed that the marinade uptake of chicken carcasses was higher than 4.0% for NPLS marination and than 3.5% for water marination when compared with the non-marinated treatment. However, raw chicken meat yield after cut-up was not significantly different (p≥0.05 among treatments. Carcasses marinated in NPLS solution presented higher water-holding capacity (WHC. The results showed that NPLS marination may reduce cooking loss and expressible water of chicken meat after cooking. Based on the Warner-Bratzler Shear (WBSF results, NPLS marination had a stronger effect on textural quality of cooked breast meat than thighs and drumsticks. However, no significant differences of texture profile analysis (TPA parameters were observed (p≥0.05. In the sensory evaluation, NPLS marination influenced the sensory quality of cooked meat, particularly texture and appearance attributes, but not the taste and aftertaste attributes of cooked meat. It is concluded that NPLS marination effectively increased carcass weight, despite its effects on meat quality varied according to the anatomical location of the parts.

  14. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  15. The interactive effects of transportation and lairage time on welfare indicators, carcass and meat quality traits in slaughter pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čobanović, N.; Vasilev, D.; Dimitrijević, M.; Teodorović, V.; Parunović, N.; Betić, N.; Karabasil, N.

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the effects of transportation and lairage time and their interaction on welfare, carcass and meat quality traits in slaughter pigs under commercial conditions. The study was conducted on 120 pigs with a live weight of approximately 115 kg and about six months old. A complete blood picture was measured in pigs to assess pre-slaughter stress. Also, nine different carcass quality parameters including live weight, hot and cold carcass weights, cooling loss, dressing percentage, backfat thickness, meatiness and skin lesions score were measured. The pH and temperature measurements were performed 45 minutes post-mortem. The results showed that short transportation time and slaughtering without lairaging and long transportation time and overnight lairaging negatively influenced the hematological parameters, which meant that the animal welfare was seriously compromised under these pre-slaughter conditions. Long transportation time and overnight lairaging reduced live and carcass weights and increased the incidence of skin lesions on the carcass and DFD pork. In addition, short transportation time and slaughtering without lairaging caused a significant deterioration in pork quality. It can be concluded that, from the standpoint of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, the above-mentioned pre-slaughter conditions are not recommended to the farmers and/or pork producers.

  16. Carcass Yield and Composition of Supplementing Hararghe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass of lamb fed treatment diets 67FSF aand 100FSF have better maintained pH value within the desirable range. Hence, it can be concluded that feeding FSF to Hararghe highland sheep as a supplement to natural pasture hay based diet with sufficient protein supplement improved carcass yield and pH as compared ...

  17. Growth, Feedlot Performance and Carcass Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    x x

    usually thin tailed. Various studies have been conducted in order to improve meat production and carcass quality of Turkey's native sheep breeds via crossbreeding. In the studies done to determine fattening performance and carcass characteristics of Ile de France x Akkaraman (F1) and their back-crosses (G1), it has.

  18. Growth performance, body measurements, carcass composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gizzard percentage was significantly greater in males, and heart percentage was significantly greater in females. Due to their high bodyweight, good FCR, and favourable carcass composition, SM3 Heavy male ducks are more useful as broiler duck than females. Keywords: carcasses, digestive system, growth, Pekin duck, ...

  19. Ovine wet carcass syndrome of unknown aetiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A condition of unknown aetiology, known as 'the wet sheep carcass syndrome' has led to the loss of about ... aetiology. Introduction. Wet sheep carcasses were seen with increasing frequency at abattoirs from January 1981. ... the holding pens, and transport stress. In the high incidence area (see Figure 1), feeding systems.

  20. Comparative Physical Carcass Characteristics in the Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated highly significantly different (P<0.01), proportions of lean and fat significantly (P<0.05) different proportions of bone and skin in the carcasses of IND and LWXLD pig. The LWXLD pigs had more lean, and bone, less fat and skin, than the indigenous pigs. Carcass conformation was also clearly different in ...

  1. Evaluation of bovine chemerin (RARRES2 gene variation on beef cattle production traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Lindholm-Perry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A previous study in cattle based on >48,000 markers identified markers on chromosome 4 near the chemerin gene associated with average daily feed intake (ADFI in steers (P<0.008. Chemerin is an adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans, representing a strong candidate gene potentially underlying the observed association. To evaluate whether the bovine chemerin gene is involved in feed intake, 16 markers within and around the gene were tested for association in the same resource population. Eleven were nominally significant for ADFI (P<0.05 and two were significant after Bonferroni correction. Two and five SNP in this region were nominally significant for the related traits of average daily gain (ADG and residual feed intake (RFI, respectively. All markers were evaluated for effects on meat quality and carcass phenotypes. Many of the markers associated with ADFI were associated with hot carcass weight (HCW, adjusted fat thickness (AFT, and marbling (P<0.05. Marker alleles that were associated with lower ADFI were also associated with lower HCW, AFT, and marbling. Markers associated with ADFI were genotyped in a validation population of steers representing 14 breeds to determine predictive merit across populations. No consistent relationships for ADFI were detected. To determine whether cattle feed intake or growth phenotypes might be related to chemerin transcript abundance, the expression of chemerin was evaluated in adipose of 114 heifers that were siblings of the steers in the discovery population. Relative chemerin transcript abundance was not correlated with ADFI, ADG, or RFI, but associations with body condition score and yearling weight were observed. We conclude that variation in the chemerin gene may underlie observed association in the resource population, but that additional research is required to determine if this variation is widespread among breeds and to develop robust markers with predictive merit across

  2. Nutritional ecology of blowflies (Diptera, Calliphoridae: estimates of critical larval weight for pupation on two different

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    Cássio da Silva Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Under natural environmental conditions, blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral feeding resources such as decaying carcasses. Competition for food on such feeding substrates is usually very severe, and only the individuals that are capable of attaining the critical larval weight for pupation will be able to survive. This critical weight is hitherto unknown for several blowfly species; therefore, the current work is aimed at obtaining such a critical value for four blowfly species of the genera Chrysomya and Lucilia, deploying two types of feeding substrate, namely, artificial diet and macerated bovine meat. On the whole, the critical weights ranged from 30 to 35 mg. The lowest larval weight which permitted pupation was 30.0 mg for Chrysomya megacephala reared on macerated bovine meat. This species was also the best adapted to pupation at low larval weights in relation to the maximum larval weight for males. Regarding the pupation of females, the best-adapted individual was a C. albiceps specimen exhibiting a critical weight that was equal to 39.20 % of the maximum value obtained. Concerning all the species and diet types, the female individuals exhibited the lowest critical weights that produced viable pupae, probably representing an evolutionary strategy that favoured the survival of females, responsible for the egg formation, contributing to the establishment of future generations. Regarding the loss (in percentage of adult biomass in relation to the third instar larvae, the females of C. megacephala lost less weight than males in both feeding substrates. On the other hand, such a loss of weight occurred in males of C. albiceps and L. cuprina.

  3. Correlation of carcass meat content with development of the reproductive system in sexually immature gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak, Hanna; Kapelański, Wojciech; Bocian, Maria; Soltész, Angéla; Balogh, Péter

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the correlation of carcass meat content with the development of the reproductive system in sexually immature gilts of Polish Large White (PLW) and Polish Landrace (PL) breeds. The results, obtained from three groups (I, II, III) of gilts differing in lean meat percentage, indicate an effect on fattening and slaughtering traits as well as on the morphometric characteristics of the uterus. There were statistically significant differences in the values of fattening and slaughtering traits in the groups of gilts tested. Studies on the relationship between morphometric characteristics of the reproductive system and carcass meat content showed that there was a correlation between the weight of the uterus with and without the broad ligament and the meat content of the carcass. The weight of the uterus was higher (P ≤ 0.05) in gilts with lower meat content. The negative influence of high gilt meatiness on development of the reproductive system was more pronounced in PLW gilts.

  4. Productive performance, composition and carcass yield of lambs treated with zeranol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier G. Cantón Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty weaned male hair lambs with average body live weight of 19.20 kg±2.18 kg (SD were used to evaluate the effect of zeranol on growth, composition and carcass yield. The animals were distributed into a completely randomized design with two treatments: no anabolics (control; and treatment with zeranol, using a subcutaneous dose of 10 mg/50 kg body live weight. Lambs received a diet with 15 g/100 g of crude protein and 2.8 Mcal of metabolizable energy/kg dry matter for 84 days. At the end of experiment all animals were harvested and entire carcass and its parts (neck, shoulder, loin-rib, loin-skirt and leg were weighed to determine the composition of muscle and bone. Control animals had higher dry matter intake (1.01 vs 0.88 kg/d, average daily gain (198 vs 172 g/animal and total weight gain (12.9 vs 10.9 kg compared with those treated with zeranol. Zeranol group had higher muscle weight (1.76 vs 1.98 kg and less bone (0.86 vs 0.61 kg in leg section. The leg area represented about 16 kg/100 kg of the carcass weight for both treatments. No differences for other carcass traits were observed. Lambs treated with zeranol have better leg conformation because they develop more muscle mass, though their average feed intake and daily gain decrease.

  5. Do termites avoid carcasses? Behavioral responses depend on the nature of the carcasses.

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    Kok-Boon Neoh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Undertaking behavior is a significant adaptation to social life in enclosed nests. Workers are known to remove dead colony members from the nest. Such behavior prevents the spread of pathogens that may be detrimental to a colony. To date, little is known about the ethological aspects of how termites deal with carcasses. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we tested the responses to carcasses of four species from different subterranean termite taxa: Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe (lower termites and Microcerotermes crassus Snyder and Globitermes sulphureus Haviland (higher termites. We also used different types of carcasses (freshly killed, 1-, 3-, and 7-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses and mutilated nestmates to investigate whether the termites exhibited any behavioral responses that were specific to carcasses in certain conditions. Some behavioral responses were performed specifically on certain types of carcasses or mutilated termites. C. formosanus and R. speratus exhibited the following behaviors: (1 the frequency and time spent in antennating, grooming, and carcass removal of freshly killed, 1-day-old, and oven-killed carcasses were high, but these behaviors decreased as the carcasses aged; (2 the termites repeatedly crawled under the aging carcass piles; and (3 only newly dead termites were consumed as a food source. In contrast, M. crassus and G. sulphureus workers performed relatively few behavioral acts. Our results cast a new light on the previous notion that termites are necrophobic in nature. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the behavioral response towards carcasses depends largely on the nature of the carcasses and termite species, and the response is more complex than was previously thought. Such behavioral responses likely are associated with the threat posed to the colony by the carcasses and the feeding habits and nesting ecology of a given species.

  6. Características da carcaça e da carne de cordeiros terminados com dietas contendo diferentes proporções de silagens de grãos de milho - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.3451 Components of live weight, carcass and meat caracteristics of lambs fed with diets containing corn grain silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.3451

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gasparino

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados componentes do peso vivo, características objetivas e subjetivas da carcaça, características físico-químicas do músculo Longissimus lumborum e a proporção dos principais tecidos que compõem o lombo de 24 cordeiros, machos não castrados, mestiços Hampshire Down, terminados em confinamento e alimentados com dietas diferentes à base de silagem de grãos de milho úmidos, com inclusão de girassol ou ureia. Os tratamentos não afetaram: peso vivo ao abate, peso da carcaça quente, rendimentos de carcaça, sangue, pele, aparelho reprodutor com bexiga, aparelho respiratório, baço, rins e gordura perirrenal, fígado, coração, trato gastrintestinal vazio, cabeça e patas. Não houve diferença significativa para peso da carcaça fria, condição corporal, conformação de carcaça, cobertura de gordura, consistência de gordura, cor da carne, espessura de gordura, área de olho de lombo, proteína bruta; proporções de: músculo, ossos, gordura e outros tecidos do músculo Longissimus lumborum. Perda por cozimento, índice de fragmentação miofibrilar e índices de cores L*, a* e b* não diferiram quanto aos tratamentos. Os cordeiros podem ser terminados com qualquer uma das dietas, pois apresentaram semelhanças para as características analisadasThe study evaluated the live weight components, objective and subjective carcass characteristics and physical-chemical characteristics of the Longissimus lumborum muscle and the proportion of tissues that constitute the loin of twenty-four intact males lambs, Hampshire Down crossbreed, fattened in a drylot system. The lambs were fed with different diets based on corn grain silage with the addition of sunflower seeds or urea. The treatments did not affect live weight and hot carcass weight at slaughter, carcass yield, blood, skin, reproductive system with bladder, respiratory system, spleen, kidneys and perineal fat, liver, heart, empty gastrointestinal tract, head or feet

  7. Relationship between the Porcine Stress Syndrome gene and carcass and performance traits in F2 pigs resulting from divergent crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Oliveira Band

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The PSS genotypes of 596 F2 pigs produced by initial mating of Brazilian native boars commercial sows and were characterized by PCR-RFLP and their carcass and performance traits were evaluated. Among the 596 animals analyzed, 493 (82.72% were characterized as NN and 103 (17.28% as Nn. With respect to carcass traits, Nn animals presented higher (p < 0.05 right half carcass weight, left half carcass weight, loin depth and loin eye area, and lower shoulder backfat thickness, backfat thickness between last and next to last but one lumbar vertebrae and backfat thickness after last rib at 6.5 cm from the midline compared to NN animals. Nn animals also showed (p < 0.05 higher values for most of the cut yields, indicating higher cutting yields for animals carrying the n allele and lower values for bacon depth, confirming lower fat deposition in carcass. In addition, Nn animals presented (p < 0.05 lower values for the performance trait weight at 105 days of age. These results indicate that animals carrying the PSS gene generate leaner carcasses, higher cut yields, and that the effects of the gene can be observed even in divergent crosses.

  8. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass characteristics in commercial crossbred pigs.

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    Younes Miar

    Full Text Available Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch, covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age, random effects (additive, litter and maternal were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n = 9 with meat quality (n = 25 and carcass (n = 19 traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE, ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations.

  9. WATER SPRAY-CHILLING OF BEEF CARCASSES AND MEAT AGEING ON WEIGHT LOSS, COLOR AND LONGISSIMUS LUMBORUM ACCEPTANCE ASPERSÃO DE ÁGUA FRIA NO INÍCIO DO RESFRIAMENTO DE CARCAÇAS BOVINAS E MATURAÇÃO DA CARNE SOBRE O PESO, COR E ACEITAÇÃO DO MÚSCULO LONGISSIMUS LUMBORUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO EDUARDO DE FELÍCIO

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of spray-chilling in carcasses weight loss, purge loss, color and appearance of aged striploin (m. Longissi-mus lumborum steaks. Two lots of intact male, nearly 12 month old, grain finished cattle, were slaughtered, being 16 of the Montana composite breed, in the first slaughter, and 24 crossbreds (½ Nelore X ½ Simental in the second one. After bleeding, electrical stimulation, skinning and evisceration, the carcasses submitted to one of the two cooling systems: (1 Without spray-chilling (SA; (2 With spray-chilling (CA. Carcasses were weighted before and after cooling. In the boning room steaks of 2.5 cm thick from the striploin were taken, vacuum packaged, and aged for 7, 14, 30 and 60 days. Samples were then removed from the package, placed in an expanded polystyrene trays covered with a PVC film, and exposed in refrigerated displays for 48 hours. CIE Lab color was measured after 24 hours using a hand colorimeter. A visual analysis of the samples was also done for the attributes of color, overall acceptability, and buying option. The spray-chilling was efficient in reducing the weight loss (P<0.05. Effects (P<0.001 of the spray-chilling and aging time on purge loss were observed. The samples from the CA carcasses had higher (P<0.001 purge loss, which had an increase at 30 or more days of aging in this treatment but not in the SA. No effect (P>0.05 of the spray-chilling treatment and aging time was observed on the color visual analysis.

    Key-words:  Beef quality purge loss,  spray-chilling, striploin, vacuum package.

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os efeitos da aspersão de água gelada, nas primeiras seis horas de resfriamento, nas perdas de peso por evaporação das carcaças e, também, do tempo de maturação em embalagem a vácuo, nas perdas por exsudação da carne, e na cor e aceita

  10. Composição física da carcaça e qualidade da carne de vacas de descarte de diferentes grupos genéticos terminadas em confinamento com distintos pesos Carcass physical composition and meat quality of cull cows of different genetic groups feedlot finished and slaughtered with distinct weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kuss

    2005-08-01

    , feedlot finished and slaughtered at 465, 507 and 566 kg. At the beginning of the experiment, the average age, weight and body condition were, respectively, 8.5 years, 388.6 kg and 2.35 points. The diet, with 48:52 roughage:concentrate ratio, contained 12.5% crude protein and 2.99 Mcal of digestible energy per kg of dry matter. Carcass bone (16.55, 15.84 and 12.72% and muscle percentages (63.5, 60.05 and 60.69% decreased, whereas fat percentage increased (19.85; 24.32; 28.08%, respectively as slaughter weight increased. The weight gain of the carcass edible portion between the extreme slaughter weights was 77.36 kg, being 37.32 kg of muscle (48.24% and 40.04 kg of fat (51.76%. Meat tenderness evaluated by shear force, was significantly improved in animals slaughter at higher weight (4.94, 4.89 and 3.89 kgf/cm³, respectively. Meat color of 5/8NC cows was darker (2.87 points in relation to 5/8CN cows (4.0 points. Meat of G3 animals was tender than G2 (4.16 vs 4.99 kgf/cm³. Higher juiciness was observed for 5/8NC meat than for 5/8CN (6.49 vs 4.16 points, as result of lower cooking loss of 5/8NC meat (17.61% vs 23.33%. Increasing cull cows slaughter weight is a method to increase rapidly beef meat production, inclusively improving their quality.

  11. The use of probiotic in the diet to improve carcass characteristics and meat quality of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been carried out to investigate the effect of probiotic and ruminally less-degradable protein supplementation on the growth and efficiency of feed utilization in sheep. Thirty two male sheep with an average liveweight of 23 kg were divided into 4 groups of 8 individuals to test four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were a basal concentrate diet, b basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein in proportion of 90:10%, c basal concentrate supplemented with probiotic at 0.5%, and d basal concentrate diet supplemented with ruminally less degradable protein and probiotic in proportion of 89.5:10:0.5% consequtively. The concentrate was fed at 1.5% of the liveweight, and adjusted every week after weighing the individuals. Napier grass was fed ad libitum after being chopped into 5 cm length. Drinking water was available adequately. The animals were individually caged. The experiment was carried out for 7-day adaptation to the dietary treatments and 42-day period of feeding trials. The parameters being observed include weekly liveweight changes, slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass characteristics. The results indicated that the liveweight changes were relatively the same for all treatment groups, which ranged from 89 to 94 g/d. However, the dry matter intakes ranged from 856 to 925 g/d. The slaughter weight ranged from 26.9 to 27.3 kg with carcass weight ranged from 12.0 to 12.8 kg indicating that the carcass percentage were in the range from 55.8 to 57.1% of the empty body weight. Probiotic supplement resulted in reduction of fat content in the meat from these observation, it is reasonable to assume that the use of probiotic in the diet reduced the carcass fat without affecting the daily weight gain.

  12. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance and carcass characteristics in wool and hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel M. Romero-Maya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wool and hair lambs. For this purpose, 48 lambs averaging 31.3 kg body weight, of which twenty were wool (Ramboullet x Suffolk and twenty eight were hair (Tabasco lambs, and four levels of RAC (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg diet, dry matter basis were used. Wool lambs fed 20 and 30 mg RAC had higher (P<0.05 total gain weight and lower feed conversion than 0 and 10 mg RAC. Wool lambs fed 20 mg RAC had the highest carcass weight, dressing, legs weight and longissimus area as compared to 0, 10 and 30 mg RAC.  In hair lambs there were not effect of RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics.It was concluded that addition of RAC to finishing diets offered the best growth performance and carcass traits in wool lambs as compared to hair lambs. 

  13. Effect of feeding poultry litter on the growth performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A twelve week trial was conducted to investigate the growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of twelve male kids of Savanna Brown goats aged between 5 and 7 months with initial average weight of 8097.63 g fed graded levels of dried poultry litter. The study involved four feed treatments (T1 = 0.00 % ...

  14. The effect of feeding maize-cob meal diets on carcass and organ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary inclusions of maize-cob-meal on the carcass and organ characteristics of grower pigs were investigated with using 24 landrace x large white grower pigs weighting 16.±.06 kg on the average at 56 days of age. The pigs were divided into four treatment groups, each consisting of six pigs and further ...

  15. Effect of breed and feeding on the carcass characteristics of the Chilote breed lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramírez-Retamal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilote sheep has been developed in an isolated environment, based on grazing lands with low nutritive value belonging to small-scale producers, because of which there is little information about the use of this breed for meat production. The objective of this work was to determine the effects on lamb carcasses of two breeds with different productive purposes and fed on pastures with different nutritional quality. Three groups of lambs were used. The first and second groups were composed of 13 and 11 Chilote lambs respectively, and the third composed of six Suffolk Down lambs. Lambs remained with their mothers, the first group on naturalized pasture and the rest on rangeland. Animals were slaughtered at 90 d of age. Live weight, carcass weight and yield, and several zoometric parameters were determined, as well as the weight of commercial cuts and the muscle, bone and fat ratios. Hide and hoof weights were also measured. For the effect of breed, Chilote lamb is narrower (P < 0.05 than Suffolk Down, but with a higher proportion of hide (P < 0.05 and hooves (P < 0.05. The type of pasture only affected hot carcass yield, which was higher in Chilote lamb with naturalized pasture than with rangeland (P < 0.05. There were no effects of breed or pasture type on the main characteristics of the lamb carcasses.

  16. ASSOCIATION OF SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS IN THE LEPR CANDIDATE GENE WITH CARCASS TRAITS OF PIGS

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    Anton Kováčik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Leptin and leptin receptor genetic variants are associated with obese phenotypes in humans and mice and are expected to influence fat deposition in pigs. This study aimed to investigate the associations of LEPR polymorphism with carcass traits (half carcass weight, lean meat percentage, back-fat thickness, MLT area - musculus longisimus thoracis and evaluation of genotypic values, additive values and dominance deviations. To identify the genotypes of LEPR candidate genes, we used biological material obtained from sows (55 and boars (51 of hybrid combination Large White x Landrace after reaching the slaughter weight. We identified three genotypes using restriction endonuclease HpaII in a group of 106 pigs. The AA genotype was the dominant one (42.45%, AB heterozygotes constituted 39.62%, while the BB genotype was the lowest (17.93%. Analyzing the half carcass weight the highest value detected was the highest in the dominant AA homozygotes together with the highest genotypic value (GAA = 0.3649. The pork genotype AA presented the highest back-fat thickness, A high correlation between the additive genetic effect of the A allele and back-fat thickness (0.8183 has been observed while the effect of the allelic dominance was relatively low (0.1907. Based on our results we may conclude that there is an inverse and antagonistic relationship between the quality of the half carcass weight together with the back-fat thickness and the lean meat marker.

  17. Crude glycerin in meat goat diets: intake, performance and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Cesar Dias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of including glycerin in kid goats diet on intake, performance and carcass traits. Twenty intact male kid goats Boer crossbred were used, with body weight of 25.06±4.15kg and 8.00±0.66 months old, allocated in block design, with four treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted on including dry matter basis (DM of the diet of four levels of glycerin: zero, five, 10 and 15%, in replacing corn. It was not reported influence (P>0.05 of level of glycerin on intake of forage and feed conversion of animals. The concentrate and total DM intake were affected (P0.05 of level of glycerin on weight gain, carcass yield and percentage of cooling losses. However, the hot and cold carcass weight was lower (P<0.05 to the animals feed with 15% of glycerin. The inclusion up to 15% of glycerin in the diet of kid goats Boer crossbred, although did not affect feed conversion and performance, compromised the intake and carcass weight.

  18. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  19. Ratio of meat preparates to carcass in cattle slaughtered in Istanbul

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    Çetin Ömer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the relationship between the ratio of the bones and valuable meat preparates to the carcass, the age and the sex parameters in Holstein and Swiss Braun race cattle which are widely breaded in our country. The half and quarter carcasses of the cattle that are slaughtered in Istanbul were used as working material. The carcasses were separated into 4 groups as above 3 years of age group (n=24, under 3 years of age group (n=46, male group (n=53 and female group (n=17. Totally 140 carcasses were evaluated. According to the obtained results, hind quarter weight, fillet, loin, rump, tranche, sirloin, round, flank, shank, brisket, fore loin, sticking, chuck and total bones parameters were significantly different at (p<0.001 level between above the 3 years of age and under the 3 years of age group. Between the same groups the sirloin tip parameter was significantly different at p<0.01 level. At the parameters of leg weight, shank and half carcasses there was no significant difference between the groups. We could not determine any significant differences in the percentage ratio of all meat parameters to the carcass between the groups of above 3 years of age and under 3 years of age. In the male and female groups, all the parameters except loin, leg weight and shank were significantly different between the 2 groups. Hind quarter and shank parameters were significantly different at p<0.05 level, round parameter was significantly different at p<0.01 level, and the other valuable meat propagates were significantly different at p<0.001 level. Rump parameter was evaluated as significantly different at p<0.05 level between male and female groups. The other parameters were not significantly different between the mentioned groups.

  20. Estimation of genetic parameters for growth, carcass and overfeeding traits in a white geese strain

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    Guy Gérard

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In an experimental strain of white plumage geese created in 1989, two experiments were carried out from 1993 to 1995 in order to estimate genetic parameters for growth, and carcass composition traits in non-overfed animals, and genetic parameters for growth and fatty liver formation in overfed animals. Four hundred and thirty-one non-overfed animals were bred and slaughtered at 11 weeks of age; they were measured for forearm length, keel bone length, chest circumference and breast depth before and after slaughtering. The carcasses were partly dissected in order weigh breast, breast muscle and skin + fat, and abdominal fat. Four hundred and seventy-seven overfed animals were slaughtered at 20 weeks of age; they were measured for "paletot" (breast meat, bone and meat from wings, bone and meat from thigh and legs weight and liver weight. In these two experiments, the weights had moderate to high heritability values. Breast depth measured on live animals showed a low heritability value. In overfed animals, liver weight showed a high heritability value. Liver weight could be increased by selection without a great effect on "paletot" weight. Thus, obtaining a white plumage geese strain for fatty liver production by selection would be difficult because only 20% of overfed animals had fatty liver. The results did not allow to conclude on the influence of selection on liver weight on carcass traits such as muscle or fatty tissue weight.

  1. Levels of digestible isoleucine on performance, carcass traits and organs weight of gilts (15 - 30 KG Níveis de isoleucina digestível sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e peso de órgãos de fêmeas suínas (15 - 30 kg

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    Leandro Dalcin Castilha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The ideal protein concept for pigs has allowed reducing levels of crude protein in the diet, since synthetic amino acids are included because the branched chain amino acids may be limiting. In order to determine the digestible isoleucine requirement for gilts from 15 to 30 kg, a performance assay was accomplished, using 40 crossbreed gilts of high genetic potential, averaging 15.00 ± 0.52 kg of body weight, alloted in a randomized blocks design, consisting of five treatments (0.45, 0.52, 0.59, 0.66, 0.73% of digestible isoleucine, four replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Performance traits were determined and at the end of the experiment one animal per experimental unit was slaughtered to determine carcass composition and organs weight. Levels from 0.45 to 0.73% of digestible isoleucine did not affect the carcass traits and organs weight of gilts from 15 to 30 kg. A quadratic effect (PO conceito de proteína ideal, para suínos, tem permitido reduzir os níveis de proteína bruta da dieta, desde que haja a inclusão de aminoácidos sintéticos, pois os aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada podem ser limitantes. Com o objetivo de determinar a exigência de isoleucina digestível para fêmeas suínas dos 15 aos 30 kg, foi realizado um ensaio de desempenho, utilizando-se 40 fêmeas suínas, mestiças de alto potencial genético, com peso vivo inicial de 15,00 ± 0,52kg, distribuídas em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, constituído de cinco tratamentos (0,45; 0,52; 0,59; 0,66; 0,73% de isoleucina digestível, quatro repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Foram determinadas características de desempenho e, ao final do experimento, um animal de cada unidade experimental foi abatido, para a determinação da composição de carcaça e peso de órgãos. Níveis de 0,45 a 0,73% de isoleucina digestível não influenciaram as características de carcaça e peso de órgãos dos animais. Houve efeito quadr

  2. Rendimento de carcaça, filé e subprodutos da filetagem da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (L, em função do peso corporal Carcass, fillet and byproducts yield of filleting of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L. in relation to body weight

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    Taciano Cesar Freire Maranhão

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado na indústria de processamento de pescado Frigopeixe, em Toledo, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. O objetivo foi analisar os rendimentos de carcaça, filé e subprodutos de filetagem (rendimento dos músculos abdominais, porcentagens de pele bruta e resíduos da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae em duas categorias de peso vivo. Os resíduos foram definidos como as porcentagens de cabeça, vísceras e nadadeiras. Foram utilizados 100 exemplares, alimentados com ração peletizada com 22%PB, cultivados por um período de 5 meses e previamente depurados em tanques de alvenaria, por 24 horas antes do abate. A seguir, foram submetidos a choques térmicos, eviscerados e filetados. O processo de filetagem foi realizado em série, por mais de uma pessoa, conforme metodologia empregada pela indústria. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos (categorias de peso P1 = 300-400 g e P2 = 401-500 g, com 50 repetições, sendo considerado o peixe a unidade experimental. A categoria de peso P2 proporcionou o maior rendimento de carcaça sem cabeça (78,18%, músculos abdominais (3,51% e pele bruta (6,56%, enquanto o P1 foi significativamente superior para porcentagens de cabeça (14,29% e vísceras (10,09%. Não houve diferença significativa para rendimento de filé (P1 = 36,50% e P2 = 36,84% e porcentagens de nadadeiras (P1 = 8,14% e P2 = 8,00% entre as duas categorias de peso da tilápia do Nilo.The experiment was undertaken at the fish processing industry Frigopeixe in Toledo, state of Paraná, Brazil. Its aim was to analyze carcass, fillet and other byproducts yields (ventral abdominal muscles yield, percentage of skin and residues of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae for two live weight categories. Residues consisted of head, viscera and fin percentages. One hundred specimens were fed with pellet rations with 22% of crude protein during 5 months

  3. CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FIRST FARROWING GILTS IN RELATION TO SIZE OF WEANED LITTER

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    MARIA BOCIAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was an evaluation of carcass slaughter value of fi rst farrowing gilts depending on the number of weaned piglets. The number of born and weaned piglets did not have a negative infl uence on gilt’s slaughter value. Carcasses of fi rst farrowing gilts characterised with a low fatness, large loin eye area and high lean content. Results of ham dissection of first farrowing gilts point high usefulness of this material to long maturing hams production in a view of the fact they have required weight, appropriate lean content and low fatness.

  4. Effect of supplementing crossbred Xhosa lop-eared goat castrates with Moringa oleifera leaves on growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Busani; Masika, Patrick J; Muchenje, Voster

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of supplementing Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) on growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics of crossbred Xhosa lop-eared goats. A total of 24 castrated goats aged 8 months, with a mean initial weight of 15.1 ± 2.3 kg, were randomly divided into three diet groups with eight goats in each. The duration of the trial was 60 days. All goats received a basal diet of grass hay (GH) ad libitum and wheat bran (200 g/day each). The MOL and sunflower cake (SC) groups were fed additional 200 g of dried M. oleifera leaves and 170 g of SC, respectively. The third group (GH) did not receive any additional ration. The crude protein of MOL (23.75%) and SC (23.27%) were higher (P < 0.05) than that of the GH diet (14.08%). The attained average daily weight gain for goats fed MOL, SC and GH were 103.3, 101.3 and 43.3 g, respectively (P < 0.05). Higher (P < 0.05) feed intakes observed were in SC (491.5 g) and MOL (490.75 g) compared with GH (404.5 g). The hot carcass weight was higher (P < 0.05) for SC (10.48 kg) and MOL (10.34 kg) than for the GH group (8.59 kg). The dressing percentage in SC (55.8%) and MOL (55.1%) were higher (P < 0.05) than that of the GH (52.9%). The growth performance and carcass characteristics of SC and MOL goats were not different. Feeding MOL or SC improved the growth performance and carcass characteristics of goats in an almost similar way, which indicates that M. oleifera could be used as an alternative protein supplement in goats.

  5. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  6. Influence of body condition score on live and carcass value of cull beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K

    1999-10-01

    Mature beef cows (n = 88) were slaughtered to determine the influence of body condition score (BCS) on carcass and live animal value. Cows were weighed and assigned a BCS (9-point scale), 24 h before slaughter. Hide and by-products weights were recorded during harvest. After a 48-h chill period, the right side of each carcass was fabricated into boneless subprimal cuts, minor cuts, lean trim, fat, and bone. Weights were recorded at all stages of fabrication. Carcass values (U.S.$/100 kg of hot carcass weight) were calculated for U.S. Utility and U.S. Cutter grades, as well as for the Utility/Cutter mix for each BCS. Gross value included the carcass value and the value of the hide and byproducts, whereas net value was calculated after harvest and fabrication costs and by-product value were considered. Live value (U.S.$/100 kg of live weight) was computed by dividing the net value by the animal's live weight 24 h before harvest. The value of the hide and by-products for BCS-2 cows was greater (Pmix, cows designated with a BCS of 7 and 8 had greater (P.05) to BCS-7 cows. Information from this study can be used by the non-fed beef industry to establish a value-based marketing system. Data from this study would indicate that marketing cull beef cows at a BCS of 6 could optimize economic returns to both cow-calf producers and non-fed beef packers.

