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Sample records for bounds reveals early

  1. Consumer choice and revealed bounded rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Manzini, Paola; Mariotti, Marco

    2006-01-01

    We study two boundedly rational procedures in consumer behavior. We show that these procedures can be detected by conditions on observable demand data of the same type as standard revealed preference axioms. This provides the basis for a non-parametric analysis of boundedly rational consumer behavior mirroring the classical one for utility maximization.

  2. Autoantibodies against complement C1q specifically target C1q bound on early apoptotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Cornelia; Schaller, Monica; Perahud, Iryna; Osthoff, Michael; Trendelenburg, Marten

    2009-09-01

    Autoantibodies against complement C1q (anti-C1q) are frequently found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). They strongly correlate with the occurrence of severe lupus nephritis, suggesting a pathogenic role in SLE. Because anti-C1q are known to recognize a neoepitope on bound C1q, but not on fluid-phase C1q, the aim of this study was to clarify the origin of anti-C1q by determining the mechanism that renders C1q antigenic. We investigated anti-C1q from serum and purified total IgG of patients with SLE and hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis as well as two monoclonal human anti-C1q Fab from a SLE patient generated by phage display. Binding characteristics, such as their ability to recognize C1q bound on different classes of Igs, on immune complexes, and on cells undergoing apoptosis, were analyzed. Interestingly, anti-C1q did not bind to C1q bound on Igs or immune complexes. Neither did we observe specific binding of anti-C1q to C1q bound on late apoptotic/necrotic cells when compared with binding in the absence of C1q. However, as shown by FACS analysis and confocal microscopy, anti-C1q specifically targeted C1q bound on early apoptotic cells. Anti-C1q were found to specifically target C1q bound on cells undergoing apoptosis. Our observations suggest that early apoptotic cells are a major target of the autoimmune response in SLE and provide a direct link between human SLE, apoptosis, and C1q. PMID:19648280

  3. The mRNA-bound proteome of the early fly embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Hans-Hermann; Imami, Koshi; Baltz, Alexander G; Kolinski, Marcin; Beldovskaya, Anastasia; Selbach, Matthias; Small, Stephen; Ohler, Uwe; Landthaler, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Early embryogenesis is characterized by the maternal to zygotic transition (MZT), in which maternally deposited messenger RNAs are degraded while zygotic transcription begins. Before the MZT, post-transcriptional gene regulation by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is the dominant force in embryo patterning. We used two mRNA interactome capture methods to identify RBPs bound to polyadenylated transcripts within the first 2 h of Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. We identified a high-confidence set of 476 putative RBPs and confirmed RNA-binding activities for most of 24 tested candidates. Most proteins in the interactome are known RBPs or harbor canonical RBP features, but 99 exhibited previously uncharacterized RNA-binding activity. mRNA-bound RBPs and TFs exhibit distinct expression dynamics, in which the newly identified RBPs dominate the first 2 h of embryonic development. Integrating our resource with in situ hybridization data from existing databases showed that mRNAs encoding RBPs are enriched in posterior regions of the early embryo, suggesting their general importance in posterior patterning and germ cell maturation. PMID:27197210

  4. Targeting Membrane-Bound Viral RNA Synthesis Reveals Potent Inhibition of Diverse Coronaviruses Including the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Lundin; Ronald Dijkman; Tomas Bergström; Nina Kann; Beata Adamiak; Charles Hannoun; Eveline Kindler; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R; Doreen Muth; Joeri Kint; Maria Forlenza; Müller, Marcel A.; Christian Drosten; Volker Thiel; Edward Trybala

    2014-01-01

    Coronaviruses raise serious concerns as emerging zoonotic viruses without specific antiviral drugs available. Here we screened a collection of 16671 diverse compounds for anti-human coronavirus 229E activity and identified an inhibitor, designated K22, that specifically targets membrane-bound coronaviral RNA synthesis. K22 exerts most potent antiviral activity after virus entry during an early step of the viral life cycle. Specifically, the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMVs), a hall...

  5. Early allelic selection in maize as revealed by ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenicke-Després, Viviane; Buckler, Ed S; Smith, Bruce D; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Cooper, Alan; Doebley, John; Pääbo, Svante

    2003-11-14

    Maize was domesticated from teosinte, a wild grass, by approximately 6300 years ago in Mexico. After initial domestication, early farmers continued to select for advantageous morphological and biochemical traits in this important crop. However, the timing and sequence of character selection are, thus far, known only for morphological features discernible in corn cobs. We have analyzed three genes involved in the control of plant architecture, storage protein synthesis, and starch production from archaeological maize samples from Mexico and the southwestern United States. The results reveal that the alleles typical of contemporary maize were present in Mexican maize by 4400 years ago. However, as recently as 2000 years ago, allelic selection at one of the genes may not yet have been complete. PMID:14615538

  6. The structure of Aquifex aeolicus FtsH in the ADP-bound state reveals a C2-symmetric hexamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostrukhina, Marina; Popov, Alexander; Brunstein, Elena; Lanz, Martin A; Baumgartner, Renato; Bieniossek, Christoph; Schacherl, Magdalena; Baumann, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    The crystal structure of a truncated, soluble quadruple mutant of FtsH from Aquifex aeolicus comprising the AAA and protease domains has been determined at 2.96 Å resolution in space group I222. The protein crystallizes as a hexamer, with the protease domain forming layers in the ab plane. Contacts between these layers are mediated by the AAA domains. These are highly disordered in one crystal form, but are clearly visible in a related form with a shorter c axis. Here, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is bound to each subunit and the AAA ring exhibits twofold symmetry. The arrangement is different from the ADP-bound state of an analogously truncated, soluble FtsH construct from Thermotoga maritima. The pore is completely closed and the phenylalanine residues in the pore line a contiguous path. The protease hexamer is very similar to those described for other FtsH structures. To resolve certain open issues regarding a conserved glycine in the linker between the AAA and protease domains, as well as the active-site switch β-strand, mutations have been introduced in the full-length membrane-bound protein. Activity analysis of these point mutants reveals the crucial importance of these residues for proteolytic activity and is in accord with previous interpretation of the active-site switch and the importance of the linker glycine residue. PMID:26057670

  7. Targeting membrane-bound viral RNA synthesis reveals potent inhibition of diverse coronaviruses including the middle East respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lundin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses raise serious concerns as emerging zoonotic viruses without specific antiviral drugs available. Here we screened a collection of 16671 diverse compounds for anti-human coronavirus 229E activity and identified an inhibitor, designated K22, that specifically targets membrane-bound coronaviral RNA synthesis. K22 exerts most potent antiviral activity after virus entry during an early step of the viral life cycle. Specifically, the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMVs, a hallmark of coronavirus replication, was greatly impaired upon K22 treatment accompanied by near-complete inhibition of viral RNA synthesis. K22-resistant viruses contained substitutions in non-structural protein 6 (nsp6, a membrane-spanning integral component of the viral replication complex implicated in DMV formation, corroborating that K22 targets membrane bound viral RNA synthesis. Besides K22 resistance, the nsp6 mutants induced a reduced number of DMVs, displayed decreased specific infectivity, while RNA synthesis was not affected. Importantly, K22 inhibits a broad range of coronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV, and efficient inhibition was achieved in primary human epithelia cultures representing the entry port of human coronavirus infection. Collectively, this study proposes an evolutionary conserved step in the life cycle of positive-stranded RNA viruses, the recruitment of cellular membranes for viral replication, as vulnerable and, most importantly, druggable target for antiviral intervention. We expect this mode of action to serve as a paradigm for the development of potent antiviral drugs to combat many animal and human virus infections.

  8. Dynamic features of apo and bound HIV-Nef protein reveal the anti-HIV dimerization inhibition mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonsamy, Suri; Bhakat, Soumendranath; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2015-01-01

    The first account on the dynamic features of Nef or negative factor, a small myristoylated protein located in the cytoplasm believes to increase HIV-1 viral titer level, is reported herein. Due to its major role in HIV-1 pathogenicity, Nef protein is considered an emerging target in anti-HIV drug design and discovery process. In this study, comparative long-range all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were employed for apo and bound protein to unveil molecular mechanism of HIV-Nef dimerization and inhibition. Results clearly revealed that B9, a newly discovered Nef inhibitor, binds at the dimeric interface of Nef protein and caused significant separation between orthogonally opposed residues, namely Asp108, Leu112 and Gln104. Large differences in magnitudes were observed in the radius of gyration (∼1.5 Å), per-residue fluctuation (∼2 Å), C-alpha deviations (∼2 Å) which confirm a comparatively more flexible nature of apo conformation due to rapid dimeric association. Compared to the bound conformer, a more globally correlated motion in case of apo structure of HIV-Nef confirms the process of dimeric association. This clearly highlights the process of inhibition as a result of ligand binding. The difference in principal component analysis (PCA) scatter plot and per-residue mobility plot across first two normal modes further justifies the same findings. The in-depth dynamic analyses of Nef protein presented in this report would serve crucial in understanding its function and inhibition mechanisms. Information on inhibitor binding mode would also assist in designing of potential inhibitors against this important HIV target. PMID:26355431

  9. Cryo-EM of Mitotic Checkpoint Complex-Bound APC/C Reveals Reciprocal and Conformational Regulation of Ubiquitin Ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masaya; VanderLinden, Ryan; Weissmann, Florian; Qiao, Renping; Dube, Prakash; Brown, Nicholas G; Haselbach, David; Zhang, Wei; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Peters, Jan-Michael; Stark, Holger; Schulman, Brenda A

    2016-08-18

    The mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) coordinates proper chromosome biorientation on the spindle with ubiquitination activities of CDC20-activated anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C(CDC20)). APC/C(CDC20) and two E2s, UBE2C and UBE2S, catalyze ubiquitination through distinct architectures for linking ubiquitin (UB) to substrates and elongating polyUB chains, respectively. MCC, which contains a second molecule of CDC20, blocks APC/C(CDC20)-UBE2C-dependent ubiquitination of Securin and Cyclins, while differentially determining or inhibiting CDC20 ubiquitination to regulate spindle surveillance, checkpoint activation, and checkpoint termination. Here electron microscopy reveals conformational variation of APC/C(CDC20)-MCC underlying this multifaceted regulation. MCC binds APC/C-bound CDC20 to inhibit substrate access. However, rotation about the CDC20-MCC assembly and conformational variability of APC/C modulate UBE2C-catalyzed ubiquitination of MCC's CDC20 molecule. Access of UBE2C is limiting for subsequent polyubiquitination by UBE2S. We propose that conformational dynamics of APC/C(CDC20)-MCC modulate E2 activation and determine distinctive ubiquitination activities as part of a response mechanism ensuring accurate sister chromatid segregation. PMID:27522463

  10. Early MAVEN Deep Dip campaign reveals thermosphere and ionosphere variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougher, S; Jakosky, B; Halekas, J; Grebowsky, J; Luhmann, J; Mahaffy, P; Connerney, J; Eparvier, F; Ergun, R; Larson, D; McFadden, J; Mitchell, D; Schneider, N; Zurek, R; Mazelle, C; Andersson, L; Andrews, D; Baird, D; Baker, D N; Bell, J M; Benna, M; Brain, D; Chaffin, M; Chamberlin, P; Chaufray, J-Y; Clarke, J; Collinson, G; Combi, M; Crary, F; Cravens, T; Crismani, M; Curry, S; Curtis, D; Deighan, J; Delory, G; Dewey, R; DiBraccio, G; Dong, C; Dong, Y; Dunn, P; Elrod, M; England, S; Eriksson, A; Espley, J; Evans, S; Fang, X; Fillingim, M; Fortier, K; Fowler, C M; Fox, J; Gröller, H; Guzewich, S; Hara, T; Harada, Y; Holsclaw, G; Jain, S K; Jolitz, R; Leblanc, F; Lee, C O; Lee, Y; Lefevre, F; Lillis, R; Livi, R; Lo, D; Ma, Y; Mayyasi, M; McClintock, W; McEnulty, T; Modolo, R; Montmessin, F; Morooka, M; Nagy, A; Olsen, K; Peterson, W; Rahmati, A; Ruhunusiri, S; Russell, C T; Sakai, S; Sauvaud, J-A; Seki, K; Steckiewicz, M; Stevens, M; Stewart, A I F; Stiepen, A; Stone, S; Tenishev, V; Thiemann, E; Tolson, R; Toublanc, D; Vogt, M; Weber, T; Withers, P; Woods, T; Yelle, R

    2015-11-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, during the second of its Deep Dip campaigns, made comprehensive measurements of martian thermosphere and ionosphere composition, structure, and variability at altitudes down to ~130 kilometers in the subsolar region. This altitude range contains the diffusively separated upper atmosphere just above the well-mixed atmosphere, the layer of peak extreme ultraviolet heating and primary reservoir for atmospheric escape. In situ measurements of the upper atmosphere reveal previously unmeasured populations of neutral and charged particles, the homopause altitude at approximately 130 kilometers, and an unexpected level of variability both on an orbit-to-orbit basis and within individual orbits. These observations help constrain volatile escape processes controlled by thermosphere and ionosphere structure and variability. PMID:26542579

  11. Crystal Structures of Staphylococcus epidermidis Mevalonate Diphosphate Decarboxylase Bound to Inhibitory Analogs Reveal New Insight into Substrate Binding and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Skaff, D. Andrew; McWhorter, William J.; Herdendorf, Timothy J.; Miziorko, Henry M.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC)

    2011-10-28

    The polyisoprenoid compound undecaprenyl phosphate is required for biosynthesis of cell wall peptidoglycans in Gram-positive bacteria, including pathogenic Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus spp. In these organisms, the mevalonate pathway is used to produce the precursor isoprenoid, isopentenyl 5-diphosphate. Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD) catalyzes formation of isopentenyl 5-diphosphate in an ATP-dependent irreversible reaction and is therefore an attractive target for inhibitor development that could lead to new antimicrobial agents. To facilitate exploration of this possibility, we report the crystal structure of Staphylococcus epidermidis MDD (1.85 {angstrom} resolution) and, to the best of our knowledge, the first structures of liganded MDD. These structures include MDD bound to the mevalonate 5-diphosphate analogs diphosphoglycolyl proline (2.05 {angstrom} resolution) and 6-fluoromevalonate diphosphate (FMVAPP; 2.2 {angstrom} resolution). Comparison of these structures provides a physical basis for the significant differences in K{sub i} values observed for these inhibitors. Inspection of enzyme/inhibitor structures identified the side chain of invariant Ser{sup 192} as making potential contributions to catalysis. Significantly, Ser {yields} Ala substitution of this side chain decreases k{sub cat} by {approx}10{sup 3}-fold, even though binding interactions between FMVAPP and this mutant are similar to those observed with wild type MDD, as judged by the 2.1 {angstrom} cocrystal structure of S192A with FMVAPP. Comparison of microbial MDD structures with those of mammalian counterparts reveals potential targets at the active site periphery that may be exploited to selectively target the microbial enzymes. These studies provide a structural basis for previous observations regarding the MDD mechanism and inform future work toward rational inhibitor design.

  12. Targeting Membrane-Bound Viral RNA Synthesis Reveals Potent Inhibition of Diverse Coronaviruses Including the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundin, A.; Dijkman, R.; Bergstrom, T.; Kann, N.; Adamiak, B.; Hannoun, C.; Kindler, E.; Jonsdottir, H.R.; Muth, D.; Kint, J.; Forlenza, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coronaviruses raise serious concerns as emerging zoonotic viruses without specific antiviral drugs available. Here we screened a collection of 16671 diverse compounds for anti-human coronavirus 229E activity and identified an inhibitor, designated K22, that specifically targets membrane-bound corona

  13. Single-molecule FRET reveals a corkscrew RNA structure for the polymerase-bound influenza virus promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomescu, Alexandra I; Robb, Nicole C; Hengrung, Narin; Fodor, Ervin; Kapanidis, Achillefs N

    2014-08-12

    The influenza virus is a major human and animal pathogen responsible for seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. The genome of the influenza A virus comprises eight segments of single-stranded, negative-sense RNA with highly conserved 5' and 3' termini. These termini interact to form a double-stranded promoter structure that is recognized and bound by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP); however, no 3D structural information for the influenza polymerase-bound promoter exists. Functional studies have led to the proposal of several 2D models for the secondary structure of the bound promoter, including a corkscrew model in which the 5' and 3' termini form short hairpins. We have taken advantage of an insect-cell system to prepare large amounts of active recombinant influenza virus RNAP, and used this to develop a highly sensitive single-molecule FRET assay to measure distances between fluorescent dyes located on the promoter and map its structure both with and without the polymerase bound. These advances enabled the direct analysis of the influenza promoter structure in complex with the viral RNAP, and provided 3D structural information that is in agreement with the corkscrew model for the influenza virus promoter RNA. Our data provide insights into the mechanisms of promoter binding by the influenza RNAP and have implications for the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the transcription of viral genes and replication of the viral RNA genome. In addition, the simplicity of this system should translate readily to the study of any virus polymerase-promoter interaction. PMID:25071209

  14. Single-molecule FRET reveals a corkscrew RNA structure for the polymerase-bound influenza virus promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Tomescu, Alexandra I.; Robb, Nicole C.; Hengrung, Narin; Fodor, Ervin; Kapanidis, Achillefs N.

    2014-01-01

    The genome of the influenza virus consists of eight single-stranded segments of RNA with highly conserved 5′ and 3′ termini. These termini associate to form double-stranded structures that act as promoters for viral transcription and replication. Structural information on the polymerase-bound promoter currently does not exist, so to address this we developed a sensitive single-molecule FRET assay that allowed us to measure distances between fluorescent dyes located on the promoter and map its...

  15. Phosphoglucan-bound structure of starch phosphatase Starch Excess4 reveals the mechanism for C6 specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Meekins, David A.; Raththagala, Madushi; Husodo, Satrio; White, Cory J.; Guo, Hou-Fu; Kötting, Oliver; Vander Kooi, Craig W.; Gentry, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Starch is the main carbohydrate storage molecule in plants and is ubiquitous in human life. Reversible starch phosphorylation is the key regulatory event in starch catabolism. Starch Excess4 (SEX4) preferentially dephosphorylates the C6 position of starch glucose and its absence results in a dramatic accumulation of leaf starch. We present the structure of SEX4 bound to a phosphoglucan product, define its mechanism of specific activity, and reverse its specificity to the C3 position via mutag...

  16. A branch-and-bound algorithm for single-machine earliness-tardiness scheduling with idle time

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogeveen, Han; Velde, Steef

    1996-01-01

    textabstractPresents a branch-and-bound algorithm which is based upon many dominance rules and various lower bound approaches, including relaxation of the machine capacity, data manipulation and Lagrangian relaxation. Insertion of the idle time for a given sequence; Properties of the proposed lower bounds.

  17. Altered anatomical network in early blindness revealed by diffusion tensor tractography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Shu

    Full Text Available The topological architecture of the cerebral anatomical network reflects the structural organization of the human brain. Recently, topological measures based on graph theory have provided new approaches for quantifying large-scale anatomical networks. Diffusion MRI studies have revealed the efficient small-world properties and modular structure of the anatomical network in normal subjects. However, no previous study has used diffusion MRI to reveal changes in the brain anatomical network in early blindness. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 17 early blind subjects and 17 age- and gender-matched sighted controls. We established the existence of structural connections between any pair of the 90 cortical and sub-cortical regions using deterministic tractography. Compared with controls, early blind subjects showed a decreased degree of connectivity, a reduced global efficiency, and an increased characteristic path length in their brain anatomical network, especially in the visual cortex. Moreover, we revealed some regions with motor or somatosensory function have increased connections with other brain regions in the early blind, which suggested experience-dependent compensatory plasticity. This study is the first to show alterations in the topological properties of the anatomical network in early blindness. From the results, we suggest that analyzing the brain's anatomical network obtained using diffusion MRI data provides new insights into the understanding of the brain's re-organization in the specific population with early visual deprivation.

  18. Activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor: A key early step in the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether the factor VII/tissue factor complex that forms in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation must be activated to factor VIIa/tissue factor before it can activate its substrates, factor X and IX, has been a difficult question to answer because the substrates, once activated, back-activate factor VII. The earlier studies suggested that human factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate factor IX. Studies have now been extended to the activation of factor X. Reaction mixtures were made with purified factor VII, X, and tissue factor; in some experiments antithrombin III and heparin were added to prevent back-activation of factor VII. Factor X was activated at similar rates in reaction mixtures containing either VII or factor VIIa after an initial 30-sec lag with factor VII. In reaction mixtures with factor VII a linear activation of factor X was established several minutes before cleavage of 125I-labeled factor VII to the two-chain activated molecule was demonstrable on gel profiles. These data suggest that factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate measurable amounts of factor X over several minutes. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a rapid preferential activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor by trace amounts of factor Xa is a key early step in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation

  19. Different functions of the insect soluble and membrane-bound trehalase genes in chitin biosynthesis revealed by RNA interference.

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    Jie Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trehalase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes trehalose to yield two glucose molecules, plays a pivotal role in various physiological processes. In recent years, trehalase proteins have been purified from several insect species and are divided into soluble (Tre-1 and membrane-bound (Tre-2 trehalases. However, no functions of the two trehalases in chitin biosynthesis in insects have yet been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The membrane-bound trehalase of Spodoptera exigua (SeTre-2 was characterized in our laboratory previously. In this study, we cloned the soluble trehalase gene (SeTre-1 and investigated the tissue distribution and developmental expression pattern of the two trehalase genes. SeTre-1 was expressed highly in cuticle and Malpighian tubules, while SeTre-2 was expressed in tracheae and fat body. In the midgut, the two trehalase genes were expressed in different locations. Additionally, the expression profiles of both trehalase mRNAs and their enzyme activities suggest that they may play different roles in chitin biosynthesis. The RNA interference (RNAi of either SeTre-1 or SeTre-2 was gene-specific and effective, with efficiency rates up to 83% at 72 h post injection. After RNAi of SeTre-1 and SeTre-2, significant higher mortality rates were observed during the larva-pupa stage and pupa-adult stage, and the lethal phenotypes were classified and analyzed. Additionally, the change trends of concentration of trehalose and glucose appeared reciprocally in RNAi-mutants. Moreover, knockdown of SeTre-1 gene largely inhibited the expression of chitin synthase gene A (CHSA and reduced the chitin content in the cuticle to two-thirds relative to the control insects. The chitin synthase gene B (CHSB expression, however, was inhibited more by the injection of dsRNA for SeTre-2, and the chitin content in the midgut decreased by about 25%. CONCLUSIONS: SeTre-1 plays a major role in CHSA expression and chitin synthesis in the cuticle, and SeTre-2

  20. Revealing the nature of star forming blue early-type galaxies at low redshift

    CERN Document Server

    George, Koshy

    2015-01-01

    Context: Star forming early-type galaxies with blue optical colours at low redshift can be used to test our current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Aims: We want to reveal the fuel and triggering mechanism for star formation in these otherwise passively evolving red and dead stellar systems. Methods: We undertook an optical and ultraviolet study of 55 star forming blue early-type galaxies, searching for signatures of recent interactions that could be driving the molecular gas into the galaxy and potentially triggering the star formation. Results: We report here our results on star forming blue early-type galaxies with tidal trails and in close proximity to neighbouring galaxies that are evidence of ongoing or recent interactions between galaxies. There are 12 galaxies with close companions with similar redshifts, among which two galaxies are having ongoing interactions that potentially trigger the star formation. Two galaxies show a jet feature that could be due to the complete tidal disrupti...

  1. Comparative LC-MS/MS profiling of free and protein-bound early and advanced glycation-induced lysine modifications in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegele, Jörg; Buetler, Timo; Delatour, Thierry

    2008-06-01

    Free and protein-bound forms of early and advanced glycation-induced lysine (Lys) modifications were quantified in dairy products by LC-MS/MS using a stable isotope dilution assay. The glycation profiles for N(epsilon)-fructoselysine (FL), N(epsilon)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (Pyr) were monitored in raw and processed cow milk to investigate whether free glycation products could serve as fast and simple markers to assess the extent of protein glycation in dairy products. In all milk samples, the fraction of free glycation adducts was predominantly composed of advanced modifications, e.g. 8.34+/-3.81 nmol CML per micromol of free Lys (Lys(free)) and 81.5+/-87.8 nmol Pyr micromol(-1) Lys(free)(-1) vs. 3.72+/-1.29 nmol FL micromol(-1) Lys(free)(-1). In contrast, the protein-bound early glycation product FL considerably outweighed the content of CML and Pyr in milk proteins of raw and processed cow milk, whereas severely heat treated milk products, e.g. condensed milk, contained a higher amount of protein-bound advanced glycation adducts. Typical values recorded for milk samples processed under mild conditions were 0.47+/-0.08 nmol FL micromol(-1) of protein-bound Lys (Lys(p-b)), 0.04+/-0.03 nmol CML micromol(-1) Lys(p-b)(-1) and 0.06+/-0.02 nmol Pyr micromol(-1)Lys(p-b)(-1). It was particularly noticeable, however, that mild heat treatment of raw milk, i.e. pasteurization and UHT treatment, did not significantly increase the amount of both free and protein-bound Lys modifications. In conclusion, the profiles of free and protein-bound glycation-induced Lys modifications were found to be different and a screening of free glycation adducts does, therefore, not allow for a conclusion about the protein glycation status of dairy products. PMID:18486644

  2. Global Identification of SMAD2 Target Genes Reveals a Role for Multiple Co-regulatory Factors in Zebrafish Early Gastrulas*

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhaoting; Lin, Xiwen; Cai, Zhaoping; Zhang, Zhuqiang; Han, Chunsheng; Jia, Shunji; Meng, Anming; Wang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Nodal and Smad2/3 signals play pivotal roles in mesendoderm induction and axis determination during late blastulation and early gastrulation in vertebrate embryos. However, Smad2/3 direct target genes during those critical developmental stages have not been systematically identified. Here, through ChIP-chip assay, we show that the promoter/enhancer regions of 679 genes are bound by Smad2 in the zebrafish early gastrulas. Expression analyses confirm that a significant proportion of Smad2 targe...

  3. Early revealing of neurogenic disorders of urination in patients with anorectal anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makedonsky I.O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 148 patients with anorectal malformations (ARM were examined. Using clinical, X-ray, ultrasound and urodynamical methods of detections, factors which can cause bladder dysfunction in anorectal malformations are revealed. It was noted that patients with high and low forms of this defect have significant percentage of neurogenec disorders of urination. Absence of anomalies of spinal column development does not exclude these children from the group of scheduled profound urologic investigation. We propose ultrasound measurement of bladder wall thickness and 4-hour monitoring of voiding, urodynamic examination as early diagnostic methods of neurogenic bladder dysfunctions. For timely revealing and treatment of neurogenic disorders of urination we recommend urologic inves¬tigation to all ARM patients. Improvement of diagnostic methods and development of algorithm of revealing mentioned pathologies against ARM with the aim to prevent com¬plications in the urinary system, being perspective in decreasing lethality and disability.

  4. Early developmental pathology due to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency is revealed by a new zebrafish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Katrina N; Murray, James; Capaldi, Roderick A; Guillemin, Karen

    2007-11-30

    Deficiency of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is associated with significant pathology in humans. However, the consequences for organogenesis and early development are not well understood. We have investigated these issues using a zebrafish model. COX deficiency was induced using morpholinos to reduce expression of CoxVa, a structural subunit, and Surf1, an assembly factor, both of which impaired COX assembly. Reduction of COX activity to 50% resulted in developmental defects in endodermal tissue, cardiac function, and swimming behavior. Cellular investigations revealed different underlying mechanisms. Apoptosis was dramatically increased in the hindbrain and neural tube, and secondary motor neurons were absent or abnormal, explaining the motility defect. In contrast, the heart lacked apoptotic cells but showed increasingly poor performance over time, consistent with energy deficiency. The zebrafish model has revealed tissue-specific responses to COX deficiency and holds promise for discovery of new therapies to treat mitochondrial diseases in humans. PMID:17761683

  5. The early chemical enrichment histories of two Sculptor group dwarf galaxies as revealed by RR lyrae variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of our analysis of the RR Lyrae (RRL) variable stars detected in two transition-type dwarf galaxies (dTrans), ESO294-G010 and ESO410-G005 in the Sculptor group, which is known to be one of the closest neighboring galaxy groups to our Local Group. Using deep archival images from the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have identified a sample of RRL candidates in both dTrans galaxies (219 RRab (RR0) and 13 RRc (RR1) variables in ESO294-G010; 225 RRab and 44 RRc stars in ESO410-G005). The metallicities of the individual RRab stars are calculated via the period-amplitude-[Fe/H] relation derived by Alcock et al. This yields mean metallicities of ([Fe/H])ESO294 = –1.77 ± 0.03 and ([Fe/H])ESO410 = –1.64 ± 0.03. The RRL metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) are investigated further via simple chemical evolution models; these reveal the relics of the early chemical enrichment processes for these two dTrans galaxies. In the case of both galaxies, the shapes of the RRL MDFs are well described by pre-enrichment models. This suggests two possible channels for the early chemical evolution for these Sculptor group dTrans galaxies: (1) the ancient stellar populations of our target dwarf galaxies might have formed from the star forming gas which was already enriched through 'prompt initial enrichment' or an 'initial nucleosynthetic spike' from the very first massive stars, or (2) this pre-enrichment state might have been achieved by the end products from more evolved systems of their nearest neighbor, NGC 55. We also study the environmental effects of the formation and evolution of our target dTrans galaxies by comparing their properties with those of 79 volume limited (D ☉ < 2 Mpc) dwarf galaxy samples in terms of the luminosity-metallicity relation and the H I gas content. The presence of these RRL stars strongly supports the idea that although the Sculptor Group galaxies have a considerably

  6. The Early Chemical Enrichment Histories of Two Sculptor Group Dwarf Galaxies as Revealed by RR Lyrae Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soung-Chul; Wagner-Kaiser, Rachel; Sarajedini, Ata; Kim, Sang Chul; Kyeong, Jaemann

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of our analysis of the RR Lyrae (RRL) variable stars detected in two transition-type dwarf galaxies (dTrans), ESO294-G010 and ESO410-G005 in the Sculptor group, which is known to be one of the closest neighboring galaxy groups to our Local Group. Using deep archival images from the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have identified a sample of RRL candidates in both dTrans galaxies (219 RRab (RR0) and 13 RRc (RR1) variables in ESO294-G010; 225 RRab and 44 RRc stars in ESO410-G005). The metallicities of the individual RRab stars are calculated via the period-amplitude-[Fe/H] relation derived by Alcock et al. This yields mean metallicities of lang[Fe/H]rangESO294 = -1.77 ± 0.03 and lang[Fe/H]rangESO410 = -1.64 ± 0.03. The RRL metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) are investigated further via simple chemical evolution models; these reveal the relics of the early chemical enrichment processes for these two dTrans galaxies. In the case of both galaxies, the shapes of the RRL MDFs are well described by pre-enrichment models. This suggests two possible channels for the early chemical evolution for these Sculptor group dTrans galaxies: (1) the ancient stellar populations of our target dwarf galaxies might have formed from the star forming gas which was already enriched through "prompt initial enrichment" or an "initial nucleosynthetic spike" from the very first massive stars, or (2) this pre-enrichment state might have been achieved by the end products from more evolved systems of their nearest neighbor, NGC 55. We also study the environmental effects of the formation and evolution of our target dTrans galaxies by comparing their properties with those of 79 volume limited (D ⊙ giant host galaxies, loosely bound and very low local density), they share a common epoch of early star formation with the dwarf satellite galaxies in the Local Group.

  7. Comparative LC-MS/MS profiling of free and protein-bound early and advanced glycation-induced lysine modifications in dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free and protein-bound forms of early and advanced glycation-induced lysine (Lys) modifications were quantified in dairy products by LC-MS/MS using a stable isotope dilution assay. The glycation profiles for Nε-fructoselysine (FL), Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (Pyr) were monitored in raw and processed cow milk to investigate whether free glycation products could serve as fast and simple markers to assess the extent of protein glycation in dairy products. In all milk samples, the fraction of free glycation adducts was predominantly composed of advanced modifications, e.g. 8.34 ± 3.81 nmol CML per μmol of free Lys (Lysfree) and 81.5 ± 87.8 nmol Pyr μmol-1 Lysfree-1 vs. 3.72 ± 1.29 nmol FL μmol-1 Lysfree-1. In contrast, the protein-bound early glycation product FL considerably outweighed the content of CML and Pyr in milk proteins of raw and processed cow milk, whereas severely heat treated milk products, e.g. condensed milk, contained a higher amount of protein-bound advanced glycation adducts. Typical values recorded for milk samples processed under mild conditions were 0.47 ± 0.08 nmol FL μmol-1 of protein-bound Lys (Lysp-b), 0.04 ± 0.03 nmol CML μmol-1 Lysp-b-1 and 0.06 ± 0.02 nmol Pyr μmol-1 Lysp-b-1. It was particularly noticeable, however, that mild heat treatment of raw milk, i.e. pasteurization and UHT treatment, did not significantly increase the amount of both free and protein-bound Lys modifications. In conclusion, the profiles of free and protein-bound glycation-induced Lys modifications were found to be different and a screening of free glycation adducts does, therefore, not allow for a conclusion about the protein glycation status of dairy products

  8. Bound soliton fiber laser

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, D. Y.; B. Zhao; Shen, D. Y.; Lu, C.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental study on the soliton dynamics of a passively mode locked fiber ring laser firstly revealed a state of bound soliton operation in the laser, where two solitons bind together tightly with fixed pulse separation. We further report on the properties of the bound-soliton emission of the laser. In particular, we demonstrate both experimentally and numerically that, like the single pulse soliton operation of the laser, the bound soliton emission is another intrinsic feature of the laser.

  9. Soluble axoplasm enriched from injured CNS axons reveals the early modulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Garland

    Full Text Available Axon injury and degeneration is a common consequence of diverse neurological conditions including multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. The molecular events underlying axon degeneration are poorly understood. We have developed a novel method to enrich for axoplasm from rodent optic nerve and characterised the early events in Wallerian degeneration using an unbiased proteomics screen. Our detergent-free method draws axoplasm into a dehydrated hydrogel of the polymer poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, which is then recovered using centrifugation. This technique is able to recover axonal proteins and significantly deplete glial contamination as confirmed by immunoblotting. We have used iTRAQ to compare axoplasm-enriched samples from naïve vs injured optic nerves, which has revealed a pronounced modulation of proteins associated with the actin cytoskeleton. To confirm the modulation of the actin cytoskeleton in injured axons we focused on the RhoA pathway. Western blotting revealed an augmentation of RhoA and phosphorylated cofilin in axoplasm-enriched samples from injured optic nerve. To investigate the localisation of these components of the RhoA pathway in injured axons we transected axons of primary hippocampal neurons in vitro. We observed an early modulation of filamentous actin with a concomitant redistribution of phosphorylated cofilin in injured axons. At later time-points, RhoA is found to accumulate in axonal swellings and also colocalises with filamentous actin. The actin cytoskeleton is a known sensor of cell viability across multiple eukaryotes, and our results suggest a similar role for the actin cytoskeleton following axon injury. In agreement with other reports, our data also highlights the role of the RhoA pathway in axon degeneration. These findings highlight a previously unexplored area of axon biology, which may open novel avenues to prevent axon degeneration. Our method for isolating CNS axoplasm

  10. Krypton Derivatization of an O2 -Tolerant Membrane-Bound [NiFe] Hydrogenase Reveals a Hydrophobic Tunnel Network for Gas Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalms, Jacqueline; Schmidt, Andrea; Frielingsdorf, Stefan; van der Linden, Peter; von Stetten, David; Lenz, Oliver; Carpentier, Philippe; Scheerer, Patrick

    2016-04-25

    [NiFe] hydrogenases are metalloenzymes catalyzing the reversible heterolytic cleavage of hydrogen into protons and electrons. Gas tunnels make the deeply buried active site accessible to substrates and inhibitors. Understanding the architecture and function of the tunnels is pivotal to modulating the feature of O2 tolerance in a subgroup of these [NiFe] hydrogenases, as they are interesting for developments in renewable energy technologies. Here we describe the crystal structure of the O2 -tolerant membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase of Ralstonia eutropha (ReMBH), using krypton-pressurized crystals. The positions of the krypton atoms allow a comprehensive description of the tunnel network within the enzyme. A detailed overview of tunnel sizes, lengths, and routes is presented from tunnel calculations. A comparison of the ReMBH tunnel characteristics with crystal structures of other O2 -tolerant and O2 -sensitive [NiFe] hydrogenases revealed considerable differences in tunnel size and quantity between the two groups, which might be related to the striking feature of O2 tolerance. PMID:26913499

  11. Capturing asteroids into bound orbits around the earth: Massive early return on an asteroid terminal defense system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear explosives may be used to capture small asteroids (e.g., 20--50 meters in diameter) into bound orbits around the earth. The captured objects could be used for construction material for manned and unmanned activity in Earth orbit. Asteroids with small approach velocities, which are the ones most likely to have close approaches to the Earth, require the least energy for capture. They are particularly easy to capture if they pass within one Earth radius of the surface of the Earth. They could be intercepted with intercontinental missiles if the latter were retrofit with a more flexible guiding and homing capability. This asteroid capture-defense system could be implemented in a few years at low cost by using decommissioned ICMs. The economic value of even one captured asteroid is many times the initial investment. The asteroid capture system would be an essential part of the learning curve for dealing with larger asteroids that can hit the earth

  12. Bounded Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Saric, Dragomir

    2006-01-01

    We give a short proof of the fact that bounded earthquakes of the unit disk induce quasisymmetric maps of the unit circle. By a similar method, we show that symmetric maps are induced by bounded earthquakes with asymptotically trivial measures.

  13. RNA sequence reveals mouse retinal transcriptome changes early after axonal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Masayuki; Tanaka, Yuji; Ryu, Morin; Tsuda, Satoru; Nakazawa, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is an ocular disease characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death caused by axonal injury. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in RGC death remain unclear. In this study, we investigated changes in the transcriptome profile following axonal injury in mice (C57BL/6) with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. The experiment group underwent an optic nerve crush (ONC) procedure to induce axonal injury in the right eye, and the control group underwent a sham procedure. Two days later, we extracted the retinas and performed RNA-seq and a pathway analysis. We identified 177 differentially expressed genes with RNA-seq, notably the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related genes Atf3, Atf4, Atf5, Chac1, Chop, Egr1 and Trb3, which were significantly upregulated. The pathway analysis revealed that ATF4 was the most significant upstream regulator. The antioxidative response-related genes Hmox1 and Srxn1, as well as the immune response-related genes C1qa, C1qb and C1qc, were also significantly upregulated. To our knowledge, this is the first reported RNA-seq investigation of the retinal transcriptome and molecular pathways in the early stages after axonal injury. Our results indicated that ER stress plays a key role under these conditions. Furthermore, the antioxidative defense and immune responses occurred concurrently in the early stages after axonal injury. We believe that our study will lead to a better understanding of and insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGC death after axonal injury. PMID:24676137

  14. RNA sequence reveals mouse retinal transcriptome changes early after axonal injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Yasuda

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an ocular disease characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC death caused by axonal injury. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in RGC death remain unclear. In this study, we investigated changes in the transcriptome profile following axonal injury in mice (C57BL/6 with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq technology. The experiment group underwent an optic nerve crush (ONC procedure to induce axonal injury in the right eye, and the control group underwent a sham procedure. Two days later, we extracted the retinas and performed RNA-seq and a pathway analysis. We identified 177 differentially expressed genes with RNA-seq, notably the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-related genes Atf3, Atf4, Atf5, Chac1, Chop, Egr1 and Trb3, which were significantly upregulated. The pathway analysis revealed that ATF4 was the most significant upstream regulator. The antioxidative response-related genes Hmox1 and Srxn1, as well as the immune response-related genes C1qa, C1qb and C1qc, were also significantly upregulated. To our knowledge, this is the first reported RNA-seq investigation of the retinal transcriptome and molecular pathways in the early stages after axonal injury. Our results indicated that ER stress plays a key role under these conditions. Furthermore, the antioxidative defense and immune responses occurred concurrently in the early stages after axonal injury. We believe that our study will lead to a better understanding of and insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGC death after axonal injury.

  15. A short-time scale colloidal system reveals early bacterial adhesion dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Beloin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of bacteria on abiotic surfaces has important public health and sanitary consequences. However, despite several decades of study of bacterial adhesion to inert surfaces, the biophysical mechanisms governing this process remain poorly understood, due, in particular, to the lack of methodologies covering the appropriate time scale. Using micrometric colloidal surface particles and flow cytometry analysis, we developed a rapid multiparametric approach to studying early events in adhesion of the bacterium Escherichia coli. This approach simultaneously describes the kinetics and amplitude of early steps in adhesion, changes in physicochemical surface properties within the first few seconds of adhesion, and the self-association state of attached and free-floating cells. Examination of the role of three well-characterized E. coli surface adhesion factors upon attachment to colloidal surfaces--curli fimbriae, F-conjugative pilus, and Ag43 adhesin--showed clear-cut differences in the very initial phases of surface colonization for cell-bearing surface structures, all known to promote biofilm development. Our multiparametric analysis revealed a correlation in the adhesion phase with cell-to-cell aggregation properties and demonstrated that this phenomenon amplified surface colonization once initial cell-surface attachment was achieved. Monitoring of real-time physico-chemical particle surface properties showed that surface-active molecules of bacterial origin quickly modified surface properties, providing new insight into the intricate relations connecting abiotic surface physicochemical properties and bacterial adhesion. Hence, the biophysical analytical method described here provides a new and relevant approach to quantitatively and kinetically investigating bacterial adhesion and biofilm development.

  16. Atomic resolution experimental phase information reveals extensive disorder and bound 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol in Ca 2+ -calmodulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiusheng; van den Bedem, Henry; Brunger, Axel T.; Wilson, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is the primary calcium signaling protein in eukaryotes and has been extensively studied using various biophysical techniques. Prior crystal structures have noted the presence of ambiguous electron density in both hydrophobic binding pockets of Ca2+-CaM, but no assignment of these features has been made. In addition, Ca2+-CaM samples many conformational substates in the crystal and accurately modeling the full range of this functionally important disorder is challenging. In order to characterize these features in a minimally biased manner, a 1.0 Å resolution single-wavelength anomalous diffraction data set was measured for selenomethionine-substituted Ca2+-CaM. Density-modified electron-density maps enabled the accurate assignment of Ca2+-CaM main-chain and side-chain disorder. These experimental maps also substantiate complex disorder models that were automatically built using low-contour features of model-phased electron density. Furthermore, experimental electron-density maps reveal that 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) is present in the C-terminal domain, mediates a lattice contact between N-terminal domains and may occupy the N-terminal binding pocket. The majority of the crystal structures of target-free Ca2+-CaM have been derived from crystals grown using MPD as a precipitant, and thus MPD is likely to be bound in functionally critical regions of Ca2+-CaM in most of these structures. The adventitious binding of MPD helps to explain differences between the Ca2+-CaM crystal and solution structures and is likely to favor more open conformations of the EF-hands in the crystal.

  17. Global Identification of SMAD2 Target Genes Reveals a Role for Multiple Co-regulatory Factors in Zebrafish Early Gastrulas*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoting; Lin, Xiwen; Cai, Zhaoping; Zhang, Zhuqiang; Han, Chunsheng; Jia, Shunji; Meng, Anming; Wang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Nodal and Smad2/3 signals play pivotal roles in mesendoderm induction and axis determination during late blastulation and early gastrulation in vertebrate embryos. However, Smad2/3 direct target genes during those critical developmental stages have not been systematically identified. Here, through ChIP-chip assay, we show that the promoter/enhancer regions of 679 genes are bound by Smad2 in the zebrafish early gastrulas. Expression analyses confirm that a significant proportion of Smad2 targets are indeed subjected to Nodal/Smad2 regulation at the onset of gastrulation. The co-existence of DNA-binding sites of other transcription factors in the Smad2-bound regions allows the identification of well known Smad2-binding partners, such as FoxH1 and Lef1/β-catenin, as well as many previously unknown Smad2 partners, including Oct1 and Gata6, during embryogenesis. We demonstrate that Oct1 physically associates with and enhances the transcription and mesendodermal induction activity of Smad2, whereas Gata6 exerts an inhibitory role in Smad2 signaling and mesendodermal induction. Thus, our study systemically uncovers a large number of Smad2 targets in early gastrulas and suggests cooperative roles of Smad2 and other transcription factors in controlling target gene transcription, which will be valuable for studying regulatory cascades during germ layer formation and patterning of vertebrate embryos. PMID:21669877

  18. MMP-13 In-Vivo Molecular Imaging Reveals Early Expression in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Salaün

    Full Text Available Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are overexpressed in lung cancer and may serve as potential targets for the development of bioactivable probes for molecular imaging.To characterize and monitor the activity of MMPs during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma.K-rasLSL-G12D mice were imaged serially during the development of adenocarcinomas using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT and a probe specific for MMP-2, -3, -9 and -13. Lung tumors were identified using FMT and MRI co-registration, and the probe concentration in each tumor was assessed at each time-point. The expression of Mmp2, -3, -9, -13 was quantified by qRT-PCR using RNA isolated from microdissected tumor cells. Immunohistochemical staining of overexpressed MMPs in animals was assessed on human lung tumors.In mice, 7 adenomas and 5 adenocarcinomas showed an increase in fluorescent signal on successive FMT scans, starting between weeks 4 and 8. qRT-PCR assays revealed significant overexpression of only Mmp-13 in mice lung tumors. In human tumors, a high MMP-13 immunostaining index was found in tumor cells from invasive lesions (24/27, but in none of the non-invasive (0/4 (p=0.001.MMP-13 is detected in early pulmonary invasive adenocarcinomas and may be a potential target for molecular imaging of lung cancer.

  19. Ancient DNA from European early neolithic farmers reveals their near eastern affinities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Haak

    Full Text Available In Europe, the Neolithic transition (8,000-4,000 B.C. from hunting and gathering to agricultural communities was one of the most important demographic events since the initial peopling of Europe by anatomically modern humans in the Upper Paleolithic (40,000 B.C.. However, the nature and speed of this transition is a matter of continuing scientific debate in archaeology, anthropology, and human population genetics. To date, inferences about the genetic make up of past populations have mostly been drawn from studies of modern-day Eurasian populations, but increasingly ancient DNA studies offer a direct view of the genetic past. We genetically characterized a population of the earliest farming culture in Central Europe, the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK; 5,500-4,900 calibrated B.C. and used comprehensive phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to locate its origins within the broader Eurasian region, and to trace potential dispersal routes into Europe. We cloned and sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable segment I and designed two powerful SNP multiplex PCR systems to generate new mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal data from 21 individuals from a complete LBK graveyard at Derenburg Meerenstieg II in Germany. These results considerably extend the available genetic dataset for the LBK (n = 42 and permit the first detailed genetic analysis of the earliest Neolithic culture in Central Europe (5,500-4,900 calibrated B.C.. We characterized the Neolithic mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity and geographical affinities of the early farmers using a large database of extant Western Eurasian populations (n = 23,394 and a wide range of population genetic analyses including shared haplotype analyses, principal component analyses, multidimensional scaling, geographic mapping of genetic distances, and Bayesian Serial Simcoal analyses. The results reveal that the LBK population shared an affinity with the modern-day Near East and Anatolia, supporting

  20. Oxygen restriction as challenge test reveals early high-fat-diet-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorde, L.P.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Derous, D.; Stelt, van der I.; Masania, J.; Rabbani, N.; Thornalley, P.J.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Challenge tests stress homeostasis and may reveal deviations in health that remain masked under unchallenged conditions. Ideally, challenge tests are non-invasive and applicable in an early phase of an animal experiment. Oxygen restriction (OxR; based on ambient, mild normobaric hypoxia) is a non-in

  1. Altered Evoked Gamma-Band Responses Reveal Impaired Early Visual Processing in ADHD Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Daniel; Krauel, Kerstin; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Schadow, Jeanette; Hinrichs, Hermann; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2010-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies yield contrary results whether attentional problems of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to early visual processing deficits or not. Evoked gamma-band responses (GBRs), being among the first cortical responses occurring as early as 90 ms after visual stimulation in human EEG, have…

  2. Sorting in early endosomes reveals connections to docking- and fusion-associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Barysch, Sina V.; Aggarwal, Shweta; Jahn, Reinhard; Rizzoli, Silvio O.

    2009-01-01

    The early endosomes constitute a major sorting platform in eukaryotic cells. They receive material through fusion with endocytotic vesicles or with trafficking vesicles from the Golgi complex and later sort it into budding vesicles. While endosomal fusion is well understood, sorting is less characterized; the 2 processes are generally thought to be effected by different, unrelated machineries. We developed here a cell-free assay for sorting/budding from early endosomes, by taking advantage of...

