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Sample records for bounds reveals early

  1. Minimal Z' models: present bounds and early LHC reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvioni, Ennio; Zwirner, Fabio; Villadoro, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We consider 'minimal' Z' models, whose phenomenology is controlled by only three parameters beyond the Standard Model ones: the Z' mass and two effective coupling constants. They encompass many popular models motivated by grand unification, as well as many arising in other theoretical contexts. This parameterization takes also into account both mass and kinetic mixing effects, which we show to be sizable in some cases. After discussing the interplay between the bounds from electroweak precision tests and recent direct searches at the Tevatron, we extend our analysis to estimate the early LHC discovery potential. We consider a center-of-mass energy from 7 towards 10 TeV and an integrated luminosity from 50 to several hundred pb -1 , taking all existing bounds into account. We find that the LHC will start exploring virgin land in parameter space for M Z' around 700 GeV, with lower masses still excluded by the Tevatron and higher masses still excluded by electroweak precision tests. Increasing the energy up to 10 TeV, the LHC will start probing a wider range of Z' masses and couplings, although several hundred pb -1 will be needed to explore the regions of couplings favored by grand unification and to overcome the Tevatron bounds in the mass region around 250 GeV.

  2. Di- or polysulphide-bound biomarkers in sulphur-rich geomacromolecules as revealed by selective chemolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Math E. l.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Kock-van Dalen, A. c.; Jan, W. De Leeuw

    1991-05-01

    Three types of sulphur-rich high-molecular-weight material in the alkylsulphide, the polar, and the asphaltene fractions isolated from the bitumen of an immature bituminous shale from the Vena del Gesso basin (Italy) were desulphurised using Raney Ni and were treated with MeLi/MeI, a chemical degradation method which cleaves selectively and quantitatively di- or polysulphide linkages. The products formed were characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Raney Ni desulphurisation revealed that these S-rich macromolecules are in substantial part composed of sulphur-linked biomarkers with linear, branched, isoprenoid, steroid, hopanoid, and carotenoid carbon skeletons. MeLi/Mel treatment provided evidence that a major part of the total amount of macromolecularly bound biomarkers are linked via di- or polysulphide moieties to the macromolecular network. Since the di- or polysulphide linkages are attached at specific positions of the bound biomarkers it is proposed that they are formed by intermolecular incorporation reactions of HS x- into low-molecular-weight functionalised biological lipids during early diagenesis. The different properties (solubility and molecular weight) of the sulphur-rich macromolecules in the alkylsulphide, the resin, and the asphaltene fractions can be explained simply by differences in degree of sulphur cross-linking.

  3. Spermidine is bound to a unique protein in early sea urchin embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canellakis, Z.N.; Bondy, P.K.; Infante, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Spermidine is rapidly taken up and becomes bound to protein during the very early hours of sea urchin embryogenesis. During the first 6 hr after fertilization of freshly obtained sea urchin eggs (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), which are incubated in the presence of exogenous [ 3 H]-spermidine, up to 7% of the total cell-associated spermidine appears uniquely as spermidine bound in macromolecular form. This unique protein containing spermidine migrates as a single radioactive band in gel electrophoresis. It has a Mr of approximately equal to 30,000 and is readily distinguishable from the protein initiation factor eIF-4D, which has a Mr of 18,000, the only other identifiable protein known to date to be posttranslationally modified by polyamines

  4. Transparency Trade-offs for a 3-channel Controller Revealed by the Bounded Environment Passivity Method

    OpenAIRE

    Willaert, Bert; Corteville, Brecht; Reynaerts, Dominiek; Van Brussel, Hendrik; Vander Poorten, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the Bounded Environment Passivity method [1] is applied to a 3-channel controller. This method enables the design of teleoperation controllers that show passive behaviour for interactions with a bounded range of environments. The resulting tuning guidelines, derived analytically, provide interesting tuning flexibility, which allows to focus on different aspects of transparency. As telesurgery is the motivation behind this work, the focus lies on correctly r...

  5. Urine Metabonomics Reveals Early Biomarkers in Diabetic Cognitive Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Zhuang, Pengwei; Lin, Mengya; Kang, Mingqin; Liu, Hongyue; Zhang, Yuping; Yang, Zhen; Chen, Yunlong; Zhang, Yanjun

    2017-09-01

    Recently, increasing attention has been paid to diabetic encephalopathy, which is a frequent diabetic complication and affects nearly 30% of diabetics. Because cognitive dysfunction from diabetic encephalopathy might develop into irreversible dementia, early diagnosis and detection of this disease is of great significance for its prevention and treatment. This study is to investigate the early specific metabolites biomarkers in urine prior to the onset of diabetic cognitive dysfunction (DCD) by using metabolomics technology. An ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) platform was used to analyze the urine samples from diabetic mice that were associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and nonassociated with MCI in the stage of diabetes (prior to the onset of DCD). We then screened and validated the early biomarkers using OPLS-DA model and support vector machine (SVM) method. Following multivariate statistical and integration analysis, we found that seven metabolites could be accepted as early biomarkers of DCD, and the SVM results showed that the prediction accuracy is as high as 91.66%. The identities of four biomarkers were determined by mass spectrometry. The identified biomarkers were largely involved in nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, glutathione metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and sphingolipid metabolism. The present study first revealed reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis of DCD. It provides new insight and strategy for the early diagnosis and treatment of DCD.

  6. Two-dimensional sum-frequency generation (2D SFG) reveals structure and dynamics of a surface-bound peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaser, Jennifer E.; Skoff, David R.; Ho, Jia-Jung; Joo, Yongho; Serrano, Arnaldo L.; Steinkruger, Jay D.; Gopalan, Padma; Gellman, Samuel H.; Zanni, Martin T.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-bound polypeptides and proteins are increasingly used to functionalize inorganic interfaces such as electrodes, but their structural characterization is exceedingly difficult with standard technologies. In this paper, we report the first two-dimensional sum-frequency generation (2D SFG) spectra of a peptide monolayer, which is collected by adding a mid-IR pulse shaper to a standard femtosecond SFG spectrometer. On a gold surface, standard FTIR spectroscopy is inconclusive about the peptide structure because of solvation-induced frequency shifts, but the 2D lineshapes, anharmonic shifts, and lifetimes obtained from 2D SFG reveal that the peptide is largely α-helical and upright. Random coil residues are also observed, which do not themselves appear in SFG spectra due to their isotropic structural distribution, but which still absorb infrared light and so can be detected by cross-peaks in 2D SFG spectra. We discuss these results in the context of peptide design. Because of the similar way in which the spectra are collected, these 2D SFG spectra can be directly compared to 2D IR spectra, thereby enabling structural interpretations of surface-bound peptides and biomolecules based on the well-studied structure/2D IR spectra relationships established from soluble proteins. PMID:24372101

  7. Targeting membrane-bound viral RNA synthesis reveals potent inhibition of diverse coronaviruses including the middle East respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lundin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses raise serious concerns as emerging zoonotic viruses without specific antiviral drugs available. Here we screened a collection of 16671 diverse compounds for anti-human coronavirus 229E activity and identified an inhibitor, designated K22, that specifically targets membrane-bound coronaviral RNA synthesis. K22 exerts most potent antiviral activity after virus entry during an early step of the viral life cycle. Specifically, the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMVs, a hallmark of coronavirus replication, was greatly impaired upon K22 treatment accompanied by near-complete inhibition of viral RNA synthesis. K22-resistant viruses contained substitutions in non-structural protein 6 (nsp6, a membrane-spanning integral component of the viral replication complex implicated in DMV formation, corroborating that K22 targets membrane bound viral RNA synthesis. Besides K22 resistance, the nsp6 mutants induced a reduced number of DMVs, displayed decreased specific infectivity, while RNA synthesis was not affected. Importantly, K22 inhibits a broad range of coronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV, and efficient inhibition was achieved in primary human epithelia cultures representing the entry port of human coronavirus infection. Collectively, this study proposes an evolutionary conserved step in the life cycle of positive-stranded RNA viruses, the recruitment of cellular membranes for viral replication, as vulnerable and, most importantly, druggable target for antiviral intervention. We expect this mode of action to serve as a paradigm for the development of potent antiviral drugs to combat many animal and human virus infections.

  8. Dynamic features of apo and bound HIV-Nef protein reveal the anti-HIV dimerization inhibition mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonsamy, Suri; Bhakat, Soumendranath; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2015-01-01

    The first account on the dynamic features of Nef or negative factor, a small myristoylated protein located in the cytoplasm believes to increase HIV-1 viral titer level, is reported herein. Due to its major role in HIV-1 pathogenicity, Nef protein is considered an emerging target in anti-HIV drug design and discovery process. In this study, comparative long-range all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were employed for apo and bound protein to unveil molecular mechanism of HIV-Nef dimerization and inhibition. Results clearly revealed that B9, a newly discovered Nef inhibitor, binds at the dimeric interface of Nef protein and caused significant separation between orthogonally opposed residues, namely Asp108, Leu112 and Gln104. Large differences in magnitudes were observed in the radius of gyration (∼1.5 Å), per-residue fluctuation (∼2 Å), C-alpha deviations (∼2 Å) which confirm a comparatively more flexible nature of apo conformation due to rapid dimeric association. Compared to the bound conformer, a more globally correlated motion in case of apo structure of HIV-Nef confirms the process of dimeric association. This clearly highlights the process of inhibition as a result of ligand binding. The difference in principal component analysis (PCA) scatter plot and per-residue mobility plot across first two normal modes further justifies the same findings. The in-depth dynamic analyses of Nef protein presented in this report would serve crucial in understanding its function and inhibition mechanisms. Information on inhibitor binding mode would also assist in designing of potential inhibitors against this important HIV target.

  9. Early Neolithic water wells reveal the world's oldest wood architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegel, Willy; Elburg, Rengert; Hakelberg, Dietrich; Stäuble, Harald; Büntgen, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The European Neolithization ~6000-4000 BC represents a pivotal change in human history when farming spread and the mobile style of life of the hunter-foragers was superseded by the agrarian culture. Permanent settlement structures and agricultural production systems required fundamental innovations in technology, subsistence, and resource utilization. Motivation, course, and timing of this transformation, however, remain debatable. Here we present annually resolved and absolutely dated dendroarchaeological information from four wooden water wells of the early Neolithic period that were excavated in Eastern Germany. A total of 151 oak timbers preserved in a waterlogged environment were dated between 5469 and 5098 BC and reveal unexpectedly refined carpentry skills. The recently discovered water wells enable for the first time a detailed insight into the earliest wood architecture and display the technological capabilities of humans ~7000 years ago. The timbered well constructions made of old oak trees feature an unopened tree-ring archive from which annually resolved and absolutely dated environmental data can be culled. Our results question the principle of continuous evolutionary development in prehistoric technology, and contradict the common belief that metal was necessary for complex timber constructions. Early Neolithic craftsmanship now suggests that the first farmers were also the first carpenters.

  10. Early Neolithic water wells reveal the world's oldest wood architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Tegel

    Full Text Available The European Neolithization ~6000-4000 BC represents a pivotal change in human history when farming spread and the mobile style of life of the hunter-foragers was superseded by the agrarian culture. Permanent settlement structures and agricultural production systems required fundamental innovations in technology, subsistence, and resource utilization. Motivation, course, and timing of this transformation, however, remain debatable. Here we present annually resolved and absolutely dated dendroarchaeological information from four wooden water wells of the early Neolithic period that were excavated in Eastern Germany. A total of 151 oak timbers preserved in a waterlogged environment were dated between 5469 and 5098 BC and reveal unexpectedly refined carpentry skills. The recently discovered water wells enable for the first time a detailed insight into the earliest wood architecture and display the technological capabilities of humans ~7000 years ago. The timbered well constructions made of old oak trees feature an unopened tree-ring archive from which annually resolved and absolutely dated environmental data can be culled. Our results question the principle of continuous evolutionary development in prehistoric technology, and contradict the common belief that metal was necessary for complex timber constructions. Early Neolithic craftsmanship now suggests that the first farmers were also the first carpenters.

  11. Crystal structure of APOBEC3A bound to single-stranded DNA reveals structural basis for cytidine deamination and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouno, Takahide; Silvas, Tania V; Hilbert, Brendan J; Shandilya, Shivender M D; Bohn, Markus F; Kelch, Brian A; Royer, William E; Somasundaran, Mohan; Kurt Yilmaz, Nese; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Schiffer, Celia A

    2017-04-28

    Nucleic acid editing enzymes are essential components of the immune system that lethally mutate viral pathogens and somatically mutate immunoglobulins, and contribute to the diversification and lethality of cancers. Among these enzymes are the seven human APOBEC3 deoxycytidine deaminases, each with unique target sequence specificity and subcellular localization. While the enzymology and biological consequences have been extensively studied, the mechanism by which APOBEC3s recognize and edit DNA remains elusive. Here we present the crystal structure of a complex of a cytidine deaminase with ssDNA bound in the active site at 2.2 Å. This structure not only visualizes the active site poised for catalysis of APOBEC3A, but pinpoints the residues that confer specificity towards CC/TC motifs. The APOBEC3A-ssDNA complex defines the 5'-3' directionality and subtle conformational changes that clench the ssDNA within the binding groove, revealing the architecture and mechanism of ssDNA recognition that is likely conserved among all polynucleotide deaminases, thereby opening the door for the design of mechanistic-based therapeutics.

  12. Comparative genomics of neuroglobin reveals its early origins.

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    Jasmin Dröge

    Full Text Available Neuroglobin (Ngb is a hexacoordinated globin expressed mainly in the central and peripheral nervous system of vertebrates. Although several hypotheses have been put forward regarding the role of neuroglobin, its definite function remains uncertain. Ngb appears to have a neuro-protective role enhancing cell viability under hypoxia and other types of oxidative stress. Ngb is phylogenetically ancient and has a substitution rate nearly four times lower than that of other vertebrate globins, e.g. hemoglobin. Despite its high sequence conservation among vertebrates Ngb seems to be elusive in invertebrates.We determined candidate orthologs in invertebrates and identified a globin of the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens that is most likely orthologous to vertebrate Ngb and confirmed the orthologous relationship of the polymeric globin of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus to Ngb. The putative orthologous globin genes are located next to genes orthologous to vertebrate POMT2 similarly to localization of vertebrate Ngb. The shared syntenic position of the globins from Trichoplax, the sea urchin and of vertebrate Ngb strongly suggests that they are orthologous. A search for conserved transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in the promoter regions of the Ngb genes of different vertebrates via phylogenetic footprinting revealed several TFBSs, which may contribute to the specific expression of Ngb, whereas a comparative analysis with myoglobin revealed several common TFBSs, suggestive of regulatory mechanisms common to globin genes.Identification of the placozoan and echinoderm genes orthologous to vertebrate neuroglobin strongly supports the hypothesis of the early evolutionary origin of this globin, as it shows that neuroglobin was already present in the placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. Computational determination of the transcription factor binding sites repertoire provides on the one hand a set of transcriptional factors that are

  13. Crystal Structures of Staphylococcus epidermidis Mevalonate Diphosphate Decarboxylase Bound to Inhibitory Analogs Reveal New Insight into Substrate Binding and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Skaff, D. Andrew; McWhorter, William J.; Herdendorf, Timothy J.; Miziorko, Henry M.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC)

    2011-10-28

    The polyisoprenoid compound undecaprenyl phosphate is required for biosynthesis of cell wall peptidoglycans in Gram-positive bacteria, including pathogenic Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus spp. In these organisms, the mevalonate pathway is used to produce the precursor isoprenoid, isopentenyl 5-diphosphate. Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase (MDD) catalyzes formation of isopentenyl 5-diphosphate in an ATP-dependent irreversible reaction and is therefore an attractive target for inhibitor development that could lead to new antimicrobial agents. To facilitate exploration of this possibility, we report the crystal structure of Staphylococcus epidermidis MDD (1.85 {angstrom} resolution) and, to the best of our knowledge, the first structures of liganded MDD. These structures include MDD bound to the mevalonate 5-diphosphate analogs diphosphoglycolyl proline (2.05 {angstrom} resolution) and 6-fluoromevalonate diphosphate (FMVAPP; 2.2 {angstrom} resolution). Comparison of these structures provides a physical basis for the significant differences in K{sub i} values observed for these inhibitors. Inspection of enzyme/inhibitor structures identified the side chain of invariant Ser{sup 192} as making potential contributions to catalysis. Significantly, Ser {yields} Ala substitution of this side chain decreases k{sub cat} by {approx}10{sup 3}-fold, even though binding interactions between FMVAPP and this mutant are similar to those observed with wild type MDD, as judged by the 2.1 {angstrom} cocrystal structure of S192A with FMVAPP. Comparison of microbial MDD structures with those of mammalian counterparts reveals potential targets at the active site periphery that may be exploited to selectively target the microbial enzymes. These studies provide a structural basis for previous observations regarding the MDD mechanism and inform future work toward rational inhibitor design.

  14. Coherence-enhanced phase-dependent dissipation in long SNS Josephson junctions: Revealing Andreev bound state dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassonneville, B.; Murani, A.; Ferrier, M.; Guéron, S.; Bouchiat, H.

    2018-05-01

    the quantum dynamics of Andreev bound states. By spanning different physical regimes, our experiments provide unique access to inelastic scattering and spectroscopy of an isolated quantum coherent system, and reveal the associated relaxation times. This technique should be a tool of choice to investigate topological superconductivity and detect the topological protection of edge states.

  15. Andreev Bound States Formation and Quasiparticle Trapping in Quench Dynamics Revealed by Time-Dependent Counting Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, R Seoane; Martín-Rodero, A; Yeyati, A Levy

    2016-12-23

    We analyze the quantum quench dynamics in the formation of a phase-biased superconducting nanojunction. We find that in the absence of an external relaxation mechanism and for very general conditions the system gets trapped in a metastable state, corresponding to a nonequilibrium population of the Andreev bound states. The use of the time-dependent full counting statistics analysis allows us to extract information on the asymptotic population of even and odd many-body states, demonstrating that a universal behavior, dependent only on the Andreev state energy, is reached in the quantum point contact limit. These results shed light on recent experimental observations on quasiparticle trapping in superconducting atomic contacts.

  16. Differences in bitumen and kerogen-bound fatty acid fractions during diagenesis and early catagenesis in a maturity series of New Zealand coals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian

    2016-01-01

    network. Application of the carbon preference index for fatty acids (CPIFA) of bitumen and kerogen-bound acids revealed a linear correlation to the Tmax maturity parameter. This shows that the CPIFA has a clear relation to thermal stability and, thus, reactivity of the buried organic matter....... The difference in slopes of CPIFA vs. Tmax for short and long chain as well as bitumen and kerogen-bound acids may indicate their different degradation susceptibilities. The short chain fatty acids of the bitumen show the highest susceptibility whereas the kerogen-bound long chain fatty acids seem to be most...

  17. The hand of birds revealed by early ostrich embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduccia, Alan; Nowicki, Julie

    2002-08-01

    The problem of resolving the homology of the digits of the avian hand has been framed as a conflict between paleontological and embryological evidence, the former thought to support a hand composed of digits I, II, III, because of similarity of the phalangeal formulae of the earliest known bird Archaeopteryx to that of Mesozoic pentadactyl archosaurs, while embryological evidence has traditionally favored a II, III, IV avian hand. We have identified the critical developmental period for the major features of the avian skeleton in a primitive bird, the ostrich. Analysis of digit anlagen in the avian hand has revealed those for digits/metacarpals I and V, thus confirming previous embryological studies that indirectly suggested that the avian hand comprises digits II, III, IV, and was primitively pentadactyl.

  18. Crystal structure of the adenosine A 2A receptor bound to an antagonist reveals a potential allosteric pocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Bingfa; Bachhawat, Priti; Chu, Matthew Ling-Hon; Wood, Martyn; Ceska, Tom; Sands, Zara A.; Mercier, Joel; Lebon, Florence; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford-MED); (ConfometRx); (UCB Pharma)

    2017-02-06

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has long been implicated in cardiovascular disorders. As more selective A2AR ligands are being identified, its roles in other disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, are starting to emerge, and A2AR antagonists are important drug candidates for nondopaminergic anti-Parkinson treatment. Here we report the crystal structure of A2A receptor bound to compound 1 (Cmpd-1), a novel A2AR/N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) dual antagonist and potential anti-Parkinson candidate compound, at 3.5 Å resolution. The A2A receptor with a cytochrome b562-RIL (BRIL) fusion (A2AR–BRIL) in the intracellular loop 3 (ICL3) was crystallized in detergent micelles using vapor-phase diffusion. Whereas A2AR–BRIL bound to the antagonist ZM241385 has previously been crystallized in lipidic cubic phase (LCP), structural differences in the Cmpd-1–bound A2AR–BRIL prevented formation of the lattice observed with the ZM241385–bound receptor. The crystals grew with a type II crystal lattice in contrast to the typical type I packing seen from membrane protein structures crystallized in LCP. Cmpd-1 binds in a position that overlaps with the native ligand adenosine, but its methoxyphenyl group extends to an exosite not previously observed in other A2AR structures. Structural analysis revealed that Cmpd-1 binding results in the unique conformations of two tyrosine residues, Tyr91.35 and Tyr2717.36, which are critical for the formation of the exosite. The structure reveals insights into antagonist binding that are not observed in other A2AR structures, highlighting flexibility in the binding pocket that may facilitate the development of A2AR-selective compounds for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

  19. Different functions of the insect soluble and membrane-bound trehalase genes in chitin biosynthesis revealed by RNA interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trehalase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes trehalose to yield two glucose molecules, plays a pivotal role in various physiological processes. In recent years, trehalase proteins have been purified from several insect species and are divided into soluble (Tre-1 and membrane-bound (Tre-2 trehalases. However, no functions of the two trehalases in chitin biosynthesis in insects have yet been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The membrane-bound trehalase of Spodoptera exigua (SeTre-2 was characterized in our laboratory previously. In this study, we cloned the soluble trehalase gene (SeTre-1 and investigated the tissue distribution and developmental expression pattern of the two trehalase genes. SeTre-1 was expressed highly in cuticle and Malpighian tubules, while SeTre-2 was expressed in tracheae and fat body. In the midgut, the two trehalase genes were expressed in different locations. Additionally, the expression profiles of both trehalase mRNAs and their enzyme activities suggest that they may play different roles in chitin biosynthesis. The RNA interference (RNAi of either SeTre-1 or SeTre-2 was gene-specific and effective, with efficiency rates up to 83% at 72 h post injection. After RNAi of SeTre-1 and SeTre-2, significant higher mortality rates were observed during the larva-pupa stage and pupa-adult stage, and the lethal phenotypes were classified and analyzed. Additionally, the change trends of concentration of trehalose and glucose appeared reciprocally in RNAi-mutants. Moreover, knockdown of SeTre-1 gene largely inhibited the expression of chitin synthase gene A (CHSA and reduced the chitin content in the cuticle to two-thirds relative to the control insects. The chitin synthase gene B (CHSB expression, however, was inhibited more by the injection of dsRNA for SeTre-2, and the chitin content in the midgut decreased by about 25%. CONCLUSIONS: SeTre-1 plays a major role in CHSA expression and chitin synthesis in the cuticle, and SeTre-2

  20. Activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor: A key early step in the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, L.V.M.; Rapaport, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    Whether the factor VII/tissue factor complex that forms in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation must be activated to factor VIIa/tissue factor before it can activate its substrates, factor X and IX, has been a difficult question to answer because the substrates, once activated, back-activate factor VII. The earlier studies suggested that human factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate factor IX. Studies have now been extended to the activation of factor X. Reaction mixtures were made with purified factor VII, X, and tissue factor; in some experiments antithrombin III and heparin were added to prevent back-activation of factor VII. Factor X was activated at similar rates in reaction mixtures containing either VII or factor VIIa after an initial 30-sec lag with factor VII. In reaction mixtures with factor VII a linear activation of factor X was established several minutes before cleavage of 125 I-labeled factor VII to the two-chain activated molecule was demonstrable on gel profiles. These data suggest that factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate measurable amounts of factor X over several minutes. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a rapid preferential activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor by trace amounts of factor Xa is a key early step in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation

  1. A thiamin-bound, pre-decarboxylation reaction intermediate analogue in the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 subunit induces large scale disorder-to-order transformations in the enzyme and reveals novel structural features in the covalently bound adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Palaniappa; Sax, Martin; Brunskill, Andrew; Chandrasekhar, Krishnamoorthy; Nemeria, Natalia; Zhang, Sheng; Jordan, Frank; Furey, William

    2006-06-02

    The crystal structure of the E1 component from the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDHc) has been determined with phosphonolactylthiamin diphosphate (PLThDP) in its active site. PLThDP serves as a structural and electrostatic analogue of the natural intermediate alpha-lactylthiamin diphosphate (LThDP), in which the carboxylate from the natural substrate pyruvate is replaced by a phosphonate group. This represents the first example of an experimentally determined, three-dimensional structure of a thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme containing a covalently bound, pre-decarboxylation reaction intermediate analogue and should serve as a model for the corresponding intermediates in other ThDP-dependent decarboxylases. Regarding the PDHc-specific reaction, the presence of PLThDP induces large scale conformational changes in the enzyme. In conjunction with the E1-PLThDP and E1-ThDP structures, analysis of a H407A E1-PLThDP variant structure shows that an interaction between His-407 and PLThDP is essential for stabilization of two loop regions in the active site that are otherwise disordered in the absence of intermediate analogue. This ordering completes formation of the active site and creates a new ordered surface likely involved in interactions with the lipoyl domains of E2s within the PDHc complex. The tetrahedral intermediate analogue is tightly held in the active site through direct hydrogen bonds to residues His-407, Tyr-599, and His-640 and reveals a new, enzyme-induced, strain-related feature that appears to aid in the decarboxylation process. This feature is almost certainly present in all ThDP-dependent decarboxylases; thus its inclusion in our understanding of general thiamin catalysis is important.