  7. Carcass traits of improved and indigenous lamb breeds of North-Western Turkey under an intensive production system

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    Omur Kocak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the carcass quality of Turkish Merino, Ramlic, Kivircik, Chios and Imroz breeds in north-western Turkey under an intensive production system. After weaning at approximately 85 days of age, 46 lambs from Turkish Merino, Ramlic, Kivircik, Chios and Imroz breeds were fattened for 56 days. Slaughter weights were 47.39, 45.68, 47.27, 31.08 and 29.82 kg and chilled carcass weights were 23.35, 22.33, 23.51, 14.33 and 13.75 kg, respectively (P<0.001. Improved Turkish Merino and Ramlic and indigenous Kivircik lambs had higher carcass measurements than indigenous Chios and Imroz lambs. Chios lamb carcasses had the highest tail root fat yellowness and tail percentage while having the lowest fatness score, omental and mesenteric fat percentage and kidney knob and channel fat percentage. Turkish Merino lambs had higher shoulder percentage, lean percentage and lean/total fat ratio in the hind leg and produced less total fat in the hind leg than Ramlic and Kivircik lambs. These results indicate that improved Turkish Merino might be used to produce high quality lamb carcasses in north-western Turkey. Among indigenous breeds Kivircik showed an outstanding carcass production performance.

  8. Biological characteristics that influence the SEUROP system classification for Czech fleckvieh and Holstein bull carcasses

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    Radek Filipčík

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyse the influence of certain characteristics (aptitude, age, carcass weight, net daily gain, feeding on the final carcass classification in the SEUROP system. 703 Czech Fleckvieh bulls and 642 Holstein bulls were studied. The animals were slaughtered and evaluated at a designated beef processing company. Combine aptitude carcasses shown significant differences between characteristics. Remarkable differences of group averages (P>0, 01 were established between farms and they were due to various rearing conditions. Also the levels of net daily gain between aptitudes were proved significantly. Holstein breed showed significant difference among The net daily gain < 500 g.day–1 and levels 551–600; 601–650 and above 651 g.day–1. The SEUROP system is influenced the most by the feeding regime, which is described by a net daily gain in this work, and farm impact.

  9. Allometry in carcasses of lambs of the Pantaneiro genetic group slaughtered with different subcutaneous fat thickness

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    Natália Holtz Alves Pedroso Mora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four female lambs of the Pantaneiro genetic group, with approximately 100 days of age, average body of 16.24 ± 1.78 kg, were slaughtered with 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mmof subcutaneous fat thickness, measured by ultrasound in the Longissimus, to evaluate the allometric growth. Lambs fed a complete pelleted diet calculated to ensure a daily weight gain of0.30 kg. Slaughtering was performed as the female lambs reached the pre-established fat thickness. After 24 hours in a cold chamber at 4ºC, chilled carcasses were cut in half and weighed. The right side was separated into five sections to determine the allometry of carcasses and cuts. Neck and rib showed isogonic growth in all treatments. Loin has remained late growth to 2.0 and3.0 mm. Shoulder and leg were isogonic growth in the treatments 3.0 and4.0 mm. The leg in relation to half carcass showed the greatest correlation. The cuts exhibited differentiated development in the growth rates of tissues. It is recommended to slaughter female lambs when they reach3.0 mm of subcutaneous fat thickness, since the carcass has already reached physiological maturity. Shoulder and leg cuts are best suited for dissection for presenting the highest correlation with the carcass in females of the Pantaneiro group.

  10. Effect of Slaughter Weight on ~ Characteristics and Economics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Department of Animal Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3004 Chuo. Kikuu ... A study to evaluate the effect of slllughter weight on carcass characteristics of pigs was conducted using ... to 90 kg caused a rise in killing out percentage, loin eye area, carcass length and backfat thicknessjrom.

  11. Características morfométricas, rendimentos de carcaça, filé, vísceras e resíduos em tilápias-do-nilo em diferentes faixas de peso Morphometric characteristics, carcass, filet, viscera and residues in different weight categories of the Nile tilapia

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    Fredson Vieira e Silva

    2009-08-01

    ; length of the head; height of the body measured at the front of the 1° ray of pectoral, dorsal, anal and tail fins; width of the body measured at the front of the insertion of 1º ray of pectoral, dorsal and anal fins; perimeter measured at the front of the insertion of the 1° ray of pectoral, dorsal and anal fins and minor circumference of the peduncle and yield of carcass, filet, head, fin, skin, viscera and residues of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Eighty tilapia were used, in a completely randomized design, with four treatments (weight categories 250 the 300 g; 350 the 400 g; 450 the 500 g and 550 the 600 g and 20 replications. Each fish was considered an experimental unit. The Nile tilapia presented minors variations in the morphometric characteristics in the weight category 450 to 600 g, when compared with the category 250 to 400 g. The weight category 250 the 300 g, 350 the 400 g, 450 the 500 g and 550 the 600 g provided the same yield of carcass, filet and percentages of head, fin, skin and residues. The percentage of viscera in the 550 the 600 g category (10.98% was significantly lower when compared to 250 the 300 g (12.77%, 350 the 400 g (13.26% and 450 the 500 g (12.69%. The weight of filet in the 350 the 400 g category (260.50 g was higher than the 250 the 300 g category (239.95 g. There was no difference in the weight of fillet between the 450 the 500 g category (284.20 g and 550 the 600 g (292.80 g. The category 450 the 500 g and 550 the 600 g presented higher values of weight of fillet when compared to 250 the 300 g and 350 the 400 g. According to the weight of fillet found, the ideal weight of slaughter of the tilapia is between 450 and 500 g in a range of 250-600 g.

  12. DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gsα-encoding (GNAS genomic imprinting domain are associated with performance traits

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    Mullen Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes which are epigenetically regulated via genomic imprinting can be potential targets for artificial selection during animal breeding. Indeed, imprinted loci have been shown to underlie some important quantitative traits in domestic mammals, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In this candidate gene study, we have identified novel associations between six validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs spanning a 97.6 kb region within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha gene (GNAS domain on bovine chromosome 13 and genetic merit for a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Holstein-Friesian sires. The mammalian GNAS domain consists of a number of reciprocally-imprinted, alternatively-spliced genes which can play a major role in growth, development and disease in mice and humans. Based on the current annotation of the bovine GNAS domain, four of the SNPs analysed (rs43101491, rs43101493, rs43101485 and rs43101486 were located upstream of the GNAS gene, while one SNP (rs41694646 was located in the second intron of the GNAS gene. The final SNP (rs41694656 was located in the first exon of transcripts encoding the putative bovine neuroendocrine-specific protein NESP55, resulting in an aspartic acid-to-asparagine amino acid substitution at amino acid position 192. Results SNP genotype-phenotype association analyses indicate that the single intronic GNAS SNP (rs41694646 is associated (P ≤ 0.05 with a range of performance traits including milk yield, milk protein yield, the content of fat and protein in milk, culled cow carcass weight and progeny carcass conformation, measures of animal body size, direct calving difficulty (i.e. difficulty in calving due to the size of the calf and gestation length. Association (P ≤ 0.01 with direct calving difficulty (i.e. due to calf size and maternal calving difficulty (i.e. due to the maternal pelvic width size was also observed at the rs

  13. DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gsα)-encoding (GNAS) genomic imprinting domain are associated with performance traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Genes which are epigenetically regulated via genomic imprinting can be potential targets for artificial selection during animal breeding. Indeed, imprinted loci have been shown to underlie some important quantitative traits in domestic mammals, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In this candidate gene study, we have identified novel associations between six validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 97.6 kb region within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha gene (GNAS) domain on bovine chromosome 13 and genetic merit for a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Holstein-Friesian sires. The mammalian GNAS domain consists of a number of reciprocally-imprinted, alternatively-spliced genes which can play a major role in growth, development and disease in mice and humans. Based on the current annotation of the bovine GNAS domain, four of the SNPs analysed (rs43101491, rs43101493, rs43101485 and rs43101486) were located upstream of the GNAS gene, while one SNP (rs41694646) was located in the second intron of the GNAS gene. The final SNP (rs41694656) was located in the first exon of transcripts encoding the putative bovine neuroendocrine-specific protein NESP55, resulting in an aspartic acid-to-asparagine amino acid substitution at amino acid position 192. Results SNP genotype-phenotype association analyses indicate that the single intronic GNAS SNP (rs41694646) is associated (P ≤ 0.05) with a range of performance traits including milk yield, milk protein yield, the content of fat and protein in milk, culled cow carcass weight and progeny carcass conformation, measures of animal body size, direct calving difficulty (i.e. difficulty in calving due to the size of the calf) and gestation length. Association (P ≤ 0.01) with direct calving difficulty (i.e. due to calf size) and maternal calving difficulty (i.e. due to the maternal pelvic width size) was also observed at the rs43101491 SNP. Following

  14. Proporções e coeficientes de crescimento dos não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros e cordeiras em diferentes métodos de alimentação Proportions and coefficients of growth components, non-carcass of the live weight of male and female lambs under different feeding methods

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    Gilberto Teixeira da Rosa

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar as proporções dos não-componentes da carcaça e o crescimento relativo dos mesmos. Foram utilizados 45 cordeiros, 22 machos não castrados e 23 fêmeas da raça Texel. Desses, sete foram abatidos no início do experimento 24 horas após o parto, e os demais assim que atingiam os pesos de 25 ou 33 kg. Foi adotado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com um arranjo fatorial 3 x 2 x 2 (três métodos, dois sexos e dois pesos de abate. Ocorreu diminuição das proporções de cabeça e patas com a elevação do peso de abate, verificando-se valores de 4,44% e 2,63% para pesos de 25 kg e de 3,76% e 2,43% para pesos de 33 kg, respectivamente.Entre sexos a maior proporção de gordura perirenal foi obtida para as fêmeas e entre pesos de abate, para 33 kg .As proporções de pele, fígado e coração não diferiram entre métodos de alimentação, sexos e pesos de abate. A maior proporção de rúmen-retículo foi dos cordeiros desmamados aos 45 dias mas, entre sexos e pesos de abate foram semelhantes.O crescimento relativo das patas, coração, rins e pulmão + traquéia é precoce, enquanto o da pele, fígado e gordura perirenal é isométrico, em relação ao peso de corpo vazio. O rúmen + retículo, independentemente de método e sexo, foi de crescimento tardio, cujos coeficientes variaram entre 2,22 e 2,47.The experiment was carried out to study the components proportions, non-carcass of the body weight and their relative growth. It was used 45 lambs: 22 non-castrated male and 23 females of Texel breed. From that group, 7 were slaughtered in the beginning of the experiment and the others when they reached 25 or 33 kg. A randomly delineation adopted was by a factorial arrangement of 3:2:2 (three methods, two sexes and two weights of slaughter. The head and paws proportions decreased with elevation of the slaughter weight with values of 4.44% and 2.63% to 25 kg; 3.76% and 2.43% to 33 kg

  15. Different Sarcocystis spp. are present in bovine eosinophilic myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeel, Lieve; Houf, Kurt; Geldhof, Peter; De Preter, Katleen; Vercruysse, Jozef; Ducatelle, Richard; Chiers, Koen

    2013-11-08

    It has been suggested that Sarcocystis species are associated with bovine eosinophilic myositis (BEM). To date, parasite identification in this myopathy has been based on morphological techniques. The aim of the present study was to use molecular techniques to identify Sarcocystis species inside lesions of BEM. Histologically, BEM lesions of 97 condemned carcasses were examined for the presence of Sarcocystis species. Intralesional and extralesional cysts were collected using laser capture microdissection and the species was determined with a PCR-based technique based on 18S rDNA. Intralesional sarcocysts or remnants were found in BEM lesions in 28% of the carcasses. The majority (82%) of intralesional Sarcocystis species were found to be S. hominis. However S. cruzi and S. hirsuta were also found, as well as an unidentified species. It can be concluded that Sarcocystis species present in lesions of BEM are not restricted to one species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance and carcass traits of different commercial pig lines

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    Paulo Levi de Oliveira Carvalho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to evaluate the performance and the quantitative and qualitative carcass traits of three different commercial pig lines. Seventy-two animals were included, 24 animals of each lineage, 36 females and 36 immunocastrated males, with an initial and final average weight of 26 ± 6.5 kg and 139.49 ± 4.05 kg, respectively. These animals were identified and distributed in randomised blocks in a 2 x 3 factorial analysis (two sexes and three lineages with three replicates per treatment and four animals per experimental unit. The daily gain (kg, feed conversion (kg kg-1, daily feed intake (kg, carcass weight (kg, backfat thickness (mm, loin depth (mm, lean meat percentage (% lean beef kilograms (kg, marbling, water loss by leaking (%, water loss by defrosting (%, water loss by cooking (%, shear force (kgf cm2 -1 and objective colour were measured. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and means (Tukey’s test of 5%. There was no interaction between factors, and evaluating the factors separately did not yield significant differences between the lineages for any of the evaluated parameters. For the gender factor, a difference was obtained only for loin depth during the growth phase, lean meat percentage and defrosting water loss. Overall, the evaluated commercial lines were similar and gender influenced some performance parameters.

  17. Carcass Characteristics of Growing Male Pig in Different Level of Clenbuterol Addition

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    Wayan Sukarya Dilaga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Abstract - Nowadays, pig has becomes an important role in meat supply chain and demand in the world. However, in the intensive maintenance system, raising pig still has problems especially in feed supplements. The investigation on carcass characteristics of growing male pig in different level of clenbuterol addition in feed was conducted. CRD factorial 2 x 3 with 4 repetitions was used in the experiment. The first factor is the nation's pig (L = local pigs & pig off spring K=imports and the second factor is the level of clenbuterol (T0 = 0 mg/kg feed; T1 = 0.20 mg/kg feed & T2 = 0.40 mg/kg feed. The materials were 24 male grower pigs (12 local & 12 imported pigs with 52.5 ± 28.27 kg body weight. Pigs were reared in individual cages for 6 weeks consisting 2 weeks for adaptation and 4 weeks for data collection. The pigs were given the same feed consisting of rice bran 27.8%, 55.5% and 16.7% corn concentrate. Feeding pigs was given in appropriate growth phase as much as 2 times a day. Drink provided using ad-libitum method. At the end of the study, the pigs were slaughtered. The meat was then analyzed based on the weight of the cut meat, weight of hot carcass, carcass percentage and carcass components (meat, bones and fat. The data was analyzed in variety followed by various orthogonal polynomial tests. Results shown that there were a real interaction between carcass weight and weight cut with quadratic pattern. Clenbuterol also found out to give an reduction effect on carcass percentage in both local and imported pig. In fact the local pigs give the lower carcass percentage than the imported one. Key Words – clenbuterol; weight cut; carcass percentag; carcass component /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso

  18. Effect of dietary supplementation of herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults

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    Darshana B. Bhaisare

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the effect of four herbal seeds on carcass traits of turkey poults. Materials and Methods: A biological study using Nandanam turkey poults (Meleagris gallapavo for 8 weeks duration was carried out to evaluate the effect of phytobiotics-containing four herbal seeds influence on production performances like biweekly body weight and on carcass traits. 150 poults were randomly subjected to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with basal diet (T1, 0.5% (5 g/kg level of each seeds thyme (Thymus vulgaris (T2, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum (T3, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (T4 and cumin (Cuminum cyminum (T5. Carcass traits like blood loss, feather loss, dressed weight, New York dressed weight, ready to cook yield and cut-up parts yield were studied. Results: The body weight at 8th week was higher (p<0.05 in poults fed with thyme; whereas at 6th week, fennel and cumin fed birds had better (p<0.05 body weight. Inclusion of herbal seeds did not affect the blood loss, dressed weight and ready to cook yield but it significantly (p<0.05 affected the feathered loss, New York dressed weight and giblet percentages. Feeding of fenugreek has improved New York dressed weight of poults. Feeding of fennel had depressive (p<0.05 effect on liver and gizzard weights. All the four phytobiotic seeds in feed had significant (p<0.05 reduction in breast weight with a compensatory improvement in drumstick and neck weights. Conclusion: The present study revealed that supplementation of phytobiotic herbal seeds has resulted in numerical improvement of body weight of poults throughout the study period whereas these seeds had negative effect on the yield of breast, with increased proportion of drumstick and neck.

  19. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Aberdeen Angus steers finished on different pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Devincenzi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to assess carcass features, physicochemical and sensory parameters of meat from steers finished on three types of pastures: natural pasture; natural pasture improved, fertilized and oversown with winter species; and annual summer grassland. The experiment was conducted from December 14, 2009 to November 30, 2010, with treatments distributed in a completely randomized design with a different number of replicates. Animals were used as experimental units. Experimental animals were Aberdeen Angus steers with twenty months of initial age and 354±27.4 kg of live weight, on average. The highest average daily gains were obtained for the annual summer grassland. There was no effect of treatments on carcass conformation. The highest carcass yield was obtained on the improved natural pasture. Forequarter yield, side cut yield and longissimus muscle area were similar between the pastures. Moisture and total lipids were not affected by the pasture. Thawing and cooking losses were higher in improved natural pasture and lower in sorghum pasture. Regardless of the treatment, the meat had luminosity ranging from intermediate to dark, high in red, high in yellow, and considered within the normal range for beef. Meat of higher shear force was found in natural pasture, and lower shear force was observed in meat from annual summer grassland. Average live weight daily gain explained 18% of the shear force. Sensory evaluation by duo-trio test showed differences between samples from distinct pastures in flavor. All the studied systems allow for desirable characteristics in carcass and meat.

  20. SLOVENIAN EXPERIENCE IN PIG CARCASS CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SEUROP DURING THE YEARS 1996 TO 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta ČANDEK-POTOKAR

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Slovenian results on pig carcass classifi cation according to SEUROP (average lean meat percentage, carcass weight, measurements of fat and muscle and their variability are presented for years from 1996 to 2004. In these years, an important increase of average lean meat percentage was noted (51.9 % in year 1996 vs. 55.9 % in year 2004. As a consequence the percentage of pig carcasses being graded into S and E classes was almost tripled from 1996 to 2004 (21.3 to 58.2%, respectively. This improvement was initiated by the payment according to the lean meat percentage, to which pig breeders responded by better management of herds and partly by increased use of pietrain breed. Potential for further improvement remains in attaining genetically more uniform herds and reduction of carcass weight variability. A new method, introducing an optic probe Hennessy, adapted to changes of the EU legislation, is expected to shift up the average meat percentage close to 57%, which places Slovenian pigs into the EU average.

  1. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Griller-Type Broilers of Four Genetic Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Barbosa Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Griller-type chickens are broilers slaughtered between27and 29 days old weighing 1.3 to 1.5 kg and sold as a whole carcasses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of female broilers of four genetic lines reared for the production of griller-type chickens. A total of 960 broiler chicks was allotted in a randomized block design with four treatments and eight replicates of 30 birds per experimental plot. Each experimental treatment consisted of four different commercial lines, identified as A, B, C and D. The analyzed parameters were weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, livability, production efficiency index, carcass and cut yields, and meat quality according to breast meat color (L*, a*, b*, water-holding capacity (WHC, cooking losses, and shear force. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and livability were different (p<0.05 among the lines; however, no differences were observed for the production efficiency index. Results show that lines presented similar performance; however, lines A, B, and C had a better carcass and breast yield, and line A, the best meat quality. Therefore, line A would be the most suitable for the production of griller-type chickens.

  2. HCl-ractopamine level addition on reproductive response, carcass characteristics and meat quality of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gerardo Ríos Rincón

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To determinate the effect of ractopamine hydrochloride (HCl-R in reproductive response, carcass characteristics, primary cuts yield and meat quality, 80 pork (Large White Landrace X Large White-Pietrain at end stage (Live weight 73.1 kg were feed during 31 days with an integral ration with 15.12% PC and 2.32 Mcal of ME/kg with different HCL-R levels (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20ppm. Pigs were randomly distributed in the different treatments. HCl-R inclusion had no effect on reproductive response and carcass weight. Rib eye area wee improved with 15 and 20 ppm HCL-R. HCL-R levels of 10 and 20 ppm increased red coloration. The pH24 and drip loss were also no affected. HCl-R in end stage pigs had no effect on reproductive response, but improved rib eye area, red coloration and leg weight.

  3. SNV and haplotype analysis reveals new CSRP1 variants associated with growth and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hua; Liu, Xiao-lin; Zhang, Hui-lin; Yang, Jing; Niu, Fu-biao; Li, Zhi-xiong; Liu, Yu; Chen, Ling

    2013-06-15

    The cysteine and glycine-rich protein 1 and 2 genes (CSRP1 and CSRP2) are an effective growth factor in promoting skeletal muscle growth in vitro and vivo. However, in cattle, the information on the CSRP1 and CSRP2 genes is very limited. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the CSRP1 and CSRP2 variants with growth and carcass traits in cattle breeds. Three single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were identified within the bovine CSRP1 gene, whereas CSRP2 gene has not detected any SNVs, using DNA pooled sequencing, PCR-RFLP, and forced PCR-RFLP methods. These SNVs include g. 801T>C (Intron 2), g. 46T>C (Exon 3) and g. 99C>G (Intron 3). Besides, we also investigated haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD) coefficients for three SNVs in all study populations. LD and haplotype structure of CSRP1 were different between breeds. The result of haplotype analysis demonstrated eight haplotype present in QC (Qinchuan) and one haplotype in CH (Chinese Holstein). Only haplotype 1 (TTC), shared by all two populations, comprised 10.74% and 100.00%, of all haplotypes observed in QC and CH, respectively. Haplotype 5 (CTC) had the highest haplotype frequencies in QC (30.98%) and haplotype 1 had the highest haplotype frequencies in CH (100.00%). The statistical analyses indicated that one single SNV and 19 combined haplotypes were significantly or highly significantly associated with growth and carcass traits in the QC cattle population (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses showed that the bovine CSRP1 and CSRP2 genes were widely expressed in many tissues. The results of this study suggest that the CSRP1 gene possibly is a strong candidate gene that affects growth and carcass traits in the Chinese beef cattle breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pré-compostagem de cadáveres de bovinos acometidos pelo botulismo The effect of composting cattle carcasses on botulinum spores and toxin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera C.L.M. Curci

    2007-04-01

    of botulinum toxin. The diagnosis of botulinum poisoning was based on clinical and pathological, epidemic and/or laboratorial characteristics. Of the five bovines with clinical signs of chronic botulism, three were affected by the type D toxin, one by the CD complex, and one was negative for toxin and spores of C. botulinum in the viscera using a mouse bioassay. The composting process was carried out in beds with carcasses cut up and mixed with sawdust as a carbon source. They were kept anaerobic under a plastic sheet for 50 days. The temperature of the beds was monitored during the period and oscillated from 40.5 to 52.4ºC. After this time, soft tissue had complete decomposed with a significant loss of weight (26.5-44.5%. The remaining bones no longer contained spores or botulinum toxin in the 5 samples taken from each carcass. Only 2 of the 200 samples of homogenized remaining (40 for each carcass contained spores of C. botulinum type C. All samples were negative for botulinum toxin using the mouse bioassay. Composting carcasses of cattle that died from botulism eliminated botulinum spores and toxin from the remains.

  5. Prediction of foal carcass composition and wholesale cut yields by using video image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, J M; Guedes, C M; Agregán, R; Sarriés, M V; Franco, D; Silva, S R

    2018-01-01

    This work represents the first contribution for the application of the video image analysis (VIA) technology in predicting lean meat and fat composition in the equine species. Images of left sides of the carcass (n=42) were captured from the dorsal, lateral and medial views using a high-resolution digital camera. A total of 41 measurements (angles, lengths, widths and areas) were obtained by VIA. The variation of percentage of lean meat obtained from the forequarter (FQ) and hindquarter (HQ) carcass ranged between 5.86% and 7.83%. However, the percentage of fat (FAT) obtained from the FQ and HQ carcass presented a higher variation (CV between 41.34% and 44.58%). By combining different measurements and using prediction models with cold carcass weight (CCW) and VIA measurement the coefficient of determination (k-fold-R 2) were 0.458 and 0.532 for FQ and HQ, respectively. On the other hand, employing the most comprehensive model (CCW plus all VIA measurements), the k-fold-R 2 increased from 0.494 to 0.887 and 0.513 to 0.878 with respect to the simplest model (only with CCW), while precision increased with the reduction in the root mean square error (2.958 to 0.947 and 1.841 to 0.787) for the hindquarter fat and lean percentage, respectively. With CCW plus VIA measurements is possible to explain the wholesale value cuts yield variation (k-fold-R 2 between 0.533 and 0.889). Overall, the VIA technology performed in the present study could be considered as an accurate method to assess the horse carcass composition which could have a role in breeding programmes and research studies to assist in the development of a value-based marketing system for horse carcass.

  6. Digestibilidade e ganhos em peso de ovinos alimentados com diferentes fontes de volumosos e recebendo somatotropina recombinante bovina (rBST Digestibility and live weight gain of lambs fed different forages and administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Bertocco Ezequiel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de 20 mg de somatotropina recombinante bovina (rBST de liberação lenta, em períodos de 14 e 28 dias, sobre a ingestão de matéria seca, os coeficientes de digestibilidade de matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, proteína bruta (PB e energia bruta (EB, o balanço de nitrogênio e o ganho de peso diário, em rações à base de silagem de milho, cana-de-açúcar ou bagaço hidrolisado e concentrado. Foi usado um total de 24 borregos mestiços, não-castrados, com média de 4 a 5 meses de idade e 22 ± 2 kg de PV. Não houve efeito da rBST na ingestão de matéria seca, nas digestibilidades de PB e FDA, no balanço de nitrogênio e no ganho de peso diário dos borregos. A digestibilidade da energia bruta foi influenciada pela aplicação de rBST, quando os diferentes volumosos ou períodos pós-aplicação hormonal foram considerados, porém, somente foi observado efeito da ação hormonal sobre a digestibilidade de MS nas dietas à base de silagem de milho.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of 20 mg of slow liberation bovine somatotropin (rBST on the dry matter intake and on the digestibility coefficient of dry matter (MS, acid detergent fiber, crude protein, crude energy, nitrogen balance and the daily weight gain in lambs fed diets based on corn silage, sugar cane or hydrolyzed bagasse and concentrate. Twenty-four crossbred lambs, averaging 4-5 months of age and 22 + 2 kg LW, were used. There was no effect of the rBST on the dry matter intake, the digestibilities of crude protein, acid detergent fiber, the nitrogen balance and the daily weight gain of the lambs. The gross energy digestibility was affected by the rBST administration when different forages or periods post hormonal administration were considered, however, the effect of the hormonal action was observed only on the dry matter digestibility of corn silage diets.

  7. Performance and carcass characteristics of free-range broiler chickens fed diets containing alternative feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PB Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alternative feedstuffs as partial substitutes of corn and soybean in free-range broiler diets on performance, carcass yield and technical-economic viability. A total of 400 Pescoço Pelado broilers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design (CRD, with four treatments (treatment 1:Control; treatment 2: 10% rice bran inclusion; treatment 3: 10% ground cassava leaves; and treatment 4: 10% ground lead tree hay with four replicates per treatment. Each replicate consisted of a group of 25 birds per paddock, separated per sex. Initial weight (IW, final weight (FW, body weight (BW, daily weight gain (DWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR were evaluated. Carcass, cuts (breast, thigh, drumstick, back, neck, leg and wings, abdominal fat and giblets (gizzard, heart and liver yields were determined. The technical-economic viability of each treatment was assessed by determining the cost of feed per kg body weight, economic efficiency index and cost. The highest final weights were obtained with the use of rice bran. Rice bran and cassava leaves promoted higher carcass yield, as well as lower back and abdominal fat yields. The use of cassava leaves showed better economic efficiency among the treatments with alternative feedstuffs. The use of alternative feedstuffs at 10% inclusion in substitution of corn and soybean meal did not not result in major changes in performance and carcass parameters, and economic efficiency, and therefore, their use is recommended when the availability or the price of key ingredients, such as soybean meal and corn, increase.

  8. Genetic relationship between growth and carcass traits in Large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic relationships between growth and carcass traits in South African Large White pigs were estimated. Genetic parameters for growth and carcass traits were generated using a maternal effects model in ASREML. Data analysed were on 13 703 pigs from 28 herds tested between 1990 and 2007, and 4 128 carcasses ...

  9. Description of carcass classification goals and the current situation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... In the South African red meat industry there are essentially three steps in marketing beef or sheep carcasses, namely carcass inspection, classification and price determination. Kempster et al. (1982) defined classification as the description of carcasses by the characteristics which are of prime importance to ...

  10. Live animal and carcass characteristics of South African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lena Bosman

    , Private Bag X6001, ... The acceptability of a carcass lies in its perceived value, which includes the potential meat yield of the carcass and ... some extent, the value of the carcass lies mainly in its potential saleable meat yield (Chrystall, 1998).

  11. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is partly because the current beef carcass grading and classification systems used in the region value inappropriately carcasses from slow-maturing indigenous cattle breeds that are ideally suited to being marketed off natural pasture. The existing systems use carcass yield and quality attributes, but do not predict ...

  12. Description of carcass classification goals and the current situation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass classification is an essential part of efficient animal production, price fixing and meeting consumer demands. Carcass classification (or grading) is based on the description of carcasses by means of clearly defined characteristics that are of prime importance to the meat industry, retailers and consumers. Significant ...

  13. Influence of sex, age and body condition score on carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This means that where carcass quality is a major goal given the right market guidelines, farmer can make use of the sex differences in the proportion and distribution of carcass tissue to serve the consumer markets with meat goat of their preference. Keywords: Carcass composition, tissue distribution, market goats. Tanzania ...

  14. Body traits, carcass characteristics and price of cull cows as affected by farm type, breed, age and calving to culling interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, L; Sturaro, E; Bittante, G

    2017-04-01

    Beef production from cull cows is an additional source of income for dairy farms and greatly contributes to red meat production, but the sources of variation of live animal characteristics and the carcass traits of cull cows have rarely been examined. This study investigated the effects of the farm type, breed, age at slaughter (AGE) and calving to culling interval (Calv_Cull) on the body traits and carcass characteristics of dairy and dual-purpose cull cows. Data from 555 cull cows from 182 herds belonging to five farm types, characterised by a combination of housing and feeding systems, were recorded and analysed. Dairy breeds, such as Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss, and dual-purpose breeds (Simmental, Rendena) were included in the trait assessments. The day before slaughter, the cows were weighed and scored for body condition (BCS) and fleshiness, and then, their heart girth and wither height were measured. At the slaughterhouse, the carcass weight (CW), dressing percentage (DP), carcass conformation and fatness scores, carcass price per kg and carcass total value were obtained. On average, the cows were slaughtered at nearly 71±27 months of age, 285±187 days after the last calving; 615±95 kg BW; and provided a 257±51 kg CW. Nearly 50% of the cows fell within the BCS range of 2.75 to 3.50, and the carcasses were mostly graded in the lowest class of conformation and fatness scores. Cull cows from free-stall farms had a higher DP, carcass conformation score and price than those from traditional tie-stall farms. The breed influenced the AGE, live animal characteristics and carcass traits. Cows from dairy breeds were younger at slaughter, had a lower BCS and fleshiness, and greater body measurements, but a lower DP and carcass price than those from dual-purpose breeds, although differences between the breeds were found within both groups. The age of the cows at slaughter influenced the Calv_Cull and increased the BW, body measurements and CW, but not the

  15. Weight at Slaughter and Carcass Characteristics of Indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 4 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Evaluation of growth performance, carcass and organ weights of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of one hundred and thirty five broiler finisher birds were used in this study which lasted for 28 days. The birds were randomly assigned to three experimental treatments; T1 , T2 and T3 , containing 0.0, 15.0 and 30.0 g/L of ground Garcinia kola seeds, respectively. Growth performance of the broiler finisher birds ...

  17. Haematology, Carcass and Relative Organ Weights of Growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Applied Agriculture and Apiculture Research. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1-2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. The impact of bone development on final carcass weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2006-01-01

    Proper development and function of the skeleton is crucial for the optimal growth of an organism, with rapid growth rates often resulting in skeletal disorders in farm animals. Yet, despite clear benefits for breed selection and animal welfare (HARRISON et al., 2004), the impact of bone development...

  19. Econometric analysis of the determinants of broiler carcass weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apra.v2i1.36308 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  20. Microsatellite markers associated with body and carcass weights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... 87:143-151. Kaiser MG, Yonash N, Cahaner A, Lamont SJ (2000). Microsatellite polymorphism between and within broiler populations. Poult. Sic. 79: 626-628. Kestin SC, Su G, Sørensen P (1999). Different commercial broiler crosses have different susceptibilities to leg weakness. Poult. Sci. 78: 1085-1090.

  1. The effects of selection indices for sustainable hill sheep production on carcass composition and muscularity of lambs, measured using X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, N R; Bünger, L; Bishop, S C; Simm, G; Conington, J

    2008-01-01

    A multi-trait selection index designed to improve the overall economic performance of hill sheep, including both maternal and lamb traits, has been developed and tested in a selection experiment over 7 years. Two versions of the index were tested, with different economic weights applied to the traits, on two different hill farms: one version including maternal and growth traits; the other version with additional breeding goals of carcass weight, fatness and conformation scores. Responses to selection, using both versions of the index, suggest that improvements are being made in overall index score and lamb growth. This study investigated the indirect effects of these selection indices on lamb carcass composition and muscularity traits, as measured using X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning. A total of 499 lambs from the two hill farms were CT scanned at weaning (approximately 120 days of age). Approximately half of the lambs from each farm were from the selection line (S, animals with highest index scores selected for breeding), while the other half were from a control line (C, animals with average index scores selected). Composition and muscularity traits were estimated on each lamb from CT data and differences between genetic lines investigated, within farm, using restricted maximum likelihood analyses, adjusting for either live weight or age. Results showed that the selection index without carcass traits produced lambs with carcass composition that was not significantly different to control lambs at a given live weight or age. Including carcass traits in the index resulted in lambs with no compositional differences (except for a slight increase in bone) at a set age compared with controls. At a given live weight however, selection lambs had less fat and lower carcass weights and killing-out percentage. Muscularity (3-D muscle shape) and muscle area shape (2-D) were not improved as a result of selection on either version of the index (including carcass weight

  2. Haematology, Blood Chemistry and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Grasshopper Meal as a Substitute for Fish Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Njidda* and C. E. Isidahomen1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with grasshopper meal on haematology, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Forty rabbits of mixed breeds, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with eight rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were fed with diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5% grasshopper meal in diets designated as T1 (control, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of nine weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation, while blood samples were collected for analysis. The result of the experiment showed significant differences (P0.05 on haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The results also revealed significant differences (P0.05 on serum albumin and total protein. The results of carcass characteristics showed significant differences among treatments (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, skin pelt, tail, feet and abdominal fat. The slaughter weight and carcass weight were better in groups receiving 2.5% grass hopper meal (50% fish meal replacement. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of 2.50% grasshopper meal as a replacement for fish meal (50% replacement has no adverse effects on the haematological parameters, serum biochemistry and carcass characteristics of rabbits.