  3. Starch grains on human teeth reveal early broad crop diet in northern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Piperno, Dolores R.; Dillehay, Tom D.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the Ñanchoc Valley in northern Peru was an important locus of early and middle Holocene human settlement, and that between 9200 and 5500 14C yr B.P. the valley inhabitants adopted major crop plants such as squash (Cucurbita moschata), peanuts (Arachis sp.), and cotton (Gossypium barbadense). We report here an examination of starch grains preserved in the calculus of human teeth from these sites that provides direct evidence for the early consumption of cultiva...

  4. Bounding the $\

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A

    2003-01-01

    A bound on the nu /sup tau / magnetic moment is calculated through the reaction e/sup +/e/sup -/ to nu nu gamma at the Z/sub 1/-pole, and in the framework of a left-right symmetric model at LEP energies. We find that the bound is almost independent of the mixing angle phi of the model in the allowed experimental range for this parameter. (31 refs).

  5. Early Top-Down Influences on Bistable Perception Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Michael A.; Gavin, William J.; Nerger, Janice L.

    2008-01-01

    A longstanding debate exists in the literature concerning bottom-up vs. top-down influences on bistable perception. Recently, a technique has been developed to measure early changes in brain activity (via ERPs) related to perceptual reversals (Kornmeier & Bach, 2004). An ERP component, the reversal negativity (RN) has been identified, and is…

  6. Starch grains on human teeth reveal early broad crop diet in northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, Dolores R; Dillehay, Tom D

    2008-12-16

    Previous research indicates that the Nanchoc Valley in northern Peru was an important locus of early and middle Holocene human settlement, and that between 9200 and 5500 (14)C yr B.P. the valley inhabitants adopted major crop plants such as squash (Cucurbita moschata), peanuts (Arachis sp.), and cotton (Gossypium barbadense). We report here an examination of starch grains preserved in the calculus of human teeth from these sites that provides direct evidence for the early consumption of cultivated squash and peanuts along with two other major food plants not previously detected. Starch from the seeds of Phaseolus and Inga feuillei, the flesh of Cucurbita moschata fruits, and the nuts of Arachis was routinely present on numerous teeth that date to between 8210 and 6970 (14)C yr B.P. Early plant diets appear to have been diverse and stable through time and were rich in cultivated foods typical of later Andean agriculture. Our data provide early archaeological evidence for Phaseolus beans and I. feuillei, an important tree crop, and indicate that effective food production systems that contributed significant dietary inputs were present in the Nanchoc region by 8000 (14)C yr B.P. Starch grain studies of dental remains document plants and edible parts of them not normally preserved in archaeological records and can assume primary roles as direct indicators of ancient human diets and agriculture. PMID:19066222

  7. Dynamic locomotor capabilities revealed by early dinosaur trackmakers from southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A new investigation of the sedimentology and ichnology of the Early Jurassic Moyeni tracksite in Lesotho, southern Africa has yielded new insights into the behavior and locomotor dynamics of early dinosaurs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The tracksite is an ancient point bar preserving a heterogeneous substrate of varied consistency and inclination that includes a ripple-marked riverbed, a bar slope, and a stable algal-matted bar top surface. Several basal ornithischian dinosaurs and a single theropod dinosaur crossed its surface within days or perhaps weeks of one another, but responded to substrate heterogeneity differently. Whereas the theropod trackmaker accommodated sloping and slippery surfaces by gripping the substrate with its pedal claws, the basal ornithischian trackmakers adjusted to the terrain by changing between quadrupedal and bipedal stance, wide and narrow gauge limb support (abduction range = 31 degrees , and plantigrade and digitigrade foot posture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The locomotor adjustments coincide with changes in substrate consistency along the trackway and appear to reflect 'real time' responses to a complex terrain. It is proposed that these responses foreshadow important locomotor transformations characterizing the later evolution of the two main dinosaur lineages. Ornithischians, which shifted from bipedal to quadrupedal posture at least three times in their evolutionary history, are shown to have been capable of adopting both postures early in their evolutionary history. The substrate-gripping behavior demonstrated by the early theropod, in turn, is consistent with the hypothesized function of pedal claws in bird ancestors.

  8. In vivo imaging of immediate early gene expression reveals layer-specific memory traces in the mammalian brain

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Hong; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Youzhi; Ding, Xinlu; Yang, Yuhao; Guan, Ji-Song

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates how sensory information is represented and stored in cortical circuits during complex behavior in the mammalian brain. Using a newly established automatic algorithm for cell detection, we tracked the expression of immediate early genes from more than 20,000 neurons in each living mouse for 2 mo, revealing quantitative signal changes in each neuron within a local cortical circuit. A natural behavioral task induced sparse and task-specific neuronal activation in cortical...

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Honeybee (Apis Mellifera) Haploid and Diploid Embryos Reveals Early Zygotic Transcription during Cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Camilla Valente; Freitas, Flávia Cristina de Paula; Cristino, Alexandre S.; Dearden, Peter K.; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2016-01-01

    In honeybees, the haplodiploid sex determination system promotes a unique embryogenesis process wherein females develop from fertilized eggs and males develop from unfertilized eggs. However, the developmental strategies of honeybees during early embryogenesis are virtually unknown. Similar to most animals, the honeybee oocytes are supplied with proteins and regulatory elements that support early embryogenesis. As the embryo develops, the zygotic genome is activated and zygotic products gradually replace the preloaded maternal material. The analysis of small RNA and mRNA libraries of mature oocytes and embryos originated from fertilized and unfertilized eggs has allowed us to explore the gene expression dynamics in the first steps of development and during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). We localized a short sequence motif identified as TAGteam motif and hypothesized to play a similar role in honeybees as in fruit flies, which includes the timing of early zygotic expression (MZT), a function sustained by the presence of the zelda ortholog, which is the main regulator of genome activation. Predicted microRNA (miRNA)-target interactions indicated that there were specific regulators of haploid and diploid embryonic development and an overlap of maternal and zygotic gene expression during the early steps of embryogenesis. Although a number of functions are highly conserved during the early steps of honeybee embryogenesis, the results showed that zygotic genome activation occurs earlier in honeybees than in Drosophila based on the presence of three primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) (ame-mir-375, ame-mir-34 and ame-mir-263b) during the cleavage stage in haploid and diploid embryonic development. PMID:26751956

  10. Transcriptional dynamics reveal critical roles for non-coding RNAs in the immediate-early response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Aitken

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The immediate-early response mediates cell fate in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and is dysregulated in many cancers. However, the specificity of the response across stimuli and cell types, and the roles of non-coding RNAs are not well understood. Using a large collection of densely-sampled time series expression data we have examined the induction of the immediate-early response in unparalleled detail, across cell types and stimuli. We exploit cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE time series datasets to directly measure promoter activities over time. Using a novel analysis method for time series data we identify transcripts with expression patterns that closely resemble the dynamics of known immediate-early genes (IEGs and this enables a comprehensive comparative study of these genes and their chromatin state. Surprisingly, these data suggest that the earliest transcriptional responses often involve promoters generating non-coding RNAs, many of which are produced in advance of canonical protein-coding IEGs. IEGs are known to be capable of induction without de novo protein synthesis. Consistent with this, we find that the response of both protein-coding and non-coding RNA IEGs can be explained by their transcriptionally poised, permissive chromatin state prior to stimulation. We also explore the function of non-coding RNAs in the attenuation of the immediate early response in a small RNA sequencing dataset matched to the CAGE data: We identify a novel set of microRNAs responsible for the attenuation of the IEG response in an estrogen receptor positive cancer cell line. Our computational statistical method is well suited to meta-analyses as there is no requirement for transcripts to pass thresholds for significant differential expression between time points, and it is agnostic to the number of time points per dataset.

  11. Bird-like anatomy, posture, and behavior revealed by an early jurassic theropod dinosaur resting trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A.R.C.; Harris, J.D.; Lockley, M.G.; Kirkland, J.I.; Matthews, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic (???198 millionyear- old) lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. Conclusions/Significance: The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods.

  12. The TESIS Project: Revealing Massive Early-Type Galaxies at z > 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Braito, V.; Bender, R.; Drory, N.; Feulner, G.; Hopp, U.; Mannucci, F.; Maraston, C.

    How and when present-day massive early-type galaxies built up and what type of evolution has characterized their growth (star formation and/or merging) still remain open issues. The different competing scenarios of galaxy formation predict much different properties of early-type galaxies at z > 1. The "monolithic" collapse predicts that massive spheroids formed at high redshift (z > 2.5-3) and that their comoving density is constant at z 1, their comoving density decreases from z = 0 to z ~ 1.5 and they should experience their last burst of star formation at z 1 can be probed observationally once a well defined sample of massive early-types at z > 1 is available. We are constructing such a sample through a dedicated near-IR very low resolution (λ/Δλ≃50) spectroscopic survey (TNG EROs Spectroscopic Identification Survey, TESIS, [6]) of a complete sample of 30 bright (K < 18.5) Extremely Red Objects (EROs).

  13. Integrative analyses reveal novel strategies in HPV11,-16 and-45 early infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Rossing, Maria; Andersen, Ditte;

    2012-01-01

    revealed the suppression of DNA repair by HPV11 and -16, and downregulation of cytoskeleton genes by all HPV types. Various signalling pathways were affected by the HPVs: IL-2 by HPV11; JAK-STAT by HPV16; and TGF-beta, NOTCH and tyrosine kinase signalling by HPV45. This study uncovered novel strategies...

  14. A Feasibility Study of Bevacizumab Plus Dose-Dense Doxorubicin–Cyclophosphamide (AC) Followed by Nanoparticle Albumin–Bound Paclitaxel in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Heather L.; Rugo, Hope; Nulsen, Benjamin; Hawks, Laura; Grothusen, Jill; Melisko, Michelle; Moasser, Mark; Paulson, Matthew; Traina, Tiffany; Patil, Sujata; Zhou, Qin; Steingart, Richard; Dang, Chau; Morrow, Monica; Cordeiro, Peter; Fornier, Monica; Park, John; Seidman, Andrew; Lake, Diana; Gilewski, Theresa; Theodoulou, Maria; Modi, Shanu; D’Andrea, Gabriella; Sklarin, Nancy; Robson, Mark; Moynahan, Mary Ellen; Sugarman, Steven; Sealey, Jane E.; Laragh, John H.; Merali, Carmen; Norton, Larry; Hudis, Clifford A.; Dickler, Maura N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Bevacizumab confers benefits in metastatic breast cancer but may be more effective as adjuvant therapy. We evaluated the cardiac safety of bevacizumab plus dose-dense doxorubicin–cyclophosphamide (ddAC)→nanoparticle albumin−bound (nab)-paclitaxel in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 normal early-stage breast cancer. Experimental Design Eighty patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were enrolled. Bevacizumab was administered for 1 year, concurrently with ddAC→nab-paclitaxel then as a single agent. LVEF was evaluated at months 0, 2, 6, 9, and 18. This regimen was considered safe if fewer than three cardiac events or fewer than two deaths from left ventricular dysfunction occurred. Correlative studies of cardiac troponin (cTn) and plasma renin activity (PRA) were conducted. Results The median age was 48 years (range, 27−75 years), and baseline LVEF was 68% (53%−82%). After 39 months’ median follow-up (5−45 months): median LVEF was 68% (53%−80%) at 2 months (n=78), 64% (51%−77%) at 6 months (n=66), 63% (48%−77%) at 9 months (n=61), and 66% (42%−76%) at 18 months (n=54). One patient developed symptomatic LV dysfunction at month 15. Common toxicities necessitating treatment discontinuation were hypertension (HTN, 4%), wound-healing complications (4%), and asymptomatic LVEF declines (4%). Neither cTn nor PRA predicted CHF or HTN, respectively. Conclusions Bevacizumab with ddAC→nab-paclitaxel had a low rate of cardiac events; cTn and PRA levels are not predictive of CHF or HTN, respectively. The efficacy of bevacizumab as adjuvant treatment will be established in several ongoing phase III trials. PMID:21350003

  15. Early events leading to erythroid differentiation in mouse Friend cells revealed by cell fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell fusion with two genetically marked Friend (murine erythroleukemia) cells has made it possible to characterize the very early events leading to erythroid differentiation, particularly the nature of reactions initiated by inducers such as dimethyl sulfoxide. We have found that brief exposure of Friend cells to dimethyl sulfoxide (as well as butyric acid or hexamethylene-bisacetamide) induces an early cellular activity required for erythroid differentiation which is detected only by fusion with ultraviolet-irradiated cells. The induction process of this activity consists of at least two distinct stages. In the first stage, the reaction proceeds without supply of metabolites from the medium and exhibits sensitivity to tumor promoters. The second stage is tightly coupled to cellular metabolic activity, notably protein synthesis. Under normal conditions, the induced activity is short-lived, suggesting turnover of the molecules responsible for this activity. There appears to be a signal produced following dimethyl sulfoxide pulse which acts as an inducer for this activity. The signal remains active for as long as 40 hr when protein synthesis is blocked

  16. Synchrotron Reveals Early Triassic Odd Couple: Injured Amphibian and Aestivating Therapsid Share Burrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Fernandez

    Full Text Available Fossorialism is a beneficial adaptation for brooding, predator avoidance and protection from extreme climate. The abundance of fossilised burrow casts from the Early Triassic of southern Africa is viewed as a behavioural response by many tetrapods to the harsh conditions following the Permo-Triassic mass-extinction event. However, scarcity of vertebrate remains associated with these burrows leaves many ecological questions unanswered. Synchrotron scanning of a lithified burrow cast from the Early Triassic of the Karoo unveiled a unique mixed-species association: an injured temnospondyl amphibian (Broomistega that sheltered in a burrow occupied by an aestivating therapsid (Thrinaxodon. The discovery of this rare rhinesuchid represents the first occurrence in the fossil record of a temnospondyl in a burrow. The amphibian skeleton shows signs of a crushing trauma with partially healed fractures on several consecutive ribs. The presence of a relatively large intruder in what is interpreted to be a Thrinaxodon burrow implies that the therapsid tolerated the amphibian's presence. Among possible explanations for such unlikely cohabitation, Thrinaxodon aestivation is most plausible, an interpretation supported by the numerous Thrinaxodon specimens fossilised in curled-up postures. Recent advances in synchrotron imaging have enabled visualization of the contents of burrow casts, thus providing a novel tool to elucidate not only anatomy but also ecology and biology of ancient tetrapods.

  17. DNA-based digital tension probes reveal integrin forces during early cell adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Ge, Chenghao; Zhu, Cheng; Salaita, Khalid

    2014-10-01

    Mechanical stimuli profoundly alter cell fate, yet the mechanisms underlying mechanotransduction remain obscure because of a lack of methods for molecular force imaging. Here to address this need, we develop a new class of molecular tension probes that function as a switch to generate a 20- to 30-fold increase in fluorescence upon experiencing a threshold piconewton force. The probes employ immobilized DNA hairpins with tunable force response thresholds, ligands and fluorescence reporters. Quantitative imaging reveals that integrin tension is highly dynamic and increases with an increasing integrin density during adhesion formation. Mixtures of fluorophore-encoded probes show integrin mechanical preference for cyclized RGD over linear RGD peptides. Multiplexed probes with variable guanine-cytosine content within their hairpins reveal integrin preference for the more stable probes at the leading tip of growing adhesions near the cell edge. DNA-based tension probes are among the most sensitive optical force reporters to date, overcoming the force and spatial resolution limitations of traction force microscopy.

  18. Crystal Structure of Phosphatidylglycerophosphatase (PGPase), a Putative Membrane-Bound Lipid Phosphatase, Reveals a Novel Binuclear Metal Binding Site and Two Proton Wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaran,D.; Bonnano, J.; Burley, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphatidylglycerophosphatase (PGPase), an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, catalyzes formation of phosphatidylglycerol from phosphatidylglycerophosphate. Phosphatidylglycerol is a multifunctional phospholipid, found in the biological membranes of many organisms. Here, we report the crystal structure of Listeria monocytogenes PGPase at 1.8 Angstroms resolution. PGPase, an all-helical molecule, forms a homotetramer. Each protomer contains an independent active site with two metal ions, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}, forming a hetero-binuclear center located in a hydrophilic cavity near the surface of the molecule. The binuclear center, conserved ligands, metal-bound water molecules, and an Asp-His dyad form the active site. The catalytic mechanism of this enzyme is likely to proceed via binuclear metal activated nucleophilic water. The binuclear metal-binding active-site environment of this structure should provide insights into substrate binding and metal-dependent catalysis. A long channel with inter-linked linear water chains, termed 'proton wires', is observed at the tetramer interface. Comparison of similar water chain structures in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs), Cytochrome f, gramicidin, and bacteriorhodopsin, suggests that PGPase may conduct protons via proton wires.

  19. Studies of glutathione transferase P1-1 bound to a platinum(IV)-based anticancer compound reveal the molecular basis of its activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lorien J; Italiano, Louis C; Morton, Craig J; Hancock, Nancy C; Ascher, David B; Aitken, Jade B; Harris, Hugh H; Campomanes, Pablo; Rothlisberger, Ursula; De Luca, Anastasia; Lo Bello, Mario; Ang, Wee Han; Dyson, Paul J; Parker, Michael W

    2011-07-01

    Platinum-based cancer drugs, such as cisplatin, are highly effective chemotherapeutic agents used extensively for the treatment of solid tumors. However, their effectiveness is limited by drug resistance, which, in some cancers, has been associated with an overexpression of pi class glutathione S-transferase (GST P1-1), an important enzyme in the mercapturic acid detoxification pathway. Ethacraplatin (EA-CPT), a trans-Pt(IV) carboxylate complex containing ethacrynate ligands, was designed as a platinum cancer metallodrug that could also target cytosolic GST enzymes. We previously reported that EA-CPT was an excellent inhibitor of GST activity in live mammalian cells compared to either cisplatin or ethacrynic acid. In order to understand the nature of the drug-protein interactions between EA-CPT and GST P1-1, and to obtain mechanistic insights at a molecular level, structural and biochemical investigations were carried out, supported by molecular modeling analysis using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical methods. The results suggest that EA-CPT preferentially docks at the dimer interface at GST P1-1 and subsequent interaction with the enzyme resulted in docking of the ethacrynate ligands at both active sites (in the H-sites), with the Pt moiety remaining bound at the dimer interface. The activation of the inhibitor by its target enzyme and covalent binding accounts for the strong and irreversible inhibition of enzymatic activity by the platinum complex. PMID:21681839

  20. Revealing the early ice flow patterns with historical Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs back to 1960s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujie; Liu, Hongxing; Yu, Bailang; Zhou, Guoqing; Cheng, Xiao

    2016-06-01

    The reconnaissance ARGON satellites collected the earliest images of Antarctica from space dating back to the 1960s, providing valuable historical baseline information for studying polar ice sheets. Those photographs are underutilized for ice motion mapping, due to lack of sufficient ground controls for image orthorectification. In this study, we orthorectified the ARGON photographs by fully exploiting the metric qualities of WorldView satellite images: very high spatial resolution and precise geolocation. Through a case study over Larsen Ice Shelf, we demonstrated that the camera model with bundle block adjustment can achieve geolocation accuracy of better than the nominal resolution (140 m) for orthorectifying ARGON images, with WorldView imagery as ground control source. This allowed us to extend the ice velocity records of Larsen Ice Shelf back into 1960s~1970s for the first time. The retrospective analysis revealed that acceleration of the collapsed Larsen B occurred much earlier than previously thought.

  1. Charcoal reflectance reveals early holocene boreal deciduous forests burned at high intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspith, Victoria A; Belcher, Claire M; Kelly, Ryan; Hu, Feng Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Wildfire size, frequency, and severity are increasing in the Alaskan boreal forest in response to climate warming. One of the potential impacts of this changing fire regime is the alteration of successional trajectories, from black spruce to mixed stands dominated by aspen, a vegetation composition not experienced since the early Holocene. Such changes in vegetation composition may consequently alter the intensity of fires, influencing fire feedbacks to the ecosystem. Paleorecords document past wildfire-vegetation dynamics and as such, are imperative for our understanding of how these ecosystems will respond to future climate warming. For the first time, we have used reflectance measurements of macroscopic charcoal particles (>180μm) from an Alaskan lake-sediment record to estimate ancient charring temperatures (termed pyrolysis intensity). We demonstrate that pyrolysis intensity increased markedly from an interval of birch tundra 11 ky ago (mean 1.52%Ro; 485°C), to the expansion of trees on the landscape ~10.5 ky ago, remaining high to the present (mean 3.54%Ro; 640°C) irrespective of stand composition. Despite differing flammabilities and adaptations to fire, the highest pyrolysis intensities derive from two intervals with distinct vegetation compositions. 1) the expansion of mixed aspen and spruce woodland at 10 cal. kyr BP, and 2) the establishment of black spruce, and the modern boreal forest at 4 cal. kyr BP. Based on our analysis, we infer that predicted expansion of deciduous trees into the boreal forest in the future could lead to high intensity, but low severity fires, potentially moderating future climate-fire feedbacks. PMID:25853712

  2. Lethality in PARP-1/Ku80 double mutant mice reveals physiologicalsynergy during early embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrie, Melinda S.; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Burma, Sandeep; Menissier-de Murcia, Josiane; de Murcia, Gilbert; Li, Gloria C.; Chen,David J.

    2002-09-24

    Ku is an abundant heterodimeric nuclear protein, consisting of 70-kDa and 86-kDa tightly associated subunits that comprise the DNA binding component of DNA-dependent protein kinase. Poly(ADP)ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a 113-kDa protein that catalyzes the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) on target proteins. Both Ku and PARP-1 recognize and bind to DNA ends. Ku functions in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway whereas PARP-1 functions in the single strand break repair and base excision repair (BER) pathways. Recent studies have revealed that PARP-1 and Ku80 interact in vitro. To determine whether the association of PARP-1 and Ku80 has any physiological significance or synergistic function in vivo, mice lacking both PARP-1 and Ku80 were generated. The resulting offspring died during embryonic development displaying abnormalities around the gastrulation stage. In addition, PARP-1-/-Ku80-/- cultured blastocysts had an increased level of apoptosis. These data suggest that the functions of both Ku80 and PARP-1 are essential for normal embryogenesis and that a loss of genomic integrity leading to cell death through apoptosis is likely the cause of the embryonic lethality observed in these mice.

  3. Correlation of transcriptomic responses and metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis L. reveals early indicators of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poynton, Helen C., E-mail: helen.poynton@umb.edu; Robinson, William E.; Blalock, Bonnie J.; Hannigan, Robyn E.

    2014-10-15

    , three transcripts directly involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) were induced in the metal treatments at 2 weeks and were further up-regulated at 4 weeks. Overall, correlation of tissue concentrations and gene expression responses indicates that as mussels accumulate higher concentrations of metals, initial stress responses are mobilized to protect tissues. However, given the role of UPR in apoptosis, it serves as an early indicator of stress, which once overwhelmed will result in adverse physiological effects.

  4. Correlation of transcriptomic responses and metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis L. reveals early indicators of stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , three transcripts directly involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) were induced in the metal treatments at 2 weeks and were further up-regulated at 4 weeks. Overall, correlation of tissue concentrations and gene expression responses indicates that as mussels accumulate higher concentrations of metals, initial stress responses are mobilized to protect tissues. However, given the role of UPR in apoptosis, it serves as an early indicator of stress, which once overwhelmed will result in adverse physiological effects

  5. Methods of early revealing, prognosis of further course and complications of pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukhrienko N.D.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Under our observation there were 59 patients with pollinosis – 39 females and 20 males at the age from 18 to 68 years. All patients were in the phase of disease exacerbation. General clinical symptoms were: rhinitis, conjunctivitis and bronchial spasm. The results showed that first clinical manifestations appear in persons of young age. Half of the patients had aggravated allergologic anamnesis. Taking into account that pollinosis is a typical representative of diseases having mechanism of immunoglobulin E (IgE-dependent allergic reactions of the first type, the authors have studied in detail level of IgE and its link with other factors. Practically in all patients with pollinosis level of total IgE exceeded the norm. As a result of studies performed, it was established that high IgE level, presence of phagocytosis defect and prolong duration of illness are the criteria which affect disease progress, aggravation of patients’ state, less efficacy of treatment. Due to the fact that development of bronchial obstruction and transformation of pollinosis into bronchial asthma is the most topical issue nowadays, the authors studied its link with other factors and findings. It was established that risk of pollinosis transformation into pollen bronchial asthma increases in the presence of high level of total IgE, aggravation of allergologic anamnesis, decrease of forced expiration volume (FEV, significant duration of disease course. In the course of investigation it was revealed that the highest efficacy of treatment is noted in patients receiving allergen-specific therapy; this confirms data of world scientific literature. The best treatment results are observed in pollinosis patients, with aggravated family history not in parents but in grandparents.

  6. Structure of the retinoblastoma protein bound to adenovirus E1A reveals the molecular basis for viral oncoprotein inactivation of a tumor suppressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin; Marmorstein, Ronen (UPENN)

    2008-04-02

    The adenovirus (Ad) E1A (Ad-E1A) oncoprotein mediates cell transformation, in part, by displacing E2F transcription factors from the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) tumor suppressor. In this study we determined the crystal structure of the pRb pocket domain in complex with conserved region 1 (CR1) of Ad5-E1A. The structure and accompanying biochemical studies reveal that E1A-CR1 binds at the interface of the A and B cyclin folds of the pRb pocket domain, and that both E1A-CR1 and the E2F transactivation domain use similar conserved nonpolar residues to engage overlapping sites on pRb, implicating a novel molecular mechanism for pRb inactivation by a viral oncoprotein.

  7. Early doors (Edo) mutant mouse reveals the importance of period 2 (PER2) PAS domain structure for circadian pacemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militi, Stefania; Maywood, Elizabeth S; Sandate, Colby R; Chesham, Johanna E; Barnard, Alun R; Parsons, Michael J; Vibert, Jennifer L; Joynson, Greg M; Partch, Carrie L; Hastings, Michael H; Nolan, Patrick M

    2016-03-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) defines 24 h of time via a transcriptional/posttranslational feedback loop in which transactivation of Per (period) and Cry (cryptochrome) genes by BMAL1-CLOCK complexes is suppressed by PER-CRY complexes. The molecular/structural basis of how circadian protein complexes function is poorly understood. We describe a novel N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutation, early doors (Edo), in the PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domain dimerization region of period 2 (PER2) (I324N) that accelerates the circadian clock of Per2(Edo/Edo) mice by 1.5 h. Structural and biophysical analyses revealed that Edo alters the packing of the highly conserved interdomain linker of the PER2 PAS core such that, although PER2(Edo) complexes with clock proteins, its vulnerability to degradation mediated by casein kinase 1ε (CSNK1E) is increased. The functional relevance of this mutation is revealed by the ultrashort (<19 h) but robust circadian rhythms in Per2(Edo/Edo); Csnk1e(Tau/Tau) mice and the SCN. These periods are unprecedented in mice. Thus, Per2(Edo) reveals a direct causal link between the molecular structure of the PER2 PAS core and the pace of SCN circadian timekeeping. PMID:26903623

  8. Bounded Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballester Pla, Coralio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the difficulties involved in providing a correct definition of what a rational (or irrational agent is. In this paper we describe two frameworks that employ different approaches for analyzing bounded rationality. The first is a spatial segregation set-up that encompasses two optimization methodologies: backward induction and forward induction. The main result is that, even under the same state of knowledge, rational and non-rational agents may match their actions. The second framework elaborates on the relationship between irrationality and informational restrictions. We use the beauty contest (Nagel, 1995 as a device to explain this relationship.

    La observación del comportamiento de los agentes económicos tanto en el laboratorio como en la vida real justifica que la racionalidad acotada sea un supuesto aceptado en numerosos modelos socio-económicos. El objetivo de este artículo es ilustrar las dificultades que conlleva una correcta definición de qué es un agente racional (irracional. En este artículo se describen dos marcos que emplean diferentes metodologías para analizar la racionalidad acotada. El primero es un modelo de segregación espacial donde se contrastan dos metodologías de optimización: inducción hacia atrás y hacia adelante. El resultado principal es que, incluso con el mismo nivel de conocimiento, tanto agentes racionales como irracionales podrían coincidir en sus acciones. El segundo marco trabaja sobre la relación entre irracionalidad y restricción de información. Se utiliza el juego llamado “beauty contest” (Nagel 1995 como mecanismo para explicar dicha relación.

  9. Single-virus tracking approach to reveal the interaction of Dengue virus with autophagy during the early stage of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Wei; Huang, Yi-Lung; Lee, Jin-Hui; Huang, Long-Ying; Chen, Wei-Jun; Lin, Ya-Hsuan; Chen, Jyun-Yu; Xiang, Rui; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Ping, Yueh-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the major infectious pathogens worldwide. DENV infection is a highly dynamic process. Currently, no antiviral drug is available for treating DENV-induced diseases since little is known regarding how the virus interacts with host cells during infection. Advanced molecular imaging technologies are powerful tools to understand the dynamics of intracellular interactions and molecular trafficking. This study exploited a single-virus particle tracking technology to address whether DENV interacts with autophagy machinery during the early stage of infection. Using confocal microscopy and three-dimensional image analysis, we showed that DENV triggered the formation of green fluorescence protein-fused microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) puncta, and DENV-induced autophagosomes engulfed DENV particles within 15-min postinfection. Moreover, single-virus particle tracking revealed that both DENV particles and autophagosomes traveled together during the viral infection. Finally, in the presence of autophagy suppressor 3-methyladenine, the replication of DENV was inhibited and the location of DENV particles spread in cytoplasma. In contrast, the numbers of newly synthesized DENV were elevated and the co-localization of DENV particles and autophagosomes was detected while the cells were treated with autophagy inducer rapamycin. Taken together, we propose that DENV particles interact with autophagosomes at the early stage of viral infection, which promotes the replication of DENV.

  10. Target genes of Dpp/BMP signaling pathway revealed by transcriptome profiling in the early D.melanogaster embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Calixto; Zuñiga, Alejandro; Hanna, Patricia; Hodar, Christian; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Cambiazo, Verónica

    2016-10-10

    In the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo, the gene regulatory network controlled by Dpp signaling is involved in the subdivision of dorsal ectoderm into the presumptive dorsal epidermis and amnioserosa. In this work, we aimed to identify new Dpp downstream targets involved in dorsal ectoderm patterning. We used oligonucleotide D. melanogaster microarrays to identify the set of genes that are differential expressed between wild type embryos and embryos that overexpress Dpp (nos-Gal4>UAS-dpp) during early stages of embryo development. By using this approach, we identified 358 genes whose relative abundance significantly increased in response to Dpp overexpression. Among them, we found the entire set of known Dpp target genes that function in dorsal ectoderm patterning (zen, doc, hnt, pnr, ush, tup, and others) in addition to several up-regulated genes of unknown functions. Spatial expression pattern of up-regulated genes in response to Dpp overexpression as well as their opposing transcriptional responses to Dpp loss- and gain-of-function indicated that they are new candidate target genes of Dpp signaling pathway. We further analyse one of the candidate genes, CG13653, which is expressed at the dorsal-most cells of the embryo during a restricted period of time. CG13653 orthologs were not detected in basal lineages of Dipterans, which unlike D. melanogaster develop two extra-embryonic membranes, amnion and serosa. We characterized the enhancer region of CG13653 and revealed that CG13653 is directly regulated by Dpp signaling pathway. PMID:27397649

  11. Biallelic Variants in UBA5 Reveal that Disruption of the UFM1 Cascade Can Result in Early-Onset Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Estelle; Daniel, Jens; Ziegler, Alban; Wakim, Jamal; Scrivo, Aurora; Haack, Tobias B; Khiati, Salim; Denommé, Anne-Sophie; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Charif, Majida; Procaccio, Vincent; Reynier, Pascal; Aleck, Kyrieckos A; Botto, Lorenzo D; Herper, Claudia Lena; Kaiser, Charlotte Sophia; Nabbout, Rima; N'Guyen, Sylvie; Mora-Lorca, José Antonio; Assmann, Birgit; Christ, Stine; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Prokisch, Holger; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Hoffmann, Georg F; Lenaers, Guy; Bomont, Pascale; Liebau, Eva; Bonneau, Dominique

    2016-09-01

    Via whole-exome sequencing, we identified rare autosomal-recessive variants in UBA5 in five children from four unrelated families affected with a similar pattern of severe intellectual deficiency, microcephaly, movement disorders, and/or early-onset intractable epilepsy. UBA5 encodes the E1-activating enzyme of ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 (UFM1), a recently identified ubiquitin-like protein. Biochemical studies of mutant UBA5 proteins and studies in fibroblasts from affected individuals revealed that UBA5 mutations impair the process of ufmylation, resulting in an abnormal endoplasmic reticulum structure. In Caenorhabditis elegans, knockout of uba-5 and of human orthologous genes in the UFM1 cascade alter cholinergic, but not glutamatergic, neurotransmission. In addition, uba5 silencing in zebrafish decreased motility while inducing abnormal movements suggestive of seizures. These clinical, biochemical, and experimental findings support our finding of UBA5 mutations as a pathophysiological cause for early-onset encephalopathies due to abnormal protein ufmylation. PMID:27545681

  12. A human ESC model for MLL-AF4 leukemic fusion gene reveals an impaired early hematopoietic-endothelial specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clara Bueno; Agustin F Femández; Mario F Fraga; Inmaculada Moreno-Gimeno; Deborah Burks; Maria del Carmen Plaza-Calonge; Juan C Rodríguez-Manzaneque; Pablo Menendez; Rosa Montes; Gustavo J Melen; Verónica Ramos-Mejia; Pedro J Real; Verónica Ayllón; Laura Sanchez; Gertrudis Ligero; Iván Gutierrez-Aranda

    2012-01-01

    The MLL-AF4 fusion gene is a hallmark genomic aberration in high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia in inants.Although it is well established that MLL-AF4 arises prenatally during human development,its effects on hematopoieric development in utero remain unexplored.We have created a human-specific cellular system to study early hemato-endothelial development in MLL-AF4-expressing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs).Functional studies,clonal analysis and gene expression profiling reveal that expression of MLL-AF4 in hESCs has a phenotypic,functional and gene expression impact.MLL-AF4 acts as a global transcriptional activator and a positive regulator of homeobox gene expression in hESCs.Functionally,MLL-AF4 enhances the specification of hemogenic precursors from hESCs but strongly impairs further hematopoietic commitment in favor of an endothelial cell fate.MLL-AF4 hESCs are transcriptionally primed to differentiate towards hemogenic precursors prone to endothelial maturation,as reflected by the marked upregulation of master genes associated to vascular-endothelial functions and early hematopoiesis.Furthermore,we report that MLL-AF4 expression is not sufficient to transform hESC-derived hematopoietic cells.This work illustrates how hESCs may provide unique insights into human development and further our understanding of how leukemic fusion genes,known to arise prenatally,regulate human embryonic hematopoietic specification.

  13. Differences in bitumen and kerogen-bound fatty acid fractions during diagenesis and early catagenesis in a maturity series of New Zealand coals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-bearing functional groups, in particular the carboxylic groups of acids and esters, are mainly responsible for the chemical reactivity of sedimentary organic matter. We have studied kerogen and bitumen fractions from a coalification series from the New Zealand Coal Band covering the rank...... range from 0.28% to 0.80% vitrinite reflectance. We investigated the composition of fatty acids separated from the bitumen, and compared this to the distribution of kerogen-bound fatty acids (esters) obtained after selective chemical degradation of the macromolecular organic matter. We found remarkable...... differences in the fatty acid composition between bitumen and kerogen-bound acids, both in the short (< C20) and long chain (≥ C20) fatty acid range. The compositions of these two acid fractions changed independently as a function of maturation. This points to the long and short chain fatty acids in bitumen...

  14. Comprehensive Tissue-Specific Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Distinct Regulatory Programs during Early Tomato Fruit Development1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Richard J.; Csukasi, Fabiana; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; van der Knaap, Esther; Catalá, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Fruit formation and early development involve a range of physiological and morphological transformations of the various constituent tissues of the ovary. These developmental changes vary considerably according to tissue type, but molecular analyses at an organ-wide level inevitably obscure many tissue-specific phenomena. We used laser-capture microdissection coupled to high-throughput RNA sequencing to analyze the transcriptome of ovaries and fruit tissues of the wild tomato species Solanum pimpinellifolium. This laser-capture microdissection-high-throughput RNA sequencing approach allowed quantitative global profiling of gene expression at previously unobtainable levels of spatial resolution, revealing numerous contrasting transcriptome profiles and uncovering rare and cell type-specific transcripts. Coexpressed gene clusters linked specific tissues and stages to major transcriptional changes underlying the ovary-to-fruit transition and provided evidence of regulatory modules related to cell division, photosynthesis, and auxin transport in internal fruit tissues, together with parallel specialization of the pericarp transcriptome in stress responses and secondary metabolism. Analysis of transcription factor expression and regulatory motifs indicated putative gene regulatory modules that may regulate the development of different tissues and hormonal processes. Major alterations in the expression of hormone metabolic and signaling components illustrate the complex hormonal control underpinning fruit formation, with intricate spatiotemporal variations suggesting separate regulatory programs. PMID:26099271

  15. A co-expression network analysis reveals lncRNA abnormalities in peripheral blood in early-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan; Cui, Yuehua; Li, Xinrong; Wang, Binhong; Na, Long; Shi, Junyan; Wang, Liang; Qiu, Lixia; Zhang, Kerang; Liu, Guifen; Xu, Yong

    2015-12-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of gene expression and disease processes especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. To explore the potential regulatory roles of lncRNAs in schizophrenia, we performed an integrated co-expression network analysis on lncRNA and mRNA microarray profiles generated from the peripheral blood samples in 19 drug-naïve first-episode early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) patients and 18 demographically matched typically developing controls (TDCs). Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we showed that the lncRNAs were organized into co-expressed modules, and two lncRNA modules were associated with EOS. The mRNA networks were constructed and three disease-associated modules were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that the mRNAs were highly enriched for mitochondrion and related biological processes. Moreover, our results revealed a significant correlation between lncRNAs and mRNAs using the canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Our results suggest that the convergent lncRNA alteration may be involved in the etiologies of EOS, and mitochondrial dysfunction participates in the pathological process of the disease. Our findings may shed light on the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and facilitate future diagnosis and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25967042

  16. Complex bounds for multimodal maps: bounded combinatorics

    OpenAIRE

    Smania, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    We proved the so called complex bounds for multimodal, infinitely renormalizable analytic maps with bounded combinatorics: deep renormalizations have polynomial-like extensions with definite modulus. The complex bounds is the first step to extend the renormalization theory of unimodal maps to multimodal maps.

  17. The early asthmatic response is associated with glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondria activity as revealed by proteomic analysis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yu-Dong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhalation of allergens by allergic asthmatics results in the early asthmatic response (EAR, which is characterized by acute airway obstruction beginning within a few minutes. The EAR is the earliest indicator of the pathological progression of allergic asthma. Because the molecular mechanism underlying the EAR is not fully defined, this study will contribute to a better understanding of asthma. Methods In order to gain insight into the molecular basis of the EAR, we examined changes in protein expression patterns in the lung tissue of asthmatic rats during the EAR using 2-DE/MS-based proteomic techniques. Bioinformatic analysis of the proteomic data was then performed using PPI Spider and KEGG Spider to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. Results In total, 44 differentially expressed protein spots were detected in the 2-DE gels. Of these 44 protein spots, 42 corresponded to 36 unique proteins successfully identified using mass spectrometry. During subsequent bioinformatic analysis, the gene ontology classification, the protein-protein interaction networking and the biological pathway exploration demonstrated that the identified proteins were mainly involved in glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondrial activity. Using western blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed the changes in expression of five selected proteins, which further supports our proteomic and bioinformatic analyses. Conclusions Our results reveal that the allergen-induced EAR in asthmatic rats is associated with glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondrial activity, which could establish a functional network in which calcium binding may play a central role in promoting the progression of asthma.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pauropus longiramus (Myriapoda: Pauropoda): implications on early diversification of the myriapods revealed from comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Sun, Hongying; Guo, Hua; Pan, Da; Qian, Changyuan; Hao, Sijing; Zhou, Kaiya

    2012-08-15

    Myriapods are among the earliest arthropods and may have evolved to become part of the terrestrial biota more than 400 million years ago. A noticeable lack of mitochondrial genome data from Pauropoda hampers phylogenetic and evolutionary studies within the subphylum Myriapoda. We sequenced the first complete mitochondrial genome of a microscopic pauropod, Pauropus longiramus (Arthropoda: Myriapoda), and conducted comprehensive mitogenomic analyses across the Myriapoda. The pauropod mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 14,487 bp long and contains the entire set of thirty-seven genes. Frequent intergenic overlaps occurred between adjacent tRNAs, and between tRNA and protein-coding genes. This is the first example of a mitochondrial genome with multiple intergenic overlaps and reveals a strategy for arthropods to effectively compact the mitochondrial genome by overlapping and truncating tRNA genes with neighbor genes, instead of only truncating tRNAs. Phylogenetic analyses based on protein-coding genes provide strong evidence that the sister group of Pauropoda is Symphyla. Additionally, approximately unbiased (AU) tests strongly support the Progoneata and confirm the basal position of Chilopoda in Myriapoda. This study provides an estimation of myriapod origins around 555 Ma (95% CI: 444-704 Ma) and this date is comparable with that of the Cambrian explosion and candidate myriapod-like fossils. A new time-scale suggests that deep radiations during early myriapod diversification occurred at least three times, not once as previously proposed. A Carboniferous origin of pauropods is congruent with the idea that these taxa are derived, rather than basal, progoneatans. PMID:22659693

  19. Upwelling history of the Mediterranean Sea revealed by stunted growth in the planktic foraminifera Orbulina universa (early Messinian, Crete, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachert, T. C.; Bornemann, A.; Reuter, M.; Galer, S. J.; Grimm, K. I.; Fassoulas, C.

    2015-01-01

    Microfossil and stable isotope data (δ13C, δ18O) from deep-water sediments of Late Miocene age in the Mediterranean region have revealed a stepwise restriction of the Mediterranean prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis which was modulated by a cyclicity responding to orbital precession. Very little is known with regard to the effects of these changes on shallow water environments of carbonate platforms and ramps. This work is based on a geological section on Crete (Greece) exposing sediments of early Messinian age, which documents the coeval response of pelagic and neritic systems to oceanographic changes. We discuss a dataset of planktic and benthic foraminifera assemblages in conjunction with size measurements ( n = 6,777) and isotope analyses (δ18O, δ13C) of the planktic foraminifera Orbulina universa with regard to reef growth patterns. The planktic foraminifera fauna displays pronounced cyclical abundance changes of warm, oligotrophic ( O. universa) and cold, meso- to eu-trophic taxa (globigerinids, neogloboquadrinids). This cyclicity corresponds to lithological changes from laminated to homogeneous marls on the precessional frequency band. In beds rich in mesotrophic foraminifera, O. universa is rare and the test is ~50 % smaller than average. Growth and size of O. universa is affected by various environmental factors, including temperature, trophic resources, illumination and O2 content of ambient water. Explaining size variability by water temperature implies a change of ~11 °C over one precessional cycle. This estimate is in disagreement with growth patterns and stable isotope data of displaced reef corals ( Porites, Tarbellastraea) documenting almost constant sea-surface temperatures, but substantial evaporation. Therefore, moderate temperature changes in a context of intense evaporation (high salinity) and water column destabilization associated with upward mixing of colder water masses with higher nutrient concentrations and low O2 content better

  20. A Cosmological Upper Bound on Superpartner Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Lawrence J; Volansky, Tomer

    2013-01-01

    If some superpartners were in thermal equilibrium in the early universe, and if the lightest superpartner is a cosmologically stable gravitino, then there is a powerful upper bound on the scale of the superpartner masses. Typically the bound is below tens of TeV, often much lower, and has similar parametrics to the WIMP miracle.

  1. Early

    OpenAIRE

    Houssiau, F A; Vasconcelos, C; D'Cruz, D; G.D. Sebastiani; DE RAMON GARRIDO, E.; Danieli, M.G.; ABRAMOVICZ, D.; Blockmans, D; Mathieu, A; Direskeneli, H; Galeazzi, M; Gul, A; Levy, Y; Petera, P.; Popovic, R.

    2004-01-01

    Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Dec;50(12):3934-40. Early response to immunosuppressive therapy predicts good renal outcome in lupus nephritis: lessons from long-term followup of patients in the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial. Houssiau FA, Vasconcelos C, D'Cruz D, Sebastiani GD, de Ramon Garrido E, Danieli MG, Abramovicz D, Blockmans D, Mathieu A, Direskeneli H, Galeazzi M, Gül A, Levy Y, Petera P, Popovic R, Petrovic R, Sinico RA, Cattaneo R, Font J, Depresseux G, Cosyns JP, Cervera R. Universi...

  2. Circuit lower bounds in bounded arithmetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pich, Ján

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 1 (2015), s. 29-45. ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * circuit lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007214000888

  3. A Causal Entropy Bound

    CERN Document Server

    Brustein, Ram

    2000-01-01

    The identification of a causal-connection scale motivates us to propose a new covariant bound on entropy within a generic space-like region. This "causal entropy bound", scaling as the square root of EV, and thus lying around the geometric mean of Bekenstein's S/ER and holographic S/A bounds, is checked in various "critical" situations. In the case of limited gravity, Bekenstein's bound is the strongest while naive holography is the weakest. In the case of strong gravity, our bound and Bousso's holographic bound are stronger than Bekenstein's, while naive holography is too tight, and hence typically wrong.

  4. Integrative genomic analyses reveal an androgen-driven somatic alteration landscape in early-onset prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Simon, Ronald; Feuerbach, Lars; Schlangen, Karin; Weichenhan, Dieter; Minner, Sarah; Wuttig, Daniela; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Stehr, Henning; Rausch, Tobias; Jäger, Natalie; Gu, Lei; Bogatyrova, Olga; Stütz, Adrian M; Claus, Rainer; Eils, Jürgen; Eils, Roland; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Huang, Po-Hsien; Hutter, Barbara; Kabbe, Rolf; Lawerenz, Christian; Radomski, Sylwester; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Fälth, Maria; Gade, Stephan; Schmidt, Manfred; Amschler, Nina; Haß, Thomas; Galal, Rami; Gjoni, Jovisa; Kuner, Ruprecht; Baer, Constance; Masser, Sawinee; von Kalle, Christof; Zichner, Thomas; Benes, Vladimir; Raeder, Benjamin; Mader, Malte; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav; Avci, Meryem; Lehrach, Hans; Parkhomchuk, Dmitri; Sultan, Marc; Burkhardt, Lia; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Kluth, Martina; Krohn, Antje; Sirma, Hüseyin; Stumm, Laura; Steurer, Stefan; Grupp, Katharina; Sültmann, Holger; Sauter, Guido; Plass, Christoph; Brors, Benedikt; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Korbel, Jan O; Schlomm, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Early-onset prostate cancer (EO-PCA) represents the earliest clinical manifestation of prostate cancer. To compare the genomic alteration landscapes of EO-PCA with "classical" (elderly-onset) PCA, we performed deep sequencing-based genomics analyses in 11 tumors diagnosed at young age, and pursue...

  5. Proteomic responses reveal the differential effects induced by cadmium in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis at early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Peng, Xiao; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important metal contaminant and posed severe risk on the organisms in the coastal environments of the Bohai Sea. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely distributed along the Bohai coast and consumed as seafood by local residents. Evidences indicate that the early stages of marine organisms are more sensitive to metal contaminants. In this study, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to characterize the biological effects of Cd (50 μg L(-1)) in the early life stages (D-shape larval and juvenile) of mussels. The different proteomic responses demonstrated the differential responsive mechanisms to Cd exposure in these two early life stages of mussels. In details, results indicated that Cd mainly induced immune and oxidative stresses in both D-shape larval and juvenile mussels via different pathways. In addition, the significant up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase and metallothionein confirmed the enhanced energy demand and mobilized detoxification mechanism in D-shape larval mussels exposed to Cd. In juvenile mussels, Cd exposure also induced clear apoptosis. Overall, this work suggests that Cd is a potential immune toxicant to mussel M. galloprovincialis at early life stages. PMID:27302865

  6. Scattering by bound nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattering of a particle by bound nucleons is discussed. Effects of nucleons that are bound in a nucleus are taken as a structure function. The way how to calculate the structure function is given. (author)

  7. Variance bounding Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Gareth O.; Jeffrey S. Rosenthal

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new property of Markov chains, called variance bounding. We prove that, for reversible chains at least, variance bounding is weaker than, but closely related to, geometric ergodicity. Furthermore, variance bounding is equivalent to the existence of usual central limit theorems for all L2 functionals. Also, variance bounding (unlike geometric ergodicity) is preserved under the Peskun order. We close with some applications to Metropolis–Hastings algorithms.