  2. Comparative LC-MS/MS profiling of free and protein-bound early and advanced glycation-induced lysine modifications in dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegele, Joerg; Buetler, Timo; Delatour, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Free and protein-bound forms of early and advanced glycation-induced lysine (Lys) modifications were quantified in dairy products by LC-MS/MS using a stable isotope dilution assay. The glycation profiles for N ε -fructoselysine (FL), N ε -carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (Pyr) were monitored in raw and processed cow milk to investigate whether free glycation products could serve as fast and simple markers to assess the extent of protein glycation in dairy products. In all milk samples, the fraction of free glycation adducts was predominantly composed of advanced modifications, e.g. 8.34 ± 3.81 nmol CML per μmol of free Lys (Lys free ) and 81.5 ± 87.8 nmol Pyr μmol -1 Lys free -1 vs. 3.72 ± 1.29 nmol FL μmol -1 Lys free -1 . In contrast, the protein-bound early glycation product FL considerably outweighed the content of CML and Pyr in milk proteins of raw and processed cow milk, whereas severely heat treated milk products, e.g. condensed milk, contained a higher amount of protein-bound advanced glycation adducts. Typical values recorded for milk samples processed under mild conditions were 0.47 ± 0.08 nmol FL μmol -1 of protein-bound Lys (Lys p-b ), 0.04 ± 0.03 nmol CML μmol -1 Lys p-b -1 and 0.06 ± 0.02 nmol Pyr μmol -1 Lys p-b -1 . It was particularly noticeable, however, that mild heat treatment of raw milk, i.e. pasteurization and UHT treatment, did not significantly increase the amount of both free and protein-bound Lys modifications. In conclusion, the profiles of free and protein-bound glycation-induced Lys modifications were found to be different and a screening of free glycation adducts does, therefore, not allow for a conclusion about the protein glycation status of dairy products

  3. Comparative LC-MS/MS profiling of free and protein-bound early and advanced glycation-induced lysine modifications in dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegele, Joerg [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland)], E-mail: joerg.hegele@rdls.nestle.com; Buetler, Timo; Delatour, Thierry [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland)

    2008-06-09

    Free and protein-bound forms of early and advanced glycation-induced lysine (Lys) modifications were quantified in dairy products by LC-MS/MS using a stable isotope dilution assay. The glycation profiles for N{sup {epsilon}}-fructoselysine (FL), N{sup {epsilon}}-carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (Pyr) were monitored in raw and processed cow milk to investigate whether free glycation products could serve as fast and simple markers to assess the extent of protein glycation in dairy products. In all milk samples, the fraction of free glycation adducts was predominantly composed of advanced modifications, e.g. 8.34 {+-} 3.81 nmol CML per {mu}mol of free Lys (Lys{sub free}) and 81.5 {+-} 87.8 nmol Pyr {mu}mol{sup -1} Lys{sub free}{sup -1} vs. 3.72 {+-} 1.29 nmol FL {mu}mol{sup -1} Lys{sub free}{sup -1}. In contrast, the protein-bound early glycation product FL considerably outweighed the content of CML and Pyr in milk proteins of raw and processed cow milk, whereas severely heat treated milk products, e.g. condensed milk, contained a higher amount of protein-bound advanced glycation adducts. Typical values recorded for milk samples processed under mild conditions were 0.47 {+-} 0.08 nmol FL {mu}mol{sup -1} of protein-bound Lys (Lys{sub p-b}), 0.04 {+-} 0.03 nmol CML {mu}mol{sup -1} Lys{sub p-b}{sup -1} and 0.06 {+-} 0.02 nmol Pyr {mu}mol{sup -1} Lys{sub p-b}{sup -1}. It was particularly noticeable, however, that mild heat treatment of raw milk, i.e. pasteurization and UHT treatment, did not significantly increase the amount of both free and protein-bound Lys modifications. In conclusion, the profiles of free and protein-bound glycation-induced Lys modifications were found to be different and a screening of free glycation adducts does, therefore, not allow for a conclusion about the protein glycation status of dairy products.

  4. Krypton Derivatization of an O2 -Tolerant Membrane-Bound [NiFe] Hydrogenase Reveals a Hydrophobic Tunnel Network for Gas Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalms, Jacqueline; Schmidt, Andrea; Frielingsdorf, Stefan; van der Linden, Peter; von Stetten, David; Lenz, Oliver; Carpentier, Philippe; Scheerer, Patrick

    2016-04-25

    [NiFe] hydrogenases are metalloenzymes catalyzing the reversible heterolytic cleavage of hydrogen into protons and electrons. Gas tunnels make the deeply buried active site accessible to substrates and inhibitors. Understanding the architecture and function of the tunnels is pivotal to modulating the feature of O2 tolerance in a subgroup of these [NiFe] hydrogenases, as they are interesting for developments in renewable energy technologies. Here we describe the crystal structure of the O2 -tolerant membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase of Ralstonia eutropha (ReMBH), using krypton-pressurized crystals. The positions of the krypton atoms allow a comprehensive description of the tunnel network within the enzyme. A detailed overview of tunnel sizes, lengths, and routes is presented from tunnel calculations. A comparison of the ReMBH tunnel characteristics with crystal structures of other O2 -tolerant and O2 -sensitive [NiFe] hydrogenases revealed considerable differences in tunnel size and quantity between the two groups, which might be related to the striking feature of O2 tolerance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Capturing asteroids into bound orbits around the earth: Massive early return on an asteroid terminal defense system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear explosives may be used to capture small asteroids (e.g., 20--50 meters in diameter) into bound orbits around the earth. The captured objects could be used for construction material for manned and unmanned activity in Earth orbit. Asteroids with small approach velocities, which are the ones most likely to have close approaches to the Earth, require the least energy for capture. They are particularly easy to capture if they pass within one Earth radius of the surface of the Earth. They could be intercepted with intercontinental missiles if the latter were retrofit with a more flexible guiding and homing capability. This asteroid capture-defense system could be implemented in a few years at low cost by using decommissioned ICMs. The economic value of even one captured asteroid is many times the initial investment. The asteroid capture system would be an essential part of the learning curve for dealing with larger asteroids that can hit the earth

  6. The crystal structure of the interleukin 21 receptor bound to interleukin 21 reveals that a sugar chain interacting with the WSXWS motif is an integral part of the interleukin 21 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamming, Ole Jensen; Kang, Lishan; Svensson, Anders

    2012-01-01

    to be a consensus sequence for C-mannosylation. Here we present the crystal structure of IL-21 bound to IL-21R and reveal that the WSXWS motif of IL-21R is C-mannosylated on the first tryptophan. We furthermore demonstrate that a sugar chain bridge the two fibronectin domains which constitute the extracellular...

  7. Life on an Island: Early Settlers off the Rock Bound Coast of Maine. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs-Olson, Laurie

    This lesson, based on National Register of Historic Places files, describes early settlers' lives on some of the approximately 5,000 islands off the coast of Maine. During the mid-18th century many of these islands began to be inhabited by settlers eager to take advantage of this interface between land and sea. The lesson discusses the Blue Duck…

  8. Quantitative Tissue Proteomics Analysis Reveals Versican as Potential Biomarker for Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naboulsi, Wael; Megger, Dominik A; Bracht, Thilo; Kohl, Michael; Turewicz, Michael; Eisenacher, Martin; Voss, Don Marvin; Schlaak, Jörg F; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Weber, Frank; Baba, Hideo A; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara

    2016-01-04

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive tumors, and the treatment outcome of this disease is improved when the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage. This requires biomarkers allowing an accurate and early tumor diagnosis. To identify potential markers for such applications, we analyzed a patient cohort consisting of 50 patients (50 HCC and 50 adjacent nontumorous tissue samples as controls) using two independent proteomics approaches. We performed label-free discovery analysis on 19 HCC and corresponding tissue samples. The data were analyzed considering events known to take place in early events of HCC development, such as abnormal regulation of Wnt/b-catenin and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). 31 proteins were selected for verification experiments. For this analysis, the second set of the patient cohort (31 HCC and corresponding tissue samples) was analyzed using selected (multiple) reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM). We present the overexpression of ATP-dependent RNA helicase (DDX39), Fibulin-5 (FBLN5), myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), and Serpin H1 (SERPINH1) in HCC for the first time. We demonstrate Versican core protein (VCAN) to be significantly associated with well differentiated and low-stage HCC. We revealed for the first time the evidence of VCAN as a potential biomarker for early-HCC diagnosis.

  9. Analysis of meteorology and emission in haze episode prevalence over mountain-bounded region for early warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Leelasakultum, Ketsiri

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the main causes of haze episodes in the northwestern Thailand to provide early warning and prediction. In an absence of emission input data required for chemical transport modeling to predict the haze, the climatological approach in combination with statistical analysis was used. An automatic meteorological classification scheme was developed using regional meteorological station data of 8years (2001-2008) which classified the prevailing synoptic patterns over Northern Thailand into 4 patterns. Pattern 2, occurring with high frequency in March, was found to associate with the highest levels of 24h PM(10) in Chiangmai, the largest city in Northern Thailand. Typical features of this pattern were the dominance of thermal lows over India, Western China and Northern Thailand with hot, dry and stagnant air in Northern Thailand. March 2007, the month with the most severe haze episode in Chiangmai, was found to have a high frequency of occurrence of pattern 2 coupled with the highest emission intensities from biomass open burning. Backward trajectories showed that, on haze episode days, air masses passed over the region of dense biomass fire hotspots before arriving at Chiangmai. A stepwise regression model was developed to predict 24h PM(10) for days of meteorology pattern 2 using February-April data of 2007-2009 and tested with 2004-2010 data. The model performed satisfactorily for the model development dataset (R(2)=87%) and test dataset (R(2)=81%), which appeared to be superior over a simple persistence regression of 24h PM(10) (R(2)=76%). Our developed model had an accuracy over 90% for the categorical forecast of PM(10)>120μg/m(3). The episode warning procedure would identify synoptic pattern 2 and predict 24h PM(10) in Chiangmai 24h in advance. This approach would be applicable for air pollution episode management in other areas with complex terrain where similar conditions exist. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies of neutrino asymmetries generated by ordinary-sterile neutrino oscillations in the early Universe and implications for big bang nucleosynthesis bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foot, R.; Volkas, R.R. [Research Centre for High Energy Physics, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3052 (Australia)

    1997-04-01

    Ordinary-sterile neutrino oscillations can generate a significant lepton number asymmetry in the early Universe. We study this phenomenon in detail. We show that the dynamics of ordinary-sterile neutrino oscillations in the early Universe can be approximately described by a single integrodifferential equation which we derive from both the density matrix and Hamiltonian formalisms. This equation reduces to a relatively simple ordinary first-order differential equation if the system is sufficiently smooth (static limit). We study the conditions for which the static limit is an acceptable approximation. We also study the effect of the thermal distribution of neutrino momenta on the generation of lepton number. We apply these results to show that it is possible to evade (by many orders of magnitude) the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the mixing parameters {delta}m{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 0} describing ordinary-sterile neutrino oscillations. We show that the large angle or maximal vacuum oscillation solution to the solar neutrino problem does not significantly modify BBN for most of the parameter space of interest, provided that the {tau} and/or {mu} neutrinos have masses greater than about 1 eV. We also show that the large angle or maximal ordinary-sterile neutrino oscillation solution to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly does not significantly modify BBN for a range of parameters. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. EEG reveals an early influence of social conformity on visual processing in group pressure situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann-Lengsfeld, Sina Alexa; Herrmann, Christoph Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    Humans are social beings and often have to perceive and perform within groups. In conflict situations, this puts them under pressure to either adhere to the group opinion or to risk controversy with the group. Psychological experiments have demonstrated that study participants adapt to erroneous group opinions in visual perception tasks, which they can easily solve correctly when performing on their own. Until this point, however, it is unclear whether this phenomenon of social conformity influences early stages of perception that might not even reach awareness or later stages of conscious decision-making. Using electroencephalography, this study has revealed that social conformity to the wrong group opinion resulted in a decrease of the posterior-lateral P1 in line with a decrease of the later centro-parietal P3. These results suggest that group pressure situations impact early unconscious visual perceptual processing, which results in a later diminished stimulus discrimination and an adaptation even to the wrong group opinion. These findings might have important implications for understanding social behavior in group settings and are discussed within the framework of social influence on eyewitness testimony.

  12. A short-time scale colloidal system reveals early bacterial adhesion dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Beloin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of bacteria on abiotic surfaces has important public health and sanitary consequences. However, despite several decades of study of bacterial adhesion to inert surfaces, the biophysical mechanisms governing this process remain poorly understood, due, in particular, to the lack of methodologies covering the appropriate time scale. Using micrometric colloidal surface particles and flow cytometry analysis, we developed a rapid multiparametric approach to studying early events in adhesion of the bacterium Escherichia coli. This approach simultaneously describes the kinetics and amplitude of early steps in adhesion, changes in physicochemical surface properties within the first few seconds of adhesion, and the self-association state of attached and free-floating cells. Examination of the role of three well-characterized E. coli surface adhesion factors upon attachment to colloidal surfaces--curli fimbriae, F-conjugative pilus, and Ag43 adhesin--showed clear-cut differences in the very initial phases of surface colonization for cell-bearing surface structures, all known to promote biofilm development. Our multiparametric analysis revealed a correlation in the adhesion phase with cell-to-cell aggregation properties and demonstrated that this phenomenon amplified surface colonization once initial cell-surface attachment was achieved. Monitoring of real-time physico-chemical particle surface properties showed that surface-active molecules of bacterial origin quickly modified surface properties, providing new insight into the intricate relations connecting abiotic surface physicochemical properties and bacterial adhesion. Hence, the biophysical analytical method described here provides a new and relevant approach to quantitatively and kinetically investigating bacterial adhesion and biofilm development.

  13. MicroRNA transfection and AGO-bound CLIP-seq data sets reveal distinct determinants of miRNA action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Jiayu; Parker, Brian J; Jacobsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    the predictive effect of target flanking features. We observe distinct target determinants between expression-based and CLIP-based data. Target flanking features such as flanking region conservation are an important AGO-binding determinant-we hypothesize that CLIP experiments have a preference for strongly bound......Microarray expression analyses following miRNA transfection/inhibition and, more recently, Argonaute cross-linked immunoprecipitation (CLIP)-seq assays have been used to detect miRNA target sites. CLIP and expression approaches measure differing stages of miRNA functioning-initial binding of the mi...... miRNP-target interactions involving adjacent RNA-binding proteins that increase the strength of cross-linking. In contrast, seed-related features are major determinants in expression-based studies, but less so for CLIP-seq studies, and increased miRNA concentrations typical of transfection studies...

  14. Active nuclear transcriptome analysis reveals inflammasome-dependent mechanism for early neutrophil response to Mycobacterium marinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Amy; Gavriouchkina, Daria; Zorman, Jernej; Napolitani, Giorgio; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana

    2017-07-26

    The mechanisms governing neutrophil response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis remain poorly understood. In this study we utilise biotagging, a novel genome-wide profiling approach based on cell type-specific in vivo biotinylation in zebrafish to analyse the initial response of neutrophils to Mycobacterium marinum, a close genetic relative of M. tuberculosis used to model tuberculosis. Differential expression analysis following nuclear RNA-seq of neutrophil active transcriptomes reveals a significant upregulation in both damage-sensing and effector components of the inflammasome, including caspase b, NLRC3 ortholog (wu: fb15h11) and il1β. Crispr/Cas9-mediated knockout of caspase b, which acts by proteolytic processing of il1β, results in increased bacterial burden and less infiltration of macrophages to sites of mycobacterial infection, thus impairing granuloma development. We also show that a number of immediate early response genes (IEGs) are responsible for orchestrating the initial neutrophil response to mycobacterial infection. Further perturbation of the IEGs exposes egr3 as a key transcriptional regulator controlling il1β transcription.

  15. MMP-13 In-Vivo Molecular Imaging Reveals Early Expression in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Salaün

    Full Text Available Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are overexpressed in lung cancer and may serve as potential targets for the development of bioactivable probes for molecular imaging.To characterize and monitor the activity of MMPs during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma.K-rasLSL-G12D mice were imaged serially during the development of adenocarcinomas using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT and a probe specific for MMP-2, -3, -9 and -13. Lung tumors were identified using FMT and MRI co-registration, and the probe concentration in each tumor was assessed at each time-point. The expression of Mmp2, -3, -9, -13 was quantified by qRT-PCR using RNA isolated from microdissected tumor cells. Immunohistochemical staining of overexpressed MMPs in animals was assessed on human lung tumors.In mice, 7 adenomas and 5 adenocarcinomas showed an increase in fluorescent signal on successive FMT scans, starting between weeks 4 and 8. qRT-PCR assays revealed significant overexpression of only Mmp-13 in mice lung tumors. In human tumors, a high MMP-13 immunostaining index was found in tumor cells from invasive lesions (24/27, but in none of the non-invasive (0/4 (p=0.001.MMP-13 is detected in early pulmonary invasive adenocarcinomas and may be a potential target for molecular imaging of lung cancer.

  16. MMP-13 In-Vivo Molecular Imaging Reveals Early Expression in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaün, Mathieu; Peng, Jing; Hensley, Harvey H.; Roder, Navid; Flieder, Douglas B.; Houlle-Crépin, Solène; Abramovici-Roels, Olivia; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Thiberville, Luc; Clapper, Margie L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are overexpressed in lung cancer and may serve as potential targets for the development of bioactivable probes for molecular imaging. Objective To characterize and monitor the activity of MMPs during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma. Methods K-rasLSL-G12D mice were imaged serially during the development of adenocarcinomas using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and a probe specific for MMP-2, -3, -9 and -13. Lung tumors were identified using FMT and MRI co-registration, and the probe concentration in each tumor was assessed at each time-point. The expression of Mmp2, -3, -9, -13 was quantified by qRT-PCR using RNA isolated from microdissected tumor cells. Immunohistochemical staining of overexpressed MMPs in animals was assessed on human lung tumors. Results In mice, 7 adenomas and 5 adenocarcinomas showed an increase in fluorescent signal on successive FMT scans, starting between weeks 4 and 8. qRT-PCR assays revealed significant overexpression of only Mmp-13 in mice lung tumors. In human tumors, a high MMP-13 immunostaining index was found in tumor cells from invasive lesions (24/27), but in none of the non-invasive (0/4) (p=0.001). Conclusion MMP-13 is detected in early pulmonary invasive adenocarcinomas and may be a potential target for molecular imaging of lung cancer. PMID:26193700

  17. Ancient DNA from European Early Neolithic Farmers Reveals Their Near Eastern Affinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Wolfgang; Balanovsky, Oleg; Sanchez, Juan J.; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Adler, Christina J.; Der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Brandt, Guido; Schwarz, Carolin; Nicklisch, Nicole; Dresely, Veit; Fritsch, Barbara; Balanovska, Elena; Villems, Richard; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W.; Cooper, Alan

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, the Neolithic transition (8,000–4,000 b.c.) from hunting and gathering to agricultural communities was one of the most important demographic events since the initial peopling of Europe by anatomically modern humans in the Upper Paleolithic (40,000 b.c.). However, the nature and speed of this transition is a matter of continuing scientific debate in archaeology, anthropology, and human population genetics. To date, inferences about the genetic make up of past populations have mostly been drawn from studies of modern-day Eurasian populations, but increasingly ancient DNA studies offer a direct view of the genetic past. We genetically characterized a population of the earliest farming culture in Central Europe, the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK; 5,500–4,900 calibrated b.c.) and used comprehensive phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to locate its origins within the broader Eurasian region, and to trace potential dispersal routes into Europe. We cloned and sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable segment I and designed two powerful SNP multiplex PCR systems to generate new mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal data from 21 individuals from a complete LBK graveyard at Derenburg Meerenstieg II in Germany. These results considerably extend the available genetic dataset for the LBK (n = 42) and permit the first detailed genetic analysis of the earliest Neolithic culture in Central Europe (5,500–4,900 calibrated b.c.). We characterized the Neolithic mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity and geographical affinities of the early farmers using a large database of extant Western Eurasian populations (n = 23,394) and a wide range of population genetic analyses including shared haplotype analyses, principal component analyses, multidimensional scaling, geographic mapping of genetic distances, and Bayesian Serial Simcoal analyses. The results reveal that the LBK population shared an affinity with the modern-day Near East and Anatolia, supporting a major

  18. Ancient DNA from European early neolithic farmers reveals their near eastern affinities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Haak

    Full Text Available In Europe, the Neolithic transition (8,000-4,000 B.C. from hunting and gathering to agricultural communities was one of the most important demographic events since the initial peopling of Europe by anatomically modern humans in the Upper Paleolithic (40,000 B.C.. However, the nature and speed of this transition is a matter of continuing scientific debate in archaeology, anthropology, and human population genetics. To date, inferences about the genetic make up of past populations have mostly been drawn from studies of modern-day Eurasian populations, but increasingly ancient DNA studies offer a direct view of the genetic past. We genetically characterized a population of the earliest farming culture in Central Europe, the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK; 5,500-4,900 calibrated B.C. and used comprehensive phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to locate its origins within the broader Eurasian region, and to trace potential dispersal routes into Europe. We cloned and sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable segment I and designed two powerful SNP multiplex PCR systems to generate new mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal data from 21 individuals from a complete LBK graveyard at Derenburg Meerenstieg II in Germany. These results considerably extend the available genetic dataset for the LBK (n = 42 and permit the first detailed genetic analysis of the earliest Neolithic culture in Central Europe (5,500-4,900 calibrated B.C.. We characterized the Neolithic mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity and geographical affinities of the early farmers using a large database of extant Western Eurasian populations (n = 23,394 and a wide range of population genetic analyses including shared haplotype analyses, principal component analyses, multidimensional scaling, geographic mapping of genetic distances, and Bayesian Serial Simcoal analyses. The results reveal that the LBK population shared an affinity with the modern-day Near East and Anatolia, supporting

  19. Molecular simulations of lactose-bound and unbound forms of the FaeG adhesin reveal critical amino acids involved in sugar binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph L; Jafri, Heba

    2016-11-01

    F4 fimbriae are protein filaments found in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli cells and are implicated in the process of bacterial infection due to their function as bacterial adhesins. These filaments are comprised from several proteins, but the bacterial adhesin FaeG, which is a lactose-binding protein, is the major subunit comprising F4 fimbriae. Crystal structures for three variants of the FaeG protein were recently solved, including the ad variant of FaeG that was crystallized in complex with lactose. However, the dynamics of the FaeG protein bound to lactose have not been explored previously using molecular dynamics simulations. Therefore, in order to study the dynamical interactions between the FaeG ad variant and lactose, we have carried out the first all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of this system. We have also probed the role of crystallographic water molecules on the stability of lactose in the FaeG binding site, and have simulated seven FaeG mutants to probe the influence of amino acid substitutions on the ability of FaeG to bind lactose effectively. Our simulations agree well with experimental results for the influence of mutations on lactose binding, provide dynamical insights into the interactions of FaeG with lactose, and also suggest the possibility of additional regions of the FaeG protein that may act as secondary lactose binding sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Feasibility Study of Bevacizumab Plus Dose-Dense Doxorubicin–Cyclophosphamide (AC) Followed by Nanoparticle Albumin–Bound Paclitaxel in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Heather L.; Rugo, Hope; Nulsen, Benjamin; Hawks, Laura; Grothusen, Jill; Melisko, Michelle; Moasser, Mark; Paulson, Matthew; Traina, Tiffany; Patil, Sujata; Zhou, Qin; Steingart, Richard; Dang, Chau; Morrow, Monica; Cordeiro, Peter; Fornier, Monica; Park, John; Seidman, Andrew; Lake, Diana; Gilewski, Theresa; Theodoulou, Maria; Modi, Shanu; D’Andrea, Gabriella; Sklarin, Nancy; Robson, Mark; Moynahan, Mary Ellen; Sugarman, Steven; Sealey, Jane E.; Laragh, John H.; Merali, Carmen; Norton, Larry; Hudis, Clifford A.; Dickler, Maura N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Bevacizumab confers benefits in metastatic breast cancer but may be more effective as adjuvant therapy. We evaluated the cardiac safety of bevacizumab plus dose-dense doxorubicin–cyclophosphamide (ddAC)→nanoparticle albumin−bound (nab)-paclitaxel in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 normal early-stage breast cancer. Experimental Design Eighty patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were enrolled. Bevacizumab was administered for 1 year, concurrently with ddAC→nab-paclitaxel then as a single agent. LVEF was evaluated at months 0, 2, 6, 9, and 18. This regimen was considered safe if fewer than three cardiac events or fewer than two deaths from left ventricular dysfunction occurred. Correlative studies of cardiac troponin (cTn) and plasma renin activity (PRA) were conducted. Results The median age was 48 years (range, 27−75 years), and baseline LVEF was 68% (53%−82%). After 39 months’ median follow-up (5−45 months): median LVEF was 68% (53%−80%) at 2 months (n=78), 64% (51%−77%) at 6 months (n=66), 63% (48%−77%) at 9 months (n=61), and 66% (42%−76%) at 18 months (n=54). One patient developed symptomatic LV dysfunction at month 15. Common toxicities necessitating treatment discontinuation were hypertension (HTN, 4%), wound-healing complications (4%), and asymptomatic LVEF declines (4%). Neither cTn nor PRA predicted CHF or HTN, respectively. Conclusions Bevacizumab with ddAC→nab-paclitaxel had a low rate of cardiac events; cTn and PRA levels are not predictive of CHF or HTN, respectively. The efficacy of bevacizumab as adjuvant treatment will be established in several ongoing phase III trials. PMID:21350003

  1. Early herding practices revealed through organic residue analysis of pottery from the early Neolithic rock shelter of Mala Triglavca, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Šoberl

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A collection of pottery from the early Neolithic site of Mala Triglavca was analysed with the aim of obtaining insights into vessel use and early animal domestication and husbandry practices in the Adriatic region. Total lipid extracts were submitted to gas chromatography (GC, GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and GC-combustion-isotope ratio MS (GC-C-IRMS in order to obtain molecular and stable carbon isotope signatures as the basis for determining the nature and origins of the residues. The extracts were dominated by degraded animal fats. The majority (70% of the total lipid extracts displayed intact triacylglycerol distributions attributable to ruminant adipose and dairy fats, which were subsequently confirmed through C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acid δ13C values.

  2. Altered Evoked Gamma-Band Responses Reveal Impaired Early Visual Processing in ADHD Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Daniel; Krauel, Kerstin; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Schadow, Jeanette; Hinrichs, Hermann; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2010-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies yield contrary results whether attentional problems of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to early visual processing deficits or not. Evoked gamma-band responses (GBRs), being among the first cortical responses occurring as early as 90 ms after visual stimulation in human EEG, have…

  3. Oxygen restriction as challenge test reveals early high-fat-diet-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorde, L.P.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Derous, D.; Stelt, van der I.; Masania, J.; Rabbani, N.; Thornalley, P.J.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Challenge tests stress homeostasis and may reveal deviations in health that remain masked under unchallenged conditions. Ideally, challenge tests are non-invasive and applicable in an early phase of an animal experiment. Oxygen restriction (OxR; based on ambient, mild normobaric hypoxia) is a

  4. A diminutive perinate European Enantiornithes reveals an asynchronous ossification pattern in early birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Fabien; Chiappe, Luis M; Sanchez, Sophie; Garwood, Russell J; Edwards, Nicholas P; Wogelius, Roy A; Sellers, William I; Manning, Phillip L; Ortega, Francisco; Serrano, Francisco J; Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Cuesta, Elena; Escaso, Fernando; Sanz, Jose Luis

    2018-03-05

    Fossils of juvenile Mesozoic birds provide insight into the early evolution of avian development, however such fossils are rare. The analysis of the ossification sequence in these early-branching birds has the potential to address important questions about their comparative developmental biology and to help understand their morphological evolution and ecological differentiation. Here we report on an early juvenile enantiornithine specimen from the Early Cretaceous of Europe, which sheds new light on the osteogenesis in this most species-rich clade of Mesozoic birds. Consisting of a nearly complete skeleton, it is amongst the smallest known Mesozoic avian fossils representing post-hatching stages of development. Comparisons between this new specimen and other known early juvenile enantiornithines support a clade-wide asynchronous pattern of osteogenesis in the sternum and the vertebral column, and strongly indicate that the hatchlings of these phylogenetically basal birds varied greatly in size and tempo of skeletal maturation.