  3. Characterization of variability in pork carcass composition and primal quality,.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to characterize the factors and production practices that contribute to variation in pork composition and quality. It is possible the variation in pork quality traits, such as color, marbling, and tenderness, contributes to reduced customer confidence in the predictability of finished product quality and, therefore, pork products becoming less competitive for consumer dollars. Pigs raised in 8 different barns representing 2 seasons (hot and cold) and 2 production focuses (lean and quality) were used in this study. Pigs were marketed in 3 groups from each barn and marketing procedures followed commercial marketing procedures. Data were collected on a total of 7,684 pigs. The mivque0 option of the VARCOMP procedure in SAS was used to evaluate the proportion of variation each independent variable (season, production focus, marketing group, sex, and random variation) contributed to total variance. Random variation including inherent biological differences, as well as factors not controlled in this study, contributed the greatest proportion to total variation for each carcass composition and quality trait. Pig and other factors contributed to 93.5% of the variation in HCW, and marketing group, sex, season, and production focus accounted for 4.1, 1.4, 0.8, and 0.3%, respectively. Variation in percent carcass lean was attributed to production focus (36.4%), sex (15.8%), and season (10.2%). Pig and other factors contributed the greatest percentage of total variation (39.4%). Loin weight variation was attributed to production focus (21.4%), sex (5.4%), season (2.7%), marketing group (1.8%), and pig (68.7%). Belly weight variation was attributed to pig (88.9%), sex (4.1%), marketing group (3.8%), production focus (3.0%), and season (0.1%). Variation in ham weight was attributed to pig and other factors (93.9%), marketing group (2.8%), production focus (2.2%), and season (1.1%). Ultimate pH variation was attributed to pig (88.5%), season (6.2%), production

  4. Performance and Carcass characteristics of broad breasted bronze toms fed radappertized Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, El-Din.M.H.; Mohamed, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of irradiated complete diets at dose level of 25 KGy was studied in broad breasted bronze tome evaluating their growing performances as well as characteristics of the carcasses. Two experimental groups received irradiated and non irradiated diets for 18 weeks (from the 5 t h to the 23 r d week of age). Four toms per treatment at the age of 23 weeks were slaughtered and the carcass was dissected. Radappertized diets improved body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion and reduced mortality rate. No significant differences were observed between toms fed processed and non processed diets on carcasses components, while the gizzard weight was greater for those fed the processed diets. Dressing and drawn weights in toms fed processed diets were 3% higher than in those fed non processed diets. The results suggest that sterilization of turkeys feed may have a beneficial effect on the body weight and deed conversion of turkeys consuming these diets without harmful effect on the bird

  5. Effects of dietary lysine levels on carcass performance and biochemical characteristics of Chinese local broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncong Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine is typically the second-limiting amino acid in poultry diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary lysine concentration on carcass and meat quality traits, and serum parameters in two lines – SD02 and SD03 – which originated from a Chinese local breed, the Erlang Mountainous chicken. Live body weight, carcass traits, meat quality traits (myofibre diameter and density, and serum metabolic markers were measured in high and low dietary lysine groups (HL and LL, respectively at the end of the starter (1-28 days, grower (29-49 days and finisher (50-70 days periods. The results showed that mortality, live weight (LW, myofibre diameter of leg muscle (LFDM and serum cholesterol (CHO were greater in HL than LL (P<0.05. The chickens from HL had reduced subcutaneous fat thickness and heart weight than LL (P<0.05. The chickens from line SD02 had greater leg muscle weight, myofibre diameter in breast, and LFDM than line SD03 (P<0.05. The chickens from line SD02 had more serum urea nitrogen and less total proteins than line SD03 (P<0.05. In conclusion, high lysine diets improved slaughter performance and muscle fibre diameter, and SD02 chickens had greater carcass yield and superior meat quality compared with chickens from line SD03.

  6. Effects of fungal (Lentinussajor-caju) treated oil palm frond on performance and carcass characteristics in finishing goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Petcharat, Vasun; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2017-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fungal treated oil palm fronds (FTOPF) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Eighteen growing crossbred male goats (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) with 18.7±2.0 kg of initial body weight (BW) were stratified and blocked by BW in a randomized complete block design. Three diets containing 30% of oil palm fronds (OPF) either untreated (UOPF) or treated with Lentinussajor-caju (FTOPF) with or without urea (FTOPFU) were used as roughage sources in total mixed rations (TMRs). The diets were offered ad libitum and weight gain was determined. At the end of the experimental period, the harvest data and carcass characteristics of the goats were recorded, and muscular longissimus dorsi composition was determined. No significant effect of fungal treated (FT) inclusion was observed in any of the feed intake, growth performance, and carcass characteristics. Likewise, no apparent effects on carcass composition and muscle chemical composition were detected in this study, except for hind leg and chump were affected (pcaju ) treated oil palm frond in TMR diet did not affect performance and carcass characteristics in finishing goats.

  7. Performance and carcass characteristics of lambs fed a solution of cheese whey during feedlot and pre-slaughter lairage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredson Vieira e Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and carcass and meat characteristics of lambs fed a solution of cheese whey plus water (100 g kg−1 dry matter (CW during feedlot and pre-slaughter lairage. Data were analyzed as a 2 × 2 factorial (place – feedlot and slaughterhouse, food – water or CW. We evaluated the following treatments (feedlot/slaughterhouse: CW/CW, CW/water, water/CW, and control (water/water. The lambs were given a balanced diet for 70 days in the feedlot. Slaughter started 12 h after the animals arrived at the slaughterhouse. Dry matter intake, gain-to-feed ratio, average daily gain, and body weight of lambs fed CW were similar to those of control lambs. The water/CW group consumed less of this solution than the CW/CW group in the slaughterhouse. The CW supplied as a pre-slaughter supplement reduces the drip losses of lamb carcasses provided that the animals also consume it during the feedlot period. The other carcass characteristics (carcass weight, pH, subcutaneous fat thickness, and ribeye area were similar among treatments. The meat characteristics (color, water holding capacity, cooking losses, and shear force were similar among treatments. Whey cheese added to water can be used as an ingredient of the diet for lambs and as pre-slaughter supplement, since it does not change performance and improves carcass characteristics.

  8. Body size, carcass and meat quality of three commercial beef categories of 'Serrana de Teruel' breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripoll, G.; Albertí, P.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, J.; Blasco, I.; Sanz, A.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse three commercial beef categories of the 'Serrana de Teruel breed' to define the appropriate commercial option. Twenty 'Serrana de Teruel' male calves at 9 months were assigned to the commercial beef categories (young bulls, bulls and steers), slaughtered at 12, 22 and 22 months of age, respectively. The in vivo ultrasound backfat thickness was greater than the dorsal fat thickness, and the young bulls and steers had a similar fat thickness, that was greater than the bulls in both areas. The slaughter weight and cold carcass weight were significantly different between the commercial categories. However, the differences were not sufficient to modify the dressing percentage, carcass conformation and fatness degree between the young bulls and bulls. The maximum stress of the muscle at 7 d of ageing was lower in the steers than in the young bulls and bulls. In general, the lightness of the meat in the bulls was lower than that in the young bulls and steers. The subcutaneous fat of the bull carcasses had a vivid colour and stored more carotenoids than that of the young bulls and steers. Hence, bulls produced heavier and better conformed carcasses with more edible meat and less fat than the other categories. However, steers are recommended to produce large carcasses with more trim and cover fat than the other categories. Finally, it seems that bulls are the most suitable commercial category to 'Serrana de Teruel' breed. (Author)

  9. Pork carcass injury in slaughterhouse waiting area and nutrient addition in pre-slaughter fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago G Petrolli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Two experiments were conducted on a slaughterhouse located in Brazil, which the first aimed at evaluating the injuries on pig skin and carcass resulting from slaughterhouse waiting area management and the second aimed at assessing how glucose (G, sodium bicarbonate (SB and vitamin E (VE added to water during pre-slaughter fasting may affect carcass yield, organ relative weight and pork meat quality characteristics. Materials and methods. First trial included 1000 pigs, which were observed in the slaughterhouse resting area until the moment they entered the stunning process area. In the second trial were used 500 animals distributed on the last pre-slaughter day in a completely randomized design, including ten treatments and ten replicates. The treatments were: water; 50 g/L G; 50 g/L G + 200 mg/L of VE; 75 g/L of G; 75 g/L of G + 200 mg VE; 0.45% SB; 0.45% SB + 200 mg/L of VE; 0.55% SB; 0.55% SB + 200 mg/L of VE; 200 mg/L of VE. Results. Carcass yield and relative organ weight were not affected by treatments. The addition of 0.55% SB + 200 mg VE reduced the final pH of meat, and of 0.45% SB reduced the red pigment intensity. Conclusions. The main occurrences of injuries to the skin and carcass of pigs are due to fights. Also, adding glucose, sodium bicarbonate, and vitamin E to diet did not affect the carcass and viscera yield and meat quality.

  10. Carcass yield and meat quality in broilers fed with canola meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinger, E; Xavier, E G; Lemes, J S; Moraes, P O; Elias, M C; Roll, V F B

    2014-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of canola meal in broiler diets on carcass yield, carcass composition, and instrumental and sensory analyses of meat. 2. A total of 320 one-day-old Cobb broilers were used in a 35-d experiment using a completely randomised design with 5 concentrations of canola meal (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%) as a dietary substitute for soya bean meal. 3. Polynomial regression at 5% significance was used to evaluate the effects of canola meal content. The following variables were measured: carcass yield, chemical composition of meat, and instrumental and sensorial analyses. 4. The results showed that carcass yield exhibited a quadratic effect that was crescent to the level of 18% of canola meal based on the weight of the leg and a quadratic increase at concentrations up to 8.4% of canola meal based on the weight of the chest. The yield of the chest exhibited a linear behaviour. 5. The chemical composition of leg meat, instrumental analysis of breast meat and sensory characteristics of the breast meat was not significantly affected by the inclusion of canola meal. The chemical composition of the breast meat exhibited an increased linear effect in terms of dry matter and ether extract and a decreased linear behaviour in terms of the ash content. 6. In conclusion, soya bean meal can be substituted with canola meal at concentrations up to 20% of the total diet without affecting carcass yield, composition of meat or the instrumental or sensory characteristics of the meat of broilers.

  11. The impact of cooling methods on microbiological quality of broiler carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Popelka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare two chilling methods, combined (aerosol and water chilling, in terms of their effectiveness in chilling of different weight categories of broiler chickens. At the same time microbial associations of different weight categories of broiler chickens were evaluated. Samples were collected in an approved establishment and poultry carcasses were divided according to weight and chilling methods into five categories. The first four categories were chilled using combined chilling method and fifth category was chilled with water. The temperature of the breast muscle before and after chilling and microbiological parameters (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella was measured. By comparing the temperature of the breast muscle after combined chilling method was not achieved in the breast muscles temperature below 4 °C in all weight categories. In any case, the lowest average temperature has been reached in the weight category <1.2 kg (4.9 °C and with increasing weight, the average temperature was rising, and the highest was in weight category 1.8 to 2.5 kg (10.8 °C. Poultry carcasses were subsequently divided into portions and after cutting were chilled up to a temperature below 4 °C. In poultry carcasses chilled by water, the average temperature of the breast muscle after 20 minutes in the water bath was even higher (19.6 °C compared to combine chilling. Thus chilled poultry carcasses were frozen up to -18 °C in a core of muscles. Comparing the microbiological contamination in different weight categories and chilling techniques, we found that the lowest total viable count (TVC before and after chilling was in the lowest category and the difference before chilling was significantly lower comparing with all other categories. Conversely TVC after chilling by water was decreased. In comparing the number of Enterobacteriaceae before and after chilling, a similar pattern of contamination as above was found

  12. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2006-08-31

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. Although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable N. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.

  13. Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in an Embden×Toulouse Goose Cross Raised in Organic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Solé

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the influence of genetic type (Embden-Anser anser, EE; Toulouse-Anser anser, TT and F1 cross, ET for meat characteristics (carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA profiles, of domestic geese “Anser anser domesticus” raised in dehesa as an alternative, organic feeding system. Carcass and breast muscle weight (p<0.01 were greater for the ET group at the same live weight. None of the groups showed differences in the production of fatty liver with this type of feeding. Higher values were found for maximum Warner–Bratzler shear force (between 7.62 and 8.87 kg/cm2, which implies the improvement of this parameter. High levels of oleic FAs were obtained, especially for the TT group. The polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio was highest for the ET group (p<0.001, reflecting the optimum nutritional values as a component of a healthy consumer diet.

  14. Growth performances and carcass characteristics of cavies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8 week trial to evaluate the effect of supplementation with Asteraceae or a protein enriched ration on the growth performances and carcass characteristics of cavies was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm (FAR) of the University of Dschang. Prior to the experimental phase a two weeks acceptability trial was ...

  15. Growth performance, carcass and hematological characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, carcass and hematological characteristics of rabbits fed graded levels of tiger nuts ( Cyperus esculentus ) ... (p>0.05) difference between treatments. Results demonstrated that (Cyperus esculentus) could be used up to 5% in rabbit's diets without adverse effect on the animals' performance and health.

  16. Growth Response, Haematology and Carcass Characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with one hundred and eighty (180) unsexed day old broiler chicks of Cobb strain to investigate the effects of feeding diets supplemented with Petevaria alliacaea root meal (PRM) on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicken. The broiler chicken were brooded together for 7 ...

  17. Carcass Characteristics of Broilers Fed Differently Processed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest phytic acid (PA) reduction (52.99%) was obtained with soaking. Similarly, percent amino acid was marginally increased with soaking. However, none of the processing methods adversely affected the amino acid (AA) composition of the seed. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in carcass yield and the ...

  18. Growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with one hundred and twenty (120) day-old marshal chicks to investigate the effect of Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation of corn bran based diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, haematology and serum biochemistry of broilers in an eight weeks experiment. Four experimental ...

  19. Methionine supplementation in the productive efficiency, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary methionine supplementation at varying levels on the productive efficiency, carcass characteristics and economics of growing indigenous turkey was investigated. Four Isocaloric and Isonitrogenous diets were formulated. The diets were supplemented with 0.00%, 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% respectively.

  20. Performance, Economics of Production and Carcass Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain the performance, economics of production and carcass characteristics of broilers exposed to different levels of restricted feeding in a humid tropical environment. Four (4) dietary feed restriction treatments: T0- full or ad libitum fed - control, T75%, T50% and T25% of full or ad libitum ...

  1. CARCASS COMPOSITION OF THE GIRAFFE GIRAT.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study such as blood loss and evaporation loss during dissection. As thc mc'rst imrrortant carcass compo- nents such as legs and neck have a relatively small surface area to volume ratio, the evaporation los from them is likely to be less than from the viscera which have a large surface area. Several workers (Smith &. Ledger ...

  2. Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Haematology of Grower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of two hundred seventy growing Japanese male quail birds were fed with parboiled (PB) and varying boiling time of African Breadfruit, ABF (Treculia africana) seed to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and haematological parameters of the growing male quail fed the African Breadfruit seed. Six dietary ...

  3. Decreasing vitamin premix on chicken carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor and battery cage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Shivazad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted the to compare the effect of a decreasing amount of vitamin premix in diets inbroilers from 29 to 42 days of age on carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor (Experiment 1 and battery cage (Experiment 2 systems. At 35 and 42 days of ages, one bird of each replicate was slaughtered and carcass composition was measured. Blood concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Ca were used to diagnose vitamin D3 deficiency and enzymes aspartate amino transferase (AST to identify vitamin E deficiency. Floor raised birds showed that vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal at 29 days of age did not impair body weight (BW, carcass composition, ALP and Ca during the final rearing period. However, diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a higher AST at 42 days of age than the other diets. Birds reared in cages were slightly more sensitive to vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal, probably due to the impracticality of performing coprophagy. Diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a lower BW, carcass breast and thigh yield at 42 days of age; also serum ALP, AST and Ca were impaired. In conclusion, the withdrawal of vitamins is not a reasonable option but it is possible to reduce vitamin premix in finisher broilers’ diets without negative effects on performance and on some metabolic traits during the finisher period with both methods of rearing.

  4. Sire effects on carcass and meat quality traits of young Nellore bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, M N; Ferraz, J B S; Eler, J P; Rezende, F M; Cucco, D C; Carvalho, M E; Silva, R C G; Gomes, R C; Oliveira, E C M

    2014-04-29

    Meat quality is being increasingly demanded by consumers in recent years. Several factors can affect meat quality, ranging from animal traits such as breed and genetic heritage to pre- and post-slaughter processes. This study investigated the influence of Nellore bulls on carcass and meat quality traits. We used 475 young uncastrated males, the progeny of 54 bulls, to evaluate characteristics of the following carcass traits: hot carcass weight, rib-eye area, and fat thickness. We also evaluated the following beef quality traits: marbling, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and shear force at 0, 7, and 14 days of aging. Bulls had a significant influence (P≤0.05) on rib-eye area, fat thickness, marbling, drip loss at 14 days of aging and color at all aging periods. Based on these results, the use of bulls with high breeding values for these traits can provide important advances in carcass traits and meat quality in breeding programs of Nellore cattle that are raised in tropical conditions.

  5. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  6. Diagnosis of mycobacteria in bovine milk: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Carmen Alicia Daza; Paula, Carolina Lechinski de; Guerra, Simony Trevizan; Franco, Marília Masello Junqueira; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia

    2017-06-05

    Tuberculosis remains as the world's biggest threat. In 2014, human tuberculosis ranked as a major infectious disease by the first time, overcoming HIV death rates. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of global distribution that affects animals and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw milk, representing a serious public health concern. Despite the efforts of different countries to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis, the high negative economic impact on meat and milk production chains remains, given the decreased production efficiency (approximately 25%), the high number of condemned carcasses, and increased animal culling rates. This scenario has motivated the establishment of official programs based on regulations and diagnostic procedures. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are the major pathogenic species to humans and bovines, respectively, nontuberculous mycobacteria within the Mycobacterium genus have become increasingly important in recent decades due to human infections, including the ones that occur in immunocompetent people. Diagnosis of mycobacteria can be performed by microbiological culture from tissue samples (lymph nodes, lungs) and secretions (sputum, milk). In general, these pathogens demand special nutrient requirements for isolation/growth, and the use of selective and rich culture media. Indeed, within these genera, mycobacteria are classified as either fast- or slow-growth microorganisms. Regarding the latter ones, incubation times can vary from 45 to 90 days. Although microbiological culture is still considered the gold standard method for diagnosis, molecular approaches have been increasingly used. We describe here an overview of the diagnosis of Mycobacterium species in bovine milk.

  7. Relationship between perilipin genes polymorphisms and growth, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gol, S; Ros-Freixedes, R; Zambonelli, P; Tor, M; Pena, R N; Braglia, S; Zappaterra, M; Estany, J; Davoli, R

    2016-02-01

    The perilipins (PLIN) belong to a family of structural proteins that play a role regulating intracellular lipid storage and mobilization. Here, PLIN1 and PLIN2 have been evaluated as candidate genes for growth, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs. A sample of 607 Duroc pigs were genotyped for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, one in intron 2 of the PLIN1 gene (JN860199:g.173G>A) and the other at the 3' untranslated region of the PLIN2 gene (GU461317:g.98G>A). Using a Bayesian approach, we have been able to find evidence of additive, dominant and epistatic associations of the PLIN1 and PLIN2 polymorphisms with early growth rate and carcass length. However, the major effects were produced by the dominant A allele at the PLIN2 polymorphism, which also affected the carcass lean weight. Thus, pigs carrying an additional copy of the A allele at the g.98G>A PLIN2 polymorphism had a probability of at least 98% of producing carcasses with heavier lean weight (+0.41 kg) and ham weight (+0.10 kg). The results obtained indicate that the PLIN2 polymorphism could be a useful marker for lean growth. In particular, it may help to reduce the undesired negative correlated response in lean weight to selection for increased intramuscular fat content, a common scenario in some Duroc lines involved in the production of high quality pork products. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs that are fed diets with palm kernel cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozilda da Conceição dos Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cut yield, and meat quality in lambs that were fed different inclusion levels of palm kernel cake. Methods Forty-five woolless castrated male Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an initial average body weight of 23.16±0.35 kg were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments, with palm kernel cake in the proportions of 0.0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% with nine replications per treatment. After slaughter, the gastrointestinal tract was weighed when it was full, after which it was then emptied. The heart, liver, kidney, pancreas perirenal fat were also collected and weighed. The carcass was split into two identical longitudinal halves and weighed to determine the quantitative and qualitative characteristics. Results The empty body weight, carcass weight and yield, and fat thickness decreased linearly (p0.05 for the rib eye area of animals that were fed palm kernel cake. There was a reduction in the commercial cut weight (p0.05. The sarcomere length decreased linearly (p<0.05, although an effect of the inclusion of palm kernel cake was not observed in other meat quality variables. It is worth noting that the red staining intensity, indicated as A, had a tendency to decrease (p = 0.050. Conclusion The inclusion of palm kernel cake up to 30% in the diet does not lead to changes in meat quality characteristics, except for sarcomere length. Nevertheless, carcass quantitative characteristics decrease with the use of palm kernel cake.

  9. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs that are fed diets with palm kernel cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição Dos Santos, Rozilda; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Sacramento, Samara Bianca Moraes; de Moura Lima, Elizanne; de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cut yield, and meat quality in lambs that were fed different inclusion levels of palm kernel cake. Forty-five woolless castrated male Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an initial average body weight of 23.16±0.35 kg were used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments, with palm kernel cake in the proportions of 0.0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% with nine replications per treatment. After slaughter, the gastrointestinal tract was weighed when it was full, after which it was then emptied. The heart, liver, kidney, pancreas perirenal fat were also collected and weighed. The carcass was split into two identical longitudinal halves and weighed to determine the quantitative and qualitative characteristics. The empty body weight, carcass weight and yield, and fat thickness decreased linearly (ppalm kernel inclusion in the diet. There was no difference (p>0.05) for the rib eye area of animals that were fed palm kernel cake. There was a reduction in the commercial cut weight (p0.05). The sarcomere length decreased linearly (ppalm kernel cake was not observed in other meat quality variables. It is worth noting that the red staining intensity, indicated as A, had a tendency to decrease (p = 0.050). The inclusion of palm kernel cake up to 30% in the diet does not lead to changes in meat quality characteristics, except for sarcomere length. Nevertheless, carcass quantitative characteristics decrease with the use of palm kernel cake.

  10. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of gender on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of calves of Avilena-Negra Iberica breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daza, A.; Rey, A. I.; Lopez Carrasco, C.; Lopez-Bote, C. J.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of gender on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of calves of Avilena-Negra Iberica breed. Sixteen calves, eight males and eight females, were used. The calves were fattened under intensive conditions, housed in confinement and fed with the same feed and cereal straw from 230.7 to 478.3 kg. The males grew more than the females (1.390 vs 0.932 kg day{sup 1} respectively). Carcass weight, carcass length, leg length, leg perimeter, carcass and leg compactness, legs, fore-quarters and loins weights and forequarters percentage regarding carcass weight were higher (p < 0.05) in males than in females. The gender had not significant influence on CIE a*, b*, chroma and hue variables but CIE L* value was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in males than in females. The a* value decreased and b* and hue values increased with ageing time. The subcutaneous back fat from the females had significantly (p < 0.05) higher C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1 n-9, S MUFA and lower C10:0, C18:0, C18:2 n-6, C18:3 n-3, C20:0, C20:3 n-9, C20:4 n-6, C22:5 n-3, {Sigma} n-6, {Sigma} n-3 and {Sigma} PUFA proportions than that from males. It is concluded that the gender has influence on growth performance, carcass traits and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous backfat; gender does not have effect on instrumental colour variables; and meat colour can reach acceptable values for consumers until four days after slaughter. (Author) 34 refs.

  12. Performance, carcass precentages and heterosis values, Alabio and Cihateup line and crossbreeding on eight week old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Matitaputty

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One effort for improving the productivity of Indonesian local ducks in particular as a meat types is by crossing among the local ducks. Crossbreeding is a fast breeding program for improving some commercial traits. Crossing between two lines or different breed are often used in production systems to utilized the advantage of heterosis (hybrid vigor. Crossbreeding is expected to produce new synthetic strains of duck that perform better than their parents. This study aims to utilize the heterosis and determine best cross, and to study the performance changes due to crossbreeding. The statistical design used in this study was a randomized complete design (RCD consisting of 4 treatments with 6 replications, each replication consisting of five ducks. The treatments used were the crossing of the pure Cihateup ♂ x Cihateup ♀ (CC, line Alabio ♂ x Alabio ♀ (AA, Alabio ♂ x Cihateup ♀ (AC cross as well as Cihateup ♂ x Alabio ♀ (CA cross. This study using male ducklings first hybrid (F1. The results show that the CA is better than AC in the final live weight (7.05%, weight gain (7.32%, carcass weight (9.24% and carcass yield (2.55%. Fleshy carcass cuts such as breast meat of AA (6.13% is better when compared to the others, but the highest percentage of meat percentage of the thigh is the AC (10.13%. Duck crossesing CA possess superior properties more and economic value compared with the duck AC.

  13. Effect of Combined Probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisae + Candida utilis and Herbs on Carcass Characteristics of Swamp Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahyuddin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A feedlot trial was conducted to study the effect of probiotics + herbs on carcass characteristics. Thirty male swamp buffaloes aged 2–2.5 years with the average body weight of 297 kg were used in this trial. They were fattened for 75 days to reach a slaughter weight of around 350–400 kg. They were divided into two groups of 15 animals in each group, and were placed in a shaded paddock. The groups were the control and the treated animals. The treated animals were given a supplementation containing combined yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae and Candida utilis, and herbs. All animals were fed basal diet of ammoniated rice straw and commercial concentrate with a ratio of 10: 90. There was no effect of probiotics+herbs on live weight gain, percentage of carcass, dressing, meat and by products, back fat thickness and eye muscle area. Addition of probiotics+herbs increased proportion of bone, reduced meat : bone ratio, body fat and proportion of offal. Although body fat content was reduced by the treatment, the compositions of fat were similar between the control and treated animals. (Animal Production 12(2: 69-73 (2010Key Words: buffalo, feedlot, yeast, carcass

  14. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Chanjula

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Methods Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW] were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat on a dry matter (DM basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Results Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05 among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. Conclusion In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  15. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Methods Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW]) were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Results Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05) among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM) area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. Conclusion In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production. PMID:28830128

  16. Efeito do sexo e do peso ao abate sobre a produção de carne de cordeiro. I. Velocidade de crescimento, caracteres quantitativos da carcaça, pH da carne e resultado econômico Effects of sex and slaughter weight on meat production of lambs. I. Growth rate, carcass quantitative traits, meat pH and economic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ramos de Siqueira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o presente estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de sexo (machos inteiros x fêmeas e de quatro pesos ao abate (28, 32, 36 e 40 kg sobre o desempenho, os caracteres da carcaça e resultados econômicos de cordeiros mestiços ½ Ile de France x ½ Corriedale, terminados em sistema de confinamento. Quarenta animais (20 machos e 20 fêmeas foram desmamados aos 60 dias e alimentados à vontade com uma ração contendo 16,46% de PB e 67,63% de NDT. Foram divididos em quatro grupos de machos (G1M, G2M, G3M e G4M e quatro grupos de fêmeas (G1F, G2F, G3F, e G4F, sacrificados, respectivamente, com os pesos supra citados. Determinaram-se o ganho médio de peso diário (GMPD, o peso do corpo vazio (PCV, os pesos de carcaça quente (PCQ e fria (PCF, as perdas ao resfriamento (PR, os rendimentos comercial (RC e verdadeiro (RV e o pH da carne em três momentos. Observou-se efeito de sexo para GMPD, com superioridade dos machos. Houve efeito de peso ao abate sobre PCQ e PCF e também de sexo, tendo as fêmeas superado os machos em G3 e G4, para PCQ, e em G2, G3 E G4, para PCF. Constataram-se maiores valores de RC e RV para as fêmeas, em G3 e G4. Todos os grupos apresentaram-se similares em relação ao pH da carne, o qual descreveu uma curva dentro dos padrões esperados. O estudo econômico destacou G1M como tendo apresentado melhor conversão alimentar e maior renda líquida/animal. Entre as fêmeas, G1F foi o melhor, destacando-se as rendas líquidas negativas constatadas em G3F e G4F. Concluiu-se que o melhor peso ao abate foi 28 kg, tanto para os machos, como para as fêmeas. No caso dos machos, tolerar-se-ia o peso de 32 kg, apesar de ter propiciado renda líquida 12,8% inferior a G1M.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of sex(males x females and four slaughter weights (28, 32, 36 and 40 kg on the perfomance, carcass traits and economic results from crossbred lambs, finished in feedlot. Fourty ½ Ile de France x

  17. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  18. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary H Olson

    Full Text Available Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana, and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp. carcasses (180 trials total were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8 and avian species (N = 7. Fourteen carcasses (9.8% were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%, and four carcasses (2.8% remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness. We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically.

  19. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Zachary H.; Beasley, James C.; Rhodes, Olin E.

    2016-01-01

    Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically. PMID:26886299

  20. Effect of protein levels in concentrate and genotype on carcass characteristics and carcass composition of male goats receiving corn silage as a roughage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngampongsai, W.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The research were to study the effect of protein levels in concentrate and genotype on carcass characteristics and carcass composition of 12-13 months male goats receiving corn silage as a roughage. A 2x3 factorial in completely randomized design was used with two factors; genotype of goat (Thai-native (TN and 50% TN-Anglo Nubian (AN crossbred goats and protein levels in concentrate (14, 17 and 20% CP. Carcass weight and carcass length for 50% TN-AN goats (13.86 kg and 52.41 cm were significantly greater than those for TN goats (10.97 kg and 48.17 cm respectively (P0.05. Percentage of shoulder and neck for goats supplemented with 20% CP concentrate were significantly greater than those for goats supplemented with 14 or 17% CP (34.99, 32.24 and 32.52% respectively, P<0.05. However, percentage of shank for goats supplemented with 17% CP concentrate was significantly greater than that of goats supplemented with 14 or 20% CP (7.96, 7.34 and 6.37% respectively (P<0.05. Percentage of shoulder and neck for 50% T AN goats was significantly greater than those for TN goats (33.92 and 31.91% respectively, P<0.05. In contrast, percentage of breast in carcass for TN goats was significantly greater than those of 50% TN-AN goats (8.41 and 7.29% respectively, P<0.05. Fat contents in carcass of TN goats were significantly greater than those in 50% TN-AN goats (8.66 and 6.80% respectively, P<0.05. But bone in carcass of 50% TN-AN goats were significantly smaller than those in TN goats (16.20 and 18.77% respectively, P<0.05. However, muscle to bone ratio and muscle plus fat to bone ratio for TN goats were significantly greater than those for 50% TN-AN goats (4.34, 3.71 and 4.87, 4.08 respectively, P< 0.05.Net income after subtracing the total cost for goats supplemented with 14, 17 or 20% CP concentrate was 183, 150 and 175 baht per head respectively. Net income after subtracing feed cost for TN and 50% TN-AN goats was 162 and 174 baht per head respectively. Net

  1. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Brahman cross bulls and steers finished on tropical pastures in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Julio; Unruh, John; Villarreal, Milton; Murillo, Olger; Rojas, Sailim; Camacho, Jorge; Jaeger, John; Reinhardt, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Forty-eight male calves (3/4 Brahman×1/4 Charolais) were used to determine carcass cutability and meat tenderness of Longissimus lumborum (LL), Gluteus medius (GM), Semitendinosus (ST) and Psoas major (PM) steaks from lighter weight carcasses of bulls and steers castrated at 3, 7, or 12 mo of age grown under tropical pasture conditions. Steaks from steers had lower (more tender) LL Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values than those from bulls. Steaks from steers castrated at 3 mo had lower GM WBSF than those from bulls. For PM steaks, those aged 28 d had lower WBSF than those aged 2d. Steaks aged 28 d had the lowest LL and GM WBSF and steaks aged 2d had the highest LL, GM, and ST WBSF. Castration at younger ages is recommended because it provides improvement in LL and GM tenderness over bulls with no differences in carcass traits or subprimal yields. © 2013.

  2. Dry matter intake, performance and carcass characteristics of hair sheep reared under different grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Rodrigues Ventolin dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different grazing systems: isolated, alternate and simultaneous, on feed intake, performance and carcass characteristics of sheep. About 5.2 ha area of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximun Jacq cultivate Tanzania was divided into 13 paddocks. This area was used as a stocking rate of two animal units (AU per ha for 7 days’ occupation and 21 days rest. A total number of 58 animals were used consisting of 12 heifers and 30 Santa Ines lambs with the addition of 16 adult ewes that were used to stabilize grazing pressure in the isolated system. The sheep were fed on 200 g per head per day of concentrate and cattle 2 kg per head per day. The parameters determined were the following: weekly weight (WW, total live weight gain (LWG and mean daily weight gain (MDW. Also dry matter intake was estimated 84 days after the start of the experiment using external indicators (Purified and Enriched Lignin in addition to carcass traits and composition which were also estimated. The result obtained for carcass composition revealed that the muscle:bone ratio and bone percentage were better in the alternate system. Moreover, the simultaneous and isolated systems showed higher lamb performance than the alternate system, while there was no effect on dry matter intake. Furthermore, there was no difference of the different systems on carcass traits and feed intake of sheep. Nevertheless, the simultaneous grazing system showed better sheep performance than the alternate grazing system.