  8. Bound states and the Bekenstein bound

    CERN Document Server

    Bousso, R

    2004-01-01

    We explore the validity of the generalized Bekenstein bound, S <= pi M a. We define the entropy S as the logarithm of the number of states which have energy eigenvalue below M and are localized to a flat space region of width a. If boundary conditions that localize field modes are imposed by fiat, then the bound encounters well-known difficulties with negative Casimir energy and large species number, as well as novel problems arising only in the generalized form. In realistic systems, however, finite-size effects contribute additional energy. We study two different models for estimating such contributions. Our analysis suggests that the bound is both valid and nontrivial if interactions are properly included, so that the entropy S counts the bound states of interacting fields.

  9. Spectral conditions for entanglement witnesses vs. bound entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej; Sarbicki, Gniewomir

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that entanglement witnesses constructed via the family of spectral conditions are decomposable, i.e. cannot be used to detect bound entanglement. It supports several observations that bound entanglement reveals highly non-spectral features.

  10. Gene expression profiling reveals underlying molecular mechanisms of the early stages of tamoxifen-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamoxifen is a widely used anti-estrogenic drug for chemotherapy and, more recently, for the chemoprevention of breast cancer. Despite the indisputable benefits of tamoxifen in preventing the occurrence and re-occurrence of breast cancer, the use of tamoxifen has been shown to induce non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which is a life-threatening fatty liver disease with a risk of progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In recent years, the high-throughput microarray technology for large-scale analysis of gene expression has become a powerful tool for increasing the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and for identifying new biomarkers with diagnostic and predictive values. In the present study, we used the high-throughput microarray technology to determine the gene expression profiles in the liver during early stages of tamoxifen-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Female Fisher 344 rats were fed a 420 ppm tamoxifen containing diet for 12 or 24 weeks, and gene expression profiles were determined in liver of control and tamoxifen-exposed rats. The results indicate that early stages of tamoxifen-induced liver carcinogenesis are characterized by alterations in several major cellular pathways, specifically those involved in the tamoxifen metabolism, lipid metabolism, cell cycle signaling, and apoptosis/cell proliferation control. One of the most prominent changes during early stages of tamoxifen-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is dysregulation of signaling pathways in cell cycle progression from the G1 to S phase, evidenced by the progressive and sustained increase in expression of the Pdgfc, Calb3, Ets1, and Ccnd1 genes accompanied by the elevated level of the PI3K, p-PI3K, Akt1/2, Akt3, and cyclin B, D1, and D3 proteins. The early appearance of these alterations suggests their importance in the mechanism of neoplastic cell transformation induced by tamoxifen

  11. Highly sensitive sequencing reveals dynamic modifications and activities of small RNAs in mouse oocytes and early embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiyuan; Lin, Jimin; Liu, Miao; Li, Ronghong; Tian, Bin; Zhang, Xue; Xu, Beiying; Liu, Mofang; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Yiping; Shi, Huijuan; Wu, Ligang

    2016-06-01

    Small RNAs play important roles in early embryonic development. However, their expression dynamics and modifications are poorly understood because of the scarcity of RNA that is obtainable for sequencing analysis. Using an improved deep sequencing method that requires as little as 10 ng of total RNA or 50 oocytes, we profile small RNAs in mouse oocytes and early embryos. We find that microRNA (miRNA) expression starts soon after fertilization, and the mature miRNAs carried into the zygote by sperm during fertilization are relatively rare compared to the oocyte miRNAs. Intriguingly, the zygotic miRNAs display a marked increase in 3' mono- and oligoadenylation in one- to two-cell embryos, which may protect the miRNAs from the massive degradation taking place during that time. Moreover, bioinformatics analyses show that the function of miRNA is suppressed from the oocyte to the two-cell stage and appears to be reactivated after the two-cell stage to regulate genes important in embryonic development. Our study thus provides a highly sensitive profiling method and valuable data sets for further examination of small RNAs in early embryos. PMID:27500274

  12. A Causal Entropy Bound

    OpenAIRE

    Brustein, R; Veneziano, G

    1999-01-01

    The identification of a causal-connection scale motivates us to propose a new covariant bound on entropy within a generic space-like region. This "causal entropy bound", scaling as the square root of EV, and thus lying around the geometric mean of Bekenstein's S/ER and holographic S/A bounds, is checked in various "critical" situations. In the case of limited gravity, Bekenstein's bound is the strongest while naive holography is the weakest. In the case of strong gravity, our bound and Bousso...

  13. Ancient DNA from South-East Europe Reveals Different Events during Early and Middle Neolithic Influencing the European Genetic Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervella, Montserrat; Rotea, Mihai; Izagirre, Neskuts; Constantinescu, Mihai; Alonso, Santos; Ioana, Mihai; Lazăr, Cătălin; Ridiche, Florin; Soficaru, Andrei Dorian; Netea, Mihai G; de-la-Rua, Concepcion

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the process of Neolithization for the genetic make-up of European populations has been hotly debated, with shifting hypotheses from a demic diffusion (DD) to a cultural diffusion (CD) model. In this regard, ancient DNA data from the Balkan Peninsula, which is an important source of information to assess the process of Neolithization in Europe, is however missing. In the present study we show genetic information on ancient populations of the South-East of Europe. We assessed mtDNA from ten sites from the current territory of Romania, spanning a time-period from the Early Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. mtDNA data from Early Neolithic farmers of the Starčevo Criş culture in Romania (Cârcea, Gura Baciului and Negrileşti sites), confirm their genetic relationship with those of the LBK culture (Linienbandkeramik Kultur) in Central Europe, and they show little genetic continuity with modern European populations. On the other hand, populations of the Middle-Late Neolithic (Boian, Zau and Gumelniţa cultures), supposedly a second wave of Neolithic migration from Anatolia, had a much stronger effect on the genetic heritage of the European populations. In contrast, we find a smaller contribution of Late Bronze Age migrations to the genetic composition of Europeans. Based on these findings, we propose that permeation of mtDNA lineages from a second wave of Middle-Late Neolithic migration from North-West Anatolia into the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe represent an important contribution to the genetic shift between Early and Late Neolithic populations in Europe, and consequently to the genetic make-up of modern European populations. PMID:26053041

  14. Serum Metabolomics Reveals Serotonin as a Predictor of Severe Dengue in the Early Phase of Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liang; Lee, Yie Hou; Thein, Tun Linn; Fang, Jinling; Pang, Junxiong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Leo, Yee Sin; Ong, Choon Nam; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    Effective triage of dengue patients early in the disease course for in- or out-patient management would be useful for optimal healthcare resource utilization while minimizing poor clinical outcome due to delayed intervention. Yet, early prognosis of severe dengue is hampered by the heterogeneity in clinical presentation and routine hematological and biochemical measurements in dengue patients that collectively correlates poorly with eventual clinical outcome. Herein, untargeted liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry metabolomics of serum from patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the febrile phase (1.5) in the serum, among which are two products of tryptophan metabolism-serotonin and kynurenine. Serotonin, involved in platelet aggregation and activation decreased significantly, whereas kynurenine, an immunomodulator, increased significantly in patients with DHF, consistent with thrombocytopenia and immunopathology in severe dengue. To sensitively and accurately evaluate serotonin levels as prognostic biomarkers, we implemented stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry and used convalescence samples as their own controls. DHF serotonin was significantly 1.98 fold lower in febrile compared to convalescence phase, and significantly 1.76 fold lower compared to DF in the febrile phase of illness. Thus, serotonin alone provided good prognostic utility (Area Under Curve, AUC of serotonin = 0.8). Additionally, immune mediators associated with DHF may further increase the predictive ability than just serotonin alone. Nine cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8, G-CSF, MIP-1β, FGF basic, TNFα and RANTES were significantly different between DF and DHF, among which IFN-γ ranked top by multivariate statistics. Combining serotonin and IFN-γ improved the prognosis performance (AUC = 0.92, sensitivity = 77.8%, specificity = 95.8%), suggesting this duplex panel as accurate metrics for the early prognosis of DHF. PMID:27055163

  15. fMRI-constrained source analysis reveals early top-down modulations of interference processing using a flanker task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemann, Julia; Herrmann, Manfred; Galashan, Daniela

    2016-08-01

    Usually, incongruent flanker stimuli provoke conflict processing whereas congruent flankers should facilitate task performance. Various behavioral studies reported improved or even absent conflict processing with correctly oriented selective attention. In the present study we attempted to reinvestigate these behavioral effects and to disentangle neuronal activity patterns underlying the attentional cueing effect taking advantage of a combination of the high temporal resolution of Electroencephalographic (EEG) and the spatial resolution of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Data from 20 participants were acquired in different sessions per method. We expected the conflict-related N200 event-related potential (ERP) component and areas associated with flanker processing to show validity-specific modulations. Additionally, the spatio-temporal dynamics during cued flanker processing were examined using an fMRI-constrained source analysis approach. In the ERP data we found early differences in flanker processing between validity levels. An early centro-parietal relative positivity for incongruent stimuli occurred only with valid cueing during the N200 time window, while a subsequent fronto-central negativity was specific to invalidly cued interference processing. The source analysis additionally pointed to separate neural generators of these effects. Regional sources in visual areas were involved in conflict processing with valid cueing, while a regional source in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) seemed to contribute to the ERP differences with invalid cueing. Moreover, the ACC and precentral gyrus demonstrated an early and a late phase of congruency-related activity differences with invalid cueing. We discuss the first effect to reflect conflict detection and response activation while the latter more likely originated from conflict monitoring and control processes during response competition. PMID:27181762

  16. A matrix lower bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grcar, Joseph F.

    2002-02-04

    A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.

  17. Ultrastructural analysis of aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line reveals an early mitochondrial response.

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Kelly,; Cunningham, Dale,; Macdonald, Glen; Rubel, Edwin,; Raible, David,; Pujol, Remy

    2007-01-01

    Loss of the mechanosensory hair cells in the auditory and vestibular organs leads to hearing and balance deficits. To investigate initial, in vivo events in aminoglycoside-induced hair cell damage, we examined hair cells from the lateral line of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The mechanosensory lateral line is located externally on the animal and therefore allows direct manipulation and observation of hair cells. Labeling with vital dyes revealed a rapid response of hair cells to the aminoglycos...

  18. Quantitative proteomics reveals the novel co-expression signatures in early brain development for prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuexin; Feng, Lin; Liu, Dianming; Zhang, Lianfeng; Wu, Bo; Jiang, Wei; Han, Zujing; Cheng, Shujun

    2016-03-22

    Although several researches have explored the similarity across development and tumorigenesis in cellular behavior and underlying molecular mechanisms, not many have investigated the developmental characteristics at proteomic level and further extended to cancer clinical outcome. In this study, we used iTRAQ to quantify the protein expression changes during macaque rhesus brain development from fetuses at gestation 70 days to after born 5 years. Then, we performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) on protein expression data of brain development to identify co-expressed modules that highly expressed on distinct development stages, including early stage, middle stage and late stage. Moreover, we used the univariate cox regression model to evaluate the prognostic potentials of these genes in two independent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) datasets. The results showed that the modules highly expressed on early stage contained more reproducible prognostic genes, including ILF2, CCT7, CCT4, RPL10A, MSN, PRPS1, TFRC and APEX1. These genes were not only associated with clinical outcome, but also tended to influence chemoresponse. These signatures identified from embryonic brain development might contribute to precise prediction of GBM prognosis and identification of novel drug targets in GBM therapies. Thus, the development could become a viable reference model for researching cancers, including identifying novel prognostic markers and promoting new therapies. PMID:26895104

  19. Combined chromatin and expression analysis reveals specific regulatory mechanisms within cytokine genes in the macrophage early immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesus Iglesias

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a critical role in innate immunity, and the expression of early response genes orchestrate much of the initial response of the immune system. Macrophages undergo extensive transcriptional reprogramming in response to inflammatory stimuli such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS.To identify gene transcription regulation patterns involved in early innate immune responses, we used two genome-wide approaches--gene expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq analysis. We examined the effect of 2 hrs LPS stimulation on early gene expression and its relation to chromatin remodeling (H3 acetylation; H3Ac and promoter binding of Sp1 and RNA polymerase II phosphorylated at serine 5 (S5P RNAPII, which is a marker for transcriptional initiation. Our results indicate novel and alternative gene regulatory mechanisms for certain proinflammatory genes. We identified two groups of up-regulated inflammatory genes with respect to chromatin modification and promoter features. One group, including highly up-regulated genes such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF, was characterized by H3Ac, high CpG content and lack of TATA boxes. The second group, containing inflammatory mediators (interleukins and CCL chemokines, was up-regulated upon LPS stimulation despite lacking H3Ac in their annotated promoters, which were low in CpG content but did contain TATA boxes. Genome-wide analysis showed that few H3Ac peaks were unique to either +/-LPS condition. However, within these, an unpacking/expansion of already existing H3Ac peaks was observed upon LPS stimulation. In contrast, a significant proportion of S5P RNAPII peaks (approx 40% was unique to either condition. Furthermore, data indicated a large portion of previously unannotated TSSs, particularly in LPS-stimulated macrophages, where only 28% of unique S5P RNAPII peaks overlap annotated promoters. The regulation of the inflammatory response appears to occur in a very specific manner at

  20. Studies of Physcomitrella patens reveal that ethylene-mediated submergence responses arose relatively early in land-plant evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Yasumura, Yuki

    2012-10-18

    Colonization of the land by multicellular green plants was a fundamental step in the evolution of life on earth. Land plants evolved from fresh-water aquatic algae, and the transition to a terrestrial environment required the acquisition of developmental plasticity appropriate to the conditions of water availability, ranging from drought to flood. Here we show that extant bryophytes exhibit submergence-induced developmental plasticity, suggesting that submergence responses evolved relatively early in the evolution of land plants. We also show that a major component of the bryophyte submergence response is controlled by the phytohormone ethylene, using a perception mechanism that has subsequently been conserved throughout the evolution of land plants. Thus a plant environmental response mechanism with major ecological and agricultural importance probably had its origins in the very earliest stages of the colonization of the land. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Integrative genomic analyses reveal an androgen-driven somatic alteration landscape in early-onset prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Simon, Ronald; Feuerbach, Lars; Schlangen, Karin; Weichenhan, Dieter; Minner, Sarah; Wuttig, Daniela; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Stehr, Henning; Rausch, Tobias; Jäger, Natalie; Gu, Lei; Bogatyrova, Olga; Stütz, Adrian M; Claus, Rainer; Eils, Jürgen; Eils, Roland; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Huang, Po-Hsien; Hutter, Barbara; Kabbe, Rolf; Lawerenz, Christian; Radomski, Sylwester; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Fälth, Maria; Gade, Stephan; Schmidt, Manfred; Amschler, Nina; Haß, Thomas; Galal, Rami; Gjoni, Jovisa; Kuner, Ruprecht; Baer, Constance; Masser, Sawinee; von Kalle, Christof; Zichner, Thomas; Benes, Vladimir; Raeder, Benjamin; Mader, Malte; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav; Avci, Meryem; Lehrach, Hans; Parkhomchuk, Dmitri; Sultan, Marc; Burkhardt, Lia; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Kluth, Martina; Krohn, Antje; Sirma, Hüseyin; Stumm, Laura; Steurer, Stefan; Grupp, Katharina; Sültmann, Holger; Sauter, Guido; Plass, Christoph; Brors, Benedikt; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Korbel, Jan O; Schlomm, Thorsten

    2013-02-11

    Early-onset prostate cancer (EO-PCA) represents the earliest clinical manifestation of prostate cancer. To compare the genomic alteration landscapes of EO-PCA with "classical" (elderly-onset) PCA, we performed deep sequencing-based genomics analyses in 11 tumors diagnosed at young age, and pursued comparative assessments with seven elderly-onset PCA genomes. Remarkable age-related differences in structural rearrangement (SR) formation became evident, suggesting distinct disease pathomechanisms. Whereas EO-PCAs harbored a prevalence of balanced SRs, with a specific abundance of androgen-regulated ETS gene fusions including TMPRSS2:ERG, elderly-onset PCAs displayed primarily non-androgen-associated SRs. Data from a validation cohort of > 10,000 patients showed age-dependent androgen receptor levels and a prevalence of SRs affecting androgen-regulated genes, further substantiating the activity of a characteristic "androgen-type" pathomechanism in EO-PCA. PMID:23410972

  2. Differential gene expression profile reveals deregulation of pregnancy specific β1 glycoprotein 9 early during colorectal carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallinger Steven

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both familial and sporadic colorectal cancer. Patients carrying germline APC mutations develop multiple colonic adenomas at younger age and higher frequency than non-carrier cases which indicates that silencing of one APC allele may be sufficient to initiate the transformation process. Methods To elucidate the biological dysregulation underlying adenoma formation we examined global gene expression profiles of adenomas and corresponding normal mucosa from an FAP patient. Differential expression of the most significant gene identified in this study was further validated by mRNA in situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase PCR and Northern blotting in different sets of adenomas, tumours and cancer cell lines. Results Eighty four genes were differentially expressed between all adenomas and corresponding normal mucosa, while only seven genes showed differential expression within the adenomas. The first group included pregnancy specific β-1 glycoprotein 9 (PSG9 (p PSG9 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA/PSG family and is produced at high levels during pregnancy, mainly by syncytiotrophoblasts. Further analysis of sporadic and familial colorectal cancer confirmed that PSG9 is ectopically upregulated in vivo by cancer cells. In total, deregulation of PSG9 mRNA was detected in 78% (14/18 of FAP adenomas and 75% (45/60 of sporadic colorectal cancer cases tested. Conclusion Detection of PSG9 expression in adenomas, and at higher levels in FAP cases, indicates that germline APC mutations and defects in Wnt signalling modulate PSG9 expression. Since PSG9 is not found in the non-pregnant adult except in association with cancer, and it appears to be an early molecular event associated with colorectal cancer monitoring of its expression may be useful as a biomarker for the early detection of this disease.

  3. Insight into the early steps of root hair formation revealed by the procuste1 cellulose synthase mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Singh Manoj

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formation of plant root hairs originating from epidermal cells involves selection of a polar initiation site and production of an initial hair bulge which requires local cell wall loosening. In Arabidopsis the polar initiation site is located towards the basal end of epidermal cells. However little is currently understood about the mechanism for the selection of the hair initiation site or the mechanism by which localised hair outgrowth is achieved. The Arabidopsis procuste1 (prc1-1 cellulose synthase mutant was studied in order to investigate the role of the cell wall loosening during the early stages of hair formation. Results The prc1-1 mutant exhibits uncontrolled, preferential bulging of trichoblast cells coupled with mislocalised hair positioning. Combining the prc1-1 mutant with root hair defective6-1 (rhd6-1, which on its own is almost completely devoid of root hairs results in a significant restoration of root hair formation. The pEXPANSIN7::GFP (pEXP7::GFP marker which is specifically expressed in trichoblast cell files of wild-type roots, is absent in the rhd6-1 mutant. However, pEXP7::GFP expression in the rhd6-1/prc1-1 double mutant is restored in a subset of epidermal cells which have either formed a root hair or exhibit a bulged phenotype consistent with a function for EXP7 during the early stages of hair formation. Conclusion These results show that RHD6 acts upstream of the normal cell wall loosening event which involves EXP7 expression and that in the absence of a functional RHD6 the loosening and accompanying EXP7 expression is blocked. In the prc1-1 mutant background, the requirement for RHD6 during hair initiation is reduced which may result from a weaker cell wall structure mimicking the cell wall loosening events during hair formation.

  4. Exome capture sequencing of adenoma reveals genetic alterations in multiple cellular pathways at the early stage of colorectal tumorigenesis.

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    Donger Zhou

    Full Text Available Most of colorectal adenocarcinomas are believed to arise from adenomas, which are premalignant lesions. Sequencing the whole exome of the adenoma will help identifying molecular biomarkers that can predict the occurrence of adenocarcinoma more precisely and help understanding the molecular pathways underlying the initial stage of colorectal tumorigenesis. We performed the exome capture sequencing of the normal mucosa, adenoma and adenocarcinoma tissues from the same patient and sequenced the identified mutations in additional 73 adenomas and 288 adenocarcinomas. Somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs were identified in both the adenoma and adenocarcinoma by comparing with the normal control from the same patient. We identified 12 nonsynonymous somatic SNVs in the adenoma and 42 nonsynonymous somatic SNVs in the adenocarcinoma. Most of these mutations including OR6X1, SLC15A3, KRTHB4, RBFOX1, LAMA3, CDH20, BIRC6, NMBR, GLCCI1, EFR3A, and FTHL17 were newly reported in colorectal adenomas. Functional annotation of these mutated genes showed that multiple cellular pathways including Wnt, cell adhesion and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathways were altered genetically in the adenoma and that the genetic alterations in the same pathways persist in the adenocarcinoma. CDH20 and LAMA3 were mutated in the adenoma while NRXN3 and COL4A6 were mutated in the adenocarcinoma from the same patient, suggesting for the first time that genetic alterations in the cell adhesion pathway occur as early as in the adenoma. Thus, the comparison of genomic mutations between adenoma and adenocarcinoma provides us a new insight into the molecular events governing the early step of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  5. Exome capture sequencing of adenoma reveals genetic alterations in multiple cellular pathways at the early stage of colorectal tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Donger; Yang, Liu; Zheng, Liangtao; Ge, Weiting; Li, Dan; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Xueda; Gao, Zhibo; Xu, Jinghong; Huang, Yanqin; Hu, Hanguang; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Mingming; Yang, Huanming; Zheng, Lei; Zheng, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Most of colorectal adenocarcinomas are believed to arise from adenomas, which are premalignant lesions. Sequencing the whole exome of the adenoma will help identifying molecular biomarkers that can predict the occurrence of adenocarcinoma more precisely and help understanding the molecular pathways underlying the initial stage of colorectal tumorigenesis. We performed the exome capture sequencing of the normal mucosa, adenoma and adenocarcinoma tissues from the same patient and sequenced the identified mutations in additional 73 adenomas and 288 adenocarcinomas. Somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were identified in both the adenoma and adenocarcinoma by comparing with the normal control from the same patient. We identified 12 nonsynonymous somatic SNVs in the adenoma and 42 nonsynonymous somatic SNVs in the adenocarcinoma. Most of these mutations including OR6X1, SLC15A3, KRTHB4, RBFOX1, LAMA3, CDH20, BIRC6, NMBR, GLCCI1, EFR3A, and FTHL17 were newly reported in colorectal adenomas. Functional annotation of these mutated genes showed that multiple cellular pathways including Wnt, cell adhesion and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathways were altered genetically in the adenoma and that the genetic alterations in the same pathways persist in the adenocarcinoma. CDH20 and LAMA3 were mutated in the adenoma while NRXN3 and COL4A6 were mutated in the adenocarcinoma from the same patient, suggesting for the first time that genetic alterations in the cell adhesion pathway occur as early as in the adenoma. Thus, the comparison of genomic mutations between adenoma and adenocarcinoma provides us a new insight into the molecular events governing the early step of colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:23301059

  6. An Alternative Model for the Early Peopling of Southern South America Revealed by Analyses of Three Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Bravi, Claudio M.; Motti, Josefina M. B.; Fuku, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Masashi; Llop, Elena; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Moraga, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    After several years of research, there is now a consensus that America was populated from Asia through Beringia, probably at the end of the Pleistocene. But many details such as the timing, route(s), and origin of the first settlers remain uncertain. In the last decade genetic evidence has taken on a major role in elucidating the peopling of the Americas. To study the early peopling of South America, we sequenced the control region of mitochondrial DNA from 300 individuals belonging to indigenous populations of Chile and Argentina, and also obtained seven complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified two novel mtDNA monophyletic clades, preliminarily designated B2l and C1b13, which together with the recently described D1g sub-haplogroup have locally high frequencies and are basically restricted to populations from the extreme south of South America. The estimated ages of D1g and B2l, about ∼15,000 years BP, together with their similar population dynamics and the high haplotype diversity shown by the networks, suggests that they probably appeared soon after the arrival of the first settlers and agrees with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America (Monte Verde, Chile, 14,500 BP). One further sub-haplogroup, D4h3a5, appears to be restricted to Fuegian-Patagonian populations and reinforces our hypothesis of the continuity of the current Patagonian populations with the initial founders. Our results indicate that the extant native populations inhabiting South Chile and Argentina are a group which had a common origin, and suggest a population break between the extreme south of South America and the more northern part of the continent. Thus the early colonization process was not just an expansion from north to south, but also included movements across the Andes. PMID:22970129

  7. Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-19

    This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.

  8. Behavioral characterization of A53T mice reveals early and late stage deficits related to Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina L Paumier

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD pathology is characterized by the formation of intra-neuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies, which are comprised of alpha-synuclein (α-syn. Duplication, triplication or genetic mutations in α-syn (A53T, A30P and E46K are linked to autosomal dominant PD; thus implicating its role in the pathogenesis of PD. In both PD patients and mouse models, there is increasing evidence that neuronal dysfunction occurs before the accumulation of protein aggregates (i.e., α-syn and neurodegeneration. Characterization of the timing and nature of symptomatic dysfunction is important for understanding the impact of α-syn on disease progression. Furthermore, this knowledge is essential for identifying pathways and molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. To this end, we examined various functional and morphological endpoints in the transgenic mouse model expressing the human A53T α-syn variant directed by the mouse prion promoter at specific ages relating to disease progression (2, 6 and 12 months of age. Our findings indicate A53T mice develop fine, sensorimotor, and synaptic deficits before the onset of age-related gross motor and cognitive dysfunction. Results from open field and rotarod tests show A53T mice develop age-dependent changes in locomotor activity and reduced anxiety-like behavior. Additionally, digigait analysis shows these mice develop an abnormal gait by 12 months of age. A53T mice also exhibit spatial memory deficits at 6 and 12 months, as demonstrated by Y-maze performance. In contrast to gross motor and cognitive changes, A53T mice display significant impairments in fine- and sensorimotor tasks such as grooming, nest building and acoustic startle as early as 1-2 months of age. These mice also show significant abnormalities in basal synaptic transmission, paired-pulse facilitation and long-term depression (LTD. Combined, these data indicate the A53T model exhibits early- and late-onset behavioral and synaptic

  9. Asymptotic Entropy Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Bousso, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    We show that known entropy bounds constrain the information carried off by radiation to null infinity. We consider distant, planar null hypersurfaces in asymptotically flat spacetime. Their focussing and area loss can be computed perturbatively on a Minkowski background, yielding entropy bounds in terms of the energy flux of the outgoing radiation. In the asymptotic limit, we obtain boundary versions of the Quantum Null Energy Condition, of the Generalized Second Law, and of the Quantum Bousso Bound.

  10. Monosynaptic Tracing using Modified Rabies Virus Reveals Early and Extensive Circuit Integration of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Shane; Heuer, Andreas; Cardoso, Tiago; Kirkeby, Agnete; Jönsson, Marie; Johansson, Jenny; Björklund, Anders; Jakobsson, Johan; Parmar, Malin

    2015-06-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived dopamine neurons are currently moving toward clinical use for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the timing and extent at which stem cell-derived neurons functionally integrate into existing host neural circuitry after transplantation remain largely unknown. In this study, we use modified rabies virus to trace afferent and efferent connectivity of transplanted hESC-derived neurons in a rat model of PD and report that grafted human neurons integrate into the host neural circuitry in an unexpectedly rapid and extensive manner. The pattern of connectivity resembled that of local endogenous neurons, while ectopic connections were not detected. Revealing circuit integration of human dopamine neurons substantiates their potential use in clinical trials. Additionally, our data present rabies-based tracing as a valuable and widely applicable tool for analyzing graft connectivity that can easily be adapted to analyze connectivity of a variety of different neuronal sources and subtypes in different disease models. PMID:26004633

  11. SPIDER - VII. Revealing the stellar population content of massive early-type galaxies out to 8Re

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Barbera, F.; Ferreras, I.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Bruzual, G.; Charlot, S.; Pasquali, A.; Merlin, E.

    2012-11-01

    Radial trends of stellar populations in galaxies provide a valuable tool to understand the mechanisms of galaxy growth. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive analysis of optical-optical and optical-NIR colours, as a function of galaxy mass, out to the halo region (8Re) of early-type galaxies (ETGs). We select a sample of 674 massive ETGs (M★ ≳ 3 × 1010 M⊙) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-based SPIDER survey. By comparing with a large range of population synthesis models, we derive robust constraints on the radial trends in age and metallicity. Metallicity is unambiguously found to decrease outwards, with a measurable steepening of the slope in the outer regions (Re populations compared to the cores. This trend is strongest for the most massive galaxies in our sample (M★ ≳ 1011 M⊙). Furthermore, when segregating with respect to large-scale environment, the age gradient is more significant in ETGs residing in higher density regions. These results shed light on the processes leading from the formation of the central core to the growth of the stellar envelope of massive galaxies. The fact that the populations in the outer regions are older and more metal-poor than in the core suggests a process whereby the envelope of massive galaxies is made up of accreted small satellites (i.e. minor mergers) whose stars were born during the first stages of galaxy formation.

  12. SPIDER VII - Revealing the Stellar Population Content of Massive Early-type Galaxies out to 8Re

    CERN Document Server

    La Barbera, F; de Carvalho, R R; Bruzual, G; Charlot, S; Pasquali, A; Merlin, E

    2012-01-01

    Radial trends of stellar populations in galaxies provide a valuable tool to understand the mechanisms of galaxy growth. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive analysis of optical-optical and optical-NIR colours, as a function of galaxy mass, out to the halo region (8Re) of early-type galaxies (ETGs). We select a sample of 674 massive ETGs (M*>3x10^10MSun) from the SDSS-based SPIDER survey. By comparing with a large range of population synthesis models, we derive robust constraints on the radial trends in age and metallicity. Metallicity is unambiguously found to decrease outwards, with a measurable steepening of the slope in the outer regions (Re10^11MSun). Furthermore, when segregating with respect to large scale environment, the age gradient is more significant in ETGs residing in higher density regions. These results shed light on the processes leading from the formation of the central core to the growth of the stellar envelope of massive galaxies. The fact that the populations in the outer regi...

  13. Reduction of Tubular Flow Rate as a Mechanism of Oliguria in the Early Phase of Endotoxemia Revealed by Intravital Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Daisuke; Doi, Kent; Kitamura, Hiroaki; Kuwabara, Takashige; Mori, Kiyoshi; Mukoyama, Masashi; Nishiyama, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Urine output is widely used as a criterion for the diagnosis of AKI. Although several potential mechanisms of septic AKI have been identified, regulation of urine flow after glomerular filtration has not been evaluated. This study evaluated changes in urine flow in mice with septic AKI. The intratubular urine flow rate was monitored in real time by intravital imaging using two-photon laser microscopy. The tubular flow rate, as measured by freely filtered dye (FITC-inulin or Lucifer yellow), time-dependently declined after LPS injection. At 2 hours, the tubular flow rate was slower in mice injected with LPS than in mice injected with saline, whereas BP and GFR were similar in the two groups. Importantly, fluorophore-conjugated LPS selectively accumulated in the proximal tubules that showed reduced tubular flow at 2 hours and luminal obstruction with cell swelling at 24 hours. Delipidation of LPS or deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 in mice abolished these effects, whereas neutralization of TNF-α had little effect on LPS-induced tubular flow retention. Rapid intravenous fluid resuscitation within 6 hours improved the tubular flow rate only when accompanied by the dilation of obstructed proximal tubules with accumulated LPS. These findings suggest that LPS reduces the intratubular urine flow rate during early phases of endotoxemia through a Toll-like receptor 4-dependent mechanism, and that the efficacy of fluid resuscitation may depend on the response of tubules with LPS accumulation. PMID:25855781

  14. Immediate early gene expression reveals interactions between social and nicotine rewards on brain activity in adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastle, Ryan M; Peartree, Natalie A; Goenaga, Julianna; Hatch, Kayla N; Henricks, Angela; Scott, Samantha; Hood, Lauren E; Neisewander, Janet L

    2016-10-15

    Smoking initiation predominantly occurs during adolescence, often in the presence of peers. Therefore, understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the rewarding effects of nicotine and social stimuli is vital. Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure, we measured immediate early gene (IEG) expression in animals following exposure either to a reward-conditioned environment or to the unconditioned stimuli (US). Adolescent, male rats were assigned to the following CPP US conditions: (1) Saline+Isolated, (2) Nicotine+Isolated, (3) Saline+Social, or (4) Nicotine+Social. For Experiment 1, brain tissue was collected 90min following the CPP expression test and processed for Fos immunohistochemistry. We found that rats conditioned with nicotine with or without a social partner exhibited CPP; however, we found no group differences in Fos expression in any brain region analyzed, with the exception of the nucleus accumbens core that exhibited a social-induced attenuation in Fos expression. For Experiment 2, brain tissue was collected 90min following US exposure during the last conditioning session. We found social reward-induced increases in IEG expression in striatal and amydalar subregions. In contrast, nicotine reduced IEG expression in prefrontal and striatal subregions. Reward interactions were also found in the dorsolateral striatum, basolateral amygdala, and ventral tegmental area where nicotine alone attenuated IEG expression and social reward reversed this effect. These results suggest that in general social rewards enhance, whereas nicotine attenuates, activation of mesocorticolimbic regions; however, the rewards given together interact to enhance activation in some regions. The findings contribute to knowledge of how a social environment influences nicotine effects. PMID:27435419

  15. Early Cenomanian "hot greenhouse" revealed by oxygen isotope record of exceptionally well-preserved foraminifera from Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Atsushi; Huber, Brian T.; MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Watkins, David K.

    2015-11-01

    The search into Earth's mid-Cretaceous greenhouse conditions has recently been stimulated by the Tanzania Drilling Project (TDP) which has recovered exceptionally well-preserved biogenic carbonates from subsurface pre-Neogene marine sediments in the eastern margin of central Africa. Published Tanzanian oxygen isotope records measured on exquisitely preserved foraminiferal tests, dating to as old as ~93 Ma, provided evidence for a Turonian "hot greenhouse" with very high and stable water-column temperatures. We have generated a comparable data set of exceptionally well-preserved foraminifera from a lower Cenomanian interval of TDP Site 24 spanning 99.9-95.9 Ma (planktonic foraminiferal Thalmanninella globotruncanoides Zone; nannofossil Corollithion kennedyi to Lithraphidites eccentricus Zones), thereby extending the age coverage of the Tanzanian foraminiferal δ18O record back by ~7 million years. Throughout the interval analyzed, the new foraminiferal δ18O data are consistently around -4.3‰ for surface-dwelling planktonic taxa and -1.9‰ for benthic Lenticulina spp., which translate to conservative paleotemperature estimates of >31°C at the surface and >17°C at the sea floor (upper bathyal depths). Considering the ~40°S Cenomanian paleolatitude of TDP Site 24, these estimates are higher than computer simulation results for accepted "normal" greenhouse conditions (those with up to 4X preindustrial pCO2 level) and suggest that the climate mode of the early Cenomanian was very similar to the Turonian hot greenhouse. Taking account of other comparable data sources from different regions, the hot greenhouse mode within the normal mid-Cretaceous greenhouse may have begun by the latest Albian, but the precise timing of the critical transition remains uncertain.

  16. Microarray analysis of tomato's early and late wound response reveals new regulatory targets for Leucine aminopeptidase A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Scranton

    Full Text Available Wounding due to mechanical injury or insect feeding causes a wide array of damage to plant cells including cell disruption, desiccation, metabolite oxidation, and disruption of primary metabolism. In response, plants regulate a variety of genes and metabolic pathways to cope with injury. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is a model for wound signaling but few studies have examined the comprehensive gene expression profiles in response to injury. A cross-species microarray approach using the TIGR potato 10-K cDNA array was analyzed for large-scale temporal (early and late and spatial (locally and systemically responses to mechanical wounding in tomato leaves. These analyses demonstrated that tomato regulates many primary and secondary metabolic pathways and this regulation is dependent on both timing and location. To determine if LAP-A, a known modulator of wound signaling, influences gene expression beyond the core of late wound-response genes, changes in RNAs from healthy and wounded Leucine aminopeptidase A-silenced (LapA-SI and wild-type (WT leaves were examined. While most of the changes in gene expression after wounding in LapA-SI leaves were similar to WT, overall responses were delayed in the LapA-SI leaves. Moreover, two pathogenesis-related 1 (PR-1c and PR-1a2 and two dehydrin (TAS14 and Dhn3 genes were negatively regulated by LAP-A. Collectively, this study has shown that tomato wound responses are complex and that LAP-A's role in modulation of wound responses extends beyond the well described late-wound gene core.

  17. A zebrafish model of congenital disorders of glycosylation with phosphomannose isomerase deficiency reveals an early opportunity for corrective mannose supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Chu

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG have recessive mutations in genes required for protein N-glycosylation, resulting in multi-systemic disease. Despite the well-characterized biochemical consequences in these individuals, the underlying cellular defects that contribute to CDG are not well understood. Synthesis of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO, which serves as the sugar donor for the N-glycosylation of secretory proteins, requires conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to mannose-6-phosphate via the phosphomannose isomerase (MPI enzyme. Individuals who are deficient in MPI present with bleeding, diarrhea, edema, gastrointestinal bleeding and liver fibrosis. MPI-CDG patients can be treated with oral mannose supplements, which is converted to mannose-6-phosphate through a minor complementary metabolic pathway, restoring protein glycosylation and ameliorating most symptoms, although liver disease continues to progress. Because Mpi deletion in mice causes early embryonic lethality and thus is difficult to study, we used zebrafish to establish a model of MPI-CDG. We used a morpholino to block mpi mRNA translation and established a concentration that consistently yielded 13% residual Mpi enzyme activity at 4 days post-fertilization (dpf, which is within the range of MPI activity detected in fibroblasts from MPI-CDG patients. Fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis detected decreased LLO and N-glycans in mpi morphants. These deficiencies resulted in 50% embryonic lethality by 4 dpf. Multi-systemic abnormalities, including small eyes, dysmorphic jaws, pericardial edema, a small liver and curled tails, occurred in 82% of the surviving larvae. Importantly, these phenotypes could be rescued with mannose supplementation. Thus, parallel processes in fish and humans contribute to the phenotypes caused by Mpi depletion. Interestingly, mannose was only effective if provided prior to 24 hpf. These data provide insight into treatment efficacy

  18. Early detection of eruptive dykes revealed by normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) on Mt. Etna and Mt. Nyiragongo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlié, N.; Komorowski, J. C.; de Michele, M.; Kasereka, M.; Ciraba, H.

    2006-06-01

    Flank-fissure eruptions involve lateral injection and propagation of magma in a volcanic edifice along pre-existing fractures in the direction of the rift zones where magma intrusion and lava flow production are concentrated over time. Thus, the identification and mapping of active fractures and faults is a fundamental aspect of studies of active volcanic systems. However, gradual dyke wedge emplacement at depth in well-fractured zones on volcano flanks and in volcanic rift zones does not necessarily trigger large amplitude deformation signals susceptible to be recorded months or even years before the actual eruption. Here we show that active and potentially eruptive areas can be detected up to 2 yrs before the arrival to the surface of the final eruptive dyke and venting of lava flows by processing satellite images applying a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) algorithm. A posteriori analysis of satellite images indeed reveals that the surficial effects of dyke wedge injection and ascent on plant growth were apparent for Mt. Etna from 2000 to 2002 and for Mt. Nyiragongo in 2001, thus months to years before they erupted.

  19. Environmental proteomics reveals early microbial community responses to biostimulation at a uranium- and nitrate-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Nissen, Silke [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Pffifner, Susan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Loeffler, Frank E [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    High performance mass spectrometry instrumentation coupled with improved protein extraction techniques enable metaproteomics to identify active members of soil and groundwater microbial communities. Metaproteomics workflows were applied to study the initial responses (i.e., 4 days post treatment) of the indigenous aquifer microbiota to biostimulation with emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) at a uranium-contaminated site. Members of the Betaproteobacteria (i.e., Dechloromonas, Ralstonia, Rhodoferax, Polaromonas, Delftia, Chromobacterium) and Firmicutes dominated the biostimulated aquifer community. Proteome characterization revealed distinct differences in protein expression between the microbial biomass collected from groundwater influenced by biostimulation and groundwater collected up-gradient of the EVO injection points. In particular, proteins involved in ammonium assimilation, EVO degradation, and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granule formation were prominent following biostimulation. Interestingly, the atypical NosZ of a Dechloromonas sp. was highly expressed suggesting active nitrous oxide (N2O) respiration. c-type cytochromes were barely detected, as was citrate synthase, a biomarker for hexavalent uranium reduction activity, suggesting that metal reduction has not commenced 4 days post EVO delivery. Environmental metaproteomics identified microbial community responses to biostimulation and elucidated active pathways demonstrating the value of this technique for complementing nucleic acid-based approaches.

  20. Monosynaptic Tracing using Modified Rabies Virus Reveals Early and Extensive Circuit Integration of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Grealish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived dopamine neurons are currently moving toward clinical use for Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, the timing and extent at which stem cell-derived neurons functionally integrate into existing host neural circuitry after transplantation remain largely unknown. In this study, we use modified rabies virus to trace afferent and efferent connectivity of transplanted hESC-derived neurons in a rat model of PD and report that grafted human neurons integrate into the host neural circuitry in an unexpectedly rapid and extensive manner. The pattern of connectivity resembled that of local endogenous neurons, while ectopic connections were not detected. Revealing circuit integration of human dopamine neurons substantiates their potential use in clinical trials. Additionally, our data present rabies-based tracing as a valuable and widely applicable tool for analyzing graft connectivity that can easily be adapted to analyze connectivity of a variety of different neuronal sources and subtypes in different disease models.

  1. Bounded Gaussian process regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Larsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We extend the Gaussian process (GP) framework for bounded regression by introducing two bounded likelihood functions that model the noise on the dependent variable explicitly. This is fundamentally different from the implicit noise assumption in the previously suggested warped GP framework. We...

  2. Solution structure of the PsIAA4 oligomerization domain reveals interaction modes for transcription factors in early auxin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Dhurvas Chandrasekaran; Kovermann, Michael; Gopalswamy, Mohanraj; Hellmuth, Antje; Calderón Villalobos, Luz Irina A; Lilie, Hauke; Balbach, Jochen; Abel, Steffen

    2015-05-12

    The plant hormone auxin activates primary response genes by facilitating proteolytic removal of auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA)-inducible repressors, which directly bind to transcriptional auxin response factors (ARF). Most AUX/IAA and ARF proteins share highly conserved C-termini mediating homotypic and heterotypic interactions within and between both protein families. The high-resolution NMR structure of C-terminal domains III and IV of the AUX/IAA protein PsIAA4 from pea (Pisum sativum) revealed a globular ubiquitin-like β-grasp fold with homologies to the Phox and Bem1p (PB1) domain. The PB1 domain of wild-type PsIAA4 features two distinct surface patches of oppositely charged amino acid residues, mediating front-to-back multimerization via electrostatic interactions. Mutations of conserved basic or acidic residues on either face suppressed PsIAA4 PB1 homo-oligomerization in vitro and confirmed directional interaction of full-length PsIAA4 in vivo (yeast two-hybrid system). Mixing of oppositely mutated PsIAA4 PB1 monomers enabled NMR mapping of the negatively charged interface of the reconstituted PsIAA4 PB1 homodimer variant, whose stoichiometry (1:1) and equilibrium binding constant (KD ∼ 6.4 μM) were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. In silico protein-protein docking studies based on NMR and yeast interaction data derived a model of the PsIAA4 PB1 homodimer, which is comparable with other PB1 domain dimers, but indicated considerable differences between the homodimeric interfaces of AUX/IAA and ARF PB1 domains. Our study provides an impetus for elucidating the molecular determinants that confer specificity to complex protein-protein interaction circuits between members of the two central families of transcription factors important to the regulation of auxin-responsive gene expression. PMID:25918389

  3. Graviton Mass Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    de Rham, Claudia; Tolley, Andrew J; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, aLIGO has announced the first direct detections of gravitational waves, a direct manifestation of the propagating degrees of freedom of gravity. The detected signals GW150914 and GW151226 have been used to examine the basic properties of these gravitational degrees of freedom, particularly setting an upper bound on their mass. It is timely to review what the mass of these gravitational degrees of freedom means from the theoretical point of view, particularly taking into account the recent developments in constructing consistent massive gravity theories. Apart from the GW150914 mass bound, a few other observational bounds have been established from the effects of the Yukawa potential, modified dispersion relation and fifth force that are all induced when the fundamental gravitational degrees of freedom are massive. We review these different mass bounds and examine how they stand in the wake of recent theoretical developments and how they compare to the bound from GW150914.

  4. Time-course microarrays reveal early activation of the immune transcriptome and adipokine dysregulation leads to fibrosis in visceral adipose depots during diet-induced obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Eun-Young

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral white adipose tissue (WAT hypertrophy, adipokine production, inflammation and fibrosis are strongly associated with obesity, but the time-course of these changes in-vivo are not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the time-course of changes in adipocyte morphology, adipokines and the global transcriptional landscape in visceral WAT during the development of diet-induced obesity. Results C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD or normal diet (ND and sacrificed at 8 time-points over 24 weeks. Excessive fat accumulation was evident in visceral WAT depots (Epidydimal, Perirenal, Retroperitoneum, Mesentery after 2–4 weeks. Fibrillar collagen accumulation was evident in epidydimal adipocytes at 24 weeks. Plasma adipokines, leptin, resistin and adipsin, increased early and time-dependently, while adiponectin decreased late after 20 weeks. Only plasma leptin and adiponectin levels were associated with their respective mRNA levels in visceral WAT. Time-course microarrays revealed early and sustained activation of the immune transcriptome in epididymal and mesenteric depots. Up-regulated inflammatory genes included pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines (Tnf, Il1rn, Saa3, Emr1, Adam8, Itgam, Ccl2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 9 and their upstream signalling pathway genes (multiple Toll-like receptors, Irf5 and Cd14. Early changes also occurred in fibrosis, extracellular matrix, collagen and cathepsin related-genes, but histological fibrosis was only visible in the later stages. Conclusions In diet-induced obesity, early activation of TLR-mediated inflammatory signalling cascades by CD antigen genes, leads to increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, resulting in chronic low-grade inflammation. Early changes in collagen genes may trigger the accumulation of ECM components, promoting fibrosis in the later stages of diet-induced obesity. New therapeutic approaches

  5. Small-angle X-ray scattering analysis reveals the ATP-bound monomeric state of the ATPase domain from the homodimeric MutL endonuclease, a GHKL phosphotransferase superfamily protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Hitoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Nishida, Yuya; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Fukui, Kenji

    2015-05-01

    DNA mismatch repair is an excision system that removes mismatched bases chiefly generated by replication errors. In this system, MutL endonucleases direct the excision reaction to the error-containing strand of the duplex by specifically incising the newly synthesized strand. Both bacterial homodimeric and eukaryotic heterodimeric MutL proteins belong to the GHKL ATPase/kinase superfamily that comprises the N-terminal ATPase and C-terminal dimerization regions. Generally, the GHKL proteins show large ATPase cycle-dependent conformational changes, including dimerization-coupled ATP binding of the N-terminal domain. Interestingly, the ATPase domain of human PMS2, a subunit of the MutL heterodimer, binds ATP without dimerization. The monomeric ATP-bound state of the domain has been thought to be characteristic of heterodimeric GHKL proteins. In this study, we characterized the ATP-bound state of the ATPase domain from the Aquifex aeolicus MutL endonuclease, which is a homodimeric GHKL protein unlike the eukaryotic MutL. Gel filtration, dynamic light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses clearly showed that the domain binds ATP in a monomeric form despite its homodimeric nature. This indicates that the uncoupling of dimerization and ATP binding is a common feature among bacterial and eukaryotic MutL endonucleases, which we suggest is closely related to the molecular mechanisms underlying mismatch repair. PMID:25809295

  6. Deeply bound pionic atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard method of pionic atom formation does not produce deeply bound pionic atoms. A study is made on the properties of deeply bound pionic atom states by using the standard pion-nucleus optical potential. Another study is made to estimate the cross sections of the formation of ls pionic atom states by various methods. The pion-nucleus optical potential is determined by weakly bound pionic atom states and pion nucleus scattering. Although this potential may not be valid for deeply bound pionic atoms, it should provide some hint on binding energies and level widths of deeply bound states. The width of the ls state comes out to be 0.3 MeV and is well separated from the rest. The charge dependence of the ls state is investigated. The binding energies and the widths increase linearly with Z azbove a Z of 30. The report then discusses various methods to populate deeply bound pionic atoms. In particular, 'pion exchange' reactions are proposed. (n, pπ) reaction is discussed first. The cross section is calculated by assuming the in- and out-going nucleons on-shell and the produced pion in (n1) pionic atom states. Then, (n, dπ-) cross sections are estimated. (p, 2Heπ-) reaction would have cross sections similar to the cross section of (n, dπ-) reaction. In conclusion, it seems best to do (n, p) experiment on heavy nuclei for deeply bound pionic atom. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Generalized Sphere Packing Bound

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Arman; Vardy, Alexander; Yaakobi, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Kulkarni and Kiyavash recently introduced a new method to establish upper bounds on the size of deletion-correcting codes. This method is based upon tools from hypergraph theory. The deletion channel is represented by a hypergraph whose edges are the deletion balls (or spheres), so that a deletion-correcting code becomes a matching in this hypergraph. Consequently, a bound on the size of such a code can be obtained from bounds on the matching number of a hypergraph. Classical results in hyper...