  5. Large-scale Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Potential Biomarkers for Early Stage Coronary Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueqin; Ke, Chaofu; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Wei; Li, Kang; Yu, Bo; Sun, Meng

    2017-09-18

    Coronary atherosclerosis (CAS) is the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, which is a prevalent and chronic life-threatening disease. Initially, this disease is not always detected until a patient presents with seriously vascular occlusion. Therefore, new biomarkers for appropriate and timely diagnosis of early CAS is needed for screening to initiate therapy on time. In this study, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to identify potential biomarkers that could enable highly sensitive and specific CAS detection. Score plots from partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly separated early-stage CAS patients from controls. Meanwhile, the levels of 24 metabolites increased greatly and those of 18 metabolites decreased markedly in early CAS patients compared with the controls, which suggested significant metabolic dysfunction in phospholipid, sphingolipid, and fatty acid metabolism in the patients. Furthermore, binary logistic regression showed that nine metabolites could be used as a combinatorial biomarker to distinguish early-stage CAS patients from controls. The panel of nine metabolites was then tested with an independent cohort of samples, which also yielded satisfactory diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.890). In conclusion, our findings provide insight into the pathological mechanism of early-stage CAS and also supply a combinatorial biomarker to aid clinical diagnosis of early-stage CAS.

  6. Transcriptomic profiling of bovine IVF embryos revealed candidate genes and pathways involved in early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandell Brian S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early embryonic loss is a large contributor to infertility in cattle. Although genetic factors are known to affect early embryonic development, the discovery of such factors has been a serious challenge. The objective of this study was to identify genes differentially expressed between blastocysts and degenerative embryos at early stages of development. Results Using microarrays, genome-wide RNA expression was profiled and compared for in vitro fertilization (IVF - derived blastocysts and embryos undergoing degenerative development up to the same time point. Surprisingly similar transcriptomic profiles were found in degenerative embryos and blastocysts. Nonetheless, we identified 67 transcripts that significantly differed between these two groups of embryos at a 15% false discovery rate, including 33 transcripts showing at least a two-fold difference. Several signaling and metabolic pathways were found to be associated with the developmental status of embryos, among which were previously known important steroid biosynthesis and cell communication pathways in early embryonic development. Conclusions This study presents the first direct and comprehensive comparison of transcriptomes between IVF blastocysts and degenerative embryos, providing important information for potential genes and pathways associated with early embryonic development.

  7. Molecular imaging reveals elevated VEGFR-2 expression in retinal capillaries in diabetes: a novel biomarker for early diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dawei; Nakao, Shintaro; Xie, Fang; Zandi, Souska; Bagheri, Abouzar; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Frimmel, Sonja; Zhang, Zhongyu; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes and a leading cause of vision loss. Biomarkers and methods for early diagnosis of DR are urgently needed. Using a new molecular imaging approach, we show up to 94% higher accumulation of custom designed imaging probes against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) in retinal and choroidal vessels of diabetic animals (PM. R., Samiei, S., Soheili, Z.-S., Frimmel, S., Zhang, Z., Ablonczy, Z., Ahmadieh, H., Hafezi-Moghadam, A. Molecular imaging reveals elevated VEGFR-2 expression in retinal capillaries in diabetes: a novel biomarker for early diagnosis. PMID:24903276

  8. Early Top-Down Influences on Bistable Perception Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Michael A.; Gavin, William J.; Nerger, Janice L.

    2008-01-01

    A longstanding debate exists in the literature concerning bottom-up vs. top-down influences on bistable perception. Recently, a technique has been developed to measure early changes in brain activity (via ERPs) related to perceptual reversals (Kornmeier & Bach, 2004). An ERP component, the reversal negativity (RN) has been identified, and is…

  9. Barium distributions in teeth reveal early-life dietary transitions in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish

    2013-06-13

    Early-life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth. Uncovering early-life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilization. Here we show that large dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother's milk through the weaning process. We also document dietary transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, indicating an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2 years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history.

  10. Barium distributions in teeth reveal early life dietary transitions in primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M.; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J.; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish

    2013-01-01

    Early life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations1,2. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth3. Uncovering early life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively-validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilisation4. Here we show that major dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively-recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother’s milk and through the weaning process. We also document transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, suggesting an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2 years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history. PMID:23698370

  11. Dynamic locomotor capabilities revealed by early dinosaur trackmakers from southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A new investigation of the sedimentology and ichnology of the Early Jurassic Moyeni tracksite in Lesotho, southern Africa has yielded new insights into the behavior and locomotor dynamics of early dinosaurs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The tracksite is an ancient point bar preserving a heterogeneous substrate of varied consistency and inclination that includes a ripple-marked riverbed, a bar slope, and a stable algal-matted bar top surface. Several basal ornithischian dinosaurs and a single theropod dinosaur crossed its surface within days or perhaps weeks of one another, but responded to substrate heterogeneity differently. Whereas the theropod trackmaker accommodated sloping and slippery surfaces by gripping the substrate with its pedal claws, the basal ornithischian trackmakers adjusted to the terrain by changing between quadrupedal and bipedal stance, wide and narrow gauge limb support (abduction range = 31 degrees , and plantigrade and digitigrade foot posture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The locomotor adjustments coincide with changes in substrate consistency along the trackway and appear to reflect 'real time' responses to a complex terrain. It is proposed that these responses foreshadow important locomotor transformations characterizing the later evolution of the two main dinosaur lineages. Ornithischians, which shifted from bipedal to quadrupedal posture at least three times in their evolutionary history, are shown to have been capable of adopting both postures early in their evolutionary history. The substrate-gripping behavior demonstrated by the early theropod, in turn, is consistent with the hypothesized function of pedal claws in bird ancestors.

  12. Chinese characters reveal impacts of prior experience on very early stages of perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stollhoff Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual perception is strongly determined by accumulated experience with the world, which has been shown for shape, color, and position perception, in the field of visuomotor learning, and in neural computation. In addition, visual perception is tuned to statistics of natural scenes. Such prior experience is modulated by neuronal top-down control the temporal properties of which had been subject to recent studies. Here, we deal with these temporal properties and address the question how early in time accumulated past experience can modulate visual perception. Results We performed stimulus discrimination experiments and compared a group of Chinese participants with a German control group. The perception of our briefly presented visual objects (targets was disturbed by masking stimuli which appeared in close spatiotemporal proximity. These masking stimuli were either intact or scrambled Chinese characters and did not overlap with the targets. In contrast to German controls, Chinese participants show substantial performance differences for real versus scrambled Chinese characters if these masking stimuli were presented as early as less than 100 milliseconds after the onset of the target. For Chinese observers, it even occured that meaningful masking stimuli enhanced target identification if they were shown at least 100 milliseconds after target onset while the same stimuli impaired recognition if presented in close temporal proximity to the target. The latter finding challenges interpretations of our data that solely rely on stimulus contours or geometric properties and emphasizes the impact of prior experience on the very early temporal dynamics of the visual system. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that prior experience which had been accummulated long before the experiments can modulate the time course of perception intriguingly early, namely already immediately after the perceptual onset of a visual event. This modulation

  13. Bird-like anatomy, posture, and behavior revealed by an early jurassic theropod dinosaur resting trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Andrew R.C.; Harris, J.D.; Lockley, M.G.; Kirkland, J.I.; Matthews, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic (???198 millionyear- old) lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. Conclusions/Significance: The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods.

  14. The TESIS Project: Revealing Massive Early-Type Galaxies at z > 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Braito, V.; Bender, R.; Drory, N.; Feulner, G.; Hopp, U.; Mannucci, F.; Maraston, C.

    How and when present-day massive early-type galaxies built up and what type of evolution has characterized their growth (star formation and/or merging) still remain open issues. The different competing scenarios of galaxy formation predict much different properties of early-type galaxies at z > 1. The "monolithic" collapse predicts that massive spheroids formed at high redshift (z > 2.5-3) and that their comoving density is constant at z 1, their comoving density decreases from z = 0 to z ~ 1.5 and they should experience their last burst of star formation at z 1 can be probed observationally once a well defined sample of massive early-types at z > 1 is available. We are constructing such a sample through a dedicated near-IR very low resolution (λ/Δλ≃50) spectroscopic survey (TNG EROs Spectroscopic Identification Survey, TESIS, [6]) of a complete sample of 30 bright (K < 18.5) Extremely Red Objects (EROs).

  15. Bird-like anatomy, posture, and behavior revealed by an early jurassic theropod dinosaur resting trace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R C Milner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic ( approximately 198 million-year-old lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods.

  16. Bird-like anatomy, posture, and behavior revealed by an early jurassic theropod dinosaur resting trace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Andrew R C; Harris, Jerald D; Lockley, Martin G; Kirkland, James I; Matthews, Neffra A

    2009-01-01

    Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic ( approximately 198 million-year-old) lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods.

  17. Reworked crustal of early Paleozoic WuYi Orogen revealed by receiver function data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Duan, Y.; Tian, X.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Intraplate orogenic belt, which occurs at the rigid and undeformable plate interiors, is a distinct new type of orogen rather than an interplate or plate marginal orogenic belt, whose deformation occurs exclusively at plate margins. Therefore, intraplate orogenic belts are the most obvious exception to the plate-tectonic paradigm, they are uncommon in Earth's history. The early Paleozoic Wuyi orogen in South China is one of the few examples of intraplate orogen, and is a key to understanding the process of intraplate orogenesis and global early Paleozoic geodynamics. In this study, we select teleseismic records from 45 mobile linear seismic stations deployed in Wuyi Mountain and 58 permanent stations setting in Jiangxi and Fujian provinces, from January 2011 to December 2012, and calculate the crustal thickness and average crustal Vp/Vs ratio using the H-κ stacking method. The main results include the following: 1) the crustal average Poission's ratio shows an increase tendency from land to sea, the interior of Wuyi orogen belt with an low ration less than 0.23, and the coastline with high ration which is up to 0.28, which indicate a very heterogeneous crustal structure and composition in Wuyi orogen and coast belt. 2) the crustal thickness ranges 28-34 km and shows a tendency of thinning from inland to coast in the region of SE China margin, which maight mean the eastern Eurasia lithospheric is extension and thinning induced by the subducted paleo-Pacific slab. To conclusion, we assume that Wuyi orogen experienced upper crustal thickening, lower crust and lithosphere delamination during the early Paleozoic orogeny, and lithosphere extension in Mesozoic. This research is founded by the Natural Science Foundation of China (41174052 and 41604048).

  18. Classification tree analyses reveal limited potential for early targeted prevention against childhood overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Kusian, Dennis; Ziegler, Anette-Gabriele; Schaffrath-Rosario, Angelika; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2014-02-01

    Whether specific combinations of risk factors in very early life might allow identification of high-risk target groups for overweight prevention programs was examined. Data of n = 8981 children from the German KiGGS study were analyzed. Using a classification tree approach, predictive risk factor combinations were assessed for overweight in 3-6, 7-10, and 11-17-year-old children. In preschool children, the subgroup with the highest overweight risk were migrant children with at least one obese parent, with a prevalence of 36.6 (95% confidence interval or CI: 22.9, 50.4)%, compared to an overall prevalence of 10.0 (8.9, 11.2)%. The prevalence of overweight increased from 18.3 (16.8, 19.8)% to 57.9 (46.6, 69.3)% in 7-10-year-old children, if at least one parent was obese and the child had been born large-for-gestational-age. In 11-17-year-olds, the overweight risk increased from 20.1 (18.9, 21.3)% to 63.0 (46.4, 79.7)% in the highest risk group. However, high prevalence ratios were found only in small subgroups, containing <10% of all overweight cases in the respective age group. Our results indicate only a limited potential for early targeted preventions against overweight in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  19. Starch grains reveal early root crop horticulture in the Panamanian tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, D R; Ranere, A J; Holst, I; Hansell, P

    2000-10-19

    Native American populations are known to have cultivated a large number of plants and domesticated them for their starch-rich underground organs. Suggestions that the likely source of many of these crops, the tropical forest, was an early and influential centre of plant husbandry have long been controversial because the organic remains of roots and tubers are poorly preserved in archaeological sediments from the humid tropics. Here we report the occurrence of starch grains identifiable as manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), yams (Dioscorea sp.) and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea L.) on assemblages of plant milling stones from preceramic horizons at the Aguadulce Shelter, Panama, dated between 7,000 and 5,000 years before present (BP). The artefacts also contain maize starch (Zea mays L.), indicating that early horticultural systems in this region were mixtures of root and seed crops. The data provide the earliest direct evidence for root crop cultivation in the Americas, and support an ancient and independent emergence of plant domestication in the lowland Neotropical forest.

  20. Synchrotron Reveals Early Triassic Odd Couple: Injured Amphibian and Aestivating Therapsid Share Burrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Fernandez

    Full Text Available Fossorialism is a beneficial adaptation for brooding, predator avoidance and protection from extreme climate. The abundance of fossilised burrow casts from the Early Triassic of southern Africa is viewed as a behavioural response by many tetrapods to the harsh conditions following the Permo-Triassic mass-extinction event. However, scarcity of vertebrate remains associated with these burrows leaves many ecological questions unanswered. Synchrotron scanning of a lithified burrow cast from the Early Triassic of the Karoo unveiled a unique mixed-species association: an injured temnospondyl amphibian (Broomistega that sheltered in a burrow occupied by an aestivating therapsid (Thrinaxodon. The discovery of this rare rhinesuchid represents the first occurrence in the fossil record of a temnospondyl in a burrow. The amphibian skeleton shows signs of a crushing trauma with partially healed fractures on several consecutive ribs. The presence of a relatively large intruder in what is interpreted to be a Thrinaxodon burrow implies that the therapsid tolerated the amphibian's presence. Among possible explanations for such unlikely cohabitation, Thrinaxodon aestivation is most plausible, an interpretation supported by the numerous Thrinaxodon specimens fossilised in curled-up postures. Recent advances in synchrotron imaging have enabled visualization of the contents of burrow casts, thus providing a novel tool to elucidate not only anatomy but also ecology and biology of ancient tetrapods.

  1. Immediate relativity: EEG reveals early engagement of comparison in social information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmann, Katharina; Stahl, Jutta; Mussweiler, Thomas; Kedia, Gayannée

    2016-11-01

    A wide array of social decisions relies on social comparisons. As such, these decisions require fast access to relative information. Therefore, we expect that signatures of the comparative process should be observable in electrophysiological components at an early stage of information processing. However, to date, little is known about the neural time course of social target comparisons. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in 2 electroencephalography (EEG) studies using a social distance effect paradigm. The distance effect capitalizes on the fact that stimuli close on a certain dimension take longer to compare than stimuli clearly differing on this dimension. Here, we manipulated the distance of face characteristics regarding their levels of attractiveness (Study 1) and trustworthiness (Study 2), 2 essential social dimensions. In both studies, size comparisons served as a nonsocial control condition. In Study 1, distance related effects were apparent 170 ms (vertex positive potential, VPP) and 200 ms (N2) after stimulus onset for attractiveness comparisons. In Study 2, trustworthiness comparisons took effect already after 100 ms (N1) and likewise carried over to an event-related N2. Remarkably, we observed a similar temporal pattern for social (attractiveness, trustworthiness) and nonsocial (size) dimensions. These results speak in favor of an early encoding of comparative information and emphasize the primary role of comparison in social information processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Ancient igneous intrusions and early expansion of the Moon revealed by GRAIL gravity gradiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C; Asmar, Sami W; Head, James W; Kiefer, Walter S; Konopliv, Alexander S; Lemoine, Frank G; Matsuyama, Isamu; Mazarico, Erwan; McGovern, Patrick J; Melosh, H Jay; Neumann, Gregory A; Nimmo, Francis; Phillips, Roger J; Smith, David E; Solomon, Sean C; Taylor, G Jeffrey; Wieczorek, Mark A; Williams, James G; Zuber, Maria T

    2013-02-08

    The earliest history of the Moon is poorly preserved in the surface geologic record due to the high flux of impactors, but aspects of that history may be preserved in subsurface structures. Application of gravity gradiometry to observations by the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission results in the identification of a population of linear gravity anomalies with lengths of hundreds of kilometers. Inversion of the gravity anomalies indicates elongated positive-density anomalies that are interpreted to be ancient vertical tabular intrusions or dikes formed by magmatism in combination with extension of the lithosphere. Crosscutting relationships support a pre-Nectarian to Nectarian age, preceding the end of the heavy bombardment of the Moon. The distribution, orientation, and dimensions of the intrusions indicate a globally isotropic extensional stress state arising from an increase in the Moon's radius by 0.6 to 4.9 kilometers early in lunar history, consistent with predictions of thermal models.

  3. Infrasound reveals transition to oscillatory discharge regime during lava fountaining: Implication for early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulivieri, Giacomo; Ripepe, Maurizio; Marchetti, Emanuele

    2013-06-01

    present the analysis of ~4 million infrasonic signals which include 39 episodes of lava fountains recorded at 5.5 km from the active vents. We show that each eruptive episode is characterized by a distinctive trend in the amplitude, waveform, and frequency content of the acoustic signals, reflecting different explosive levels. Lava fountain starts with an ~93 min long violent phase of acoustic transients at ~1.25 Hz repeating every 2-5 s. Infrasound suddenly evolves into a persistent low-frequency quasi-monochromatic pressure oscillation at ~0.4 Hz. We interpret this shift as induced by the transition from the slug (discrete Strombolian) to churn flow (sustained lava fountain) regime that is reflecting an increase in the gas discharge rate. We calculate that infrasonic transition can occur at a gas superficial velocity of ≤76 m/s and it can be used to define infrasonic-based thresholds for an efficient early warning system.

  4. The behavior of larval zebrafish reveals stressor-mediated anorexia during early vertebrate development

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Yeh, Chen-Min; Treviño, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between stress and food consumption has been well documented in adults but less so in developing vertebrates. Here we demonstrate that an encounter with a stressor can suppress food consumption in larval zebrafish. Furthermore, we provide indication that food intake suppression cannot be accounted for by changes in locomotion, oxygen consumption and visual responses, as they remain unaffected after exposure to a potent stressor. We also show that feeding reoccurs when basal levels of cortisol (stress hormone in humans and teleosts) are re-established. The results present evidence that the onset of stress can switch off the drive for feeding very early in vertebrate development, and add a novel endpoint for analyses of metabolic and behavioral disorders in an organism suitable for high-throughput genetics and non-invasive brain imaging. PMID:25368561

  5. Ancient DNA reveals genetic connections between early Di-Qiang and Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiawei; Zeng, Wen; Zhang, Ye; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Li, Chunxiang; Zhu, Hong; Fu, Qiaomei; Zhou, Hui

    2017-12-04

    Ancient Di-Qiang people once resided in the Ganqing region of China, adjacent to the Central Plain area from where Han Chinese originated. While gene flow between the Di-Qiang and Han Chinese has been proposed, there is no evidence to support this view. Here we analyzed the human remains from an early Di-Qiang site (Mogou site dated ~4000 years old) and compared them to other ancient DNA across China, including an early Han-related site (Hengbei site dated ~3000 years old) to establish the underlying genetic relationship between the Di-Qiang and ancestors of Han Chinese. We found Mogou mtDNA haplogroups were highly diverse, comprising 14 haplogroups: A, B, C, D (D*, D4, D5), F, G, M7, M8, M10, M13, M25, N*, N9a, and Z. In contrast, Mogou males were all Y-DNA haplogroup O3a2/P201; specifically one male was further assigned to O3a2c1a/M117 using targeted unique regions on the non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome. We compared Mogou to 7 other ancient and 38 modern Chinese groups, in a total of 1793 individuals, and found that Mogou shared close genetic distances with Taojiazhai (a more recent Di-Qiang population), Hengbei, and Northern Han. We modeled their interactions using Approximate Bayesian Computation, and support was given to a potential admixture of ~13-18% between the Mogou and Northern Han around 3300-3800 years ago. Mogou harbors the earliest genetically identifiable Di-Qiang, ancestral to the Taojiazhai, and up to ~33% paternal and ~70% of its maternal haplogroups could be found in present-day Northern Han Chinese.

  6. Gene expression profiles reveal key genes for early diagnosis and treatment of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Hou, Ziming; Wang, Changjiang; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Hongbing

    2018-04-23

    Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is an aggressive brain tumor that occurs predominantly in the pediatric population. Conventional diagnosis method and standard therapy cannot treat ACPs effectively. In this paper, we aimed to identify key genes for ACP early diagnosis and treatment. Datasets GSE94349 and GSE68015 were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Consensus clustering was applied to discover the gene clusters in the expression data of GSE94349 and functional enrichment analysis was performed on gene set in each cluster. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was built by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes, and hubs were selected. Support vector machine (SVM) model was built based on the signature genes identified from enrichment analysis and PPI network. Dataset GSE94349 was used for training and testing, and GSE68015 was used for validation. Besides, RT-qPCR analysis was performed to analyze the expression of signature genes in ACP samples compared with normal controls. Seven gene clusters were discovered in the differentially expressed genes identified from GSE94349 dataset. Enrichment analysis of each cluster identified 25 pathways that highly associated with ACP. PPI network was built and 46 hubs were determined. Twenty-five pathway-related genes that overlapped with the hubs in PPI network were used as signatures to establish the SVM diagnosis model for ACP. The prediction accuracy of SVM model for training, testing, and validation data were 94, 85, and 74%, respectively. The expression of CDH1, CCL2, ITGA2, COL8A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3 were significantly upregulated in ACP tumor samples, while CAMK2A, RIMS1, NEFL, SYT1, and STX1A were significantly downregulated, which were consistent with the differentially expressed gene analysis. SVM model is a promising classification tool for screening and early diagnosis of ACP. The ACP-related pathways and signature genes will advance our knowledge of ACP pathogenesis

  7. Early Gene Expression in Wounded Human Keratinocytes Revealed by DNA Microarray Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Barbry

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing involves several steps: spreading of the cells, migration and proliferation. We have profiled gene expression during the early events of wound healing in normal human keratinocytes with a home-made DNA microarray containing about 1000 relevant human probes. An original wounding machine was used, that allows the wounding of up to 40% of the surface of a confluent monolayer of cultured cells grown on a Petri dish (compared with 5% with a classical ‘scratch’ method. The two aims of the present study were: (a to validate a limited number of genes by comparing the expression levels obtained with this technique with those found in the literature; (b to combine the use of the wounding machine with DNA microarray analysis for large-scale detection of the molecular events triggered during the early stages of the wound-healing process. The time-courses of RNA expression observed at 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6 and 15 h after wounding for genes such as c-Fos, c-Jun, Egr1, the plasminogen activator PLAU (uPA and the signal transducer and transcription activator STAT3, were consistent with previously published data. This suggests that our methodologies are able to perform quantitative measurement of gene expression. Transcripts encoding two zinc finger proteins, ZFP36 and ZNF161, and the tumour necrosis factor α-induced protein TNFAIP3, were also overexpressed after wounding. The role of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK in wound healing was shown after the inhibition of p38 by SB203580, but our results also suggest the existence of surrogate activating pathways.

  8. Perceptron Mistake Bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Mohri, Mehryar; Rostamizadeh, Afshin

    2013-01-01

    We present a brief survey of existing mistake bounds and introduce novel bounds for the Perceptron or the kernel Perceptron algorithm. Our novel bounds generalize beyond standard margin-loss type bounds, allow for any convex and Lipschitz loss function, and admit a very simple proof.

  9. Integrative analyses reveal novel strategies in HPV11,-16 and-45 early infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Rossing, Maria; Andersen, Ditte

    2012-01-01

    of genes not previously implicated in HPV biology, such as the PSG family and ANKRD1, and of genes implicated in the biology of other viruses, e. g. MX1, IFI44 and DDX60. Carcinogenesis-related genes, e. g. ABL2, MGLL and CYR61, were upregulated by high-risk HPV16 and -45. The integrative analysis revealed...... the suppression of DNA repair by HPV11 and -16, and downregulation of cytoskeleton genes by all HPV types. Various signalling pathways were affected by the HPVs: IL-2 by HPV11; JAK-STAT by HPV16; and TGF-beta, NOTCH and tyrosine kinase signalling by HPV45. This study uncovered novel strategies employed by HPV...... to establish infection and promote uncontrolled growth....

  10. Early Miocene amber inclusions from Mexico reveal antiquity of mangrove-associated copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Rony; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Serrano-Sánchez, María de Lourdes; Centeno-García, Elena; Vega, Francisco J

    2016-10-12

    Copepods are aquatic microcrustaceans and represent the most abundant metazoans on Earth, outnumbering insects and nematode worms. Their position of numerical world predominance can be attributed to three principal radiation events, i.e. their major habitat shift into the marine plankton, the colonization of freshwater and semiterrestrial environments, and the evolution of parasitism. Their variety of life strategies has generated an incredible morphological plasticity and disparity in body form and shape that are arguably unrivalled among the Crustacea. Although their chitinous exoskeleton is largely resistant to chemical degradation copepods are exceedingly scarce in the geological record with limited body fossil evidence being available for only three of the eight currently recognized orders. The preservation of aquatic arthropods in amber is unusual but offers a unique insight into ancient subtropical and tropical ecosystems. Here we report the first discovery of amber-preserved harpacticoid copepods, represented by ten putative species belonging to five families, based on Early Miocene (22.8 million years ago) samples from Chiapas, southeast Mexico. Their close resemblance to Recent mangrove-associated copepods highlights the antiquity of the specialized harpacticoid fauna living in this habitat. With the taxa reported herein, the Mexican amber holds the greatest diversity of fossil copepods worldwide.