  3. Rapid Communication: Variance component estimates for Charolais-sired fed cattle and relative economic impact of bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, J W; MacNeil, M D; Raymond, R C; McClain, A R; Van Eenennaam, A L

    2016-12-01

    Variance components were estimated and relative economic importance of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was derived from 3 yr of performance, morbidity, and mortality data collected from a single beef cattle finishing operation. One thousand one hundred eighty nine of 12,812 Charolais-sired calves were treated for BRD during the finishing period. Weaning weight (WW), DMI, days to harvest (D2H), HCW, yield grade (YG), and marbling score determined by image analysis (MARB) were collected to quantify the economic impact associated with treatment for BRD. Observed means and (co)variances for carcass and production traits were used to simulate populations of 10,000 healthy and 10,000 BRD treated calves. A bio-economic model was developed to derive the economic value associated with the incidence and number of treatments for BRD during the finishing period. Carcasses from healthy calves were worth $58.28 more on average compared to calves treated at least once for BRD. Heritability estimates for BRD were 0.15 when the trait was measured as number of treatments (0 to 4), and 0.14 when measured as incidence (0 or 1). The model indicated that D2H had the lowest relative economic importance in this system, with a cost of $1.91 per head for each additional day on feed. Furthermore, the relative economic value of BRD morbidity was approximately 10.65 greater than D2H when recording the BRD phenotype as the number of BRD treatments. The economic values of HCW, WW, and DMI were 11.47, 5.15, and 3.61 times more important than D2H, respectively. This indicates BRD morbidity has the second greatest relative economic value in this system, with a one percent increase in morbidity associated with an average loss of $2.08 per head. These results indicate that BRD morbidity can have an equal or greater economic importance when compared to carcass and production traits during the finishing period. Further, this indicates the opportunity exists to increase the genetic merit for

  4. The effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rajabiyan Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. A total of 200 broilers (Ross 308, 10 days old, were randomly allotted to five experimental equal groups with four replicates of 10 chickens (five male and five female and fed with basal diet + ground wheat (without grit; basal diet + whole wheat (without grit and basal diet contain 1.5% grit of diet with sizes of 2, 3 and 4 mm. Growth performance (evaluated through weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio was determined on day 24 and 42. Also, carcass traits (relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, liver, heart, gizzard and intestine and intestine length were assessed on day 42. Weight gains and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in broilers added with grit 2 mm compared to the control group (p<0.05, whereas; carcass traits were not significantly altered. These data suggest that grit with size of 2 mm improve growth performance in broiler chickens.

  5. Effects of Crossbreeding and Gender on the Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Korean Native Black Pig and Duroc Crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of Korean Native Black Pig (KNP and KNP×Duroc crossbred (KNP×D. A total of 50 pigs comprising seven KNP barrows, eight KNP gilts, twenty KNP×D barrows and fifteen KNP×D gilts were used in this study. Animals were reared in the same housing condition with same feed diet for six months prior to slaughter. After an overnight chilling, the carcasses were graded, and samples of Musculus longissimus dorsi were obtained for meat quality analysis. The slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentage of KNP×D were higher (p<0.001 than those of KNP. The slaughter and carcass weights and backfat thickness of barrows were higher (p<0.01 than those of gilts. There were no significant difference in carcass conformation and quality grade between KNP and KNP×D as well as barrow and gilt. Fat content of KNP×D was higher (p<0.001 than that of KNP. Fat content of barrow was higher (p<0.001 than that of gilt. There was interaction between crossbreeding and gender on the fat content. KNP gilt showed higher fat content than KNP barrow whereas KNP×D barrow showed higher fat content than KNP×D gilt. Lightness, redness, yellowness, chroma and hue angle values and color preference of meat of KNP×D were lower (p<0.001 than those of KNP. Redness, yellowness and chroma values of meat of barrow were lower (p<0.05 than those of gilt. It is concluded that crossbreeding KNP with Duroc increases carcass productivity and meat fat but decreases meat color values and preference. Crossbreeding of KNP with Duroc produces a better fat deposition in meat of barrows than in gilts.

  6. Effects of extensive system versus semi-intensive and intensive systems on growth and carcass quality of dairy kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Zurita Herrera

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effects of three different management systems on growth and carcass quality of 61 Murciano-Granadina breed kids and their interaction with sex. In the extensive system, 21 kids were allocated to suckle from their dams on free-range pasture with no additional feedstuff. In the semi-intensive system, 20 kids were suckled from their dams and had access to alfalfa hay and cereal straw (no free-range pasture. In the intensive system, 20 kids were separated from the dams at birth and then fed with milk replacer and alfalfa hay. Animals were slaughtered at 7.00 ± 1.00 kg of average BW. The semi-intensive system and extensive system kids grew faster than intensive system animals (127, 113 and 96 g/d, respectively. Differences in energy intake may explain these differences. Intensive system kids displayed the lowest real dressing percentages, calculated as 100 × (hot carcass weight/empty body weight, due to high development of empty gastrointestinal tract. The long leg and carcass were larger in extensive system kids than in kids from other management systems, presumably due to high physical activity on the free-range pastures. The carcasses and cuts from semi-intensive system and extensive system kids displayed more fat than those of intensive system kids. Males grew faster than females (122 and 103 g/d, respectively. Carcasses in male kids showed a higher content of bones but a lower content of fat than carcasses in female kids. The extensive system is feasible for producing kid meat from a dairy breed.

  7. The West African Dwarf Sheep II. Carcass Traits Mutton Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcasses of thirty African Dwarf ewes had a yield of 42.5%, about 5mm backfat thickness and a loin eye of about 8cm2 primal cuts made up of 85% of the carcass. The best carcasses came from ewes slaughtered between two and four years of age. Average composition of retail cuts was 66.5% muscle, 26.5% bone and ...

  8. Exploring the surveillance potential of mortality data: nine years of bovine fallen stock data collected in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Anna; Dórea, Fernanda C; Arinero, Lucas; Sanchez, Javier; Cordón, Ruben; Puig, Pere; Revie, Crawford W

    2015-01-01

    The potential of fallen stock data to monitor the health status of animal populations has been noted in previous studies. However, further research is required to implement these systems for surveillance. This work presents a novel approach to determining the baselines associated with bovine fallen stock, comparing patterns between subpopulations and identifying subpopulations in which an abnormal event may occur. This study was based on data from 193,873 disposal visits carried out between 2004 and 2012 across a total of 2,991 bovine farms. Proxy measurements such as the number of collections carried out and the weight of carcasses collected were used. Both outcomes were aggregated weekly at different geographical scales for three production types (beef cattle, dairy cattle and heifer fattening). The analysis of these data combined autoregressive integrated moving average modelling and hierarchical time series methods.The three production types exhibited historical baselines that differed notably from one another. Based on the 757 beef cattle farms monitored, the mean number of collections registered per week at the regional level was 37 (range: 10-83). This series was relatively constant over time and showed a marked yearly seasonality. In contrast, for the 426 dairy cattle farms the mean number of disposal visits registered weekly was 121 (range: 71-180), showing half-yearly and yearly seasonality and a marked increase over the period monitored. From the 1,808 heifer fattening farms the mean number of disposal visits was 248 (range: 166-357) and the pattern presented a marked alternating trend over time. These patterns were assessed and compared at regional, provincial, county and municipal levels. The use of hierarchical time series approaches appeared to be a useful tool for comparing the patterns within different subpopulations over time as well as for assessing the spatial extent to which various abnormal events could be detected.

  9. Growth rate, carcass characteristics and meat quality of growing lambs fed buckwheat or maize silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurhan Keles

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated inclusion of buckwheat silage to the diet of growing lambs in terms of meat quality as compared to maize silage. Methods Buckwheat, rich in total phenols (TP, 33 g/kg dry matter [DM], was harvested at the end of the milk stage and ensiled in 40 kg plastic bags after wilting (294 g/kg silage DM. A total of 18 growing lambs (21.6±1.2 were individually fed isonitrogenous and isoenergetic total mixed rations (TMR for 75 d that either contained buckwheat or maize silage at DM proportions of 0.50. At the end of feeding trail all lambs were slaughtered to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. Results Buckwheat silage increased (p0.05 on live weight gain and feed efficiency. Carcass weight, dressing percentage, meat pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force (kg/cm2, and total viable bacteria count of meat did not differ (p>0.05 between the treatments. However, TP content of meat increased (p<0.001 by feeding buckwheat TMR. Feeding buckwheat TMR also decreased (p<0.05 the b* values of meat. Conclusion The results provide that buckwheat silage is palatable and could successfully include TMR of growing lambs with no adverse effects on performance, carcass and meat quality. Additionally, feeding buckwheat silage to lambs offers increased TP in meat.

  10. Pathogen analysis of NYSDOT road-killed deer carcass compost facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Composting of deer carcasses was effective in reducing pathogen levels, decomposing the : carcasses and producing a useable end product after 12 months. The composting process used in this project : involved enveloping the carcasses of road-killed de...

  11. Effect of slaughter weight on characteristics and economics of pig ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to evaluate the effect of slaughter weight on carcass characteristics of pigs was conducted using twenty four Landrace X Large White crossbred pigs. Twelve castrates and twelve gilts with average initial weight of 35 ± 4.4 kg were randomly assigned to three targeted slaughter weights. Pigs were slaughtered at live ...

  12. Does the chicken genotype 'Géline de Touraine' have specific carcass and meat characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baéza, E; Chartrin, P; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Lessire, M; Besnard, J; Berri, C

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the specific characteristics of carcass and meat from an old French chicken breed, the 'Géline de Touraine' (GT), characterised by a very slow-growing rate and usually slaughtered at 120 days of age. For this purpose, we compared the GT with an experimental crossbreed (EC) exhibiting the same growth rate, and with a 'Label rouge' (LR) genotype usually slaughtered at 84 days of age. A total of 250 males and 250 females per genotype were reared by separating sexes and genotypes. The growth performances were recorded. At 84 days of age, 80 birds per sex and per genotype were slaughtered. The frequency of clawing and pecking injuries on the carcass was noted. We also measured the skin colour and the thickness of wing membrane. The relative percentages of carcass, breast, thigh + drumstick, abdominal fat, testis or ovary to body weight were determined. On breast and thigh muscles the ultimate pH (pHu) and colour were measured. The juice loss after 3 days' storage at +4°C and after cooking at 85°C, and the shear force value of Warner-Bratzler were only measured on breast muscles. At 120 days of age, we repeated the same measurements but only on EC and GT genotypes in order to compare birds at the same age or at the respective slaughter age for each production. Whatever the slaughter age, the body weight of males was always higher than that of the females but the carcass yield was similar for both sexes. The females had higher breast yield and carcass fatness but lower thigh + drumstick yield than the males. The yellowness of skin and meat was higher for the females than for the males while the contrary was observed for the redness of the meat. The breast meat of the females also had higher cooking loss than that of the males. GT and EC birds exhibited a higher occurrence of carcass defects and a higher pHu in meat than LR birds. The GT chickens were characterised by a lower breast yield, a higher fattiness and an earlier sexual

  13. Effect of nursing-calf implant timing on growth performance and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M J; Harty, A A; Salverson, R R; Kincheloe, J J; Zuelly, S M S; Underwood, K R; Luebbe, M K; Olson, K C; Blair, A D

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare pre- and postweaning growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality attributes of calves that did not receive an implant or were implanted early or late in the nursing period. Crossbred steer calves ( = 135) were stratified by birth date and birth weight and randomly assigned to the following implant treatments: control (CON; no preweaning implant), 58 d (EARLY; 36 mg zeranol, administered at an average of 58 ± 13 d of age), and 121 d (LATE; 36 mg zeranol, administered at an average 121 ± 13 d of age). After weaning, steers were blocked by initial feed yard BW to 15 pens (5 pens/treatment and 9 steers/pen). All steers were implanted on d 21 after arrival at the feed yard and again on d 108 of finishing. Steer BW and ultrasound assessment of rib eye area (uREA), rib fat thickness (uRFT), and percent intramuscular fat (uIMF) were collected when implants were administered, at weaning, and on harvest day. Carcass measurements included HCW, rib eye area (REA), 12th-rib fat thickness (FT), and marbling score. Objective color (L*, a*, and b*) was recorded, and a 3.8-cm strip loin section was removed from both sides of each carcass and portioned into 2.54-cm steaks that were aged for 3 or 14 d for analysis of cook loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). The remaining portion of each sample was used for analysis of moisture and crude fat. Steer BW, ADG, and G:F did not differ among treatments ( > 0.05). Steers implanted in the EARLY treatment had a greater ( 0.05); however, steers on the CON treatment had a greater ( ≤ 0.05) percent uIMF than EARLY implanted steers, whereas steers receiving the LATE implant were intermediate and not different from the other treatments. Hot carcass weight, REA, FT, USDA yield grade, marbling score, and objective color did not differ ( > 0.05) among treatments. The proportion of steers in each USDA yield and quality grade was similar ( > 0.05) among treatments, and no

  14. Performance and carcass traits of goat kids fed high-concentrate diets containing citrus pulp or soybean hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Montanher Polizel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective in this trial was to determine the effects of partial replacement of ground corn by citrus pulp or soybean hulls on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goat kids. Twenty one Boer x Saanen kids (initial BW 15.8 ± 0.7kg, nine males and 12 females, were distributed in a complete randomized block design, according to sex and initial body weight. Treatments were set by replacing 50% of ground corn (DM basis for citrus pulp or soybean hulls; whereas, forage concentrate ratio was of 10:90. Partial replacement of corn by citrus pulp or soybean hulls increased dry matter intake, average daily gain and final body weight, but feed efficiency was not affected. There was no difference between citrus pulp or soybean hulls. Inclusion of coproducts increased slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight and longissimus muscle area, with no difference between citrus pulp and soybean hulls. Subcutaneous fat thickness, hot and cold carcass yields, shrink after chilling and body wall thickness were not affected by treatments. Citrus pulp and soybean hulls can replace 50% of ground corn (DM basis increasing dry matter intake and weight gain in goat kids enabling higher slaughter weight at earlier age.

  15. Effects of clay on fat necrosis and carcass characteristics in Japanese Black steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Akio; Iwamoto, Eiji; Tatsuda, Ken

    2015-10-01

    Twenty 10-month-old Japanese Black steers were used to evaluate the effects of clay on fat necrosis and carcass characteristics. Ten steers (Clay group) were fed the clay (50 g/day) during 10-30 months of age. The other 10 steers (Control group) were not fed it. There was no significant difference in body weight or average daily gain between the two groups (P > 0.05). The occurrence of fat necrotic mass in the Clay group (30%) was lower (P Clay group was smaller (P clay prevented the occurrence of fat necrosis and did not affect the carcass characteristics in Japanese Black steers. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Effect of Combined Probiotics (Saccharomyces Cerevisae + Candida Utilis) and Herbs on Carcass Characteristics of Swamp Buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyuddin, P; Widiawati, Y

    2010-01-01

    A feedlot trial was conducted to study the effect of probiotics + herbs on carcass characteristics. Thirty male swamp buffaloes aged 2–2.5 years with the average body weight of 297 kg were used in this trial. They were fattened for 75 days to reach a slaughter weight of around 350–400 kg. They were divided into two groups of 15 animals in each group, and were placed in a shaded paddock. The groups were the control and the treated animals. The treated animals were given a supplementation conta...

  17. Efficacy and efficiency of poultry carcass composting using different mechanical mixing equipment for avian influenza outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Elizabeth Keaten

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Avian influenza (AI is a viral disease that caused the largest animal disease outbreak in the history of US agriculture. There are several disposal methods of AI infected poultry carcasses available in the US, which include on-site burial, landfill, incineration, rendering, and composting. Of these methods, composting is the most environmentally friendly and poses a low risk for biosecurity. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA has developed a comprehensive plan for composting AI infected carcasses. The current protocols have the potential for areas of anaerobic pockets within the windrow due to inadequate mixing and the large carcass size of whole birds. This could lead to ineffective virus neutralization or prolonged composting times and higher resource costs. The purpose of this project was to determine if using a horizontal mixer (HM wagon to mix composting ingredients or a vertical mixer (VM wagon to mix and cut up the compositing ingredients is an economical and timely means to accelerate the tissue break-down and obtain optimal temperatures for poultry carcass composting during an AI outbreak. Materials and Methods: A replicated trial with three treatments, HM, conventional layering (CL and VM, and three replications was initiated at the Compost Research and Education Center part of the University of Maine Forest and Agricultural Experimental Station called High Moor Farm. Daily temperatures and screened core sample weights (screen weights on day 0, 16, and 30 were recorded for each of the compost piles. The time to build each replication was recorded and used to help calculate the cost of each method. Data on equipment, carbon material and labor costs were collected from private contractors from the 2014 to 2016 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI outbreak and used to compare costs between methods. Results: All treatment methods reached USDA protocol temperatures to neutralize the HPAI virus. Screen weights for

  18. Performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acid profile of different Japanese quails strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Ali, El-Shimaa M R; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2017-12-01

    Poultry production is considered one of the prospective opportunities to accomplish sustainable and quick production of superior protein to challenge the growing mandate for animal protein. Therefore, this study was aimed to explore the difference on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acid profile of different Japanese quails strains. A total of 480 quail chicks of four different plumage colors (120 of each white, golden, gray and brown) were collected after hatching. At 6 week of age, birds were stunned and decapitated to determine the physical meat quality, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and amino acid profile. White quails had the highest weight of slaughter, carcass, dressing, carcass yield, liver, gizzard, heart and spleen (197.27 g, 169.27 g, 91%, 82%, 6.63 g, 6.53 g, 2.27 g and 0.40 g, respectively). Also, they had the highest Ph U , lightness, yellowness and water holding capacity with the lowest level of redness, cooking losses and thiobarbituric acid in pectoral (6.28, 46.40, 12,46, 22.17, 9.20, 19.21 and 0.44, respectively) and thigh muscles (6.37, 42.30, 11.51, 26.01, 10.12 and 0.93, respectively). Moreover, they possessed the highest level of all essential (11.68 and 10.16 g/100 g protein in pectoral and thigh muscles, respectively) and non essential amino acids (13.27 and 12.54 g/100 g protein in pectoral and thigh muscles, respectively). Therefore, the current study revealed that white quails had the heaviest body weight with the best carcass traits and meat quality.

  19. Dried artichoke bracts in rabbits nutrition: effects on the carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty-acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, S; Gasco, L; Gai, F; Zoccarato, I; Rotolo, L; Dabbou Fekih, S; Brugiapaglia, A; Helal, A N; Peiretti, P G

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the effects of the inclusion of artichoke bracts (AB) in rabbit diets on the carcass characteristics and rabbit meat quality were studied. A total of 120 rabbits aged 38 days were used and divided into three groups that were fed with different isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets supplemented with AB at 0%, 5% and 10%. The animals were single housed in wire cages at a temperature of 22±2°C and had free access to clean drinking water. At 96 days of age, 12 rabbits/group were slaughtered in an experimental slaughterhouse without fasting. The carcass was weighed and the weights of the skin and full gastrointestinal tract were recorded. Carcasses were chilled at +4°C for 24 h in a refrigerated room. The chilled carcass weight (CCW), dressing out percentage (CCW as percentage of slaughter weight), and the ratio of the head and liver were determined as a percentage of CCW. The reference carcass weight was also calculated. Carcasses were halved and the two longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were excised. The left LD muscle was divided into two parts. The fore part was used to measure pH, colour and cooking losses. The hind part of the left LD was vacuum-packed, frozen at -20°C and then freeze-dried. Proximate composition, fatty-acid profile and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values were determined on freeze-dried samples. Results showed that carcass characteristics, LD muscle traits and its oxidative status were not affected by the AB supplementation, except for the meat ether extract content that increased from 0.68% to 0.94% on fresh matter basis with the increase of the AB supplementation (P<0.01). The α-linolenic acid proportion decreased with the increase of the AB supplementation from 3.58% to 2.59% in the LD muscle and from 4.74% to 3.62% in the perirenal fat, whereas the n-6/n-3 ratio increased significantly with increasing AB inclusion from 7.15 to 10.20 in the LD muscle and from 6.68 to 9.35 in the perirenal fat (P<0.01). Furthermore, no

  20. In take, performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed diets containing dried cassava peel meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of inclusion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% dried cassava peel meal (DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens over the period from 1 to 42 days of age on nutrient intake, animal performance, and carcass yield. Two hundred Cobb broiler chickens (1 day old were allocated in a completely randomized design consisting of four inclusion levels of DCPM (treatment, with 10 animals per box and 5 boxes per treatment. The different levels of DCPM did not alter (P>0.05 dietary dry matter (DM or organic matter intake, expressed as g/animal/day, kg DMS/kg0.75, and percentage of body weight. However, the addition of DCPM resulted in a linear increase (P<0.05 in crude protein intake and in a quadratic increase (P<0.05 in neutral detergent fiber intake. Furthermore, the different DCPM levels led to a linear decrease (P<0.05 in average daily gain, average total gain, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens during the period studied. Feed conversion increased linearly (P<0.05 in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age with inclusion of DCPM in the diets. The inclusion of increasing levels of DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age exerted a linear decreasing effect (P<0.05 on slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and chest, wing, thigh and back weight. The inclusion of more than 10% DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age reduces feed and nutrient intake, weight gain, and carcass and noble cut yield.

  1. Carcass and meat quality of Gokceada Goat kids reared under extensive and semi-intensive production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mustafa; Yalcintan, Hulya; Tölü, Cemil; Ekiz, Bulent; Yilmaz, Alper; Savaş, Türker

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the carcass and meat quality characteristics of male and female Gokceada Goat kids produced in extensive (n=20) and semi-intensive (n=20) systems. In extensive and semi-intensive produced kids pre-slaughter weights were 17.44 and 12.51 kg; cold carcass weights were 8.66 and 5.35 kg and cold dressing percentages were 54.9 and 49.28%, respectively. The effect of kid sex was not significant on hot and cold dressing percentages, back fat thickness, M. longissimus dorsi section area, carcass fatness and conformation scores, and carcass measurements, while female kids had higher omental and mesenteric fat and kidney knob and channel fat percentages than male kids. Extensive produced kids had lower meat lightness. Panellists evaluated extensive system kids with higher scores of kid odour intensity, flavour intensity and overall acceptability. It was concluded that it would be more appropriate to use an extensive system in Gokceada Goat breeding for kid meat production. © 2013.

  2. Relative growth of carcass tissues of goat kids from five breed Types finished on pasture or feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vasconcelos Lourençon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cross breeding, finishing system, and gender on the relative growth of carcass tissues of dairy kids. Seventy eight kids (39 male and 39 female from five breed types were used: Alpine; ½ Boer + ½ Alpine (½ BA; ½ Nubian + ½ Alpine (½ ANA; ¾ Boer + ¼ Alpine (¾ BA; and ½ Nubian + ¼ Boer + ¼ Alpine (TC. Kids were distributed into two finishing systems: in pasture with doe (FS1 and weaned in feedlot (FS2. Kids were slaughtered at a mean age of 128.4 ± 7.9 days and mean live weight of 22.07 kg. The mean weight of half carcasses was 5.09 kg. To determine allometric growth, we used the exponential equation Y= aXb. In the half carcass, muscle tissue showed comparatively early growth in group ½ BA, whereas fat tissue of animals in FS1 had relatively late growth. Females exhibited early growth of muscle tissue, while in males this tissue was intermediate. The ½ BA first-cross improved carcass characteristics by enhancing the growth of muscle tissue.

  3. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05 intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05. These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics.

  4. Carcass and physical meat characteristics of thin tail sheep (TTS based on calpastatin gene (CAST (Locus intron 5 – exon 6 genotypes variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ihsan Andi Dagong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of sheep carcass is mostly determined by the total lean meat production, meat distribution on the carcass and the quality of meat. Calpastatin gene (CAST is known to have an association with carcass and meat quality traits. The objective of this research was to identify the association between CAST polymorphisms and carcass characteristics in Thin Tail Sheep (TTS. Thirty three heads of sheep representing three genotypes of CAST (CAST-11, CAST-12 and CAST-22 were identified for carcass and meat characterisation. There was no significant difference between CAST polymorphisms with meat tenderness, pH, water holding capacity and cooking loss, neither with carcass weight and dressing percentage among genotypes. Shoulder proportion of CAST-11 genotype was larger than that of CAST-12 or CAST-22, but the lean meat proportion of CAST-22 genotype in shoulder, rack and loin were higher than those of CAST-11 but not different from CAST-12. The fat percentage of CAST-11 was the highest among the genotypes. CAST-22 genotype has higher lean meat percentage than the CAST-11. Variation in CAST gene could be used as marker assisted selection in sheep for higher lean meat proportion.

  5. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: II. Carcass composition, retail product, and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    A computer simulation model was used to characterize the response in carcass composition, retail product, and quality of steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds (Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise) mated to Hereford and Angus dams, grown under nine backgrounding systems, and finished at either a low (1.0 kg) or high (1.36 kg) ADG. The backgrounding systems were a high ADG (.9 kg) for 111, 167, or 222 d, a medium ADG (.5 kg) for 200, 300, or 400 d, a low ADG (.25 kg) for 300 or 400 d and 0 d backgrounding. For specific genotype x production system combinations, results showed that carcasses of compensating steers may be either leaner, not different in fatness, or fatter than carcasses of steers put on a finishing diet directly after weaning. Systems in which steers gained a greater proportion of the final slaughter weight over long durations of growth restriction resulted in leaner carcasses. There were 12 common production systems in which 13 of the genotypes produced a carcass with a maximum of 28% fat or with a marbling score of 11 or greater. These results suggest sire breeds used to produce these steers can be used over a wide range of nutritional and management environments, and that a mixed group of steers can be fed and managed similarly from weaning to slaughter to produce a carcass with a specified composition, retail product, or quality.

  6. Carcass and meat characteristics of steers or bulls, finished in feedlot and fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Moletta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characters of carcass and meat from bulls and steers finished in feedlot during a 116 day period, in individual stalls and fed with a diet of corn silage and three levels of concentrate (0.70; 0.97 and 1.23% of body weight. The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% of ground corn grain 1% of a mineral mix and 1% of limestone. A total of 169 composite Purunã animals, being 94 bulls and 75 steers with average age of 20 months. The interaction between physiological condition and level of concentrate was not significant (P>0.05 for any of the studied variables. Likewise, no effect of level of concentrate was detected upon the same traits. The bulls presented heavier slaughter weight (493.1 kg in comparison with the steers (450.0 kg as well as higher carcass yield (55.2 vs. 53.5%, resulting in a hot carcass weight 12.1% heavier than bulls animals, though with a lower degree of carcass finishing (3.6 vs. 4.2 mm, respectively. Bulls produced carcasses with better conformation and higher area of Longissimus dorsi (68.6 vs. 63.3 cm2, and higher percentage of muscle in comparison with castrated (66.5 vs. 62.8%. The meat from bulls was darker and with lower degree of marbling in relation to steers. Nevertheless, no differences were observed for tenderness nor for juiciness, though steers had more palatable meat.

  7. Bovine bone for white ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.L. de; Harima, E.; Leite, J.I.P.; Monteiro, F.M.; Bezerra, M.T.T.

    2011-01-01

    The porcelain is composed of feldspar, kaolin and about 50% for bovine bone ashes. This work aims to analyze the properties acquired by the substitution of kaolin by its waste. For characterization of raw materials chemical analyzes were made by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and mineralogical analysis by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Four formulations were produced varying the percentage of waste materials of kaolin and bone ashes of 25 and 55% by weight. The samples were sintered at temperatures of 1150, 1200 and 1250 deg C. The technological tests realized were: water absorption (WA), apparent porosity (AP), apparent density (AD) and linear retraction (LR). Improvement in the physical-mechanical properties of the samples with increasing temperature were observed, and 1250 deg C obtained 0.69% of WA, 1.22% AP, 2.26 g / cm3 AD, and 0.52% LR

  8. Impact of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth, efficiency, and carcass traits of finishing pigs in a three-phase marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlemann, G D; Allee, G L; Rincker, P J; Ritter, M J; Boler, D D; Carr, S N

    2014-03-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) in a 3-phase marketing strategy. One thousand seven hundred forty pigs were used in 80 single-sex pens in 2 blocks. Each pen housed approximately 22 pigs. Sixteen percent of the total population of pigs was sold during the first marketing period, 18% was sold during the second marketing period, and the remaining 66% was sold during the third marketing period. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design of 2 treatments. Pigs in the second marketing group had greater growth performance indicators than pigs in the first marketing group. Over the entire feeding period, pigs fed RAC were 2.73 kg heavier (P marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (89.73 kg) were 2.1% heavier (P = 0.04) and gained 0.19 kg/d more (P = 0.03) carcass weight than carcasses from pigs not fed RAC (87.89 kg). By the end of the second marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (99.00 kg) were 3.1% heavier (P marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (102.75 kg) were 3.7% heavier (P marketing period, but as duration increased differences diminished. Therefore, RAC can provide the expected growth performance benefits when included in the diet for up to 21 d, but HCW advantages continue to increase throughout the entire 35 d feeding period. Even though carcass benefits were not as evident in pigs sold during the first marketing period, advantages (particularly HCW) continued to increase with each marketing period.

  9. Effects of feeding system on growth performance, plasma biochemical components and hormones, and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Sung Chung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to compare growth performance, blood components and carcass traits by two feeding systems (concentrate with roughage separately [CON] vs total mixed ration [TMR] in Hanwoo steers, and to learn the relationship between blood components during fattening or finishing phases and carcass traits in Hanwoo steers. Methods Sixty steers aged 8 months were allotted to two feeding systems and fed similar amounts of average dry matter and total digestible nutrient throughout whole experimental period according to each feeding program. Steers were weighed monthly, taken blood at the end of growing, fattening and finishing periods, and slaughtered at 30 month of age. Results Growing performance was higher (p<0.05 in the CON group compared to the TMR group during fattening and finishing periods. The CON group was lower (p<0.05 in blood aspartic acid transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and retinol levels during growing period, but higher in triglyceride and cholesterol levels during fattening and finishing periods compared to the TMR group. The CON group was greater (p<0.05 in rib-eye area, and lighter (p<0.05 red in meat color compared to the TMR group. In the correlation coefficients between blood components of steers and carcass traits, retinol had a negative (p<0.05 correlation with marbling score and rib-eye area. Leptin had a positive (p<0.05 correlation with back fat thickness. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride were positively (p<0.05 correlated with carcass weight and rib-eye area. Conclusion Growth performance, carcass ribeye area and meat color showed a more desirable result in the CON compared to the TMR in Hanwoo steers. Assessing the accumulated data of carcass traits with blood components including hormones—particularly retinol, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin—during the fattening or finishing phases, it may be possible to find a biomarker for determining beef quality in living animals.

  10. Longissimus muscle transcriptome profiles related to carcass and meat quality traits in fresh meat Pietrain carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Keuning, E.; Hulsegge, B.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Evans, G.; Mulder, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    High quality pork is consumed as fresh meat while other carcasses are used in the processing industry. Meat quality is determined measuring technical muscle parameters. The objective of this research was to investigate the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying meat quality differences of pork

  11. 78 FR 79658 - Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... prepare an environmental impact statement to examine the potential environmental effects of animal carcass... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0044] Environmental Impact Statement; Animal Carcass Management AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...

  12. Carcass glycogen repletion on carbohydrate re-feeding after starvation.

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, D J; Palmer, T N

    1987-01-01

    In mice, the response of carcass glycogen to glucose re-feeding after starvation is biphasic. The initial repletive phase is followed by partial (greater than 50%) glycogen mobilization. This turnover of carcass glycogen in response to carbohydrate re-feeding may play an important role in the provision of C3 precursors for hepatic glycogen synthesis.

  13. Influence of electrical stimulation on carcass and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agbeniga

    2014-08-24

    Aug 24, 2014 ... After the stimulation, evisceration and carcass splitting procedures were carried out before the carcasses enter the chillers. In total, 57 animals were assigned to this treatment. Conventional slaughter was done with the aid of a pneumatic captive bolt gun which utilises compressed air (Anil et al., 2002). Here ...

  14. Carcass Characteristics and Qualitative Attributes of Pork from Immunocastrated Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; Moi, Marta; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; de Lima Almeida Paz, Ibiara Correia; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Fernandes, Alexandre Rodrigo Mendes

    2013-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to assess the carcass characteristics and meat quality aspects of immunocastrated male pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass (53 to 55%). When the crossbred Large White x Landrace pigs (n = 45) were 70 days old, they were distributed in a totally randomized design in three treatments (castrated males, females and immunocastrated males) with three replicates of five animals. The pigs were slaughtered when they were 140 days old. Carcass temperature and pH were recorded twice, at 45 min and 24 h after slaughter. The carcasses were evaluated for hot and cold carcass yield, commercial cuts yield, length and depth, back fat thickness, loin eye area and lean meat percentage. The Longissimus dorsi muscle was extracted for analysis of color (L*, a*, b*), exudate loss, cooking loss and centesimal and sensorial analysis of the meat. There were no significant differences for the evaluated parameters between castrated males, immunocastrated males and females, except for backfat thickness between the 7th and 8th thoracic vertebra and the point P2 (lower for immunocastrated males) and carcass temperature at 45 min post slaughter (higher in immunocastrated males), however, this did not interfer with the rate of pH decrease post mortem and the meat quality. The results from this research did not indicate a benefit of immunocastration on carcass characteristics of pigs of medium genetic potential for lean meat deposition in carcass, when compared to surgical castration. PMID:25049751

  15. Fat quality of South African pigs with different carcass classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The carcasses of South African pigs are classified into six groups (PORCUS) according to their calculated lean meat content and measured backfat thickness. Pigs with the highest lean meat content and lowest backfat thickness belong to the P group. Fat quality of backfat from 2107 pig carcasses, sampled within the ...

  16. Prevalence of Salmonella on Sheep Carcasses Slaughtered at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... indicated that Salmonella is a common problem in slaughtered sheep carcasses in Adama municipal abattoir. Therefore, Sources of pathogens in food animals need to be investigated and a further study of pathogens in the food chain is recommended. Keywords: Adama Carcass Ethiopia Prevalence Salmonella Sheep.

  17. Growth, carcass and sensory traits of broiler chickens fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At 28-day feeding trial, the birds were slaughtered for carcass analysis and sensory traits (colour, appearance, flavor, texture, taste and overall acceptability). The data on growth, carcass and sensory traits were collected and analyzed using ANOVA and means separated using the Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Result on ...