  8. Deeply bound pionic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the structure and formation of deeply bound π- states in heavy nuclei, which are expected to be narrow due to the repulsive π--nucleus interaction. Possible experiments to produce those states are described. (author)

  9. Early evolution of large micro-organisms with cytological complexity revealed by microanalyses of 3.4 Ga organic-walled microfossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, K; Mimura, K; Takeuchi, M; Lepot, K; Ito, S; Javaux, E J

    2015-11-01

    The Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) is widely distributed in the East Pilbara Terrane (EPT) of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, and represents a Paleoarchean shallow-water to subaerial environment. It was deposited ~3.4 billion years ago and displays well-documented carbonate stromatolites. Diverse putative microfossils (SPF microfossils) were recently reported from several localities in the East Strelley, Panorama, Warralong, and Goldsworthy greenstone belts. Thus, the SPF provides unparalleled opportunities to gain insights into a shallow-water to subaerial ecosystem on the early Earth. Our new micro- to nanoscale ultrastructural and microchemical studies of the SPF microfossils show that large (20-70 μm) lenticular organic-walled flanged microfossils retain their structural integrity, morphology, and chain-like arrangements after acid (HF-HCl) extraction (palynology). Scanning and transmitted electron microscopy of extracted microfossils revealed that the central lenticular body is either alveolar or hollow, and the wall is continuous with the surrounding smooth to reticulated discoidal flange. These features demonstrate the evolution of large micro-organisms able to form an acid-resistant recalcitrant envelope or cell wall with complex morphology and to form colonial chains in the Paleoarchean era. This study provides evidence of the evolution of very early and remarkable biological innovations, well before the presumed late emergence of complex cells. PMID:26073280

  10. Can I have a quick word? Early electrophysiological manifestations of psycholinguistic processes revealed by event-related regression analysis of the EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauk, O; Pulvermüller, F; Ford, M; Marslen-Wilson, W D; Davis, M H

    2009-01-01

    We applied multiple linear regression analysis to event-related electrophysiological responses to words and pseudowords in a visual lexical decision task, yielding event-related regression coefficients (ERRCs) instead of the traditional event-related potential (ERP) measure. Our main goal was to disentangle the earliest ERP effects of the length of letter strings ("word length") and orthographic neighbourhood size (Coltheart's "N"). With respect to N, existing evidence is still ambiguous with respect to whether effects of N reflect early access to lexico-semantic information, or whether they occur at later decision or verification stages. In the present study, we found distinct neurophysiological manifestations of both N and word length around 100ms after word onset. Importantly, the effect of N distinguished between words and pseudowords, while the effect of word length did not. Minimum norm source estimation revealed the most dominant sources for word length in bilateral posterior brain areas for both words and pseudowords. For N, these sources were more left-lateralised and consistent with perisylvian brain areas, with activation peaks in temporal areas being more anterior for words compared to pseudowords. Our results support evidence for an effect of N at early and elementary stages of word recognition. We discuss the implications of these results for the time line of word recognition processes, and emphasise the value of ERRCs in combination with source analysis in psycholinguistic and cognitive brain research. PMID:18565639

  11. Analysis of YFP(J16)-R6/2 reporter mice and postmortem brains reveals early pathology and increased vulnerability of callosal axons in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Rodolfo G; Chu, Yaping; Ye, Allen Q; Price, Steven D; Tavassoli, Ehsan; Buenaventura, Andrea; Brady, Scott T; Magin, Richard L; Kordower, Jeffrey H; Morfini, Gerardo A

    2015-09-15

    Cumulative evidence indicates that the onset and severity of Huntington's disease (HD) symptoms correlate with connectivity deficits involving specific neuronal populations within cortical and basal ganglia circuits. Brain imaging studies and pathological reports further associated these deficits with alterations in cerebral white matter structure and axonal pathology. However, whether axonopathy represents an early pathogenic event or an epiphenomenon in HD remains unknown, nor is clear the identity of specific neuronal populations affected. To directly evaluate early axonal abnormalities in the context of HD in vivo, we bred transgenic YFP(J16) with R6/2 mice, a widely used HD model. Diffusion tensor imaging and fluorescence microscopy studies revealed a marked degeneration of callosal axons long before the onset of motor symptoms. Accordingly, a significant fraction of YFP-positive cortical neurons in YFP(J16) mice cortex were identified as callosal projection neurons. Callosal axon pathology progressively worsened with age and was influenced by polyglutamine tract length in mutant huntingtin (mhtt). Degenerating axons were dissociated from microscopically visible mhtt aggregates and did not result from loss of cortical neurons. Interestingly, other axonal populations were mildly or not affected, suggesting differential vulnerability to mhtt toxicity. Validating these results, increased vulnerability of callosal axons was documented in the brains of HD patients. Observations here provide a structural basis for the alterations in cerebral white matter structure widely reported in HD patients. Collectively, our data demonstrate a dying-back pattern of degeneration for cortical projection neurons affected in HD, suggesting that axons represent an early and potentially critical target for mhtt toxicity. PMID:26123489

  12. Successful In Vitro Expansion and Differentiation of Cord Blood Derived CD34+ Cells into Early Endothelial Progenitor Cells Reveals Highly Differential Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcic, Denijal; Haviv, Izhak; Merivirta, Ruusu-Maaria; Agrotis, Alexander; Leitner, Ephraem; Jowett, Jeremy B.; Bode, Christoph; Lappas, Martha; Peter, Karlheinz

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can be purified from peripheral blood, bone marrow or cord blood and are typically defined by a limited number of cell surface markers and a few functional tests. A detailed in vitro characterization is often restricted by the low cell numbers of circulating EPCs. Therefore in vitro culturing and expansion methods are applied, which allow at least distinguishing two different types of EPCs, early and late EPCs. Herein, we describe an in vitro culture technique with the aim to generate high numbers of phenotypically, functionally and genetically defined early EPCs from human cord blood. Characterization of EPCs was done by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, colony forming unit (CFU) assay and endothelial tube formation assay. There was an average 48-fold increase in EPC numbers. EPCs expressed VEGFR-2, CD144, CD18, and CD61, and were positive for acetylated LDL uptake and ulex lectin binding. The cells stimulated endothelial tube formation only in co-cultures with mature endothelial cells and formed CFUs. Microarray analysis revealed highly up-regulated genes, including LL-37 (CAMP), PDK4, and alpha-2-macroglobulin. In addition, genes known to be associated with cardioprotective (GDF15) or pro-angiogenic (galectin-3) properties were also significantly up-regulated after a 72 h differentiation period on fibronectin. We present a novel method that allows to generate high numbers of phenotypically, functionally and genetically characterized early EPCs. Furthermore, we identified several genes newly linked to EPC differentiation, among them LL-37 (CAMP) was the most up-regulated gene. PMID:21858032

  13. Analysis of early nephron patterning reveals a role for distal RV proliferation in fusion to the ureteric tip via a cap mesenchyme-derived connecting segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgas, Kylie; Rumballe, Bree; Valerius, M Todd; Chiu, Han Sheng; Thiagarajan, Rathi D; Lesieur, Emmanuelle; Aronow, Bruce J; Brunskill, Eric W; Combes, Alexander N; Tang, Dave; Taylor, Darrin; Grimmond, Sean M; Potter, S Steven; McMahon, Andrew P; Little, Melissa H

    2009-08-15

    While nephron formation is known to be initiated by a mesenchyme-to-epithelial transition of the cap mesenchyme to form a renal vesicle (RV), the subsequent patterning of the nephron and fusion with the ureteric component of the kidney to form a patent contiguous uriniferous tubule has not been fully characterized. Using dual section in situ hybridization (SISH)/immunohistochemistry (IHC) we have revealed distinct distal/proximal patterning of Notch, BMP and Wnt pathway components within the RV stage nephron. Quantitation of mitoses and Cyclin D1 expression indicated that cell proliferation was higher in the distal RV, reflecting the differential developmental programs of the proximal and distal populations. A small number of RV genes were also expressed in the early connecting segment of the nephron. Dual ISH/IHC combined with serial section immunofluorescence and 3D reconstruction revealed that fusion occurs between the late RV and adjacent ureteric tip via a process that involves loss of the intervening ureteric epithelial basement membrane and insertion of cells expressing RV markers into the ureteric tip. Using Six2-eGFPCre x R26R-lacZ mice, we demonstrate that these cells are derived from the cap mesenchyme and not the ureteric epithelium. Hence, both nephron patterning and patency are evident at the late renal vesicle stage. PMID:19501082

  14. Lectures on Bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Even a first approximation of bound states requires contributions of all powers in the coupling. This means that the concept of "lowest order bound state" needs to be defined. In these lectures I discuss the "Born" (no loop, lowest order in $\\hbar$) approximation. Born level states are bound by gauge fields which satisfy the classical field equations. As a check of the method, Positronium states of any momentum are determined as eigenstates of the QED Hamiltonian, quantized at equal time. Analogously, states bound by a strong external field $A^\\mu(\\xv)$ are found as eigenstates of the Dirac Hamiltonian. Their Fock states have dynamically created $e^+e^-$ pairs, whose distribution is determined by the Dirac wave function. The linear potential of $D=1+1$ dimensions confines electrons but repels positrons. As a result, the mass spectrum is continuous and the wave functions have features of both bound states and plane waves. The classical solutions of Gauss' law are explored for hadrons in QCD. A non-vanishing bo...

  15. Bounding species distribution models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas J. STOHLGREN; Catherine S. JARNEVICH; Wayne E. ESAIAS; Jeffrey T. MORISETTE

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern.Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development,yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations.We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches:classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models,and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations,bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors,to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States.Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding,and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models,like those presented here,should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5):642-647,2011].

  16. Unexpected strong attraction in the presence of continuum bound state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of few-particle ground-state calculation employing a two-particle non-local potential supporting a continuum bound state in addition to a negative-energy bound state has occasionally revealed unexpected large attraction in producing a very strongly bound ground state. In the presence of the continuum bound state the difference of phase shift between zero and infinite energies has an extra jump of φ as in the presence of an additional bound state. The wave function of the continuum bound state is identical with that of a strongly bound negative-energy state, which leads us to postulate a pseudo bound state in the two-particle system in order to explain the unexpected attraction. The role of the Pauli forbidden states is expected to be similar to these pseudo states. (author)

  17. Validation of EMP bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Derr, W. [Derr Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.

  18. Information, Utility & Bounded Rationality

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, Pedro A

    2011-01-01

    Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we employ an axiomatic framework for bounded rational decision-making based on a thermodynamic interpretation of resource costs as information costs. This leads to a variational "free utility" principle akin to thermodynamical free energy that trades off utility and information costs. We show that bounded optimal control solutions can be derived from this variational principle, which leads in general to stochastic policies. Furthermore, we show that risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) control schemes fall out naturally from this framework if the environment is considered as a bounded rational and perfectly rational opponent, respectively. When resource costs are ignored, the maximum expected utility principle is recovered.

  19. Intra-Section Analysis of Human Coronary Arteries Reveals a Potential Role for Micro-Calcifications in Macrophage Recruitment in the Early Stage of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn L L Chatrou

    in combination with calcification, suggesting a pro-inflammatory effect of micro-calcifications. In vitro, invasion assays revealed chemoattractant properties of cell-culture medium of calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells towards THP-1 cells, which implies pro-inflammatory effect of calcium deposits. Additionally, calcifying hVSMCs revealed a pro-inflammatory profile as compared to non-calcifying hVSMCs.Our data indicate that calcification of VSMCs is one of the earliest events in the genesis of atherosclerosis, which strongly correlates with ucMGP staining. Our findings suggest that loss of calcification inhibitors and/or failure of inhibitory capacity is causative for the early precipitation of calcium, with concomitant increased inflammation followed by osteochondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs.

  20. Dark-matter bound states from Feynman diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Petraki; M. Postma; M. Wiechers

    2015-01-01

    If dark matter couples directly to a light force mediator, then it may form bound states in the early universe and in the non-relativistic environment of haloes today. In this work, we establish a field-theoretic framework for the computation of bound-state formation cross-sections, de-excitation an

  1. Bounded variation and around

    CERN Document Server

    Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José

    2013-01-01

    This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.

  2. The Atlas-3D project - IX. The merger origin of a fast and a slow rotating Early-Type Galaxy revealed with deep optical imaging: first results

    CERN Document Server

    Duc, Pierre-Alain; Serra, Paolo; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Ferriere, Etienne; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    The mass assembly of galaxies leaves imprints in their outskirts, such as shells and tidal tails. The frequency and properties of such fine structures depend on the main acting mechanisms - secular evolution, minor or major mergers - and on the age of the last substantial accretion event. We use this to constrain the mass assembly history of two apparently relaxed nearby Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs) selected from the Atlas-3D sample, NGC 680 and NGC 5557. Our ultra deep optical images obtained with MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope reach 29 mag/arcsec^2 in the g-band. They reveal very low-surface brightness (LSB) filamentary structures around these ellipticals. Among them, a gigantic 160 kpc long tail East of NGC 5557 hosts gas-rich star-forming objects. NGC 680 exhibits two major diffuse plumes apparently connected to extended HI tails, as well as a series of arcs and shells. Comparing the outer stellar and gaseous morphology of the two ellipticals with that predicted from models of colliding galax...

  3. Principles of Early Development of Karst Conduits Under Natural and Man-Made Conditions Revealed by Mathematical Analysis of Numerical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreybrodt, Wolfgang

    1996-04-01

    Numerical models of the enlargement of primary fissures in limestone by calcite aggressive water show a complex behavior. If the lengths of the fractures are large and hydraulic heads are low, as is the case in nature, dissolution rates at the exit of the channel determine its development by causing a slow increase of water flow, which after a long gestation time by positive feedback accelerates dramatically within a short time span. Mathematical analysis of simplified approximations yields an analytical expression for the breakthrough time, when this happens, in excellent agreement with the results of a numerical model. This expression quantifies the geometrical, hydraulic, and chemical parameters determining such karst processes. If the lengths of the enlarging channels are small, but hydraulic heads are high, as is the case for artificial hydraulic structures such as dams, it is the widening at the entrance of the flow path which determines the enlargement of the conduit. Within the lifetime of the dam this can cause serious water losses. This can also be explained by mathematical analysis of simplified approximations which yield an analytical threshold condition from which the safety of a dam can be judged. Thus in both cases the dynamic processes of karstification are revealed to gain a deeper understanding of the early development of karst systems. As a further important result, one finds that minimum conditions, below which karstification cannot develop, do not exist.

  4. Aubergine iCLIP Reveals piRNA-Dependent Decay of mRNAs Involved in Germ Cell Development in the Early Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridlin Barckmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA pathway plays an essential role in the repression of transposons in the germline. Other functions of piRNAs such as post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs are now emerging. Here, we perform iCLIP with the PIWI protein Aubergine (Aub and identify hundreds of maternal mRNAs interacting with Aub in the early Drosophila embryo. Gene expression profiling reveals that a proportion of these mRNAs undergo Aub-dependent destabilization during the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Strikingly, Aub-dependent unstable mRNAs encode germ cell determinants. iCLIP with an Aub mutant that is unable to bind piRNAs confirms piRNA-dependent binding of Aub to mRNAs. Base pairing between piRNAs and mRNAs can induce mRNA cleavage and decay that are essential for embryonic development. These results suggest general regulation of maternal mRNAs by Aub and piRNAs, which plays a key developmental role in the embryo through decay and localization of mRNAs encoding germ cell determinants.

  5. X-ray Structure Analysis of Indazolium trans-[Tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (KP1019) Bound to Human Serum Albumin Reveals Two Ruthenium Binding Sites and Provides Insights into the Drug Binding Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium(III) complexes are promising candidates for anticancer drugs, especially the clinically studied indazolium trans-[tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (KP1019) and its analogue sodium trans-[tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (NKP-1339). Several studies have emphasized the likely role of human serum proteins in the transportation and accumulation of ruthenium(III) complexes in tumors. Therefore, the interaction between KP1019 and human serum albumin was investigated by means of X-ray crystallography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The structural data unambiguously reveal the binding of two ruthenium atoms to histidine residues 146 and 242, which are both located within well-known hydrophobic binding pockets of albumin. The ruthenium centers are octahedrally coordinated by solvent molecules revealing the dissociation of both indazole ligands from the ruthenium-based drug. However, a binding mechanism is proposed indicating the importance of the indazole ligands for binding site recognition and thus their indispensable role for the binding of KP1019. PMID:27196130

  6. X-ray Structure Analysis of Indazolium trans-[Tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (KP1019) Bound to Human Serum Albumin Reveals Two Ruthenium Binding Sites and Provides Insights into the Drug Binding Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelic, Aleksandar; Theiner, Sarah; Keppler, Bernhard K; Rompel, Annette

    2016-06-23

    Ruthenium(III) complexes are promising candidates for anticancer drugs, especially the clinically studied indazolium trans-[tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (KP1019) and its analogue sodium trans-[tetrachlorobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (NKP-1339). Several studies have emphasized the likely role of human serum proteins in the transportation and accumulation of ruthenium(III) complexes in tumors. Therefore, the interaction between KP1019 and human serum albumin was investigated by means of X-ray crystallography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The structural data unambiguously reveal the binding of two ruthenium atoms to histidine residues 146 and 242, which are both located within well-known hydrophobic binding pockets of albumin. The ruthenium centers are octahedrally coordinated by solvent molecules revealing the dissociation of both indazole ligands from the ruthenium-based drug. However, a binding mechanism is proposed indicating the importance of the indazole ligands for binding site recognition and thus their indispensable role for the binding of KP1019. PMID:27196130

  7. Asynchronous Bounded Expected Delay Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhshi, Rena; Endrullis, Jörg; Fokkink, Wan; Pang, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The commonly used asynchronous bounded delay (ABD) network models assume a fixed bound on message delay. We propose a probabilistic network model, called asynchronous bounded expected delay (ABE) model. Instead of a strict bound, the ABE model requires only a bound on the expected message delay. While the conditions of ABD networks restrict the set of possible executions, in ABE networks all asynchronous executions are possible, but executions with extremely long delays are less probable. In ...

  8. On Entropy Bounds and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, Edi

    2009-01-01

    We show that the holographic entropy bound for gravitational systems and the Bekenstein entropy bound for nongravitational systems are holographically related. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we find that the Bekenstein bound on the boundary is obtained from the holographic bound in the bulk by minimizing the boundary energy with respect the AdS radius or the cosmological constant. This relation may also ameliorate some problems associated with the Bekenstein bound.

  9. Bounded Tamper Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay; Venturi, Daniele

    Related key attacks (RKAs) are powerful cryptanalytic attacks where an adversary can change the secret key and observe the effect of such changes at the output. The state of the art in RKA security protects against an a-priori unbounded number of certain algebraic induced key relations, e...... bounded tamper and leakage resilient CCA secure public key cryptosystem based on the DDH assumption. We first define a weaker CPA-like security notion that we can instantiate based on DDH, and then we give a general compiler that yields CCA-security with tamper and leakage resilience. This requires a...... public tamper-proof common reference string. Finally, we explain how to boost bounded tampering and leakage resilience (as in 1. and 2. above) to continuous tampering and leakage resilience, in the so-called floppy model where each user has a personal hardware token (containing leak- and tamper...

  10. Deeply bound $\\Xi$ tribaryon

    CERN Document Server

    Garcilazo, H

    2016-01-01

    We have used realistic local interactions based on the recent update of the strangeness $-2$ Nijmegen ESC08c potential to calculate the bound state problem of the $\\Xi NN$ system in the $(I)J^P=(\\frac{1}{2})\\frac{3}{2}^+$ state. We found that this system presents a deeply bound state lying $13.5$ MeV below the $\\Xi d$ threshold. Since in lowest order, pure S$-$wave configuration, this system can not decay into the open $\\Lambda\\Lambda N$ channel, its decay width is expected to be very small. We have also recalculated the $(I)J^P=(\\frac{3}{2})\\frac{1}{2}^+$ state and we have compared with results of quark-model based potentials.

  11. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Matthew C; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B; Baring, Matthew G

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt ($10^{15}\\ \\mathrm{W}$) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light $f$, and even the range of $f$ is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that $f$ exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials.

  12. Towards Secure Distance Bounding

    OpenAIRE

    Boureanu, Ioana; Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Vaudenay, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Relay attacks (and, more generally, man-in-the-middle attacks) are a serious threat against many access control and payment schemes. In this work, we present distance-bounding protocols, how these can deter relay attacks, and the security models formalizing these protocols. We show several pitfalls making existing protocols insecure (or at least, vulnerable, in some cases). Then, we introduce the SKI protocol which enjoys resistance to all popular attack-models and features provable security....

  13. Maps of Bounded Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The work cited by the Nobel committee was done jointly with the late Amos Tversky (1937-1996) during a long and unusually close collaboration. Together, we explored the psychology of intuitive beliefs and choices and examined their bounded rationality. This essay presents a current perspective on the three major topics of our joint work: heuristics of judgment, risky choice, and framing effects. In all three domains we studied intuitions - thoughts and preferences that come to mind quickly an...

  14. Bounded Active Perception

    OpenAIRE

    KETENCI, Uktu Gorkem; Bremond, Roland; Auberlet, Jean Michel; GRISLIN, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    There are two kinds of perception : active and passive. This paper is an attempt to take advantage of active perception to improve the agent's perception of relevant information. Through the data filtering capacity, active perception is a useful tool for modeling human-like bounded perception. Using such filters, either the agent or the environment take an active role. We determine several unsolved issues in active perception and do several proposals to implement our concept on the active per...

  15. Bounded Discrete Walks

    OpenAIRE

    Banderier, Cyril; Nicodeme, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    This article tackles the enumeration and asymptotics of directed lattice paths (that are isomorphic to unidimensional paths) of bounded height (walks below one wall, or between two walls, for \\emphany finite set of jumps). Thus, for any lattice paths, we give the generating functions of bridges (``discrete'' Brownian bridges) and reflected bridges (``discrete'' reflected Brownian bridges) of a given height. It is a new success of the ``kernel method'' that the generating functions of such wal...

  16. Reflecting Magnon Bound States

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, C; Rey, S J

    2008-01-01

    In N=4 super Yang-Mills spin chain, we compute reflection amplitudes of magnon bound-state off giant graviton. We first compute the reflection amplitude off Y=0 brane boundary and compare it with the scattering amplitude between two magnon bound-states in the bulk. We find that analytic structure of the two amplitudes are intimately related each other: the boundary reflection amplitude is a square-root of the bulk scattering amplitude. Using such relation as a guide and taking known results at weak and strong coupling limits as inputs, we find the reflection amplitude of an elementary magnon off Z=0 giant graviton boundary. The reflection phase factor is shown to solve crossing and unitarity relations. We then compute the reflection amplitude of magnon bound-state off the Z=0 brane boundary and observe that its analytic structures are again intimately related to the bulk scattering and the Y=0 boundary reflection amplitudes. We also take dyonic giant magnon limit of these reflection amplitudes and confirm tha...

  17. Universal Bound on the Fano Factor in Enzyme Kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2015-01-01

    The Fano factor, an observable quantifying fluctuations of product generation by a single enzyme, can reveal information about the underlying reaction scheme. A lower bound on this Fano factor that depends on the thermodynamic affinity driving the transformation from substrate to product constrains the number of intermediate states of an enzymatic cycle. So far, this bound has been proven only for a unicyclic network of states. We show that the bound can be extended to arbitrary multicyclic n...

  18. Microscopic observation of magnon bound states and their dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuhara, Takeshi; Schauß, Peter; Endres, Manuel; Hild, Sebastian; Cheneau, Marc; Bloch, Immanuel; Gross, Christian

    2013-01-01

    More than eighty years ago, H. Bethe pointed out the existence of bound states of elementary spin waves in one-dimensional quantum magnets. To date, identifying signatures of such magnon bound states has remained a subject of intense theoretical research while their detection has proved challenging for experiments. Ultracold atoms offer an ideal setting to reveal such bound states by tracking the spin dynamics after a local quantum quench with single-spin and single-site resolution. Here we r...

  19. The crystal structures of apo and cAMP-bound GlxR from Corynebacterium glutamicum reveal structural and dynamic changes upon cAMP binding in CRP/FNR family transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D Townsend

    Full Text Available The cyclic AMP-dependent transcriptional regulator GlxR from Corynebacterium glutamicum is a member of the super-family of CRP/FNR (cyclic AMP receptor protein/fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator transcriptional regulators that play central roles in bacterial metabolic regulatory networks. In C. glutamicum, which is widely used for the industrial production of amino acids and serves as a non-pathogenic model organism for members of the Corynebacteriales including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the GlxR homodimer controls the transcription of a large number of genes involved in carbon metabolism. GlxR therefore represents a key target for understanding the regulation and coordination of C. glutamicum metabolism. Here we investigate cylic AMP and DNA binding of GlxR from C. glutamicum and describe the crystal structures of apo GlxR determined at a resolution of 2.5 Å, and two crystal forms of holo GlxR at resolutions of 2.38 and 1.82 Å, respectively. The detailed structural analysis and comparison of GlxR with CRP reveals that the protein undergoes a distinctive conformational change upon cyclic AMP binding leading to a dimer structure more compatible to DNA-binding. As the two binding sites in the GlxR homodimer are structurally identical dynamic changes upon binding of the first ligand are responsible for the allosteric behavior. The results presented here show how dynamic and structural changes in GlxR lead to optimization of orientation and distance of its two DNA-binding helices for optimal DNA recognition.

  20. Temporary, but Essential Requirement of CD8+ T Cells Early in the Pathogenesis of Diabetes in BB Rats as Revealed by Thymectomy and CD8 Depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rozing

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmunity-prone BB rats demonstrate a T lymphocytopenia and abnormal T cell subset distribution. To test whether the life span of all T cells or only of certain subsets is reduced in BB rats, we thymectomised 8-week-old BB and PVG rats and subsequently assessed size and composition of the T cell population over a 6-week-period. In both strains, thymectomy (Tx was followed by a decrease in peripheral T cell numbers, which was proportionally larger in BB rats. The decline of the Thy-1+ recent thymic migrant (RTM T cell phenotype was similar in both strains. BB rats showed a rapid preferential loss of CD8+ and CD45RC+ T cells, whereas the relative loss of RT6+ T cells was proportional to that of all T cells and not significantly different from that in PVG rats. Tx at 8-week did not prevent diabetes. Tx of 4-week-old BB rats revealed essentially the same changes in peripheral T cell subset distribution as in 8-week-old animals. However, Tx at week 4 did prevent diabetes. Since this raised the possibility of a temporary requirement of CD8+ T cells for the development of diabetes, we performed CD8 depletions during different pre-diabetic intervals. We found that CD8 depletion from 4 to 8 and 4 to 14 weeks, but not from 8 to 14 weeks of age prevented diabetes. We conclude that the protective effect of early adult Tx is, at least in part, due to the rapid loss of CD8+ T cells, and that these cells are only required between 4 and 8 weeks of age for diabetes to develop in BB rats.

  1. Complete sequencing of an IncX3 plasmid carrying blaNDM-5 allele reveals an early stage in the dissemination of the blaNDM gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Krishnaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to perform molecular characterisation of the blaNDM plasmids and to understand the mechanism of its spread among pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six non-repetitive carbapenem-resistant isolates which were collected during Nov 2011 to April 2013 from four hospitals in Chennai were analyzed for the presence of the blaNDM gene by PCR. Further, the genetic context of the blaNDM gene was analyzed by PCR specific to ISAba125 and bleMBL gene. One of the blaNDM plasmid was completely sequenced in the Illumina HiSeq platform. Results: Twenty-three isolates consisting of 8 Escherichia coli, 8 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 3 Klebsiella oxytoca, 3 Acinetobacter baumanii and 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found to carry the blaNDM gene. In 18 isolates the blaNDM gene was associated with a bleMBL gene and the ISAba125 element. The complete sequencing of pNDM-MGR194 revealed an IncX3 replication type plasmid, with a length of 46,253 bp, an average GC content of 47% and 59 putative ORFs. The iteron region contained the blaNDM5 gene and the bleMBL , trpF and dsbC genes downstream and an IS5 inserted within the ISAba125 element upstream. Conclusion: This is the first report where the blaNDM gene insertion in a plasmid is not accompanied by other resistance gene determinants. These observations suggest that the IncX3 plasmid pNDM-MGR194 is an early stage in the dissemination of the blaNDM .

  2. Ancient DNA analyses of early archaeological sites in New Zealand reveal extreme exploitation of moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) at all life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskam, Charlotte L.; Allentoft, Morten E.; Walter, Richard; Scofield, R. Paul; Haile, James; Holdaway, Richard N.; Bunce, Michael; Jacomb, Chris

    2012-10-01

    The human colonisation of New Zealand in the late thirteenth century AD led to catastrophic impacts on the local biota and is among the most compelling examples of human over-exploitation of native fauna, including megafauna. Nearly half of the species in New Zealand' s pre-human avifauna are now extinct, including all nine species of large, flightless moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes). The abundance of moa in early archaeological sites demonstrates the significance of these megaherbivores in the diet of the first New Zealanders. Combining moa assemblage data, based on DNA identification of eggshell and bone, with morphological identification of bone (literature and museum catalogued specimens), we present the most comprehensive audit of moa to date from several significant 13th-15th century AD archaeological deposits across the east coast of the South Island. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was amplified from 251 of 323 (78%) eggshell fragments and 22 of 27 (88%) bone samples, and the analyses revealed the presence of four moa species: Anomalopteryx didiformis; Dinornis robustus; Emeus crassus and Euryapteryx curtus. The mtDNA, along with polymorphic microsatellite markers, enabled an estimate of the minimum number of individual eggs consumed at each site. Remarkably, in one deposit over 50 individual eggs were identified - a number that likely represents a considerable proportion of the total reproductive output of moa in the area and emphasises that human predation of all life stages of moa was intense. Molecular sexing was conducted on bones (n = 11). Contrary to previous ancient DNA studies from natural sites that consistently report an excess of female moa, we observed an excess of males (2.7:1), suggestive that males were preferential targets. This could be related to different behaviour between the two highly size-dimorphic sexes in moa. Lastly, we investigated the moa species from recovered skeletal and eggshell remains from seven Wairau Bar burials, and identified

  3. Early Detection of Heterotopic Ossification Using Near-Infrared Optical Imaging Reveals Dynamic Turnover and Progression of Mineralization Following Achilles Tenotomy and Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Perosky, Joseph E.; Peterson, Jonathan R.; Eboda, Owulatobi N.; Morris, Michael D.; Stewart C. Wang; Levi, Benjamin; Kozloff, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the abnormal formation of bone in soft tissue. Current diagnostics have low sensitivity or specificity to incremental progression of mineralization, especially at early time points. Without accurate and reliable early diagnosis and intervention, HO progression often results in incapacitating conditions of limited range of motion, nerve entrapment, and pain. We hypothesized that non-invasive near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging can detect HO at early time points...

  4. A bound on chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Maldacena, Juan; Stanford, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    We conjecture a sharp bound on the rate of growth of chaos in thermal quantum systems with a large number of degrees of freedom. Chaos can be diagnosed using an out-of-time-order correlation function closely related to the commutator of operators separated in time. We conjecture that the influence of chaos on this correlator can develop no faster than exponentially, with Lyapunov exponent $\\lambda_L \\le 2 \\pi k_B T/\\hbar$. We give a precise mathematical argument, based on plausible physical assumptions, establishing this conjecture.

  5. Regularity of Bound States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faupin, Jeremy; Møller, Jacob Schach; Skibsted, Erik

    2011-01-01

    We study regularity of bound states pertaining to embedded eigenvalues of a self-adjoint operator H, with respect to an auxiliary operator A that is conjugate to H in the sense of Mourre. We work within the framework of singular Mourre theory which enables us to deal with confined massless Pauli......–Fierz models, our primary example, and many-body AC-Stark Hamiltonians. In the simpler context of regular Mourre theory, our results boil down to an improvement of results obtained recently in [8, 9]....

  6. Tight Bernoulli tail probability bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Dzindzalieta, Dainius

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the dissertation is to prove universal tight bounds for deviation from the mean probability inequalities for functions of random variables. Universal bounds shows that they are uniform with respect to some class of distributions and quantity of variables and other parameters. The bounds are called tight, if we can construct a sequence of random variables, such that the upper bounds are achieved. Such inequalities are useful for example in insurance mathematics, for constructing...

  7. Bounded Rationality in Transposition Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2014-01-01

    concerns the organisation and financing of national healthcare systems. This article applies the perspective of bounded rationality to explain (irregularities in) the timely and correct transposition of EU directives. The cognitive and organisational constraints long posited by the bounded rationality...... bounded rationality is apparent in the transposition processes in these relatively well-organised countries, future transposition studies should devote greater consideration to the bounded rationality perspective....

  8. Novel Bounds on Marginal Probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Mooij, Joris M.; Kappen, Hilbert J

    2008-01-01

    We derive two related novel bounds on single-variable marginal probability distributions in factor graphs with discrete variables. The first method propagates bounds over a subtree of the factor graph rooted in the variable, and the second method propagates bounds over the self-avoiding walk tree starting at the variable. By construction, both methods not only bound the exact marginal probability distribution of a variable, but also its approximate Belief Propagation marginal (``belief''). Th...

  9. Separable subgroups have bounded packing

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Wen-yuan

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we prove that separable subgroups have bounded packing in ambient groups. The notion bounded packing was introduced by Hruska-Wise \\cite{HrWi} and in particular, our result confirms a conjecture in \\cite{HrWi} which states each subgroup of a virtually polycyclic group has the bounded packing property.

  10. On bound entanglement assisted distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Vedral, V.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate asymptotic distillation of entanglement in the presence of an unlimited amount of bound entanglement for bi-partite systems. We show that the distillability is still bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement. This offers a strong support to the fact that bound entanglement does not improve distillation of entanglement.

  11. DNA methylation profiling of sorted cells from myelofibrosis patients reveals aberrant epigenetic regulation of immune pathways and identifies early MPN driver genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H. M.; Andersen, C. L.; Kristensen, L. S.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) belongs to the heterogeneous group of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) together with essential thrombocytosis (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV). It has been suggested that these neoplasms represent a biological continuum from early cancer stage (ET...

  12. Strongly Bounded Partial Sums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Swartz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available If λ is a scalar sequence space, a series P Zj in a topological vector space Z is λ multiplier convergent in Z if the series P ∞J =1 tj Zj converges in Z for every t = {tj} ∈ λ-If λ satisfies appropriate conditions, a series in a locally convex space X which is λ multiplier convergent in the weak topology is λ multiplier convergent in the original topology ofthe space (the Orlicz-Pettis Theorem but may fail to be λ multiplier convergent in the strong topology of the space. However, we show under apprpriate conditions on the multiplier space λ that the series will have strongly bounded partial sums.

  13. Features of Programmed Cell death in Intact Xenopus Oocytes and Early Embryos Revealed by Near-Infrared Fluorescence and Real-time Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Carrie E; Freel, Christopher D.; Kornbluth, Sally

    2010-01-01

    Factors influencing apoptosis of vertebrate eggs and early embryos have been studied in cell-free systems and in intact embryos by analyzing individual apoptotic regulators or caspase activation in static samples. Described here is a novel method for monitoring caspase activity in living Xenopus oocytes and early embryos. The approach, utilizing microinjection of a near-infrared caspase substrate that emits fluorescence only after its proteolytic cleavage by active effector caspases, has enab...

  14. Composition and Structural Features of Calcium—Bound and Iron—and Aluminium—Bound Humus in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.U.CHEEMA; XUJIAN-MIN; 等

    1994-01-01

    Calcium-bound and iron-and aluminium-bound humus extracted from different soils collected from north to south of China were characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods.Meaningful differences in the composition and structure between them were revealed by 13 C NMR,visible spectroscopy and elemental analysis.Results showed that the contents of carbon,hydrogen and nitrogen were higher in iron-and aluminium-bound humus than in calcium-bound humus while oxygen content in calcium-bound humus was shown to be higher .The calcium-bound humus had higher C/N and O/C ratios than iron-and aluminiumbound humus.The calcium-bound humic acid(HA1) showed higher E4/E6 ratios than iron-and aluminumboud,humic acid(HA2)while iron-and aluminum-bound fulvic acid(FA2) showed higher E4/E6 ratios than calcium-bound fulvic acid(FA1).An inverse relationship between E4/E6 ratios and aromaticity as determined by 13C NMR spectra was observerd for HA and FA from black soil.The 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed that HA2 was more aromatic than HA1.On the other ,FA1 exhibited a higher aromaticity than FA2.

  15. Community structure analysis of transcriptional networks reveals distinct molecular pathways for early- and late-onset temporal lobe epilepsy with childhood febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Bando, Silvia Yumi; Bertonha, Fernanda Bernardi; Iamashita, Priscila; Silva, Filipi Nascimento; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura; Silva, Alexandre Valotta; Castro, Luiz Henrique Martins; Wen, Hung-Tzu

    2015-01-01

    Age at epilepsy onset has a broad impact on brain plasticity and epilepsy pathomechanisms. Prolonged febrile seizures in early childhood (FS) constitute an initial precipitating insult (IPI) commonly associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). FS-MTLE patients may have early disease onset, i.e. just after the IPI, in early childhood, or late-onset, ranging from mid-adolescence to early adult life. The mechanisms governing early (E) or late (L) disease onset are largely unknown. In order to unveil the molecular pathways underlying E and L subtypes of FS-MTLE we investigated global gene expression in hippocampal CA3 explants of FS-MTLE patients submitted to hippocampectomy. Gene coexpression networks (GCNs) were obtained for the E and L patient groups. A network-based approach for GCN analysis was employed allowing: i) the visualization and analysis of differentially expressed (DE) and complete (CO) - all valid GO annotated transcripts - GCNs for the E and L groups; ii) the study of interactions between all the system's constituents based on community detection and coarse-grained community structure methods. We found that the E-DE communities with strongest connection weights harbor highly connected genes mainly related to neural excitability and febrile seizures, whereas in L-DE communities these genes are not only involved in network excitability but also playing roles in other epilepsy-related processes. Inversely, in E-CO the strongly connected communities are related to compensatory pathways (seizure inhibition, neuronal survival and responses to stress conditions) while in L-CO these communities harbor several genes related to pro-epileptic effects, seizure-related mechanisms and vulnerability to epilepsy. These results fit the concept, based on fMRI and behavioral studies, that early onset epilepsies, although impacting more severely the hippocampus, are associated to compensatory mechanisms, while in late MTLE development the brain is less able to

  16. Dynamic gene expression patterns in animal models of early and late heart failure reveal biphasic-bidirectional transcriptional activation of signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Janelle; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Kass, David A; Barth, Andreas S

    2014-10-15

    Altered cardiac gene expression in heart failure (HF) has mostly been identified by single-point analysis of end-stage disease. This may miss earlier changes in gene expression that are transient and/or directionally opposite to those observed later. Myocardial datasets from the largest microarray data repository (Gene Expression Omnibus) yielded six HF studies with time-course data. Differentially expressed transcripts between nonfailing controls, early HF (2 wk) were determined, and analysis of KEGG pathways and predicted regulatory control elements performed. We found that gene expression followed varying patterns: Downregulation of metabolic pathways occurred early and was sustained into late-stage HF. In contrast, most signaling pathways undergo a complex biphasic pattern: Calcium signaling, p53, apoptosis, and MAPK pathways displayed a bidirectional response, declining early but rising late. These profiles were compatible with specific microRNA (miRNA) and transcription regulators: Estrogen-related receptor-α and myocyte-enhancer factor-2 binding sites were overrepresented in the promoter regions of downregulated transcripts. Concurrently, there were overrepresented binding sites for E2f and ETS family members (E-Twenty Six, including Gabp, Elf1, and Ets2), serum response and interferon regulated factor in biphasic-bidirectional and late-upregulated transcripts. Binding sites for miRNAs downregulated by HF were more common in upregulated transcripts (e.g., miRNA-22,-133a/b, and -150 in early HF and miRNA-1,-9,-499 in late HF). During the development of HF, gene expression is characterized by dynamic overlapping sets of transcripts controlled by specific interrelated regulatory mechanisms. While metabolic gene classes show early and sustained downregulation in HF, signaling pathways undergo a complex biphasic pattern with early down- and more pronounced late upregulation. PMID:25159852

  17. Community structure analysis of transcriptional networks reveals distinct molecular pathways for early- and late-onset temporal lobe epilepsy with childhood febrile seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Moreira-Filho

    Full Text Available Age at epilepsy onset has a broad impact on brain plasticity and epilepsy pathomechanisms. Prolonged febrile seizures in early childhood (FS constitute an initial precipitating insult (IPI commonly associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE. FS-MTLE patients may have early disease onset, i.e. just after the IPI, in early childhood, or late-onset, ranging from mid-adolescence to early adult life. The mechanisms governing early (E or late (L disease onset are largely unknown. In order to unveil the molecular pathways underlying E and L subtypes of FS-MTLE we investigated global gene expression in hippocampal CA3 explants of FS-MTLE patients submitted to hippocampectomy. Gene coexpression networks (GCNs were obtained for the E and L patient groups. A network-based approach for GCN analysis was employed allowing: i the visualization and analysis of differentially expressed (DE and complete (CO - all valid GO annotated transcripts - GCNs for the E and L groups; ii the study of interactions between all the system's constituents based on community detection and coarse-grained community structure methods. We found that the E-DE communities with strongest connection weights harbor highly connected genes mainly related to neural excitability and febrile seizures, whereas in L-DE communities these genes are not only involved in network excitability but also playing roles in other epilepsy-related processes. Inversely, in E-CO the strongly connected communities are related to compensatory pathways (seizure inhibition, neuronal survival and responses to stress conditions while in L-CO these communities harbor several genes related to pro-epileptic effects, seizure-related mechanisms and vulnerability to epilepsy. These results fit the concept, based on fMRI and behavioral studies, that early onset epilepsies, although impacting more severely the hippocampus, are associated to compensatory mechanisms, while in late MTLE development the brain is less

  18. Proteomics Reveals that Proteins Expressed During the Early Stage of Bacillus anthracis Infection Are Potential Targets for the Development of Vaccines and Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Ming Huang; Craig A. Elmets; De-chu C. Tang; Fuming Li; Nabiha Yusuf

    2004-01-01

    In this review, we advance a new concept in developing vaccines and/or drugs to target specific proteins expressed during the early stage of Bacillus anthracis (an thrax) infection and address existing challenges to this concept. Three proteins (immune inhibitor A, GPR-like spore protease, and alanine racemase) initially identified by proteomics in our laboratory were found to have differential expres sions during anthrax spore germination and early outgrowth. Other studies of different bacillus strains indicate that these three proteins are involved in either germination or cytotoxicity of spores, suggesting that they may serve as potential targets for the design of anti-anthrax vaccines and drugs.

  19. Bounding approaches to system identification

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Éric

    1996-01-01

    In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.

  20. Reduced expression of an early enzyme in the gossypol pathway reveals a link between the gossypol and lacinilene pathways during fungal infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have generated plants that contain an RNAi construct that severely knocks-down expression of a p450 gene involved in an early step in the production of gossypol and heliocides. The leaves of these plants have less than 10% of the normal level of these compounds. Since these secondary compounds ...

  1. Functional genomic and proteomic analysis reveals disruption of myelin-related genes and translation in a mouse model of early life neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bordner

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Early life neglect is an important public health problem which can lead to lasting psychological dysfunction. Good animal models are necessary to understand the mechanisms responsible for the behavioral and anatomical pathology that results. We recently described a novel model of early life neglect, Maternal Separation with Early Weaning (MSEW, that produces behavioral changes in the mouse that persist into adulthood. To begin to understand the mechanism by which MSEW leads to these changes we applied cDNA microarray, next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq, label-free proteomics, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM proteomics, and methylation analysis to tissue samples obtained from medial prefrontal cortex to determine the molecular changes induced by MSEW that persist into adulthood. The results show that MSEW leads to dysregulation of markers of mature oligodendrocytes and genes involved in protein translation and other categories, an apparent downward biasing of translation, and methylation changes in the promoter regions of selected dysregulated genes. These findings are likely to prove useful in understanding the mechanism by which early life neglect affects brain structure, cognition, and behavior.

  2. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  3. A Lower Bound on Concurrence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-Guo; TIAN Cheng-Lin; CHEN Ping-Xing; YUAN Nai-Chang

    2009-01-01

    We derive an analytical lower bound on the concurrence for bipartite quantum systems with an improved computable cross norm or realignment criterion and an improved positive partial transpose criterion respectively.Furthermore we demonstrate that our bound is better than that obtained from the local uncertainty relations criterion with optimal local orthogonal observables which is known as one of the best estimations of concurrence.

  4. Clinical and Molecular Studies Reveal a PSEN1 Mutation (L153V) in a Peruvian Family with Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cornejo-Olivas, Mario R.; Yu, Chang-En; Mazzetti, Pilar; Mata, Ignacio F.; Meza, Maria; Lindo-Samanamud, Saul; Leverenz, James B.; Bird, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) gene mutations are found in 30 to 70% of familial early onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) cases (onset G DNA change resulting in a p.L153V missense mutation in the transmembrane domain 2 of the gene. This mutation is also present in the three additional affected siblings but not in a non-affected family member consistent with segregation of this mutation with the disease.

  5. Structure of the protein core of translation initiation factor 2 in apo, GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, Angelita [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale - INSERM U964/Université de Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Marzi, Stefano [Architecture et Réactivité de l’ARN, UPR 9002 CNRS, IBMC (Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology), 15 Rue R. Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg, France, Université de Strasbourg, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Fabbretti, Attilio [University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino (Monaco) (Italy); Hazemann, Isabelle; Jenner, Lasse [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale -INSERM U964/Université de Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale - INSERM U964/Université de Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Gualerzi, Claudio O. [University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino (Monaco) (Italy); Klaholz, Bruno P., E-mail: klaholz@igbmc.fr [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale - INSERM U964/Université de Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France)

    2013-06-01

    The crystal structures of the eubacterial translation initiation factor 2 in apo form and with bound GDP and GTP reveal conformational changes upon nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, notably of the catalytically important histidine in the switch II region. Translation initiation factor 2 (IF2) is involved in the early steps of bacterial protein synthesis. It promotes the stabilization of the initiator tRNA on the 30S initiation complex (IC) and triggers GTP hydrolysis upon ribosomal subunit joining. While the structure of an archaeal homologue (a/eIF5B) is known, there are significant sequence and functional differences in eubacterial IF2, while the trimeric eukaryotic IF2 is completely unrelated. Here, the crystal structure of the apo IF2 protein core from Thermus thermophilus has been determined by MAD phasing and the structures of GTP and GDP complexes were also obtained. The IF2–GTP complex was trapped by soaking with GTP in the cryoprotectant. The structures revealed conformational changes of the protein upon nucleotide binding, in particular in the P-loop region, which extend to the functionally relevant switch II region. The latter carries a catalytically important and conserved histidine residue which is observed in different conformations in the GTP and GDP complexes. Overall, this work provides the first crystal structure of a eubacterial IF2 and suggests that activation of GTP hydrolysis may occur by a conformational repositioning of the histidine residue.