  11. Adaptive genomic evolution of opsins reveals that early mammals flourished in nocturnal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Rui; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Gomes, Cidália; Heesy, Christopher P; Antunes, Agostinho

    2018-02-05

    Based on evolutionary patterns of the vertebrate eye, Walls (1942) hypothesized that early placental mammals evolved primarily in nocturnal habitats. However, not only Eutheria, but all mammals show photic characteristics (i.e. dichromatic vision, rod-dominated retina) suggestive of a scotopic eye design. Here, we used integrative comparative genomic and phylogenetic methodologies employing the photoreceptive opsin gene family in 154 mammals to test the likelihood of a nocturnal period in the emergence of all mammals. We showed that mammals possess genomic patterns concordant with a nocturnal ancestry. The loss of the RH2, VA, PARA, PARIE and OPN4x opsins in all mammals led us to advance a probable and most-parsimonious hypothesis of a global nocturnal bottleneck that explains the loss of these genes in the emerging lineage (> > 215.5 million years ago). In addition, ancestral character reconstruction analyses provided strong evidence that ancestral mammals possessed a nocturnal lifestyle, ultra-violet-sensitive vision, low visual acuity and low orbit convergence (i.e. panoramic vision). Overall, this study provides insight into the evolutionary history of the mammalian eye while discussing important ecological aspects of the photic paleo-environments ancestral mammals have occupied.

  12. Comparative Genomics of Early-Diverging Brucella Strains Reveals a Novel Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattam, Alice R.; Inzana, Thomas J.; Williams, Kelly P.; Mane, Shrinivasrao P.; Shukla, Maulik; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Dickerman, Allan W.; Mason, Steven; Moriyón, Ignacio; O’Callaghan, David; Whatmore, Adrian M.; Sobral, Bruno W.; Tiller, Rebekah V.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Frace, Michael A.; De Castro, Cristina; Molinaro, Antonio; Boyle, Stephen M.; De, Barun K.; Setubal, João C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brucella species are Gram-negative bacteria that infect mammals. Recently, two unusual strains (Brucella inopinata BO1T and B. inopinata-like BO2) have been isolated from human patients, and their similarity to some atypical brucellae isolated from Australian native rodent species was noted. Here we present a phylogenomic analysis of the draft genome sequences of BO1T and BO2 and of the Australian rodent strains 83-13 and NF2653 that shows that they form two groups well separated from the other sequenced Brucella spp. Several important differences were noted. Both BO1T and BO2 did not agglutinate significantly when live or inactivated cells were exposed to monospecific A and M antisera against O-side chain sugars composed of N-formyl-perosamine. While BO1T maintained the genes required to synthesize a typical Brucella O-antigen, BO2 lacked many of these genes but still produced a smooth LPS (lipopolysaccharide). Most missing genes were found in the wbk region involved in O-antigen synthesis in classic smooth Brucella spp. In their place, BO2 carries four genes that other bacteria use for making a rhamnose-based O-antigen. Electrophoretic, immunoblot, and chemical analyses showed that BO2 carries an antigenically different O-antigen made of repeating hexose-rich oligosaccharide units that made the LPS water-soluble, which contrasts with the homopolymeric O-antigen of other smooth brucellae that have a phenol-soluble LPS. The results demonstrate the existence of a group of early-diverging brucellae with traits that depart significantly from those of the Brucella species described thus far. PMID:22930339

  13. Genome-wide allelotyping of a new in vitro model system reveals early events in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Meng, Zhen Hang; Sayeed, Aejaz; Shalaby, Refaat; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Dairkee, Shanaz H

    2002-10-15

    Toward the goal of identifying early genetic losses, which mediate the release of human breast epithelium from replicative suppression leading to cellular immortalization, we have used a newly developed in vitro model system. This system consists of epithelial cultures derived from noncancerous breast tissue, treated with the chemical carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, and continuously passaged to yield cell populations culminating in the immortal phenotype. Genome-wide allelotyping of early passage N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-exposed cell populations revealed aberrations at >10% (18 of 169) loci examined. Allelic losses encompassing chromosomes 6q24-6q27, implicating immortalization-associated candidate genes, hZAC and SEN6, occurred in two independently derived cell lines before the Hayflick limit. Additional LOH sites were present in one cell line at 3p11-3p26, 11p15, and 20p12-13. Allelic losses reported in this cell line preceded detectable levels of telomerase activity and the occurrence of p53-related aberrations. Information gained from the search for early immortalization-associated genetic deletions in cultured cells was applied in a novel approach toward the analysis of morphologically normal terminal ductal lobular units microdissected from 20 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ. Notably, clonal allelic losses at chromosome 3p24 and 6q24 were an early occurrence in adjoining terminal ductal lobular units of a proportion of primary tumors, which displayed loss of heterozygosity (3 of 11 and 3 of 6, respectively). The biological insights provided by the new model system reported here strongly suggest that early allelic losses delineated in immortalized cultures and validated in vivo could serve as surrogate endpoints to assist in the identification and intervention of high-risk benign breast tissue, which sustains the potential for continuous proliferation.

  14. Circuit lower bounds in bounded arithmetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pich, Ján

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 1 (2015), s. 29-45 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * circuit lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.582, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007214000888

  15. Liquefaction along Late Pleistocene to early Holocene Faults as Revealed by Lidar in Northwest Tasmania, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J.; Gardner, T.

    2016-12-01

    In northwest Tasmania well-preserved mid-Holocene beach ridges with maximum radiocarbon ages of 5.25 ka occur along the coast; inland are a parallel set of lower relief beach ridges of probable MIS 5e age. The latter are cut by northeast-striking faults clearly visible on LIDAR images, with a maximum vertical displacement (evident as difference in topographic elevation) of 3 m. Also distinct on the LIDAR images are large sand boils along the fault lines; they are up to 5 m in diameter and 2-3 m high and mostly occur on the hanging wall close to the fault traces. Without LIDAR it would have been almost impossible to distinguish either the fault scarps or the sand boils. Excavations through the sand boils show that they are massive, with no internal structure, suggesting that they formed in a single event. They are composed of well-sorted, very fine white sand, identical to the sand in the underlying beach ridges. The sand boils overlie a peaty paleosol; this formed in the tea-tree swamp that formerly covered the area, and has been offset along the faults. Radiocarbon dating of the buried organic-rich paleosol gave ages of 14.8-7.2 ka, suggesting that the faulting is latest Pleistocene to early Holocene in age; it occurred prior to deposition of the mid-Holocene beach ridges, which are not offset. The beach ridge sediments are up to 7 m thick and contain an iron-cemented hard pan 1-3 m below the surface. The water table is very shallow and close to the ground surface, so the sands of the beach ridges are mostly saturated. During faulting these sands experienced extensive liquefaction. The resulting sand boils rose to a substantial height of 2-3 m, probably possibly reflecting the elevation of the potentiometric surface within the confined part of the beach ridge sediments below the iron-cemented hard pan. Motion on the faults was predominantly dip slip (shown by an absence of horizontal offset) and probably reverse, which is consistent with the present-day northwest

  16. A zebrafish larval model reveals early tissue-specific innate immune responses to Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelz, Kerstin; Gratacap, Remi L; Wheeler, Robert T

    2015-11-01

    Mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection that is clinically difficult to manage, with increasing incidence and extremely high mortality rates. Individuals with diabetes, suppressed immunity or traumatic injury are at increased risk of developing disease. These individuals often present with defects in phagocytic effector cell function. Research using mammalian models and phagocytic effector cell lines has attempted to decipher the importance of the innate immune system in host defence against mucormycosis. However, these model systems have not been satisfactory for direct analysis of the interaction between innate immune effector cells and infectious sporangiospores in vivo. Here, we report the first real-time in vivo analysis of the early innate immune response to mucormycete infection using a whole-animal zebrafish larval model system. We identified differential host susceptibility, dependent on the site of infection (hindbrain ventricle and swim bladder), as well as differential functions of the two major phagocyte effector cell types in response to viable and non-viable spores. Larval susceptibility to mucormycete spore infection was increased upon immunosuppressant treatment. We showed for the first time that macrophages and neutrophils were readily recruited in vivo to the site of infection in an intact host and that spore phagocytosis can be observed in real-time in vivo. While exploring innate immune effector recruitment dynamics, we discovered the formation of phagocyte clusters in response to fungal spores that potentially play a role in fungal spore dissemination. Spores failed to activate pro-inflammatory gene expression by 6 h post-infection in both infection models. After 24 h, induction of a pro-inflammatory response was observed only in hindbrain ventricle infections. Only a weak pro-inflammatory response was initiated after spore injection into the swim bladder during the same time frame. In the future, the zebrafish larva as a live whole

  17. Correlation of transcriptomic responses and metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis L. reveals early indicators of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poynton, Helen C., E-mail: helen.poynton@umb.edu; Robinson, William E.; Blalock, Bonnie J.; Hannigan, Robyn E.

    2014-10-15

    , three transcripts directly involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) were induced in the metal treatments at 2 weeks and were further up-regulated at 4 weeks. Overall, correlation of tissue concentrations and gene expression responses indicates that as mussels accumulate higher concentrations of metals, initial stress responses are mobilized to protect tissues. However, given the role of UPR in apoptosis, it serves as an early indicator of stress, which once overwhelmed will result in adverse physiological effects.

  18. Methods of early revealing, prognosis of further course and complications of pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukhrienko N.D.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Under our observation there were 59 patients with pollinosis – 39 females and 20 males at the age from 18 to 68 years. All patients were in the phase of disease exacerbation. General clinical symptoms were: rhinitis, conjunctivitis and bronchial spasm. The results showed that first clinical manifestations appear in persons of young age. Half of the patients had aggravated allergologic anamnesis. Taking into account that pollinosis is a typical representative of diseases having mechanism of immunoglobulin E (IgE-dependent allergic reactions of the first type, the authors have studied in detail level of IgE and its link with other factors. Practically in all patients with pollinosis level of total IgE exceeded the norm. As a result of studies performed, it was established that high IgE level, presence of phagocytosis defect and prolong duration of illness are the criteria which affect disease progress, aggravation of patients’ state, less efficacy of treatment. Due to the fact that development of bronchial obstruction and transformation of pollinosis into bronchial asthma is the most topical issue nowadays, the authors studied its link with other factors and findings. It was established that risk of pollinosis transformation into pollen bronchial asthma increases in the presence of high level of total IgE, aggravation of allergologic anamnesis, decrease of forced expiration volume (FEV, significant duration of disease course. In the course of investigation it was revealed that the highest efficacy of treatment is noted in patients receiving allergen-specific therapy; this confirms data of world scientific literature. The best treatment results are observed in pollinosis patients, with aggravated family history not in parents but in grandparents.

  19. Scattering by bound nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Hirokazu.

    1984-10-01

    Scattering of a particle by bound nucleons is discussed. Effects of nucleons that are bound in a nucleus are taken as a structure function. The way how to calculate the structure function is given. (author)

  20. Multimodal MR-imaging reveals large-scale structural and functional connectivity changes in profound early blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Corinna M.; Hirsch, Gabriella V.; Zajac, Lauren; Koo, Bang-Bon; Collignon, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    In the setting of profound ocular blindness, numerous lines of evidence demonstrate the existence of dramatic anatomical and functional changes within the brain. However, previous studies based on a variety of distinct measures have often provided inconsistent findings. To help reconcile this issue, we used a multimodal magnetic resonance (MR)-based imaging approach to provide complementary structural and functional information regarding this neuroplastic reorganization. This included gray matter structural morphometry, high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) of white matter connectivity and integrity, and resting state functional connectivity MRI (rsfcMRI) analysis. When comparing the brains of early blind individuals to sighted controls, we found evidence of co-occurring decreases in cortical volume and cortical thickness within visual processing areas of the occipital and temporal cortices respectively. Increases in cortical volume in the early blind were evident within regions of parietal cortex. Investigating white matter connections using HARDI revealed patterns of increased and decreased connectivity when comparing both groups. In the blind, increased white matter connectivity (indexed by increased fiber number) was predominantly left-lateralized, including between frontal and temporal areas implicated with language processing. Decreases in structural connectivity were evident involving frontal and somatosensory regions as well as between occipital and cingulate cortices. Differences in white matter integrity (as indexed by quantitative anisotropy, or QA) were also in general agreement with observed pattern changes in the number of white matter fibers. Analysis of resting state sequences showed evidence of both increased and decreased functional connectivity in the blind compared to sighted controls. Specifically, increased connectivity was evident between temporal and inferior frontal areas. Decreases in functional connectivity were observed

  1. Molecular imaging reveals elevated VEGFR-2 expression in retinal capillaries in diabetes: a novel biomarker for early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dawei; Nakao, Shintaro; Xie, Fang; Zandi, Souska; Bagheri, Abouzar; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Frimmel, Sonja; Zhang, Zhongyu; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes and a leading cause of vision loss. Biomarkers and methods for early diagnosis of DR are urgently needed. Using a new molecular imaging approach, we show up to 94% higher accumulation of custom designed imaging probes against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) in retinal and choroidal vessels of diabetic animals (P<0.01), compared to normal controls. More than 80% of the VEGFR-2 in the diabetic retina was in the capillaries, compared to 47% in normal controls (P<0.01). Angiography in rabbit retinas revealed microvascular capillaries to be the location for VEGF-A-induced leakage, as expressed by significantly higher rate of fluorophore spreading with VEGF-A injection when compared to vehicle control (26±2 vs. 3±1 μm/s, P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed VEGFR-2 expression in capillaries of diabetic animals but not in normal controls. Macular vessels from diabetic patients (n=7) showed significantly more VEGFR-2 compared to nondiabetic controls (n=5) or peripheral retinal regions of the same retinas (P<0.01 in both cases). Here we introduce a new approach for early diagnosis of DR and VEGFR-2 as a molecular marker. VEGFR-2 could become a key diagnostic target, one that might help to prevent retinal vascular leakage and proliferation in diabetic patients. © FASEB.

  2. Single-virus tracking approach to reveal the interaction of Dengue virus with autophagy during the early stage of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Wei; Huang, Yi-Lung; Lee, Jin-Hui; Huang, Long-Ying; Chen, Wei-Jun; Lin, Ya-Hsuan; Chen, Jyun-Yu; Xiang, Rui; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Ping, Yueh-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the major infectious pathogens worldwide. DENV infection is a highly dynamic process. Currently, no antiviral drug is available for treating DENV-induced diseases since little is known regarding how the virus interacts with host cells during infection. Advanced molecular imaging technologies are powerful tools to understand the dynamics of intracellular interactions and molecular trafficking. This study exploited a single-virus particle tracking technology to address whether DENV interacts with autophagy machinery during the early stage of infection. Using confocal microscopy and three-dimensional image analysis, we showed that DENV triggered the formation of green fluorescence protein-fused microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) puncta, and DENV-induced autophagosomes engulfed DENV particles within 15-min postinfection. Moreover, single-virus particle tracking revealed that both DENV particles and autophagosomes traveled together during the viral infection. Finally, in the presence of autophagy suppressor 3-methyladenine, the replication of DENV was inhibited and the location of DENV particles spread in cytoplasma. In contrast, the numbers of newly synthesized DENV were elevated and the co-localization of DENV particles and autophagosomes was detected while the cells were treated with autophagy inducer rapamycin. Taken together, we propose that DENV particles interact with autophagosomes at the early stage of viral infection, which promotes the replication of DENV.

  3. Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-19

    This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.

  4. Photon virtual bound state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, J.; Ohtaka, K.

    2004-01-01

    We study virtual bound states in photonics, which are a vectorial extension of electron virtual bound states. The condition for these states is derived. It is found that the Mie resonant state which satisfies the condition that the size parameter is less than the angular momentum should be interpreted as a photon virtual bound state. In order to confirm the validity of the concept, we compare the photonic density of states, the width of which represents the lifetime of the photon virtual bound states, with numerical results

  5. The DMM Bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Mourrain, Bernard; Tsigaridas, Elias

    2010-01-01

    ) resultant by means of mixed volume, as well as recent advances on aggregate root bounds for univariate polynomials, and are applicable to arbitrary positive dimensional systems. We improve upon Canny's gap theorem [7] by a factor of O(dn-1), where d bounds the degree of the polynomials, and n is the number...... bound on the number of steps that subdivision-based algorithms perform in order to isolate all real roots of a polynomial system. This leads to the first complexity bound of Milne's algorithm [22] in 2D....

  6. Sulfur Geochemistry of a Lacustrine Record from Taiwan Reveals Enhanced Marine Aerosol Input during the Early Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaodong; Li, Dawei; Zheng, Liwei; Bao, Hongyan; Chen, Huei-Fen; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2016-12-12

    Lacustrine record of marine aerosol input has rarely been documented. Here, we present the sulfur geochemistry during the last deglaciation and early Holocene of a sediment core retrieved from the Dongyuan Lake in southern Taiwan. An unusually high sulfur peak accompanying pyrite presence is observed at 10.5 ka BP. Such high sulfur content in lacustrine record is unusual. The δ 34 S of sulfur varied from +9.5 to + 17.1‰ with two significant positive shifts at 10.5 and 9.4 ka BP. The sources of sulfur and potential processes involving the sulfur isotope variation including bacterial sulfate reduction, volcanic emissions, in-catchment sulfide oxidation and marine aerosol input are discussed. Enhanced marine aerosol input is the most likely explanation for such sulfur peaks and δ 34 S shifts. The positive δ 34 S shifts appeared concurrently with the maximum landslide events over Taiwan resulted from enhanced typhoon activities. The synchronicity among records suggests that increased typhoon activities promoted sea spray, and consequently enhanced the marine aerosol input with 34 S-enriched sulfate. Our sulfur geochemistry data revealed sea spray history and marine influence onto terrestrial environment at coastal regions. Wider coverage of spatial-temporal lacustrine sulfur geochemistry record is needed to validate the applicability of sulfur proxy in paleoenvironmental research.

  7. Bounded Gaussian process regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Larsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We extend the Gaussian process (GP) framework for bounded regression by introducing two bounded likelihood functions that model the noise on the dependent variable explicitly. This is fundamentally different from the implicit noise assumption in the previously suggested warped GP framework. We...... with the proposed explicit noise-model extension....

  8. Bounded Intention Planning Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sievers Silvan; Wehrle Martin; Helmert Malte

    2014-01-01

    Bounded intention planning provides a pruning technique for optimal planning that has been proposed several years ago. In addition partial order reduction techniques based on stubborn sets have recently been investigated for this purpose. In this paper we revisit bounded intention planning in the view of stubborn sets.

  9. Bounding species distribution models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. STOHLGREN, Catherine S. JARNEVICH, Wayne E. ESAIAS,Jeffrey T. MORISETTE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART and maximum entropy (Maxent models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5: 642–647, 2011].

  10. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pauropus longiramus (Myriapoda: Pauropoda): implications on early diversification of the myriapods revealed from comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Sun, Hongying; Guo, Hua; Pan, Da; Qian, Changyuan; Hao, Sijing; Zhou, Kaiya

    2012-08-15

    Myriapods are among the earliest arthropods and may have evolved to become part of the terrestrial biota more than 400 million years ago. A noticeable lack of mitochondrial genome data from Pauropoda hampers phylogenetic and evolutionary studies within the subphylum Myriapoda. We sequenced the first complete mitochondrial genome of a microscopic pauropod, Pauropus longiramus (Arthropoda: Myriapoda), and conducted comprehensive mitogenomic analyses across the Myriapoda. The pauropod mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 14,487 bp long and contains the entire set of thirty-seven genes. Frequent intergenic overlaps occurred between adjacent tRNAs, and between tRNA and protein-coding genes. This is the first example of a mitochondrial genome with multiple intergenic overlaps and reveals a strategy for arthropods to effectively compact the mitochondrial genome by overlapping and truncating tRNA genes with neighbor genes, instead of only truncating tRNAs. Phylogenetic analyses based on protein-coding genes provide strong evidence that the sister group of Pauropoda is Symphyla. Additionally, approximately unbiased (AU) tests strongly support the Progoneata and confirm the basal position of Chilopoda in Myriapoda. This study provides an estimation of myriapod origins around 555 Ma (95% CI: 444-704 Ma) and this date is comparable with that of the Cambrian explosion and candidate myriapod-like fossils. A new time-scale suggests that deep radiations during early myriapod diversification occurred at least three times, not once as previously proposed. A Carboniferous origin of pauropods is congruent with the idea that these taxa are derived, rather than basal, progoneatans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The early asthmatic response is associated with glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondria activity as revealed by proteomic analysis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yu-Dong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inhalation of allergens by allergic asthmatics results in the early asthmatic response (EAR, which is characterized by acute airway obstruction beginning within a few minutes. The EAR is the earliest indicator of the pathological progression of allergic asthma. Because the molecular mechanism underlying the EAR is not fully defined, this study will contribute to a better understanding of asthma. Methods In order to gain insight into the molecular basis of the EAR, we examined changes in protein expression patterns in the lung tissue of asthmatic rats during the EAR using 2-DE/MS-based proteomic techniques. Bioinformatic analysis of the proteomic data was then performed using PPI Spider and KEGG Spider to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. Results In total, 44 differentially expressed protein spots were detected in the 2-DE gels. Of these 44 protein spots, 42 corresponded to 36 unique proteins successfully identified using mass spectrometry. During subsequent bioinformatic analysis, the gene ontology classification, the protein-protein interaction networking and the biological pathway exploration demonstrated that the identified proteins were mainly involved in glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondrial activity. Using western blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed the changes in expression of five selected proteins, which further supports our proteomic and bioinformatic analyses. Conclusions Our results reveal that the allergen-induced EAR in asthmatic rats is associated with glycolysis, calcium binding and mitochondrial activity, which could establish a functional network in which calcium binding may play a central role in promoting the progression of asthma.

  13. Multiple Polyploidization Events across Asteraceae with Two Nested Events in the Early History Revealed by Nuclear Phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Zhang, Caifei; Liu, Mian; Hu, Yi; Gao, Tiangang; Qi, Ji; Ma, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biodiversity results from multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic variation and natural selection. Whole-genome duplications (WGDs), or polyploidizations, provide opportunities for large-scale genetic modifications. Many evolutionarily successful lineages, including angiosperms and vertebrates, are ancient polyploids, suggesting that WGDs are a driving force in evolution. However, this hypothesis is challenged by the observed lower speciation and higher extinction rates of recently formed polyploids than diploids. Asteraceae includes about 10% of angiosperm species, is thus undoubtedly one of the most successful lineages and paleopolyploidization was suggested early in this family using a small number of datasets. Here, we used genes from 64 new transcriptome datasets and others to reconstruct a robust Asteraceae phylogeny, covering 73 species from 18 tribes in six subfamilies. We estimated their divergence times and further identified multiple potential ancient WGDs within several tribes and shared by the Heliantheae alliance, core Asteraceae (Asteroideae-Mutisioideae), and also with the sister family Calyceraceae. For two of the WGD events, there were subsequent great increases in biodiversity; the older one proceeded the divergence of at least 10 subfamilies within 10 My, with great variation in morphology and physiology, whereas the other was followed by extremely high species richness in the Heliantheae alliance clade. Our results provide different evidence for several WGDs in Asteraceae and reveal distinct association among WGD events, dramatic changes in environment and species radiations, providing a possible scenario for polyploids to overcome the disadvantages of WGDs and to evolve into lineages with high biodiversity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Segment polarity gene expression in a myriapod reveals conserved and diverged aspects of early head patterning in arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf

    2012-09-01

    Arthropods show two kinds of developmental mode. In the so-called long germ developmental mode (as exemplified by the fly Drosophila), all segments are formed almost simultaneously from a preexisting field of cells. In contrast, in the so-called short germ developmental mode (as exemplified by the vast majority of arthropods), only the anterior segments are patterned similarly as in Drosophila, and posterior segments are added in a single or double segmental periodicity from a posterior segment addition zone (SAZ). The addition of segments from the SAZ is controlled by dynamic waves of gene activity. Recent studies on a spider have revealed that a similar dynamic process, involving expression of the segment polarity gene (SPG) hedgehog (hh), is involved in the formation of the anterior head segments. The present study shows that in the myriapod Glomeris marginata the early expression of hh is also in a broad anterior domain, but this domain corresponds only to the ocular and antennal segment. It does not, like in spiders, represent expression in the posterior adjacent segment. In contrast, the anterior hh pattern is conserved in Glomeris and insects. All investigated myriapod SPGs and associated factors are expressed with delay in the premandibular (tritocerebral) segment. This delay is exclusively found in insects and myriapods, but not in chelicerates, crustaceans and onychophorans. Therefore, it may represent a synapomorphy uniting insects and myriapods (Atelocerata hypothesis), contradicting the leading opinion that suggests a sister relationship of crustaceans and insects (Pancrustacea hypothesis). In Glomeris embryos, the SPG engrailed is first expressed in the mandibular segment. This feature is conserved in representatives of all arthropod classes suggesting that the mandibular segment may have a special function in anterior patterning.

  15. SHARP ENTRYWISE PERTURBATION BOUNDS FOR MARKOV CHAINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Erik; VAN Koten, Brian; Weare, Jonathan

    For many Markov chains of practical interest, the invariant distribution is extremely sensitive to perturbations of some entries of the transition matrix, but insensitive to others; we give an example of such a chain, motivated by a problem in computational statistical physics. We have derived perturbation bounds on the relative error of the invariant distribution that reveal these variations in sensitivity. Our bounds are sharp, we do not impose any structural assumptions on the transition matrix or on the perturbation, and computing the bounds has the same complexity as computing the invariant distribution or computing other bounds in the literature. Moreover, our bounds have a simple interpretation in terms of hitting times, which can be used to draw intuitive but rigorous conclusions about the sensitivity of a chain to various types of perturbations.

  16. Organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabate, S.; Strack, S.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium released into the environment may be incorporated into organic matter. Organically bound tritium in that case will show retention times in organisms that are considerably longer than those of tritiated water which has significant consequences on dose estimates. This article reviews the most important processes of organically bound tritium production and transport through food networks. Metabolic reactions in plant and animal organisms with tritiated water as a reaction partner are of great importance in this respect. The most important production process, in quantitative terms, is photosynthesis in green plants. The translocation of organically bound tritium from the leaves to edible parts of crop plants should be considered in models of organically bound tritium behavior. Organically bound tritium enters the human body on several pathways, either from the primary producers (vegetable food) or at a higher tropic level (animal food). Animal experiments have shown that the dose due to ingestion of organically bound tritium can be up to twice as high as a comparable intake of tritiated water in gaseous or liquid form. In the environment, organically bound tritium in plants and animals is often found to have higher specific tritium concentrations than tissue water. This is not due to some tritium enrichment effects but to the fact that no equilibrium conditions are reached under natural conditions. 66 refs

  17. Deeply bound pionic atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    1989-01-01

    The standard method of pionic atom formation does not produce deeply bound pionic atoms. A study is made on the properties of deeply bound pionic atom states by using the standard pion-nucleus optical potential. Another study is made to estimate the cross sections of the formation of ls pionic atom states by various methods. The pion-nucleus optical potential is determined by weakly bound pionic atom states and pion nucleus scattering. Although this potential may not be valid for deeply bound pionic atoms, it should provide some hint on binding energies and level widths of deeply bound states. The width of the ls state comes out to be 0.3 MeV and is well separated from the rest. The charge dependence of the ls state is investigated. The binding energies and the widths increase linearly with Z azbove a Z of 30. The report then discusses various methods to populate deeply bound pionic atoms. In particular, 'pion exchange' reactions are proposed. (n, pπ) reaction is discussed first. The cross section is calculated by assuming the in- and out-going nucleons on-shell and the produced pion in (n1) pionic atom states. Then, (n, dπ - ) cross sections are estimated. (p, 2 Heπ - ) reaction would have cross sections similar to the cross section of (n, dπ - ) reaction. In conclusion, it seems best to do (n, p) experiment on heavy nuclei for deeply bound pionic atom. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Characteristics of juvenile survivors reveal spatio-temporal differences in early life stage survival of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Böttcher, U.