  18. Live mass, carcass and wool growth responses to supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was terminated after 7 months, when tte animals were slaughtered. The mass of the carcass, viscera. (empty gut plus internal organs), and the remainder (fleece, skin, shanks, head) was determined immediately after slaughter. Mass of gut contents was determined by differ- ence. The carcasses and viscera ...

  19. Fatal inanition in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus: Pathological findings in completely emaciated carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mørk Torill

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a project to determine the causes of winter mortality in reindeer in Finnmark County, northern Norway, the most frequent diagnosis turned out to be complete emaciation, despite several of the reindeer having been given silage for up to 4 weeks before they died. The present paper describes autopsy results and other findings in these animals. Methods Autopsies were made of 32 reindeer carcasses, and 28 of these were diagnosed as completely emaciated based on lack of visible fat and serous atrophy of subepicardial and bone marrow fat. Other investigations of the carcasses included histology, bacteriology, parasitology (counting of macro parasites and faecal egg counting, analysis of vitamin E and selenium in liver, chemical and botanical analysis of rumen content, analysis of lipid content in femur bone marrow and estimation of muscle atrophy by use of a muscle index. Results Main findings were: Low carcass weight, severe muscle atrophy, hemosiderosis in liver and spleen, subcutaneous oedema (18% and effusions to body cavities (18%. Two types of lipofuscin granula were identified in the liver: One type occurred in liver endothelial cells of all carcasses, while the other type occurred in hepatocytes, and prevailed in adult animals. Abomasal haemorrhages, consistent with previously described stress lesions, was present in 68% of the carcasses. Diarrhoea occurred in 2 cases, and loose faecal consistency was associated with silage feeding. Rumen content was low in crude protein. Grass dominated rumen content in silage-fed carcasses, while reindeer on natural pastures had mainly woody plants, mosses and litter in rumen. Stem dominated the grass fraction in rumens with high grass content, indicating ruminal indigestion as a cause of emaciation in silage fed animals. Some cases had heavy infestation of parasites such as warble fly larvae (Hypoderma tarandi, throat bot larvae (Cephenemyiae trompe and lung nematodes. Conclusion Lack

  20. Genetic Analysis of Ultrasound and Carcass Measurement Traits in a Regional Hanwoo Steer Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Mi Hwang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound measurements of backfat thickness (UBF, longissimus muscle area (ULMA and marbling score (UMS and carcass measurements of carcass weight (CW, backfat thickness (BF, longissimus muscle area (LMA, and marbling score (MS on 7,044 Hanwoo steers were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters. Data from Hanwoo steers that were raised, finished in Hoengseong-gun, Gangwon-do (province and shipped to slaughter houses during the period from October 2010 to April 2013 were evaluated. Ultrasound measurements were taken at approximately three months before slaughter by an experienced operator using a B-mode real-time ultrasound device (HS-2000, FHK Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan with a 3.5 MHz linear probe. Ultrasound scanning was on the left side between 13th rib and the first lumbar vertebrae. All slaughtering processes and carcass evaluations were performed in accordance with the guidelines of beef grading system of Korea. To estimate genetic parameters, multiple trait animal models were applied. Fixed effects included in the models were: the effects of farm, contemporary group effects (year-season at the time of ultrasound scanning in the models for UBF, ULMA, and UMS, and year-season at slaughter in the models for CW, BF, LMA, and MS, the effects of ultrasound technicians as class variables and the effects of the age in days at ultrasound scanning or at slaughtering as linear covariates, respectively for ultrasound and carcass measures. Heritability estimates obtained from our analyses were 0.37 for UBF, 0.13 for ULMA, 0.27 for UMS, 0.44 for CW, 0.33 for BF, 0.36 for LMA and 0.54 MS, respectively. Genetic correlations were strongly positive between corresponding traits of ultrasound and carcass measures. Genetic correlation coefficient between UBF and BF estimate was 0.938, between ULMA and LMA was 0.767 and between UMS and MS was 0.925. These results suggest that ultrasound measurement traits are genetically similar to carcass measurement traits.

  1. Modeling the Biological Diversity of Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen

    for extracting and modeling meaningful information from the vast amount of information available from non-invasive imaging data. The lean meat percentage (LMP) is a common standard for measuring the quality of pig carcasses. Measuring the LMP using CT and using this as a reference for calibration of online...... more spatially localized modes of variation that are easier interpretable and the latter enables the use of PDM’s without the need for full point correspondence of new data. There is great potential in applying CT as non-invasive modality in the meat industry, e.g. in population based studies...

  2. Effects of gestational maternal undernutrition on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of rabbit offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K Symeon

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of gestational undernutrition of rabbit does on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of the offsprings. Thirty primiparous non lactating rabbit does were artificially inseminated and randomly divided in three treatment groups: Control (C; fed to 100% of maintenance requirements throughout gestation, n = 10, early undernourished (EU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 7-19 of gestation, n = 10 and late undernourished (LU; fed to 50% of maintenance requirements during days 20-27 of gestation, n = 10. During the 4th week of the gestation period, LU does significantly lost weight compared to C and EU groups (P<0.05. At kindling, C does produced litters with higher proportions of stillborn kits (P<0.05 while the total litter size (alive and stillborn kits was not different among groups (10.7, 12.8 and 12.7 kits in C, EU and LU groups, respectively. Kit birth weight tended to be lower in the LU group. During fattening, body weight and feed intake were not different among offsprings of the three experimental groups. Moreover, the maternal undernutrition did not have any impact on carcass composition of the offsprings in terms of carcass parts and internal organs weights as well as meat quality of L. lumborum muscle (pH24, colour, water holding capacity and shear values at slaughter (70 days of age. Therefore, it can be concluded that the gestational undernutrition of the mother does not have detrimental effects on the productive and quality traits of the offsprings.

  3. ESCHERICHIA COLI O157 IN WITHE VEAL CALVES CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D’Orio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 one hundred and three white veal calves slaughtered at an abattoir in Isernia (Italy were examined for E. coli O157 intestinal carriage and carcass contamination, using Immuno-Magnetic Separation (IMS and multiplex PCR. Faecal material before slaughtering and carcass samples, using sponge-bag, were collected. E. coli O157 isolates were found in 10 (9,71% faecal and 9 (8,7% carcass samples. PCR analysis showed that all the strains from faecal and from carcass samples carried eaeA, hlyA and stx2 genes, while five strains stx1 gene. The results confirm that the slaughter practices can largely influence the rate of E. coli O157 carcasses contamination and suggest that white veal calves meat could be an important risk for human health.

  4. Microbiological contamination of lamb carcasses at abattoirs of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Kahraman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of a hundred lamb carcasses were sampled over a 12 month period at abattoirs in Istanbul, Turkey. Each sample examined for total aerobic mesophilic counts (TMC, Enterobacteriaceae count (EC, Salmonella spp. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes was obtained from 100 cm2 areas on four sides of lamb carcasses using the wet and dry cotton swab technique. The study revealed that total aerobic mesophilic counts in all carcasses ranged between 4.18 and 5.95 log/cm2; Enterobacteriaceae counts between 1.60 and 2.30 CFU/cm2. All samples were negative for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. Furthermore Salmonella spp. was detected on four carcasses. The data confirms bacteriological monitoring of lamb carcasses as a useful criteria for the verification of slaughter hygiene.

  5. FOOD SAFETY AND PROCESS HYGIENE CRITERIONS ON SHEEP CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mazzette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygienic status and the presence of some pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella spp. at slaughterhouses was evaluated in different matrix of sheep and lambs (carcass surface, faeces, fleeces and mesenteric lymph nodes according to the Com. Reg. (EC No 2073/2005. The 48% of sheep and 68.9% of lamb sampled carcasses resulted allocated into the marginal category for Aerobic colony count, while the 28% and 42.2% respectively were allocated into unacceptable category for Enterobacteriaceae. S.aureus was isolated more frequently in fleeces (11.5%, carcasses (12.6% of lambs than sheep. L. monocytogenes was found in fleeces and carcass of two sheep and in faeces of four lambs, while Salmonella spp. was detected only in sheep carcasses of a single plant.

  6. Seasonal carcass composition and energy balance of female black ducks in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, K.J.; Stone, T.L.; Owen, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Female Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) collected in Maine during the summer, fall, and winter of 1974-1976 showed significant seasonal variation in body weight, nonfat dry weight, gizzard and pectoral muscle weight, and fat, moisture, and protein content. Variation of body weight within and among seasons was correlated more strongly with carcass protein content, and with fat content during seasons of heavy lipid deposition, than with three structural size variables (culmen, tarsus, and sternum). Regression equations including fat and protein as independent variables accounted for 80-90% of the annual and seasonal variation in body weight; structural size variables alone accounted for less than 30%. Immature females averaged 54 and 99 g lighter, and carried 54 and 59 g less fat than adults during the fall and winter. Ducks of both age classes lost weight in December and January. Adult and immature females metabolized 59 and 64 g of fat and 17 and 25 g of protein in winter compared with 46 g of fat during the nesting season. Nutrient reserves are thus equally as important for the winter survival of these birds as for successfurl eproduction. Seasonal changes in carcass composition suggest that (1) fat deposited in late fall provides an energy reserve during winter, (2) a reduction in lean weight during winter may lower daily energy requirements and increase the effective amount of energy reserves, and (3) declining body weights during late winter may be an endogenous rhythm that reflects a shift in the expected benefits of an energy reserve compared to the costs of carrying additional weight,

  7. Effect of Sorghum Based Nutritional Programs on Performance, Carcass Yield and Composition of Breast in Broilers

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    MM Silveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to compare three nutritional programs, which were developed with tannin-free grain sorghum based diets, evaluating performance, carcass yield and bromatological composition of the pectoral muscle of broilers. A total 1360 chicks mixed (50:50, from one to 42 days old Hubbard Flex Broilers, were housed in a completely randomized design consisting of treatments and 10 replicates each, distributed as follows: three programs with whole sorghum grain based diets (nutritional program with daily adjustment, nutritional program with every three days adjustment and nutritional program with four stages and a program with ground and whole sorghum grain based feed (four stages. The cumulative performance was evaluated at, 21 and 42 days, determining feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and viability. At 42 days, the yield of eviscerated carcass, breast (full and boneless, thighs/drumsticks and wings and breast composition were evaluated. Nutritional adjustments showed better feed conversion, did not affect the carcass, commercial cuts yield and had a good breast meat quality. It can be concluded that daily feed programs could be performed in poultry industry with the mixture of whole sorghum grains and concentrates directly on farms contributing to better logistics and feed transportation cost.

  8. Polymorphisms in candidate genes and their association with carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle

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    Bárbara Oliveira Borges

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the allele polymorphism frequencies of genes in Nellore cattle and associate them with meat quality and carcass traits. Six hundred males were genotyped for the following polymorphisms: DGAT1 (VNTR with 18 nucleotides at the promoter region; ANK1, a new polymorphism, identified and mapped here at the gene regulatory region NW_001494427.3; TCAP (AY428575.1:g.346G>A; and MYOG (NW_001501985:g.511G>C. In the association study, phenotype data of hot carcass weight, ribeye area, backfat thickness, percentage of intramuscular fat, shear force, myofibrillar fragmentation index, meat color (L*, a*, b*, and cooking losses were used. Allele B from the ANK1 gene was associated with greater redness (a*. Alleles 5R, 6R, and 7R from the DGAT1 VNTR gene were associated with increased intramuscular fat, reduced cooking losses and increased ribeye area, respectively. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of the TCAP gene was not polymorphic, and MYOG alleles were not associated with any of the evaluated characteristics. These results indicate that ANK1 and DGAT1 genes can be used in the selection of Nellore cattle for carcass and meat quality.

  9. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05 between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P0.05 by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P0.05 the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05 for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03 total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.

  10. PERFORMANCE, CARCASS YIELD AND LITTER QUALITY OF BROILERS RAISED ON LITTERS TREATED WITH MICRO-ORGANISMS

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    Dayane Prado da Cruz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aimed at evaluating the effect of adding beneficial micro-organisms to the litters on litter quality, performance and carcass yield for broilers. A total of 240 one-day chicks were used, and randomly distributed in blocks with four treatments and four replications. The following treatments were carried out in the housing: Treatment 1 – Control with weekly spraying of water on the litters; Treatment 2 – Litter treated with a mixture of inoculated and fermented meal by micro-organisms and weekly spraying of water; Treatment 3 – Litter treated by weekly spraying of micro-organisms; Treatment 4 – Litter treated with the same mixture of meals from treatment two and weekly spraying of micro-organisms. Performance was evaluated by the feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion, viability and carcass, breast and leg yield. From litter samples, pH, dry matter, ashes and nitrogen were evaluated. No differences were found among the treatments. In the conditions the animals were raised, it can be concluded that the treatment on the litter does not affect performance, carcass yield and quality of the litter for broilers.

  11. Occurrence and distribution of bovine TB pathology by age, sex, and breed of cattle slaughtered in Gusau Abattoir, Zamfara State Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ibrahim; Kudi, Caleb Ayuba; Abdulkadir, Alhaji Idris; Saidu, S N A

    2017-03-01

    This study was aimed to record gross lesions suggestive of bovine tuberculosis amongst cattle slaughtered in Gusau abattoir Zamfara State, Nigeria. A total of 3690 bovine carcasses were inspected from April to June, 2014. The results of the postmortem inspection detected tuberculosis-like lesions in 226 (6.1%) carcasses; 126 (56%) of the lesions observed were restricted to the organs/tissues of thoracic cavity and its associated lymph nodes, while 100 (44%) were seen in the organs/tissues of the abdominal cavity and reproductive tract of the carcasses. The organ encountered with most lesions was lungs; 90 (39.82%) out of the 226 lungs from carcasses observed with lesions. The individual animal prevalence was significantly affected by both age (χ2 = 4.723, p = 0.000) and sex (χ2 = 4.457, p = 0.000). For animal level risk, a strong statistically significant association was recorded between age (OR = 2.614, C.I. = 1.223 – 3.831) and sex (OR = 2.164, C.I. = 1.223 – 3.831); age and sex were predictive of bovine TB pathology. Breed prevalence was found to be 129 (57.1%) for White Fulani, 78 (34.5%) for Sokoto Gudali, and 19 (8.4%) for Red Bororo respectively. This study has for the first time recorded macroscopic lesions compatible with bovine TB; which suggests its possible prevalence in the study area. Postmortem inspection could be applied in the control and eradication of bovine TB and prevent its transmission to humans; in depth study is needed to better ascertain the true cause(s) of TB-like lesions in the area.

  12. The estimation of pork carcass primal cuts value based on backfat thickness

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    Kamil Duziński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of pork carcass backfat thickness on the dissection efficiency of four primal cuts (ham, loin, shoulder, belly, including correlation coefficients. The research material consisted of 80 pork carcasses. Backfat thickness (mm was measured on cold half-carcasses using a vernier caliper at 6 points: at the first cervical vertebra (atlas, over shoulder at the thickest point, on the back, at the beginning, center, end of the gluteus medius muscle (CI, CII, CIII. On the basis of the average backfat thickness, measurements from 6 points were separated into two experimental groups: I (<25 mm; II (≥25 mm. Detailed dissection of the elements was performed to define mass (g: total, intermuscular fat, bones and lean meat. The significant effect of fat thickness on intermuscular fat content regardless of the cut was noted. Correlations between the average backfat thickness of 6 points and the total weight of the four main elements were calculated. In addition, the correlation coefficients were compared between the dissection elements and the average backfat thickness of 6 and 5 points. Higher backfat thickness determined the increase in the total mass of loin, shoulder and belly. A statistically proven correlation was shown between the average backfat thickness and the total mass of the analysed elements (r=0.293. When comparing the correlation coefficients of a different number of measurements a specific tendency was observed. Positive correlation coefficients were slightly higher for an average of 5 points of backfat thickness and negative correlation coefficients were slightly higher for an average of 6 points. Statistical differences between groups were recorded at the same level for the same parameters (P≤0.001 and 0.01carcass primal cuts, with no adverse effects compared to

  13. OZONE DECONTAMINATION OF CHILLED POULTRY CARCASSES

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    M.L. Cortesi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is a strong oxidant and disinfecting agent. The bactericidal effects of ozone have been documented on a wide range of organisms, including Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. In this study, the effect of treatment with gaseous ozone on microbial contamination (Total Aerobic Mesophilic and Psicrophilic Microrganism Count, Enterobacteriaceae, Total and Fecal Coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and sensory characteristics of poultry carcasses were investigated. N.50 carcasses were divided into two parts. The first batch was used as control and stored in a coolroom at 0-1°C; the second one was kept in another cool room, with the same dimensions and at the same temperature, provided with an ozone generator, working for 60 minutes every 4 hours in order to reach an ozone concentration of 0.4 ppm. Significative differences were found between the control batch and the treated one for Total Aerobic Counts (at 32° and 20°C and Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonella arizonae, Campylobacter fetus spp fetus and Listeria monocytogenes were sometimes found in both batches. Acceptable sensory qualities were observed until day 14 and 20 after slaughter for the control and the treated batch, respectively.

  14. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and wholesale cut yield of hair-breed ewe lambs consuming feedlot diets under moderate environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Reyes, L; Macías-Cruz, U; Alvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Aguila-Tepato, E; Torrentera-Olivera, N G; Soto-Navarro, S A

    2011-12-01

    Twenty-four Dorper × Pelibuey ewe lambs initially weighing 25.1 ± 0.6 kg were used in a 34-d feeding experiment and after slaughter to evaluate the effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and wholesale cut yield. Ewe lambs were individually housed in pens, blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: 1) control (no ZH) and 2) supplemented with ZH (10 mg/ewe lamb daily) during 32-d and a 2-d withdrawal preslaughter period. Feeding ZH increased (P ewe lambs, whereas feed intake was unaffected (P = 0.80). Hot and cold carcass weights, dressing percentage, and conformation score were improved (P ewe lambs. Feeding ZH did not affect (P ≥ 0.29) cooling loss, carcass length, fat thickness, or KPH. With exception of peritoneum (P ewe lambs improved feedlot performance and also some carcass traits (HCW, cool carcass weight, dressing percentage, and LM area) of economic importance; however, fat deposition was not affected by ZH.

  15. The capability of alfalfa grazing- and concentrate-based feeding systems to produce homogeneous carcass quality in light lambs over time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripoll, G.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, J.; Sanz, A.; Joy, M.

    2014-06-01

    The effects of grazing on the carcasses and meat of light lambs are unclear, mainly due to variations in weather conditions and pasture production, which affect the growth of lambs and the quality of their carcasses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding systems, which varied in intensification due to the use of concentrate, on the growth and carcass traits of light lambs and the capability of these feeding systems to produce homogeneous lamb carcasses over the course of several years. The average daily weight gain of grazing lambs, but not lambs fed indoors was affected over years. The colour of the Rectus abdominis muscle and the amount of fat were more variable in grazing lambs (from 2.7 to 6.3) than indoor lambs (from 4.5 to 5.1). Grazing feeding systems without concentrate supplementation are more dependent than indoor feeding systems on the year. This climatologic dependence could lead to slaughter of older grazing lambs (77 days) to achieve the target slaughter weight when temperatures are low or the rainfall great. All feeding systems evaluated produced light lambs carcasses with a conformation score from O to R that is required by the market. Even the potential change in fat colour found in both grazing treatments was not enough to change the subjective evaluation of fat colour. (Author)

  16. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This result is infection and malnutrition (22). On the other hand, there also consistent with previous reports (16,18) which .... formulation of livestock breeding policy. In proc. 5th. Britton S. Bovine tuberculosis: A cross-sectional and ... Ankara: Turkish-German Health. 1996: 343-349. Information Project, General Directorate of.

  17. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The

  18. The effect of parenteral administration of copper on the weight gain, erithrograme and the hepatic and renal parenchymas in crossbred (Zebu x European confined bovines/ Efeito da administração parenteral de cobre sobre o ganho de peso, eritrograma e parênquimas, hepático e renal, em bovinos mestiços (Zebu x Europeu confinados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo da Cunha Gonçalves

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of the parenteral administration of etilenodinitrile tetracetate of calcium and copper on the weight gain, eritrograma and the hepatic and renal parenchymas in confined bovines, using 200 animals, distributed in four groups (G of 50 (I, II, III and IV. The groups I and II were constituted by bovines with the age of 24 months and the groups III and IV by animals of 12 months, which GI was given 100mg of active copper and GIII 75mg, both by subcutaneous way by the beginning of the study. The other groups were used as the control. The weight measure of the animals of all groups was done from 28 to 28 days during the 112 days of confinement. It was done the eritrograma in ten bovines of each group and the dosage of the hepatic and renal concentration of copper and the hystological evaluation, in the animals of the groups I and II. The values found on the eritrograma showed normality and the hepatic and renal concentrations of copper in bovines with the age of 24 months showed depletion levels. It was not verified differences about the hystological evaluation between the groups I and II. There was significant difference on the weight gain media between the groups I and II. On the groups III and IV, it was not observed difference over the weight gain media.Nesse estudo avaliou-se o efeito da administração parenteral de etilenodinitrilo tetracetato de cálcio e cobre sobre o ganho de peso, eritrograma e parênquimas, hepático e renais, em bovinos confinados, utilizando-se 200 animais, alocados em quatro grupos (G de 50 (I, II, III e IV. Os grupos I e II foram compostos por bovinos com 24 meses e os grupos III e IV por animais de doze meses, sendo que o GI recebeu 100 mg de cobre ativo e o GIII 75 mg, ambos por via subcutânea ao início do estudo. Os demais grupos foram utilizados como controle. A pesagem dos animais de todos os grupos foi realizada a cada 28 dias durante os 112 dias de confinamento. Realizou-se o

  19. Impact of dietary fat source and concentration and daily fatty acid intake on the composition of carcass fat and iodine value sampled in three regions of the pork carcass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Prusa, K J; Patience, J F

    2014-12-01

    The increased inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to more precisely measure how differing levels of daily fatty acid intake alters the fatty acid composition in 3 different fat depots. A total of 42 gilts and 21 barrows (PIC 337×C22/29) with an average initial weight of 77.80±0.38 kg were allotted randomly based on sex and BW to 7 treatments: 3 and 6% of each of tallow (TAL; iodine value [IV]=41.9), choice white grease (CWG; IV=66.5), or corn oil (CO; IV=123.1) and a control (CNTR) corn-soybean meal-based diet with no added fat. Pigs were individually housed to allow accurate measurement of individual feed intake, in particular, daily dietary fatty acid and energy intake. Fat samples were collected from the jowl, belly, and loin at slaughter. Diet and carcass fat samples were analyzed for IV. Belly weights were recorded at slaughter along with a subjective belly firmness score (1=firmest to 3=least firm). Carcass lipid IV was increased (Pfat source (66.8, 70.3, and 76.3 for TAL, CWG, and CO, respectively). Carcass lipid IV for TAL and CWG was not affected (P>0.05) by inclusion levels; however, carcass lipid IV was greater (Pfat source had no effect (P≥0.66) on apparent total tract digestibility of either DM or GE, but feeding 6% dietary fat increased G:F (P=0.006) over pigs fed 3% fat (0.358 vs. 0.337). Of all the fatty acids measured, only linoleic acid intake presented a reasonable coefficient of determination (R2=0.61). Overall, IV product (IVP) was approximately equal to linoleic acid intake as a predictor of carcass IV (R2=0.93 vs. R2=0.94). When inclusion of dietary fat and PUFA intake increased, IVP placed more emphasis on the dietary fat inclusion level rather than the dietary fat composition. Linoleic acid intake corrected the overemphasis placed on dietary fat inclusion by IVP. To conclude, linoleic acid intake showed a strong relationship with carcass

  20. Neutralization of residual antimicrobial processing chemicals in broiler carcass rinse for improved detection of Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter presence on broiler carcasses in the U.S. is regulated. Processors may apply antimicrobial processing aids as a spray or immersion to lower contamination on carcasses. In the U.S., broiler carcasses are generally sampled by whole carcass rinse and the potential exists for residual le...

  1. VARIATION OF THE ECONOMICAL EFFICIENCY OF PIG CARCASSES ACCORDING QUALITY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PETROMAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of pork disjoint-packing activity depends on the carcass quality. Carcasses of superior types, respectively „E” and „U” generate higher profit on the kilogram of disjoint carcass, in comparison with the carcasses of medium type „R” and inferior types „O” and „P”.

  2. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be marked...

  3. Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in an Embden×Toulouse Goose Cross Raised in Organic Dehesa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, M; Peña, F; Domenech, V; Clemente, I; Polvillo, O; Valera, M; Verona, J C; Rubí, M; Molina, A

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the influence of genetic type (Embden-Anser anser, EE; Toulouse-Anser anser, TT and F1 cross, ET) for meat characteristics (carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles), of domestic geese "Anser anser domesticus" raised in dehesa as an alternative, organic feeding system. Carcass and breast muscle weight (p<0.01) were greater for the ET group at the same live weight. None of the groups showed differences in the production of fatty liver with this type of feeding. Higher values were found for maximum Warner-Bratzler shear force (between 7.62 and 8.87 kg/cm(2)), which implies the improvement of this parameter. High levels of oleic FAs were obtained, especially for the TT group. The polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio was highest for the ET group (p<0.001), reflecting the optimum nutritional values as a component of a healthy consumer diet.

  4. Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in an Embden×Toulouse Goose Cross Raised in Organic Dehesa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, M.; Peña, F.; Domenech, V.; Clemente, I.; Polvillo, O.; Valera, M.; Verona, J. C.; Rubí, M.; Molina, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the influence of genetic type (Embden-Anser anser, EE; Toulouse-Anser anser, TT and F1 cross, ET) for meat characteristics (carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles), of domestic geese “Anser anser domesticus” raised in dehesa as an alternative, organic feeding system. Carcass and breast muscle weight (p<0.01) were greater for the ET group at the same live weight. None of the groups showed differences in the production of fatty liver with this type of feeding. Higher values were found for maximum Warner–Bratzler shear force (between 7.62 and 8.87 kg/cm2), which implies the improvement of this parameter. High levels of oleic FAs were obtained, especially for the TT group. The polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio was highest for the ET group (p<0.001), reflecting the optimum nutritional values as a component of a healthy consumer diet. PMID:26954156

  5. Use of ractopamine during compensatory gain of finishing pigs on carcass and meat performance and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M.J. Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of compensatory gain associated with the use of 10ppm ractopamine after a period of feed restriction in finishing pigs on performance, carcass and meat quality. Twenty castrated males and 20 females, at 110 days of age and 66.137±6.13kg live weight, were submitted to four treatments using a 2 x 2 factorial design (fed ad libitum or with 20% restriction between 0(21 days of age and fed with or without 10ppm ractopamine for 22(42 days of experimentation, with 10 replicates (animals. There was no interaction between the factors for any of the evaluated parameters. Animals treated with ractopamine presented better weight gain (1.083 versus 1.259kg, feed conversion (2.910 versus 2.577, warm and cold carcass weight (86.08 versus 89.00 and 83.46 versus 87.20kg, respectively, loin depth (63.02 versus 68.40mm, loin eye area (41.43 versus 46.59mm2 and muscle fiber diameter (27.48 versus 35.85μm. Animals submitted to feed restriction followed by ad libitum feed presented compensatory gain without losses to carcass and meat characteristics, but with a reduction in the ethereal extract (2.19 versus 1.64% and lower water loss due to thawing in the meat (11.35 versus 9.42%. The effects of compensatory gain after food restriction and ractopamine are independent of the parameters evaluated.

  6. Performance, carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred lambs fed whole cottonseed levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ruegger Corte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Byproduct as whole cottonseed (WCS and soybean hulls are quite used in finishing diets to feedlot lambs and WCS is a potential source to be included in lambs diet when prices are advantageous. The most part of the studies with WCS is used as a replacement of cereals as corn. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing a fibrous byproduct (soybean hulls with increasing levels of WCS (0, 10 and 20% on the performance, carcass traits and meat quality of feedlot lambs. Thirty crossbred lambs (15 males and 15 females, 20±1.6 kg were fed 1 of 3 high concentration diets: CTL (without WCS, WCS10 (with 10% WCS, and WCS20 (with 20% WCS in a block design (sex for 56 days. Feeding 10 or 20% WCS significantly (P=0.013 improved the feed conversion without affecting the final weight gain, average daily gain or dry matter intake in kg/d. However, the DMI (in % of live weight was affected by treatments (P<0.0001: lambs fed the CTL and the WCS10 diet consumed more DMI than the lambs from WCS20 diet (4.19, 4.03 and 3.6%, respectively. The hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, longissimus muscle area and fat thickness were not affected by the WCS levels. The shear force and meat colour were similar among treatments. These results suggested that fattening lambs may benefit from an increase in feed efficiency from 10% WCS up to 20% without negatively impacting carcass and meat quality.

  7. Diagnosis of mycobacteria in bovine milk: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Alicia Daza Bolaños

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tuberculosis remains as the world’s biggest threat. In 2014, human tuberculosis ranked as a major infectious disease by the first time, overcoming HIV death rates. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of global distribution that affects animals and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw milk, representing a serious public health concern. Despite the efforts of different countries to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis, the high negative economic impact on meat and milk production chains remains, given the decreased production efficiency (approximately 25%, the high number of condemned carcasses, and increased animal culling rates. This scenario has motivated the establishment of official programs based on regulations and diagnostic procedures. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are the major pathogenic species to humans and bovines, respectively, nontuberculous mycobacteria within the Mycobacterium genus have become increasingly important in recent decades due to human infections, including the ones that occur in immunocompetent people. Diagnosis of mycobacteria can be performed by microbiological culture from tissue samples (lymph nodes, lungs and secretions (sputum, milk. In general, these pathogens demand special nutrient requirements for isolation/growth, and the use of selective and rich culture media. Indeed, within these genera, mycobacteria are classified as either fast- or slow-growth microorganisms. Regarding the latter ones, incubation times can vary from 45 to 90 days. Although microbiological culture is still considered the gold standard method for diagnosis, molecular approaches have been increasingly used. We describe here an overview of the diagnosis of Mycobacterium species in bovine milk.

  8. Carcass traits and meat quality of lamb fed on ration containing different levels of leucaena hay (Leucaena leucocephala L.)

    OpenAIRE

    El-Aal Abd H.A.; Suliman A.I.A.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty growing crossbred male lambs (3 chios. 1 ossimi and 1 chios. 1 ossimi) of 15.25 + 2.00 kg initial average body weight and three months old were divided into four groups. All groups were fed on concentrate feed mixture plus 1% of live body weight wheat straw for 169 days. Four levels (zero, 200g, 400g and 600g) of leucaena hay were used. Final weight and carcass traits were evaluated. Color (L, a, b), proximate composition, pH, acidity, expressible water, water holding capacity, cooking...

  9. Moringa leaf meal supplementation for sheep: Effect on weight gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa leaf meal supplementation for sheep: Effect on weight gain, blood serum chemistry and carcass characteristics. ... However, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in dressing percentage, breast muscle and liver weight, with highest values of 94.42% (in 10% MLM), 1.68 % (in 5% MLM), and 1.84 % (in 5% MLM) ...

  10. Survival of Trichomonas gallinae in white-winged dove carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, K G; Kloss, C; Lyles, J; Felderhoff, J; Fedynich, A M; Henke, S E; Roberson, J A

    2000-07-01

    Survival of Trichomonas gallinae was examined in white-winged dove (Zenaida asiatica) carcasses to assess whether birds that have been dead up to 8 hr can be sampled reliably for this protozoan. Carcasses of 100 T. gallinae-positive white-winged doves were separated into four groups of 25 birds, representing 2, 4, 6, and 8 hr post mortem sampling intervals and placed into an environmental chamber maintained at 27 C and 75% relative humidity. Live T. gallinae were isolated in 96, 100, 100, and 92% of the carcasses at each of the respective post mortem intervals. The experiment was repeated with another 100 carcasses of T. gallinae-positive white-winged doves placed in the environmental chamber, this time maintained at 27 C and 40% relative humidity. Live T. gallinae occurred in 96, 100, 96, and 100% of the carcasses at each of the respective post mortem intervals. Across both trials, the overall ability to detect positive birds from sampling carcasses up to 8 hrs post mortem was 97%. An a posteriori experiment was conducted in which 23 and 18 carcasses from the second trial were maintained in the environmental chamber at 27 C and 40% relative humidity and resampled at 24 and 48 hr post mortem, respectively. Live trichomonads were isolated from 91 and 44% of the carcasses at 24 and 48 hr, respectively. Results suggest live T. gallinae can be obtained from dove carcasses reliably up to 8 hr and possibly up to 24 hr after host death. The ability for T. gallinae to survive within this time interval can aid wildlife personnel in monitoring this protozoan at hunter check stations or obtaining samples from recently killed birds.

  11. Effect of betaine on growth performance and carcass composition of Alentejano pig breed.

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, A.B.; Neves, J.A.; Martins, J.M.; Nunes, J.T.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of fattening diets supplemented with betaine on growth performances and carcass characteristics of Alentejano pigs. Sixteen Alentejano pigs sexually neutralized, with a initial body weight (BW) of 36.3 kg, allocated to open-air individual pens (3m2), were divided into two experimental groups: Group C (n=8) consuming a commercial diet with 150 g/kg crude protein and 13.0 MJ digestible energy; and group CB (n=8) consuming the same diet supplement...

  12. Partial substitution of barley for corn: effect on "Hamra" lamb growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziani, Kaddour; Khaled, Méghit Boumédiène

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two kinds of given diets on growth, on some carcass characteristics and on the major meat nutrients of local Algerian sheep breed. The investigated sheep breed called "Hamra" is one of the most famous breeds in Algeria. Among one 106 animals, 40 lambs were selected according to their age, similar livestock characteristics and body weight. The samples were divided into two equal groups: control and experimental lambs according to their live weight; 24.63 ± 0.47 and 24.35 ± 0.64 kg, respectively. Both groups were fed with two varieties of concentrate diets: corn diet based for the first group of control lambs (n = 20) and corn substituted by barley (Variety Saïda 183) for the second experimental group lambs (n = 20). Both diets were supplemented with 200 g straw of barley/animal/ration. The chemical analysis of diets showed an elevated crude fibre content in the commercial concentrate. However, the experimental concentrate contained higher amounts of calcium. After 59 days of fattening, no significant difference was found among the two studied groups on the growth performance (p > 0.05), showing the same final body weight. In contrast, a significant difference was found (p ≤ 0.001) in relation to the cost of the given diet. This could affect the price of the produced meat. At 37.85 ± 0.78 kg live weight, 10 lambs fed with experimental concentrate were slaughtered. The dressing percentage was 46.65 %, with 2.49 % of carcass shrink. Furthermore, an interesting percentage of total muscle was obtained (63.73 %) with a good carcass conformation scoring 9.56. Compared to other breed sheep, Hamra carcass could be considered as the most valuable one economically.