  6. Structure of the protein core of translation initiation factor 2 in apo, GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structures of the eubacterial translation initiation factor 2 in apo form and with bound GDP and GTP reveal conformational changes upon nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, notably of the catalytically important histidine in the switch II region. Translation initiation factor 2 (IF2) is involved in the early steps of bacterial protein synthesis. It promotes the stabilization of the initiator tRNA on the 30S initiation complex (IC) and triggers GTP hydrolysis upon ribosomal subunit joining. While the structure of an archaeal homologue (a/eIF5B) is known, there are significant sequence and functional differences in eubacterial IF2, while the trimeric eukaryotic IF2 is completely unrelated. Here, the crystal structure of the apo IF2 protein core from Thermus thermophilus has been determined by MAD phasing and the structures of GTP and GDP complexes were also obtained. The IF2–GTP complex was trapped by soaking with GTP in the cryoprotectant. The structures revealed conformational changes of the protein upon nucleotide binding, in particular in the P-loop region, which extend to the functionally relevant switch II region. The latter carries a catalytically important and conserved histidine residue which is observed in different conformations in the GTP and GDP complexes. Overall, this work provides the first crystal structure of a eubacterial IF2 and suggests that activation of GTP hydrolysis may occur by a conformational repositioning of the histidine residue

  7. Dynamics of Nonlinear Waves on Bounded Domains

    CERN Document Server

    Maliborski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with dynamics of conservative nonlinear waves on bounded domains. In general, there are two scenarios of evolution. Either the solution behaves in an oscillatory, quasiperiodic manner or the nonlinear effects cause the energy to concentrate on smaller scales leading to a turbulent behaviour. Which of these two possibilities occurs depends on a model and the initial conditions. In the quasiperiodic scenario there exist very special time-periodic solutions. They result for a delicate balance between dispersion and nonlinear interaction. The main body of this dissertation is concerned with construction (by means of perturbative and numerical methods) of time-periodic solutions for various nonlinear wave equations on bounded domains. While turbulence is mainly associated with hydrodynamics, recent research in General Relativity has also revealed turbulent phenomena. Numerical studies of a self-gravitating massless scalar field in spherical symmetry gave evidence that anti-de Sitter space ...

  8. Radially inhomogeneous bounded plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri-Khatir, H.; Aghamir, F. M.

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of kinetic theory along with self-consistent field equations, the expressions for dielectric tensor of radially inhomogeneous magnetized plasma columns are obtained. The study of dielectric tensor characteristics allows the accurate analysis of the inhomogeneous properties, beyond limitations that exist in the conventional method. Through the Bessel–Fourier transformation, the localized form of material equations in a radially inhomogeneous medium are obtained. In order to verify the integrity of the model and reveal the effect of inhomogeneity, a special case of a cylindrical plasma waveguide completely filled with inhomogeneous magnetized cold plasma was considered. The dispersion relation curves for four families of electromagnetic (EH and HE) and electrostatic (SC and C) modes are obtained and compared with the findings of the conventional model. The numerical analysis indicates that the inhomogeneity effect leads to coupling of electromagnetic and electrostatic modes each having different radial eigen numbers. The study also reveals that the electrostatic modes are more sensitive to inhomogeneous effects than the electromagnetic modes.

  9. Tracking Post-Hibernation Behavior and Early Migration Does Not Reveal the Expected Sex-Differences in a “Female-Migrating” Bat

    OpenAIRE

    Dechmann, Dina K. N.; Wikelski, Martin; Varga, Katarina; Yohannes, Elizabeth; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Safi, Kamran; Burkhard, Wolf-Dieter; O'Mara, M. Teague

    2014-01-01

    Long-distance migration is a rare phenomenon in European bats. Genetic analyses and banding studies show that females can cover distances of up to 1,600 km, whereas males are sedentary or migrate only short distances. The onset of this sex-biased migration is supposed to occur shortly after rousing from hibernation and when the females are already pregnant. We therefore predicted that the sexes are exposed to different energetic pressures in early spring, and this should be reflected in their...

  10. Of Models and Machines: Implementing Bounded Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    This essay explores the early history of Herbert Simon's principle of bounded rationality in the context of his Artificial Intelligence research in the mid 1950s. It focuses in particular on how Simon and his colleagues at the RAND Corporation translated a model of human reasoning into a computer program, the Logic Theory Machine. They were motivated by a belief that computers and minds were the same kind of thing--namely, information-processing systems. The Logic Theory Machine program was a model of how people solved problems in elementary mathematical logic. However, in making this model actually run on their 1950s computer, the JOHNNIAC, Simon and his colleagues had to navigate many obstacles and material constraints quite foreign to the human experience of logic. They crafted new tools and engaged in new practices that accommodated the affordances of their machine, rather than reflecting the character of human cognition and its bounds. The essay argues that tracking this implementation effort shows that "internal" cognitive practices and "external" tools and materials are not so easily separated as they are in Simon's principle of bounded rationality--the latter often shaping the dynamics of the former. PMID:26685521

  11. Universal bound on the Fano factor in enzyme kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, Andre C; Seifert, Udo

    2015-06-01

    The Fano factor, an observable quantifying fluctuations of product generation by a single enzyme, can reveal information about the underlying reaction scheme. A lower bound on this Fano factor that depends on the thermodynamic affinity driving the transformation from substrate to product constrains the number of intermediate states of an enzymatic cycle. So far, this bound has been proven only for a unicyclic network of states. We show that the bound can be extended to arbitrary multicyclic networks, with the Fano factor constraining the largest value of the effective length, which is the ratio between the number of states and the number of products, among all cycles. PMID:25965813

  12. Universal Bound on the Fano Factor in Enzyme Kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Barato, Andre C

    2015-01-01

    The Fano factor, an observable quantifying fluctuations of product generation by a single enzyme, can reveal information about the underlying reaction scheme. A lower bound on this Fano factor that depends on the thermodynamic affinity driving the transformation from substrate to product constrains the number of intermediate states of an enzymatic cycle. So far, this bound has been proven only for a unicyclic network of states. We show that the bound can be extended to arbitrary multicyclic networks, with the Fano factor constraining the largest value of the effective length, which is the ratio between the number of states and the number of products, among all cycles.

  13. The massacre mass grave of Schöneck-Kilianstädten reveals new insights into collective violence in Early Neolithic Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christian; Lohr, Christian; Gronenborn, Detlef; Alt, Kurt W

    2015-09-01

    Conflict and warfare are central but also disputed themes in discussions about the European Neolithic. Although a few recent population studies provide broad overviews, only a very limited number of currently known key sites provide precise insights into moments of extreme and mass violence and their impact on Neolithic societies. The massacre sites of Talheim, Germany, and Asparn/Schletz, Austria, have long been the focal points around which hypotheses concerning a final lethal crisis of the first Central European farmers of the Early Neolithic Linearbandkeramik Culture (LBK) have concentrated. With the recently examined LBK mass grave site of Schöneck-Kilianstädten, Germany, we present new conclusive and indisputable evidence for another massacre, adding new data to the discussion of LBK violence patterns. At least 26 individuals were violently killed by blunt force and arrow injuries before being deposited in a commingled mass grave. Although the absence and possible abduction of younger females has been suggested for other sites previously, a new violence-related pattern was identified here: the intentional and systematic breaking of lower limbs. The abundance of the identified perimortem fractures clearly indicates torture and/or mutilation of the victims. The new evidence presented here for unequivocal lethal violence on a large scale is put into perspective for the Early Neolithic of Central Europe and, in conjunction with previous results, indicates that massacres of entire communities were not isolated occurrences but rather were frequent features of the last phases of the LBK. PMID:26283359

  14. In Vivo Tracking of Human Hematopoiesis Reveals Patterns of Clonal Dynamics during Early and Steady-State Reconstitution Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasco, Luca; Pellin, Danilo; Scala, Serena; Dionisio, Francesca; Basso-Ricci, Luca; Leonardelli, Lorena; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Baricordi, Cristina; Ferrua, Francesca; Cicalese, Maria Pia; Giannelli, Stefania; Neduva, Victor; Dow, David J; Schmidt, Manfred; Von Kalle, Christof; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Ciceri, Fabio; Vicard, Paola; Wit, Ernst; Di Serio, Clelia; Naldini, Luigi; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) are capable of supporting the lifelong production of blood cells exerting a wide spectrum of functions. Lentiviral vector HSPC gene therapy generates a human hematopoietic system stably marked at the clonal level by vector integration sites (ISs). Using IS analysis, we longitudinally tracked >89,000 clones from 15 distinct bone marrow and peripheral blood lineages purified up to 4 years after transplant in four Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome patients treated with HSPC gene therapy. We measured at the clonal level repopulating waves, populations' sizes and dynamics, activity of distinct HSPC subtypes, contribution of various progenitor classes during the early and late post-transplant phases, and hierarchical relationships among lineages. We discovered that in-vitro-manipulated HSPCs retain the ability to return to latency after transplant and can be physiologically reactivated, sustaining a stable hematopoietic output. This study constitutes in vivo comprehensive tracking in humans of hematopoietic clonal dynamics during the early and late post-transplant phases. PMID:27237736

  15. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  16. Bounded Model Checking of CTL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hong Tao; Cong-Hua Zhou; Zhong Chen; Li-Fu Wang

    2007-01-01

    Bounded Model Checking has been recently introduced as an efficient verification method for reactive systems.This technique reduces model checking of linear temporal logic to propositional satisfiability.In this paper we first present how quantified Boolean decision procedures can replace BDDs.We introduce a bounded model checking procedure for temporal logic CTL* which reduces model checking to the satisfiability of quantified Boolean formulas.Our new technique avoids the space blow up of BDDs, and extends the concept of bounded model checking.

  17. Event Related Potentials Reveal Early Phonological and Orthographic Processing of Single Letters in Letter-Detection and Letter-Rhyme Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, Sewon A.; Herdman, Anthony T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: When and where phonological processing occurs in the brain is still under some debate. Most paired-rhyme and phonological priming studies used word stimuli, which involve complex neural networks for word recognition and semantics. This study investigates early (300 ms) orthographic and phonological processing of letters. Methods: Fifteen participants aged 20–35 engaged in three two-forced choice experiments, one letter-detection (LetterID) and two letter-rhyme (Paired-Rhyme and Letter-Rhyme) tasks. From the EEG recordings, event related potential (ERP) differences within and across task stimuli were found. We also calculated the global field power (GFP) for each participant. Accuracies and reaction times were also measured from their button presses for each task. Results: Behavioral: Reaction times were 18 ms faster to letter than pseudoletter stimuli, and 27 ms faster to rhyme than nonrhyme stimuli. ERP/GFP: In the LetterID task, grand-mean evoked potentials (EPs) showed typical P1, N1, P2, and P3 waveform morphologies to letter and pseudoletter stimuli, with GFPs to pseudoletters being greater than letters from 160–600 ms. Across both rhyme tasks, there were greater negativities for nonrhyme than for rhyme stimuli at 145 ms and 426 ms. The P2 effect for rhyme stimuli was smaller than letter stimuli when compared across tasks. Conclusion: Differences in early processing of letters vs. pseudoletters between 130–190 ms suggest that letters are processed earlier and perhaps faster in the brain than pseudoletters. The P2 effect between letter and rhyme stimuli likely reflect sublexical phonological processing. Together, findings from our study fill in evidence for the temporal dynamics of orthographic and phonological processing of single letters. PMID:27148023

  18. Bound states in string nets

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, M D; Vidal, J

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  19. Curvature bounds for configuration spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Erbar, Matthias; Huesmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We show that the configuration space over a manifold M inherits many curvature properties of the manifold. For instance, we show that a lower Ricci curvature bound on M implies for the configuration space a lower Ricci curvature bound in the sense of Lott-Sturm-Villani, the Bochner inequality, gradient estimates and Wasserstein contraction. Moreover, we show that the heat flow on the configuration space, or the infinite independent particle process, can be identified as the gradient flow of t...

  20. Entropy bounds for uncollapsed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Gabriel; Visser, Matt, E-mail: Gabriel.Abreu@msor.vuw.ac.nz, E-mail: Matt.Visser@msor.vuw.ac.nz [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Operation Research Victoria University of Wellington Wellington (New Zealand)

    2011-09-22

    In any static spacetime the quasilocal Tolman mass contained within a volume can be reduced to a Gauss-like surface integral involving the flux of a suitably defined generalized surface gravity. By introducing some basic thermodynamics, and invoking the Unruh effect, one can then develop elementary bounds on the quasilocal entropy that are very similar in spirit to the holographic bound, and closely related to entanglement entropy.

  1. Finite Domain Bounds Consistency Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chiu Wo; Harvey, Warwick; Lee, Jimmy Ho-Man; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    A widely adopted approach to solving constraint satisfaction problems combines systematic tree search with constraint propagation for pruning the search space. Constraint propagation is performed by propagators implementing a certain notion of consistency. Bounds consistency is the method of choice for building propagators for arithmetic constraints and several global constraints in the finite integer domain. However, there has been some confusion in the definition of bounds consistency. In t...

  2. The Green Valley is a Red Herring: Galaxy Zoo reveals two evolutionary pathways towards quenching of star formation in early- and late-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke D; Fortson, Lucy; Kaviraj, Sugata; Keel, William C; Lintott, Chris J; Masters, Karen L; Nichol, Robert C; Sarzi, Marc; Ramin,; Skibba,; Treister, Ezequiel; Willett, Kyle W; Wong, O Ivy; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2014-01-01

    We use SDSS+\\textit{GALEX}+Galaxy Zoo data to study the quenching of star formation in low-redshift galaxies. We show that the green valley between the blue cloud of star-forming galaxies and the red sequence of quiescent galaxies in the colour-mass diagram is not a single transitional state through which most blue galaxies evolve into red galaxies. Rather, an analysis that takes morphology into account makes clear that only a small population of blue early-type galaxies move rapidly across the green valley after the morphologies are transformed from disk to spheroid and star formation is quenched rapidly. In contrast, the majority of blue star-forming galaxies have significant disks, and they retain their late-type morphologies as their star formation rates decline very slowly. We summarize a range of observations that lead to these conclusions, including UV-optical colours and halo masses, which both show a striking dependence on morphological type. We interpret these results in terms of the evolution of co...

  3. Detection of histone acetylation levels in the dorsal hippocampus reveals early tagging on specific residues of H2B and H4 histones in response to learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bousiges

    Full Text Available The recent literature provides evidence that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modification are crucial to gene transcription linked to synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain--notably in the hippocampus--and memory formation. We measured global histone acetylation levels in the rat hippocampus at an early stage of spatial or fear memory formation. We found that H3, H4 and H2B underwent differential acetylation at specific sites depending on whether rats had been exposed to the context of a task without having to learn or had to learn about a place or fear therein: H3K9K14 acetylation was mostly responsive to any experimental conditions compared to naive animals, whereas H2B N-terminus and H4K12 acetylations were mostly associated with memory for either spatial or fear learning. Altogether, these data suggest that behavior/experience-dependent changes differently regulate specific acetylation modifications of histones in the hippocampus, depending on whether a memory trace is established or not: tagging of H3K9K14 could be associated with perception/processing of testing-related manipulations and context, thereby enhancing chromatin accessibility, while tagging of H2B N-terminus tail and H4K12 could be more closely associated with the formation of memories requiring an engagement of the hippocampus.

  4. Fetal and early post-natal mineralization of the tympanic bulla in fin whales may reveal a Hitherto undiscovered evolutionary trait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cozzi

    Full Text Available The evolution of the cetacean skeleton followed a path that differentiated this group from other terrestrial mammals about 50 million years ago [1], and debate is still going on about the relationships between Cetacea and Artiodactyla [2], [3], [4]. Some skeletal traits of the basilosaurids (the more advanced forms of Archaeocetes, such as the expansion of the peribullary air sinuses, dental modification and vertebral size uniformity [5] are maintained and further emphasized also in contemporary odontocetes and mysticetes. Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry here we report that the deposition of bone mineral in fetal and newborn specimens of the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus is remarkably higher in the bulla tympanica than in the adjacent basal skull or in the rest of the skeleton. Ossification of the tympanic bulla in fetal Artiodactyla (bovine, hippopotamus is minimal, becomes sensible after birth and then progresses during growth, contrarily to the precocious mineralization that we observed in fin whales. Given the importance of the ear bones for the precise identification of phylogenetic relationship in therian evolution [6], this feature may indicate a specific evolutionary trait of fin whales and possibly other cetacean species or families. Early mineralization of the tympanic bulla allows immediate sound conduction in the aquatic medium and consequently holds potential importance for mother-calf relationship and postnatal survival.

  5. On a Generalization of Kingman's Bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhen; Nain, Philippe; Towsley, Don

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we develop a framework for computing upper and lower bounds of an exponential form for a class of single server queueing systems with non-renewal inputs. These bounds generalize Kingman's bounds for queues with renewal inputs.

  6. Gene expression profiling in a mouse model of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis reveals upregulation of immediate early genes and mediators of the inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Sandra L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The infantile form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (also known as infantile Batten disease is caused by hereditary deficiency of a lysosomal enzyme, palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1, and is characterized by severe cortical degeneration with blindness and cognitive and motor dysfunction. The PPT1-deficient knockout mouse recapitulates the key features of the disorder, including seizures and death by 7–9 months of age. In the current study, we compared gene expression profiles of whole brain from PPT1 knockout and normal mice at 3, 5 and 8 months of age to identify temporal changes in molecular pathways implicated in disease pathogenesis. Results A total of 267 genes were significantly (approximately 2-fold up- or downregulated over the course of the disease. Immediate early genes (Arc, Cyr61, c-fos, jun-b, btg2, NR4A1 were among the first genes upregulated during the presymptomatic period whereas immune response genes dominated at later time points. Chemokine ligands and protease inhibitors were among the most transcriptionally responsive genes. Neuronal survival factors (IGF-1 and CNTF and a negative regulator of neuronal apoptosis (DAP kinase-1 were upregulated late in the course of the disease. Few genes were downregulated; these included the α2 subunit of the GABA-A receptor, a component of cortical and hippocampal neurons, and Hes5, a transcription factor important in neuronal differentiation. Conclusion A molecular description of gene expression changes occurring in the brain throughout the course of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis suggests distinct phases of disease progression, provides clues to potential markers of disease activity, and points to new targets for therapy.

  7. Tracking post-hibernation behavior and early migration does not reveal the expected sex-differences in a "female-migrating" bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina K N Dechmann

    Full Text Available Long-distance migration is a rare phenomenon in European bats. Genetic analyses and banding studies show that females can cover distances of up to 1,600 km, whereas males are sedentary or migrate only short distances. The onset of this sex-biased migration is supposed to occur shortly after rousing from hibernation and when the females are already pregnant. We therefore predicted that the sexes are exposed to different energetic pressures in early spring, and this should be reflected in their behavior and physiology. We investigated this in one of the three Central European long-distance migrants, the common noctule (Nyctalus noctula in Southern Germany recording the first individual partial migration tracks of this species. In contrast to our predictions, we found no difference between male and female home range size, activity, habitat use or diet. Males and females emerged from hibernation in similar body condition and mass increase rate was the same in males and females. We followed the first migration steps, up to 475 km, of radio-tagged individuals from an airplane. All females, as well as some of the males, migrated away from the wintering area in the same northeasterly direction. Sex differences in long-distance migratory behavior were confirmed through stable isotope analysis of hair, which showed greater variation in females than in males. We hypothesize that both sexes faced similarly good conditions after hibernation and fattened at maximum rates, thus showing no differences in their local behavior. Interesting results that warrant further investigation are the better initial condition of the females and the highly consistent direction of the first migratory step in this population as summering habitats of the common noctule occur at a broad range in Northern Europe. Only research focused on individual strategies will allow us to fully understand the migratory behavior of European bats.

  8. Challenge of pigs with classical swine fever viruses after C-strain vaccination reveals remarkably rapid protection and insights into early immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Graham

    Full Text Available Pre-emptive culling is becoming increasingly questioned as a means of controlling animal diseases, including classical swine fever (CSF. This has prompted discussions on the use of emergency vaccination to control future CSF outbreaks in domestic pigs. Despite a long history of safe use in endemic areas, there is a paucity of data on aspects important to emergency strategies, such as how rapidly CSFV vaccines would protect against transmission, and if this protection is equivalent for all viral genotypes, including highly divergent genotype 3 strains. To evaluate these questions, pigs were vaccinated with the Riemser® C-strain vaccine at 1, 3 and 5 days prior to challenge with genotype 2.1 and 3.3 challenge strains. The vaccine provided equivalent protection against clinical disease caused by for the two challenge strains and, as expected, protection was complete at 5 days post-vaccination. Substantial protection was achieved after 3 days, which was sufficient to prevent transmission of the 3.3 strain to animals in direct contact. Even by one day post-vaccination approximately half the animals were partially protected, and were able to control the infection, indicating that a reduction of the infectious potential is achieved very rapidly after vaccination. There was a close temporal correlation between T cell IFN-γ responses and protection. Interestingly, compared to responses of animals challenged 5 days after vaccination, challenge of animals 3 or 1 days post-vaccination resulted in impaired vaccine-induced T cell responses. This, together with the failure to detect a T cell IFN-γ response in unprotected and unvaccinated animals, indicates that virulent CSFV can inhibit the potent antiviral host defences primed by C-strain in the early period post vaccination.

  9. Tracking post-hibernation behavior and early migration does not reveal the expected sex-differences in a "female-migrating" bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechmann, Dina K N; Wikelski, Martin; Varga, Katarina; Yohannes, Elisabeth; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Safi, Kamran; Burkhard, Wolf-Dieter; O'Mara, M Teague

    2014-01-01

    Long-distance migration is a rare phenomenon in European bats. Genetic analyses and banding studies show that females can cover distances of up to 1,600 km, whereas males are sedentary or migrate only short distances. The onset of this sex-biased migration is supposed to occur shortly after rousing from hibernation and when the females are already pregnant. We therefore predicted that the sexes are exposed to different energetic pressures in early spring, and this should be reflected in their behavior and physiology. We investigated this in one of the three Central European long-distance migrants, the common noctule (Nyctalus noctula) in Southern Germany recording the first individual partial migration tracks of this species. In contrast to our predictions, we found no difference between male and female home range size, activity, habitat use or diet. Males and females emerged from hibernation in similar body condition and mass increase rate was the same in males and females. We followed the first migration steps, up to 475 km, of radio-tagged individuals from an airplane. All females, as well as some of the males, migrated away from the wintering area in the same northeasterly direction. Sex differences in long-distance migratory behavior were confirmed through stable isotope analysis of hair, which showed greater variation in females than in males. We hypothesize that both sexes faced similarly good conditions after hibernation and fattened at maximum rates, thus showing no differences in their local behavior. Interesting results that warrant further investigation are the better initial condition of the females and the highly consistent direction of the first migratory step in this population as summering habitats of the common noctule occur at a broad range in Northern Europe. Only research focused on individual strategies will allow us to fully understand the migratory behavior of European bats. PMID:25517947

  10. Fossil worm burrows reveal very early terrestrial animal activity and shed light on trophic resources after the end-cretaceous mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Karen; Pearson, Dean; Ekdale, A A

    2013-01-01

    The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty sandstone, and reveal intense faunal activity within centimeters of the boundary clay. Estimated rates of sedimentation and coal formation suggest that the burrows were made less than ten thousand years after the end-Cretaceous impact. The burrow characteristics are most consistent with burrows of extant earthworms. Moreover, the burrowing and detritivorous habits of these annelids fit models that predict the trophic and sheltering lifestyles of terrestrial animals that survived the K/Pg extinction event. In turn, such detritus-eaters would have played a critical role in supporting secondary consumers. Thus, some of the carnivorous vertebrates that radiated after the K/Pg extinction may owe their evolutionary success to thriving populations of earthworms. PMID:23951041

  11. Transcriptome analysis of the couch potato (CPO) protein reveals an expression pattern associated with early development in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Nuñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Maldonado-Aguayo, Waleska

    2014-02-15

    The couch potato (CPO) protein is a key biomolecule involved in regulating diapause through the RNA-binding process of the peripheral and central nervous systems in insects and also recently discovered in a few crustacean species. As such, ectoparasitic copepods are interesting model species that have no evidence of developmental arrest. The present study is the first to report on the cloning of a putative CPO gene from the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi (CrCPO), as identified by high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. In addition, the transcription expression in larvae and adults was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. The CrCPO cDNA sequence showed 3261 base pairs (bp), consisting of 713bp of 5' UTR, 1741bp of 3' UTR, and an open reading frame of 807bp encoding for 268 amino acids. The highly conserved RNA binding regions RNP2 (LFVSGL) and RNP1 (SPVGFVTF), as well the dimerization site (LEF), were also found. Furthermore, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the untranslated regions and one located in the coding region were detected. Gene transcription analysis revealed that CrCPO has ubiquitous expression across larval stages and in adult individuals, with the highest expression from nauplius to copepodid stages. The present study suggests a putative biological function of CrCPO associated with the development of the nervous system in salmon lice and contributes molecular evidence for candidate genes related to host-parasite interactions. PMID:24342663

  12. Fossil worm burrows reveal very early terrestrial animal activity and shed light on trophic resources after the end-cretaceous mass extinction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Chin

    Full Text Available The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty sandstone, and reveal intense faunal activity within centimeters of the boundary clay. Estimated rates of sedimentation and coal formation suggest that the burrows were made less than ten thousand years after the end-Cretaceous impact. The burrow characteristics are most consistent with burrows of extant earthworms. Moreover, the burrowing and detritivorous habits of these annelids fit models that predict the trophic and sheltering lifestyles of terrestrial animals that survived the K/Pg extinction event. In turn, such detritus-eaters would have played a critical role in supporting secondary consumers. Thus, some of the carnivorous vertebrates that radiated after the K/Pg extinction may owe their evolutionary success to thriving populations of earthworms.

  13. A systems level analysis reveals transcriptomic and proteomic complexity in Ixodes ricinus midgut and salivary glands during early attachment and feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Tenzer, Stefan; Hackenberg, Michael; Erhart, Jan; Gerhold-Ay, Aslihan; Mazur, Johanna; Kuharev, Jörg; Ribeiro, José M C; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2014-10-01

    Although pathogens are usually transmitted within the first 24-48 h of attachment of the castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus, little is known about the tick's biological responses at these earliest phases of attachment. Tick midgut and salivary glands are the main tissues involved in tick blood feeding and pathogen transmission but the limited genomic information for I. ricinus delays the application of high-throughput methods to study their physiology. We took advantage of the latest advances in the fields of Next Generation RNA-Sequencing and Label-free Quantitative Proteomics to deliver an unprecedented, quantitative description of the gene expression dynamics in the midgut and salivary glands of this disease vector upon attachment to the vertebrate host. A total of 373 of 1510 identified proteins had higher expression in the salivary glands, but only 110 had correspondingly high transcript levels in the same tissue. Furthermore, there was midgut-specific expression of 217 genes at both the transcriptome and proteome level. Tissue-dependent transcript, but not protein, accumulation was revealed for 552 of 885 genes. Moreover, we discovered the enrichment of tick salivary glands in proteins involved in gene transcription and translation, which agrees with the secretory role of this tissue; this finding also agrees with our finding of lower tick t-RNA representation in the salivary glands when compared with the midgut. The midgut, in turn, is enriched in metabolic components and proteins that support its mechanical integrity in order to accommodate and metabolize the ingested blood. Beyond understanding the physiological events that support hematophagy by arthropod ectoparasites, we discovered more than 1500 proteins located at the interface between ticks, the vertebrate host, and the tick-borne pathogens. Thus, our work significantly improves the knowledge of the genetics underlying the transmission lifecycle of this tick species, which is an essential step for

  14. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    range reporting problem. In approximate simplex range reporting, points that lie within a distance of ε ⋅ Diam(s) from the border of a query simplex s, are free to be included or excluded from the output, where ε ≥ 0 is an input parameter to the range searching problem. We prove our lower bounds......Table of Contents -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In this paper we present a number of improved lower bounds for range searching in the pointer machine and the group model. In the pointer machine, we prove lower bounds for the approximate simplex...... by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...

  15. Simulation bounds for system availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    System availability is a dominant factor in the practicality of nuclear power electrical generating plants. A proposed model for obtaining either lower bounds or interval estimates on availability uses observed data on ''n'' failure-to-repair cycles of the system to estimate the parameters in the time-to-failure and time-to-repair models. These estimates are then used in simulating failure/repair cycles of the system. The availability estimate is obtained for each of 5000 samples of ''n'' failure/repair cycles to form a distribution of estimates. Specific percentile points of those simulated distributions are selected as lower simulation bounds or simulation interval bounds for the system availability. The method is illustrated with operational data from two nuclear plants for which an exponential time-to-failure and a lognormal time-to-repair are assumed

  16. Refining Castelnuovo-Halphen bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gennaro, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Fix integers $r,d,s,\\pi$ with $r\\geq 4$, $d\\gg s$, $r-1\\leq s \\leq 2r-4$, and $\\pi\\geq 0$. Refining classical results for the genus of a projective curve, we exhibit a sharp upper bound for the arithmetic genus $p_a(C)$ of an integral projective curve $C\\subset {\\mathbb{P}^r}$ of degree $d$, assuming that $C$ is not contained in any surface of degree $ \\pi$. Next we discuss other types of bound for $p_a(C)$, involving conditions on the entire Hilbert polynomial of the integral surfaces on which $C$ may lie.

  17. Space-bounded communication complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Chen, Shiteng; Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.;

    2013-01-01

    In the past thirty years, Communication Complexity has emerged as a foundational tool to proving lower bounds in many areas of computer science. Its power comes from its generality, but this generality comes at a price---no superlinear communication lower bound is possible, since a player may...... communicate his entire input. However, what if the players are limited in their ability to recall parts of their interaction? We introduce memory models for 2-party communication complexity. Our general model is as follows: two computationally unrestricted players, Alice and Bob, each have s(n) bits of memory...

  18. Bounding solutions of Pfaff equations

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, E.; Kleiman, S

    2003-01-01

    Let \\omega be a Pfaff system of differential forms on a projective space. Let S be its singular locus, and Y a solution of \\omega=0. We prove Y\\cap S is of codimension at most 1 in Y, just as Jouanolou suspected; he proved this result assuming \\omega is completely integrable, and asked if the integrability is, in fact, needed. Furthermore, we prove a lower bound on the Castelnuovo--Mumford regularity of Y\\cap S. As in two related articles, we derive upper bounds on numerical invariants of Y, ...

  19. Bound orbits and gravitational theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dadhich, Naresh; Ghosh, Sushant G.(School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, 4000, Durban, South Africa); Jhingan, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    It can be easily shown that bound orbits around a static source can exist only in 4 dimension and in none else for any long range force. This is so not only for Maxwell's electromagnetic and Newton's gravity but also for Einstein's gravitation theory. In contrast to Maxwell's electrodynamics and Newton's gravity, GR has a natural higher dimensional generalization in Lovelock gravity which remarkably admits bound orbits around a static black hole in all even d=2N+2 dimensions where $N$ is degr...

  20. Bound states of 'dressed' particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to the problem of bound states in relativistic quantum field theories is suggested. It uses the creation - destruction operators of 'dresses' particles which have been granted by Faddeev's (1963) 'dressing' formalism. Peculiarities of the proposed approach as compared to the known ones are discussed. 8 refs. (author)

  1. Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing...

  2. Semiclassical bounds in magnetic bottles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barseghyan, Diana; Exner, Pavel; Kovařík, H.; Weidl, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2016), s. 1650002. ISSN 0129-055X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : magnetic Laplacian * discrete spectrum * eigenvalue bounds Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.329, year: 2014

  3. Unconditional lower bounds against advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Buhrman; L. Fortnow; R. Santhanam

    2009-01-01

    We show several unconditional lower bounds for exponential time classes against polynomial time classes with advice, including: (1) For any constant c, NEXP not in P^{NP[n^c]} (2) For any constant c, MAEXP not in MA/n^c (3) BPEXP not in BPP/n^{o(1)}. It was previously unknown even whether NEXP in NP

  4. Bounded Fixed-Point Iteration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    1992-01-01

    In the context of abstract interpretation the authors study the number of times a functional needs to be unfolded in order to give the least fixed point. For the cases of total or monotone functions they obtain an exponential bound and in the case of strict and additive (or distributive) functions...

  5. Market Access through Bound Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...

  6. Market access through bound tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...

  7. Improved Bounds for Geometric Permutations

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Natan; Sharir, Micha

    2010-01-01

    We show that the number of geometric permutations of an arbitrary collection of $n$ pairwise disjoint convex sets in $\\mathbb{R}^d$, for $d\\geq 3$, is $O(n^{2d-3}\\log n)$, improving Wenger's 20 years old bound of $O(n^{2d-2})$.

  8. Lower Complexity Bounds for Lifted Inference

    CERN Document Server

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    One of the big challenges in the development of probabilistic relational (or probabilistic logical) modeling and learning frameworks is the design of inference techniques that operate on the level of the abstract model representation language, rather than on the level of ground, propositional instances of the model. Numerous approaches for such "lifted inference" techniques have been proposed. While it has been demonstrated that these techniques will lead to significantly more efficient inference on some specific models, there are only very recent and still quite restricted results that show the feasibility of lifted inference on certain syntactically defined classes of models. Lower complexity bounds that imply some limitations for the feasibility of lifted inference on more expressive model classes were established early on in (Jaeger 2000). However, it is not immediate that these results also apply to the type of modeling languages that currently receive the most attention, i.e., weighted, quantifier-free ...

  9. An exact approach for single machine scheduling with quadratic earliness and tardiness penalties

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge M. S. Valente

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the single machine scheduling problem with quadratic earliness and tardiness costs, and no machine idle time. We propose two different lower bounds, as well as a lower bounding procedure that combines these two bounds. Optimal branch-and-bound algorithms are then presented. These algorithms incorporate the proposed lower bound, as well as an insertion-based dominance test. The lower bounding procedure and the branch-and-bound algorithms are tested on a wide set of r...

  10. Universal Entropy Bound for Rotating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hod, Shahar

    1999-01-01

    We conjecture a universal upper bound to the entropy of a rotating system. The entropy bound follows from application of the generalized second law of thermodynamics to an idealized gedanken experiment in which an entropy-bearing rotating system falls into a black hole. This bound is stronger than the Bekenstein entropy bound for non-rotating systems.

  11. In-medium antikaon interactions and bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Gal, Avraham; Barnea, Nir; Cieplý, Aleš; Mareš, Jiří; Gazda, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Correct treatment of subthreshold Kbar-N dynamics is mandatory in kaonic-atom and Kbar-nuclear bound-state calculations, as demonstrated by using in-medium chirally-based models of Kbar-N interactions. Recent studies of kaonic-atom data reveal appreciable multi-nucleon contributions. Kbar-nuclear widths larger than 50 MeV are anticipated.

  12. The early days of splints and splinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Harold

    2011-07-01

    There can be little doubt that fractures and wounds would have been among the first problems that the healers within primitive communities would have been called upon to treat. Indeed, this has been amply confirmed by anthropologists and archaeologists. The Australian aboriginals seem to have taken the adage 'splint the patient where he lies' quite literally. Early observers saw the relatives take it in turns simply to hold the injured leg still until union occurred, a shelter being erected over the patient and his succession of 'human splints'. The excavation of ancient Egyptian burial sites by Sir Grafton Elliot Smith in the early years of the 20th century revealed fractures of some 5000 years ago, bound up in splints of bark, wrapped in linen and held by bandages. Where the fractures were compound, dressings of vegetable fibre were used to plug the wound and some still showed traces of 50 century old blood! PMID:21874991

  13. Physics with loosely bound nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chhanda Samanta

    2001-08-01

    The essential aspect of contemporary physics is to understand properties of nucleonic matter that constitutes the world around us. Over the years research in nuclear physics has provided strong guidance in understanding the basic principles of nuclear interactions. But, the scenario of nuclear physics changed drastically as the new generation of accelerators started providing more and more rare isotopes, which are away from the line of stability. These weakly bound nuclei are found to exhibit new forms of nuclear matter and unprecedented exotic behaviour. The low breakup thresholds of these rare nuclei are posing new challenges to both theory and experiments. Fortunately, nature has provided a few loosely bound stable nuclei that have been studied thoroughly for decades. Attempts are being made to find a consistent picture for the unstable nuclei starting from their stable counterparts. Some significant differences in the structure and reaction mechanisms are found.

  14. Concentration Bounds for Stochastic Approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Frikha, Noufel

    2012-01-01

    We obtain non asymptotic concentration bounds for two kinds of stochastic approximations. We first consider the deviations between the expectation of a given function of the Euler scheme of some diffusion process at a fixed deterministic time and its empirical mean obtained by the Monte-Carlo procedure. We then give some estimates concerning the deviation between the value at a given time-step of a stochastic approximation algorithm and its target. Under suitable assumptions both concentration bounds turn out to be Gaussian. The key tool consists in exploiting accurately the concentration properties of the increments of the schemes. For the first case, as opposed to the previous work of Lemaire and Menozzi (EJP, 2010), we do not have any systematic bias in our estimates. Also, no specific non-degeneracy conditions are assumed.

  15. Bound anionic states of adenine

    OpenAIRE

    Harańczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

    2007-01-01

    Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine...

  16. The bound mu+ mu- system

    OpenAIRE

    Jentschura, U.; Soff, G.; Ivanov, V.; Karshenboim, S.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the hyperfine structure, the atomic spectrum and the decay channels of the bound mu+ mu- system (dimuonium). The annihilation lifetimes of low-lying atomic states of the system lie in the nanosecond range range. The decay rates could be measured by detection of the decay products (high energy photons or electron-positron pairs). The hyperfine structure splitting of the dimuonic system and its decay rate are influenced by electronic vacuum polarization effects in the far time-like ...

  17. Provably Bounded-Optimal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, S J; Subramanian, D.

    1995-01-01

    Since its inception, artificial intelligence has relied upon a theoretical foundation centered around perfect rationality as the desired property of intelligent systems. We argue, as others have done, that this foundation is inadequate because it imposes fundamentally unsatisfiable requirements. As a result, there has arisen a wide gap between theory and practice in AI, hindering progress in the field. We propose instead a property called bounded optimality. Roughly speaking, an agent is boun...

  18. 78 FR 18326 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science... Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB Control Number: 1840-NEW. Type of Review: New... under the regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department...

  19. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  20. The Cost of Bounded Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyo-Sil

    2011-01-01

    We study the motion-planning problem for a car-like robot whose turning radius is bounded from below by one and which is allowed to move in the forward direction only (Dubins car). For two robot configurations $\\sigma, \\sigma'$, let $\\ell(\\sigma, \\sigma')$ be the shortest bounded-curvature path from $\\sigma$ to $\\sigma'$. For $d \\geq 0$, let $\\ell(d)$ be the supremum of $\\ell(\\sigma, \\sigma')$, over all pairs $(\\sigma, \\sigma')$ that are at Euclidean distance $d$. We study the function $\\dub(d) = \\ell(d) - d$, which expresses the difference between the bounded-curvature path length and the Euclidean distance of its endpoints. We show that $\\dub(d)$ decreases monotonically from $\\dub(0) = 7\\pi/3$ to $\\dub(\\ds) = 2\\pi$, and is constant for $d \\geq \\ds$. Here $\\ds \\approx 1.5874$. We describe pairs of configurations that exhibit the worst-case of $\\dub(d)$ for every distance $d$.

  1. Causal Entropy Bound for a Spacelike Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustein, R.; Veneziano, G.

    2000-06-01

    The identification of a causal-connection scale motivates us to propose a new covariant bound on entropy within a generic spacelike region. This ``causal entropy bound,'' scaling as EV, and thus lying around the geometric mean of Bekenstein's S/ER and holographic S/A bounds, is checked in various ``critical'' situations. In the case of limited gravity, Bekenstein's bound is the strongest while naive holography is the weakest. In the case of strong gravity, our bound and Bousso's holographic bound are stronger than Bekenstein's, while naive holography is too tight, and hence typically wrong.

  2. Monotonicity of the quantum linear programming bound

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. Rains

    1998-01-01

    The most powerful technique known at present for bounding the size of quantum codes of prescribed minimum distance is the quantum linear programming bound. Unlike the classical linear programming bound, it is not immediately obvious that if the quantum linear programming constraints are satisfiable for dimension K, that the constraints can be satisfied for all lower dimensions. We show that the quantum linear programming bound is indeed monotonic in this sense, and give an explicitly monotoni...

  3. Bound entangled states invariant under Ux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhen; Wang Zhi-Xi

    2008-01-01

    This paper obtains an entangled condition for isotropic-like states by using an atomic map. It constructs a class of bound entangled states from the entangled condition and shows that the partial transposition of the state from the constructed bound entangled class is an edge bound entangled state by using range criterion.

  4. Bounded rationality and heterogeneous expectations in macroeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Massaro

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies the effect of individual bounded rationality on aggregate macroeconomic dynamics. Boundedly rational agents are specified as using simple heuristics in their decision making. An important aspect of the type of bounded rationality described in this thesis is that the population of

  5. Upper Bounds on Numerical Approximation Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper suggests a method for determining rigorous upper bounds on approximationerrors of numerical solutions to infinite horizon dynamic programming models.Bounds are provided for approximations of the value function and the policyfunction as well as the derivatives of the value function. The...... approximations of a standard (strictly concave)growth model.KEYWORDS: Numerical approximation errors, Bellman contractions, Error bounds...

  6. Atoms as Qed bound atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relevance of Quantum Electrodynamics (Qed) in contemporary atomic structure theory is reviewed. Recent experimental advances allow both the production of heavy ions of high charge as well as the measurement of atomic properties with a precision never achieved before. The description of heavy atoms with few electrons via the successive incorporation of one, two, etcetera photons in a rigorous manner and within the bound state Furry representation of Qed is technically feasible. For many-electron atoms the many-body (correlation) effects are very important and it is practically impossible to evaluate all the relevant Feynman diagrams to the required accuracy. Thus, it is necessary to develop a theoretical scheme in which the radiative and nonradiative effects are taken into account in an effective way making emphasis in electronic correlation. Preserving gauge invariance, and avoiding both continuum dissolution and variational collapse are basic problems that must be solved when using effective potential methods and finite-basis representations of them. In this context, we shall discuss advances and problems in the description of atoms as Qed bound states. (Author)

  7. Transferrin-bound proteins as potential biomarkers for advanced breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dowling

    2014-12-01

    General significance: Mass spectrometry profiling of Transferrin-bound proteins has revealed serum proteins that can distinguish between serum from advanced breast cancer patients and healthy control subjects with high confidence.

  8. Bounded generalized Harish-Chandra modules

    OpenAIRE

    Penkov, Ivan; Serganova, Vera

    2007-01-01

    Let $\\gg$ be a complex reductive Lie algebra and $\\kk\\subset\\gg$ be any reductive in $\\gg$ subalgebra. We call a $(\\gg,\\kk)$-module $M$ bounded if the $\\kk$-multiplicities of $M$ are uniformly bounded. In this paper we initiate a general study of simple bounded $(\\gg,\\kk)$-modules. We prove a strong necessary condition for a subalgebra $\\kk$ to be bounded (Corollary \\ref{cor1.6}), i.e. to admit an infinite-dimensional simple bounded $(\\gg,\\kk)$-module, and then establish a sufficient conditio...

  9. Higgs mass bounds from the functional RG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate a Top-Yukawa toy model to study Higgs mass bounds in the framework of the functional renormalization group (RG). Starting the calculations with a quartic ultraviolet (UV) potential we get a finite range of values for the Higgs mass in the infrared for a given cutoff. The bounds appear in a natural way as a consequence of the RG flow. The lower mass bound is approached for a vanishing UV quartic coupling. Furthermore, we study the influence of higher-dimensional operators on the lower Higgs mass bound. We find that even seemingly RG irrelevant interactions can take a substantial influence on the lower bound for the Higgs mass.

  10. Genetic architecture of early pre-inflammatory stage transcription signatures of autoimmune diabetes in the pancreatic lymph nodes of the NOD mouse reveals significant gene enrichment on chromosomes 6 and 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Regnault

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the stimulation of an excessive immune response to self-tissues by inner and/or outer organism factors. Common characteristics in their etiology include a complex genetic predisposition and environmental triggers as well as the implication of the major histocompatibility (MHC locus on human chromosome 6p21. A restraint number of non-MHC susceptibility genes, part of the genetic component of type 1 diabetes have been identified in human and in animal models, while the complete spectrum of genes involved remains unknown. We elaborate herein patterns of chromosomal organization of 162 genes differentially expressed in the pancreatic lymph nodes of Non-Obese Diabetic mice, carefully selected by early sub-phenotypic evaluation (presence or absence of insulin autoantibodies. Chromosomal assignment of these genes revealed a non-random distribution on five chromosomes (47%. Significant gene enrichment was observed in particular for two chromosomes, 6 and 7. While a subset of these genes coding for secreted proteins showed significant enrichment on both chromosomes, the overall pool of genes was significantly enriched on chromosome 7. The significance of this unexpected gene distribution on the mouse genome is discussed in the light of novel findings indicating that genes affecting common diseases map to recombination “hotspot” regions of mammalian genomes. The genetic architecture of transcripts differentially expressed in specific stages of autoimmune diabetes offers novel venues towards our understanding of patterns of inheritance potentially affecting the pathological disease mechanisms.

  11. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  12. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Masatlioglu, Yusufcan; NAKAJIMA, Daisuke; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide wellestablished evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed behav...

  13. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Yusufcan Masatlioglu; Daisuke Nakajima; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide well-established evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed beha...

  14. Revisiting Gruss's inequality: covariance bounds,QDE but not QD copulas, and central moments

    CERN Document Server

    Egozcue, Martin; Wong, Wing-Keung; Zitikis, Ricardas

    2010-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Gerhard Gruss dating back to 1935, Gruss's inequality and, more generally, Gruss-type bounds for covariances have fascinated researchers and found numerous applications in areas such as economics, insurance, reliability, and, more generally, decision making under uncertainly. Gruss-type bounds for covariances have been established mainly under most general dependence structures, meaning no restrictions on the dependence structure between the two underlying random variables. Recent work in the area has revealed a potential for improving Gruss-type bounds, including the original Gruss's bound, assuming dependence structures such as quadrant dependence (QD). In this paper we demonstrate that the relatively little explored notion of `quadrant dependence in expectation' (QDE) is ideally suited in the context of bounding covariances, especially those that appear in the aforementioned areas of application. We explore this research avenue in detail, establish general Gruss-type bounds, an...

  15. Capacity Bounds for Parallel Optical Wireless Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2016-01-01

    A system consisting of parallel optical wireless channels with a total average intensity constraint is studied. Capacity upper and lower bounds for this system are derived. Under perfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT), the bounds have to be optimized with respect to the power allocation over the parallel channels. The optimization of the lower bound is non-convex, however, the KKT conditions can be used to find a list of possible solutions one of which is optimal. The optimal solution can then be found by an exhaustive search algorithm, which is computationally expensive. To overcome this, we propose low-complexity power allocation algorithms which are nearly optimal. The optimized capacity lower bound nearly coincides with the capacity at high SNR. Without CSIT, our capacity bounds lead to upper and lower bounds on the outage probability. The outage probability bounds meet at high SNR. The system with average and peak intensity constraints is also discussed.

  16. Information bounds for Gaussian copulas

    CERN Document Server

    Hoff, Peter D; Wellner, Jon A

    2011-01-01

    Often of primary interest in the analysis of multivariate data are the copula parameters describing the dependence among the variables, rather than the univariate marginal distributions. Since the ranks of a multivariate dataset are invariant to changes in the univariate marginal distributions, rank-based procedures are natural candidates as semiparametric estimators of copula parameters. Asymptotic information bounds for such estimators can be obtained from an asymptotic analysis of the rank likelihood, i.e. the probability of the multivariate ranks. In this article, we obtain limiting normal distributions of the rank likelihood for Gaussian copula models. Our results cover models with structured correlation matrices, such as exchangeable, autoregressive and circular correlation, as well as unstructured correlation matrices. For all Gaussian copula models, the limiting distribution of the rank likelihood ratio is shown to be equal to that of a parametric likelihood ratio for an appropriately chosen multivari...

  17. Spectral computations for bounded operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan

    2001-01-01

    Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...

  18. Antibaryon-nucleus bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Hrtánková, J

    2014-01-01

    We calculated antibaryon ($\\bar{B}$ = $\\bar{p}$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $\\bar{\\Sigma}$, $\\bar{\\Xi}$) bound states in selected nuclei within the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model. The G-parity motivated $\\bar{B}$-meson coupling constants were scaled to yield corresponding potentials consistent with available experimental data. Large polarization of the nuclear core caused by $\\bar{B}$ was confirmed. The $\\bar{p}$ annihilation in the nuclear medium was incorporated by including a phenomenological imaginary part of the optical potential. The calculations using a complex $\\bar{p}$-nucleus potential were performed fully self-consistently. The $\\bar{p}$ widths significantly decrease when the phase space reduction is considered for $\\bar{p}$ annihilation products, but they still remain sizeable for potentials consistent with $\\bar{p}$-atom data.

  19. Towards Bounded Infeasible Code Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, Jürgen; Schäf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A first step towards more reliable software is to execute each statement and each control-flow path in a method once. In this paper, we present a formal method to automatically compute test cases for this purpose based on the idea of a bounded infeasible code detection. The method first unwinds all loops in a program finitely often and then encodes all feasible executions of the loop-free programs in a logical formula. Helper variables are introduced such that a theorem prover can reconstruct the control-flow path of a feasible execution from a satisfying valuation of this formula. Based on this formula, we present one algorithm that computes a feasible path cover and one algorithm that computes a feasible statement cover. We show that the algorithms are complete for loop-free programs and that they can be implemented efficiently. We further provide a sound algorithm to compute procedure summaries which makes the method scalable to larger programs.