    2014-01-01

    with previous modeling studies on the survival chances of early-stage larvae and with general spatio-temporal patterns of larval prey availability suggests that differences in survival are related to food availability during the early larval stage. Results are discussed in relation to the recruitment process...

  19. Bounded Rationality and Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mukdad

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the theory of bounded rationality which had been introduced by Herbert Simon in the 1950s. Simon introduced the notion of bounded rationality stating that while decision-makers strive for rationality, they are limited by the effect of the environment, their information process capacity and by the constraints on their information storage and retrieval capabilities. Moreover, this article tries to specifically blend this notion into budgeting, using the foundations of inc...

  20. Inhibitory profiles of spices against free and protein-bound heterocyclic amines of roast beef patties as revealed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; He, Zhiyong; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie; Cao, Dongsheng; Guo, Fengxian; Zeng, Maomao

    2017-11-15

    The effects of various levels of chili pepper, Sichuan pepper, and black pepper on the amounts of 17 heterocyclic amines (HAs) from seven categories of both free and protein-bound states in roast beef patties were assessed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with principal component analysis. Three groups of HA, including imidazopyridines (DMIP), imidazoquinoxalines (MeIQx and 4,8-MeIQx), and β-carbolines (norharman and harman), were detected and quantified in both their free and protein-bound states, whereas PhIP was detected only in its free state, and imidazoquinolines (IQ, IQ[4,5-b], and MeIQ), α-carbolines (AαC and MeAαC), and phenylpyridines (Phe-P-1) were detected only in their protein-bound states. The results demonstrate that the peppers at all three levels had significant inhibitory effects on free PhIP, DMIP, MeIQx, and 4,8-DiMeIQx and could promote free norharman. Harman was significantly suppressed by chili pepper and black pepper, but enhanced by Sichuan pepper. All 11 protein-bound HAs, with the exception of IQ, IQ[4,5-b], and MeIQx with added chili pepper, were significantly reduced by the three peppers. The total amounts of the free and protein-bound states of all 11 HAs (1692.4 ± 78.9 ng g -1 ), imidazopyridines (5.5 ± 0.2 ng g -1 ), imidazoquinolines (7.2 ± 0.2 ng g -1 ), imidazoquinoxalines (6.9 ± 0.2 ng g -1 ), α-carbolines (20.1 ± 0.4 ng g -1 ), and β-carbolines (1651.7 ± 79.5 ng g -1 ) were suppressed by each level of all of the three peppers except for 0.5% and 1.0% chili pepper. Our findings may facilitate the inhibition of HA formation in the processing of meat products.

  1. Virial Expansion Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Stephen James

    2013-10-01

    In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

  2. Bound and rebound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzalesi, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In relativistic quantum theory, bound states generate forces in the crossed channel; such forces can affect the binding and self-consistent solutions should be sought for the bound-state problem. The author investigates how self-consistency can be achieved by successive approximations, in a simple scalar model and with successive relativistic eikonal approximations (EAs). Within the generalized ladder approximation, some exact properties of the resulting ''first generation'' bound states are discussed. The binding energies in this approximation are rather small even for rather large values of the primary coupling constant. The coupling of the constituent particles to the first-generation reggeon is determined by a suitable EA and a new generalized ladder amplitude is constructed with rungs given either by the primary gluons or by the first-generation reggeons. The resulting new (second-generation) bound states are found in a reggeized EA. The size of the corrections to the binding energies due to the rebinding effects is surprisingly large. The procedure is then iterated, so as to find - again in an EA - the third-generation bound states. The procedure is found to be self-consistent already at this stage: the third-generation bound states coincide with those of second generation, and no further rebinding takes place in the higher iterations of the approximation method. Features - good and bad - of the model are discussed, as well as the possible relevance of rebinding mechanisms in hadron dynamics. (author)

  3. Small-angle X-ray scattering analysis reveals the ATP-bound monomeric state of the ATPase domain from the homodimeric MutL endonuclease, a GHKL phosphotransferase superfamily protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Hitoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Nishida, Yuya; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Fukui, Kenji

    2015-05-01

    DNA mismatch repair is an excision system that removes mismatched bases chiefly generated by replication errors. In this system, MutL endonucleases direct the excision reaction to the error-containing strand of the duplex by specifically incising the newly synthesized strand. Both bacterial homodimeric and eukaryotic heterodimeric MutL proteins belong to the GHKL ATPase/kinase superfamily that comprises the N-terminal ATPase and C-terminal dimerization regions. Generally, the GHKL proteins show large ATPase cycle-dependent conformational changes, including dimerization-coupled ATP binding of the N-terminal domain. Interestingly, the ATPase domain of human PMS2, a subunit of the MutL heterodimer, binds ATP without dimerization. The monomeric ATP-bound state of the domain has been thought to be characteristic of heterodimeric GHKL proteins. In this study, we characterized the ATP-bound state of the ATPase domain from the Aquifex aeolicus MutL endonuclease, which is a homodimeric GHKL protein unlike the eukaryotic MutL. Gel filtration, dynamic light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses clearly showed that the domain binds ATP in a monomeric form despite its homodimeric nature. This indicates that the uncoupling of dimerization and ATP binding is a common feature among bacterial and eukaryotic MutL endonucleases, which we suggest is closely related to the molecular mechanisms underlying mismatch repair.

  4. Bounded Tamper Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay

    2013-01-01

    Related key attacks (RKAs) are powerful cryptanalytic attacks where an adversary can change the secret key and observe the effect of such changes at the output. The state of the art in RKA security protects against an a-priori unbounded number of certain algebraic induced key relations, e.......g., affine functions or polynomials of bounded degree. In this work, we show that it is possible to go beyond the algebraic barrier and achieve security against arbitrary key relations, by restricting the number of tampering queries the adversary is allowed to ask for. The latter restriction is necessary......-protocols (including the Okamoto scheme, for instance) are secure even if the adversary can arbitrarily tamper with the prover’s state a bounded number of times and obtain some bounded amount of leakage. Interestingly, for the Okamoto scheme we can allow also independent tampering with the public parameters. We show...

  5. Massive Galileon positivity bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rham, Claudia; Melville, Scott; Tolley, Andrew J.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2017-09-01

    The EFT coefficients in any gapped, scalar, Lorentz invariant field theory must satisfy positivity requirements if there is to exist a local, analytic Wilsonian UV completion. We apply these bounds to the tree level scattering amplitudes for a massive Galileon. The addition of a mass term, which does not spoil the non-renormalization theorem of the Galileon and preserves the Galileon symmetry at loop level, is necessary to satisfy the lowest order positivity bound. We further show that a careful choice of successively higher derivative corrections are necessary to satisfy the higher order positivity bounds. There is then no obstruction to a local UV completion from considerations of tree level 2-to-2 scattering alone. To demonstrate this we give an explicit example of such a UV completion.

  6. Unexpected strong attraction in the presence of continuum bound state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, A.; Frederico, T.

    1992-06-01

    The result of few-particle ground-state calculation employing a two-particle non-local potential supporting a continuum bound state in addition to a negative-energy bound state has occasionally revealed unexpected large attraction in producing a very strongly bound ground state. In the presence of the continuum bound state the difference of phase shift between zero and infinite energies has an extra jump of φ as in the presence of an additional bound state. The wave function of the continuum bound state is identical with that of a strongly bound negative-energy state, which leads us to postulate a pseudo bound state in the two-particle system in order to explain the unexpected attraction. The role of the Pauli forbidden states is expected to be similar to these pseudo states. (author)

  7. Proteomic responses reveal the differential effects induced by cadmium in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis at early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Peng, Xiao; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important metal contaminant and posed severe risk on the organisms in the coastal environments of the Bohai Sea. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely distributed along the Bohai coast and consumed as seafood by local residents. Evidences indicate that the early stages of marine organisms are more sensitive to metal contaminants. In this study, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to characterize the biological effects of Cd (50 μg L(-1)) in the early life stages (D-shape larval and juvenile) of mussels. The different proteomic responses demonstrated the differential responsive mechanisms to Cd exposure in these two early life stages of mussels. In details, results indicated that Cd mainly induced immune and oxidative stresses in both D-shape larval and juvenile mussels via different pathways. In addition, the significant up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase and metallothionein confirmed the enhanced energy demand and mobilized detoxification mechanism in D-shape larval mussels exposed to Cd. In juvenile mussels, Cd exposure also induced clear apoptosis. Overall, this work suggests that Cd is a potential immune toxicant to mussel M. galloprovincialis at early life stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular imaging reveals elevated VEGFR-2 expression in retinal capillaries in diabetes: a novel biomarker for early diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Dawei; Nakao, Shintaro; Xie, Fang; Zandi, Souska; Bagheri, Abouzar; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Frimmel, Sonja; Zhang, Zhongyu; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes and a leading cause of vision loss. Biomarkers and methods for early diagnosis of DR are urgently needed. Using a new molecular imaging approach, we show up to 94% higher accumulation of custom designed imaging probes against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) in retinal and choroidal vessels of diabetic animals (P

  9. 7T T-2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooden, S.; Doan, N.T.; Versluis, M.J.; Goos, J.D.C.; Webb, A.G.; Oleksik, A.M.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Barkhof, F.; Weverlinge-Rynsburger, A.W.E.; Blauw, G. J.; Reiber, J.H.C.; van Buchem, M.A.; Milles, J.; van der Grond, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T

  10. Patient-derived Hormone-naive Prostate Cancer Xenograft Models Reveal Growth Factor Receptor Bound Protein 10 as an Androgen Receptor-repressed Gene Driving the Development of Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jun; Ci, Xinpei; Xue, Hui; Wu, Rebecca; Dong, Xin; Choi, Stephen Yiu Chuen; He, Haiqing; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Fang; Qu, Sifeng; Zhang, Fan; Haegert, Anne M; Gout, Peter W; Zoubeidi, Amina; Collins, Colin; Gleave, Martin E; Lin, Dong; Wang, Yuzhuo

    2018-06-01

    Although androgen deprivation therapy is initially effective in controlling growth of hormone-naive prostate cancers (HNPCs) in patients, currently incurable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) inevitably develops. To identify CRPC driver genes that may provide new targets to enhance CRPC therapy. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of HNPCs that develop CRPC following host castration were examined for changes in expression of genes at various time points after castration using transcriptome profiling analysis; particular attention was given to pre-CRPC changes in expression indicative of genes acting as potential CRPC drivers. The functionality of a potential CRPC driver was validated via its knockdown in cultured prostate cancer cells; its clinical relevance was established using data from prostate cancer patient databases. Eighty genes were found to be significantly upregulated at the CRPC stage, while seven of them also showed elevated expression prior to CRPC development. Among the latter, growth factor receptor bound protein 10 (GRB10) was the most significantly and consistently upregulated gene. Moreover, elevated GRB10 expression in clinical prostate cancer samples correlated with more aggressive tumor types and poorer patient treatment outcome. GRB10 knockdown markedly reduced prostate cancer cell proliferation and activity of AKT, a well-established CRPC mediator. A positive correlation between AKT activity and GRB10 expression was also found in clinical cohorts. GRB10 acts as a driver of CRPC and sensitizes androgen receptor pathway inhibitors, and hence GRB10 targeting provides a novel therapeutic strategy for the disease. Development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a major problem in the management of the disease. Using state-of-the-art patient-derived hormone-naive prostate cancer xenograft models, we found and validated the growth factor receptor bound protein 10 gene as a driver of CRPC, indicating that it may be used as a

  11. Bounded variation and around

    CERN Document Server

    Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José

    2013-01-01

    This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.

  12. Comparative Analysis of WUSCHEL-Related Homeobox Genes Revealed Their Parent-of-Origin and Cell Type-Specific Expression Pattern During Early Embryogenesis in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX gene is a plant-specific clade of homeobox transcription factors. Increasing evidences reveal that WOXs play critical roles in early embryogenesis, which involves zygote development, initiation of zygote division, and apical or basal cell lineage establishment. However, how WOXs regulate these developmental events remains largely unknown, and even detailed expression pattern in gametes and early proembryos is not yet available. Here, 13 WOX family genes were identified in Nicotiana tabacum genome. Comparative analysis of 13 WOX family genes with their homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals relatively conserved expression pattern of WUS and WOX5 in shoot/root apical meristem. Whereas variations were also found, e.g., lacking homolog of WOX8 (a marker for suspensor cell in tobacco genome and the expression of WOX2/WOX9 in both apical cell and basal cell. Transient transcriptional activity analysis revealed that WOXs in WUS clade have repressive activities for their target's transcription, whereas WOXs in ancient and intermediate clade have activation activities, giving a molecular basis for the phylogenetic classification of tobacco WOXs into three major clades. Expression pattern analysis revealed that some WOXs (e.g., WOX 13a expressed in both male and female gametes and some WOXs (e.g., WOX 11 and WOX 13b displayed the characteristics of parent-of-origin genes. Interestingly, some WOXs (e.g., WOX2 and WOX9, which are essential for early embryo patterning, were de novo transcribed in zygote, indicating relevant mechanism for embryo pattern formation is only established in zygote right after fertilization and not carried in by gametes. We also found that most WOXs displayed a stage-specific and cell type-specific expression pattern. Taken together, this work provides a detailed landscape of WOXs in tobacco during fertilization and early embryogenesis, which will facilitate the understanding of their specific roles

  13. Gene expression profiling reveals underlying molecular mechanisms of the early stages of tamoxifen-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogribny, Igor P.; Bagnyukova, Tetyana V.; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Muskhelishvili, Levan; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Kovalchuk, Olga; Han Tao; Fuscoe, James C.; Ross, Sharon A.; Beland, Frederick A.

    2007-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a widely used anti-estrogenic drug for chemotherapy and, more recently, for the chemoprevention of breast cancer. Despite the indisputable benefits of tamoxifen in preventing the occurrence and re-occurrence of breast cancer, the use of tamoxifen has been shown to induce non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which is a life-threatening fatty liver disease with a risk of progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In recent years, the high-throughput microarray technology for large-scale analysis of gene expression has become a powerful tool for increasing the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and for identifying new biomarkers with diagnostic and predictive values. In the present study, we used the high-throughput microarray technology to determine the gene expression profiles in the liver during early stages of tamoxifen-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Female Fisher 344 rats were fed a 420 ppm tamoxifen containing diet for 12 or 24 weeks, and gene expression profiles were determined in liver of control and tamoxifen-exposed rats. The results indicate that early stages of tamoxifen-induced liver carcinogenesis are characterized by alterations in several major cellular pathways, specifically those involved in the tamoxifen metabolism, lipid metabolism, cell cycle signaling, and apoptosis/cell proliferation control. One of the most prominent changes during early stages of tamoxifen-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is dysregulation of signaling pathways in cell cycle progression from the G 1 to S phase, evidenced by the progressive and sustained increase in expression of the Pdgfc, Calb3, Ets1, and Ccnd1 genes accompanied by the elevated level of the PI3K, p-PI3K, Akt1/2, Akt3, and cyclin B, D1, and D3 proteins. The early appearance of these alterations suggests their importance in the mechanism of neoplastic cell transformation induced by tamoxifen

  14. Metabolomics and transcriptomics reveal the toxicity of difenoconazole to the early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Miaomiao; Zhu, Wentao; Wang, Dezhen; Qi, Suzhen; Wang, Yao; Yan, Jin; Dong, Kai; Zheng, Mingqi; Wang, Chengju

    2018-01-01

    Difenoconazole is widely used to inhibit the growth of fungi, but its residue in the water environment may threaten ecosystem and human health. Here, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and LC-MS/MS based metabolomics and transcriptomics approaches were used to assess the response of zebrafish to difenoconazole exposure. Early life stages of zebrafish were exposed to difenoconazole at environmentally relevant concentrations for 168h. Their comparison with the control group suggested an adverse development and disturbance of steroid hormones and VTG. KEGG pathway analysis identified five biological processes on the basis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), as well as altered metabolites and amino acids in zebrafish following difenoconazole exposure. These affected processes included energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism, lipid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and an immune-related pathway. Collectively, these results bring us closer to an incremental understanding of the toxic effects of difenoconazole on zebrafish in its early development, and lend support to the continued use of the early life stages of zebrafish as a classical model to evaluate underlying environmental risks of xenobiotics in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tikal, Guatemala, and Emergent Maya Civilization: Excavations reveal evidence of early complex-living at a prime Maya Indian site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, W R

    1965-03-19

    It would be extravagant to claim that these pages have outlined meaningfully the early evolution of Tikal. Data have been provided largely for one excavation locus at a site which, for all its importance, merely has symptomatic value. We cannot claim to have, at present, sufficient material to document satisfyingly the conditions and products of community-wide living at any point in these early times. Present knowledge of Eb and Tzec ceramics and of all the usual archeological correlates (architecture and so on) is disturbingly incomplete. While we do have a good many data on residence throughout much of Preclassic time, considerably more information is needed before a solid evaluation of Preclassic Tikal society can be achieved. One can only hope that pending excavation programs will provide it. Yet, experience shows that probably only a tiny percentage of early cultural remains, regardless of their grandeur and importance at the time, would have survived the constant quest for construction fills to satisfy a seemingly interminable need to build and revamp.

  16. A mouse model for creatine transporter deficiency reveals early onset cognitive impairment and neuropathology associated with brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Laura; Molinaro, Angelo; Cacciante, Francesco; Alessandrì, Maria Grazia; Napoli, Debora; Putignano, Elena; Tola, Jonida; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Cioni, Giovanni; Pizzorusso, Tommaso

    2016-10-01

    Mutations in the creatine (Cr) transporter (CrT) gene lead to cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome-1 (CCDS1), an X-linked metabolic disorder characterized by cerebral Cr deficiency causing intellectual disability, seizures, movement and autistic-like behavioural disturbances, language and speech impairment. Since no data are available about the neural and molecular underpinnings of this disease, we performed a longitudinal analysis of behavioural and pathological alterations associated with CrT deficiency in a CCDS1 mouse model. We found precocious cognitive and autistic-like defects, mimicking the early key features of human CCDS1. Moreover, mutant mice displayed a progressive impairment of short and long-term declarative memory denoting an early brain aging. Pathological examination showed a prominent loss of GABAergic synapses, marked activation of microglia, reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis and the accumulation of autofluorescent lipofuscin. Our data suggest that brain Cr depletion causes both early intellectual disability and late progressive cognitive decline, and identify novel targets to design intervention strategies aimed at overcoming brain CCDS1 alterations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Dark-matter bound states from Feynman diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petraki, K.; Postma, M.; Wiechers, M.

    2015-01-01

    If dark matter couples directly to a light force mediator, then it may form bound states in the early universe and in the non-relativistic environment of haloes today. In this work, we establish a field-theoretic framework for the computation of bound-state formation cross-sections, de-excitation

  18. Small RNA Sequencing Reveals Differential miRNA Expression in the Early Development of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Yu; Wu, Mei; Li, Lihong; Jin, Chuan; Zhang, Qingli; Chen, Chengbin; Song, Wenqin; Wang, Chunguo

    2017-01-01

    Pollen development is an important and complex biological process in the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Although the cytological characteristics of pollen development are well defined, the regulation of its early stages remains largely unknown. In the present study, miRNAs were explored in the early development of broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. italica ) pollen. A total of 333 known miRNAs that originated from 235 miRNA families were detected. Fifty-five novel miRNA candidates were identified. Sixty of the 333 known miRNAs and 49 of the 55 predicted novel miRNAs exhibited significantly differential expression profiling in the three distinct developmental stages of broccoli pollen. Among these differentially expressed miRNAs, miRNAs that would be involved in the developmental phase transition from uninucleate microspores to binucleate pollen grains or from binucleate to trinucleate pollen grains were identified. miRNAs that showed significantly enriched expression in a specific early stage of broccoli pollen development were also observed. In addition, 552 targets for 127 known miRNAs and 69 targets for 40 predicted novel miRNAs were bioinformatically identified. Functional annotation and GO (Gene Ontology) analysis indicated that the putative miRNA targets showed significant enrichment in GO terms that were related to plant organ formation and morphogenesis. Some of enriched GO terms were detected for the targets directly involved in plant male reproduction development. These findings provided new insights into the functions of miRNA-mediated regulatory networks in broccoli pollen development.

  19. New early Eocene vertebrate assemblage from western India reveals a mixed fauna of European and Gondwana affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ypresian Cambay Shale Formation at Vastan and Mangrol lignite mines in Gujarat, western India, has yielded a rich vertebrate fauna with numerous taxa of European affinities. Here we report a new, approximately contemporary vertebrate assemblage from two fossiliferous layers in the nearby mine of Tadkeshwar. These layers have yielded a similar mammal fauna with the co-occurrence of the perissodactyl-like cambaytheriid Cambaytherium thewissi, the adapoid primates Marcgodinotius indicus and cf. Asiadapis cambayensis, and the hyaenodontid Indohyaenodon raoi. The presence of these species in both Vastan and Tadkeshwar mines and at different levels suggests that the deposits between the two major lignite seams represent a single land mammal age. Apart from the aforementioned species there is a new, smaller species of Cambaytherium, and a new genus and species of esthonychid tillodont. This fauna also contains the first large early Eocene vertebrates from India, including an unidentified Coryphodon-like pantodont, a dyrosaurid crocodyliform and a new giant madtsoiid snake. Among the Tadkeshwar vertebrates several taxa are of Gondwana affinities, such as Pelomedusoides turtles, dyrosaurids, and large madtsoiids, attesting that the early Eocene was a crucial period in India during which Laurasian taxa of European affinities co-existed with relict taxa from Gondwana before the India-Asia collision. Our results suggest that terrestrial faunas could have dispersed to or from Europe during episodes of contact between the Indian subcontinent and different island blocks along the northern margin of the Neotethys, such as the Kohistan–Ladakh island-arc system. Gondwana taxa might represent remnants of ghost lineages shared with Madagascar, which reached the Indian subcontinent during the late Cretaceous; alternatively they might have come from North Africa and passed along the southern margin of the Neotethys to reach the Indian subcontinent. These

  20. Serum Metabolomics Reveals Serotonin as a Predictor of Severe Dengue in the Early Phase of Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Tun Linn; Fang, Jinling; Pang, Junxiong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Leo, Yee Sin; Ong, Choon Nam; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Effective triage of dengue patients early in the disease course for in- or out-patient management would be useful for optimal healthcare resource utilization while minimizing poor clinical outcome due to delayed intervention. Yet, early prognosis of severe dengue is hampered by the heterogeneity in clinical presentation and routine hematological and biochemical measurements in dengue patients that collectively correlates poorly with eventual clinical outcome. Herein, untargeted liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry metabolomics of serum from patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the febrile phase (1.5) in the serum, among which are two products of tryptophan metabolism–serotonin and kynurenine. Serotonin, involved in platelet aggregation and activation decreased significantly, whereas kynurenine, an immunomodulator, increased significantly in patients with DHF, consistent with thrombocytopenia and immunopathology in severe dengue. To sensitively and accurately evaluate serotonin levels as prognostic biomarkers, we implemented stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry and used convalescence samples as their own controls. DHF serotonin was significantly 1.98 fold lower in febrile compared to convalescence phase, and significantly 1.76 fold lower compared to DF in the febrile phase of illness. Thus, serotonin alone provided good prognostic utility (Area Under Curve, AUC of serotonin = 0.8). Additionally, immune mediators associated with DHF may further increase the predictive ability than just serotonin alone. Nine cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8, G-CSF, MIP-1β, FGF basic, TNFα and RANTES were significantly different between DF and DHF, among which IFN-γ ranked top by multivariate statistics. Combining serotonin and IFN-γ improved the prognosis performance (AUC = 0.92, sensitivity = 77.8%, specificity = 95.8%), suggesting this duplex panel as accurate metrics for the early prognosis of DHF. PMID:27055163

  1. Ancient DNA from South-East Europe Reveals Different Events during Early and Middle Neolithic Influencing the European Genetic Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervella, Montserrat; Rotea, Mihai; Izagirre, Neskuts; Constantinescu, Mihai; Alonso, Santos; Ioana, Mihai; Lazăr, Cătălin; Ridiche, Florin; Soficaru, Andrei Dorian; Netea, Mihai G; de-la-Rua, Concepcion

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the process of Neolithization for the genetic make-up of European populations has been hotly debated, with shifting hypotheses from a demic diffusion (DD) to a cultural diffusion (CD) model. In this regard, ancient DNA data from the Balkan Peninsula, which is an important source of information to assess the process of Neolithization in Europe, is however missing. In the present study we show genetic information on ancient populations of the South-East of Europe. We assessed mtDNA from ten sites from the current territory of Romania, spanning a time-period from the Early Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. mtDNA data from Early Neolithic farmers of the Starčevo Criş culture in Romania (Cârcea, Gura Baciului and Negrileşti sites), confirm their genetic relationship with those of the LBK culture (Linienbandkeramik Kultur) in Central Europe, and they show little genetic continuity with modern European populations. On the other hand, populations of the Middle-Late Neolithic (Boian, Zau and Gumelniţa cultures), supposedly a second wave of Neolithic migration from Anatolia, had a much stronger effect on the genetic heritage of the European populations. In contrast, we find a smaller contribution of Late Bronze Age migrations to the genetic composition of Europeans. Based on these findings, we propose that permeation of mtDNA lineages from a second wave of Middle-Late Neolithic migration from North-West Anatolia into the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe represent an important contribution to the genetic shift between Early and Late Neolithic populations in Europe, and consequently to the genetic make-up of modern European populations.

  2. Maps of Bounded Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The work cited by the Nobel committee was done jointly with the late Amos Tversky (1937-1996) during a long and unusually close collaboration. Together, we explored the psychology of intuitive beliefs and choices and examined their bounded rationality. This essay presents a current perspective on the three major topics of our joint work: heuristics of judgment, risky choice, and framing effects. In all three domains we studied intuitions - thoughts and preferences that come to mind quickly an...