  13. The effect of age on the carcass composition, portion yield and proximate composition of two rabbit genetic types in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. North

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the carcass component yields and meat proximate composition of 2 rabbit genetic types (Californian and hybrid New Zealand Red×Californian, with 5 rabbits per genetic type being slaughtered every 2 wk throughout the study period (9-17 wk to evaluate the effect of age on these traits. Slaughter weight, reference yield, portion yield (hind leg, foreleg and fore part, as percentage of slaughter weight, meat yield, skin weight and the fat content of the meat (percentage of wet weight increased significantly with age, while the full gastrointestinal tract, liver, head and feet decreased significantly. This is likely a reflection of the early-maturing nature of bone and viscera and later maturing nature of muscle and fat. These results indicate that delaying slaughter to 13 wk tends to improve yields for valuable carcass components. The Californian had a significantly higher total meat yield at 11 and 17 wk and higher portion meat yields at 9 (hind leg, 11 (hind leg and fore part and 13 (foreleg weeks than the hybrid. This was likely due to the later maturation of the hybrid and the influence of the New Zealand Red on carcass quality. It therefore appears that the Californian may be more favourable for meat production, from a carcass and meat quality perspective.

  14. Meat cuts and non-carcass of sheep finished on pasture with different levels of supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaqueu Gonçalves Carvalho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the yield of meat cuts and other body components of sheep kept on pasture Panicum maximum, Massai cultivar, fed increasing amounts of concentrate. The animals were divided into four treatments according to the concentrate intake in relation to body weight (zero, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.1%. After slaughter of the sheep, the weights of non-hollow viscera (tongue, lung, liver, diaphragm, kidney and spleen, hollow ones (trachea, esophagus, heart, gallbladder, bladder, rumen, omasum, abomasum, small and larger intestines, other components (blood, skin, feet, head, tail and mammary gland and fat in the viscera (omental, mesenteric, perirenal and cavity. In carcasses, the commercial cuts were made (shoulder, ribs, loin, leg, and neck. The cuts except the neck, did not alter their weights, however, there were changes in their proportions. Only the percentage of loin did not change. With the intake of 1.42% in concentrate for body weight, there was an increase of ribs over the leg. The total weight of the non-carcass did not change, however, there was variations in its proportion. Amongst the most noticeable changes is the amount of visceral fat, which greatly increased when the sheep ingested 1.35% in concentrate for body weight. Therefore, concentrate intake by culling ewes does not increase mass commercial cuts. The proportions of commercial cuts and other body constituents change diffusely. With the maturity has been reached, the observed weight gain is, in most cases, result of increased visceral fat.

  15. Effect of sweet potato vines on performance parameters and some carcass characteristics of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, A C K; da Silva, L P; de Toledo, G S P; Galarreta, B; Goulart, F

    2018-02-01

    Conventional feedstuffs in Brazil are expensive, which has led to the search for less conventional cheaper and locally available feedstuffs. Thus, this study was carried out to determine the dietary effect of dry sweet potato vines (SPV) on the performance and some carcass characteristics of rabbits. A total of twenty-seven weaned White New Zealand rabbits (14 male and 13 female) 35 days old with an average initial weight of 755 g were allocated into three treatments. Nine rabbits were assigned to each treatment in a completely randomized design. Three diets were formulated to similar protein and energy levels: 0SPV - diet without inclusion of dry sweet potato vines; 10SPV - diet with 10% alfalfa hay replaced by dry sweet potato vines; and 15SPV - diet with 15% of alfalfa hay replaced by dry sweet potato vines. The experiment lasted for 49 days during which data for feed intake and body weight were recorded. The daily feed intake ranged from 73.17 to 78.02 g; daily weight gain from 22.32 to 23.17 g; feed conversion ratio (FCR) from 3.16 to 3.49 and final live weight ranged from 1839.44 to 1880.55 g. None of the evaluated performance parameters as well as carcass weight, heart weight and percentages of fat and protein in meat were significantly affected by any of the tested dietary treatments. However, the liver weight was statistically lower in animals fed the diets containing 10% of SPV, mainly due to lower glucose content. Glycogen within the tissue, did not differ significantly among treatments. It was therefore concluded that up to 15% of SPV can successfully be included in the diet of rabbits as a cheaper replacement for alfalfa hay without adversely affecting performance. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Étude de la contamination de surface des carcasses de bovins dans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2017 ... la flore bactérienne pendant le refroidissement, le stockage et la distribution. Les zones d'abattage sont l'un des principaux points critiques dans l'hygiène de la viande. L'abattage est la principale phase de contamination. Ainsi, 80 à 90 % de la microflore trouvés dans la viande provenant d'abattoirs (Jouve ...

  17. Multivariate approach of inter-relationships among growth, consumption and carcass traits in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ulhôa Magnabosco

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the phenotypic inter-relationships between growth, feed intake and carcass traits in polled Nellore cattle, as well as to determine which bulls produced the most efficient progeny. The experiment was conducted in the feedlot of the Guaporé Pecuária (Livestock Company, OB Brand. The following traits were analyzed: initial live weight (ILW; final live weight (FLW; average daily gain (ADG; dry matter intake (DMI; gain:feed (G:F; residual feed intake (RFI; rib-eye area (REA; rump fat thickness (RF; backfat thickness at the 12th-13th rib (BF; weighted fat score (WF; and intramuscular fat percentage (IMF. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the inter-relationships between the studied traits. No significant phenotypic associations were observed between growth, carcass traits and residual feed intake, while the correlation between RFI and G:F was negative. Therefore, RFI may be used to select more nutritionally efficient animals without compromising growth or adult size. The selection of bulls with progeny showing low residual feed intake is recommended, as selection for low RFI tends to improve feed efficiency without compromising growth and development.

  18. Cloning of TPO gene and associations of polymorphisms with chicken growth and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xinyan; Han, Ruili; Tian, Yadong; Xie, Wanying; Sun, Guirong; Li, Guoxi; Jiang, Ruirui; Kang, Xiangtao

    2013-04-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO), which located on the apical membrane surface of thyrocytes, is the key enzyme involved in thyroid hormone synthesis, mainly catalyses the iodination of tyrosine residues and the coupling of iodotyrosines on thyroglobulin to form thyroxine and triiodothyronine. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic polymorphisms of the chicken TPO gene and to analyze potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and growth and carcass traits in chicken. Partial sequences of TPO gene were cloned firstly. The nucleotide sequence was found to have 72 % identity with that of humans. The chicken TPO amino acid sequence was 71 %. Through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods, three novel mutations of the chicken TPO gene were detected in the F2 resource population from Gushi chickens and Anka broilers. The association analysis indicated that all of the three SNPs showed association with chicken growth at different periods. The g.29996C>T polymorphisms was significantly associated with body weight, breast bone length, pectoral angle at 12 weeks, claw weight and leg muscle weight (P < 0.05). In addition, individuals with the TT genotype had higher value for almost all the traits than CC and CT genotype. Meanwhile for CLW, the additive effects were significant (P < 0.05). Hence, we suggest that genotype TT can be regarded as a potential molecular marker for later growth and carcass traits in chicken.

  19. Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein source for organic chickens: performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Castellini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of transgenic feed and synthetic amino acids in organic chicken diets has made necessary to find protein-rich feedstuffs which do not alter productive performance. The effect of the faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a partial substitute for soybean on the performance and carcass traits of slow-growing chickens of both sexes reared under the organic method was assessed. The experiment was carried out in the spring and autumn; one thousand birds per season were split into 8 groups (4 groups of males and 4 groups of females, each duplicated and fed a double phase diet: a common starter diet for 20 days and two different growing-finisher diets containing either soybean (24%; S or faba bean (16%; F till the end of the rearing period (120 d. Average values of final live weight, feed intake and daily weight gain were significantly affected by sex, being higher in males than in females; the diets affected performance only in the 21-60 days of age period when the F group grew less and had poorer feed efficiency compared to the S group. Successively, the compensatory growth eliminated differences in slaughter weight. Regarding carcass traits, the diet affected only the ready- to-cook carcass percentage and the carena length, both of which were higher in S birds. Faba beans could be a valuable protein source in the diet of organic chickens when used after the critical starter period.

  20. Effect of dietary probiotic supplementation on carcass traits and haematological responses of broiler chickens fed shea butter cake based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschal Chukwudi Aguihe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 42-day study was conducted to investigate probiotic supplementation on shea butter cake (SBC based diets of broilers on the carcass traits and haematological indices. A total of 280, 1-day old Arbor acres strain broiler chicks were divided into 7 dietary treatments with 4 replicates of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. Diet 1 (control diet has no SBC and probiotic supplementation while remaining 6 diets contained 5, 10, and 15% levels of SBC each with (+ or without (- probiotic supplementation. The results showed that carcass parameters and prime cuts weights increased (p 0.05 except for liver and bursa weight. Packed cell volume and hemoglobin contents were higher (p < 0.05 in birds fed probiotic-SBC diets than the group without probiotic supplementation compared to those on control diet. In conclusion, supplementation of multi-strain probiotic improved carcass traits, prime cut-parts and relative organ weights without any adverse effect on the blood parameters up to 15% inclusion level.

  1. Carcass and meat quality traits of Iberian pig as affected by sex and crossbreeding with different Duroc genetic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Robina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 144 pigs were used to study the effects of sex (barrows or gilts and terminal sire line (Iberian or three genetic lines of Duroc: Duroc 1, Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 on performance and carcass and meat quality traits. Gilts showed slightly lower average daily gain, shoulder weight and trimming losses, but slightly better primal cuts yields and higher loin weight, while there was no significant effect of sex on meat quality traits or on the fatty acid composition of lard and muscle. There were important differences in performance and in carcass and primal cuts quality traits between pure Iberian pigs and all Iberian × Duroc crossbreeds evaluated, partly due to the lower slaughter weights reached by the formers. The different sire lines showed differences in several traits; Duroc 1 group showed lower backfat thickness and ham and shoulder trimming losses, and higher primal cut yields than Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 groups. Intramuscular fat (IMF content remained unaffected by crossbreeding, but meat color resulted more intense and redder in crosses from the Duroc 1 sire line. The accumulation of fatty acids in lard was not affected by Duroc sire line, while animals of the group Duroc 2 showed higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid and lower of polyunsaturated ones in IMF. These results highlight the importance of considering not only performance, but also carcass and meat quality traits when deciding the Duroc sire line for crossbreeding in Iberian pig production.

  2. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A

    2010-11-01

    Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI(3)V) is a long-recognized, currently underappreciated, endemic infection in cattle populations. Clinical disease is most common in calves with poor passive transfer or decayed maternal antibodies. It is usually mild, consisting of fever, nasal discharge, and dry cough. Caused at least partly by local immunosuppressive effects, bPI(3)V infection is often complicated by coinfection with other respiratory viruses and bacteria, and is therefore an important component of enzootic pneumonia in calves and bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle. Active infection can be diagnosed by virus isolation from nasal swabs, or IF testing on smears made from nasal swabs. Timing of sampling is critical in obtaining definitive diagnostic test results. Parenteral and intranasal modified live vaccine combination vaccines are available. Priming early in calfhood with intranasal vaccine, followed by boosting with parenteral vaccine, may be the best immunoprophylactic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The variation in the eating quality of beef from different sexes and breed classes cannot be completely explained by carcass measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Farmer, L J; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    Delivering beef of consistent quality to the consumer is vital for consumer satisfaction and will help to ensure demand and therefore profitability within the beef industry. In Australia, this is being tackled with Meat Standards Australia (MSA), which uses carcass traits and processing factors to deliver an individual eating quality guarantee to the consumer for 135 different 'cut by cooking methods' from each carcass. The carcass traits used in the MSA model, such as ossification score, carcass weight and marbling explain the majority of the differences between breeds and sexes. Therefore, it was expected that the model would predict with eating quality of bulls and dairy breeds with good accuracy. In total, 8128 muscle samples from 482 carcasses from France, Poland, Ireland and Northern Ireland were MSA graded at slaughter then evaluated for tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking by untrained consumers, according to MSA protocols. The scores were weighted (0.3, 0.1, 0.3, 0.3) and combined to form a global eating quality (meat quality (MQ4)) score. The carcasses were grouped into one of the three breed categories: beef breeds, dairy breeds and crosses. The difference between the actual and the MSA-predicted MQ4 scores were analysed using a linear mixed effects model including fixed effects for carcass hang method, cook type, muscle type, sex, country, breed category and postmortem ageing period, and random terms for animal identification, consumer country and kill group. Bulls had lower MQ4 scores than steers and females and were predicted less accurately by the MSA model. Beef breeds had lower eating quality scores than dairy breeds and crosses for five out of the 16 muscles tested. Beef breeds were also over predicted in comparison with the cross and dairy breeds for six out of the 16 muscles tested. Therefore, even after accounting for differences in carcass traits, bulls still differ in eating quality when compared with females and steers

  4. Características de carcaça de cordeiros Suffolk abatidos em diferentes idades Carcass characteristics of Suffolk lambs slaughtered at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sartori Bueno

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as proporções dos componentes não-carcaça e as características de carcaça de 35 cordeiros Suffolk, abatidos com idades médias de 90, 130 ou 170 dias, alimentados com silagem de milho e ração concentrada (19,6% de PB. O aumento da idade de abate acarretou incremento linear dos pesos de abate e de carcaça e diminuição linear na proporção de alguns componentes não-carcaça, como sangue, cabeça, patas e vísceras cheias, o que resultou em aumento linear do rendimento de carcaça. As proporções dos componentes da carcaça foram alteradas pelo aumento da idade de abate, observando-se aumento linear na porcentagem de gordura, diminuição linear na de ossos e nenhuma alteração na de músculos. Os cortes efetuados nas carcaças mostraram diminuição linear da porcentagem de traseiro, nenhuma alteração na de dianteiro e aumento linear na de costilhar, com o aumento da idade de abate. As medidas de carcaça e compacidade mostraram aumento linear com o aumento da idade de abate. A idade de abate de cordeiros Suffolk criados intensivamente para produzir carcaças adequadas ao mercado consumidor da região Centro-Sul do Brasil fica entre 110 e 130 dias de idade.The effect of slaughter age on non-carcass components and carcass characteristics was evaluated in 35 Suffolk lambs slaughtered at average age of 90, 130 or 170 days, fed corn silage and concentrate (19.6% CP. As the slaughter age increased, animal live weight and carcass weight linearly increased, and some non-carcass components as blood, head, legs and full viscera percentage linearly decreased, leading to a linear increase in carcass yield. As the slaughter age increase, it was observed change in the proportion of carcass components with a linear increase of fat percentage, a linear decrease in bones percentage and no change in the muscle percentage. A linear decrease in the hindquarter, a linear increase in the ribs and no change in the forequarter carcass

  5. Genetics of bovine vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Richard Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease is an important issue for animal breeders, farmers and governments. Solutions to control infectious disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. The primary aim of this thesis is to discover regions of the bovine genome which influence the immune response post immunisation. To accomplish this two types of immunising agents, a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMD...

  6. Effect of restricted feeding and realimentation on feed performance and carcass characteristics of growing lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abouheif

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Forty Najdi ram lambs weighing 26.6±0.3 kg were utilized in this experiment to determine the effects of feed restriction followed by realimentation and body weight at the onset of feed restriction (30 and 36 kg body weights on performance and carcass characteristics; feeding and restriction levels were ad libitum, 0.75 and 0.60 of the ad libitum intake. All lambs were slaughtered after 14 weeks of experimentation. The results showed that, during the feed restriction phase, average daily gain (ADG and feed efficiency decreased as the level of restriction increased. During the realimentation phase, the 30 kg lambs gained weights and consumed dry matter (DM similarly to the ad libitum group, whereas the ADG for the 36 kg lambs of both 0.75 and 0.60 ad libitum groups were 20 and 43.8% faster than the ad libitum group, respectively. At the end of the trial, final body weight and overall ADG of the realimented 30 kg groups were lower than ad libitum group, whereas the ADG of the 36 kg groups were not different compared with the ad libitum group. Although empty body, hot and cold carcass, empty stomach compartments, empty intestines and liver weights for the 36 kg groups were not affected by feed restriction followed by realimentation, weights of visceral fat depots, subcutaneous fat and tail fat decreased much more than those of the ad libitum group. Carcass composition of the realimented 0.75 and 0.60 ad libitum groups tended to have 5.1 and 8.8% less lean tissue than the ad libitum group when the restriction started at 30 kg, respectively. On the other hand, the realimented lambs of both 0.75 and 0.60 ad libitum groups tended to be 5.1 and 2.8% leaner than those of the ad libitum group when restriction started at 36 kg body weight, respectively. Feed restriction of up to 40% for a 5-week period followed by a 4-week period of refeeding in 36 kg lambs is economically feasible and does not offset production.

  7. Effect of split marketing on the welfare, performance, and carcass traits of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, S; Lawlor, P G; O'Connell, N; Boyle, L A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a split marketing (SM) strategy, in which the heaviest pigs in a group are removed and slaughtered earlier than the others, with an all-out (AO) marketing strategy, in which all pigs are removed from the pen simultaneously and slaughtered on the same day, in terms of welfare, performance, and carcass traits of noncastrated (i.e., intact) male and female pigs. The experimental treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial array with 1) marketing strategy (SM vs. AO) and 2) sex (males vs. females), which yielded 4 treatment groups of 14 pigs (73.1 ± 4.8 kg): male SM, male AO, female SM, and female AO (7 replicates/group). Pigs in AO groups were all slaughtered after 6 wk on trial, whereas in SM groups the 3 heaviest pigs were removed and slaughtered 2 wk before the remainder of the group, which were slaughtered at the same time as the AO pigs. Pigs were fed a liquid diet from a long trough 3 times daily. Behavioral observations were conducted before and after SM, the day of SM, and 1 and 2 wk later. Behavior was recorded both during and between feed events, and skin lesions were scored on all, except the 3 pigs removed from SM groups before and 2 wk after SM. Growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were recorded. The number of aggressive interactions during feed events decreased after the 3 pigs were removed from SM groups. This reduction in aggressive interactions was observed on the day of SM in male groups (before SM: 24.3 vs. the day of SM: 14.7, SED = 3.31, P effect on behaviors recorded between feed events or on the number and severity of skin lesions (P > 0.10). There were no differences between the 11 remaining pigs in SM groups and the 14 pigs in AO groups in terms of growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass traits of female or intact male pigs (P > 0.10). However, reduced within-pen CV in carcass weight was detected in pigs from SM groups compared with pigs from AO groups (8.6 vs. 10.9, SEM = 0

  8. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  9. Comparison of broiler performance, carcass yields and intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of broiler performance, carcass yields and intestinal microflora when fed diets containing transgenic (Mon-40-3-2) and conventional soybean meal. Jianzhuang Tan, Shasha Liu, Zhe Sun, Hongfu Zhang, Yongwei wang, Dan Liu ...

  10. Carcass Search & Recovery Guidelines for Black Tailed Prairie Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of dead or intoxicated prairie dogs above ground will be monitored, recorded and these carcasses will be properly disposed of, in accordance with the procedures described on this page.

  11. Carcass characteristics of South African native chicken lines | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venda and Ovambo chicken lines were evaluated. The highest dressed-carcass mass was recorded for Ovambo chickens and the highest percentage breast muscle was recorded for Naked-Neck chickens. Percentage fat and fatty acid ...

  12. Effects of dried cassava pulp as a main source of energy in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Yimmongkol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dried cassava pulp (DCP as a main source of energy at a higher level in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle. Fifteen Brahman-native crossbred young bulls at an average age of 2 years and initial weight of 277±10.36 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups in a completely randomized trial. The animals received either control concentrate(CTRL, concentrate in which cassava meal was replaced by DCP at 50 (DCP50 or 100% (DCP100 by weight. Experimental diets were fed to the animals ad libitum and supplemented with 3 kg of para grass (Brachiaria mutica. The feeding period was 150 days. The results indicated that feedlot cattle on CTRL showed the best feedlot performance and carcass quality as compared to the other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The DCP50 had highereconomic return compared to the CTRL and DCP100, while DCP100 can be potentially incorporated into the ration when the cassava price is too high to be used. Carcass composition (slaughtering weight, carcass weight, carcass percentage, lean weight and lean percentage of the experimental feedlot cattle were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100, respectively. Some beef eating qualities (shear force, tenderness, juiciness, meat flavor and overall satisfaction were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100 total, respectively.

  13. Serum antibody response to human and bovine IRBP in uveitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, R.; Hwan, S. B.; Rothova, A.; van Haren, M. A.; Donoso, L. A.; Kijlstra, A.

    1990-01-01

    Interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) is a 136,000 molecular weight photoreceptor cell protein capable of inducing an experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in susceptible animal strains. The occurrence of serum antibodies against human (Hu) or bovine (Bo) IRBP was investigated in

  14. Carcass Characteristics of Kacang Goats Fed Ration Containing MH-1 Variety of Kapok Seed Meal (Ceiba pentandra, GAERTN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hidjaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the carcass characteristics of Kacang goats fed ration containing kapok seed meal (KSM as a component of the concentrate. The experiment was conducted in two stages. The first stage was to find out the best variety of kapok that will be used in the second experiment; the second stage was to determine the benefits of KSM on carcass characteristics. Twenty-five, 8 months old Kacang goats with initial body weight of 11.71±1.08 kg, were used in this experiment. The animals were housed individually based on completely randomized design (CRD with 5 treatments and 5 replications. The rations were based on forage:concentrate ratio of 50:50 dry matter basis. The ration contained concentrates, with increasing levels of KSM, i.e.: R0 (napier grass + concentrate: rice bran, coconut cake, corn, urea + 0% KSM; R5 (R0 + KSM 5%; R10 (R0 + KSM 10%; R15 (R0 + KSM 15%; and R20 (R0 + KSM 20%. Drinking water was provided ad libitum. The result of first stage showed that KSM variety of MH-1 would be used as a component of the concentrate on the second experiment. The increasing level of KSM in the rations had significant effect (P<0.05 on physical characteristics of the carcass, such as dressing percentage (44.35%, carcass length (54.006 cm, fleshing index (130.59 g/cm, plumpness of leg (87.48%, loin eye area (5.06 cm2, and percentage of carcass meat (64.69%. It is concluded that MH-1 variety of KSM can be used as a feed component up to 20 % in the goat ration.

  15. Evaluation of carcass and muscle traits in Santa Ines female lambs finished with different agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Menezes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different agricultural products on quantitative aspects of carcass, body constituents, cooking loss, shear force and colorimetry of the Longissimus lumborum and Triceps brachii muscles in Santa Ines lambs. 24 Santa Ines female lambs received one of four diets which were isoproteic and isoenergetic with fixed levels of forage (60% and concentrate (40% of corn and soybean meal during 45 days. The forages per diet differed: coast-cross hay (HAY, cassava hay (CASS, dehydrated by-product of pea crop (PEA and sugarcane (SC. The average weight of the lambs at the beginning of the experiment was 26.35kg. Animals were slaughtered in a federally certified abattoir. Initial and final pH, cooking losses, color using the CIELAB system, shear force and the quantity of sarcomeres per 100μm were measured. Hot carcass, cold and half carcass weights were affected by treatments (P<0.05. The sarcomere length of Triceps brachii muscle 24 hours after slaughter differed between diets and coast-cross hay had the lowest value. The sarcomere length differed significantly between diets and the dehydrated by-product of pea crop had the lowest number of sarcomeres immediately after slaughter compared to other diets. There was no influence of diet on colorimetry, cooking loss and shear force. The decrease in pH followed the development of the process of rigor mortis in the Longissimus lumborum and Triceps brachii muscles in the first hour and up to 24 hours after slaughter. Diets did not alter the pH, water holding capacity, colorimetry or shear force. The pea by-product and sugarcane can replace traditional sources of fodder without depreciation of meat characteristics.

  16. Effect of high energy intake on carcass composition and hypothalamic gene expression in Bos indicus heifers

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    Juliane Diniz-Magalhães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of high or low energy intake on carcass composition and expression of hypothalamic genes related to the onset of puberty. Twenty-four prepubertal Nellore heifers, 18-20- months-old, with 275.3±18.0 kg body weight (BW, and 4.9±0.2 (1-9 scale body condition score (BCS were randomly assigned to two treatments: high-energy diet (HE and low-energy diet (LE. Heifers were housed in two collective pens and fed diets formulated to promote average daily gain of 0.4 (LE or 1.2 kg (HE BW/day. Eight heifers from each treatment were slaughtered after the first corpus luteum detection - considered as age of puberty. The 9-10-11th rib section was taken and prepared for carcass composition analyses. Samples from hypothalamus were collected, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −80 °C. Specific primers for targets (NPY, NPY1R, NPY4R, SOCS3, OXT, ARRB1, and IGFPB2 and control (RPL19 and RN18S1 genes were designed for real-time PCR and then the relative quantification of target gene expression was performed. High-energy diets increased body condition score, cold carcass weight, and Longissimus lumborum muscle area and decreased age at slaughter. High-energy diets decreased the expression of NPY1R and ARRB1 at 4.4-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively. In conclusion, the hastening of puberty with high energy intake is related with greater body fatness and lesser hypothalamic expression of NPY1 receptor and of β-arrestin1, suggesting a less sensitive hypothalamus to the negative effects of NPY signaling.

  17. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacteria recovered from whole-carcass rinsates of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of spray washing carcasses with lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) on bacteria recovered from whole-carcass-rinsates (WCR) was examined. Skin of carcasses was inoculated with a cecal paste containing antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimirum, and Camp...

  19. PIG CARCASS CLASSIFICATION IN ROMANIA: A DISSECTION TRIAL FOR THE APPROVAL OF THE “FAT-O-MEAT’ER” AND OF THE “OPTIGRADE-PRO”EQUIPMENT

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    Monica Esperance GĂUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain new regression formulas for optical equipment Fat-O-Meat’er and OptiGrade-PRO in pig carcass classification in Romania. The estimation of lean mean content in pig carcasses by means of SEUROP system and following fair payment based on the weight and composition of the carcass pigs in the main objective of classification. Dissection of four main cuts (shoulder, loin, ham, belly of pig carcasses (n = 145 were performed. The measurement of backfat and muscle depths using probes were taken from the carcasses within 45 min. after slaughter of pigs. Lean meat content estimated using different methods and determined from dissections was equal (56,3 % . There were calculated new regression formulas using the multiplied regression analysis. Correct regression formulas for classification equipments have a big importance. The requirements on accuracy of regression formulas are laid out in the Commission Regulation No 3127 / 94 and means of dissection according to the method by Walstra and Merkus (1996

  20. Performance, Carcass Production, and Meat Quality of Sumba Ongole Bulls Fed Ration Containing Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens

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    S. M. Yantika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study performance, carcass production, meat quality, and economic feasibility of male Sumba Ongole cattle fed ration supplemented with velvet bean (M. pruriens. The research was designed in a completely randomized block design using 16 cattle with average body weight of 488+37.08 kg. The treatments were: T0= 15% straw + 85% concentrate; T1= T0 + 12% of velvet bean flour supplement; T2= T0 + 16% of velvet bean tempeh supplement; and T3= T0 + 200 mg/head/d of ractopamine hydrocloride. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance with orthogonal contrast. The observed variables included feed consumption, average daily body weight gain (ADG, feed efficiency (FE, income over feed cost (IOFC, hot carcass weight (HCW, carcass percentage, subcutaneous fat thickness, meat pH, tenderness, cooking loss, and water holding capacity (WHC. The result revealed that the addition of 12% velvet bean flour into the rations increased dry matter consumption (P<0.05, but did not affect ADG, FE, IOFC, carcass production, and meat quality. The addition of 12% velvet bean flour produced the lowest cooking loss (P<0.05. The addition of 16% velvet bean tempeh into the rations significantly increased (P<0.05 dry matter consumption, however reduced (P<0.05 ADG, FE, and IOFC compared to control treatment. It is concluded that velvet bean flour at the level of 12% can be used as an alternative feed supplement in the ration of Sumba Ongole cattle and can replace the use of synthetic ß-agonist.

  1. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is a zoonotic, parasitic infection in cattle. Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcass from all bovines above 6 weeks of age is examined for BC. This method is costly and makes more sense in countries with higher number of BC-infected animals...... than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards...... the animals with the highest risk of BC. Cases (n = 77) included herds that hosted at least one animal diagnosed with BC at meat inspection, from 2006 to 2010. Control herds (n = 231) consisted of randomly selected herds that had not hosted any animals diagnosed with BC between 2004 and 2010. The answers from...

  2. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

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    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  3. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Dried Distillers Grain with Solubles (DDGS and Yucca (Yucca schidigera on Broiler Performance, Carcass Traits, Intestinal Viscosity and Marketing

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    Savaş Sariozkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of dried distillers’ grain with soluble (DDGS and yucca (Yucca schidigera on broiler performance, intestinal viscosity, carcass traits, and marketing. A total of 360, 21-d-old male broiler chickens were divided into 4 groups as 1: Control (C, corn based diet, without DDGS and yucca (Y supplementation, 2: DDGS (30%, 3: C + Y (120 mg/kg Yucca and 4: DDGS (30% + Y (120 mg/kg with 6 replicates (15 chicks x 6 replicates. The study was performed between 21 to 42 days of age. As a result, there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate (P>0.05. The carcass traits and effects of different marketing type (whole sale or cutting parts on profit were compared. A slight decrease was determined in group 4 in terms of leg quarter ratio to cold carcass weight and carcass yield. Intestinal viscosity, bacterial counts and pH values (in duodenum and ileum were not different among the groups (P>0.05. The lowest production cost was determined in DDGS and DDGS+Y groups (P

  4. Restrição alimentar em caprinos: rendimento, cortes comerciais e composição da carcaça Feed restriction in goats: carcass yield, commercial cuts, and carcass composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Alejandro Yáñez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito da restrição alimentar sobre as características da carcaça de caprinos leiteiros, realizou-se um experimento utilizando 27 cabritos castrados da raça Saanen. Os animais (PV inicial de 20 kg foram distribuídos nos tratamentos alimentação à vontade e 30 e 60% de restrição, sendo abatidos aos 35 kg de PV. Foram avaliados o rendimento comercial e biológico, os cortes comerciais, a área de olho-de-lombo e a composição tecidual da perna. O rendimento biológico não foi afetado pela restrição alimentar, mas o comercial diminuiu com o aumento da restrição. A elevação no nível de restrição alimentar promoveu diminuição do lombo e da 6ª a 13ª costelas e aumento da paleta e do pescoço, proporcionalmente à meia-carcaça. A proporção de ossos aumentou e a de gordura total diminuiu com o aumento da restrição. O tecido muscular não foi afetado pela restrição. A restrição alimentar de até 30% não prejudicou a qualidade da carcaça de caprinos leiteiros.Twenty-seven Saanen male kids averaging 20 kg of body weight (BW at the beginning of the trial were used to study the effects of feed restriction on carcass characteristics. Animals were assigned to one of the following three treatments: control (fed ad libitum, 30 or 60% of feed restriction. A completely randomized design was used and data were submitted to regression analysis; animals were slaughtered when they reached 35 kg of BW. The following traits were measured in this trial: carcass commercial and biological yields, commercial cuts, tissue composition of hind leg, rib eye area (REA, and carcass compactness. Increasing feed restriction reduced carcass and commercial cut weights as well as loin and fat proportions in the carcass. Conversely, proportions of bone, neck, and shoulder clod all increased when the feed restriction went from 0 to 60%. Muscle tissue proportion was not changed by feed restriction in this study. It can be

  5. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems - II: slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, M A; Sarıca, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigates the slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range production systems. 2. The study was conducted with 114 naturally hatched and 102 artificially hatched geese. From each replicate of the intensive and free-range systems, one female and one male goose were slaughtered at the ages of 14, 16 and 18 weeks (a total of 32 geese per slaughter week). 3. Artificially hatched geese had higher slaughter weights (5280 vs. 4404 g), carcass weights (3520 vs. 2863), dressing percentages (66.6-65.2% vs. 65.0-63.6%) and carcass part, feather and edible inner organ weights. The ratio of both edible inner organs and abdominal fat was higher in naturally hatched geese. Breast meat L*, a* and pH values and thigh meat dry matter values were higher in artificially hatched geese, whereas thigh meat b* and pH values were higher in naturally hatched geese. 4. Intensively reared geese had higher slaughter weights (4900 vs. 4783 g), carcass weights (3253 vs. 3130 g) and abdominal fat weights (280 vs. 250 g), as well as higher dressing percentages (66.3-64.9% vs. 65.3-63.9%). Breast meat b* and thigh meat L* values were higher in the intensive system, while breast and thigh pH values, dripping loss and cooking loss were higher in the free-range system. Water-holding capacity was higher in the intensive system. 5. In conclusion, artificially hatched, intensively reared geese had the highest slaughter weights; however, both artificially and naturally hatched geese raised in a free-range system reached acceptable slaughter weights and can thus be recommended for use with this type of production system.