  20. Performance Bounds of Quaternion Estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yili; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Nitta, Tohru; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-12-01

    The quaternion widely linear (WL) estimator has been recently introduced for optimal second-order modeling of the generality of quaternion data, both second-order circular (proper) and second-order noncircular (improper). Experimental evidence exists of its performance advantage over the conventional strictly linear (SL) as well as the semi-WL (SWL) estimators for improper data. However, rigorous theoretical and practical performance bounds are still missing in the literature, yet this is crucial for the development of quaternion valued learning systems for 3-D and 4-D data. To this end, based on the orthogonality principle, we introduce a rigorous closed-form solution to quantify the degree of performance benefits, in terms of the mean square error, obtained when using the WL models. The cases when the optimal WL estimation can simplify into the SWL or the SL estimation are also discussed. PMID:25643416

  1. Production of strongly bound 39K bright solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Lepoutre, S; Boissé, A; Berthet, G; Salomon, G; Aspect, A; Bourdel, T

    2016-01-01

    We report on the production of 39 K matter-wave bright solitons, i.e., 1D matter-waves that propagate without dispersion thanks to attractive interactions. The volume of the soliton is studied as a function of the scattering length through three-body losses, revealing peak densities as high as $\\sim 5 \\times 10^{20} m^{-3}$. Our solitons, close to the collapse threshold, are strongly bound and will find applications in fundamental physics and atom interferometry.

  2. Instanton bound states in ABJM theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-06-15

    The partition function of the ABJM theory receives non-perturbative corrections due to instanton effects. We study these non-perturbative corrections, including bound states of worldsheet instantons and membrane instantons, in the Fermi-gas approach. We require that the total non-perturbative correction should be always finite for arbitrary Chern-Simons level. This finiteness is realized quite non-trivially because each bound state contribution naively diverges at some levels. The poles of each contribution should be canceled out in total. We use this pole cancellation mechanism to find unknown bound state corrections from known ones. We conjecture a general expression of the bound state contribution. Summing up all the bound state contributions, we find that the effect of bound states is simply incorporated into the worldsheet instanton correction by a redefinition of the chemical potential in the Fermi-gas system. Analytic expressions of the 3- and 4-membrane instanton corrections are also proposed.

  3. Thermodynamic law from the entanglement entropy bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chanyong

    2016-04-01

    From black hole thermodynamics, the Bekenstein bound has been proposed as a universal thermal entropy bound. It has been further generalized to an entanglement entropy bound which is valid even in a quantum system. In a quantumly entangled system, the non-negativity of the relative entropy leads to the entanglement entropy bound. When the entanglement entropy bound is saturated, a quantum system satisfies the thermodynamicslike law with an appropriately defined entanglement temperature. We show that the saturation of the entanglement entropy bound accounts for a universal feature of the entanglement temperature proportional to the inverse of the system size. In addition, we show that the deformed modular Hamiltonian under a global quench also satisfies the generalized entanglement entropy boundary after introducing a new quantity called the entanglement chemical potential.

  4. Call packing bounds for overflow queues

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk; Sluis, van der, B.

    2004-01-01

    Finite queueing loss systems are studied with overflow. For these systems there is no simple analytic expression for the loss probability or throughput. This paper aims to prove and promote easily computable bounds as based upon the so-called call packing principle. Under call packing a standard product form expression is available. It is proven that call packing leads to a guaranteed upper bound for the loss probability. In addition, an analytic error bound for the accuracy is derived which ...

  5. Bounded rationality and learning in market competition

    OpenAIRE

    Tuinstra, J.; Hommes, C.H.; Kopányi, D.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis promotes the use of bounded rationality in economic models. The assumption of perfect rationality often imposes high informational and computational burden on economic agents and predictions based on this assumption are not in line with observed behavior in some cases. Models of bounded rationality may better explain actual behavior in such situations. In the thesis we consider market models where firms are boundedly rational: they do not know the demand for their product and they...

  6. Volume bounds of conic 2-spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Hao; Lai, Mijia

    2016-01-01

    We obtain sharp volume bound for a conic 2-sphere in terms of its Gaussian curvature bound. We also give the geometric models realizing the extremal volume. In particular, when the curvature is bounded in absolute value by $1$, we compute the minimal volume of a conic sphere in the sense of Gromov. In order to apply the level set analysis and iso-perimetric inequality as in our previous works, we develop some new analytical tools to treat regions with vanishing curvature.

  7. Fuzzy upper bounds and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the concept of fuzzy upper bounds and provides some relevant applications. Considering a fuzzy DEA model, the existence of a fuzzy upper bound for the objective function of the model is shown and an effective approach to solve that model is introduced. Some dual interpretations are provided, which are useful for practical purposes. Applications of the concept of fuzzy upper bounds in two physical problems are pointed out

  8. Stable Bound Orbits around Black Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Takamori, Yohsuke, E-mail: igata@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2011-09-22

    We study stable bound orbits of a free particle around a black ring. Unlike the higher-dimensional black hole case, we find that there exist stable bound orbits in toroidal spiral shape near the ring axis and stable circular orbits on the axis. In addition, radii of stable bound orbits can be infinitely large if the ring thickness is less than a critical value.

  9. Bound beta-decay: BOB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years exotic decay modes of the neutron have been investigated as possible doorways to the exploration of new physics. The bound beta-decay (BOB) of the neutron into a hydrogen atom and an anti-neutrino offers a very elegant method to study neutrino helicities. However, this rare decay has not yet been observed for the free neutron, owing to the challenge of measuring a decay involving only electrically neutral particles and with an estimated branching ratio of only a few 106 of the three-body decay mode. During the past few years scientists from the TUM E18 Group have developed a novel experimental scheme which addresses all necessary problems associated with the observation of this two-body neutron decay in a very coherent way. The BOB experiment shall be installed at a tangential beam tube of a powerful research reactor such as the SR6 at the FRMII in Garching or H6-H7 beam tube at ILL. This talk will provide insights and ideas on how such an experiment is to be performed.

  10. Neutron bound {beta}- decay- BOB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, M.; Berger, M.; Emmerich, R.; Faestermann, T.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Hartmann, F.J.; Paul, S.; Ruschel, S.; Schoen, J.; Schott, W.; Schubert, U.; Trautner, A. [Physik-Department, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Engels, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Fierlinger, P. [Excellence Cluster Universe, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hertenberger, R. [Sektion Physik, LMU, 85748 Garching (Germany); Roehrmoser, R. [FRM2, TUM, 85748 Garching (Germany); Udem, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The bound neutron {beta}-decay(BOB) into a hydrogen atom and an electron antineutrino is investigated.The hyper-fine-state population of the monoenergetic hydrogen atoms (326.3 eV) yields the neutrino left-handed-ness or a possible right-handed admixture and possible small scalar and tensor contributions to the weak force. Preexperiments to measure the BOB H(2s) atoms have been done or are being set up using ionizer and RF discharge proton sources, a Wien filter, Cs and Ar cells, a spin filter, electric counter and accelerating fields, a double focusing magnet and a solar blind PM for the Lyman-{alpha} photons. In a first experiment, the charge exchange of the H(2s) atoms into H{sup -}, offering a selective method to discriminate these states against background, is investigated. In a second step the number of background H(2s) resulting from protons interacting with the walls of the experimental setup are determined. For this a quenching E field and a solar blind PM are used.

  11. Neutron bound β- decay- BOB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bound neutron β-decay(BOB) into a hydrogen atom and an electron antineutrino is investigated.The hyper-fine-state population of the monoenergetic hydrogen atoms (326.3 eV) yields the neutrino left-handed-ness or a possible right-handed admixture and possible small scalar and tensor contributions to the weak force. Preexperiments to measure the BOB H(2s) atoms have been done or are being set up using ionizer and RF discharge proton sources, a Wien filter, Cs and Ar cells, a spin filter, electric counter and accelerating fields, a double focusing magnet and a solar blind PM for the Lyman-α photons. In a first experiment, the charge exchange of the H(2s) atoms into H-, offering a selective method to discriminate these states against background, is investigated. In a second step the number of background H(2s) resulting from protons interacting with the walls of the experimental setup are determined. For this a quenching E field and a solar blind PM are used.

  12. Spontaneous R-Parity violation bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, M

    2001-01-01

    We investigate bounds from tree-level and one-loop processes in generic supersymmetric models with spontaneous R-parity breaking in the superpotential. We analyse the bounds from a general point of view. The bounds are applicable both for all models with spontaneous R-parity violation and for explicit bilinear R-parity violation based on general lepton-chargino and neutrino-neutralino mixings. We find constraints from semileptonic B, D and K decays, leptonic decays of the mu and tau, electric dipole moments, as well as bounds for the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon.

  13. Conductivity bounds in probe brane models

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Tatsuhiko N; Nakai, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss upper and lower bounds on the electrical conductivity of finite temperature strongly coupled quantum field theories, holographically dual to probe brane models, within linear response. In a probe limit where disorder is introduced entirely through an inhomogeneous background charge density, we find simple lower and upper bounds on the electrical conductivity in arbitrary dimensions. In field theories in two spatial dimensions, we show that both bounds persist even when disorder is included in the bulk metric. We discuss the challenges with finding sharp lower bounds on conductivity in three or more spatial dimensions when the metric is inhomogeneous.

  14. A lower bound and estimates for resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Schwinger's variational formula for the phase shifts, we deduce a lower bound for the potential strength lambdasub(l)(K) at which deltasub(l)(K)=π/2. The derivation is used to show that the lower bound is a worse estimate than a known upper bound. Whence an improved lower bound is deduced which is then used to obtain an estimate for lambdasub(l)(K). These considerations are then illustrated for some potentials of practical interest, viz., the square well, exponential, Morse and Yukawa, the results being satisfactory. (author)

  15. Bound States of Double Flavor Hyperons

    CERN Document Server

    Froemel, F; Riska, D O

    2005-01-01

    Several realistic phenomenological nucleon-nucleon interaction models are employed to investigate the possibility of bound deuteron-like states of such heavy flavor hyperons and nucleons, for which the interaction between the light flavor quark components is expected to be the most significant interaction. The results indicate that deuteron-like bound states are likely to form between nucleons and the $\\Xi_c^{'}$ and $\\Xi_{cc}$ charm hyperons as well as between $\\Xi$ hyperons and double-charm hyperons. Bound states between two $\\Sigma_c$ hyperons are also likely. In the case of beauty hyperons the corresponding states are likely to be deeply bound.

  16. Bound states of heavy flavor hyperons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömel, F.; Juliá-Díaz, B.; Riska, D. O.

    2005-04-01

    Several realistic phenomenological nucleon-nucleon interaction models are employed to investigate the possibility of bound deuteron-like states of such heavy flavor hyperons and nucleons, for which the interaction between the light flavor quark components is expected to be the most significant interaction. The results indicate that deuteron-like bound states are likely to form between nucleons and the Ξc' and Ξ charm hyperons as well as between Ξ hyperons and double-charm hyperons. Bound states between two Σ hyperons are also likely. In the case of beauty hyperons the corresponding states are likely to be deeply bound.

  17. A violation of the covariant entropy bound?

    CERN Document Server

    Masoumi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Several arguments suggest that the entropy density at high energy density $\\rho$ should be given by the expression $s=K\\sqrt{\\rho/G}$, where $K$ is a constant of order unity. On the other hand the covariant entropy bound requires that the entropy on a light sheet be bounded by $A/4G$, where $A$ is the area of the boundary of the sheet. We find that in a suitably chosen cosmological geometry, the above expression for $s$ violates the covariant entropy bound. We consider different possible explanations for this fact; in particular the possibility that entropy bounds should be defined in terms of volumes of regions rather than areas of surfaces.

  18. Bound states and Lorentz-Poincare symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hypothesis of the ''relation-continuum'' C is put forward, closely connected with isolation of physical system, which extends to finite universal constant c the absolute nature of the Galilean relative coordinates and the absolute Newtonian time. Points of C4 continuum are directly unobservable and the relativistic symmetry L4 of directly observable space-time events becomes the limiting case of the C4-symmetry. Consequently, though the possibility of the hypothesis of C4-continuum is due to quantum physics, the modifications it implies come with finite universal constant (h/2π)/c and concern the description of the internal structure of bound states only. The C4-symmetry of relations, as weaker than the Lorentz-Poincare L4-symmetry of events, makes ''more room'' for quantum dynamical models. The Feynman graphs phenomenology with form factors (vertex functions) of non-point particles left for experimental determination can be connected with the C4-framework which determines their analytic structure. The C4-effects then would reveal themselves only in these processes in which composite particles participate. Therefore, the ''good'' quantum electrodynamics of point-particles is left unmodified. Two off-mass-shell effects are analyzed in the relatively low-energy processes which are connected with the mass-dependent localization of the center-of-mass of composite particle ''M''. They seem to be crucial for the hypothesis itself. (author)

  19. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  20. Distortion Bounds for Source Broadcast over Degraded Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Lei; Li, Houqiang; Li, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    The joint source-channel coding problem of sending a memoryless source over a memoryless degraded broadcast channel is considered here. We derive an inner bound and two outer bounds on the achievable distortion region. Moreover, when specialized to Gaussian source broadcast or binary source broadcast, the inner bound and outer bounds could recover the best known inner bound and outer bound. Besides, we also extend the inner bound and outer bounds to Wyner-Ziv source broadcast problem, i.e., s...

  1. Prime bound of a graph

    CERN Document Server

    Boussaïri, Abderrahim

    2011-01-01

    Given a graph G, a subset M of V (G) is a module of G if for each v \\in V (G) \\diagdownM, v is adjacent to all the elements of M or to none of them. For instance, V(G), \\varnothing and {v} (v \\in V(G)) are modules of G called trivial. Given a graph G, m(G) denotes the largest integer m such that there is a module M of G which is a clique or a stable set in G with |M|=m. A graph G is prime if |V(G)|\\geq4 and if all its modules are trivial. The prime bound of G is the smallest integer p(G) such that there is a prime graph H with V(H)\\supseteqV(G), H[V(G)] = G and |V(H)\\diagdownV(G)|=p(G). We establish the following. For every graph G such that m(G)\\geq2 and log_2(m(G)) is not an integer, p(G)=\\lceil log_2(m(G)) \\rceil. Then, we prove that for every graph G such that m(G)=2^k where k\\geq1, p(G)=k or k + 1. Moreover p(G)=k+1 if and only if G or its complement admits 2^k isolated vertices. Lastly, we show that p(G) = 1 for every non-prime graph G such that |V(G)|\\geq4 and m(G)=1.

  2. Optimal online bounded space multidimensional packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epstein, L.; Stee, R. van

    2003-01-01

    We solve an open problem in the literature by providing an online algorithm for multidimensional bin packing that uses only bounded space. We show that it is optimal among bounded space algorithms for any dimension $d>1$. Its asymptotic performance ratio is $(Pi_{infty})^d$, where $Pi_{infty}approx1

  3. Quantum Lower Bounds by Entropy Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We use entropy numbers in combination with the polynomial method to derive a new general lower bound for the n-th minimal error in the quantum setting of information-based complexity. As an application, we improve some lower bounds on quantum approximation of embeddings between finite dimensional L_p spaces and of Sobolev embeddings.

  4. Holographic Bound in Brans-Dicke Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Yungui

    1999-01-01

    We apply the holographic principle to the Brans-Dicke cosmology. We analyze the holographic bound in both the Jordan and Einstein frames. The holographic bound is satisfied for both the k=0 and k=-1 universe, but it is violated for the k=1 matter dominated universe.

  5. Polynomially Bounded Sequences and Polynomial Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okazaki Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize polynomially bounded sequences that plays an important role in computational complexity theory. Class P is a fundamental computational complexity class that contains all polynomial-time decision problems [11], [12]. It takes polynomially bounded amount of computation time to solve polynomial-time decision problems by the deterministic Turing machine. Moreover we formalize polynomial sequences [5].

  6. Spatial coagulation with bounded coagulation rate

    CERN Document Server

    Bailleul, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the spatial coagulation equation with bounded coagulation rate is well-posed for all times in a given class of kernels if the convection term of the underlying particle dynamics has divergence bounded above by a negative constant. Multiple coagulations, fragmentation and scattering are also considered.

  7. Bound states of singlet quarks at LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnikov, N. V.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the discovery potential of the bound states of singlet quarks at LHC. We find that it is possible to discover bound states of singlet quarks at LHC with singlet quark masses up to 300 Gev for $e_{Q} = \\frac{2}{3}$ and up to 200 Gev for $e_{Q} = -\\frac{1}{3}$.

  8. No-arbitrage bounds for financial scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Alois; Hanke, Michael; Weissensteiner, Alex

    2014-01-01

    We derive no-arbitrage bounds for expected excess returns to generate scenarios used in financial applications. The bounds allow to distinguish three regions: one where arbitrage opportunities will never exist, a second where arbitrage may be present, and a third, where arbitrage opportunities will...

  9. Spatial coagulation with bounded coagulation rate

    OpenAIRE

    Bailleul, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the spatial coagulation equation with bounded coagulation rate is well-posed for all times in a given class of kernels if the convection term of the underlying particle dynamics has divergence bounded below by a positive constant. Multiple coagulations, fragmentation and scattering are also considered.

  10. On the range of completely bounded maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I. Loebl

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that if every bounded linear map from a C*-algebra α to a von Neumann algebra β is completely bounded, then either α is finite-dimensional or β⫅⊗Mn, where is a commutative von Neumann algebra and Mn is the algebra of n×n complex matrices.

  11. A Simplicial Branch and Bound Duality-Bounds Algorithm to Linear Multiplicative Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-Gang Zhou; Bing-Yuan Cao

    2013-01-01

    A simplicial branch and bound duality-bounds algorithm is presented to globally solving the linear multiplicative programming (LMP). We firstly convert the problem (LMP) into an equivalent programming one by introducing $p$ auxiliary variables. During the branch and bound search, the required lower bounds are computed by solving ordinary linear programming problems derived by using a Lagrangian duality theory. The proposed algorithm proves that it is convergent to a global mini...

  12. Experimental studies of antikaon mediated bound nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental studies of the synthesis and properties of deeply bound antikaon mediated nuclear systems are reviewed. Following a brief introduction in the basic properties of the antikaon–nucleon interaction which may lead to cold and dense antikaonic nuclear systems, we review the results of very first experiments which give indications of the existence of such exotic clusters of matter. Then ongoing efforts to substantiate the early findings are presented and future experimental approaches which will allow a very detailed study of the decay modes, the sizes and density distributions of these kaonic nuclear clusters are discussed including their relevance for possible phase transitions in cold dense matter. (author)

  13. Structural Bounds on the Dyadic Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Cinelli, Matteo; Iovanella, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider the dyadic effect introduced in complex networks when nodes are distinguished by a binary characteristic. Under these circumstances two independent parameters, namely dyadicity and heterophilicity, are able to measure how much the assigned characteristic affects the network topology. All possible configurations can be represented in a phase diagram lying in a two-dimensional space that represents the feasible region of the dyadic effect, which is bound by two upper bounds on dyadicity and heterophilicity. Using some network's structural arguments, we are able to improve such upper bounds and introduce two new lower bounds, providing a reduction of the feasible region of the dyadic effect as well as constraining dyadicity and heterophilicity within a specific range. Some computational experiences show the bounds' effectiveness and their usefulness with regards to different classes of networks.

  14. Probing bound states of D-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Lifschytz, G

    1996-01-01

    A zero-brane is used to probe non-threshold BPS bound states of ($p$, $p+2$,$p+4$)-branes. At long distances the stringy calculation agrees with the supergravity calculations. The supergravity description is given, using the interpretation of the $D=8$ dyonic membrane as the bound state of a two-brane inside a four-brane. We investigate the short distance structure of these bound states, compute the phase shift of the scattered zero-brane and find the bound states characteristic size. It is found that there should be a supersymmetric solution of type IIa supergravity, describing a bound state of a zero-brane and two orthogonal two-brane, all inside a four-brane , with an additional unbound zero-brane. We comment on the relationship between $p$-branes and $(p-2)$-branes.

  15. Automatic analysis of distance bounding protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Malladi, Sreekanth; Kothapalli, Kishore

    2010-01-01

    Distance bounding protocols are used by nodes in wireless networks to calculate upper bounds on their distances to other nodes. However, dishonest nodes in the network can turn the calculations both illegitimate and inaccurate when they participate in protocol executions. It is important to analyze protocols for the possibility of such violations. Past efforts to analyze distance bounding protocols have only been manual. However, automated approaches are important since they are quite likely to find flaws that manual approaches cannot, as witnessed in literature for analysis pertaining to key establishment protocols. In this paper, we use the constraint solver tool to automatically analyze distance bounding protocols. We first formulate a new trace property called Secure Distance Bounding (SDB) that protocol executions must satisfy. We then classify the scenarios in which these protocols can operate considering the (dis)honesty of nodes and location of the attacker in the network. Finally, we extend the const...

  16. Coulomb bound states of strongly interacting photons

    CERN Document Server

    Maghrebi, M F; Bienias, P; Choi, S; Martin, I; Firstenberg, O; Lukin, M D; Büchler, H P; Gorshkov, A V

    2015-01-01

    We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasi-bound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wavefunction resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms.

  17. On Parameterized Gallager's First Bounds for Binary Linear Codes over AWGN Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Xiao; Bai, Baoming

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, nested Gallager regions with a single parameter is introduced to exploit Gallager's first bounding technique (GFBT). We present a necessary and sufficient condition on the optimal parameter. We also present a sufficient condition (with a simple geometrical explanation) under which the optimal parameter does not depend on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). With this general framework, three existing upper bounds are revisited, including the tangential bound (TB) of Berlekamp, the sphere bound (SB) of Herzberg and Poltyrev, and the tangential-sphere bound (TSB) of Poltyrev. This paper also reveals that the SB of Herzberg and Poltyrev is equivalent to the SB of Kasami et al., which was rarely cited in literature.

  18. The Muscle-Bound Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Marwan M; Fahed, Akl C; Hassanieh, Sylvana; Hotait, Mostafa; Arabi, Mariam; Skouri, Hadi; Seidman, Jonathan G; Seidman, Christine E; Bitar, Fadi F; Nemer, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a familial cardiac disease manifested in a wide phenotype and diverse genotype and, thus, presenting unpredictable risks mainly on young adults. Extensive studies are being conducted to categorize patients and link phenotype with genotype for a better management and control of the disease with all its complications. Because the full mechanisms behind HCM are still not revealed, therapeutics are not definitive. Further research is to be conducted for the generation of a complete picture and directed therapy for HCM. PMID:26920199

  19. Ds-bounds for cyclic codes: new bounds for abelian codes

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Bernal; Guerreiro, M.; Simón, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we develop a technique to extend any bound for cyclic codes constructed from its defining sets (ds-bounds) to abelian (or multivariate) codes. We use this technique to improve the searching of new bounds for abelian codes.

  20. NMR structure and dynamics of the agonist dynorphin peptide bound to the human kappa opioid receptor

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Casey; White, Kate L.; Doncescu, Nathalie; Didenko, Tatiana; Roth, Bryan L.; Czaplicki, Georges; Stevens, Raymond C.; Wüthrich, Kurt; Milon, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The human kappa opioid receptor (KOR) is implicated in addiction, pain, reward, mood, cognition, and perception. Activation of KOR by the neuropeptide dynorphin is critical in mediating analgesia and tolerance. Our solution NMR study of dynorphin (1–13) provided quantitative data on a KOR-bound conformation. Analysis of the peptide structure and dynamics revealed a central helical turn bounded on both sides by flexibly disordered peptide segments. Future drug development will benefit from kno...

  1. Upper Bound for Neutron Emission from Sonoluminescing Bubbles in Deuterated Acetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental search for nuclear fusion inside imploding bubbles of degassed deuterated acetone at 0 degree sign C driven by a 15 atm sound field and seeded with a neutron generator reveals an upper bound that is a factor of 10 000 less than the signal reported by Taleyarkhan et al. The strength of our upper bound is limited by the weakness of sonoluminescence, which we ascribe to the relatively high vapor pressure of acetone

  2. A Branch and Bound Algorithm for a Class of Biobjective Mixed Integer Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Andersen, Kim Allan; Dammann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Pareto-optimal front). In this paper, we first give a survey of the newly developed branch and bound methods for solving MOMIP problems. After that, we propose a new branch and bound method for solving a subclass of MOMIP problems, where only two objectives are allowed, the integer variables are binary......, and one of the two objectives has only integer variables. The proposed method is able to find the full set of nondominated points. It is tested on a large number of problem instances, from six different classes of MOMIP problems. The results reveal that the developed biobjective branch and bound...

  3. Lability of copper bound to humic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Lingchen; Young, Scott D.; Bailey, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical speciation models generally include the assumption that all metal bound to humic acid and fulvic acid (HA, FA) is labile. However, in the current study, we determined the presence of a soluble ‘non-labile’ Cu fraction bound to HA extracted from grassland and peat soils. This was quantified by determining isotopically-exchangeable Cu (E-value) and EDTA-extraction of HA-bound Cu, separated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and assayed by coupled ICP-MS. Evidence of time-depend...

  4. Bounding the volumes of singular Fano threefolds

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Ching-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Let $(X,\\Delta)$ be an $n$-dimensional $\\epsilon$-klt log $\\QQ$-Fano pair. We give an upper bound for the volume ${\\rm Vol}(-(K_X+\\Delta))=(-(K_X+\\Delta))^n$ when $n=2$ or $n=3$ and $X$ is {$\\QQ$-factorial} of $\\rho(X)=1$. This bound is essentially sharp for $n=2$. Existence of an upper bound for anticanonical volumes is related the Borisov-Alexeev-Borisov Conjecture which asserts boundedness of the set of $\\epsilon$-klt log $\\QQ$-Fano varieties of a given dimension $n$.

  5. The Fitness Level Method with Tail Bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The fitness-level method, also called the method of f-based partitions, is an intuitive and widely used technique for the running time analysis of randomized search heuristics. It was originally defined to prove upper and lower bounds on the expected running time. Recently, upper tail bounds were added to the technique; however, these tail bounds only apply to running times that are at least twice as large as the expectation. We remove this restriction and supplement the fitness-level method ...

  6. Quasi-bound states in continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the prediction of quasi-bound states (resonant states with very long lifetimes) that occur in the eigenvalue continuum of propagating states for a wide region of parameter space. These quasi-bound states are generated in a quantum wire with two channels and an adatom, when the energy bands of the two channels overlap. A would-be bound state that lays just below the upper energy band is slightly destabilized by the lower energy band and thereby becomes a resonant state with a very long lifetime (a second QBIC lays above the lower energy band). (author)

  7. On the reflection of magnon bound states

    CERN Document Server

    MacKay, Niall

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the reflection of two-particle bound states of a free open string in the light-cone AdS_5 x S^5 string sigma model, for large angular momentum J=J_56 and ending on a D7 brane which wraps the entire AdS_5 and a maximal S^3 of S^5. We use the superspace formalism to analyse fundamental and two-particle bound states in the cases of supersymmetry-preserving and broken-supersymmetry boundaries. We find the boundary S-matrices corresponding to bound states both in the bulk and on the boundary.

  8. Continuous bounded cohomology of locally compact groups

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Recent research has repeatedly led to connections between important rigidity questions and bounded cohomology. However, the latter has remained by and large intractable. This monograph introduces the functorial study of the continuous bounded cohomology for topological groups, with coefficients in Banach modules. The powerful techniques of this more general theory have successfully solved a number of the original problems in bounded cohomology. As applications, one obtains, in particular, rigidity results for actions on the circle, for representations on complex hyperbolic spaces and on Teichmüller spaces. A special effort has been made to provide detailed proofs or references in quite some generality.

  9. A Comparison of Error Bounds for a Nonlinear Tracking System with Detection Probability Pd < 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqin Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Error bounds for nonlinear filtering are very important for performance evaluation and sensor management. This paper presents a comparative study of three error bounds for tracking filtering, when the detection probability is less than unity. One of these bounds is the random finite set (RFS bound, which is deduced within the framework of finite set statistics. The others, which are the information reduction factor (IRF posterior Cramer-Rao lower bound (PCRLB and enumeration method (ENUM PCRLB are introduced within the framework of finite vector statistics. In this paper, we deduce two propositions and prove that the RFS bound is equal to the ENUM PCRLB, while it is tighter than the IRF PCRLB, when the target exists from the beginning to the end. Considering the disappearance of existing targets and the appearance of new targets, the RFS bound is tighter than both IRF PCRLB and ENUM PCRLB with time, by introducing the uncertainty of target existence. The theory is illustrated by two nonlinear tracking applications: ballistic object tracking and bearings-only tracking. The simulation studies confirm the theory and reveal the relationship among the three bounds.

  10. THE EIGENVALUE PERTURBATION BOUND FOR ARBITRARY MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Li; Jian-xin Chen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some new absolute and relative perturbation bounds for the eigenvalue for arbitrary matrices, which improves some recent results. The eigenvalue inclusion region is also discussed.

  11. Bounded sets in fast complete inductive limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bosch

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Let E1⊂E2⊂… be a sequence of locally convex spaces with all identity maps: En→En+1 continuous and E=indlim En fast complete. Then each set bounded in E is also bounded in some En iff for any Banach disk B bounded in E and n∈N, the closure of B⋂En in B is bounded in some Em. This holds, in particular, if all spaces En are webbed.

  12. Kinematical bound in asymptotically translationally invariant spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Shiromizu, T; Tomizawa, S; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Ida, Daisuke; Tomizawa, Shinya

    2004-01-01

    We present positive energy theorems in asymptotically translationally invariant spacetimes which can be applicable to black strings and charged branes. We also address the bound property of the tension and charge of branes.

  13. Coulomb Bound States of Strongly Interacting Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, M. J.; Bienias, P.; Choi, S.; Martin, I.; Firstenberg, O.; Lukin, M. D.; Büchler, H. P.; Gorshkov, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasibound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wave function resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms.

  14. Bound phenolics in foods, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Estrada, Beatriz A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2014-01-01

    Among phytochemicals, phenolic compounds have been extensively researched due to their diverse health benefits. Phenolic compounds occur mostly as soluble conjugates and insoluble forms, covalently bound to sugar moieties or cell wall structural components. Absorption mechanisms for bound phenolic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract greatly depend on the liberation of sugar moieties. Food processes such as fermentation, malting, thermoplastic extrusion or enzymatic, alkaline and acid hydrolyses occasionally assisted with microwave or ultrasound have potential to release phenolics associated to cell walls. Different kinds of wet chemistry methodologies to release and detect bound phenolic have been developed. These include harsh heat treatments, chemical modifications or biocatalysis. New protocols for processing and determining phenolics in food matrices must be devised in order to release bound phenolics and for quality control in the growing functional food industry. PMID:24444905

  15. Redshift-space limits of bound structures

    CERN Document Server

    D"unner, R; Meza, A; Araya, P A; Quintana, H; D\\"unner, Rolando; Reisenegger, Andreas; Meza, Andr\\'es; Araya, Pablo A.; Quintana, Hern\\'an

    2006-01-01

    An exponentially expanding Universe, possibly governed by a cosmological constant, forces gravitationally bound structures to become more and more isolated, eventually becoming causally disconnected from each other and forming so-called "island universes". This new scenario reformulates the question about which will be the largest structures that will remain gravitationally bound, together with requiring a systematic tool that can be used to recognize the limits and mass of these structures from observational data, namely redshift surveys of galaxies. Here we present a method, based on the spherical collapse model and N-body simulations, by which we can estimate the limits of bound structures as observed in redshift space. The method is based on a theoretical criterion presented in a previous paper that determines the mean density contrast that a spherical shell must have in order to be marginally bound to the massive structure within it. Understanding the kinematics of the system, we translated the real-spac...

  16. Lower bounds on fluctuations for internal DLA

    CERN Document Server

    Asselah, Amine

    2011-01-01

    We consider internal diffusion limited aggregation in dimension larger than or equal to two. This is a random cluster growth model, where random walks start at the origin of the d-dimensional lattice, one at a time, and stop moving when reaching a site that is not occupied by previous walks. When n random walks are sent from the origin, we establish a lower bound for the inner and outer errors fluctuations of order square root of the logarithm of n. When dimension is larger or equal to three, this lower bound matches the upper bound recently obtained in independent works of \\cite{AG2} and \\cite{JLS2}. Also, we produce as a corollary of our proof of \\cite{AG2}, an upper bound for the fluctuation of the inner error in a specified direction.

  17. Survey of Bounding Theory in Arabic Language

    OpenAIRE

    Ensieh Talebi and; Hossein Seyyedi

    2014-01-01

    Government and Binding Theory or Principles and Parameters Theory is a universal theory of Chomsky. Linguists of world believe that Chomsky made a revolution in linguistics by this theory. One of the sub-theories of Government and Binding Theory is Bounding Theory which explains the restrictions of grammatical movements. Chomsky claims that his theory is universal and you can perform it in all languages. This essay considers this sub-theory (Bounding Theory) in Arabic language whether is perf...

  18. New spectral features from bound dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature that we predict can provide a complementary verification of dark matter discovery at experiments with positive signal but unclear background. The effect is generically expected, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section.

  19. Refined Error Bounds for Several Learning Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Hanneke, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the achievable guarantees on the error rates of certain learning algorithms, with particular focus on refining logarithmic factors. Many of the results are based on a general technique for obtaining bounds on the error rates of sample-consistent classifiers with monotonic error regions, in the realizable case. We prove bounds of this type expressed in terms of either the VC dimension or the sample compression size. This general technique also enables us to derive several ...

  20. The neural basis of bounded rational behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Coricelli, Giorgio; Nagel, Rosemarie

    2010-01-01

    Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. ...

  1. Mutually Unbiased Bases and Bound Entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Löffler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution we relate two different key concepts: mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and entanglement; in particular we focus on bound entanglement, i.e. highly mixed states which cannot be distilled by local operations and classical communications. For a certain class of states --for which the state-space forms a "magic" simplex-- we analyze the set of bound entangled states detected by the MUB criterion for different dimensions d and number of particles n. We find that the geometry is ...

  2. New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Catena, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section.

  3. Welfare Bounds in a Growing Population

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Yengin

    2010-01-01

    We study the allocation of collectively owned indivisible goods when monetary transfers are possible. We restrict our attention to incentive compatible mechanisms which allocate the goods efficiently. Among these mechanisms, we characterize those that respect welfare lower bounds. The main characterization involves the identical-preferences lower-bound: each agent should be at least as well off as in an hypothetical economy where all agents have the same preference as hers, no agent envies an...

  4. Bounds for maximin Latin hypercube designs

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Latin hypercube designs (LHDs) play an important role when approximating computer simula- tion models. To obtain good space-filling properties, the maximin criterion is frequently used. Unfortunately, constructing maximin LHDs can be quite time-consuming when the number of dimensions and design points increase. In these cases, we can use approximate maximin LHDs. In this paper, we construct bounds for the separation distance of certain classes of maximin LHDs. These bounds are useful for asse...

  5. Bounds for Maximin Latin Hypercube Designs

    OpenAIRE

    van Dam, E.R.; Rennen, G.; Husslage, B.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Latin hypercube designs (LHDs) play an important role when approximating computer simula- tion models. To obtain good space-filling properties, the maximin criterion is frequently used. Unfortunately, constructing maximin LHDs can be quite time-consuming when the number of dimensions and design points increase. In these cases, we can use approximate maximin LHDs. In this paper, we construct bounds for the separation distance of certain classes of maximin LHDs. These bounds are useful for asse...

  6. Branch and Bound Algorithm for Multiprocessor Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mostafizur

    2009-01-01

    The multiprocessor task graph scheduling problem has been extensively studied asacademic optimization problem which occurs in optimizing the execution time of parallelalgorithm with parallel computer. The problem is already being known as one of the NPhardproblems. There are many good approaches made with many optimizing algorithmto find out the optimum solution for this problem with less computational time. One ofthem is branch and bound algorithm.In this paper, we propose a branch and bound...

  7. Malabsorption of protein bound vitamin B12.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, D. W.; Sawers, A H; Sharma, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with subnormal serum vitamin B12 concentrations were tested for absorption of protein bound vitamin B12 and compared with controls. Absorption of the protein bound vitamin appeared to decrease with increasing age in healthy subjects. Differences between the result of this test and the result of the Schilling test in patients who had undergone gastric surgery were confirmed; such differences were also seen in some patients who had iron deficiency anaemia, an excessive alcohol intake, ...

  8. Unified Spectral Bounds on the Chromatic Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elphick Clive

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the best known results in spectral graph theory is the following lower bound on the chromatic number due to Alan Hoffman, where μ1 and μn are respectively the maximum and minimum eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix: χ ≥ 1+μ1/−μn. We recently generalised this bound to include all eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix.

  9. A Minority Game with Bounded Recall.

    OpenAIRE

    Renault, Jérôme; Scarsini, Marco; Tomala, Tristan

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a repeated minority game with public signals, symmetric bounded recall, and pure strategies. We investigate both public and private equilibria of the game with fixed recall size. We first show how public equilibria in such a repeated game can be represented as colored subgraphs of a de Bruijn graph. Then we prove that the set of public equilibrium payoffs with bounded recall converges to the set of uniform equilibrium payoffs as the size of the recall increases. We also sho...

  10. Finite blocklength converse bounds for quantum channels

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, William; Wehner, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    We derive upper bounds on the rate of transmission of classical information over quantum channels by block codes with a given blocklength and error probability, for both entanglement-assisted and unassisted codes, in terms of a unifying framework of quantum hypothesis testing with restricted measurements. Our bounds do not depend on any special property of the channel (such as memorylessness) and generalise both a classical converse of Polyanskiy, Poor, and Verd\\'{u} as well as a quantum conv...

  11. New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments with...... positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section....

  12. HiggsBounds: Confronting arbitrary Higgs sectors with exclusion bounds from LEP and the Tevatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtle, P.; Brein, O.; Heinemeyer, S.; Weiglein, G.; Williams, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    HiggsBounds is a computer code that tests theoretical predictions of models with arbitrary Higgs sectors against the exclusion bounds obtained from the Higgs searches at LEP and the Tevatron. The included experimental information comprises exclusion bounds at 95% C.L. on topological cross sections. In order to determine which search topology has the highest exclusion power, the program also includes, for each topology, information from the experiments on the expected exclusion bound, which would have been observed in case of a pure background distribution. Using the predictions of the desired model provided by the user as input, HiggsBounds determines the most sensitive channel and tests whether the considered parameter point is excluded at the 95% C.L. HiggsBounds is available as a Fortran 77 and Fortran 90 code. The code can be invoked as a command line version, a subroutine version and an online version. Examples of exclusion bounds obtained with HiggsBounds are discussed for the Standard Model, for a model with a fourth generation of quarks and leptons and for the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with and without CP-violation. The experimental information on the exclusion bounds currently implemented in HiggsBounds will be updated as new results from the Higgs searches become available.

  13. Bounding the number of rational places using Weierstrass semigroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh

    2007-01-01

    upper bound in terms of the generators of Lambda and q. Our bound is an improvement to Lewittes' bound in [6] which takes into account only the multiplicity of Lambda and q. From the new bound we derive significant improvements to Serre's upper bound in the cases q = 2, 3 and 4. We finally show that...

  14. Formation and bioavailability of bound herbicide residues in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive investigations with carbon-14-labelled active substances have shown that currently used herbicides are mainly mineralized in the soil by microbial degradation processes, forming in part CO2. A simultaneous event is the formation of no longer extractable, bound residues by bonding of carbon from the active substance into organic compounds specific to the soil such as fulvic acid, humic acid, and humin. Special experiments in micro-ecosystems revealed that already the more ageing process inthe soil leads to a substantial reduction of root uptake of herbicide residues. The comprehensive experiments using carbon-14-labelled active substances permit the conclusion that non extractable, bound residues in the soil as a rule lose their bioactivity, and indeed in many cases their identity, owing to degradation and bonding. This entails different retention times of the active substance/metabolite structures in the organic carbon reservoir of the soil. Open questions are the formation of plateaus of bound residues upon repeated application of active substances, and long-term behaviour in terms of dislocation in the soil solution to the ground water. (orig./HK)

  15. Structure of ATP-Bound Human ATP:Cobalamin Adenosyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert,H.; Hill, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding human ATP:cobalamin adenosyltransferase (hATR) can result in the metabolic disorder known as methylmalonic aciduria (MMA). This enzyme catalyzes the final step in the conversion of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B{sub 12}) to the essential human cofactor adenosylcobalamin. Here we present the 2.5 {angstrom} crystal structure of ATP bound to hATR refined to an R{sub free} value of 25.2%. The enzyme forms a tightly associated trimer, where the monomer comprises a five-helix bundle and the active sites lie on the subunit interfaces. Only two of the three active sites within the trimer contain the bound ATP substrate, thereby providing examples of apo- and substrate-bound-active sites within the same crystal structure. Comparison of the empty and occupied sites indicates that twenty residues at the enzyme's N-terminus become ordered upon binding of ATP to form a novel ATP-binding site and an extended cleft that likely binds cobalamin. The structure explains the role of 20 invariant residues; six are involved in ATP binding, including Arg190, which hydrogen bonds to ATP atoms on both sides of the scissile bond. Ten of the hydrogen bonds are required for structural stability, and four are in positions to interact with cobalamin. The structure also reveals how the point mutations that cause MMA are deficient in these functions.

  16. THE CELL-BOUND ALPHA-AMYLASES OF STREPTOCOCCUS BOVIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WALKER, G J

    1965-02-01

    1. The cell-bound alpha-amylase of Streptococcus bovis has been isolated from other carbohydrases in the cell extract by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The enzyme has been compared with the extracellular alpha-amylase produced by this organism. 2. The two amylases had similar action patterns on amylose, the main product being maltotriose with smaller amounts of maltose and a little glucose. 3. The cell-bound amylase hydrolysed maltopentaose and maltohexaose at a similar rate to the hydrolysis of amylose. Maltotetraose was hydrolysed six times more slowly, and maltotriose 280 times more slowly, than amylose. 4. Studies with end-labelled maltodextrins revealed that the cell-bound alpha-amylase preferentially hydrolysed the third linkage from the non-reducing end, liberating maltotriose. The linkage at the reducing end of maltotriose was more easily hydrolysed than the other. 5. Egg-white lysozyme and the extracellular enzymes of Streptomyces albus lysed the cell walls of Streptococcus bovis, releasing amylase into the medium. In the presence of 0.6 m-sucrose 10% of the maximal amylase activity was released by lysozyme. Suspension of the spheroplasts in dilute buffer caused the rupture of the cytoplasmic membrane and the liberation of amylase. 6. A sensitive method for determining the ability of amylases to degrade starch granules is described. PMID:14346085

  17. Computing Bounds on Resource Levels for Flexible Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscvettola, Nicola; Rijsman, David

    2009-01-01

    A new algorithm efficiently computes the tightest exact bound on the levels of resources induced by a flexible activity plan (see figure). Tightness of bounds is extremely important for computations involved in planning because tight bounds can save potentially exponential amounts of search (through early backtracking and detection of solutions), relative to looser bounds. The bound computed by the new algorithm, denoted the resource-level envelope, constitutes the measure of maximum and minimum consumption of resources at any time for all fixed-time schedules in the flexible plan. At each time, the envelope guarantees that there are two fixed-time instantiations one that produces the minimum level and one that produces the maximum level. Therefore, the resource-level envelope is the tightest possible resource-level bound for a flexible plan because any tighter bound would exclude the contribution of at least one fixed-time schedule. If the resource- level envelope can be computed efficiently, one could substitute looser bounds that are currently used in the inner cores of constraint-posting scheduling algorithms, with the potential for great improvements in performance. What is needed to reduce the cost of computation is an algorithm, the measure of complexity of which is no greater than a low-degree polynomial in N (where N is the number of activities). The new algorithm satisfies this need. In this algorithm, the computation of resource-level envelopes is based on a novel combination of (1) the theory of shortest paths in the temporal-constraint network for the flexible plan and (2) the theory of maximum flows for a flow network derived from the temporal and resource constraints. The measure of asymptotic complexity of the algorithm is O(N O(maxflow(N)), where O(x) denotes an amount of computing time or a number of arithmetic operations proportional to a number of the order of x and O(maxflow(N)) is the measure of complexity (and thus of cost) of a maximumflow

  18. Accounting for Epistemic and Aleatory Uncertainty in Early System Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work extends Probability Bounds Analysis to model epistemic and aleatory uncertainty during early design of engineered systems in an Integrated...

  19. Accounting for Epistemic and Aleatory Uncertainty in Early System Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project extends Probability Bounds Analysis to model epistemic and aleatory uncertainty during early design of engineered systems in an Integrated Concurrent...

  20. Directed acyclic graphs with edge-specific bounds

    OpenAIRE

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Tan, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    We give a definition of a bounded edge within the causal directed acyclic graph framework. A bounded edge generalizes the notion of a signed edge and is defined in terms of bounds on a ratio of survivor probabilities. We derive rules concerning the propagation of bounds. Bounds on causal effects in the presence of unmeasured confounding are also derived using bounds related to specific edges on a graph. We illustrate the theory developed by an example concerning estimating the effect of antih...

  1. Lability of copper bound to humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lingchen; Young, Scott D; Bailey, Elizabeth H

    2015-07-01

    Geochemical speciation models generally include the assumption that all metal bound to humic acid and fulvic acid (HA, FA) is labile. However, in the current study, we determined the presence of a soluble 'non-labile' Cu fraction bound to HA extracted from grassland and peat soils. This was quantified by determining isotopically-exchangeable Cu (E-value) and EDTA-extraction of HA-bound Cu, separated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and assayed by coupled ICP-MS. Evidence of time-dependent Cu fixation by HA was found during the course of an incubation study (160 d); up to 50% of dissolved HA-bound Cu was not isotopically exchangeable. This result was supported by extraction with EDTA where approximately 40% of Cu remained bound to HA despite dissolution in 0.05 M Na2-EDTA. The presence of a substantial non-labile metal fraction held by HA challenges the assumption of wholly reversible equilibrium which is central to current geochemical models of metal binding to humic substances. PMID:25863164

  2. Bounds for graph regularity and removal lemmas

    CERN Document Server

    Conlon, David

    2011-01-01

    We show, for any positive integer k, that there exists a graph in which any equitable partition of its vertices into k parts has at least ck^2/\\log^* k pairs of parts which are not \\epsilon-regular, where c,\\epsilon>0 are absolute constants. This bound is tight up to the constant c and addresses a question of Gowers on the number of irregular pairs in Szemer\\'edi's regularity lemma. In order to gain some control over irregular pairs, another regularity lemma, known as the strong regularity lemma, was developed by Alon, Fischer, Krivelevich, and Szegedy. For this lemma, we prove a lower bound of wowzer-type, which is one level higher in the Ackermann hierarchy than the tower function, on the number of parts in the strong regularity lemma, essentially matching the upper bound. On the other hand, for the induced graph removal lemma, the standard application of the strong regularity lemma, we find a different proof which yields a tower-type bound. We also discuss bounds on several related regularity lemmas, inclu...

  3. Introduction to QCD - a bound state perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    These lecture notes focus on the bound state sector of QCD. Motivated by data which suggests that the strong coupling \\alpha_s(Q) freezes at low Q, and by similarities between the spectra of hadrons and atoms, I discuss if and how QCD bound states may be treated perturbatively. I recall the basic principles of perturbative gauge theory bound states at lowest order in the \\hbar expansion. Born level amplitudes are insensitive to the i\\epsilon prescription of propagators, which allows to eliminate the Z-diagrams of relativistic, time-ordered Coulomb interactions. The Dirac wave function thus describes a single electron which propagates forward in time only, even though the bound state has any number of pair constituents when Feynman propagators are used. In the absence of an external potential, states that are bound by the Coulomb attraction of their constituents can be analogously described using only their valence degrees of freedom. The instantaneous A^0 field is determined by Gauss' law for each wave functi...

  4. Matroidal Degree-Bounded Minimum Spanning Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Zenklusen, Rico

    2011-01-01

    We consider the minimum spanning tree (MST) problem under the restriction that for every vertex v, the edges of the tree that are adjacent to v satisfy a given family of constraints. A famous example thereof is the classical degree-constrained MST problem, where for every vertex v, a simple upper bound on the degree is imposed. Iterative rounding/relaxation algorithms became the tool of choice for degree-bounded network design problems. A cornerstone for this development was the work of Singh and Lau, who showed for the degree-bounded MST problem how to find a spanning tree violating each degree bound by at most one unit and with cost at most the cost of an optimal solution that respects the degree bounds. However, current iterative rounding approaches face several limits when dealing with more general degree constraints. In particular, when several constraints are imposed on the edges adjacent to a vertex v, as for example when a partition of the edges adjacent to v is given and only a fixed number of elemen...