  3. Bounded Satisfiability for PCTL

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Nathalie; Fearnley, John; Schewe, Sven

    2012-01-01

    While model checking PCTL for Markov chains is decidable in polynomial-time, the decidability of PCTL satisfiability, as well as its finite model property, are long standing open problems. While general satisfiability is an intriguing challenge from a purely theoretical point of view, we argue that general solutions would not be of interest to practitioners: such solutions could be too big to be implementable or even infinite. Inspired by bounded synthesis techniques, we turn to the more appl...

  4. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-02-22

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500-1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400-1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change.

  5. Effects of Repeated Concussions and Sex on Early Processing of Emotional Facial Expressions as Revealed by Electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier-Toutant, Frédérike; Guay, Samuel; Beaulieu, Christelle; Léveillé, Édith; Turcotte-Giroux, Alexandre; Papineau, Samaël D; Brisson, Benoit; D'Hondt, Fabien; De Beaumont, Louis

    2018-05-06

    Concussions affect the processing of emotional stimuli. This study aimed to investigate how sex interacts with concussion effects on early event-related brain potentials (ERP) measures (P1, N1) of emotional facial expressions (EFE) processing in asymptomatic, multi-concussion athletes during an EFE identification task. Forty control athletes (20 females and 20 males) and 43 multi-concussed athletes (22 females and 21 males), recruited more than 3 months after their last concussion, were tested. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale, and an Emotional Facial Expression Identification Task. Pictures of male and female faces expressing neutral, angry, and happy emotions were randomly presented and the emotion depicted had to be identified as fast as possible during EEG acquisition. Relative to controls, concussed athletes of both sex exhibited a significant suppression of P1 amplitude recorded from the dominant right hemisphere while performing the emotional face expression identification task. The present study also highlighted a sex-specific suppression of the N1 component amplitude after concussion which affected male athletes. These findings suggest that repeated concussions alter the typical pattern of right-hemisphere response dominance to EFE in early stages of EFE processing and that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the processing of emotional stimuli are distinctively affected across sex. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1-11).

  6. New Genetic Insights into Pearl Millet Diversity As Revealed by Characterization of Early- and Late-Flowering Landraces from Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Diack

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. is a staple food and a drought-tolerant cereal well adapted to Sub-Saharan Africa agro-ecosystems. An important diversity of pearl millet landraces has been widely conserved by farmers and therefore could help copping with climate changes and contribute to future food security. Hence, characterizing its genetic diversity and population structure can contribute to better assist breeding programs for a sustainable agricultural productivity enhancement. Toward this goal, a comprehensive panel of 404 accessions were used that correspond to 12 improved varieties, 306 early flowering and 86 late-flowering cultivated landraces from Senegal. Twelve highly polymorphic SSR markers were used to study diversity and population structure. Two genes, PgMADS11 and PgPHYC, were genotyped to assess their association to flowering phenotypic difference in landraces. Results indicate a large diversity and untapped potential of Senegalese pearl millet germplasm as well as a genetic differentiation between early- and late-flowering landraces. Further, a fine-scale genetic difference of PgPHYC and PgMADS11 (SNP and indel, respectively and co-variation of their alleles with flowering time were found among landraces. These findings highlight new genetic insights of pearl millet useful to define heterotic populations for breeding, genomic association panel, or crosses for trait-specific mapping.

  7. Combined chromatin and expression analysis reveals specific regulatory mechanisms within cytokine genes in the macrophage early immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesus Iglesias

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a critical role in innate immunity, and the expression of early response genes orchestrate much of the initial response of the immune system. Macrophages undergo extensive transcriptional reprogramming in response to inflammatory stimuli such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS.To identify gene transcription regulation patterns involved in early innate immune responses, we used two genome-wide approaches--gene expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq analysis. We examined the effect of 2 hrs LPS stimulation on early gene expression and its relation to chromatin remodeling (H3 acetylation; H3Ac and promoter binding of Sp1 and RNA polymerase II phosphorylated at serine 5 (S5P RNAPII, which is a marker for transcriptional initiation. Our results indicate novel and alternative gene regulatory mechanisms for certain proinflammatory genes. We identified two groups of up-regulated inflammatory genes with respect to chromatin modification and promoter features. One group, including highly up-regulated genes such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF, was characterized by H3Ac, high CpG content and lack of TATA boxes. The second group, containing inflammatory mediators (interleukins and CCL chemokines, was up-regulated upon LPS stimulation despite lacking H3Ac in their annotated promoters, which were low in CpG content but did contain TATA boxes. Genome-wide analysis showed that few H3Ac peaks were unique to either +/-LPS condition. However, within these, an unpacking/expansion of already existing H3Ac peaks was observed upon LPS stimulation. In contrast, a significant proportion of S5P RNAPII peaks (approx 40% was unique to either condition. Furthermore, data indicated a large portion of previously unannotated TSSs, particularly in LPS-stimulated macrophages, where only 28% of unique S5P RNAPII peaks overlap annotated promoters. The regulation of the inflammatory response appears to occur in a very specific manner at

  8. Studies of Physcomitrella patens reveal that ethylene-mediated submergence responses arose relatively early in land-plant evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Yasumura, Yuki

    2012-10-18

    Colonization of the land by multicellular green plants was a fundamental step in the evolution of life on earth. Land plants evolved from fresh-water aquatic algae, and the transition to a terrestrial environment required the acquisition of developmental plasticity appropriate to the conditions of water availability, ranging from drought to flood. Here we show that extant bryophytes exhibit submergence-induced developmental plasticity, suggesting that submergence responses evolved relatively early in the evolution of land plants. We also show that a major component of the bryophyte submergence response is controlled by the phytohormone ethylene, using a perception mechanism that has subsequently been conserved throughout the evolution of land plants. Thus a plant environmental response mechanism with major ecological and agricultural importance probably had its origins in the very earliest stages of the colonization of the land. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Automated analysis of connected speech reveals early biomarkers of Parkinson's disease in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavnička, Jan; Čmejla, Roman; Tykalová, Tereza; Šonka, Karel; Růžička, Evžen; Rusz, Jan

    2017-02-02

    For generations, the evaluation of speech abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) has been limited to perceptual tests or user-controlled laboratory analysis based upon rather small samples of human vocalizations. Our study introduces a fully automated method that yields significant features related to respiratory deficits, dysphonia, imprecise articulation and dysrhythmia from acoustic microphone data of natural connected speech for predicting early and distinctive patterns of neurodegeneration. We compared speech recordings of 50 subjects with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), 30 newly diagnosed, untreated PD patients and 50 healthy controls, and showed that subliminal parkinsonian speech deficits can be reliably captured even in RBD patients, which are at high risk of developing PD or other synucleinopathies. Thus, automated vocal analysis should soon be able to contribute to screening and diagnostic procedures for prodromal parkinsonian neurodegeneration in natural environments.

  10. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis reveals potential genes involved in early metamorphosis process in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxin; Kikuchi, Mani; Li, Xueyan; Gao, Qionghua; Xiong, Zijun; Ren, Yandong; Zhao, Ruoping; Mao, Bingyu; Kondo, Mariko; Irie, Naoki; Wang, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, one main class of Echinoderms, have a very fast and drastic metamorphosis process during their development. However, the molecular basis under this process remains largely unknown. Here we systematically examined the gene expression profiles of Japanese common sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for the first time by RNA sequencing across 16 developmental time points from fertilized egg to juvenile stage. Based on the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we identified 21 modules. Among them, MEdarkmagenta was highly expressed and correlated with the early metamorphosis process from late auricularia to doliolaria larva. Furthermore, gene enrichment and differentially expressed gene analysis identified several genes in the module that may play key roles in the metamorphosis process. Our results not only provide a molecular basis for experimentally studying the development and morphological complexity of sea cucumber, but also lay a foundation for improving its emergence rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential gene expression profile reveals deregulation of pregnancy specific β1 glycoprotein 9 early during colorectal carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallinger Steven

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both familial and sporadic colorectal cancer. Patients carrying germline APC mutations develop multiple colonic adenomas at younger age and higher frequency than non-carrier cases which indicates that silencing of one APC allele may be sufficient to initiate the transformation process. Methods To elucidate the biological dysregulation underlying adenoma formation we examined global gene expression profiles of adenomas and corresponding normal mucosa from an FAP patient. Differential expression of the most significant gene identified in this study was further validated by mRNA in situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase PCR and Northern blotting in different sets of adenomas, tumours and cancer cell lines. Results Eighty four genes were differentially expressed between all adenomas and corresponding normal mucosa, while only seven genes showed differential expression within the adenomas. The first group included pregnancy specific β-1 glycoprotein 9 (PSG9 (p PSG9 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA/PSG family and is produced at high levels during pregnancy, mainly by syncytiotrophoblasts. Further analysis of sporadic and familial colorectal cancer confirmed that PSG9 is ectopically upregulated in vivo by cancer cells. In total, deregulation of PSG9 mRNA was detected in 78% (14/18 of FAP adenomas and 75% (45/60 of sporadic colorectal cancer cases tested. Conclusion Detection of PSG9 expression in adenomas, and at higher levels in FAP cases, indicates that germline APC mutations and defects in Wnt signalling modulate PSG9 expression. Since PSG9 is not found in the non-pregnant adult except in association with cancer, and it appears to be an early molecular event associated with colorectal cancer monitoring of its expression may be useful as a biomarker for the early detection of this disease.

  12. An alternative model for the early peopling of southern South America revealed by analyses of three mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Bravi, Claudio M; Motti, Josefina M B; Fuku, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Masashi; Llop, Elena; Bonatto, Sandro L; Moraga, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    After several years of research, there is now a consensus that America was populated from Asia through Beringia, probably at the end of the Pleistocene. But many details such as the timing, route(s), and origin of the first settlers remain uncertain. In the last decade genetic evidence has taken on a major role in elucidating the peopling of the Americas. To study the early peopling of South America, we sequenced the control region of mitochondrial DNA from 300 individuals belonging to indigenous populations of Chile and Argentina, and also obtained seven complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified two novel mtDNA monophyletic clades, preliminarily designated B2l and C1b13, which together with the recently described D1g sub-haplogroup have locally high frequencies and are basically restricted to populations from the extreme south of South America. The estimated ages of D1g and B2l, about ~15,000 years BP, together with their similar population dynamics and the high haplotype diversity shown by the networks, suggests that they probably appeared soon after the arrival of the first settlers and agrees with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America (Monte Verde, Chile, 14,500 BP). One further sub-haplogroup, D4h3a5, appears to be restricted to Fuegian-Patagonian populations and reinforces our hypothesis of the continuity of the current Patagonian populations with the initial founders. Our results indicate that the extant native populations inhabiting South Chile and Argentina are a group which had a common origin, and suggest a population break between the extreme south of South America and the more northern part of the continent. Thus the early colonization process was not just an expansion from north to south, but also included movements across the Andes.

  13. Multisensory representation of frequency across audition and touch: high density electrical mapping reveals early sensory-perceptual coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John S; Foxe, John J; Fiebelkorn, Ian C; Mercier, Manuel R; Molholm, Sophie

    2012-10-31

    The frequency of environmental vibrations is sampled by two of the major sensory systems, audition and touch, notwithstanding that these signals are transduced through very different physical media and entirely separate sensory epithelia. Psychophysical studies have shown that manipulating frequency in audition or touch can have a significant cross-sensory impact on perceived frequency in the other sensory system, pointing to intimate links between these senses during computation of frequency. In this regard, the frequency of a vibratory event can be thought of as a multisensory perceptual construct. In turn, electrophysiological studies point to temporally early multisensory interactions that occur in hierarchically early sensory regions where convergent inputs from the auditory and somatosensory systems are to be found. A key question pertains to the level of processing at which the multisensory integration of featural information, such as frequency, occurs. Do the sensory systems calculate frequency independently before this information is combined, or is this feature calculated in an integrated fashion during preattentive sensory processing? The well characterized mismatch negativity, an electrophysiological response that indexes preattentive detection of a change within the context of a regular pattern of stimulation, served as our dependent measure. High-density electrophysiological recordings were made in humans while they were presented with separate blocks of somatosensory, auditory, and audio-somatosensory "standards" and "deviants," where the deviant differed in frequency. Multisensory effects were identified beginning at ∼200 ms, with the multisensory mismatch negativity (MMN) significantly different from the sum of the unisensory MMNs. This provides compelling evidence for preattentive coupling between the somatosensory and auditory channels in the cortical representation of frequency.

  14. Universal bounds on current fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietzonka, Patrick; Barato, Andre C; Seifert, Udo

    2016-05-01

    For current fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states of Markovian processes, we derive four different universal bounds valid beyond the Gaussian regime. Different variants of these bounds apply to either the entropy change or any individual current, e.g., the rate of substrate consumption in a chemical reaction or the electron current in an electronic device. The bounds vary with respect to their degree of universality and tightness. A universal parabolic bound on the generating function of an arbitrary current depends solely on the average entropy production. A second, stronger bound requires knowledge both of the thermodynamic forces that drive the system and of the topology of the network of states. These two bounds are conjectures based on extensive numerics. An exponential bound that depends only on the average entropy production and the average number of transitions per time is rigorously proved. This bound has no obvious relation to the parabolic bound but it is typically tighter further away from equilibrium. An asymptotic bound that depends on the specific transition rates and becomes tight for large fluctuations is also derived. This bound allows for the prediction of the asymptotic growth of the generating function. Even though our results are restricted to networks with a finite number of states, we show that the parabolic bound is also valid for three paradigmatic examples of driven diffusive systems for which the generating function can be calculated using the additivity principle. Our bounds provide a general class of constraints for nonequilibrium systems.

  15. Behavioral characterization of A53T mice reveals early and late stage deficits related to Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina L Paumier

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD pathology is characterized by the formation of intra-neuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies, which are comprised of alpha-synuclein (α-syn. Duplication, triplication or genetic mutations in α-syn (A53T, A30P and E46K are linked to autosomal dominant PD; thus implicating its role in the pathogenesis of PD. In both PD patients and mouse models, there is increasing evidence that neuronal dysfunction occurs before the accumulation of protein aggregates (i.e., α-syn and neurodegeneration. Characterization of the timing and nature of symptomatic dysfunction is important for understanding the impact of α-syn on disease progression. Furthermore, this knowledge is essential for identifying pathways and molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. To this end, we examined various functional and morphological endpoints in the transgenic mouse model expressing the human A53T α-syn variant directed by the mouse prion promoter at specific ages relating to disease progression (2, 6 and 12 months of age. Our findings indicate A53T mice develop fine, sensorimotor, and synaptic deficits before the onset of age-related gross motor and cognitive dysfunction. Results from open field and rotarod tests show A53T mice develop age-dependent changes in locomotor activity and reduced anxiety-like behavior. Additionally, digigait analysis shows these mice develop an abnormal gait by 12 months of age. A53T mice also exhibit spatial memory deficits at 6 and 12 months, as demonstrated by Y-maze performance. In contrast to gross motor and cognitive changes, A53T mice display significant impairments in fine- and sensorimotor tasks such as grooming, nest building and acoustic startle as early as 1-2 months of age. These mice also show significant abnormalities in basal synaptic transmission, paired-pulse facilitation and long-term depression (LTD. Combined, these data indicate the A53T model exhibits early- and late-onset behavioral and synaptic

  16. Behavioral Characterization of A53T Mice Reveals Early and Late Stage Deficits Related to Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paumier, Katrina L.; Sukoff Rizzo, Stacey J.; Berger, Zdenek; Chen, Yi; Gonzales, Cathleen; Kaftan, Edward; Li, Li; Lotarski, Susan; Monaghan, Michael; Shen, Wei; Stolyar, Polina; Vasilyev, Dmytro; Zaleska, Margaret; D. Hirst, Warren; Dunlop, John

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology is characterized by the formation of intra-neuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies, which are comprised of alpha-synuclein (α-syn). Duplication, triplication or genetic mutations in α-syn (A53T, A30P and E46K) are linked to autosomal dominant PD; thus implicating its role in the pathogenesis of PD. In both PD patients and mouse models, there is increasing evidence that neuronal dysfunction occurs before the accumulation of protein aggregates (i.e., α-syn) and neurodegeneration. Characterization of the timing and nature of symptomatic dysfunction is important for understanding the impact of α-syn on disease progression. Furthermore, this knowledge is essential for identifying pathways and molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. To this end, we examined various functional and morphological endpoints in the transgenic mouse model expressing the human A53T α-syn variant directed by the mouse prion promoter at specific ages relating to disease progression (2, 6 and 12 months of age). Our findings indicate A53T mice develop fine, sensorimotor, and synaptic deficits before the onset of age-related gross motor and cognitive dysfunction. Results from open field and rotarod tests show A53T mice develop age-dependent changes in locomotor activity and reduced anxiety-like behavior. Additionally, digigait analysis shows these mice develop an abnormal gait by 12 months of age. A53T mice also exhibit spatial memory deficits at 6 and 12 months, as demonstrated by Y-maze performance. In contrast to gross motor and cognitive changes, A53T mice display significant impairments in fine- and sensorimotor tasks such as grooming, nest building and acoustic startle as early as 1–2 months of age. These mice also show significant abnormalities in basal synaptic transmission, paired-pulse facilitation and long-term depression (LTD). Combined, these data indicate the A53T model exhibits early- and late-onset behavioral and synaptic impairments

  17. Quantitative N-linked Glycoproteomics of Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury Reveals Early Remodeling in the Extracellular Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Benjamin L; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Edwards, Alistair V G

    2011-01-01

    , while dimethyl labeling confirmed 46 of these and revealed an additional 62 significant changes. These were mainly from predicted extracellular matrix and basement membrane proteins that are implicated in cardiac remodeling. Analysis of N-glycans released from myocardial proteins suggest...... that the observed changes were not due to significant alterations in N-glycan structures. Altered proteins included the collagen-laminin-integrin complexes and collagen assembly enzymes, cadherins, mast cell proteases, proliferation-associated secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, and microfibril......Extracellular and cell surface proteins are generally modified with N-linked glycans and glycopeptide enrichment is an attractive tool to analyze these proteins. The role of N-linked glycoproteins in cardiovascular disease, particularly ischemia and reperfusion injury, is poorly understood...

  18. Targeted Metabolomics Reveals Early Dominant Optic Atrophy Signature in Optic Nerves of Opa1delTTAG/+ Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao de la Barca, Juan Manuel; Simard, Gilles; Sarzi, Emmanuelle; Chaumette, Tanguy; Rousseau, Guillaume; Chupin, Stéphanie; Gadras, Cédric; Tessier, Lydie; Ferré, Marc; Chevrollier, Arnaud; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Gueguen, Naïg; Leruez, Stéphanie; Verny, Christophe; Miléa, Dan; Bonneau, Dominique; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Procaccio, Vincent; Hamel, Christian; Lenaers, Guy; Reynier, Pascal; Prunier-Mirebeau, Delphine

    2017-02-01

    Dominant optic atrophy (MIM No. 165500) is a blinding condition related to mutations in OPA1, a gene encoding a large GTPase involved in mitochondrial inner membrane dynamics. Although several mouse models mimicking the disease have been developed, the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for retinal ganglion cell degeneration remain poorly understood. Using a targeted metabolomic approach, we measured the concentrations of 188 metabolites in nine tissues, that is, brain, three types of skeletal muscle, heart, liver, retina, optic nerve, and plasma in symptomatic 11-month-old Opa1delTTAG/+ mice. Significant metabolic signatures were found only in the optic nerve and plasma of female mice. The optic nerve signature was characterized by altered concentrations of phospholipids, amino acids, acylcarnitines, and carnosine, whereas the plasma signature showed decreased concentrations of amino acids and sarcosine associated with increased concentrations of several phospholipids. In contrast, the investigation of 3-month-old presymptomatic Opa1delTTAG/+ mice showed no specific plasma signature but revealed a significant optic nerve signature in both sexes, although with a sex effect. The Opa1delTTAG/+ versus wild-type optic nerve signature was characterized by the decreased concentrations of 10 sphingomyelins and 10 lysophosphatidylcholines, suggestive of myelin sheath alteration, and by alteration in the concentrations of metabolites involved in neuroprotection, such as dimethylarginine, carnitine, spermine, spermidine, carnosine, and glutamate, suggesting a concomitant axonal metabolic dysfunction. Our comprehensive metabolomic investigations revealed in symptomatic as well as in presymptomatic Opa1delTTAG/+ mice, a specific sensitiveness of the optic nerve to Opa1 insufficiency, opening new routes for protective therapeutic strategies.

  19. A bound on chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ (United States); Shenker, Stephen H. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford, Douglas [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-08-17

    We conjecture a sharp bound on the rate of growth of chaos in thermal quantum systems with a large number of degrees of freedom. Chaos can be diagnosed using an out-of-time-order correlation function closely related to the commutator of operators separated in time. We conjecture that the influence of chaos on this correlator can develop no faster than exponentially, with Lyapunov exponent λ{sub L}≤2πk{sub B}T/ℏ. We give a precise mathematical argument, based on plausible physical assumptions, establishing this conjecture.

  20. Temporal expression profiling of plasma proteins reveals oxidative stress in early stages of Type 1 Diabetes progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chih-Wei; Bramer, Lisa; Computational Modeling); Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Computational Modeling); Waugh, Kathleen; Rewers, Marian J.; Zhang, Qibin; Biochemistry)

    2017-01-01

    We report that blood markers other than islet autoantibodies are greatly needed to indicate the pancreatic beta cell destruction process as early as possible, and more accurately reflect the progression of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1D). To this end, a longitudinal proteomic profiling of human plasma using TMT-10plex-based LC-MS/MS analysis was performed to track temporal proteomic changes of T1D patients (n = 11) across 9 serial time points, spanning the period of T1D natural progression, in comparison with those of the matching healthy controls (n = 10). To our knowledge, the current study represents the largest (> 2000 proteins measured) longitudinal expression profiles of human plasma proteome in T1D research. By applying statistical trend analysis on the temporal expression patterns between T1D and controls, and Benjamini-Hochberg procedure for multiple-testing correction, 13 protein groups were regarded as having statistically significant differences during the entire follow-up period. Moreover, 16 protein groups, which play pivotal roles in response to oxidative stress, have consistently abnormal expression trend before seroconversion to islet autoimmunity. Importantly, the expression trends of two key reactive oxygen species-decomposing enzymes, Catalase and Superoxide dismutase were verified independently by ELISA.

  1. 7T T₂*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooden, Sanneke; Doan, Nhat Trung; Versluis, Maarten J; Goos, Jeroen D C; Webb, Andrew G; Oleksik, Ania M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W E; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Reiber, Johan H C; van Buchem, Mark A; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T2(∗)-weighted scans were acquired in 12 EOAD patients and 17 LOAD patients with mild to moderate disease and 27 healthy elderly control subjects. Lobar peak-to-peak phase shifts and regional mean phase contrasts were computed. An increased peak-to-peak phase shift was found for all lobar regions in EOAD patients compared with LOAD patients (p < 0.05). Regional mean phase contrast in EOAD patients was higher than in LOAD patients in the superior medial and middle frontal gyrus, anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior and inferior parietal gyrus, and precuneus (p ≤ 0.042). These data suggest that EOAD patients have an increased iron accumulation, possibly related to an increased amyloid deposition, in specific cortical regions as compared with LOAD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Knockdown of Fanconi anemia genes in human embryonic stem cells reveals early developmental defects in the hematopoietic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulpule, Asmin; Lensch, M William; Miller, Justine D; Austin, Karyn; D'Andrea, Alan; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Shimamura, Akiko; Daley, George Q

    2010-04-29

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by pediatric bone marrow failure and congenital anomalies. The effect of FA gene deficiency on hematopoietic development in utero remains poorly described as mouse models of FA do not develop hematopoietic failure and such studies cannot be performed on patients. We have created a human-specific in vitro system to study early hematopoietic development in FA using a lentiviral RNA interference (RNAi) strategy in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We show that knockdown of FANCA and FANCD2 in hESCs leads to a reduction in hematopoietic fates and progenitor numbers that can be rescued by FA gene complementation. Our data indicate that hematopoiesis is impaired in FA from the earliest stages of development, suggesting that deficiencies in embryonic hematopoiesis may underlie the progression to bone marrow failure in FA. This work illustrates how hESCs can provide unique insights into human development and further our understanding of genetic disease.

  3. Early stages of functional diversification in the Rab GTPase gene family revealed by genomic and localization studies in Paramecium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Lydia J; Gout, Jean-Francois; Lynch, Michael

    2017-04-15

    New gene functions arise within existing gene families as a result of gene duplication and subsequent diversification. To gain insight into the steps that led to the functional diversification of paralogues, we tracked duplicate retention patterns, expression-level divergence, and subcellular markers of functional diversification in the Rab GTPase gene family in three Paramecium aurelia species. After whole-genome duplication, Rab GTPase duplicates are more highly retained than other genes in the genome but appear to be diverging more rapidly in expression levels, consistent with early steps in functional diversification. However, by localizing specific Rab proteins in Paramecium cells, we found that paralogues from the two most recent whole-genome duplications had virtually identical localization patterns, and that less closely related paralogues showed evidence of both conservation and diversification. The functionally conserved paralogues appear to target to compartments associated with both endocytic and phagocytic recycling functions, confirming evolutionary and functional links between the two pathways in a divergent eukaryotic lineage. Because the functionally diversifying paralogues are still closely related to and derived from a clade of functionally conserved Rab11 genes, we were able to pinpoint three specific amino acid residues that may be driving the change in the localization and thus the function in these proteins. © 2017 Bright et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. Whole transcriptome profiling of maize during early somatic embryogenesis reveals altered expression of stress factors and embryogenesis-related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella A G D Salvo

    Full Text Available Embryogenic tissue culture systems are utilized in propagation and genetic engineering of crop plants, but applications are limited by genotype-dependent culture response. To date, few genes necessary for embryogenic callus formation have been identified or characterized. The goal of this research was to enhance our understanding of gene expression during maize embryogenic tissue culture initiation. In this study, we highlight the expression of candidate genes that have been previously regarded in the literature as having important roles in somatic embryogenesis. We utilized RNA based sequencing (RNA-seq to characterize the transcriptome of immature embryo explants of the highly embryogenic and regenerable maize genotype A188 at 0, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours after placement of explants on tissue culture initiation medium. Genes annotated as functioning in stress response, such as glutathione-S-transferases and germin-like proteins, and genes involved with hormone transport, such as PINFORMED, increased in expression over 8-fold in the study. Maize genes with high sequence similarity to genes previously described in the initiation of embryogenic cultures, such as transcription factors BABY BOOM, LEAFY COTYLEDON, and AGAMOUS, and important receptor-like kinases such as SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR LIKE KINASES and CLAVATA, were also expressed in this time course study. By combining results from whole genome transcriptome analysis with an in depth review of key genes that play a role in the onset of embryogenesis, we propose a model of coordinated expression of somatic embryogenesis-related genes, providing an improved understanding of genomic factors involved in the early steps of embryogenic culture initiation in maize and other plant species.