  6. Performance, carcass and meat quality of pigs fed diets with antioxidants and ractopamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Abrami Monteiro Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was evaluated the effects of the use of additives antioxidants associated or not with ractopamine in feed for finishing pigs. Were used 51 crossbred pigs, 27 barrows and 24 females with initial weight of 83.38 kg. Three experimental treatments were established based on the inclusion of two complexes to feed: complex 1 (4g de vitamin E + 1g de vitamin C/kg of product and complex 2 (0.2g de ractopamine + 4g de vitamin E + 2g de vitamin C/kg of product, defining the ration control (free of complexes, ration control + complex 1 (0.1% and ration control + complex 2 (0.05%. The experimental design was blocked randomically, presenting a factorial model 3x2 (3 treatments and 2 sexes. Were observed difference (P<0.05 for daily feed intake, feed, hot and cold carcass weight to the treatment with ractopamine. The values of vitamin E in meat were higher (P <0.05 in muscle of animals in groups receiving the vitamin. There was a difference (P <0.05 in the values of oxidation and marbling in the treatments with antioxidant. The inclusion of ractopamine, with the antioxidants, resulted in improvement in performance and carcass characteristics, and supplementation with the antioxidant, alone, showed improvement in parameters related to meat quality

  7. Re-alimentation strategy to manoeuvre body condition and carcass characteristics in cull ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R S; Soren, N M; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A

    2012-01-01

    Improvement in body condition and carcass traits through nutritional intervention was studied in cull ewes. Sixty-eight adult non-productive Malpura ewes (average body weight 26.7 ± 0.33 kg) were randomly divided into four equal groups: G0 maintained on free grazing for 8 h on protected natural rangeland with ad libitum guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) straw (GS) after grazing; G1, G2 and G3 fed with supplemental concentrate at the rate of 250 g, 2.5% of live weight (LW) and ad libitum, respectively. The experiment was continued for 90 days and daily feed intake, weekly LW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded. Intake and digestibility of nutrients were assessed by indicator method. Rumen fermentation attributes and blood biochemical profile were studied to assess the dietary effects and animals were slaughtered at the end of experiment for evaluation of carcass characteristics. Higher dry matter (DM) intake and improvement in plane of nutrition was observed in G2 and G3 with a higher LW gain (LWG) and improvement in BCS than in G0. The digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP, ADF and cellulose was higher (P alimentation of cull ewes with challenged feeding of concentrate at 2.5% of LW on a basal roughage diet for a period of 3 months may have promise for better economic return to the farmers with possibly meeting quality mutton for human consumption.

  8. Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Growth Performance Responses and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Poorghasemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows: T, diet containing 4% tallow; CO, diet containing 4% canola oil; SFO, diet containing 4% sunflower oil; TCO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% canola oil; TSFO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% sunflower oil. Dietary fat type affected significantly BW and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed the TCO diets compared with those fed the other diets. Dietary fat type also modified meat yield, resulting in a higher breast and drumstick yields in the birds fed TCO and TSFO diets, respectively. Most of internal organ relative weights and small intestine measurements were not influenced by dietary treatments, except for the abdominal fat pad weight that was lower in birds fed SFO and for small intestinal length that was influenced by fat source. Results from the current study suggested that the supplementation with a combination of vegetable and animal fat sources in broiler diet supported positively growth performance and carcass parameters.

  9. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a female per repetition were chosen at random and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Samples of breast, leg, skin and abdominal fats were analyzed to determine the percentage of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The Ross line showed higher final weight and weight gain, better intake and feed conversion rate. Also, it was observed that females of both lines had similar results in relation to these parameters. Better yield of breast with bone was found in Ross males and females. In relation to legs and thigh, Ross males showed better results and no differences were observed among females of both lines. Males deposited less fat than females. Finally, differences in percentage of intramuscular fat, content of cholesterol in breast with skin, leg with skin and skin, percentage of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed between sex and lines.

  10. Effect of Adding L-carnitine and Probiotic on Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was realised to investigate the effects of adding L-carnitine and probiotic on performance and carcass parameters of broiler chickens. Totally 240 one-day old broiler Ross 308 chickens randomly divided into four groups. Control group with basal diet without supplementation, experimental group 1 with probiotic in feed mixture in dose of 7.5 g/kg; experimental group 2 with L-carnitine in dose of 1ml/1.2 l in drinking water and experimental group 3 with probiotic in feed mixture in dose of 7.5 g/ kg + L-carnitine in drinking water in dose of 1 ml/1.2 l in drinking water. The results of this study indicated that supplementation with L-carnitine and probiotic statistically increased (p0.05 in feed consumption among groups in 42 days of age and broiler chickens receiving L-carnitine + probiotic had lowest mortality compared to the other groups. Furthermore, diet supplementation with L-carnitine and probiotic slightly increased (p>0.05 breast proportion of broiler chickens at the expense of a slight reduction (p>0.05 of thighs proportion in recognized statistically no significant differences (p>0.05. Further result showed statistically decreased weight of abdominal fat in broiler chickens with L-carnitine and probiotic and no significant effect in weight of giblets and carcass yield between control and other groups.

  11. Carcass characteristics and sensorial evaluation of meat from Nellore steers and crossbred Angus vs. Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Cunha Barcellos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 36-month old Nellore steers finished in pastures (n = 10 and 20-month old Angus vs. Nellore bulls finished in feedlot (n = 10. Final body weight, carcass weight, characteristics, conformation and fat thickness, were higher (p 0.05 throughout the ageing period for the Angus vs. Nellore bulls, but higher in meat from the Nellore steers (p 0.05 on meat a* value (redness. Likewise, ageing time had no effect on a* in both genetic groups, and genetic group had no effect (p > 0.05 on meat b* value (yellowness. On the other hand, b* was increased after day 7 of ageing for the bulls from the two genetic groups. Thawing and cooking losses were lower for Nellore steers after day 7 of aging (p 0.05 on lipid oxidation; however, lipid oxidation increased after day7. Meat from Nellore steers contained a higher percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, a lower percentage of unsaturated (UFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and a similar percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA than the meat from Angus vs. Nellore bulls. Intramuscular fat from Nellore steers had a more favourable n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio than that from Angus vs. Nellore bulls (4.37 vs. 11.45, respectively. Tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability were higher (p < 0.001 for meats of the Nellore steers, regardless of ageing time (1, 4, 7 and 14 days.

  12. Effect of floor type on carcass and meat quality of pen raised growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dal Bosco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to compare the carcass and meat quality traits of growing rabbits housed on different floor types. At the age of 35 d, rabbits (n=126 were randomly sorted into 3 groups and housed in pens with different floor types: plastic-mesh, deep-litter straw or wire-mesh. Slaughter weight, carcass and its parts’ weight, meat (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum [LL] muscle and hind leg pH and colour, oxidative status and fatty acid profile were measured and correlations calculated. The deep-litter straw rabbits showed the lowest pHu and b* values of LL muscle and oxidation of the both muscles. The fatty acid profile of LL muscle of deep-litter straw rabbits showed a higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids and long chain n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids, whereas the content of  18:2n-6 and total PUFA was lower. We concluded that housing the growing rabbits on wire- or plastic-mesh floors showed no substantial differences, while housing rabbits on deep-litter negatively affected certain qualitative traits.

  13. EFFECT OF BLOOD MEAL ON THE GROWTH AND CARCASS YIELD OF BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Memon, N.N. Ansari, A.A. Solangil and G. Memon2

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of four levels of blood meal on the growth and carcass yield of broilers. For this purpose, 250 day-old chicks were divided in five groups i.e., A, B, C, D and E. 0, 3, 4, 5 and 6 percent levels of blood meal were mixed in the ration of the five groups respectively. The chicks were reared on the experimental rations for six weeks and data on feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage were recorded. Results revealed highly significant differences (Pweight gain of broilers. Average weight gain of birds of groups A, B, C, D and E was 1634.66, 1866.55, 1808.04, 1792.07 and 1755.34 9 respectively. The group B (3% blood meal gave best performance in terms of weight gain and carcass yield as compared to all the other groups. Average feed consumption of broilers of five groups was 4033.19, 3960.45, 4127.25, 4147.19 and 4149.19 g. Group B consumed less feed. The average feed conversion ratio was 2.47, 2.12, 2.28, 2.31 and 2.36. Better feed conversion ratio was observed in birds of group B. The average dressing percentage of broiler chicks of five groups was 56.23, 63.41, 61.4J, 60.38 and 57.74 percent. The broiler of group B showed better dressing percentage (63.41. Non-significant differences were observed in weight of edible parts like liver, gizzard and heart. It was concluded that the broilers could be reared economically by using 3% of blood level as an animal protein source in the broiler ration to save economy of producers.

  14. Feedlot performance and carcass traits of hairbreed ewe lambs in response to zilpaterol hydrochloride and soybean oil supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Ramírez, J L; Macías-Cruz, U; Torrentera-Olivera, N G; González-Ríos, H; Peña-Ramos, E A; Soto-Navarro, S A; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 0 or 10 mg/lamb daily) and soybean oil (SBO; 0 or 6%) supplementation on feedlot performance, carcass traits, and wholesale cut yield of 32 Dorper × Pelibuey ewe lambs (30.55 ± 2. 57 kg of initial BW). Lambs were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to treatments under a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. After a 34-d feeding period, all ewes were slaughtered. No ZH × SBO interactions were detected (P ≥ 0.11) for the variables evaluated. In the overall feeding period and first 17 d of experiment, feedlot performance was not affected (P ≥ 0.26) by ZH supplementation, but from d 18 to 34, ZH increased (P ≤ 0.03) total gain, ADG, and G:F without affecting DMI (P = 0.58). Also, ZH increased (P ≤ 0.02) HCW, cold carcass weight, dressing percentage, LM area, and leg perimeter. Lung weight as percentage of final BW decreased (P = 0.05) whereas other noncarcass components and wholesale cut yields were not affected (P ≥ 0.06) by ZH supplementation. Inclusion of SBO did not affect (P ≥ 0.08) feedlot performance or wholesale cut yields. The LM pH at 24 h postmortem as well as liver and peritoneum percentages were decreased (P ≤ 0.05) by SBO supplementation, but no other carcass characteristics or noncarcass components were affected (P ≥ 0.08) by SBO. In conclusion, feedlot performance and carcass characteristics were not altered by the interaction of ZH × SBO. However, ZH alone increased the growth of ewes during the last 17 d of the feeding period. Likewise, carcass characteristics of economic importance (i.e., HCW, dressing percentage, LM area, and leg perimeter) increased with ZH supplementation. In general, feedlot performance, carcass traits, and wholesale cut yields were not altered by including 6% of SBO in the finishing diet of ewe lambs.

  15. Bovine reproduction in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Lopez, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this document it has met relating data to the reproduction of bovine and their handling for the man that it can serve as norms to judge reproductive efficiency but always view in the aspect of the nutritious, climatic circumstances and of handling under which met. Under the previous description one can say that the fertility is the resultant of the interaction among the inheritance, the means and the handling, they vary in particular for each region and property. The fertility can be good, regulate or bad in the measure in that the factors that intervene. The environmental effect on the reproductive processes of the cow represents 80 percent of the variation factors and they include climate, effect of the light, effect of the temperature, effect of the nutritious contribution, effect of psychological factors: the loss of the tendency to the seasonal reproduction is in fact an answer from the animals to its association with the man. The influence of the environment and the feeding of the animals are more intense in the females than in the males, being evidenced that the reproduction control is under the influence hormonal joint with the nutrition. An appropriate nutrition is prerequisite for the beginning of the sexual maturation with an appropriate weight and corporal condition. It is also described the effect and the relationship of the energy contribution about the fertility, the restart of the ovarian activity, its cause of the continuation of the interval childbirth-conception, silent ovulation, organic ancestry and interval among childbirths

  16. Efeito do grupo genético sobre as características de carcaça e maciez da carne fresca e maturada de bovinos superprecoces Effect of genetic group on carcass traits and fresh and aged beef tenderness from young cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldmaryan Bianchini

    2007-12-01

    weaned at 8 months of age in system creep-feeding and later confined for 150 days until they reach the slaughter weight above 465 kg and slaughtered in commercial abattoir. The pH values and temperature during carcass cooling was similar for all of the genetic groups. In the same way, the variables cold carcass, forequarter and hindquarter, did not show any differences among the genetic groups. The beef cuts were quite homogeneous, excepting the strip loin and the tenderloin that were larger perceptually for Simmental. The Nellore and ½ Simmental breeds presented larger shear force (4.98 and 4.45 kgf than Simmental and Simbrasil (3.13 and 3.33 kgf. However, after the meat ageing for 7 days, no differences were verified among the groups for tenderness values. The losses by evaporation and leaking were higher for non aged Simmental and Simbrasil beef cuts; however, seven days of ageing those losses showed no differences. The system of production of young bulls bovines produces carcasses and cuts similar among the different breed studied. With seven days of maturation Nellore meat tenderness was similar to the other genetic groups used in this study.

  17. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  18. Effect of long term dietary supplementation with plant extract on carcass characteristics meat quality and oxidative stability in pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Raffaella; Pastorelli, Grazia; Cannata, Susanna; Tavaniello, Siria; Maiorano, Giuseppe; Corino, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation in pigs with plant extract (PE) from Lippia spp., titrated in verbascoside (5mg/kg feed), from weaning to slaughter (166days), on carcass characteristics, meat quality, collagen characteristics, oxidative stability and sensory attributes of Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were examined. Ten pigs per treatment were slaughter at a live weight of 109.5±1.4kg. No influence on carcass characteristics, LD meat quality parameters and collagen characteristics were observed. Dietary PE increased (PRaw LD of pig fed PE showed lower (Pmeat, enhancing oxidative status and sensory attributes, without affecting other meat quality parameters. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Beef carcasses with larger eye muscle areas, lower ossification scores and improved nutrition have a lower incidence of dark cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilchrist, P; Alston, C L; Gardner, G E; Thomson, K L; Pethick, D W

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of eye muscle area (EMA), ossification, carcass weight, marbling and rib fat depth on the incidence of dark cutting (pH(u)>5.7) using routinely collected Meat Standards Australia (MSA) data. Data was obtained from 204,072 carcasses at a Western Australian processor between 2002 and 2008. Binomial data of pH(u) compliance was analysed using a logit model in a Bayesian framework. Increasing eye muscle area from 40 to 80 cm², increased pH(u) compliance by around 14% (Pcutting. Increasing musculature and growth combined with good nutrition will minimise dark cutting beef in Australia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Level and period of realimentation to assess improvement in body condition and carcass quality in cull ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Randhir Singh; Soren, Nira Manik; Sahoo, Artabandhu; Karim, Shaikh Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in body condition was assessed in 40 cull ewes (>6 years), equally distributed in two groups and realimented with ad libitum roughage (gram straw) and two levels of concentrate feeding, i.e., 2.5 % (T(1)) of live weight (LW) and ad libitum (T(2)). Five representative animals from an initial 45 were slaughtered at the initiation of the study (0 day) and five animals from each treatment at 44, 67, and 90 days of experiment for carcass attributes. Improvement in body condition score (BCS), nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were assessed at 44, 67, and 90 days. Metabolism trial of 6-day collection of feed, feces, and urine samples was conducted on five representative ewes from each group after 60 days of feeding. The level of concentrate feeding on LW gain and BCS was significant, and the duration of realimentation showed a linear improvement (P body condition of cull ewes for quality mutton production.

  1. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk

    2007-01-01

    -containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65......% of the total molecular weight, and the molar ratios of the individual sugars to protein of the O-linked glycans were determined. The glycan structures of MUC15 were further studied by enzymatic deglycosylation experiments using different endo- and exoglycosidases as well as a panel of lectins. The N......-linked glycans. By comparing the results of peanut agglutinin lectin binding, enzymatic deglycosylation, and monosaccharide composition analysis, we concluded that bovine MUC15 also contains more complex O-glycans containing high amounts N-acetylglucosamine residues. Furthermore, a small subset of the O...

  2. Behavioral, Performance, Carcass Traits and Hormonal Changes of Heat Stressed Broilers Feeding Black and Coriander Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan D.M. EL-Shoukary

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was done to determine the effects of feeding heat stressed broilers (Ross308 diets contain Nigella Sativa seeds or coriander seeds on Ingestive, panting behaviors, feed consumption, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio, live body weight, slaughter weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage, corticosterone, triiodothyronine (T3 and tetraiodothyronine (T4. Three groups were used; the first one is the control group, which fed on basal diet only and the second fed diet contains 1% Nigella Sativa seeds (black seed while the third group fed diet contain 2% coriander seeds. The previous parameters were recorded daily or weekly during the experiment or after slaughtering to collecting blood parameters. The results explained that, there was a significant increase in feeding behavior, feed consumption, weight gain and dressing percentage while there was a significant decrease in panting behavior, water to feed ratio, T3 level and corticosterone level. Moreover, there was no significance difference in drinking behavior live body weight, slaughter weight, feed conversion rate and T4 level (P<0.05. It could be concluded that, black seeds and coriander seeds can be used to alleviate the negative effect of heat stress in broiler during summer seasons in Egypt.

  3. Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Z. Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.

  4. Effect of Lighting Programs on Performance, Carcass and Production Costs of Arian Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahmani

    2012-02-01

    Light is an environmental factor, which has profound influences on broilers performance and frequently overlooked management practices. This study was conducted to compare the effects of different lighting programs on growth, carcass parts and economical performance using 320 one day–old broilers (Arian 386 in completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 8 replicates per each treatments (10 birds for each replicate. The four lighting schedules under study were: 1- continuous lighting (control, 2- decreasing-sudden increasing lighting, 3- decreasing-gradual increasing lighting and 4- intermittent lighting (1 light: 3 dark. Feed intake, body weight, feed conversion ratio, mortality and production index of birds raising under different lighting schedules were compared during six weeks of experimental carrier. Final body weight and total feed consumption were the same for all birds regardless of lighting schedules applied (P>0.05. Intermittent lighting significantly improved feed conversion ratio and decreased mortality rate compared to other lighting schedules (P

  5. Pork carcass composition: II. Use of indicator cuts for predicting carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensen, K; Ellis, M; Brewer, M S; Novakofski, J; McKeith, F K

    1998-09-01

    Right sides of 30 pork carcasses were fabricated into indicator cuts (Boston butt, picnic, anterior belly, posterior belly, anterior loin, posterior loin, and ham) and used to determine carcass composition by physical dissection and chemical analysis of soft tissue. Linear measures and chemical composition of whole-side grind were collected from left sides. Dissection of indicator cuts to predict dissectable composition of the side were much better indicators than linear measures (R2 = .70 to .94). Chemical analyses of soft tissue (lean + lipid) from the loin and anterior belly were better predictors of fat-free lean and extractable lipid composition of the side than linear measures; 89% of the variation in dissectable lean of the side was explained by the use of dissectable components of the anterior loin. The loin served as the best overall indicator cut across the various end points evaluated; 92% of the variation in dissectable lean of the side was explained using dissectable components of the shoulder. The anterior belly was a good indicator for percentage of dissectable lean, fat, fat-free lean, and extractable lipid.

  6. Effect of season and stocking density during transport on carcass and meat quality of suckling lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanchez-Sanchez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Many factors related to transport to abattoir affects meat quality, but scarce information is available in suckling lambs. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of season and stocking density on carcass and meat quality of suckling lambs during commercial transport to the abattoir. A factorial design (2 × 3 was used: two seasons (winter and summer and three stocking densities (SD; 0.08, 0.12 and 0.20 m2 animal-1. Meat quality variables were measured in the M. longissimus at 24 h post-mortem and after 5 days of refrigerated storage. Lambs transported in summer showed lower liver weight (p<0.001, h* (p<0.05, deoxymyoglobin content (p<0.001, pressed juice (p<0.01, shear force (p<0.001 and firmness (p<0.001, and higher initial pH (p<0.001, L*, b*, C* (p<0.001 and a* (p<0.01, as well as metmyoglobin and oxymyoglobin content (p<0.001, than those transported in winter. The effect of season was dependent on storage time, being colour changes more evident at 24 h than after 5 days of storage, whereas lipid oxidation was only observed in stored meat, which may be explain because the natural antioxidative system decreases with time after slaughter. Scarce effect of SD was found on the carcass and meat quality parameters, thus under our experimental conditions the three SD studied appear to be suitable for suckling lambs transport. However, both carcass and meat quality were within the normal commercial range.

  7. Postweaning and feedlot growth and carcass characteristics of Angus-, gray Brahman-, Gir-, Indu-Brazil-, Nellore-, and red Brahman-sired F1 calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschal, J C; Sanders, J O; Kerr, J L; Lunt, D K; Herring, A D

    1995-02-01

    Postweaning, feedlot, and carcass data from crossbred calves sired by five Bos indicus breeds and one Bos taurus breed were evaluated. Data included records from F1 calves out of multiparous Hereford cows sired by Angus, Gray Brahman, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, and Red Brahman bulls. The Zebu crosses grew faster postweaning and were heavier and taller as yearlings than the Angus crosses (P gaining and were heavier at a year of age than the Gir, Indu-Brazil, and Nellore. The Nellore crosses were significantly taller than the Gray Brahman- and Gir-sired crosses; the Indu-Brazil and Red Brahman were intermediate. Angus crosses were lightest on and off feed but were not significantly different from Gir, and Red and Gray Brahman were heaviest (P Nellore and Indu-Brazil were similar in initial weight, but Indu-Brazil calves were similar to Red and Gray Brahman for final weight. The Angus cross was more desirable (P Nellore crosses had the most desirable score and grade of the Zebu crosses. Gir crosses had higher skeletal maturity scores (P Nellore, Gray Brahman, Indu-Brazil, and Angus crosses; Red Brahman crosses were intermediate Angus crosses had the lightest carcasses but not significantly lighter than the Indu-Brazil, Gir, or Nellore. Red Brahman-cross carcasses were heaviest and Gray Brahman-cross carcasses were intermediate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  9. Carcass and Meat Quality Pelung Sentul Kampung Broiler Crossbreed Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwati, S.; Afnan, R.; Prabowo, S.; Nurcahya, H.

    2018-01-01

    Crossbreed chicken of pelung sentul kampung broiler (PSKR) has good growth and ready to slaughter at the age of 10 weeks. So, it has potential as a local chicken for meat producers. Potential of PSKR crossbreed chicken need to know about the percentage of carcass and the physical quality of meat for holistic information. This study aimed to evaluate the carcass and the quality of the physical meat of pelung sentul kampung broiler chicken (PSKR). Material of 12 chickens PSKR 12 weeks unsexing were used and observed for the percentage of carcass in the chest, upper and lower thighs and physical quality of breast meat included pH, water-binding power, cooking impurities, and tenderness. Chickens fed 100% commercial feed for broiler chicken phase starter until age 3 weeks, then gradually added rice bran and age > 5 weeks fed 60% commercial feed plus 40% rice bran. Chicken is slaughter at 12 weeks of age. The data obtained are presented descriptively. Percentage of PSKR carcass was 68%, chest was 27.17%, upper thigh was 17.12%, lower thigh was 16.64% respectively. Physical quality of breast meat has a pH performance of 5.30,% mgH2O of 28.08%, cooking loss of 29.13%, and tenderness of 2.63 respectively. PSKR chicken had potential for meat producers based on carcass percentage with chest meat was very tender because the genetic of broiler in PSKR as much as 25%.

  10. Identification of quantitative trait loci for growth and carcass composition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Stone, R T

    2004-02-01

    A genomic screening to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits was pursued. Two hundred nineteen microsatellite markers were genotyped on 176 of 620 (28%) progeny from a Brahman x Angus sire mated to mostly MARC III dams. Selective genotyping, based on retail product yield (%) and fat yield (%), was used to select individuals to be genotyped. Traits included in the study were birth weight (kg), hot carcass weight (kg), retail product yield, fat yield, marbling score (400 = slight00 and 500 = small00), USDA yield grade, and estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat (%). The QTL were classified as significant when the expected number of false positives (ENFP) was less than 0.05 (F-statistic greater than 17.3), and suggestive when the ENFP was ENFP = 0.02) was detected for marbling score at centimorgan (cM) 54 on chromosome 2. Suggestive QTL were detected for fat yield at 50 cM, for retail product yield at 53 cM, and for USDA yield grade at 63 cM on chromosome 1, for marbling score at 56 cM, for retail product yield at 70 cM, and for estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat at 79 cM on chromosome 3, for marbling score at 44 cM, for hot carcass weight at 49 cM, and for estimated kidney, heart and pelvic fat at 62 cM on chromosome 16, and for fat yield at 35 cM on chromosome 17. Two suggestive QTL for birth weight were identified, one at 12 cM on chromosome 20 and the other at 56 cM on chromosome 21. An additional suggestive QTL was detected for retail product yield, for fat yield, and for USDA yield grade at 26 cM on chromosome 26. Results presented here represent the initial search for quantitative trait loci in this family. Validation of detected QTL in other populations will be necessary.

  11. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5 and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3 on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (pG of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05. The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be

  12. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and dietary protein content on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cônsolo, N R B; Mesquita, B S; Rodriguez, F D; Rizzi, V G; Silva, L F P

    2016-03-01

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) alters protein metabolism and improves growth performance in Bos taurus cattle with high carcass fat. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of RH, dietary CP and RH×CP interaction on performance, blood metabolites, carcass characteristics and meat quality of young Nellore bulls. A total of 48 bulls were randomly assigned to four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The factors were two levels of dietary CP (100% and 120% of metabolizable protein requirement, defined as CP100 and CP120, respectively), and two levels of RH (0 and 300 mg/animal·per day). Treated animal received RH for the final 35 days before slaughter. Animals were weighed at the beginning of the feedlot period (day 63), at the beginning of ractopamine supplementation (day 0), after 18 days of supplementation (day 18) and before slaughter (day 34). Animals were slaughtered and hot carcass weights recorded. After chilling, carcass data was collected and longissimus samples were obtained for determination of meat quality. The 9-11th rib section was removed for carcass composition analysis. Supplementation with RH increased ADG independently of dietary CP. There was a RH×CP interaction on dry matter intake (DMI), where RH reduced DMI at CP120, with no effect at CP100. Ractopamine improved feed efficiency, without RH×CP interaction. Ractopamine had no effect on plasma creatinine and urea concentration. Greater dietary CP tended to increase blood urea, and there was a RH×CP interaction for plasma total protein. Ractopamine supplementation increased plasma total protein at CP120, and had no effect at CP100. Ractopamine also decreased plasma glucose concentration at CP100, but had no effect at CP120. Ractopamine increased alkaline phosphatase activity at CP120 and had no effect at CP100. There was a tendency for RH to increase longissimus muscle area, independently of dietary CP. Ractopamine did not alter fat thickness; however, fat thickness was reduced by

  13. Effect of different levels of green tea (Camellia sinensis on productive performance, carcass characteristics and organs of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we aimed to determine the effect of different levels of green tea in powder form to feed on productive performance, carcass parameters and organs in broiler chickens. Totally 240 day-old broiler chickens Ross 308 were divided to four dietary groups (n = 60 namely control and three experimental groups with supplementation of green tea to feed mixture in levels 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Broiler chickens were feeding with commercial feed mixtures and feed and drinking water were provided ad libittum. The feeding period lasted 42 days. Individual body weight of broiler chickens was determined at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 day, feed sonsumption and mortality per group were determined at 42 day of fattening period. Carcass quality and organs weight of broiler chickens were determined at the end of the experiment. The results indicated that supplementation of different levels of green tea statistically significant decreased body weight gain and we recorded lower body weight in 21 days of age compared with control group. However, in second period of fattening, broiler chickens in experimental groups growing faster and in 42 days of age we found statistically no significantly differences among control and experimental groups. Feed consumption did not differ among the dietary groups at 42 days of fattening. Mortality no affected by supplementation of green tea to broiler chickens diets in comparison with control group. From the carcass parameters addition of green tea significantly decreased percentage of abdominal fat between control and 1.5% green tea level, in other parameters (percentage of breast, percentage of drumstick, carcass yield were different among control and experimental groups not statistically significant. The caecum and small intestine weights was significantly (p ≤0.05 decreased in chickens fed diets containing 0.5% green tea supplement compared to 1% and 1.5%. For neck, crop, heart, liver, proventriculus, gizzard, pancreas

  14. Carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of horsemeat: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Sarriés, María Victoria; Tateo, Alessandra; Polidori, Paolo; Franco, Daniel; Lanza, Massimiliano

    2014-04-01

    Meat has exerted a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. The aim of the present review was to shed light on the nutritional composition of horsemeat and their benefits for human health. One of the reasons for such interest was the occurrence, in Europe several years ago, of dioxin, Bovine Encephalopathy and foot-and-mouth disease problems in farm animals. Therefore, consumers began to look for alternative red meats from other non-traditional species. There is no carcass classification system on horses designated to meat consumption. It would be advisable to standardize the equine meat market to reduce variations that may reflect differences in meat quality. The nutritional composition of horsemeat by comparison with pork, beef or poultry is characterized by low levels of fat and cholesterol (about 20% less), relatively high concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and heme iron indicating that its consumption may be beneficial for health. Therefore, horsemeat may supplement the meat market with good quality products, although as in other dietary components moderation is advisable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Parameters for carcass composition and pork quality estimated in a commercial production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van H.J.; Arts, D.J.G.; Matthews, J.O.; Webster, M.; Ducro, B.J.; Knol, E.F.

    2005-01-01

    Breeding goals in pigs are subject to change and are directed much more toward retail carcass yield and meat quality because of the high economic value of these traits. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. Carcass components

  16. Effect of finisher diets treated with organic acids on carcass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of 4 weeks, 3 birds from each replicate giving a total of 9 birds per treatment were slaughtered for carcass and internal organ evaluation. Result from the carcass evaluation showed that dressed carcass, breast, thigh, wing and drumstick of OA treated groups were not significantly (P>0.05) different from the control.

  17. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. 311.28 Section 311.28 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs...

  18. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of this...

  19. 9 CFR 310.6 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.6 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; marking. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking shall be marked conspicuously on the surface tissues thereof by a...

  20. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  1. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W

    2006-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival.

  2. Performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore young bulls fed different sources of oils, protected or not from rumen degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Laurindo Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the addition of vegetable oils protected or not from rumen degradation in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls and their effects on performance and carcass characteristics. Thirty-five Nellore males of 402.69±14.90 kg initial weight and 18±2 months of age were utilized. The animals were confined for 96 days, after 28 days of adaptation, and slaughtered at 532.17±30.25 kg. Experimental diets were: control (715 g total digestible nutrients - TDN/kg of dry matter - DM, with addition of soybean oil or fresh linseed oil, and with the addition of the same oils protected from rumen degradation (765 g TDN/kg DM. All diets were formulated with the same amount of protein and with a roughage:concentrate ratio of 40:60, with sugarcane as the only roughage. The addition of oil, regardless of the type and processing, resulted in greater body weight gain (1.17 and 1.41 kg/animal/day, better feed (0.11 and 0.14 kg weight gain/kg DM ingested and protein efficiency (0.86 and 1.09 kg weight gain/kg crude protein ingested, heavier carcasses (280.3 and 298.0 kg, with better yield (54.5 and 55.5% and thicker subcutaneous fat (5.1 and 7.5 mm backfat thickness and with heavier prime cuts, for control diet and the other treatments, respectively. The use of soybean or linseed oil protected or not from rumen degradation only changed the intake of a few nutrients and carcass yield and depth. Thus the addition of energy sources in the diet is beneficial for finishing feedlot bulls. For this addition, either soybean or linseed oils can be used, and the processing of these oils is only useful to facilitate the mixing with the other ingredients of the diet.

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation with onion (Allium cepa L. on performance, carcass traits and intestinal microflora composition in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Goodarzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the effect of onion (Allium cepa L. as an antibiotic growth promoter substitute on growth performance, carcass traits, and microflora composition in broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 192 one-day old mixed sex broiler chicks (Ross 308 were weighed and randomly allocated to four treatment groups, each with 4 replicate pens of 12 chicks. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control, antibiotic (15 mg virginiamycin/kg, and control+10 or 30 g fresh onions bulb/kg diet. Body weights of broilers were determined at Day 1, 21, and 42, feed intake was determined at the same periods, and feed conversion ratio was calculated accordingly. At Day 42, two birds per replicate were slaughtered for determination of carcass and organ weights. The populations of Lactobacilli spp. and Escherichia coli were enumerated in ileum by conventional microbiological techniques using selective agar media. Results: Dietary supplementation of 30 g/kg onion increased final body weight of broilers at 42 d of age compared to that of the other treatments (P<0.05. Birds fed 30 g onion/kg in the diet had the highest feed intake than other treatments at different growth periods (P<0.05. Feed conversion ratio, carcass yield and internal organ weights were not affected by the dietary treatments at Day 42. The Lactobacilli spp. population in birds supplemented with onion at the level of 30 g/ kg significantly was higher than other groups at 42 d of age (P<0.05. The lowest Escherichia coli loads were detected in broilers fed diets containing 15 mg virginiamycin/kg. The Escherichia coli loads significantly decreased in broilers fed diets containing 10 or 30 g onion/kg (P<0.05. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of the current study indicated that supplementing broiler diet with 30 g onion/kg could induce favorable influences on performance and ileum microflora composition.

  4. Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Kampen Tony A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting carcass and meat quality located on SSC2 were identified using variance component methods. A large number of traits involved in meat and carcass quality was detected in a commercial crossbred population: 1855 pigs sired by 17 boars from a synthetic line, which where homozygous (A/A for IGF2. Using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping (LDLA, several QTL significantly affecting loin muscle mass, ham weight and ham muscles (outer ham and knuckle ham and meat quality traits, such as Minolta-L* and -b*, ultimate pH and Japanese colour score were detected. These results agreed well with previous QTL-studies involving SSC2. Since our study is carried out on crossbreds, different QTL may be segregating in the parental lines. To address this question, we compared models with a single QTL-variance component with models allowing for separate sire and dam QTL-variance components. The same QTL were identified using a single QTL variance component model compared to a model allowing for separate variances with minor differences with respect to QTL location. However, the variance component method made it possible to detect QTL segregating in the paternal line (e.g. HAMB, the maternal lines (e.g. Ham or in both (e.g. pHu. Combining association and linkage information among haplotypes improved slightly the significance of the QTL compared to an analysis using linkage information only.