  5. The release of 14C-chlorsulfuron bound residue by autoclavingmethod and its identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    When individual microorganisms were used torelease bound pesticide residues, it was ussually not take into fullaccountwhether the autoclaving method could lead to the releaseof bound residues. The soil containing bound14C-chlorsulfuron residues was treated with an autoclavein this study. The results reveal that the bound14C-chlorsulfuron residue can be released from the soilwhen treated with the autoclave and the release rate canbe remarkably enhanced by adding water into the soil whensubjected to such treatment. A TLC analysis showed that thereleased 14C-residue was one of the degraded products of14C-chlorsulfuron. After derivatization and analysis using theGC-MS, the released 14C-residue was tentatively identifiedas 2-amino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine.

  6. The release of 14C—chlorsulfuron bound residue by autoclaving method and its identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOJiangfeng; PINGXiaofei; 等

    1999-01-01

    When individual microorganisms were used to release bound pesticide resdues,it was ussually not take into full account whether the autoclaving method could lead to the release of bound residues.The soil containing bound 14C-chlorsulfuron residues was treated with an autoclave in this study.The results reveal that the bound 14C-chlorsulfuron residue can be released from the soil when treated with the autoclave and the release rate can be remarkably enhanced by adding water into the soil when subjected to such treatment.A TLC analysis showed that the released 14C-residue was one of the degraded products of 14C-chlorsulfuron.After derivatization and analysis using the GC-MS,the released 14C-residue was tentatively identified as 2-amnino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine.

  7. Multimodal imaging based on MRI and PET reveals [{sup 18}F]FLT PET as a specific and early indicator of treatment efficacy in a preclinical model of recurrent glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corroyer-Dulmont, Aurelien; Peres, Elodie A.; Gerault, Aurelie N.; Divoux, Didier; Toutain, Jerome; Ibazizene, Meziane; MacKenzie, Eric T.; Barre, Louisa; Bernaudin, Myriam; Petit, Edwige; Valable, Samuel [CNRS, UMR 6301 ISTCT, CERVOxy and LDM-TEP groups. GIP CYCERON, Caen (France); CEA, DSV/I2BM, UMR 6301 ISTCT, CERVOxy et LDM-TEP Groups, GIP CYCERON, Caen (France); UNICAEN, UMR 6301 ISTCT, CERVOxy et LDM-TEP Groups, GIP CYCERON, Caen (France); Normandie Univ., Caen(France); Savina, Ariel; Bouquet, Fanny [Roche SAS, Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

    2016-04-15

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the ability of PET and MRI biomarkers to predict treatment efficacy in a preclinical model of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. MRI (anatomical, diffusion, vasculature and oxygenation) and PET ([{sup 18}F]FDG and [{sup 18}F]FLT) parameters were obtained 3 days after the end of treatment and compared with late tumour growth and survival. Early after tumour recurrence, no effect of treatment with temozolomide combined with bevacizumab was observed on tumour volume as assessed by T2-W MRI. At later times, the treatment decreased tumour volume and increased survival. Interestingly, at the earlier time, temozolomide + bevacizumab decreased [{sup 18}F]FLT uptake, cerebral blood volume and oedema. [{sup 18}F]FLT uptake, oedema and cerebral blood volume were correlated with overall survival but [{sup 18}F]FLT uptake had the highest specificity and sensitivity for the early prediction of treatment efficacy. The present investigation in a preclinical model of glioblastoma recurrence underscores the importance of multimodal imaging in the assessment of oedema, tumour vascular status and cell proliferation. Finally, [{sup 18}F]FLT holds the greatest promise for the early assessment of treatment efficacy. These findings may translate clinically in that individualized treatment for recurrent glioma could be prescribed for patients selected after PET/MRI examinations. (orig.)

  8. Multimodal imaging based on MRI and PET reveals [18F]FLT PET as a specific and early indicator of treatment efficacy in a preclinical model of recurrent glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the ability of PET and MRI biomarkers to predict treatment efficacy in a preclinical model of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. MRI (anatomical, diffusion, vasculature and oxygenation) and PET ([18F]FDG and [18F]FLT) parameters were obtained 3 days after the end of treatment and compared with late tumour growth and survival. Early after tumour recurrence, no effect of treatment with temozolomide combined with bevacizumab was observed on tumour volume as assessed by T2-W MRI. At later times, the treatment decreased tumour volume and increased survival. Interestingly, at the earlier time, temozolomide + bevacizumab decreased [18F]FLT uptake, cerebral blood volume and oedema. [18F]FLT uptake, oedema and cerebral blood volume were correlated with overall survival but [18F]FLT uptake had the highest specificity and sensitivity for the early prediction of treatment efficacy. The present investigation in a preclinical model of glioblastoma recurrence underscores the importance of multimodal imaging in the assessment of oedema, tumour vascular status and cell proliferation. Finally, [18F]FLT holds the greatest promise for the early assessment of treatment efficacy. These findings may translate clinically in that individualized treatment for recurrent glioma could be prescribed for patients selected after PET/MRI examinations. (orig.)

  9. Tight Bounds for Distributed Functional Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodruff, David P.; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    $, our bound resolves their main open question. Our lower bounds are based on new direct sum theorems for approximate majority, and yield significant improvements to problems in the data stream model, improving the bound for estimating $F_p, p > 2,$ in $t$ passes from $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{1-2/p}/(\\eps^{2/p......We resolve several fundamental questions in the area of distributed functional monitoring, initiated by Cormode, Muthukrishnan, and Yi (SODA, 2008). In this model there are $k$ sites each tracking their input and communicating with a central coordinator that continuously maintain an approximate......-polynomial communication, partly answering Question 25 in the Open Problems in Data Streams list....

  10. Lower bounds for designs in symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Eidelstein, Noa

    2010-01-01

    We prove lower bounds on designs in spaces with a large group of symmetries. These spaces include globally symmetric Riemannian spaces (of any rank) and commutative association schemes with 1-transitive group of symmetries. Our bounds are, in general, implicit, relying on estimates on the spectral behavior of certain symmetry-invariant linear operators. They reduce to the first linear programming bound for designs in globally symmetric Riemannian spaces of rank 1 or in distance regular graphs. The proofs are different though, coming from viewpoint of abstract harmonic analysis in symmetric spaces. As a dividend we obtain the following geometric fact: a design is large because a union of "spherical caps" around its points "covers" the whole space.

  11. Covalently bound lipids in keratinizing epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F; Swartzendruber, D C; Wertz, P W; Squier, C A

    1993-07-25

    Covalently bound lipids have been identified and compared in keratinizing porcine epithelia including epidermis and oral epithelium from palate and gingiva. Stratum corneum was isolated by tryptic digestion, and after extensive extraction of lipids using a series of chloroform-methanol mixtures, the residual tissue was subjected to alkaline hydrolysis to release covalently bound lipids. The lipids so released were analyzed by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. Stratum corneum from each of the three anatomical sites contained omega-hydroxyceramides, omega-hydroxyacids and fatty acids. In epidermal stratum corneum the total covalently bound lipids represented 2.4% of the dry weight of the tissue, but in the oral epithelia this figure was consistently lower: 0.24% in palatal stratum corneum and 0.20% in gingival stratum corneum. Transmission electron microscopy before and after lipid extraction confirms the presence of a lipid envelope in epidermal stratum corneum and demonstrates the absence of this structure in oral stratum corneum. PMID:8334143

  12. Organically bound tritium, OBT: Its true constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium which is analytically determined to be non exchangeable bound in tissue solids is assumed to be bound to carbon. Furthermore, it is followed, the biochemical Powys's by photosynthesis or enzymatic transfer reactions are retarded by the kinetic isotope effect leading to discrimination of tritium in biomolecules. Contradictory, the logistic growth analysis of plants discloses a larger intrinsic growth rate of OBT than of OBH resulting in tritium accumulation in biomolecules. Exchange experiments providing fractionation factors of 1.4 and 2 confirm this accumulation. In summary, a larger part of the so called OBT is not carbon bound but consists of tritium positioned in hydrogen bridges of biopolymers which have been occupied during formation of the molecules and which became later inacessible for exchange (so called buried hydrogens). Furthermore, there are experimental results indicating even rapid exchange during the 'in vivo'-state but inhibited in the 'in vitro'-state which is commonly given in biosamples prepared for analysis. (author)

  13. A Proof of the Conformal Collider Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hofman, Diego M; Meltzer, David; Poland, David; Rejon-Barrera, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that the "conformal collider bounds" originally proposed by Hofman and Maldacena hold for any unitary parity-preserving conformal field theory (CFT) with a unique stress tensor in spacetime dimensions larger than 2. In particular this implies that the ratio of central charges for a unitary 4d CFT lies in the interval $\\frac{31}{18} \\geq \\frac{a}{c} \\geq \\frac{1}{3}$. For superconformal theories this is further reduced to $\\frac{3}{2} \\geq \\frac{a}{c} \\geq \\frac{1}{2}$. The proof relies only on CFT first principles - in particular, bootstrap methods - and thus constitutes the first complete field theory proof of these bounds. We further elaborate on similar bounds for non-conserved currents and relate them to results obtained recently from deep inelastic scattering.

  14. Lower Bounds for External Memory Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf

    We study trade-offs between the update time and the query time for comparison based external memory dictionaries. The main contributions of this paper are two lower bound trade offs between the I/O complexity of member queries and insertions: If N < M insertions perform at most δ · N/B I/Os, then...... (1) there exists a query requiring N/(M. ·~O(δ)) I/Os, and (2) there exists a query requiring Ω(logδlog2N ~ I/Os when δ is O(B/log3 N) and N is at least M2. For both lower bound we describe data structures which give matching upper bounds for a wide range of parameters, thereby showing the lower...

  15. Bound water in Kevlar 49 fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From elemental analyses, thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy studies and re-evaluation of previous water diffusion studies in Kevlar 49 fibers it is concluded that these fibers can contain two types of sorbed moisture. The fibers can absorb up to approx. 6 wt % loosely bound water with an activation energy for outgassing by desorption of 6 kcal/mole. This loosely bound water is a direct result of the presence of Na2SO4 impurities and the perturbations they induce on the packing of the rod-like poly (p-phenylene terephthalamide) macromolecules. Kevlar 49 fibers also inherently contain up to 30 wt % additional water which is tightly bound within the crystal lattice. This water exhibits an activation energy for outgassing by diffusion of approx. 40 kcal/mole and is only evolved from the fiber in significant quantities at t > 3500C over a period of hours

  16. D-Brane Bound States Redux

    CERN Document Server

    Sethi, S K; Sethi, Savdeep; Stern, Mark

    1998-01-01

    We study the existence of D-brane bound states at threshold in Type II string theories. In a number of situations, we can reduce the question of existence to quadrature, and the study of a particular limit of the propagator for the system of D-branes. This involves a derivation of an index theorem for a family of non-Fredholm operators. In support of the conjectured relation between compactified eleven-dimensional supergravity and Type IIA string theory, we show that a bound state exists for two coincident zero-branes. This result also provides support for the conjectured description of M-theory as a matrix model. In addition, we provide further evidence that there are no BPS bound states for two and three-branes twice wrapped on Calabi-Yau vanishing cycles.

  17. Bounds on Codes Based on Graph Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rouayheb, Salim Y El; Soljanin, E; Sprintson, A

    2008-01-01

    Let $A_q(n,d)$ be the maximum order (maximum number of codewords) of a $q$-ary code of length $n$ and Hamming distance at least $d$. And let $A(n,d,w)$ that of a binary code of constant weight $w$. Building on results from algebraic graph theory and Erd\\H{o}s-ko-Rado like theorems in extremal combinatorics, we show how several known bounds on $A_q(n,d)$ and $A(n,d,w)$ can be easily obtained in a single framework. For instance, both the Hamming and Singleton bounds can derived as an application of a property relating the clique number and the independence number of vertex transitive graphs. Using the same techniques, we also derive some new bounds and present some additional applications.

  18. Bounded Gaps between Products of Special Primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ngai Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In their breakthrough paper in 2006, Goldston, Graham, Pintz and Yıldırım proved several results about bounded gaps between products of two distinct primes. Frank Thorne expanded on this result, proving bounded gaps in the set of square-free numbers with r prime factors for any r ≥ 2, all of which are in a given set of primes. His results yield applications to the divisibility of class numbers and the triviality of ranks of elliptic curves. In this paper, we relax the condition on the number of prime factors and prove an analogous result using a modified approach. We then revisit Thorne’s applications and give a better bound in each case.

  19. Correlation Distance and Bounds for Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. W. Hall

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The correlation distance quantifies the statistical independence of two classical or quantum systems, via the distance from their joint state to the product of the marginal states. Tight lower bounds are given for the mutual information between pairs of two-valued classical variables and quantum qubits, in terms of the corresponding classical and quantum correlation distances. These bounds are stronger than the Pinsker inequality (and refinements thereof for relative entropy. The classical lower bound may be used to quantify properties of statistical models that violate Bell inequalities. Partially entangled qubits can have lower mutual information than can any two-valued classical variables having the same correlation distance. The qubit correlation distance also provides a direct entanglement criterion, related to the spin covariance matrix. Connections of results with classically-correlated quantum states are briefly discussed.

  20. Entropy Bounds, Holographic Principle and Uncertainty Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Volovich

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A simple derivation of the bound on entropy is given and the holographic principle is discussed. We estimate the number of quantum states inside space region on the base of uncertainty relation. The result is compared with the Bekenstein formula for entropy bound, which was initially derived from the generalized second law of thermodynamics for black holes. The holographic principle states that the entropy inside a region is bounded by the area of the boundary of that region. This principle can be called the kinematical holographic principle. We argue that it can be derived from the dynamical holographic principle which states that the dynamics of a system in a region should be described by a system which lives on the boundary of the region. This last principle can be valid in general relativity because the ADM hamiltonian reduces to the surface term.

  1. Bounded link prediction in very large networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Xu, Zhongqi; Cai, Shimin; Yang, Jian; Michaelson, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Evaluating link prediction methods is a hard task in very large complex networks due to the prohibitive computational cost. However, if we consider the lower bound of node pairs' similarity scores, this task can be greatly optimized. In this paper, we study CN index in the bounded link prediction framework, which is applicable to enormous heterogeneous networks. Specifically, we propose a fast algorithm based on the parallel computing scheme to obtain all node pairs with CN values larger than the lower bound. Furthermore, we propose a general measurement, called self-predictability, to quantify the performance of similarity indices in link prediction, which can also indicate the link predictability of networks with respect to given similarity indices.

  2. HiggsBounds: Confronting Arbitrary Higgs Sectors with Exclusion Bounds from LEP and the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Bechtle, Philip; Heinemeyer, Sven; Weiglein, Georg; Williams, Karina E

    2008-01-01

    HiggsBounds is a computer code that tests theoretical predictions of models with arbitrary Higgs sectors against the exclusion bounds obtained from the Higgs searches at LEP and the Tevatron. The included experimental information comprises exclusion bounds at 95% C.L. on topological cross sections. In order to determine which search topology has the highest exclusion power, the program also includes, for each topology, information from the experiments on the expected exclusion bound, which would have been observed in case of a pure background distribution. Using the predictions of the desired model provided by the user as input, HiggsBounds determines the most sensitive channel and tests whether the considered parameter point is excluded at the 95% C.L. HiggsBounds is available as a Fortran 77 and Fortran 90 code. The code can be invoked as a command line version, a subroutine version and an online version. Examples of exclusion bounds obtained with HiggsBounds are discussed for a model with a fourth generati...

  3. Career Development and Personal Functioning Differences between Work-Bound and Non-Work Bound Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Hood, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed 506 Australian high school students on career development (exploration, planning, job-knowledge, decision-making, indecision), personal functioning (well-being, self-esteem, life satisfaction, school satisfaction) and control variables (parent education, school achievement), and tested differences among work-bound, college-bound and…

  4. Proof of a quantum Bousso bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael; Casini, Horacio; Fisher, Zachary; Maldacena, Juan

    2014-08-01

    We prove the generalized covariant entropy bound, ΔS≤(A-A')/4Gℏ, for light-sheets with initial area A and final area A'. The entropy ΔS is defined as a difference of von Neumann entropies of an arbitrary state and the vacuum, with both states restricted to the light-sheet under consideration. The proof applies to free fields, in the limit where gravitational backreaction is small. We do not assume the null energy condition. In regions where it is violated, we find that the bound is protected by the defining property of light-sheets: that their null generators are nowhere expanding.

  5. Lower bounds for the strict invariance entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present a new method for obtaining lower bounds of the strict invariance entropy by combining an approach from the theory of escape rates and geometric methods used in the dimension theory of dynamical systems. For uniformly expanding systems and for inhomogeneous bilinear systems we can describe the lower bounds in terms of uniform volume growth rates on subbundles of the tangent bundle. In particular, we obtain criteria for positive entropy. We also apply the estimates to bilinear systems on projective space

  6. A new upper bound for 3-SAT

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, J; Mitsche, D; Perez-Gimenez, X

    2008-01-01

    We show that a randomly chosen 3-CNF formula over n variables with clauses-to-variables ratio at least 4.4898 is, as n grows large, asymptotically almost surely unsatisfiable. The previous best such bound, due to Dubois in 1999, was 4.506. The first such bound, independently discovered by many groups of researchers since 1983, was 5.19. Several decreasing values between 5.19 and 4.506 were published in the years between. The probabilistic techniques we use for the proof are, we believe, of independent interest.

  7. Torons and D-Brane Bound States

    OpenAIRE

    Guralnik, Z.; Ramgoolam, S.

    1997-01-01

    We interpret instantons on a torus with twisted boundary conditions, in terms of bound states of branes. The interplay between the SU(N) and U(1) parts of the U(N) theory of N 4-branes allows the construction of a variety of bound states. The SU(N) and U(1) parts can contribute fractional amounts to the total instanton number which is integral. The geometry of non-self intersecting two-cycles in $T^4$ sheds some light on a number of properties of these solutions.

  8. The Bounded L2 Curvature Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Klainerman, Sergiu; Rodnianski, Igor; Szeftel, Jeremie

    2012-01-01

    This is the main paper in a sequence in which we give a complete proof of the bounded $L^2$ curvature conjecture. More precisely we show that the time of existence of a classical solution to the Einstein-vacuum equations depends only on the $L^2$-norm of the curvature and a lower bound on the volume radius of the corresponding initial data set. We note that though the result is not optimal with respect to the standard scaling of the Einstein equations, it is nevertheless critical with respect...

  9. Proof of a Quantum Bousso Bound

    CERN Document Server

    Bousso, Raphael; Fisher, Zachary; Maldacena, Juan

    2014-01-01

    We prove the generalized Covariant Entropy Bound, $\\Delta S\\leq (A-A')/4G\\hbar$, for light-sheets with initial area $A$ and final area $A'$. The entropy $\\Delta S$ is defined as a difference of von Neumann entropies of an arbitrary state and the vacuum, with both states restricted to the light-sheet under consideration. The proof applies to free fields, in the limit where gravitational backreaction is small. We do not assume the null energy condition. In regions where it is violated, we find that the bound is protected by the defining property of light-sheets: that their null generators are nowhere expanding.

  10. Vulnerable Derivatives and Good Deal Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha

    2013-01-01

    We price vulnerable derivatives – i.e. derivatives where the counterparty may default. These are basically the derivatives traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Default is modelled in a structural framework. The technique employed for pricing is good deal bounds (GDBs). The method imposes a...... can be obtained. We provide a link between the objective probability measure and the range of potential risk-neutral measures, which has an intuitive economic meaning. We also provide tight pricing bounds for European calls and show how to extend the call formula to pricing other financial products in...

  11. Learning within bounds and dream sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geszti, T.; Pazmandi, F.

    1987-12-01

    In a bounded-synapses version of Hopfield's model (1984) for neural networks the quasienergy of a given memory, which is approximately equal to the depth of the corresponding energy well is calculated exactly by treating the change of a synaptic strength on learning as a random walk within bounds. Attractors corresponding to stored memories are found to be considerably flattened before serious retrieval errors arise. This allows dream sleep to be interpreted as random recall and relearning of fresh strong memories, in order to stack them on top of weak incidental memory imprints of a day.

  12. Bounding errors of Expectation-Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Dehaene, Guillaume P; Barthelmé, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Expectation Propagation is a very popular algorithm for variational inference, but comes with few theoretical guarantees. In this article, we prove that the approximation errors made by EP can be bounded. Our bounds have an asymptotic interpretation in the number $n$ of datapoints, which allows us to study EP's convergence with respect to the true posterior. In particular, we show that EP converges at a rate of $\\mathcal{0}(n^{-2})$ for the mean, up to an order of magnitude faster than the tr...

  13. Naturalness bounds on gauge mediated soft terms

    CERN Document Server

    Ciafaloni, P; Ciafaloni, Paolo; Strumia, Alessandro

    1996-01-01

    After a general discussion about the quantitative meaning of the naturalness upper bounds on the masses of supersymmetric particles, we compute these bounds in models with gauge-mediated soft terms. We find interesting upper limits on the right-handed slepton masses that, unless the messenger fields are very light, disfavor minimal models with large messenger content. Deep unphysical minima, that however turn out to be non dangerous, are usually present in such models. The mu-problem can be solved by adding a light singlet only at the price of a large amount of fine tuning that gives also rise to heavy sparticles and large tan\\beta.

  14. Violation of Energy Bounds in Designer Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Hertog, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    We continue our study of the stability of designer gravity theories, where one considers anti-de Sitter gravity coupled to certain tachyonic scalars with boundary conditions defined by a smooth function W. It has recently been argued there is a lower bound on the conserved energy in terms of the global minimum of W, if the scalar potential arises from a superpotential P and the scalar reaches an extremum of P at infinity. We show, however, there are superpotentials for which these bounds do n...

  15. Weakly bound systems, continuum effects, and reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Jaganathen, Y; Ploszajczak, M

    2012-01-01

    Structure of weakly bound/unbound nuclei close to particle drip lines is different from that around the valley of beta stability. A comprehensive description of these systems goes beyond standard Shell Model and demands an open quantum system description of the nuclear many-body system. We approach this problem using the Gamow Shell Model which provides a fully microscopic description of bound and unbound nuclear states, nuclear decays, and reactions. We present in this paper the first application of the GSM for a description of the elastic and inelastic scattering of protons on 6He.

  16. Bounds on Codes Based on Graph Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rouayheb, Salim Y. El; Georghiades, C. N.; Soljanin, E.; Sprintson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Let $A_q(n,d)$ be the maximum order (maximum number of codewords) of a $q$-ary code of length $n$ and Hamming distance at least $d$. And let $A(n,d,w)$ that of a binary code of constant weight $w$. Building on results from algebraic graph theory and Erd\\H{o}s-ko-Rado like theorems in extremal combinatorics, we show how several known bounds on $A_q(n,d)$ and $A(n,d,w)$ can be easily obtained in a single framework. For instance, both the Hamming and Singleton bounds can derived as an applicatio...

  17. Deeply bound kaonic states in nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-He; WU Shi-Shu

    2009-01-01

    Using a new phenomenological (K)N interaction which reproduces A(1405) as an I = 0 bound state of (K)N, we have investigated K- -3 He(T = 0) and K- -4 He(T = 1/2) within the framework of the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock(BHF) theory. Our calculations show that the above kaonic nuclear systems are both deeply bound. The binding energy BK- is 124.4 MeV(94.1 MeV) and the width Γ is 11.8 MeV(25.8 MeV) for K- -3 He(T = 0)(K- -4 He(T= 1/2)).

  18. Bound constrained quadratic programming via piecewise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Pinar, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the strictly convex quadratic programming problem with bounded variables. A dual problem is derived using Lagrange duality. The dual problem is the minimization of an unconstrained, piecewise quadratic function. It involves a lower bound of lambda/sub 1/ , the smallest eigenvalue...... of a symmetric, positive definite matrix, and is solved by Newton iteration with line search. The paper describes the algorithm and its implementation including estimation of lambda/sub 1/ , how to get a good starting point for the iteration, and up- and downdating of Cholesky factorization. Results of extensive...

  19. Bounds on Integrals of the Wigner Function

    CERN Document Server

    Bracken, A J; Wood, J G

    1999-01-01

    The integral of the Wigner function over a subregion of the phase-space of a quantum system may be less than zero or greater than one. It is shown that for systems with one degree of freedom, the problem of determining the best possible upper and lower bounds on such an integral, over all possible states, reduces to the problem of finding the greatest and least eigenvalues of an hermitian operator corresponding to the subregion. The problem is solved exactly in the case of an arbitrary elliptical region. These bounds provide checks on experimentally measured quasiprobability distributions.

  20. The Lovasz bound and some generalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Rodemich, E. R.; Rumsey, H. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The zero error capacity of a discrete memoryless channel is defined as the largest rate at which information can be transmitted over the channel with zero error probability. One channel with five inputs and outputs whose zero capacity remained unsolved until very recently is considered. An extremely powerful and general technique phased in terms of graph theory, for studying combinatorial packing problems is presented. In particular, Delsarte's linear programming bound for cliques in association schemes appears as a special case of the Lovasz bound.

  1. Spin and relativistic motion of bound states

    OpenAIRE

    JÀrvinen, Matti

    2007-01-01

    The wave functions of moving bound states may be expected to contract in the direction of motion, in analogy to a rigid rod in classical special relativity, when the constituents are at equal (ordinary) time. Indeed, the Lorentz contraction of wave functions is often appealed to in qualitative discussions. However, only few field theory studies exist of equal-time wave functions in motion. In this thesis I use the Bethe-Salpeter formalism to study the wave function of a weakly bound state suc...

  2. A lower bound on web services composition

    OpenAIRE

    Muscholl, Anca; Walukiewicz, Igor

    2008-01-01

    A web service is modeled here as a finite state machine. A composition problem for web services is to decide if a given web service can be constructed from a given set of web services; where the construction is understood as a simulation of the specification by a fully asynchronous product of the given services. We show an EXPTIME-lower bound for this problem, thus matching the known upper bound. Our result also applies to richer models of web services, such as the Roman model.

  3. Better-Reply Strategies with Bounded Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Andriy Zapechelnyuk

    2007-01-01

    A decision maker (an agent) is engaged in a repeated interaction with Nature. The objective of the agent is to guarantee to himself the long-run average payoff as large as the best-reply payoff to Nature?s empirical distribution of play, no matter what Nature does. An agent with perfect recall can achieve this objective by a simple better-reply strategy. In this paper we demonstrate that the relationship between perfect recall and bounded recall is not straightforward: An agent with bounded r...

  4. Bounds on positive interior transmission eigenvalues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains lower bounds on the counting function of the positive eigenvalues of the interior transmission problem when the latter is elliptic. In particular, these bounds justify the existence of an infinite set of interior transmission eigenvalues and provide asymptotic estimates from above on the counting function for the large values of the wave number. They also lead to certain important upper estimates on the first few interior transmission eigenvalues. We consider the classical transmission problem as well as the case when the inhomogeneous medium contains an obstacle. (paper)

  5. Subconvex bounds for compact toric integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Han

    2016-01-01

    We generalize our method for $\\GL_2 \\times \\GL_1$ to the subconvexity for $L$-functions appearing in Waldspurger's formulae, a special case for $\\GL_2 \\times \\GL_2$. In this sense, the case for $\\GL_2 \\times \\GL_1$ is regarded as the subconvexity for split toric integral. Both were sketched in Venkatesh's paper. Surprisingly enough, this bound survives from the best known bounds for $\\GL_2 \\times \\GL_1$ and for $\\GL_2 \\times \\GL_2$ with a large "probability". This is in some sense equivalent ...

  6. Maturation related changes in the distribution of ester bound fatty acids and alcohols in a coal series from the New Zealand Coal Band covering diagenetic to catagenetic coalification levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glombitza, C.; Mangelsdorf, K.; Horsfield, B. [German Research Cemter of Geoscience GFZ, Potsdam (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Several lignites and coals of low to moderate maturation levels from the New Zealand Coal Band were investigated using alkaline ester cleavage experiments to reveal compositional changes of ester bound components during increasing maturation. Ester bound alcohols are found to be present in highest amounts in the very immature lignite samples but show a rapid decrease during early diagenesis. Ester bound fatty acids also show an initial exponential decrease during diagenesis but reveal an intermittent increase during early catagenesis before decreasing again during main catagenesis. This was related to the short chain fatty acids. To obtain a maturity related signal and to eliminate facies related scattering in the amounts of fatty acids in the coal samples, the carbon preference index of fatty acids (CPIFA) parameter is introduced. For the long chain fatty acids the CPIFA decreases with increasing maturity. During diagenesis, the same trend can be observed for the short chain fatty acids but the intermittent increase in the amounts of short chain fatty acids is also accompanied by high CPIFA values. This indicates less altered organic biomass at this maturation level and is in contrast to the mature CPIFA signal of the long chain fatty acids of the same samples. Thus could be due to extremely different amounts of short and long chain fatty acids in the original source organic matter or it could due to the incorporation of immature bacterial biomass from deep microbial communities containing C{sub 16} and C{sub 18} fatty acids as main cell membrane components. Deep microbial life might be stimulated at this interval by the increasing release of thermally generated potential substrates from the organic matrix during early catagenesis. The high amounts of alcohols in the immature lignite samples are also visible in the alkene distribution from the open system pyrolysis experiments of the organic matrix before and after saponification.

  7. Comparative Study of Early Cold-Regulated Proteins by Two-Dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis Reveals a Key Role for Phospholipase Dα1 in Mediating Cold Acclimation Signaling Pathway in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Chenmin; Zhang, Baowen; Wang, Hui; Wang, Fawei; Liu, Meng; Gao, Yingjie; Zhang, Wenhua; Deng, Zhiping; Sun, Daye; Tang, Wenqiang

    2016-04-01

    To understand the early signaling steps that regulate cold responses in rice, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE)(1)was used to study early cold-regulated proteins in rice seedlings. Using mass spectrometry, 32 spots, which represent 26 unique proteins that showed an altered expression level within 5 min of cold treatment were identified. Among these proteins, Western blot analyses confirmed that the cellular phospholipase D α1 (OsPLDα1) protein level was increased as early as 1 min after cold treatment. Genetic studies showed that reducing the expression ofOsPLDα1makes rice plants more sensitive to chilling stress as well as cold acclimation increased freezing tolerance. Correspondingly, cold-regulated proteomic changes and the expression of the cold-responsive C repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding 1 (OsDREB1) family of transcription factors were inhibited in thepldα1mutant. We also found that the expression ofOsPLDα1is directly regulated by OsDREB1A. This transcriptional regulation ofOsPLDα1could provide positive feedback regulation of the cold signal transduction pathway in rice. OsPLDα1 hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine to produce the signal molecule phosphatidic acid (PA). By lipid-overlay assay, we demonstrated that the rice cold signaling proteins, MAP kinase 6 (OsMPK6) and OsSIZ1, bind directly to PA. Taken together, our results suggest that OsPLDα1 plays a key role in transducing cold signaling in rice by producing PA and regulatingOsDREB1s' expression by OsMPK6, OsSIZ1, and possibly other PA-binding proteins. PMID:26747563

  8. Uranium provinces and their time-bound characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although uranium is ubiquitous, it needs a certain geological setting in order to accumulate and it has been demonstrated that the migration and concentration of uranium depends primarily on its oxidation state and on the presence of certain elements which constitute the earth's crust. The uranium provinces of the globe are distinctly time-bound and occur in a series of five clearly defined mega-rhythms ranging from the early Proterozoic to the Recent. A different type, or a combination of different types, of mineralization is found to be characteristic of each epoch, and study of these variations has in the recent past led to a better understanding of the behaviour of uranium under wide-ranging conditions. This paper reviews the time-bound characteristics of the uranium provinces of southern Africa in the context of their global setting and their relationship to other uranium provinces. The nature and origin of the hiatus between each of the major pulses of uranium mineralization are also reflected on

  9. Upper bounds on packing density for circular cylinders with high aspect ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Kusner, Wöden

    2013-01-01

    In the early 1990s, A. Bezdek and W. Kuperberg used a relatively simple argument to show a surprising result: The maximum packing density of circular cylinders of infinite length in $\\mathbb{R}^3$ is exactly $\\pi/\\sqrt{12}$, the planar packing density of the circle. This paper modifies their method to prove a bound on the packing density of finite length circular cylinders. In fact, the maximum packing density for unit radius cylinders of length $t$ in $\\mathbb{R}^3$ is bounded above by $\\pi/...

  10. Sobolev spaces on bounded symmetric domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engliš, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 12 (2015), s. 1712-1726. ISSN 1747-6933 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bounded symmetric domain * Sobolev space * Bergman space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.610, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17476933.2015.1043910

  11. Call packing bound for overflow loss systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. van Dijk; E. van der Sluis

    2009-01-01

    Finite loss queues with overflow naturally arise in a variety of communications structures. For these systems, there is no simple analytic expression for the loss probability. This paper proves and promotes easily computable bounds based on the so-called call packing principle. Under call packing, a

  12. Call packing bounds for overflow queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. van Dijk; E. van der Sluis

    2004-01-01

    Finite queueing loss systems are studied with overflow. For these systems there is no simple analytic expression for the loss probability or throughput. This paper aims to prove and promote easily computable bounds as based upon the so-called call packing principle. Under call packing a standard pro

  13. Upper bounds for Steklov eigenvalues on surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Girouard, Alexandre; Polterovich, Iosif

    2012-01-01

    We give explicit isoperimetric upper bounds for all Steklov eigenvalues of a compact orientable surface with boundary, in terms of the genus, the length of the boundary, and the number of boundary components. Our estimates generalize a recent result of Fraser-Schoen, as well as the classical inequalites obtained by Hersch-Payne-Schiffer, whose approach is used in the present paper.

  14. Java Programs do not have Bounded Treewidth

    OpenAIRE

    Gustedt, Jens; Mæhle, Ole A.; Telle, Jan Arne

    2000-01-01

    We show that the control-flow graphs of Java programs, due to the labelled break and continue statements, have no upper bound on their treewidth. A single Java method containing $k$ labels and a loop nesting depth of $k+1$ can give a control-flow-graph with treewidth $2k+1$.

  15. Assessment of Wellness in Upward Bound Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T. Ross

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the validity and reliability of a new instrument for assessing the wellness lifestyles of Upward Bound students. Subjects were 42 students from five high schools using the program. The study examined 14 variables, including total scores, 10 subscales, and three demographic variables (age, race, gender), and concluded that the…

  16. Do $\\Xi\\Xi$ bound states exist?

    CERN Document Server

    Haidenbauer, J; Petschauer, S

    2014-01-01

    The existence of baryon-baryon bound states in the strangeness sector is examined in the framework of SU(3) chiral effective field theory. Specifically, the role of SU(3) symmetry breaking contact terms that arise at next-to-leading order in the employed Weinberg power counting scheme is explored. We focus on the 1S0 partial wave and on baryon-baryon channels with maximal isospin since in this case there are only two independent SU(3) symmetry breaking contact terms. At the same time, those are the channels where most of the bound states have been predicted in the past. Utilizing $pp$ phase shifts and $\\Sigma^+ p$ cross section data allows us to pin down one of the SU(3) symmetry breaking contact terms and a clear indication for the decrease of attraction when going from the NN system to strangeness S=-2 is found, which rules out a bound state for $\\Sigma\\Sigma$ with isospin I=2. Assuming that the trend observed for S=0 to S=-2 is not reversed when going to $\\Xi\\Sigma$ and $\\Xi\\Xi$ makes also bound states in ...

  17. Improved bounds in Weaver and Feichtinger Conjectures

    OpenAIRE

    Bownik, Marcin; Casazza, Peter G.; Marcus, Adam W.; Speegle, Darrin

    2015-01-01

    We sharpen the constant in the $KS_2$ conjecture of Weaver \\cite{We}, which was validated by Marcus, Spielman, and Srivastava \\cite{MSS} in their solution of the Kadison--Singer problem. We then apply this result to prove optimal asymptotic bounds on the size of partitions in the Feichtinger conjecture.

  18. On operators with bounded approximation property

    OpenAIRE

    Reinov, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    It is known that any separable Banach space with BAP is a complemented subspace of a Banach space with a basis. We show that every operator with bounded approximation property, acting from a separable Banach space, can be factored through a Banach space with a basis.

  19. Improved bounds on the supremum of autoconvolutions

    OpenAIRE

    Matolcsi, Máté; Vinuesa, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    We give a slight improvement of the best known lower bound for the supremum of autoconvolutions of nonnegative functions supported in a compact interval. Also, by means of explicit examples we disprove a long standing natural conjecture of Schinzel and Schmidt concerning the extremal function for such autoconvolutions.

  20. Properties of Excitons Bound to Ionized Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben; Suffczynski, M.; Gorzkowski, W.

    1971-01-01

    Binding energies, interparticle distances, oscillator strengths, and exchange corrections are calculated for the three-particle complex corresponding to an exciton bound to an ionized donor. The results are given as functions of the mass ratio of the electron and hole. Binding of the complex is...

  1. Scattering theory methods for bound state problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the analysis of the properties of a bound state system one may use in place of the Schroedinger equation the Lippmann-Schwinger (LS) equation for the wave function or the LS equation for the reactance operator. Use of the LS equation for the reactance operator constrains the solution to have correct asymptotic behaviour, so this approach would appear to be desirable when the bound state wave function is to be used to calculate particle transfer form factors. The Schroedinger equation based N-level analysis of the s-wave bound states of a square well is compared to the ones based on the LS equation. It is found that the LS equation methods work better than the Schroedinger equation method. The method that uses the LS equation for the wave function gives the best results for the wave functions while the method that uses the LS equation for the reactance operator gives the best results for the binding energies. The accuracy of the reactance operator based method is remarkably insensitive to changes in the oscillator constant used for the harmonic oscillator function basis set. It is also remarkably insensitive to the number of nodes in the bound state wave function. (Auth.)

  2. A Simple Condition for Bounded Displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Yaar

    2011-01-01

    We study separated nets that correspond to substitution tilings of the Euclidean space. We give a simple condition, in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenspaces of the substitution matrix, to know whether the separated net is a bounded displacement of the integer lattice or not.

  3. Strengthened Chernoff-type variance bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Afendras, G.; Papadatos, N.

    2014-01-01

    Let $X$ be an absolutely continuous random variable from the integrated Pearson family and assume that $X$ has finite moments of any order. Using some properties of the associated orthonormal polynomial system, we provide a class of strengthened Chernoff-type variance bounds.

  4. A lower bound on tunnel number degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Schirmer, Trent

    2014-01-01

    We prove a theorem which bounds Heegaard genus from below under special kinds of toroidal amalgamations of $3$-manifolds. As a consequence, we conclude $t(K_1\\# K_2)\\geq \\max\\{t(K_1),t(K_2)\\}$ for any pair of knots $K_1,K_2\\subset S^3$, where $t(K)$ denotes the tunnel number of $K$.

  5. Bound - states for truncated Coulomb potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Odeh, Maen; Mustafa, Omar

    2000-01-01

    The pseudoperturbative shifted - $l$ expansion technique PSLET is generalized for states with arbitrary number of nodal zeros. Bound- states energy eigenvalues for two truncated coulombic potentials are calculated using PSLET. In contrast with shifted large-N expansion technique, PSLET results compare excellently with those from direct numerical integration.

  6. Relativistic bound states at Born level

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical and phenomenological studies indicate that the QCD coupling \\alpha_s(Q^2) freezes in the infrared. Hadrons may then be described by a perturbative expansion around "Born" states bound only by a confining potential. A linear potential results from the QCD equations of motion when Gauss' law for A^0 is solved with F_{\\mu\

  7. Optimal bounds for quantum bit commitment

    CERN Document Server

    Chailloux, André

    2011-01-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive with numerous applications. Quantum information allows for bit commitment schemes in the information theoretic setting where no dishonest party can perfectly cheat. The previously best-known quantum protocol by Ambainis achieved a cheating probability of at most 3/4[Amb01]. On the other hand, Kitaev showed that no quantum protocol can have cheating probability less than 1/sqrt{2} [Kit03] (his lower bound on coin flipping can be easily extended to bit commitment). Closing this gap has since been an important and open question. In this paper, we provide the optimal bound for quantum bit commitment. We first show a lower bound of approximately 0.739, improving Kitaev's lower bound. We then present an optimal quantum bit commitment protocol which has cheating probability arbitrarily close to 0.739. More precisely, we show how to use any weak coin flipping protocol with cheating probability 1/2 + eps in order to achieve a quantum bit commitment protocol with ...

  8. Bounds for the cumulative conditional expectation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce the concept of cumulative conditional expectation function. This is a quantity that provides statistical support for making decisions in applied problems. The goal of this paper is to find an analytical expression for upper and lower bounds of this function, assuming stochastic dependence types as being the underlying random structure

  9. Bounds for the cumulative conditional expectation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, M.; González-López, V. A. [University of Campinas (Brazil)

    2015-03-10

    We introduce the concept of cumulative conditional expectation function. This is a quantity that provides statistical support for making decisions in applied problems. The goal of this paper is to find an analytical expression for upper and lower bounds of this function, assuming stochastic dependence types as being the underlying random structure.

  10. On Quantum Capacity and its Bound

    OpenAIRE

    Ohya, Masanori; Volovich, Igor V.

    2004-01-01

    The quantum capacity of a pure quantum channel and that of classical-quantum-classical channel are discussed in detail based on the fully quantum mechanical mutual entropy. It is proved that the quantum capacity generalizes the so-called Holevo bound.

  11. Approximate counting by hashing in bounded arithmetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 3 (2009), s. 829-860. ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * approximate counting * universal hashing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.631, year: 2009

  12. Combined perturbation bounds: Ⅱ. Polar decompositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen LI; Wei-wei SUN

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the perturbation bounds for the polar decomposition A= QH where Q is unitary and H is Hermitian. The optimal (asymptotic) bounds obtained in previous works for the unitary factor, the Hermitian factor and singular values of A are σ2r||△Q||2F ≤ ||△A||2F,1/2||△H||2F ≤ ||△A||2F and ||△∑||2F ≤ ||△A||2F, respectively, where ∑ = diag(σ1, σ2,..., σr, 0,..., 0) is the singular value matrix of A and σr denotes the smallest nonzero singular value. Here we present some new combined (asymptotic)perturbation bounds σ2r ||△Q||2F+1/2||△H||2F≤ ||△A||2F and σ2r||△Q||2F+||△∑ ||2F ≤||△A||2F which are optimal for each factor. Some corresponding absolute perturbation bounds are also given.

  13. On the Bound States of Matrix Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Sahakian, Vatche

    1997-01-01

    We investigate excitations in Matrix Theory on T^2 corresponding to bound states of strings. We demonstrate the Dirichlet aspect of R-R charged vacua through a non-trivial connection between the U(1) and SU(n) sectors of the matrix SYM.

  14. Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.

  15. A PSL Bounded Model Checking Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lei; ZHAO Zongtao

    2012-01-01

    SAT-based bounded model checking (BMC) is introduced as an important complementary technique to OBDD-based symbolic model checking, and is an efficient verification method for parallel and reactive systems. However, until now the properties verified by bounded model checking are very finite. Temporal logic PSL is a property specification language (IEEE-1850) describing parallel systems and is divided into two parts, i.e. the linear time logic FL and the branch time logic OBE. In this paper, the specification checked by BMC is extended to PSL and its algorithm is also proposed. Firstly, define the bounded semantics of PSL, and then reduce the bounded semantics into SAT by translating PSL specification formula and the state transition relation of the system to the propositional formula A and B, respectively. Finally, verify the satisfiability of the conjunction propositional formula of A and B. The algorithm results in the translation of the existential model checking of the temporal logic PSL into the satisfiability problem of propositional formula. An example of a queue controlling circuit is used to interpret detailedly the executing procedure of the algorithm.

  16. Monotonicity and bounds on Bessel functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Landau

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available survey my recent results on monotonicity with respect to order of general Bessel functions, which follow from a new identity and lead to best possible uniform bounds. Application may be made to the "spreading of the wave packet" for a free quantum particle on a lattice and to estimates for perturbative expansions.

  17. A Characterization of Complete Bounded Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷慰萍; 苏简兵; 赵振刚

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 IntroductionThis paper is concerned with biholomorphic mappings between two bounded domains D and G both in Cn.Consequently,an important question is whether the domain D is biholomorphic to G? We give an answer for this question under a very weak condition.

  18. First Generation of Bound Objects in the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the formation of first bound object in the Universe after recombination. We trace the evolution of a spherically symmetric density perturbation in the Ω=1 Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model with baryon and dark matter contributions respectively Ωb=0.1 and Ωdm=0.9. Physical processes in the collapsing gas relevant to various stages of the nonlinear collapse of low mass object are considered. We find that the first density perturbations which collapse to form luminous object have baryon mass in the range 103 - 104 Mo. The final collapse of these objects is triggered by the cooling due to H2 molecules and it starts early at redshifts z ∼ 20. The role of the initial baryon overdensity in the collapse of density perturbations in CDM model is studied. (author)

  19. Holographic Principle bounds on Primordial Black Hole abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Custodio, P S

    2003-01-01

    The generalized Second Law of thermodynamics and the Holographic Principle are combined to obtain the maximum mass of black holes formed inside a static spherical box of size $R$ filled with radiation at initial temperature $T_{i}$. The final temperature after the formation of black holes is evaluated, and we show that a critical threshold exists for the radiation to be fully consumed by the process. We next argue that if some form of Holographic Principle holds, upper bounds to the mass density of PBHs formed in the early universe may be obtained. The limits are worked out for inflationary and non-inflationary cosmological models. This method is independent of the known limits based on the background fluxes (from cosmic rays, radiation and other forms of energy) and applies to potentially important epochs of PBH formation, resulting in quite strong constraints to $\\Omega_{pbh}$.

  20. Dark matter and stable bound states of primordial black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chavda, L K; Chavda, Abhijit L.

    2002-01-01

    We present three reasons for the formation of gravitational bound states of primordial black holes,called holeums,in the early universe.Using Newtonian gravity and nonrelativistic quantum mechanics we find a purely quantum mechanical mass-dependant exclusion property for the nonoverlap of the constituent black holes in a holeum.This ensures that the holeum occupies space just like ordinary matter.A holeum emits only gravitational radiation whose spectrum is an exact analogue of that of a hydrogen atom. A part of this spectrum lies in the region accessible to the detectors being built.The holeums would form haloes around the galaxies and would be an important component of the dark matter in the universe today.They may also be the constituents of the invisible domain walls in the universe.

  1. Bounding the Probability of Error for High Precision Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Kae, Andrew; Learned-Miller, Erik

    2009-01-01

    We consider models for which it is important, early in processing, to estimate some variables with high precision, but perhaps at relatively low rates of recall. If some variables can be identified with near certainty, then they can be conditioned upon, allowing further inference to be done efficiently. Specifically, we consider optical character recognition (OCR) systems that can be bootstrapped by identifying a subset of correctly translated document words with very high precision. This "clean set" is subsequently used as document-specific training data. While many current OCR systems produce measures of confidence for the identity of each letter or word, thresholding these confidence values, even at very high values, still produces some errors. We introduce a novel technique for identifying a set of correct words with very high precision. Rather than estimating posterior probabilities, we bound the probability that any given word is incorrect under very general assumptions, using an approximate worst case ...

  2. Dark matter and stable bound states of primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present three reasons for the formation of gravitational bound states of primordial black holes, called holeums, in the early universe. Using Newtonian gravity and nonrelativistic quantum mechanics we find a purely quantum mechanical mass-dependent exclusion property for the nonoverlap of the constituent black holes in a holeum. This ensures that the holeum occupies space just like ordinary matter. A holeum emits only gravitational radiation whose spectrum is an exact analogue of that of a hydrogen atom. A part of this spectrum lies in the region accessible to the detectors being built. The holeums would form haloes around the galaxies and would be an important component of the dark matter in the universe today. They may also be the constituents of the invisible domain walls in the universe

  3. Quantitative proteomic analysis of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells reveals an early host response in important biological pathways: Protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and T-cell activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navare, Arti T.; Sova, Pavel; Purdy, David E.; Weiss, Jeffrey M. [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro [Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Korth, Marcus J.; Chang, Stewart T.; Proll, Sean C. [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Jahan, Tahmina A. [Proteomics Resource, UW Medicine at South Lake Union, Seattle, WA (United States); Krasnoselsky, Alexei L.; Palermo, Robert E. [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Katze, Michael G., E-mail: honey@uw.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) depends upon host-encoded proteins to facilitate its replication while at the same time inhibiting critical components of innate and/or intrinsic immune response pathways. To characterize the host cell response on protein levels in CD4+ lymphoblastoid SUP-T1 cells after infection with HIV-1 strain LAI, we used mass spectrometry (MS)-based global quantitation with iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification). We found 266, 60 and 22 proteins differentially expressed (DE) (P-value{<=}0.05) at 4, 8, and 20 hours post-infection (hpi), respectively, compared to time-matched mock-infected samples. The majority of changes in protein abundance occurred at an early stage of infection well before the de novo production of viral proteins. Functional analyses of these DE proteins showed enrichment in several biological pathways including protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and T-cell activation. Importantly, these early changes before the time of robust viral production have not been described before.