  5. Asynchrony of the early maturation of white matter bundles in healthy infants: Quantitative landmarks revealed noninvasively by diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.; Perrin, M.; Mangin, J.F.; Cointepas, Y.; Duchesnay, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Hertz-Pannier, L.; Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Dubois, J.; Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Perrin, M.; Mangin, J.F.; Cointepas, Y.; Duchesnay, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Hertz-Pannier, L.

    2008-01-01

    Normal cognitive development in infants follows a well-known temporal sequence, which is assumed to be correlated with the structural maturation of underlying functional networks. Postmortem studies and, more recently, structural MR imaging studies have described qualitatively the heterogeneous spatio-temporal progression of white matter myelination. However, in vivo quantification of the maturation phases of fiber bundles is still lacking. We used noninvasive diffusion tensor MR imaging and tractography in twenty-three 1-4-month-old healthy infants to quantify the early maturation of the main cerebral fascicles. A specific maturation model, based on the respective roles of different maturational processes on the diffusion phenomena, was designed to highlight asynchronous maturation across bundles by evaluating the time-course of mean diffusivity and anisotropy changes over the considered developmental period. Using an original approach, a progression of maturation in four relative stages was determined in each tract by estimating the maturation state and speed, from the diffusion indices over the infants group compared with an adults group on one hand, and in each tract compared with the average over bundles on the other hand. Results were coherent with, and extended previous findings in 8 of 11 bundles, showing the anterior limb of the internal capsule and cingulum as the most immature, followed by the optic radiations, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fascicles, then the spino-thalamic tract and fornix, and finally the cortico-spinal tract as the most mature bundle. Thus, this approach provides new quantitative landmarks for further noninvasive research on brain-behavior relationships during normal and abnormal development. (authors)

  6. Contrasting Networks for Recognition Memory and Recency Memory Revealed by Immediate-Early Gene Imaging in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos was used to compare networks of activity associated with recency memory (temporal order memory) and recognition memory. In Experiment 1, rats were first familiarized with sets of objects and then given pairs of different, familiar objects to explore. For the recency test group, each object in a pair was separated by 110 min in the time between their previous presentations. For the recency control test, each object in a pair was separated by less than a 1 min between their prior presentations. Temporal discrimination of the objects correlated with c-fos activity in the recency test group in several sites, including area Te2, the perirhinal cortex, lateral entorhinal cortex, as well as the dentate gyrus, hippocampal fields CA3 and CA1. For both the test and control conditions, network models were derived using structural equation modeling. The recency test model emphasized serial connections from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex and then to the CA1 subfield. The recency control condition involved more parallel pathways, but again highlighted CA1 within the hippocampus. Both models contrasted with those derived from tests of object recognition (Experiment 2), because stimulus novelty was associated with pathways from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex that then involved both the dentate gyrus (and CA3) and CA1 in parallel. The present findings implicate CA1 for the processing of familiar stimuli, including recency discriminations, while the dentate gyrus and CA3 pathways are recruited when the perirhinal cortex signals novel stimuli. PMID:24933661

  7. A zebrafish model of congenital disorders of glycosylation with phosphomannose isomerase deficiency reveals an early opportunity for corrective mannose supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Chu

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG have recessive mutations in genes required for protein N-glycosylation, resulting in multi-systemic disease. Despite the well-characterized biochemical consequences in these individuals, the underlying cellular defects that contribute to CDG are not well understood. Synthesis of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO, which serves as the sugar donor for the N-glycosylation of secretory proteins, requires conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to mannose-6-phosphate via the phosphomannose isomerase (MPI enzyme. Individuals who are deficient in MPI present with bleeding, diarrhea, edema, gastrointestinal bleeding and liver fibrosis. MPI-CDG patients can be treated with oral mannose supplements, which is converted to mannose-6-phosphate through a minor complementary metabolic pathway, restoring protein glycosylation and ameliorating most symptoms, although liver disease continues to progress. Because Mpi deletion in mice causes early embryonic lethality and thus is difficult to study, we used zebrafish to establish a model of MPI-CDG. We used a morpholino to block mpi mRNA translation and established a concentration that consistently yielded 13% residual Mpi enzyme activity at 4 days post-fertilization (dpf, which is within the range of MPI activity detected in fibroblasts from MPI-CDG patients. Fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis detected decreased LLO and N-glycans in mpi morphants. These deficiencies resulted in 50% embryonic lethality by 4 dpf. Multi-systemic abnormalities, including small eyes, dysmorphic jaws, pericardial edema, a small liver and curled tails, occurred in 82% of the surviving larvae. Importantly, these phenotypes could be rescued with mannose supplementation. Thus, parallel processes in fish and humans contribute to the phenotypes caused by Mpi depletion. Interestingly, mannose was only effective if provided prior to 24 hpf. These data provide insight into treatment efficacy

  8. Deep RNA sequencing reveals hidden features and dynamics of early gene transcription in Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Blanc

    Full Text Available Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1 is the prototype of the genus Chlorovirus (family Phycodnaviridae that infects the unicellular, eukaryotic green alga Chlorella variabilis NC64A. The 331-kb PBCV-1 genome contains 416 major open reading frames. A mRNA-seq approach was used to analyze PBCV-1 transcriptomes at 6 progressive times during the first hour of infection. The alignment of 17 million reads to the PBCV-1 genome allowed the construction of single-base transcriptome maps. Significant transcription was detected for a subset of 50 viral genes as soon as 7 min after infection. By 20 min post infection (p.i., transcripts were detected for most PBCV-1 genes and transcript levels continued to increase globally up to 60 min p.i., at which time 41% or the poly (A+-containing RNAs in the infected cells mapped to the PBCV-1 genome. For some viral genes, the number of transcripts in the latter time points (20 to 60 min p.i. was much higher than that of the most highly expressed host genes. RNA-seq data revealed putative polyadenylation signal sequences in PBCV-1 genes that were identical to the polyadenylation signal AAUAAA of green algae. Several transcripts have an RNA fragment excised. However, the frequency of excision and the resulting putative shortened protein products suggest that most of these excision events have no functional role but are probably the result of the activity of misled splicesomes.

  9. Environmental proteomics reveals early microbial community responses to biostimulation at a uranium- and nitrate-contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Nissen, Silke [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Pffifner, Susan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Loeffler, Frank E [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    High performance mass spectrometry instrumentation coupled with improved protein extraction techniques enable metaproteomics to identify active members of soil and groundwater microbial communities. Metaproteomics workflows were applied to study the initial responses (i.e., 4 days post treatment) of the indigenous aquifer microbiota to biostimulation with emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) at a uranium-contaminated site. Members of the Betaproteobacteria (i.e., Dechloromonas, Ralstonia, Rhodoferax, Polaromonas, Delftia, Chromobacterium) and Firmicutes dominated the biostimulated aquifer community. Proteome characterization revealed distinct differences in protein expression between the microbial biomass collected from groundwater influenced by biostimulation and groundwater collected up-gradient of the EVO injection points. In particular, proteins involved in ammonium assimilation, EVO degradation, and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granule formation were prominent following biostimulation. Interestingly, the atypical NosZ of a Dechloromonas sp. was highly expressed suggesting active nitrous oxide (N2O) respiration. c-type cytochromes were barely detected, as was citrate synthase, a biomarker for hexavalent uranium reduction activity, suggesting that metal reduction has not commenced 4 days post EVO delivery. Environmental metaproteomics identified microbial community responses to biostimulation and elucidated active pathways demonstrating the value of this technique for complementing nucleic acid-based approaches.

  10. Differentially expressed androgen-regulated genes in androgen-sensitive tissues reveal potential biomarkers of early prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogus Murat Altintas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several data favor androgen receptor implication in prostate cancer initiation through the induction of several gene activation programs. The aim of the study is to identify potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa among androgen-regulated genes (ARG and to evaluate comparative expression of these genes in normal prostate and normal prostate-related androgen-sensitive tissues that do not (or rarely give rise to cancer. METHODS: ARG were selected in non-neoplastic adult human prostatic epithelial RWPE-1 cells stably expressing an exogenous human androgen receptor, using RNA-microarrays and validation by qRT-PCR. Expression of 48 preselected genes was quantified in tissue samples (seminal vesicles, prostate transitional zones and prostate cancers, benign prostatic hypertrophy obtained from surgical specimens using TaqMan® low-density arrays. The diagnostic performances of these potential biomarkers were compared to that of genes known to be associated with PCa (i.e. PCA3 and DLX1. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: By crossing expression studies in 26 matched PCa and normal prostate transitional zone samples, and 35 matched seminal vesicle and PCa samples, 14 genes were identified. Similarly, 9 genes were overexpressed in 15 benign prostatic hypertrophy samples, as compared to PCa samples. Overall, we selected 8 genes of interest to evaluate their diagnostic performances in comparison with that of PCA3 and DLX1. Among them, 3 genes: CRYAB, KCNMA1 and SDPR, were overexpressed in all 3 reference non-cancerous tissues. The areas under ROC curves of these genes reached those of PCA3 (0.91 and DLX1 (0.94. CONCLUSIONS: We identified ARG with reduced expression in PCa and with significant diagnostic values for discriminating between cancerous and non-cancerous prostatic tissues, similar that of PCA3. Given their expression pattern, they could be considered as potentially protective against prostate cancer. Moreover, they could

  11. Exome sequencing analysis reveals variants in primary immunodeficiency genes in patients with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith R; Dawany, Noor; Moran, Christopher J; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Sarmady, Mahdi; Sasson, Ariella; Pauly-Hubbard, Helen; Martinez, Alejandro; Maurer, Kelly; Soong, Joanne; Rappaport, Eric; Franke, Andre; Keller, Andreas; Winter, Harland S; Mamula, Petar; Piccoli, David; Artis, David; Sonnenberg, Gregory F; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Baldassano, Robert N; Devoto, Marcella

    2015-11-01

    Very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD), IBD diagnosed at 5 years of age or younger, frequently presents with a different and more severe phenotype than older-onset IBD. We investigated whether patients with VEO-IBD carry rare or novel variants in genes associated with immunodeficiencies that might contribute to disease development. Patients with VEO-IBD and parents (when available) were recruited from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from March 2013 through July 2014. We analyzed DNA from 125 patients with VEO-IBD (age, 3 wk to 4 y) and 19 parents, 4 of whom also had IBD. Exome capture was performed by Agilent SureSelect V4, and sequencing was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform. Alignment to human genome GRCh37 was achieved followed by postprocessing and variant calling. After functional annotation, candidate variants were analyzed for change in protein function, minor allele frequency less than 0.1%, and scaled combined annotation-dependent depletion scores of 10 or less. We focused on genes associated with primary immunodeficiencies and related pathways. An additional 210 exome samples from patients with pediatric IBD (n = 45) or adult-onset Crohn's disease (n = 20) and healthy individuals (controls, n = 145) were obtained from the University of Kiel, Germany, and used as control groups. Four hundred genes and regions associated with primary immunodeficiency, covering approximately 6500 coding exons totaling more than 1 Mbp of coding sequence, were selected from the whole-exome data. Our analysis showed novel and rare variants within these genes that could contribute to the development of VEO-IBD, including rare heterozygous missense variants in IL10RA and previously unidentified variants in MSH5 and CD19. In an exome sequence analysis of patients with VEO-IBD and their parents, we identified variants in genes that regulate B- and T-cell functions and could contribute to pathogenesis. Our analysis could lead to the

  12. Screening of the Open Source Malaria Box Reveals an Early Lead Compound for the Treatment of Alveolar Echinococcosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Stadelmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode (larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis causes alveolar echinococcosis (AE, a very severe and in many cases incurable disease. To date, benzimidazoles such as albendazole and mebendazole are the only approved chemotherapeutical treatment options. Benzimidazoles inhibit metacestode proliferation, but do not act parasiticidal. Thus, benzimidazoles have to be taken a lifelong, can cause adverse side effects such as hepatotoxicity, and are ineffective in some patients. We here describe a newly developed screening cascade for the evaluation of the in vitro efficacy of new compounds that includes assessment of parasiticidal activity. The Malaria Box from Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV, comprised of 400 commercially available chemicals that show in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum, was repurposed. Primary screening was carried out at 10 μM by employing the previously described PGI assay, and resulted in the identification of 24 compounds that caused physical damage in metacestodes. Seven out of these 24 drugs were also active at 1 μM. Dose-response assays revealed that only 2 compounds, namely MMV665807 and MMV665794, exhibited an EC50 value below 5 μM. Assessments using human foreskin fibroblasts and Reuber rat hepatoma cells showed that the salicylanilide MMV665807 was less toxic for these two mammalian cell lines than for metacestodes. The parasiticidal activity of MMV665807 was then confirmed using isolated germinal layer cell cultures as well as metacestode vesicles by employing viability assays, and its effect on metacestodes was morphologically evaluated by electron microscopy. However, both oral and intraperitoneal application of MMV665807 to mice experimentally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes did not result in any reduction of the parasite load.

  13. RNA-Seq reveals the dynamic and diverse features of digestive enzymes during early development of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-09-01

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), with high commercial value, has a typical metamorphosis pattern by going through embryo, nauplius, zoea, mysis and postlarvae during early development. Its diets change continually in this period, and a high mortality of larvae also occurs in this period. Since there is a close relationship between diets and digestive enzymes, a comprehensive investigation about the types and expression patterns of all digestive enzyme genes during early development of L. vannamei is of considerable significance for shrimp diets and larvae culture. Using RNA-Seq data, the types and expression characteristics of the digestive enzyme genes were analyzed during five different development stages (embryo, nauplius, zoea, mysis and postlarvae) in L. vannamei. Among the obtained 66,815 unigenes, 296 were annotated as 16 different digestive enzymes including five types of carbohydrase, seven types of peptidase and four types of lipase. Such a diverse suite of enzymes illustrated the capacity of L. vannamei to exploit varied diets to fit their nutritional requirements. The analysis of their dynamic expression patterns during development also indicated the importance of transcriptional regulation to adapt to the diet transition. Our study revealed the diverse and dynamic features of digestive enzymes during early development of L. vannamei. These results would provide support to better understand the physiological changes during diet transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relativistic bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, Burke

    2006-01-01

    The Hamiltonian for Dirac's second-order equation depends nonlinearly on the potential V and the energy E. For this reason the magnetic contribution to the Hamiltonian for s-waves, which has a short range, is attractive for a repulsive Coulomb potential (V>0) and repulsive for an attractive Coulomb potential (V 2 . Usually solutions are found in the regime E=mc 2 +ε , where except for high Z, ε 2 . Here it is shown that for V>0 the attractive magnetic term and the linear repulsive term combine to support a bound state near E=0.5mc 2 corresponding to a binding energy E b =-ε =0.5mc 2

  15. The crystal structures of apo and cAMP-bound GlxR from Corynebacterium glutamicum reveal structural and dynamic changes upon cAMP binding in CRP/FNR family transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D Townsend

    Full Text Available The cyclic AMP-dependent transcriptional regulator GlxR from Corynebacterium glutamicum is a member of the super-family of CRP/FNR (cyclic AMP receptor protein/fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator transcriptional regulators that play central roles in bacterial metabolic regulatory networks. In C. glutamicum, which is widely used for the industrial production of amino acids and serves as a non-pathogenic model organism for members of the Corynebacteriales including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the GlxR homodimer controls the transcription of a large number of genes involved in carbon metabolism. GlxR therefore represents a key target for understanding the regulation and coordination of C. glutamicum metabolism. Here we investigate cylic AMP and DNA binding of GlxR from C. glutamicum and describe the crystal structures of apo GlxR determined at a resolution of 2.5 Å, and two crystal forms of holo GlxR at resolutions of 2.38 and 1.82 Å, respectively. The detailed structural analysis and comparison of GlxR with CRP reveals that the protein undergoes a distinctive conformational change upon cyclic AMP binding leading to a dimer structure more compatible to DNA-binding. As the two binding sites in the GlxR homodimer are structurally identical dynamic changes upon binding of the first ligand are responsible for the allosteric behavior. The results presented here show how dynamic and structural changes in GlxR lead to optimization of orientation and distance of its two DNA-binding helices for optimal DNA recognition.

  16. Bounding approaches to system identification

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Éric

    1996-01-01

    In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.

  17. Market access through bound tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Yalcin, Erdal; Schröder, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and longterm...

  18. Market Access through Bound Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long...

  19. Quivers of Bound Path Algebras and Bound Path Coalgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Intan Muchtadi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available bras and coalgebras can be represented as quiver (directed graph, and from quiver we can construct algebras and coalgebras called path algebras and path coalgebras. In this paper we show that the quiver of a bound path coalgebra (resp. algebra is the dual quiver of its bound path algebra (resp. coalgebra.

  20. Switch of Sensitivity Dynamics Revealed with DyGloSA Toolbox for Dynamical Global Sensitivity Analysis as an Early Warning for System's Critical Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumuratova, Tatiana; Dobre, Simona; Bastogne, Thierry; Sauter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Systems with bifurcations may experience abrupt irreversible and often unwanted shifts in their performance, called critical transitions. For many systems like climate, economy, ecosystems it is highly desirable to identify indicators serving as early warnings of such regime shifts. Several statistical measures were recently proposed as early warnings of critical transitions including increased variance, autocorrelation and skewness of experimental or model-generated data. The lack of automatized tool for model-based prediction of critical transitions led to designing DyGloSA – a MATLAB toolbox for dynamical global parameter sensitivity analysis (GPSA) of ordinary differential equations models. We suggest that the switch in dynamics of parameter sensitivities revealed by our toolbox is an early warning that a system is approaching a critical transition. We illustrate the efficiency of our toolbox by analyzing several models with bifurcations and predicting the time periods when systems can still avoid going to a critical transition by manipulating certain parameter values, which is not detectable with the existing SA techniques. DyGloSA is based on the SBToolbox2 and contains functions, which compute dynamically the global sensitivity indices of the system by applying four main GPSA methods: eFAST, Sobol's ANOVA, PRCC and WALS. It includes parallelized versions of the functions enabling significant reduction of the computational time (up to 12 times). DyGloSA is freely available as a set of MATLAB scripts at http://bio.uni.lu/systems_biology/software/dyglosa. It requires installation of MATLAB (versions R2008b or later) and the Systems Biology Toolbox2 available at www.sbtoolbox2.org. DyGloSA can be run on Windows and Linux systems, -32 and -64 bits. PMID:24367574

  1. A synthetic eicosanoid LX-mimetic unravels host-donor interactions in allogeneic BMT-induced GvHD to reveal an early protective role for host neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devchand, Pallavi R; Schmidt, Birgitta A; Primo, Valeria C; Zhang, Qing-yin; Arnaout, M Amin; Serhan, Charles N; Nikolic, Boris

    2005-02-01

    Lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)) and aspirin-triggered 15-epi-LXA(4) are potent endogenous lipid mediators thought to define the inflammatory set-point. We used single prophylactic administrations of a synthetic aspirin-triggered lipoxin A(4) signal mimetic, ATLa, to probe dynamics of early host-donor interactions in a mouse model for the inflammation-associated multifactorial disease of allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) -induced graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD). We first demonstrated that both host and donor are responsive to the ATLa signals. The simple and restricted regimen of a single prophylactic administration of ATLa [100 ng/mL to donor cells or 1 microg (approximately 50 microg/kg) i.v. to host] was sufficient to delay death. Clinical indicators of weight, skin lesions, diarrhea and eye inflammation were monitored. Histological analyses on day 45 post-BMT showed that the degree of cellular trafficking, particularly neutrophil infiltrate, and protection of end-organ target pathology are different, depending on whether the host or donor was treated with ATLa. Taken together, these results chart some ATLa protective effects on GvHD cellular dynamics over time and identify a previously unrecognized effect of host neutrophils in the early phase post-BMT as important determinants in the dynamics of GvHD onset and progression.-Devchand, P. R., Schmidt, B. A., Primo, V. C., Zhang, Q.-y., Arnaout, M. A., Serhan, C. N., Nikolic, B. A synthetic eicosanoid LX-mimetic unravels host-donor interactions in allogeneic BMT-induced GvHD to reveal an early protective role for host neutrophils.

  2. Switch of sensitivity dynamics revealed with DyGloSA toolbox for dynamical global sensitivity analysis as an early warning for system's critical transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumuratova, Tatiana; Dobre, Simona; Bastogne, Thierry; Sauter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Systems with bifurcations may experience abrupt irreversible and often unwanted shifts in their performance, called critical transitions. For many systems like climate, economy, ecosystems it is highly desirable to identify indicators serving as early warnings of such regime shifts. Several statistical measures were recently proposed as early warnings of critical transitions including increased variance, autocorrelation and skewness of experimental or model-generated data. The lack of automatized tool for model-based prediction of critical transitions led to designing DyGloSA - a MATLAB toolbox for dynamical global parameter sensitivity analysis (GPSA) of ordinary differential equations models. We suggest that the switch in dynamics of parameter sensitivities revealed by our toolbox is an early warning that a system is approaching a critical transition. We illustrate the efficiency of our toolbox by analyzing several models with bifurcations and predicting the time periods when systems can still avoid going to a critical transition by manipulating certain parameter values, which is not detectable with the existing SA techniques. DyGloSA is based on the SBToolbox2 and contains functions, which compute dynamically the global sensitivity indices of the system by applying four main GPSA methods: eFAST, Sobol's ANOVA, PRCC and WALS. It includes parallelized versions of the functions enabling significant reduction of the computational time (up to 12 times). DyGloSA is freely available as a set of MATLAB scripts at http://bio.uni.lu/systems_biology/software/dyglosa. It requires installation of MATLAB (versions R2008b or later) and the Systems Biology Toolbox2 available at www.sbtoolbox2.org. DyGloSA can be run on Windows and Linux systems, -32 and -64 bits.

  3. Successful in vitro expansion and differentiation of cord blood derived CD34+ cells into early endothelial progenitor cells reveals highly differential gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Ahrens

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs can be purified from peripheral blood, bone marrow or cord blood and are typically defined by a limited number of cell surface markers and a few functional tests. A detailed in vitro characterization is often restricted by the low cell numbers of circulating EPCs. Therefore in vitro culturing and expansion methods are applied, which allow at least distinguishing two different types of EPCs, early and late EPCs. Herein, we describe an in vitro culture technique with the aim to generate high numbers of phenotypically, functionally and genetically defined early EPCs from human cord blood. Characterization of EPCs was done by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, colony forming unit (CFU assay and endothelial tube formation assay. There was an average 48-fold increase in EPC numbers. EPCs expressed VEGFR-2, CD144, CD18, and CD61, and were positive for acetylated LDL uptake and ulex lectin binding. The cells stimulated endothelial tube formation only in co-cultures with mature endothelial cells and formed CFUs. Microarray analysis revealed highly up-regulated genes, including LL-37 (CAMP, PDK4, and alpha-2-macroglobulin. In addition, genes known to be associated with cardioprotective (GDF15 or pro-angiogenic (galectin-3 properties were also significantly up-regulated after a 72 h differentiation period on fibronectin. We present a novel method that allows to generate high numbers of phenotypically, functionally and genetically characterized early EPCs. Furthermore, we identified several genes newly linked to EPC differentiation, among them LL-37 (CAMP was the most up-regulated gene.

  4. Gene expression analysis reveals early changes in several molecular pathways in cerebral malaria-susceptible mice versus cerebral malaria-resistant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grau Georges E

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray analyses allow the identification and assessment of molecular signatures in whole tissues undergoing pathological processes. To better understand cerebral malaria pathogenesis, we investigated intra-cerebral gene-expression profiles in well-defined genetically cerebral malaria-resistant (CM-R and CM-susceptible (CM-S mice, upon infection by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA. We investigated mouse transcriptional responses at early and late stages of infection by use of cDNA microarrays. Results Through a rigorous statistical approach with multiple testing corrections, we showed that PbA significantly altered brain gene expression in CM-R (BALB/c, and in CM-S (CBA/J and C57BL/6 mice, and that 327 genes discriminated between early and late infection stages, between mouse strains, and between CM-R and CM-S mice. We further identified 104, 56, 84 genes with significant differential expression between CM-R and CM-S mice on days 2, 5, and 7 respectively. The analysis of their functional annotation indicates that genes involved in metabolic energy pathways, the inflammatory response, and the neuroprotection/neurotoxicity balance play a major role in cerebral malaria pathogenesis. In addition, our data suggest that cerebral malaria and Alzheimer's disease may share some common mechanisms of pathogenesis, as illustrated by the accumulation of β-amyloid proteins in brains of CM-S mice, but not of CM-R mice. Conclusion Our microarray analysis highlighted marked changes in several molecular pathways in CM-S compared to CM-R mice, particularly at early stages of infection. This study revealed some promising areas for exploration that may both provide new insight into the knowledge of CM pathogenesis and the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  5. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  6. Product differentiation under bounded rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Poutré, La J.A.; Kok, de A.G.; Pyka, A.; Handa, H.; Ishibuchi, H.; Ong, Y.-S.; Tan, K.-C.