  5. Effect of passion fruit seed meal on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinello, Marcelise Regina; Pozza, Paulo Cesar; Moreira, Ivan; Carvalho, Paulo Levi Oliveira; Castilha, Leandro Dalcin; Pasquetti, Tiago Junior; Esteves, Lucas Antonio Costa; Huepa, Laura Marcela Diaz

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were carried out in Paraná State, Brazil, to evaluate the nutritional value of passion fruit seed meal (PFM) and to study the effect of PFM on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs (Topigs 20 × Tybor). In experiment 1, 25 castrated males, averaging 19.1-kg body weight, were individually fed in a completely randomized block design, consisting of five treatments and five replicates and an experimental period that lasted 14 days. In experiment 2, a total of 60 pigs (30 females and 30 castrated males) were distributed in a randomized block design with five treatments, six replications, and two animals per experimental unit and 90 days of experimentation. For both experiments, the same PFM inclusion rates were used in the experimental diets, namely, 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 %. The metabolizable energy of PFM was estimated to be 15.0 MJ/kg. Inclusion of PFM at any level did not affect average daily gain, daily feed intake, feed/gain ratio, backfat thickness, loin depth, and plasma or blood components. It is concluded that passion fruit seed meal for swine in the starting phase can be added at a rate of up to 16 % in the diet without any negative effects on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter commercial line pigs.

  6. Effect of housing conditions on production, carcass and meat quality traits of growing rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matics, Zs; Szendrő, Zs; Odermatt, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Nagy, I; Radnai, I; Dalle Zotte, A

    2014-01-01

    Production, carcass traits and meat quality of rabbits housed in cages or in different pens were compared. Rabbits (n=579) were sorted into 5 groups: C=cage (2 rabbits/cage); pen without platform: P11=9 rabbits/pen; P16=14 rabbits/pen; pen with platform: PW=wire net platform, 14 rabbits/pen; PD=platform with straw-litter, 14 rabbits/pen. Feed intake and average daily gain between 5 and 11 weeks, and body weight at 11 weeks were significantly higher in C rabbits than that of the mean of pen-housed groups, while the PD group had the lowest growth performance. C rabbits had the smallest hind part to reference carcass (Pmeat/bone ratio was the largest in group C (P<0.05). Differences were recorded in a* value and lipid content of m. Longissimus dorsi. Rabbits housed in cages generally had the best performance whereas those housed in pens with platform exhibited the worst. © 2013.

  7. Inclusion of bilberry pomace in rabbit diets: Effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, Sihem; Gai, Francesco; Renna, Manuela; Rotolo, Luca; Dabbou, Samia; Lussiana, Carola; Kovitvadhi, Attawit; Brugiapaglia, Alberto; De Marco, Michele; Helal, Ahmed Noureddine; Zoccarato, Ivo; Gasco, Laura

    2017-02-01

    A trial was performed to evaluate bilberry pomace (BP) as alternative source of nutrients for rabbits. One hundred and forty-four Grimaud weaned rabbits were divided into 4 groups of 36 animals each and fed ad libitum with a basal diet (BP0) tested against three assay diets developed by substituting 50, 100 and 150g/kg of the BP0 diet with BP (BP5, BP10 and BP15 diets, respectively). Carcass characteristics of rabbits were not affected by treatment, with the exception of liver weight. Dietary inclusion of BP did not affect proximate composition and oxidative status of longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle. Dietary BP significantly ameliorated, in the same muscle, the nutritional quality and health properties of fat. Consumer acceptance of cooked rabbit meat was not significantly affected by treatment. In conclusion, BP can be included in rabbit diets to improve the lipid composition of meat, without adverse effects on carcass characteristics, other physico-chemical properties, oxidative status and meat sensorial traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of tomato pomace supplementation on carcass characteristics and meat quality of fattening rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, P G; Gai, F; Rotolo, L; Brugiapaglia, A; Gasco, L

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how a feeding plan characterized by different levels of tomato pomace (TP) supplementation influences the carcass characteristics, the chemical, physical and sensorial characteristics of rabbit meat. 144 weaned crossbred rabbits were divided into three groups of 48 each. The first group was fed a basal diet without TP, while the other two groups were fed the basal diet after replacing part of the diet with TP at 3% and 6%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the experimental groups in terms of live and carcass weights. The meat of rabbits fed on a 6% TP diet exhibited higher yellowness (b*) and Chroma values when compared to others. The saturated fatty acid content in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat decreased significantly with increasing TP inclusion, while polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. Furthermore, our results indicate that a diet integrated with 6% TP could influence positively the overall preference of cooked meat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prebiotic and antimicrobials on performance, carcass characteristics, and antibody production in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Fomentini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of supplementation with mannan oligosaccharides, avilamycin and halquinol, alone or in combination, on the performance, carcass characteristics and antibody production in broilers (1-49 days old, male broiler chicks (n=1440; Cobb 500; one day old were housed and distributed into a completely randomized design into six treatments (eight replicates; 30 animals per pen. To produce the experimental diets, three types of performance enhancer additives were used. Halquinol (HAL, avilamycin (AVI and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS were included (alone or in combination in the basal diet (instead of corn starch. Effects of diet were observed on results of animal performance in the period 1-21 and 1-42 days old. Broilers fed with a diet without growth promoter showed lower weight gain in relation to those fed with diets with antimicrobials, MOS or a combination of them. In the period 1-49 days old, feed conversion increased in broilers fed with rations without promoter. At the end of the experimental period no influence of diets was observed on the carcass yield and cuts, and titles of specific antibodies to avian infectious bronchitis. The use of MOS and/or antimicrobials (AVI or HAL, alone or in combination, improves feed conversion of broilers reared until 49 days of age.

  10. Killing of juvenile Fasciola hepatica by purified bovine eosinophil proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffus, W P; Thorne, K; Oliver, R

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophils were isolated from the mammary gland of Fasciola hepatica-infected cattle by intramammary infusion with a crude extract from adult F. hepatica. Up to 5 x 10(9) eosinophils with a purity of over 90% could be obtained from a single quarter of the gland. The major contaminating cells were monocytes which reached their peak several days following the eosinophil peak. Two major proteins were isolated from bovine eosinophil granules, a high molecular weight peroxidase-active protein and a smaller molecular weight predominantly basic protein. This smaller protein was thought to be the bovine equivalent of guinea-pig and human major basic protein (MBP), although it possessed an unusually high concentration of cysteine. The bovine MBP had a profound effect on juvenile F. hepatica in vitro causing damage and death at concentrations down to 1 x 10(-6) M. The damage was detected by a 51Cr release assay and/or a viability assay involving microscopical examination of the flukes. Other cations, especially protamine sulphate, were also shown to kill flukes, although both lysozyme, found in neutrophils, and the peroxidase-positive peak from bovine eosinophils were unable to mediate any detectable damage. Images Fig. 4 PMID:7438542

  11. Classication Methods for CT-Scanned Carcass Midsections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has successfully been applied in medical environments for decades. In recent years CT has also made its entry to the industrial environments, including the slaughterhouses. In this paper we investigate classication methods for an online CT system, in order to assist...... in the segmentation of the outer fat layer in the mid- section of CT-scanned pig carcasses. Prior information about the carcass composition can potentially be applied for a fully automated solution, in order to optimize the slaughter line. The methods comprise Markov Random Field and contextual Bayesian classication...

  12. Arcobacter cibarius sp nov., isolated from broiler carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houf, K.; On, Stephen L.W.; Coenye, T.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty Gram-negative, rod-shaped, slightly curved, non-spore-forming bacteria that gave a negative result in Arcobacter species-specific PCR tests but that yielded an amplicon in an Arcobacter genus-specific PCR test were isolated from 13 unrelated broiler carcasses. Numerical analysis of the pro......Twenty Gram-negative, rod-shaped, slightly curved, non-spore-forming bacteria that gave a negative result in Arcobacter species-specific PCR tests but that yielded an amplicon in an Arcobacter genus-specific PCR test were isolated from 13 unrelated broiler carcasses. Numerical analysis...

  13. Ostrich (Struthio camellus carcass yield and meat quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Balog

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at compiling recent studies on the main factors that influence ostrich meat quality and carcass yield. Few articles investigated the effect of subspecies, which generally are not even mentioned. There are important dietary effects, particularly those caused by dietary protein to energy ratio. Rigor mortis follow-up studies showed that there are no losses in meat quality when carcasses are hot-deboned. Age at slaughter influences some meat quality traits, such as tenderness and lipid content. Few effects of gender have been observed, and at the same age at slaughter, both male and female present the same meat quality traits.

  14. The effect of slaughter weight on pig production efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    production costs of a weaner pig, it is possible to determine an optimal slaughter weight. ... will, amongst others, depend on growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, lean meat percentage, production costs of a .... Table 2 Economic implications of producing heavier carcasses under the current classification system.

  15. Carcass Traits and Immune Response of Broiler Chickens Fed Dietary L-Carnitine, Coenzyme Q10 and Ractopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Asadi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of coenzyme Q10, L-carnitine and ractopamine supplementation, alone and in combinations, on carcass traits and immune response of broiler chickens. Five hundred and twelve one-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens were randomly allocated into eight treatments with four replicates each. A 2×2×2 factorial arrangement was applied, with two levels of coenzyme Q10 (0 and 40 mg/kg, two levels of L-carnitine (0 and 200 mg/kg and two levels of ractopamine (0 and 10 mg/kg. The birds were reared until day 42 of age under standard conditions. Blood samples were collected at the end of grower and finisher periods from the wing vein. Four birds per group were sacrificed at day 42 of age. Except for carcass yield, other carcass traits were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by different levels of coenzyme Q10, L-carnitine, or ractopamine. Immune response parameters were significantly (p<0.05 different between the treatments. The lowest antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and relative spleen weight were observed in control group. The results of this study suggest that addition of coenzyme Q10 and L-carnitine to broiler diets has benefit effect on immune response of broiler chickens.

  16. Carcass morphology and meat quality from roosters slaughtered at eight months affected by genotype and finishing feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Franco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the carcass characteristics and the meat quality of the roosters from the autochthonous Mos breed slaughtered at 8 months. With comparative purpose roosters from hybrid line Sasso T44 were used in this study. Birds were reared on their typical production system (extensive indoor or barns and finishing diet whit corn. Both live and carcass weight were higher for commercial breed (p<0.001. Drumstick, thigh and wing percentages were greater in Mos breed than in Sasso T-44, while breast was similar for both genotypes. Only significant differences in cholesterol and alpha-tocopherol content between genotypes have been found, whereas finishing feeding treatment had effect on moisture, intramuscular fat content, cholesterol, tocopherol isomers and meat yellowness. Unsaturated fatty acids constituted the main contribution to total amount of fatty acid (FA, where monounsaturated oleic acid was the major compound, and found higher concentrations in commercial breed. Mos breed showed higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and lower amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA than Sasso T-44. The relation PUFA/SFA was above 0.68 for Mos breed and was slightly lower for the other genotype. In conclusion, the carcass morphology and meat quality was influenced by breed and finishing feeding with corn.

  17. Dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamic acid modifies growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C J; Jiang, Q Y; Zhang, T; Yin, Y L; Li, F N; Deng, J P; Wu, G Y; Kong, X F

    2017-06-01

    Sixty Duroc × Large White × Landrace pigs with an average initial BW of 77.1 ± 1.3 kg were used to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. The animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups (12 pigs/group, male:female ratio 1:1). The pigs in the control group were fed a basal diet (basal diet group), and those in the experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2.05% -alanine (isonitrogenous group), 1.0% -arginine (Arg group), 1% glutamic acid + 1.44% -alanine (Glu group), or 1.0% -arginine + 1.0% glutamic acid (Arg+Glu group). After a 60-d period of supplementation, growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences ( > 0.05) in growth performance and carcass traits of the pigs in the Arg group relative to the basal diet group; however, the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and back fat showed a decrease ( 0.05) on the final BW, phase 2 ADFI, and average daily weight gain in pigs but decreased ( acid composition without affecting growth performance and s.c. fat in pigs, providing a novel strategy to enhance meat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

  18. Carcass and meat traits of Morada Nova, Santa Ines and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Issakowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass and meat traits of Morada Nova, Santa Ines and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs finished in feedlot. Weight and proportion of meatcuts, measures of carcass size and color, tenderness, cooking loss and ultimate pH of meat from 10 Morada Nova, 6 Santa Ines and 10 ½ Ile de France ½ Texel were evaluated. The lambs were finished in collective pens, fed ad libitum with 50% corn silage and 50% concentrate and slaughtered at about six months old. Analysis of variance was performed by the procedure PROC GLM of SAS (SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% significance. The Morada Nova lambs had values of 14.1 kg, 13.9 kg, 0.240 kg/cm, 56.2 cm and 35.8 cm for hot and cold carcass weight, compactness index, hip and leg circumference respectively and these values were lower (P <0.05 to values observed in Santa Ines (19.4 kg, 18.8 kg, 0.283 cm/kg, 64.6 cm and 40.0 cm and in ½ Ile de France ½ Texel (18.6 kg, 18.2 kg, 0.305 cm/kg; 65.4 cm and 41.6 cm lambs. The hot and cold carcass yield did not differ (P> 0.05 among genetic groups. The scores for conformation and fat cover were higher (P <0.05 in ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs (2.4 and 3.0 and the carcass length was greater in Santa Ines lambs (66.3 cm. The ½ Ile de France ½ Texel lambs had smaller (P<0.05 proportion of neck and greater of leg (9.10% and 33.1% compared to Morada Nova lambs (10.3% and 30.4% and Santa Inês (10.9% and 31.6%. The weight of shoulder, leg, rack, ribs and flank was lower (P<0.05 in Morada Nova (1.306, 2.127 kg, 0.999 kg, 0.775 kg and 0.433 kg respectively compared to Santa Inês (1.820 kg, 2.972 kg, 1.355 kg, 0.959 and 0.509 kg and ½ Ile de France ½ Texel (1.791 kg, 3.007 kg, 1.212 kg, 1.016 kg and 0.563 kg. The neck was heavier in Santa Ines (1.038 kg which differed (P <0.05 from the other genetic groups (0.725 kg for Morada Nova and 0.830 kg for ½ Ile de France x ½ Texel lambs. The ½ Ile de

  19. Effects of the origin and caponisation on carcass and meat traits in cockerels and capons aged 18 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Adamski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of the origin and caponisation on selected slaughter traits and quality indicators of meat in cockerels and capons of strains N88 (New Hampshire, R55 (Rhode Island Red, S11 (Sussex, and P55 (Plymouth Rock. The slaughter yield, breast muscle weight, percentage share of muscles in total in the carcasses, and fatness in general did not differ between the cockerels and capons within the evaluated strains. The trait that mostly distinguished cockerels from capons of strain N88 was the weight of leg muscles. Similarly, the fat content of carcasses expressed with the weight and percentage share of the skin with subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat did not differ between the evaluated groups of cockerels and capons. However, the weight of the leg muscles varied depending on the origin of cockerels and capons. As for the physiochemical properties of meat as well as its chemical composition, no significant differences were recorded in 18-week-old birds. The only obvious effect of the origin and caponisation was found on varied contents of fat in breast muscles in cockerels of strains N88 and P55, and capons of strain P55.

  20. The effect of the humic substances, garlic (Allium sativum L., wormwood (Artemisia absinthium and walnut (Juglans regia on carcass parameters of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Pistová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic substances, garlic (Allium sativum L., wormwood (Artemisia absinthium and walnut (Juglans regia on carcass parameters of broiler chickens were studied. Broiler chickens Ross 308 (n=60 were divided into 3 groups (n=20. The chickens of the control group were fed with complete feed mixtures without any additives. Chickens in the first experimental group E1were fed a diet containing 1.5% of humic substances, 0.4% of garlic powder and 0.1% of wormwood. Chickens in the second experimental group E2 were fed a diet containing 1.5% of humic substances, 0.4% of garlic powder and 0.1% of walnut.  The carcass weight, weight of heart, liver, gizzard, carcass yield and EPEF were evaluated. The carcass weight was in both experimental groups higher, but no statistically significant (P>0.05 in compare with the control group (values in the order of the groups: 1246.93±172.61; 1352.16±139.89 and 1308.30±166.17 g±SD. In the first experimental group E1 were weight of heart (12.15±2.29 g±SD and weight of gizzard (41.58±7.44 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 compared to the control group (9.99 ±1.82; 33.62±5.03 g±SD.

  1. Effect of energy concentration on growth performance and carcass quality of Iberian pigs reared under intensive conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Serrano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In total, 192 Iberian pigs were used to investigate the effects of net energy (NE concentration of the diet on growth performance and carcass quality of castrated females (CF and castrated males (CM. From 30 to 112 kg body weight (BW, three diets were formulated with similar digestible amino acid content per kcal of NE but differing in energy concentration (2,045, 2,175 and 2,305 kcal NE kg-1 from 30 to 81 kg BW and 2,175, 2,305 and 2,445 kcal NE kg-1 from 81 to 112 kg BW. From 112 kg to slaughter (148 kg BW, all pigs received a common finisher diet. Each treatment was replicated eight times and the experimental unit was a pen with four pigs. A decrease in NE concentration of the diet increased feed intake (p<0.05 and tended to impaired feed conversion ratio (p<0.10, whereas carcass and meat quality traits were not affected. Castrated males ate more feed and grew faster but had less fat thickness at the gluteus medius muscle than CF (p<0.05. However, no differences in carcass and meat quality traits between genders were detected. We conclude that a reduction in NE content of the grower diets did not affect growth rate and therefore, it not a valuable alternative to avoid excess of BW at slaughter in Iberian pigs reared under intensive management conditions. Also, both genders can be used for the production of high quality carcasses destined to the dry-cured industry.

  2. Corn silage with and without enzyme-bacteria inoculants on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in feedlot finished crossbred bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Fugita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two height cuttings of corn silage with or without enzyme inoculants were evaluated for 68 days on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and chemical composition of the Longissimus muscle in crossbred bulls (F1 - ½ Nellore vs. ½ Angus finished in feedlot. Thirty-two 20-month-old bulls, with initial average weight of 374±25 kg, were kept in individual pens (10 m². Diets consisted of 50% roughage and 50% concentrate, with an expected 1.80 kg/day weight gain. The experimental design with four diets and eight replications was completely randomized. Different cutting heights, low (25 cm and high (45 cm, with or without enzyme inoculants, were studied. Live weight, average daily gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, carcass characteristics, muscle, fat and bone percentages at the 11th and 12th ribs, chemical composition of the Longissimus muscle, sum of saturated, mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, n-6 fatty acids, and the poly-unsaturated:saturated and n-6:n-3 relations were determined. Cutting height of silage corn and the use of inoculants did not affect final live weight, average daily gain, feed intake, alimentary efficiency of dry matter, carcass characteristics, meat quality, chemical composition of the Longissimus muscle or fatty acid profile. High cutting of silage corn (45 cm above the ground and the use of inoculants are not necessary in the case of cattle finished in feedlot, with 1.8 kg daily gain.

  3. Effect of feed restriction and different crude protein sources on the performance, health status and carcass traits of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Uhlířová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the effect of the crude protein source (CP in combination with 2 feeding strategies (AL: ad libitum or R: restricted on the performance, health status and carcass traits of growing-fattening rabbits (between 33 and 75 d of age. Two experimental diets were formulated; the first containing soybean meal (SBM: 70 g/kg as the main CP source and the second containing white lupin seeds (WLS: 105 g/kg as the main CP source. A total of 160 weaned Hyplus rabbits (774±10 g live weight were randomly allocated to the experimental groups, combination of feeding strategy and diet (AL SBM, R SBM, AL WLS and R WLS; 40 rabbits per group with 4 rabbits per cage, for 42 d. The feeding programme was applied as follows: both the AL SBM and AL WLS rabbits were fed ad libitum for the entire fattening period, whereas the R SBM and R WLS rabbits were subjected to feed restriction between 33 and 47 d of age (75% of the ad libitum intake. Afterwards, all restricted rabbits were fed ad libitum until 75 d of age. Regardless of the CP source, the feed restriction reduced the final live weight by 83 g, chilled carcass weight by 65 g, and dressing out percentage by 0.9 percentage points (P<0.05. There was a higher chilled carcass weight (+114 g; P=0.001 and reference carcass weight (+91 g; P=0.001 in rabbits fed with WLS diet than in rabbits fed with SBM diet. No dead or morbid rabbits were observed in restricted rabbits during the restriction period. There was no effect of the diet on the health of rabbits. However when the rabbits of AL SBM and AL WLS group were compared did we observe a lower number of rabbits at sanitary risk in AL WLS group (2 vs. 12 rabbits, P=0.006. In conclusion, the growth performance was not affected by the crude protein source, and no interaction between dietary CP source and feeding regime was observed. Feed restriction regime did not improve sanitary risk index throughout the entire period.

  4. THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND WEANING ON LAMB CARCASS TRAITS AND MEAT CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTOCHTHONOUS JEZERSKO-SOLČAVA BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cividini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Jezersko-Solčava lambs were used in a 2X2 factorial design to evaluate the effect of production system (fattening in stable with hay and cereals ad libitum or on the pasture and weaning (suckling or weaned lambs on carcass and meat traits of lambs. Suckling lambs were slaughtered at 125 days of age (30 kg of live weight and weaned lambs were slaughtered at 165 days (38 kg of live weight. No significant differences in daily gain and dressing percentage compared to the production system or weaning were observed. Lambs from pasture had greater percentage of liver, heart and spleen. They had longer and wider carcasses and lower carcass fatness as indicated by lower percentage of kidney fat (1.16 vs. 1.99 and lower percentage of fat in leg than lambs from stable. They also had higher percentage of shoulder and leg and lower percentage of back, loin and rib with flank. Production system also affected meat color. Lambs from pasture had higher CIE L, a and b values of Longissimus dorsi muscle. Mostly, weaning influenced carcass fatness and related traits. Suckling lambs had lower fatness score (4.94 vs. 6.25, lower percentage of kidney fat and fat in leg (8.66 vs. 10.31 and lower percentage of rib with flank than weaned lambs. Meat from suckling lambs was also of lighter colour. There was no significant interaction between production system and weaning on studied carcass or meat traits.

  5. Dual-component video image analysis system (VIASCAN) as a predictor of beef carcass red meat yield percentage and for augmenting application of USDA yield grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, R C; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E; Wise, J W; Clayton, R P; Smith, G C

    1999-11-01

    An improved ability to quantify differences in the fabrication yields of beef carcasses would facilitate the application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of the Dual-Component Australian VIASCAN to 1) predict fabricated beef subprimal yields as a percentage of carcass weight at each of three fat-trim levels and 2) augment USDA yield grading, thereby improving accuracy of grade placement. Steer and heifer carcasses (n = 240) were evaluated using VIASCAN, as well as by USDA expert and online graders, before fabrication of carcasses to each of three fat-trim levels. Expert yield grade (YG), online YG, VIASCAN estimates, and VIASCAN estimated ribeye area used to augment actual and expert grader estimates of the remaining YG factors (adjusted fat thickness, percentage of kidney-pelvic-heart fat, and hot carcass weight), respectively, 1) accounted for 51, 37, 46, and 55% of the variation in fabricated yields of commodity-trimmed subprimals, 2) accounted for 74, 54, 66, and 75% of the variation in fabricated yields of closely trimmed subprimals, and 3) accounted for 74, 54, 71, and 75% of the variation in fabricated yields of very closely trimmed subprimals. The VIASCAN system predicted fabrication yields more accurately than current online yield grading and, when certain VIASCAN-measured traits were combined with some USDA yield grade factors in an augmentation system, the accuracy of cutability prediction was improved, at packing plant line speeds, to a level matching that of expert graders applying grades at a comfortable rate.

  6. Effect of feeding olive-pulp ensiled with additives on feedlot performance and carcass attributes of fat-tailed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mohammad Reza; Zamiri, Mohammad Javad; Rowghani, Ebrahim; Akhlaghi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Feed cost has a significant effect on the economic efficiency of feedlot lambs; therefore, the use of low-cost non-conventional feedstuffs, such as olive pulp (OP), has the potential to decrease the production costs. Because optimum inclusion of OP-treated silages has not been determined in feedlot lambs, an experiment was conducted to determine the effect of inclusion of OP ensiled with additives in the diet on the feedlot performance and carcass attributes of feedlot lambs. Ram lambs of Mehraban and Ghezel breeds (n = 50 lambs per breed) were randomly allotted to 10 groups and fed with one of the nine diets containing OP silage or a control diet. Silage treatments were: (1) OP silage without additives (OPS), (2) OP ensiled with 8 % beet molasses and 0.4 % formic acid (OP-MF), and (3) OP ensiled with 8 % beet molasses, 0.4 % formic acid and 0.5 % urea (OP-MFU). The control diet contained 50 % alfalfa hay and 50 % barley grain. Three levels from each silage were chosen to replace the barley grain (10, 20, or 30 % dry matter basis). The lambs were slaughtered after 92 days, and the average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and carcass characteristics were determined. Feeding OPS to fat-tailed lambs, at an inclusion level of 30 %, decreased the carcass dressing percentage, mainly as a result of decreased brisket percentage, but the ADG and FCR values were not adversely affected. Ghezel lambs had higher ADG than Mehraban lambs, but the visceral fat weight percentage, flap weight percentage, and back fat depth were higher in Mehraban. The crude protein content in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was higher in Ghezel, but the dry matter percentage was higher in Mehraban (P 0.05). Most carcass characteristics, including major cuts, were not affected by OPS feeding; therefore, feeding OPS (up to 30 %) can be economical for feedlot lambs. Most carcass characteristics, including major cuts, were not affected by OPS levels used in this experiment; therefore

  7. The effects of ractopamine-hydrogen chloride (Optaflexx) on performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing feedlot heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M J; Reinhardt, C D; Loe, E R; Depenbusch, B E; Corrigan, M E; May, M L; Drouillard, J S

    2008-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted at the Kansas State University Beef Cattle Research Center to determine the effects of ractopamine-HCl (Optaflexx) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing feedlot heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers implanted with Revalor-H (n = 302, initial BW = 479 kg) were fed steam-flaked corn diets with 0 (control) or 200 mg of ractopamine-HCl (OPT) per heifer daily for 28 d before slaughter. Average daily gain and DMI were not different between treatments (P > 0.17); however, OPT cattle tended to have a greater G:F (P = 0.06). Treatments did not differ with respect to final BW, HCW, dressing percentage, USDA yield grade, USDA quality grade, marbling score, LM area, KPH, Warner-Bratzler shear force, weight loss during cooking, or L*, a*, or b* colorimetric values during a 7-d retail display or purge loss from loin steaks during retail display (P > 0.19). In Exp. 2, nonimplanted crossbred heifers (n = 281, BW = 451 +/- 2 kg) were fed finishing diets based on steam-flaked corn. A control diet (no ractopamine) was compared with diets providing 200 mg of OPT per heifer daily for periods of 28 or 42 d (200 x 28 and 200 x 42, respectively), 300 mg/d for 28 d (300 x 28), and a step-up regimen consisting of 14 d at 100 mg, followed by 14 d at 200 mg, and the final 14 d at 300 mg of OPT (step-up). Feeding OPT had no effect on carcass weight gain among treatments (P = 0.18). The efficiency of carcass gain was 34 and 35% greater (P = 0.06) for the 200 x 42 and step-up groups compared with control, respectively. Feeding OPT at 300 mg for 28 d reduced DMI compared with the control, 200 x 28, and 200 x 42 (P 0.10). Feeding ractopamine-HCl (Optaflexx) to finishing heifers generally improved the efficiency of carcass gain with minimal effect on carcass characteristics. These effects were most pronounced in heifers fed ractopamine for 42 d.

  8. The effect of high-level chlorine carcass drench on the recovery of Salmonella and enumeration of bacteria from broiler carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartenfeld, L N; Fletcher, D L; Northcutt, J K; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Buhr, R J

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine the bacteriological effect of exposing processed broiler carcasses to a high (10-fold increase) concentration chlorinated drench. During each of 6 replicate trials, eviscerated prechill carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing plant and chlorine-treated carcasses were subjected to a 1-min drench in 500 mL of a 500 mg/kg chlorine solution (sodium hypochlorite). Water-drenched carcasses were treated the same way except water was used in place of chlorinated water drench. Control carcasses were not drenched. All carcasses were then subjected to a whole carcass rinse (WCR) in 450 mL of buffered peptone water, from which 50 mL of the rinsate was removed for enumeration of total aerobic bacteria (APC), Escherichia coli, and total coliforms (TC). The entire carcass was then incubated 24 h at 37°C (whole carcass enrichment, WCE) for recovery of Salmonella. Levels of bacteria recovered from WCR were lower by 0.6 log10 cfu/mL for APC, 0.8 for E. coli, and 0.9 for TC when carcasses were drenched with water compared with undrenched control levels. Similarly, the levels of bacteria recovered from WCR were further lower by 1.0 log10 cfu/mL for APC, 0.5 for E. coli, and 0.5 for TC, when carcasses were drenched with 500 mg/kg of chlorine compared with water. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence of Salmonella among the treatments (29% positive for control, 26% positive for water, 38% positive for chlorinated). These results indicate that drenching eviscerated carcasses with water or chlorinated water at 500 mg/kg significantly, but minimally, reduces the numbers of APC, E. coli, and TC bacteria recovered compared with undrenched carcasses. However, neither drenching carcasses with water or high chlorine had an effect on the prevalence of Salmonella that remain with the carcass as determined by WCE. The results of this study confirms the importance of maintaining and replenishing free chlorine for

  9. Patterns of seabird and marine mammal carcass deposition along the central California coast, 1980-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.

    1991-01-01

    At monthly intervals from February 1980 through December 1986, a 14.5-km section of central California coastline was systematically surveyed for beach-cast carcasses of marine birds and mammals. Five hundred and fifty-four bird carcasses and 194 marine mammal carcasses were found. Common murres, western grebes, and Brandt's cormorants composed 45% of the bird total. California sea lions, sea otters, and harbor seals composed 90% of the mammal total. Several factors appeared to affect patterns of carcass deposition. The El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 1982–1983 was the dominant influence in terms of interannual variation in carcass deposition. During this ENSO, 56% of the seabirds and 48% of the marine mammals washed ashore. Patterns of intra-annual variation were species specific and were related to animal migration patterns, reproduction, and seasonal changes in weather. Nearshore currents and winds influenced the general area of carcass deposition, while beach substrate type and local patterns of sand deposition influenced the location of carcass deposition on a smaller spatial scale. Weekly surveys along a 1.1-km section of coastline indicated that 62% of bird carcasses and 41% of mammal carcasses remained on the beach less than 9 days. Cause of death was determined for only 8% of the carcasses. Oiling was the most common indication of cause of death in birds (6%). Neonates composed 8% of all mammal carcasses.

  10. Performance and carcass measurements of ewe lambs reared in a feedlot and fed wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) middlings total mixed rations in the summer season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Khan, Rifat Ullah; Mazzei, Domenico; Laudadio, Vito

    2012-04-01

    The effect of total mixed ratios containing wheat middlings (WM) as a corn grain substitute on the growth performance and carcass traits of Comisana ewe lambs was evaluated. Forty ewe lambs, with average live body weight of 13 ± 0.3 kg (mean ± SEM), were allocated randomly to two isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets for 50 days. Control diet contained 400 g/kg of dry matter (DM) of corn as the main starchy source, whereas experimental diet contained 600 g/kg DM of WM. In vivo nutrient apparent digestibility of the two diets was determined using Comisana rams (mean body weight, 65 ± 2.3 kg) and indicated significant (P ewe lambs showed that growth traits were unaffected by dietary treatments as well as none of the carcass measurements examined (P > 0.05). These findings indicate that WM results as a suitable feed ingredient for growing ewe lambs that can be a satisfactory substitute to conventional grain source.

  11. Performance and carcass characteristics of Japanese quail as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sex and the supplementation of the prebiotic, mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), the acidifier, calcium propionate (CPr) or their combination in the feed of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) on their performance and carcass quality was examined in this experimentation. Three hundred, 1-day old Japanese quail ...

  12. Effects of calpastain (CAST) polymorphisms on carcass and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calpastain (CAST) activity plays a major role in muscle growth and proteolytic changes post-mortem and the CAST gene has been considered as a candidate gene for carcass and pork quality characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of two polymorphisms namely CAST_HinfI (allele A and B) and ...

  13. Isolation, mapping and association study with carcass and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GH

    association analyses with feed intake, growth and carcass traits were performed. There was a ... the central and peripheral nervous systems, neuroendocrine tissue, including adenohypophysis where it can attenuate ... secretion of the growth inhibitory hormone and mediates its effects on animal intake through noradrenalin.

  14. Growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Department of Animal Science teaching and research farm, Bayero University Kano, to evaluate the effect of feeding graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) in diets on growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of weaned rabbits. Twenty eight grower rabbits of ...

  15. Influence of electrical stimulation on carcass and meat quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a previous study regarding the effects of Kosher and conventional slaughter techniques on carcass and meat quality of cattle, it was speculated that electrical stimulation may have affected some of the meat qualities. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) and ...

  16. Effect of days in feedlot on growth performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of days in feedlot on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Merino, South African Mutton Merino and Dorper lambs. T.S. Brand, E.J. van der Westhuizen, D.A. van der Merwe, L.C. Hoffman ...

  17. Developmental differences in carcass, meat quality and muscle fibre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to compare carcass and meat quality traits, and muscle fibrecharacteristics in the longissimus muscle of the Landrace [an European pig breed] and the Lantang [a Chinese native pig breed] at the ages of 60, 90 and 150 days. The characteristics of muscle fibres were determined by real-time ...

  18. Evaluation of corn meal on performance, carcass characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of corn meal (CM) on performance, carcass characteristics and nutrient digestibility of chickens in a completely randomized design experiment with 4 × 2 factorial arrangement and 4 replicates per treatment, 384 Ross male broiler chickens in a 49 days period were evaluated. Treatments were 0 (CM0), ...

  19. growth and carcass traits of oxen from four different breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mara LOS

    characteristics from cultivated pastures (Gertenbach et al., 1995: Le Roux et al., 1999a; b), in feedlots. (Swanepoel et ... The aim of this study was to define criteria for growth and carcass characteristics for maturity types which vary in ...... high roughage ration on quantative and qualitative characteristics of beef. J. Anim. Sci.

  20. Mineral profiling, carcass quality and sensory evaluation of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation to determine the mineral composition, carcass quality and organoleptic properties of the meat of broilers fed basal broiler feeds supplemented with different leaf meals was conducted. Four treatments: basal proprietary broiler feed only (T1 - PBF) as control, basal proprietary broiler feeds supplemented with ...