  4. Quantitative proteomic analysis of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells reveals an early host response in important biological pathways: Protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and T-cell activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) depends upon host-encoded proteins to facilitate its replication while at the same time inhibiting critical components of innate and/or intrinsic immune response pathways. To characterize the host cell response on protein levels in CD4+ lymphoblastoid SUP-T1 cells after infection with HIV-1 strain LAI, we used mass spectrometry (MS)-based global quantitation with iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification). We found 266, 60 and 22 proteins differentially expressed (DE) (P-value≤0.05) at 4, 8, and 20 hours post-infection (hpi), respectively, compared to time-matched mock-infected samples. The majority of changes in protein abundance occurred at an early stage of infection well before the de novo production of viral proteins. Functional analyses of these DE proteins showed enrichment in several biological pathways including protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and T-cell activation. Importantly, these early changes before the time of robust viral production have not been described before.

  5. Construction of bound entangled states based on permutation operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Guo, Sha; Jing, Naihuan; Fei, Shaoming

    2016-04-01

    We present a construction of new bound entangled states from given bound entangled states for arbitrary dimensional bipartite systems. One way to construct bound entangled states is to show that these states are positive partial transpose (PPT) and violate the range criterion at the same time. By applying certain operators to given bound entangled states or to one of the subsystems of the given bound entangled states, we obtain a set of new states which are both PPT and violate the range criterion. We show that the derived bound entangled states are not local unitary equivalent to the original bound entangled states by detail examples.

  6. Study of the deeply bound hole states by the (3He,α) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The (3He,α) reactions at 110 - 120 MeV on even tin isotopes revealed the presence of the new (1g)-1 state at Ex = 6 -- 7 MeV with a spectroscopic factor comparable to the known (1g sub(9/2))-1 deeply bound hole state. (author)

  7. Exponential Lower Bounds for AC0-Frege Imply Superpolynomial Frege Lower Bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Filmus, Yuval; Pitassi, Toniann; Santhanam, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    We give a general transformation which turns polynomial-size Frege proofs to subexponential-size AC0-Frege proofs. This indicates that proving exponential lower bounds for AC0-Frege is hard, since it is a longstanding open problem to prove super-polynomial lower bounds for Frege. Our construction is optimal for tree-like proofs. As a consequence of our main result, we are able to shed some light on the question of weak automatizability for bounded-depth Frege systems. First, we present a simp...

  8. Solving Multistage Influence Diagrams using Branch-and-Bound Search

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Changhe; Wu, Xiaojian; Hansen, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    A branch-and-bound approach to solving influ- ence diagrams has been previously proposed in the literature, but appears to have never been implemented and evaluated - apparently due to the difficulties of computing effective bounds for the branch-and-bound search. In this paper, we describe how to efficiently compute effective bounds, and we develop a practical implementa- tion of depth-first branch-and-bound search for influence diagram evaluation that outperforms existing methods for solvin...

  9. Proteomic analysis of nipple aspirate fluid from women with early-stage breast cancer using isotope-coded affinity tags and tandem mass spectrometry reveals differential expression of vitamin D binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) tandem mass spectrometry (MS) allows for qualitative and quantitative analysis of paired protein samples. We sought to determine whether ICAT technology could quantify and identify differential expression of tumor-specific proteins in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) from the tumor-bearing and contralateral disease-free breasts of patients with unilateral early-stage breast cancer. Paired NAF samples from 18 women with stage I or II unilateral invasive breast carcinoma and 4 healthy volunteers were analyzed using ICAT labeling, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE), liquid chromatography, and MS. Proteins were identified by sequence database analysis. Western blot analysis of NAF from an independent sample set from 12 women (8 with early-stage breast cancer and 4 healthy volunteers) was also performed. 353 peptides were identified from tandem mass spectra and matched to peptide sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. Equal numbers of peptides were up- versus down-regulated. Alpha2HS-glycoprotein [Heavy:Light (H:L) ratio 0.63] was underexpressed in NAF from tumor-bearing breasts, while lipophilin B (H:L ratio 1.42), beta-globin (H:L ratio 1.98), hemopexin (H:L ratio 1.73), and vitamin D-binding protein precursor (H:L ratio 1.82) were overexpressed. Western blot analysis of pooled samples of NAF from healthy volunteers versus NAF from women with breast cancer confirmed the overexpression of vitamin D-binding protein in tumor-bearing breasts. ICAT tandem MS was able to identify and quantify differences in specific protein expression between NAF samples from tumor-bearing and disease-free breasts. Proteomic screening techniques using ICAT and NAF may be used to find markers for diagnosis of breast cancer

  10. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

    Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s- 1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens (N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s- 1 and body angle from -15∘ to 50∘. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counterrotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag (L:D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10∘ to 30∘. Peak (L:D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15∘ or 20∘, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in CL and CD from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s- 1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s- 1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L:D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L:D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the

  11. Optical attosecond pulses and tracking the nonlinear response of bound electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. Th.; Luu, T. T.; Moulet, A.; Raskazovskaya, O.; Zhokhov, P.; Garg, M.; Karpowicz, N.; Zheltikov, A. M.; Pervak, V.; Krausz, F.; Goulielmakis, E.

    2016-02-01

    The time it takes a bound electron to respond to the electromagnetic force of light sets a fundamental speed limit on the dynamic control of matter and electromagnetic signal processing. Time-integrated measurements of the nonlinear refractive index of matter indicate that the nonlinear response of bound electrons to optical fields is not instantaneous; however, a complete spectral characterization of the nonlinear susceptibility tensors—which is essential to deduce the temporal response of a medium to arbitrary driving forces using spectral measurements—has not yet been achieved. With the establishment of attosecond chronoscopy, the impulsive response of positive-energy electrons to electromagnetic fields has been explored through ionization of atoms and solids by an extreme-ultraviolet attosecond pulse or by strong near-infrared fields. However, none of the attosecond studies carried out so far have provided direct access to the nonlinear response of bound electrons. Here we demonstrate that intense optical attosecond pulses synthesized in the visible and nearby spectral ranges allow sub-femtosecond control and metrology of bound-electron dynamics. Vacuum ultraviolet spectra emanating from krypton atoms, exposed to intense waveform-controlled optical attosecond pulses, reveal a finite nonlinear response time of bound electrons of up to 115 attoseconds, which is sensitive to and controllable by the super-octave optical field. Our study could enable new spectroscopies of bound electrons in atomic, molecular or lattice potentials of solids, as well as light-based electronics operating on sub-femtosecond timescales and at petahertz rates.

  12. 3-hitting set on Bounded Degree Hypergraphs: Upper and Lower Bounds on the Kernel Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanj, Iyad A.; Zhang, Fenghui

    We study upper and lower bounds on the kernel size for the 3-hitting set problem on hypergraphs of degree at most 3, denoted 3-3-hs. We first show that, unless P=NP, 3-3-hs on 3-uniform hypergraphs does not have a kernel of size at most 35k/19 > 1.8421k. We then give a 4k - k 0.2692 kernel for 3-3-hs that is computable in time O(k 1.2692). This result improves the upper bound of 4k on the kernel size for 3-3-hs, given by Wahlström. We also show that the upper bound results on the kernel size for 3-3-hs can be generalized to the 3-hs problem on hypergraphs of bounded degree Δ, for any integer-constant Δ> 3.

  13. Bound-state formation for thermal relic dark matter and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the relic abundance of thermal dark matter annihilating via a long-range interaction, is significantly affected by the formation and decay of dark matter bound states in the early universe, if the dark matter mass is above a few TeV . We determine the coupling required to obtain the observed dark matter density, taking into account both the direct 2-to-2 annihilations and the formation of bound states, and provide an analytical fit. We argue that the unitarity limit on the inelastic cross-section is realized only if dark matter annihilates via a long-range interaction, and we determine the upper bound on the mass of thermal-relic dark matter to be about 197 (139) TeV for (non)-self-conjugate dark matter

  14. Revisiting the upper bounding process in a safe Branch and Bound algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsztejn, Alexandre; Lebbah, Yahia; Michel, Claude; Rueher, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Finding feasible points for which the proof succeeds is a critical issue in safe Branch and Bound algorithms which handle continuous problems. In this paper, we introduce a new strategy to compute very accurate approximations of feasible points. This strategy takes advantage of the Newton method for under-constrained systems of equations and inequalities. More precisely, it exploits the optimal solution of a linear relaxation of the problem to compute efficiently a promising upper bound. Firs...

  15. Bounded Quadrant System: Error-bounded Trajectory Compression on the Go

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jiajun; Zhao, Kun; Sommer, Philipp; Shang, Shuo; Kusy, Brano; Jurdak, Raja

    2014-01-01

    Long-term location tracking, where trajectory compression is commonly used, has gained high interest for many applications in transport, ecology, and wearable computing. However, state-of-the-art compression methods involve high space-time complexity or achieve unsatisfactory compression rate, leading to rapid exhaustion of memory, computation, storage and energy resources. We propose a novel online algorithm for error-bounded trajectory compression called the Bounded Quadrant System (BQS), w...

  16. Axion Cosmology with a Stronger QCD in the Early Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Hang Bae; Kim, Jihn E.

    1996-01-01

    We examine in the context of supersymmetric models whether the usual cosmological upper bound on the axion decay constant can be relaxed by assuming a period of stronger QCD in the early universe. By evaluating the axion potential in the early universe and also taking into account the dilaton potential energy, it is argued that a stronger QCD is not useful for raising up the bound.

  17. Axion cosmology with a stronger QCD in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi Kiwoon [Korea Adv. Inst. of Sci. and Technol., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Phys. Dept.; Kim, H.B. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Kim, J.E. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-14

    We examine in the context of supersymmetric models whether the usual cosmological upper bound on the axion decay constant can be relaxed by assuming a period of stronger QCD in the early universe. By evaluating the axion potential in the early universe and also taking into account the dilaton potential energy, it is argued that a stronger QCD is not useful for raising the bound. (orig.).

  18. Tsirelson's bound and supersymmetric entangled states

    CERN Document Server

    Borsten, L; Duff, M J

    2012-01-01

    In order to see whether superqubits are more nonlocal than ordinary qubits, we construct a class of two-superqubit entangled states as a nonlocal resource in the CHSH game. Since super Hilbert space amplitudes are Grassmann numbers, the result depends on how we extract real probabilities and we examine three choices of map: (1) DeWitt (2) Trigonometric (3) Modified Rogers. In cases (1) and (2) the winning probability reaches the Tsirelson bound p(win) = cos^2 pi/8 \\simeq 0.8536 of standard quantum mechanics. Case (3) crosses Tsirelson's bound with p(win) = 0.9265. Although all states used in the game involve probabilities lying between 0 and 1, case (3) permits other changes of basis inducing negative transition probabilities.

  19. Identities and exponential bounds for transfer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about analytic properties of single transfer matrices originating from general block-tridiagonal or banded matrices. Such matrices occur in various applications in physics and numerical analysis. The eigenvalues of the transfer matrix describe localization of eigenstates and are linked to the spectrum of the block tridiagonal matrix by a determinantal identity. If the block tridiagonal matrix is invertible, it is shown that half of the singular values of the transfer matrix have a lower bound exponentially large in the length of the chain, and the other half have an upper bound that is exponentially small. This is a consequence of a theorem by Demko, Moss and Smith on the decay of matrix elements of the inverse of banded matrices. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (paper)

  20. Bounded link prediction for very large networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Wei; Xu, Zhongqi

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of link prediction methods is a hard task in very large complex networks because of the inhibitive computational cost. By setting a lower bound of the number of common neighbors (CN), we propose a new framework to efficiently and precisely evaluate the performances of CN-based similarity indices in link prediction for very large heterogeneous networks. Specifically, we propose a fast algorithm based on the parallel computing scheme to obtain all the node pairs with CN values larger than the lower bound. Furthermore, we propose a new measurement, called self-predictability, to quantify the performance of the CN-based similarity indices in link prediction, which on the other side can indicate the link predictability of a network.

  1. The lower bound on the energy for bounded systems is equivalent to the Bekenstein upper bound on the entropy to energy ratio for bounded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Franz-Josef

    2009-01-01

    Several approaches were used to proof the assumption that an universal upper bound on the entropy to energy ratio (S/E) exists in bounded systems. In 1981 Jacob D. Bekenstein published his findings that S/E is limited by the effective radius of the system and mentioned various approaches to derive S/E employing quantum statistics or thermodynamics. It can be shown that similar results are obtained considering the energetic difference of longitudinal eigenmodes inside a closed cavity like it was done by Max Planck in 1900 to derive the correct formula for the spectral distribution of the black-body radiation. Considering an information theoretical approach this derivation suggests that the variance of an expectation value is the same like the variance of the probability for measuring this expectation value. Implications of these findings are shortly discussed.

  2. Lower Bounds for Quantum Oblivious Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Chailloux, André; Sikora, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Oblivious transfer is a fundamental primitive in cryptography. While perfect information theoretic security is impossible, quantum oblivious transfer protocols can limit the dishonest players' cheating. Finding the optimal security parameters in such protocols is an important open question. In this paper we show that every 1-out-of-2 oblivious transfer protocol allows a dishonest party to cheat with probability bounded below by a constant strictly larger than 1/2. Alice's cheating is defined as her probability of guessing Bob's index, and Bob's cheating is defined as his probability of guessing both input bits of Alice. In our proof, we relate these cheating probabilities to the cheating probabilities of a coin flipping protocol and conclude by using Kitaev's coin flipping lower bound. Then, we present an oblivious transfer protocol with two messages and cheating probabilities at most 3/4. Last, we extend Kitaev's semidefinite programming formulation to more general primitives, where the security is against a...

  3. Probabilistically Bounded Staleness for Practical Partial Quorums

    CERN Document Server

    Bailis, Peter; Franklin, Michael J; Hellerstein, Joseph M; Stoica, Ion

    2012-01-01

    Data store replication results in a fundamental trade-off between operation latency and data consistency. In this paper, we examine this trade-off in the context of quorum-replicated data stores. Under partial, or non-strict quorum replication, a data store waits for responses from a subset of replicas before answering a query, without guaranteeing that read and write replica sets intersect. As deployed in practice, these configurations provide only basic eventual consistency guarantees, with no limit to the recency of data returned. However, anecdotally, partial quorums are often "good enough" for practitioners given their latency benefits. In this work, we explain why partial quorums are regularly acceptable in practice, analyzing both the staleness of data they return and the latency benefits they offer. We introduce Probabilistically Bounded Staleness (PBS) consistency, which provides expected bounds on staleness with respect to both versions and wall clock time. We derive a closed-form solution for versi...

  4. Some general bounds for 1-D scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, M

    1999-01-01

    One-dimensional scattering problems are of wide physical interest and are encountered in many diverse applications. In this article I establish some very general bounds for reflection and transmission coefficients for one-dimensional potential scattering. Equivalently, these results may be phrased as general bounds on the Bogolubov coefficients, or statements about the transfer matrix. A similar analysis can be provided for the parametric change of frequency of a harmonic oscillator. A number of specific examples are discussed---in particular I provide a general proof that sharp step function potentials always scatter more effectively than the corresponding smoothed potentials. The analysis also serves to collect together and unify what would otherwise appear to be quite unrelated results.

  5. Mutual information rate and bounds for it.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo S Baptista

    Full Text Available The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR, is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic, and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators.

  6. Mutual information rate and bounds for it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Murilo S; Rubinger, Rero M; Viana, Emilson R; Sartorelli, José C; Parlitz, Ulrich; Grebogi, Celso

    2012-01-01

    The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators. PMID:23112809

  7. REE bound DNA in natural plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉琦; 江平; 郭繁清; 张智勇; 孙景信; 许雷; 曹国印

    1999-01-01

    The binding of rare earth elements (REEs) with nucleic acids in the leaves of fern Dicranopteris dichotoma (DD) has been studied by molecular activation analysis (MAA). The REEs bound DNA (REE-DNA) was obtained from the leaves of DD. The CTAB-based procedure was modified for extraction of total DNA. The purity of DNA was examined by UV spectroscopy. The DNA obtained was separated and determined by agarose gel electrophoresis further. Meanwhile, the contents of eight rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu,Tb, Yb and Lu) in REE-DNA were detected by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results showed that REE-DNA with higher purity could be extracted from plant using this method. It was also found that REEs were bound firmly with DNA in the leaves of DD. The molecular weight (MW) of REE-DNA band was about 22 kb in agarose gel electrophoresis.

  8. A Metric Encoding for Bounded Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradella, Matteo; Morzenti, Angelo; San Pietro, Pierluigi

    In Bounded Model Checking, both the system model and the checked property are translated into a Boolean formula to be analyzed by a SAT-solver. We introduce a new encoding technique which is particularly optimized for managing quantitative future and past metric temporal operators, typically found in properties of hard real time systems. The encoding is simple and intuitive in principle, but it is made more complex by the presence, typical of the Bounded Model Checking technique, of backward and forward loops used to represent an ultimately periodic infinite domain by a finite structure. We report and comment on the new encoding technique and on an extensive set of experiments carried out to assess its feasibility and effectiveness.

  9. Bounds on bacterial cell growth rates

    CERN Document Server

    Landy, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that rod-like bacteria in nutrient-rich media grow in length at an exponential rate. Here, I point out that it is the elongated shape of these bacteria that allows for this behavior. Further, I show that when a bacterium's growth is limited by some nutrient -- taken in by the cell through a diffusion-to-capture process -- its growth is suppressed: In three-dimensional geometries, the length $L$ is bounded by $\\log L \\lesssim t^{1/2}$, while in two dimensions the length is bounded by a power-law form. Fits of experimental growth curves to these predicted, sub-exponential forms could allow for direct measures of quantities relating to cellular metabolic rates.

  10. Quarks as quasiparticles of bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A treatment of quarks as strongly bound subsystems of the baryon structure is considered, with the baryons assigned to various states with integers G and B. The requirement that the appropriate fractional values of the quantum numbers of the quarks be obtained, and that appropriate integral values be obtained for the whole system of three bound quarks, uniquely determine the three initial states of the quarks, labeled by the set of values of the quantum numbers G, B, and J. In this connection the new color quantum number is interpreted as a quantity which characterizes the presence of the subsystems in different eigenstates. The self- consistency of the changes of color states in the three-quark system is explained on the basis of a generalized Sakata model. (author)

  11. Cohomology with Lp-bounds on polycylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Lutterodt

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Let Ω=Ω1×…×Ωn be a polycylinder in ℂn, that is each Ωj is bounded, non-empty and open in ℂ. The main result proved here is that, if Bp is the sheaf of germs of Lp-holomorphic functions on Ω¯ then Hq(Ω¯,Bp=0 for q≥1. The proof of this is then used to establish a Leray's Isomorphism with Lp-bounds theorem.

  12. Quantum Bound States Around Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Grain, J.; Barrau, A.

    2007-01-01

    Quantum mechanics around black holes has shown to be one of the most fascinating fields of theoretical physics. It involves both general relativity and particle physics, opening new eras to establish the principles of unified theories. In this article, we show that quantum bound states with no classical equivalent -- as it can easily be seen at the dominant monopolar order -- should be formed around black holes for massive scalar particles. We qualitatively investigate some important physical...

  13. Structural Studies of Membrane-Bound Pyrophosphatases

    OpenAIRE

    Kellosalo, Juho

    2013-01-01

    Membrane-bound pyrophosphatases (M-PPases) catalyze a reaction where the free energy released from pyrophoshate (PPi) hydrolysis is converted into a sodium and/or proton gradient by pumping these ions across the membrane [1]. They are found in plants, protozoans and prokaryotes and are important for survival in abiotic stress conditions such as cold, hypoxia, salt stress and low-light intensity [2, 3][4]. In plants, M-PPases are the main hydrolysers of cytoplasmic pyrophosphate, which source ...

  14. Upper and lower bounds on quantum codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graeme Stewart Baird

    This thesis provides bounds on the performance of quantum error correcting codes when used for quantum communication and quantum key distribution. The first two chapters provide a bare-bones introduction to classical and quantum error correcting codes, respectively. The next four chapters present achievable rates for quantum codes in various scenarios. The final chapter is dedicated to an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity. Chapter 3 studies coding for adversarial noise using quantum list codes, showing there exist quantum codes with high rates and short lists. These can be used, together with a very short secret key, to communicate with high fidelity at noise levels for which perfect fidelity is, impossible. Chapter 4 explores the performance of a family of degenerate codes when used to communicate over Pauli channels, showing they can be used to communicate over almost any Pauli channel at rates that are impossible for a nondegenerate code and that exceed those of previously known degenerate codes. By studying the scaling of the optimal block length as a function of the channel's parameters, we develop a heuristic for designing even better codes. Chapter 5 describes an equivalence between a family of noisy preprocessing protocols for quantum key distribution and entanglement distillation protocols whose target state belongs to a class of private states called "twisted states." In Chapter 6, the codes of Chapter 4 are combined with the protocols of Chapter 5 to provide higher key rates for one-way quantum key distribution than were previously thought possible. Finally, Chapter 7 presents a new upper bound on the quantum channel capacity that is both additive and convex, and which can be interpreted as the capacity of the channel for communication given access to side channels from a class of zero capacity "cloning" channels. This "clone assisted capacity" is equal to the unassisted capacity for channels that are degradable, which we use to find new upper

  15. Bounding symbolic powers via asymptotic multiplier ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach Teitler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We revisit a bound on symbolic powers found by Ein-Lazarsfeld-Smith and subsequently improved by Takagi-Yoshida. We show that the original argument of [6] actually gives the same improvement. On the other hand, we show by examples that any further improvement based on the same technique appears unlikely. This is primarily an exposition; only some examples and remarks might be new.

  16. Moment Problems on Bounded and Unbounded Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octav Olteanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using approximation results, we characterize the existence of the solution for a two-dimensional moment problem in the first quadrant, in terms of quadratic forms, similar to the one-dimensional case. For the bounded domain case, one considers a space of complex analytic functions in a disk and a space of continuous functions on a compact interval. The latter result seems to give sufficient (and necessary conditions for the existence of a multiplicative solution.

  17. Iterative arrays with small time bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Buchholz, Thomas; Klein, Andreas; Kutrib, Martin

    1999-01-01

    An iterative arrays is a line of interconnected interacting finite automata. One distinguished automaton, the communication cell, is connected to the outside world and fetches the input serially symbol by symbol. Sometimes in the literature this model is referred to as cellular automaton with sequential input mode. We investigate deterministic iterative arrays (IA) with small time bounds between real-time and linear-time. It is shown that there exists an infinite dense hierarchy of strictly i...

  18. Singular integral on bounded strictly pseudoconvex domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Ding-dong

    2008-01-01

    Kytmanov and Myslivets gave a special Cauchy principal value of the singular integral on the bounded strictly pseudoconvex domain with smooth boundary. By means of this Cauchy integral principal value, the corresponding singular integral and a composition formula are obtained. This composition formula is quite different from usual ones in form. As an application, the corresponding singular integral equation and the system of singular integral equations are discussed as well.

  19. Bounding probabilistic safety assessment probabilities by reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of the failure in systems where failure is a rare event makes the continual comparisons between the developed probabilities and empirical evidence difficult. The comparison of the predictions of rare event risk assessments with historical reality is essential to prevent probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) predictions from drifting into fantasy. One approach to performing such comparisons is to search out and assign probabilities to natural events which, while extremely rare, have a basis in the history of natural phenomena or human activities. For example the Segovian aqueduct and some of the Roman fortresses in Spain have existed for several millennia and in many cases show no physical signs of earthquake damage. This evidence could be used to bound the probability of earthquakes above a certain magnitude to less than 10-3 per year. On the other hand, there is evidence that some repetitive actions can be performed with extremely low historical probabilities when operators are properly trained and motivated, and sufficient warning indicators are provided. The point is not that low probability estimates are impossible, but continual reassessment of the analysis assumptions, and a bounding of the analysis predictions by historical reality. This paper reviews the probabilistic predictions of PSA in this light, attempts to develop, in a general way, the limits which can be historically established and the consequent bounds that these limits place upon the predictions, and illustrates the methodology used in computing such limits. Further, the paper discusses the use of empirical evidence and the requirement for disciplined systematic approaches within the bounds of reality and the associated impact on PSA probabilistic estimates

  20. Locating dominating codes: Bounds and extremal cardinalities

    CERN Document Server

    Cáceres, José; Mora, Mercè; Pelayo, Ignacio M; Puertas, María Luz

    2012-01-01

    In this work, two types of codes such that they both dominate and locate the vertices of a graph are studied. Those codes might be sets of detectors in a network or processors controlling a system whose set of responses should determine a malfunctioning processor or an intruder. Here, we present our more significant contributions on \\lambda-codes and \\eta-codes concerning concerning bounds, extremal values and realization theorems.

  1. Contingency tables with uniformly bounded entries

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Austin

    2011-01-01

    We consider nonnegative integer matrices with specified row and column sums and upper bounds on the entries. We show that the logarithm of the number of such matrices is approximated by a concave function of the row and column sums. We give efficiently computable estimators for this function, including one suggested by a maximum-entropy random model; we show that these estimators are asymptotically exact as the dimension of the matrices goes to infinity. We finish by showing that, for kappa >...

  2. Regret Bounds for Deterministic Gaussian Process Bandits

    OpenAIRE

    De Freitas, Nando; Smola, Alex; Zoghi, Masrour

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the problem of Gaussian process (GP) bandits with deterministic observations. The analysis uses a branch and bound algorithm that is related to the UCB algorithm of (Srinivas et al., 2010). For GPs with Gaussian observation noise, with variance strictly greater than zero, (Srinivas et al., 2010) proved that the regret vanishes at the approximate rate of $O(\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{t}})$, where t is the number of observations. To complement their result, we attack the deterministic c...

  3. Closed form bound-state perturbation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollie J. Rose

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The perturbed Schrödinger eigenvalue problem for bound states is cast into integral form using Green's Functions. A systematic algorithm is developed and applied to the resulting equation giving rise to approximate solutions expressed as functions of the given perturbation parameter. As a by-product, convergence radii for the traditional Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theories emerge in a natural way.

  4. Bounded cascade clouds: albedo and effective thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Cahalan, R. F.

    2002-01-01

    If climate models produced clouds having liquid water amounts close to those observed, they would compute a mean albedo that is often much too large, due to the treatment of clouds as plane-parallel. An approximate lower-bound for this "plane-parallel albedo bias" may be obtained from a fractal model having a range of optical thicknesses similar to those observed in marine stratocumulus, since they are more nearly plane-parallel than most other cloud types. We review ...

  5. Recent advances in bound state quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments are reviewed in four areas of computational quantum electrodynamics: a new relativistic two-body formalism equal in rigor to the Bethe-Salpeter formalism but with strong calculational advantages is discussed; recent work on the computation of the decay rate of bound systems (positronium in particular) is presented; limits on possible composite structure of leptons are discussed; a new multidimensional integration program ('VEGAS') suitable for higher order calculations is presented

  6. General smile asymptotics with bounded maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Caravenna; Jacopo Corbetta

    2014-01-01

    We provide explicit conditions on the distribution of risk-neutral log-returns which yield sharp asymptotic estimates on the implied volatility smile. We allow for a variety of asymptotic regimes, including both small maturity (with arbitrary strike) and extreme strike (with arbitrary bounded maturity), extending previous work of Benaim and Friz [Math. Finance 19 (2009), 1-12]. We present applications to popular models, including Carr-Wu finite moment logstable model, Merton's jump diffusion ...

  7. A sorting network in bounded arithmetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 4 (2011), s. 341-355. ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * sorting network * proof complexity * monotone sequent calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007210001272

  8. Detecting Lower Bounds to Quantum Channel Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchiavello, Chiara; Sacchi, Massimiliano F.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a method to detect lower bounds to quantum capacities of a noisy quantum communication channel by means of a few measurements. The method is easily implementable and does not require any knowledge about the channel. We test its efficiency by studying its performance for most well-known single-qubit noisy channels and for the generalized Pauli channel in an arbitrary finite dimension.

  9. Performance Bounds in Switched Ethernet Onboard Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Heidinger, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    In modern aeronautic onboard networks, a driving force exists to integrate multiple communication networks onto a single switched Ethernet network. Goals for future onboard communication networks are low weight, low price, high bandwidth, and certifiable safety. The certification process for such a novel system requires hard performance guarantees on latency and jitter. The state-of-the-art approach to determine worst case bounds is Network Calculus, and the tightness of Network Calc...

  10. Entropic bounds for the quantum marginal problem

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Tobias J

    2008-01-01

    The quantum marginal problem asks, given a set of reduced quantum states of a multipartite system, whether there exists a joint quantum state consistent with these reduced states. The quantum marginal problem is known to be hard to solve in general as it is a variant of the N-representability problem. We provide entropic bounds on the number of orthogonal solutions to the quantum marginal problem.

  11. Efficiency bounds for nonequilibrium heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the efficiency of thermal engines (either quantum or classical) working with a single heat reservoir like an atmosphere. The engine first gets an energy intake, which can be done in an arbitrary nonequilibrium way e.g. combustion of fuel. Then the engine performs the work and returns to the initial state. We distinguish two general classes of engines where the working body first equilibrates within itself and then performs the work (ergodic engine) or when it performs the work before equilibrating (non-ergodic engine). We show that in both cases the second law of thermodynamics limits their efficiency. For ergodic engines we find a rigorous upper bound for the efficiency, which is strictly smaller than the equivalent Carnot efficiency. I.e. the Carnot efficiency can be never achieved in single reservoir heat engines. For non-ergodic engines the efficiency can be higher and can exceed the equilibrium Carnot bound. By extending the fundamental thermodynamic relation to nonequilibrium processes, we find a rigorous thermodynamic bound for the efficiency of both ergodic and non-ergodic engines and show that it is given by the relative entropy of the nonequilibrium and initial equilibrium distributions. These results suggest a new general strategy for designing more efficient engines. We illustrate our ideas by using simple examples. -- Highlights: ► Derived efficiency bounds for heat engines working with a single reservoir. ► Analyzed both ergodic and non-ergodic engines. ► Showed that non-ergodic engines can be more efficient. ► Extended fundamental thermodynamic relation to arbitrary nonequilibrium processes

  12. Better-Reply Dynamics with Bounded Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Andriy Zapechelnyuk

    2008-01-01

    A decision maker is engaged in a repeated interaction with Nature. The objective of the decision maker is to guarantee to himself the average payoff as large as the best-reply payoff to Nature's empirical distribution of play, no matter what Nature does. The decision maker with perfect recall can achieve this objective by a simple better-reply strategy. In this paper we demonstrate that the relationship between perfect recall and bounded recall is not straightforward: The decision maker with ...

  13. Weakly bound states in heterogeneous waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Hofmann, Christoph P.

    2016-07-01

    We study the spectrum of the Helmholtz equation in a two-dimensional infinite waveguide, containing a weak heterogeneity localized at an internal point, and obeying Dirichlet boundary conditions at its border. We use the variational theorem to derive the condition for which the lowest eigenvalue of the spectrum falls below the continuum threshold and a bound state appears, localized at the heterogeneity. We devise a rigorous perturbation scheme and derive the exact expression for the energy to third order in the heterogeneity.

  14. Semirelativistic Bound-State Equations: Trivial Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucha Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Observing renewed interest in long-standing (semi- relativistic descriptions of two-body bound states, we would like to make a few comments on the eigenvalue problem posed by the spinless Salpeter equation and, illustrated by the examples of the nonsingular Woods–Saxon potential and the singular Hulthén potential, recall elementary tools that, in their quest, practitioners looking for analytic albeit approximate solutions will find useful.

  15. Dilation volumes of sets of bounded perimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan

    This paper analyzes the first order behavior (that is, the right sided derivative) of the volume of the dilation A ⊕ tQ as t converges to zero. Here A and Q are subsets of n-dimensional Euclidean space, A has bounded perimeter and Q is compact. If Q consists of two points only, x and x+u, say, this...

  16. AN EXACT APPROACH FOR THE SINGLE MACHINE SCHEDULING PROBLEM WITH LINEAR EARLY AND QUADRATIC TARDY PENALTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge M. S. Valente

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the single machine scheduling problem with linear earliness and quadratic tardiness costs, and no machine idle time. We propose a lower bounding procedure based on the relaxation of the jobs' completion times. Optimal branch-and-bound algorithms are then presented. These algorithms incorporate the proposed lower bound, as well as an insertion-based dominance test.The branch-and-bound procedures are tested on a wide set of randomly generated problems. The computation...

  17. Organically bound tritium, OBT: Its true constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Tritium, which is analytically determined to be non-exchangeable bound in tissue solids, is assumed to be bound to carbon. Furthermore, it follows that the biochemical passways by photosynthesis or enzymatic transfer reactions are retarded by the kinetic isotope effect leading to discrimination of tritium in biomolecules. In contrast, the logistic growth analysis of plants discloses a larger intrinsic growth rate of OBT than of OBH, resulting in tritium accumulation in biomolecules. Exchange experiments providing fractionation factors of 1.4 and 2 confirm this accumulation. In summary a larger part of the so called OBT is not carbon bound but consists of tritium positioned in hydrogen bridges of biopolymers which have been occupied during formation of the molecules and which became later inaccessible for exchange (so called buried hydrogens). Furthermore, there are experimental results indicating even rapid exchange during the in vivo state but inhibited in the in vitro state, which is commonly given in bio samples prepared for analysis. (author)

  18. Tight Bounds for Distributed Functional Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Woodruff, David P

    2011-01-01

    We resolve several fundamental questions in the area of distributed functional monitoring, initiated by Cormode, Muthukrishnan, and Yi (SODA, 2008). In this model there are $k$ sites each tracking their input and communicating with a central coordinator that continuously maintain an approximate output to a function $f$ computed over the union of the inputs. The goal is to minimize the communication. We show the randomized communication complexity of estimating the number of distinct elements up to a $1+\\eps$ factor is $\\Omega(k/\\eps^2)$, improving the previous $\\Omega(k + 1/\\eps^2)$ bound and matching known upper bounds. For the $p$-th frequency moment $F_p$, $p > 1$, we improve the previous $\\Omega(k + 1/\\eps^2)$ communication bound to $\\tilde{\\Omega}(k^{p-1}/\\eps^2)$. We obtain similar improvements for heavy hitters, empirical entropy, and other problems. We also show that we can estimate $F_p$, for any $p > 1$, using $\\tilde{O}(k^{p-1}\\poly(\\eps^{-1}))$ communication. This drastically improves upon the pre...

  19. Nonlinear Instabilities in Shock-Bounded Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Vishniac, E T

    1993-01-01

    (substantial changes to section 3.2, otherwise minor) We present an analysis of the hydrodynamic stability of a cold slab bounded by two accretion shocks. Previous numerical work has shown that when the Mach number of the shock is large the slab is unstable. Here we show that to linear order both the bending and breathing modes of such a slab are stable. However, nonlinear effects will tend to soften the restoring forces for bending modes, and when the slab displacement is comparable to its thickness this gives rise to a nonlinear instability. The growth rate of the instability, above this threshold but for small bending angles, is $\\sim c_sk (k\\eta)^{1/2}$, where $\\eta$ is the slab displacement. When the bending angle is large the slab will contain a local vorticity comparable to $c_s/L$, where $L$ is the slab thickness. We discuss the implications of this work for gravitational instabilities of slabs. Finally, we examine the cases of a decelerating slab bounded by a single shock and a stationary slab bounde...

  20. Spectroscopic and Functional Characterization of Iron-Bound Forms of Azotobacter vinelandiiNifIscA†

    OpenAIRE

    Mapolelo, Daphne T.; Zhang, Bo; Naik, Sunil G.; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Johnson, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    The ability of Azotobacter vinelandii NifIscA to bind Fe has been investigated to assess the role of Fe-bound forms in NIF-specific Fe-S cluster biogenesis. NifIscA is shown to bind one Fe(III) or one Fe(II) per homodimer and the spectroscopic and redox properties of both the Fe(III)- and Fe(II)-bound forms have been characterized using the UV-visible absorption, CD and VTMCD, EPR, Mössbauer and resonance Raman spectroscopies. The results reveal a rhombic intermediate-spin (S = 3/2) Fe(III...

  1. Interaction of peptide-bound beads with lipopolysaccharide and lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatsugu M; Matsumoto, Megumi; Omi, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Tomomi; Nakamura, Akio; Kishi, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Sei; Takagi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported the generation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding peptides by phage display and chemical modification. Among them, a dodecapeptide designated Li5-025 (K'YSSSISSIRAC'; K' and C' denote d-lysine and d-cysteine, respectively) showed a high binding affinity for LPS and was resistant to protease digestion (Suzuki et al., 2010). In the current study, Li5-025-bound silica beads, hereafter referred to as P-beads, were generated and found to be devoid of LPS-neutralizing activity. Thus, LPS bound to the P-beads could be directly used in the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. P-beads bound LPS dissolved in solutions of ethanol, pH4, pH10, and 0.5M NaCl and LPS bound to the P-beads was quantitatively assayed. The sensitivity of this assay was observed to be approximately 0.1pg/mL LPS. P-beads bound LPS dissolved in antithrombin III (AT III) solution which is a strong inhibitor of activated factors C and B as well as the clotting enzyme in the LAL assay; the inhibitory effect of AT III was completely reversed upon washing the P-beads with 25% acetonitrile. This was employed as the first step for the detection of free LPS in plasma using the LAL assay. LPS added to human plasma at 0°C followed by application to the P-beads and subsequent washing with 25% acetonitrile resulted in low LPS activity as detected by the LAL assay. However, further washing of the P-beads with 0.1% Triton X100 in 25% acetonitrile resulted in high LPS activity. This is the first instance of quantitative detection of free LPS in plasma using the LAL assay, and the sensitivity of this method was observed to be 1pg/mL of LPS. The proteins eluted in the 0.1% Triton X-100 wash were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two protein bands of 28kDa and 18kDa were predominantly observed. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the 28kDa and 18kDa bands corresponded to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II), respectively. Apo

  2. A Branch and Bound Algorithm for a Class of Biobjective Mixed Integer Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Andersen, Kim Allan; Dammann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Pareto-optimal front). In this paper, we first give a survey of the newly developed branch and bound methods for solving MOMIP problems. After that, we propose a new branch and bound method for solving a subclass of MOMIP problems, where only two objectives are allowed, the integer variables are binary......, and one of the two objectives has only integer variables. The proposed method is able to find the full set of nondominated points. It is tested on a large number of problem instances, from six different classes of MOMIP problems. The results reveal that the developed biobjective branch and bound...... method performs better on five of the six test problems, compared with a generic two-phase method. At this time, the two-phase method is the most preferred exact method for solving MOMIP problems with two criteria and binary variables....

  3. Synthesis and characterization of S-Au interaction in gold nanoparticle bound polymeric beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic examination of S-Au interaction in gold nanoparticle bound to Polystyrene-Divinyl Benzene (PS-DVB) micro beads was carried out. Gold nanoparticles were bound to the surface of the commercially available PS-DVB beads using a simple one step procedure. Influence of polystyrene backbone on the electronic structure of the gold nanoparticles was observed through X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra of Au at L III edge. An additional structure in the white line of the S K-edge XANES spectrum confirmed the presence of S-Au bonding. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies coupled with Selected Area Electron Diffraction Pattern and X-ray Diffraction studies revealed the morphology of the Au nanoparticles bound to the micro beads

  4. Linear Plotkin bound for entanglement-assisted quantum codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Luobin; Li, Ruihu

    2013-03-01

    The entanglement-assisted (EA) formalism is a generalization of the standard stabilizer formalism, and it can transform arbitrary quaternary classical linear codes into entanglement-assisted quantum error correcting codes (EAQECCs) by using of shared entanglement between the sender and the receiver. Using the special structure of linear EAQECCs, we derive an EA-Plotkin bound for linear EAQECCs, which strengthens the previous known EA-Plotkin bound. This linear EA-Plotkin bound is tighter then the EA-Singleton bound, and matches the EA-Hamming bound and the EA-linear programming bound in some cases. We also construct three families of EAQECCs with good parameters. Some of these EAQECCs saturate this linear EA-Plotkin bound and the others are near optimal according to this bound; almost all of these linear EAQECCs are degenerate codes.

  5. Persistence of noncompact normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds in bounded geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eldering, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    We prove a persistence result for noncompact normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds in Riemannian manifolds of bounded geometry. The bounded geometry of the ambient manifold is a crucial assumption in order to control the uniformity of all estimates throughout the proof.

  6. Lower bounds on fluctuations for internal DLA

    OpenAIRE

    Asselah, Amine; Gaudilliere, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    We consider internal diffusion limited aggregation in dimension larger than or equal to two. This is a random cluster growth model, where random walks start at the origin of the d-dimensional lattice, one at a time, and stop moving when reaching a site that is not occupied by previous walks. When n random walks are sent from the origin, we establish a lower bound for the inner and outer errors fluctuations of order square root of the logarithm of n. When dimension is larger or equal to three,...

  7. Landauer Bound for Analog Computing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Diamantini, M Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A

    2016-01-01

    By establishing a relation between information erasure and continuous phase transitions we generalise the Landauer bound to analog computing systems. The entropy production per degree of freedom during erasure of an analog variable (reset to standard value) is given by the logarithm of the configurational volume measured in units of its minimal quantum. As a consequence every computation has to be carried on with a finite number of bits and infinite precision is forbidden by the fundamental laws of physics, since it would require an infinite amount of energy.

  8. Valuation models and Simon's bounded rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Strommer de Farias Godoi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at reconciling the evidence that sophisticated valuation models are increasingly used by companies in their investment appraisal with the literature of bounded rationality, according to which objective optimization is impracticable in the real world because it would demand an immense level of sophistication of the analytical and computational processes of human beings. We show how normative valuation models should rather be viewed as forms of reality representation, frameworks according to which the real world is perceived, fragmented for a better understanding, and recomposed, providing an orderly method for undertaking a task as complex as the investment decision.

  9. On the Upper Bounds of MDS Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Yunying

    2009-01-01

    Let $M_{q}(k)$ be the maximum length of MDS codes with parameters $q,k$. In this paper, the properties of $M_{q}(k)$ are studied, and some new upper bounds of $M_{q}(k)$ are obtained. Especially we obtain that $M_{q}(q-1)\\leq q+2(q\\equiv4(mod 6)), M_{q}(q-2)\\leq q+1(q\\equiv4(mod 6)), M_{q}(k)\\leq q+k-3 (q=36(5s+1), s\\in N$ and $ k=6,7).

  10. Mass bounds on a very light neutralino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) we systematically investigate the bounds on the mass of the lightest neutralino. We allow for non-universal gaugino masses and thus even consider massless neutralinos, while assuming in general that R-parity is conserved. Our main focus are laboratory constraints. We consider collider data, precision observables, and also rare meson decays to very light neutralinos. We then discuss the astrophysical and cosmological implications. We find that a massless neutralino is allowed by all existing experimental data and astrophysical and cosmological observations. (orig.)

  11. Improved bound on facial parity edge coloring

    OpenAIRE

    Lužar, Borut; Škrekovski, Riste

    2013-01-01

    A facial parity edge coloring of a 2-edge connected plane graph is an edge coloring where no two consecutive edges of a facial walk of any face receive the same color. Additionally, for every face f and every color c either no edge or an odd number of edges incident to f are colored by c. Czap, Jendrol', Kardo\\v{s} and Sotak showed that every 2-edge connected plane graph admits a facial parity edge coloring with at most 20 colors. We improve this bound to 16 colors.

  12. BOUND PERIODICAL HOLDINGS BATTELLE - NORTHWEST LIBRARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1967-05-01

    This report lists the bound periodicals in the Technical Library at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. It was prepared from a computer program and is arranged in two parts. Part one is an alphabetical list of journals by title; part two is an arrangement of the journals by subject. The list headings are self-explanatory, with the exception of the title code, which is necessary in the machine processing. The listing is complete through June, 1966 and updates an earlier publication issued in March, 1965.

  13. Jackson's Theorem on Bounded Symmetric Domains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhi WANG; Guang Bin REN

    2007-01-01

    Polynomial approximation is studied on bounded symmetric domain Ω in C n for holo-morphic function spaces X ,such as Bloch-type spaces,Bergman-type spaces,Hardy spaces,Ω algebra and Lipschitz space.We extend the classical Jackson ’s theorem to several complex variables:E k f,X ) ω (1 /k,f,X ),where E k f,X )is the deviation of the best approximation of f ∈X by polynomials of degree at mostk with respect to the X -metric and ω (1/k,f,X )is the corresponding modulus of continuity.

  14. Bound states -- from QED to QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    These lectures are divided into two parts. In Part 1 I discuss bound state topics at the level of a basic course in field theory: The derivation of the Schr\\"odinger and Dirac equations from the QED Lagrangian, by summing Feynman diagrams and in a Hamiltonian framework. Less well known topics include the equal-time wave function of Positronium in motion and the properties of the Dirac wave function for a linear potential. The presentation emphasizes physical aspects and provides the framework...

  15. A new approach to bounds on mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Léger, Flavien

    2016-01-01

    We consider mixing by incompressible flows. In 2003, Bressan stated a conjecture concerning a bound on the mixing achieved by the flow in terms of an $L^1$ norm of the velocity field. Existing results in the literature use an $L^p$ norm with $p>1$. In this paper we introduce a new approach to prove such results. It recovers most of the existing results and offers new perpective on the problem. Our approach makes use of a recent harmonic analysis estimate from Seeger, Smart and Street.

  16. Second bound state of PsH

    OpenAIRE

    Mitroy, J.; Bromley, M. W. J.

    2006-01-01

    The existence of a second bound state of PsH that is electronically stable and also stable against positron annihilation by the normal 2gamma and 3gamma processes is demonstrated by explicit calculation. The state can be found in the 2,4So symmetries with the two electrons in a spin triplet state. The binding energy against dissociation into the H(2p) + Ps(2p) channel was 6.06x10-4 Hartree. The dominant decay mode of the states will be radiative decay into a configuration that autoionizes or ...

  17. Magnetic moment of a bound electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical predictions underlying determinations of the fine structure constant α and the electron-to-proton mass ratio me/mp are reviewed, with the emphasis on the bound electron magnetic anomaly g-2. The theory of the interaction of hydrogen-like ions with a magnetic field is discussed. The status of efforts aimed at the determination of O(α(Zα)5) and O(α2(Zα)5) corrections to the g factor is presented. The reevaluation of analogous corrections to the Lamb shift and the hyperfine splitting is summarized.

  18. Bounds on majoron emission from conversion experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Tormo, Xavier Garcia i; Czarnecki, Andrzej; Dowling, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In models where lepton number is considered to be a spontaneously-broken global symmetry a massless Goldstone boson, the majoron (J), appears. We describe a procedure to explore the muon-electron-majoron coupling using the results from mu-e conversion search experiments. To accomplish that, we determine how the energy spectrum of the muon decay into an electron and a majoron is modified by binding effects in a muonic atom. We find that the future mu-to-e conversion experiments may be able to produce bounds on the mu->eJ rate which are comparable with the present ones from direct searches.

  19. Is there an quasi-bound state?

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkin, C; Chiladze, D; Dymov, S; Hanhart, C; Hartmann, M; Hejny, V; Kacharava, A K; Keshelashvili, I; Khoukaz, A; Maeda, Y; Mersmann, T; Mielke, M; Mikirtychiants, S; Papenbrock, M; Rathmann, F; Rausmann, T; Schleichert, R; Ströher, H; Täschner, A; Valdau, Yu; Wronska, A

    2007-01-01

    The observed variation of the total cross section for the dp -> 3He eta reaction near threshold means that the magnitude of the s--wave amplitude falls very rapidly with the eta centre--of--mass momentum. It is shown here that recent measurements of the momentum dependence of the angular distribution imply a strong variation also in the phase of this amplitude. Such a behaviour is that expected from a quasi--bound or virtual eta-3He state. The interpretation can be investigated further through measurements of the deuteron or proton analysing powers and/or spin--correlations.

  20. A balance for Dark Matter bound states

    OpenAIRE

    Nozzoli, F.

    2016-01-01

    Massive particles with self interactions of the order of 0.2 barn/GeV are intriguing Dark Matter candidates from an astrophysical point of view. Direct detection searches for very massive particles, with relatively high cross sections with ordinary matter, cannot rule out $\\sigma/M > 0.01$ barn/GeV, due to atmosphere and material shielding. Here, the possibility of the existence of bound states with ordinary matter, for Dark Matter candidates with not negligible interactions, is considered. T...