    2015-01-01

    We study product differentiation equilibria and dynamics on the Salop circle under bounded rationality. Due to bounded rationality, firms tend to agglomerate in pairs. Upon adding a second tier of component suppliers, downstream assemblers may escape pairwise horizontal agglomeration. Moreover, we

  7. The origin of snakes: revealing the ecology, behavior, and evolutionary history of early snakes using genomics, phenomics, and the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, Allison Y; Field, Daniel J; Webster, Timothy H; Behlke, Adam D B; Davis, Matthew B; Racicot, Rachel A; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2015-05-20

    The highly derived morphology and astounding diversity of snakes has long inspired debate regarding the ecological and evolutionary origin of both the snake total-group (Pan-Serpentes) and crown snakes (Serpentes). Although speculation abounds on the ecology, behavior, and provenance of the earliest snakes, a rigorous, clade-wide analysis of snake origins has yet to be attempted, in part due to a dearth of adequate paleontological data on early stem snakes. Here, we present the first comprehensive analytical reconstruction of the ancestor of crown snakes and the ancestor of the snake total-group, as inferred using multiple methods of ancestral state reconstruction. We use a combined-data approach that includes new information from the fossil record on extinct crown snakes, new data on the anatomy of the stem snakes Najash rionegrina, Dinilysia patagonica, and Coniophis precedens, and a deeper understanding of the distribution of phenotypic apomorphies among the major clades of fossil and Recent snakes. Additionally, we infer time-calibrated phylogenies using both new 'tip-dating' and traditional node-based approaches, providing new insights on temporal patterns in the early evolutionary history of snakes. Comprehensive ancestral state reconstructions reveal that both the ancestor of crown snakes and the ancestor of total-group snakes were nocturnal, widely foraging, non-constricting stealth hunters. They likely consumed soft-bodied vertebrate and invertebrate prey that was subequal to head size, and occupied terrestrial settings in warm, well-watered, and well-vegetated environments. The snake total-group - approximated by the Coniophis node - is inferred to have originated on land during the middle Early Cretaceous (~128.5 Ma), with the crown-group following about 20 million years later, during the Albian stage. Our inferred divergence dates provide strong evidence for a major radiation of henophidian snake diversity in the wake of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K

  8. Metabolism of organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model consisting of a free body water compartment, two organic compartments, and a small, rapidly metabolizing compartment. The utility of this model lies in the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase cumulative total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound-to-loose ratio of tritium in the diet. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements of tritium in human urine and tissue samples, and appear to be in close agreement. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  9. Quantum engine efficiency bound beyond the second law of thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Mukherjee, Victor; Ghosh, Arnab; Kofman, Abraham G; Kurizki, Gershon

    2018-01-11

    According to the second law, the efficiency of cyclic heat engines is limited by the Carnot bound that is attained by engines that operate between two thermal baths under the reversibility condition whereby the total entropy does not increase. Quantum engines operating between a thermal and a squeezed-thermal bath have been shown to surpass this bound. Yet, their maximum efficiency cannot be determined by the reversibility condition, which may yield an unachievable efficiency bound above unity. Here we identify the fraction of the exchanged energy between a quantum system and a bath that necessarily causes an entropy change and derive an inequality for this change. This inequality reveals an efficiency bound for quantum engines energised by a non-thermal bath. This bound does not imply reversibility, unless the two baths are thermal. It cannot be solely deduced from the laws of thermodynamics.

  10. Transcriptome analyses of rhesus monkey preimplantation embryos reveal a reduced capacity for DNA double-strand break repair in primate oocytes and early embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyi; Liu, Denghui; He, Dajian; Suo, Shengbao; Xia, Xian; He, Xiechao; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Zheng, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Preimplantation embryogenesis encompasses several critical events including genome reprogramming, zygotic genome activation (ZGA), and cell-fate commitment. The molecular basis of these processes remains obscure in primates in which there is a high rate of embryo wastage. Thus, understanding the factors involved in genome reprogramming and ZGA might help reproductive success during this susceptible period of early development and generate induced pluripotent stem cells with greater efficiency. Moreover, explaining the molecular basis responsible for embryo wastage in primates will greatly expand our knowledge of species evolution. By using RNA-seq in single and pooled oocytes and embryos, we defined the transcriptome throughout preimplantation development in rhesus monkey. In comparison to archival human and mouse data, we found that the transcriptome dynamics of monkey oocytes and embryos were very similar to those of human but very different from those of mouse. We identified several classes of maternal and zygotic genes, whose expression peaks were highly correlated with the time frames of genome reprogramming, ZGA, and cell-fate commitment, respectively. Importantly, comparison of the ZGA-related network modules among the three species revealed less robust surveillance of genomic instability in primate oocytes and embryos than in rodents, particularly in the pathways of DNA damage signaling and homology-directed DNA double-strand break repair. This study highlights the utility of monkey models to better understand the molecular basis for genome reprogramming, ZGA, and genomic stability surveillance in human early embryogenesis and may provide insights for improved homologous recombination-mediated gene editing in monkey. PMID:28223401

  11. Curvature bound from gravitational catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Holger; Martini, Riccardo

    2018-04-01

    We determine bounds on the curvature of local patches of spacetime from the requirement of intact long-range chiral symmetry. The bounds arise from a scale-dependent analysis of gravitational catalysis and its influence on the effective potential for the chiral order parameter, as induced by fermionic fluctuations on a curved spacetime with local hyperbolic properties. The bound is expressed in terms of the local curvature scalar measured in units of a gauge-invariant coarse-graining scale. We argue that any effective field theory of quantum gravity obeying this curvature bound is safe from chiral symmetry breaking through gravitational catalysis and thus compatible with the simultaneous existence of chiral fermions in the low-energy spectrum. With increasing number of dimensions, the curvature bound in terms of the hyperbolic scale parameter becomes stronger. Applying the curvature bound to the asymptotic safety scenario for quantum gravity in four spacetime dimensions translates into bounds on the matter content of particle physics models.

  12. Genome-resolved metaproteomic characterization of preterm infant gut microbiota development reveals species-specific metabolic shifts and variabilities during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weili; Brown, Christopher T; Morowitz, Michael J; Banfield, Jillian F; Hettich, Robert L

    2017-07-10

    ) utilization and short-chain fatty acid production. Overall, this study reports species-specific proteome profiles and metabolic functions of human gut microbiota during early colonization. In particular, our work contributes to reveal microbiota-associated shifts and variations in the metabolism of three major nutrient sources and short-chain fatty acid during colonization of preterm infant gut.

  13. Spontaneous Recovery from Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome to a Minimally Conscious State: Early Structural Changes Revealed by 7-T Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufei Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDetermining the early changes of brain structure that occur from vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS to a minimally conscious state (MCS is important for developing our understanding of the processes underlying disorders of consciousness (DOC, particularly during spontaneous recovery from severe brain damage.ObjectiveThis study used a multi-modal neuroimaging approach to investigate early structural changes during spontaneous recovery from VS/UWS to MCS.MethodsThe Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R score, 24-h electroencephalography (EEG, and ultra-high field 7-T magnetic resonance imaging were used to investigate a male patient with severe brain injury when he was in VS/UWS compared to MCS. Using white matter connectometry analysis, fibers in MCS were compared with the same fibers in VS/UWS. Whole-brain analysis was used to compare all fibers showing a 10% increase in density with each other as a population.ResultsBased on connectometry analysis, the number of fibers with increased density, and the magnitude of increase in MCS compared to VS/UWS, was greatest in the area of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ, and was mostly located in the right hemisphere. These results are in accordance with the active areas observed on 24-h EEG recordings. Moreover, analysis of different fibers across the brain, showing at least a 10% increase in density, revealed that altered white matter connections with higher discriminative weights were located within or across visual-related areas, including the cuneus_R, calcarine_R, occipital_sup_R, and occipital_mid_R. Furthermore, the temporal_mid_R, which is related to the auditory cortex, showed the highest increase in connectivity to other areas. This was consistent with improvements in the visual and auditory components of the CRS-R, which were greater than other improvements.ConclusionThese results provide evidence to support the important roles for the TPJ and the visual and

  14. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  15. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...... and Rosenberg's theorem), are also hard for dynamic range searching in the group model. This theorem allows us to reuse decades of research on range reporting lower bounds to immediately obtain a range of new group model lower bounds. Amongst others, this includes an improved lower bound for the fundamental...

  16. Proteomic analysis of stipe explants reveals differentially expressed proteins involved in early direct somatic embryogenesis of the tree fern Cyathea delgadii Sternb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domżalska, Lucyna; Kędracka-Krok, Sylwia; Jankowska, Urszula; Grzyb, Małgorzata; Sobczak, Mirosław; Rybczyński, Jan J; Mikuła, Anna

    2017-05-01

    Using cyto-morphological analysis of somatic embryogenesis (SE) in the tree fern Cyathea delgadii as a guide, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis in stipe explants undergoing direct SE. Plant material was cultured on hormone-free medium supplemented with 2% sucrose. Phenol extracted proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry was performed for protein identification. A total number of 114 differentially regulated proteins was identified during early SE, i.e. when the first cell divisions started and several-cell pro-embryos were formed. Proteins were assigned to seven functional categories: carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, cell organization, defense and stress responses, amino acid metabolism, purine metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. Carbohydrate and protein metabolism were found to be the most sensitive SE functions with the greatest number of alterations in the intensity of spots in gel. Differences, especially in non-enzymatic and structural protein abundance, are indicative for cell organization, including cytoskeleton rearrangement and changes in cell wall components. The highest induced changes concern those enzymes related to fatty acid metabolism. Global analysis of the proteome reveals several proteins that can represent markers for the first 16days of SE induction and expression in fern. The findings of this research improve the understanding of molecular processes involved in direct SE in C. delgadii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Paleoarchean bedrock lithologies across the Makhonjwa Mountains of South Africa and Swaziland linked to geochemical, magnetic and tectonic data reveal early plate tectonic genes flanking subduction margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten de Wit

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Makhonjwa Mountains, traditionally referred to as the Barberton Greenstone Belt, retain an iconic Paleoarchean archive against which numerical models of early earth geodynamics can be tested. We present new geologic and structural maps, geochemical plots, geo- and thermo-chronology, and geophysical data from seven silicic, mafic to ultramafic complexes separated by major shear systems across the southern Makhonjwa Mountains. All reveal signs of modern oceanic back-arc crust and subduction-related processes. We compare the rates of processes determined from this data and balance these against plate tectonic and plume related models. Robust rates of both horizontal and vertical tectonic processes derived from the Makhonjwa Mountain complexes are similar, well within an order of magnitude, to those encountered across modern oceanic and orogenic terrains flanking Western Pacific-like subduction zones. We conclude that plate tectonics and linked plate-boundary processes were well established by 3.2–3.6 Ga. Our work provides new constraints for modellers with rates of a ‘basket’ of processes against which to test Paleoarchean geodynamic models over a time period close to the length of the Phanerozoic. Keywords: Paleoarchean, Barberton Greenstone Belt, Onverwacht Suite, Geologic bedrock and structural maps, Geochemistry and geophysics, Plate tectonics

  18. Bound states in string nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  19. On functions of bounded semivariation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monteiro, Giselle Antunes

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2015), s. 233-276 ISSN 0147-1937 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : semivariation * functions of bounded variation * regulated functions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1491271216

  20. Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 7. Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization - Languages, Turing Machines and Complexity Classes. M V Panduranga Rao. General Article Volume 14 Issue 7 July 2009 pp 682-690 ...

  1. Observations of bound and unbound states of Ce−

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C W; Li, Y-G; Matyas, D J; Alton, R M; Lou, S E; III, R L Field; Gibson, N D; Hanstorp, D

    2012-01-01

    The negative ion of cerium has been investigated with tunable infrared laser photodetachment spectroscopy over selected photon energy ranges between 0.56 − 0.70 eV. The spectrum reveals several sharp peaks due to negative ion resonances and possible bound-bound transitions in Ce − . The newly observed transitions, together with our previous measurements, provide insight into the rich near-threshold spectrum of this lanthanide negative ion.

  2. Structure of the protein core of translation initiation factor 2 in apo, GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, Angelita; Marzi, Stefano; Fabbretti, Attilio; Hazemann, Isabelle; Jenner, Lasse; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Gualerzi, Claudio O.; Klaholz, Bruno P.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structures of the eubacterial translation initiation factor 2 in apo form and with bound GDP and GTP reveal conformational changes upon nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, notably of the catalytically important histidine in the switch II region. Translation initiation factor 2 (IF2) is involved in the early steps of bacterial protein synthesis. It promotes the stabilization of the initiator tRNA on the 30S initiation complex (IC) and triggers GTP hydrolysis upon ribosomal subunit joining. While the structure of an archaeal homologue (a/eIF5B) is known, there are significant sequence and functional differences in eubacterial IF2, while the trimeric eukaryotic IF2 is completely unrelated. Here, the crystal structure of the apo IF2 protein core from Thermus thermophilus has been determined by MAD phasing and the structures of GTP and GDP complexes were also obtained. The IF2–GTP complex was trapped by soaking with GTP in the cryoprotectant. The structures revealed conformational changes of the protein upon nucleotide binding, in particular in the P-loop region, which extend to the functionally relevant switch II region. The latter carries a catalytically important and conserved histidine residue which is observed in different conformations in the GTP and GDP complexes. Overall, this work provides the first crystal structure of a eubacterial IF2 and suggests that activation of GTP hydrolysis may occur by a conformational repositioning of the histidine residue

  3. Structure of the protein core of translation initiation factor 2 in apo, GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, Angelita [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale - INSERM U964/Université de Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Marzi, Stefano [Architecture et Réactivité de l’ARN, UPR 9002 CNRS, IBMC (Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology), 15 Rue R. Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg, France, Université de Strasbourg, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Fabbretti, Attilio [University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino (Monaco) (Italy); Hazemann, Isabelle; Jenner, Lasse [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale -INSERM U964/Université de Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale - INSERM U964/Université de Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Gualerzi, Claudio O. [University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino (Monaco) (Italy); Klaholz, Bruno P., E-mail: klaholz@igbmc.fr [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale - INSERM U964/Université de Strasbourg, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France)

    2013-06-01

    The crystal structures of the eubacterial translation initiation factor 2 in apo form and with bound GDP and GTP reveal conformational changes upon nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, notably of the catalytically important histidine in the switch II region. Translation initiation factor 2 (IF2) is involved in the early steps of bacterial protein synthesis. It promotes the stabilization of the initiator tRNA on the 30S initiation complex (IC) and triggers GTP hydrolysis upon ribosomal subunit joining. While the structure of an archaeal homologue (a/eIF5B) is known, there are significant sequence and functional differences in eubacterial IF2, while the trimeric eukaryotic IF2 is completely unrelated. Here, the crystal structure of the apo IF2 protein core from Thermus thermophilus has been determined by MAD phasing and the structures of GTP and GDP complexes were also obtained. The IF2–GTP complex was trapped by soaking with GTP in the cryoprotectant. The structures revealed conformational changes of the protein upon nucleotide binding, in particular in the P-loop region, which extend to the functionally relevant switch II region. The latter carries a catalytically important and conserved histidine residue which is observed in different conformations in the GTP and GDP complexes. Overall, this work provides the first crystal structure of a eubacterial IF2 and suggests that activation of GTP hydrolysis may occur by a conformational repositioning of the histidine residue.

  4. Analysis of a vinculin homolog in a sponge (phylum Porifera) reveals that vertebrate-like cell adhesions emerged early in animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Phillip W; Pokutta, Sabine; Mitchell, Jennyfer M; Chodaparambil, Jayanth V; Clarke, D Nathaniel; Nelson, William; Weis, William I; Nichols, Scott A

    2018-06-07

    The evolution of cell adhesion mechanisms in animals facilitated the assembly of organized multicellular tissues. Studies in traditional animal models have revealed two predominant adhesion structures, the adherens junction (AJ) and focal adhesions (FAs), which are involved in the attachment of neighboring cells to each other and to the secreted extracellular matrix (ECM), respectively. The AJ (containing cadherins and catenins) and FAs (comprising integrins, talin, and paxillin) differ in protein composition, but both junctions contain the actin-binding protein vinculin. The near ubiquity of these structures in animals suggests that AJ and FAs evolved early, possibly coincident with multicellularity. However, a challenge to this perspective is that previous studies of sponges-a divergent animal lineage-indicate that their tissues are organized primarily by an alternative, sponge-specific cell adhesion mechanism called "aggregation factor." In this study, we examined the structure, biochemical properties, and tissue localization of a vinculin ortholog in the sponge Oscarella pearsei ( Op ). Our results indicate that Op vinculin localizes to both cell-cell and cell-ECM contacts and has biochemical and structural properties similar to those of vertebrate vinculin. We propose that Op vinculin played a role in cell adhesion and tissue organization in the last common ancestor of sponges and other animals. These findings provide compelling evidence that sponge tissues are indeed organized like epithelia in other animals and support the notion that AJ- and FA-like structures extend to the earliest periods of animal evolution. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Effect of Warfarin Treatment on Survival of Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) in the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Ioana R; Roberts, Kari E; Miller, Dave P; Sen, Ginny P; Selej, Mona; Benton, Wade W; Hill, Nicholas S; Farber, Harrison W

    2015-12-22

    Long-term anticoagulation is recommended in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). In contrast, limited data support anticoagulation in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc-PAH). We assessed the effect of warfarin anticoagulation on survival in IPAH and SSc-PAH patients enrolled in Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL), a longitudinal registry of group I PAH. Patients who initiated warfarin on study (n=187) were matched 1:1 with patients never on warfarin, by enrollment site, etiology, and diagnosis status. Descriptive analyses were conducted to compare warfarin users and nonusers by etiology. Survival analyses with and without risk adjustment were performed from the time of warfarin initiation or a corresponding quarterly update in matched pairs to avoid immortal time bias. Time-varying covariate models were used as sensitivity analyses. Mean warfarin treatment was 1 year; mean international normalized ratios were 1.9 (IPAH) and 2.0 (SSc-PAH). Two-thirds of patients initiating warfarin discontinued treatment before the last study assessment. There was no survival difference with warfarin in IPAH patients (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.37; P=0.21) or in SSc-PAH patients (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.60; P=0.15) in comparison with matched controls. However, SSc-PAH patients receiving warfarin within the previous year (hazard ratio, 1.57; P=0.031) or any time postbaseline (hazard ratio, 1.49; P=0.046) had increased mortality in comparison with warfarin-naïve patients. No significant survival advantage was observed in IPAH patients who started warfarin. In SSc-PAH patients, long-term warfarin was associated with poorer survival than in patients not receiving warfarin, even after adjusting for confounders. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00370214. © 2015 The Authors.

  6. Mass Cytometry Analysis Reveals the Landscape and Dynamics of CD32a+ CD4+ T Cells From Early HIV Infection to Effective cART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coindre, Sixtine; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Alaoui, Lamine; Vaslin, Bruno; Bourgeois, Christine; Goujard, Cecile; Avettand-Fenoel, Veronique; Lecuroux, Camille; Bruhns, Pierre; Le Grand, Roger; Beignon, Anne-Sophie; Lambotte, Olivier; Favier, Benoit

    2018-01-01

    CD32a has been proposed as a specific marker of latently HIV-infected CD4 + T cells. However, CD32a was recently found to be expressed on CD4 + T cells of healthy donors, leading to controversy on the relevance of this marker in HIV persistence. Here, we used mass cytometry to characterize the landscape and variation in the abundance of CD32a + CD4 + T cells during HIV infection. To this end, we analyzed CD32a + CD4 + T cells in primary HIV infection before and after effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and in healthy donors. We found that CD32a + CD4 + T cells include heterogeneous subsets that are differentially affected by HIV infection. Our analysis revealed that naive ( N ), central memory ( CM ), and effector/memory ( Eff/Mem ) CD32a + CD4 + T-cell clusters that co-express LILRA2- and CD64-activating receptors were more abundant in primary HIV infection and cART stages. Conversely, LILRA2 - CD32a + CD4 + T-cell clusters of either the T N , T CM , or T Eff/Mem phenotype were more abundant in healthy individuals. Finally, an activated CD32a + CD4 + T Eff/Mem cell cluster co-expressing LILRA2, CD57, and NKG2C was more abundant in all HIV stages, particularly during primary HIV infection. Overall, our data show that multiple abundance modifications of CD32a + CD4 + T-cell subsets occur in the early phase of HIV infection, and some of which are conserved after effective cART. Our study brings a better comprehension of the relationship between CD32a expression and CD4 + T cells during HIV infection.

  7. Mass Cytometry Analysis Reveals the Landscape and Dynamics of CD32a+ CD4+ T Cells From Early HIV Infection to Effective cART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixtine Coindre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available CD32a has been proposed as a specific marker of latently HIV-infected CD4+ T cells. However, CD32a was recently found to be expressed on CD4+ T cells of healthy donors, leading to controversy on the relevance of this marker in HIV persistence. Here, we used mass cytometry to characterize the landscape and variation in the abundance of CD32a+ CD4+ T cells during HIV infection. To this end, we analyzed CD32a+ CD4+ T cells in primary HIV infection before and after effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART and in healthy donors. We found that CD32a+ CD4+ T cells include heterogeneous subsets that are differentially affected by HIV infection. Our analysis revealed that naive (N, central memory (CM, and effector/memory (Eff/Mem CD32a+ CD4+ T-cell clusters that co-express LILRA2- and CD64-activating receptors were more abundant in primary HIV infection and cART stages. Conversely, LILRA2− CD32a+ CD4+ T-cell clusters of either the TN, TCM, or TEff/Mem phenotype were more abundant in healthy individuals. Finally, an activated CD32a+ CD4+ TEff/Mem cell cluster co-expressing LILRA2, CD57, and NKG2C was more abundant in all HIV stages, particularly during primary HIV infection. Overall, our data show that multiple abundance modifications of CD32a+ CD4+ T-cell subsets occur in the early phase of HIV infection, and some of which are conserved after effective cART. Our study brings a better comprehension of the relationship between CD32a expression and CD4+ T cells during HIV infection.

  8. Simulation bounds for system availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietjen, G.L.; Waller, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    System availability is a dominant factor in the practicality of nuclear power electrical generating plants. A proposed model for obtaining either lower bounds or interval estimates on availability uses observed data on ''n'' failure-to-repair cycles of the system to estimate the parameters in the time-to-failure and time-to-repair models. These estimates are then used in simulating failure/repair cycles of the system. The availability estimate is obtained for each of 5000 samples of ''n'' failure/repair cycles to form a distribution of estimates. Specific percentile points of those simulated distributions are selected as lower simulation bounds or simulation interval bounds for the system availability. The method is illustrated with operational data from two nuclear plants for which an exponential time-to-failure and a lognormal time-to-repair are assumed

  9. Interactions between macromolecule-bound antioxidants and Trolox during liposome autoxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Ecem Evrim; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel; Andersen, Mogens Larsen

    2017-01-01

    The interactions between free and macromolecule-bound antioxidants were investigated in order to evaluate their combined effects on the antioxidant environment. Dietary fiber (DF), protein and lipid-bound antioxidants, obtained from whole wheat, soybean and olive oil products, respectively and Tr...... of logistic function was successfully used for modelling the oxidation curve of liposomes. Principal component analysis revealed two separate phases of liposome autoxidation.......The interactions between free and macromolecule-bound antioxidants were investigated in order to evaluate their combined effects on the antioxidant environment. Dietary fiber (DF), protein and lipid-bound antioxidants, obtained from whole wheat, soybean and olive oil products, respectively...... of the simple addition effects of Trolox and bound antioxidants with measured values on lipid oxidation revealed synergetic interactions for DF and refined olive oil-bound antioxidants, and antagonistic interactions for protein and extra virgin olive oil-bound antioxidants with Trolox. A generalized version...

  10. Relativistic bound state wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micu, L.

    2005-01-01

    A particular method of writing the bound state wave functions in relativistic form is applied to the solutions of the Dirac equation with confining potentials in order to obtain a relativistic description of a quark antiquark bound system representing a given meson. Concerning the role of the effective constituent in the present approach we first observe that without this additional constituent we couldn't expand the bound state wave function in terms of products of free states. Indeed, we notice that if the wave function depends on the relative coordinates only, all the expansion coefficients would be infinite. Secondly we remark that the effective constituent enabled us to give a Lorentz covariant meaning to the potential energy of the bound system which is now seen as the 4th component of a 4-momentum. On the other side, by relating the effective constituent to the quantum fluctuations of the background field which generate the binding, we provided a justification for the existence of some spatial degrees of freedom accompanying the interaction potential. These ones, which are quite unusual in quantum mechanics, in our model are the natural consequence of the the independence of the quarks and can be seen as the effect of the imperfect cancellation of the vector momenta during the quantum fluctuations. Related with all these we remark that the adequate representation for the relativistic description of a bound system is the momentum representation, because of the transparent and easy way of writing the conservation laws and the transformation properties of the wave functions. The only condition to be fulfilled is to find a suitable way to take into account the potential energy of the bound system. A particular feature of the present approach is that the confining forces are due to a kind of glue where both quarks are embedded. This recalls other bound state models where the wave function is factorized in terms of constituent wave functions and the confinement is

  11. Four-quark bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouzou, S.

    1986-01-01

    In the framework of simple non-relativistic potential models, we examine the system consisting of two quarks and two antiquarks with equal or unequal masses. We search for possible bound states below the threshold for the spontaneous dissociation into two mesons. We solve the four body problem by empirical or systematic variational methods and we include the virtual meson-meson components of the wave function. With standard two-body potentials, there is no proliferation of multiquarks. With unequal quark masses, we obtain however exotic (anti Qanti Qqq) bound states with a baryonic antidiquark-quark-quark structure very analogous to the heavy flavoured (Q'qq) baryons. (orig.)

  12. Bound entanglement and local realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Zukowski, Marek; Gnacinski, Piotr

    2002-01-01

    We show using a numerical approach, which gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of local realism, that the bound entangled state presented in Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5385 (1999)] admits a local and realistic description. We also find the lowest possible amount of some appropriate entangled state that must be ad-mixed to the bound entangled state so that the resulting density operator has no local and realistic description and as such can be useful in quantum communication and quantum computation

  13. The complete chloroplast DNA sequence of the green alga Oltmannsiellopsis viridis reveals a distinctive quadripartite architecture in the chloroplast genome of early diverging ulvophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemieux Claude

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Chlorophyta contains the majority of the green algae and is divided into four classes. The basal position of the Prasinophyceae has been well documented, but the divergence order of the Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Chlorophyceae is currently debated. The four complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA sequences presently available for representatives of these classes have revealed extensive variability in overall structure, gene content, intron composition and gene order. The chloroplast genome of Pseudendoclonium (Ulvophyceae, in particular, is characterized by an atypical quadripartite architecture that deviates from the ancestral type by a large inverted repeat (IR featuring an inverted rRNA operon and a small single-copy (SSC region containing 14 genes normally found in the large single-copy (LSC region. To gain insights into the nature of the events that led to the reorganization of the chloroplast genome in the Ulvophyceae, we have determined the complete cpDNA sequence of Oltmannsiellopsis viridis, a representative of a distinct, early diverging lineage. Results The 151,933 bp IR-containing genome of Oltmannsiellopsis differs considerably from Pseudendoclonium and other chlorophyte cpDNAs in intron content and gene order, but shares close similarities with its ulvophyte homologue at the levels of quadripartite architecture, gene content and gene density. Oltmannsiellopsis cpDNA encodes 105 genes, contains five group I introns, and features many short dispersed repeats. As in Pseudendoclonium cpDNA, the rRNA genes in the IR are transcribed toward the single copy region featuring the genes typically found in the ancestral LSC region, and the opposite single copy region harbours genes characteristic of both the ancestral SSC and LSC regions. The 52 genes that were transferred from the ancestral LSC to SSC region include 12 of those observed in Pseudendoclonium cpDNA. Surprisingly, the overall gene organization of

  14. Semiclassical bounds in magnetic bottles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barseghyan, Diana; Exner, Pavel; Kovařík, H.; Weidl, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2016), s. 1650002 ISSN 0129-055X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : magnetic Laplacian * discrete spectrum * eigenvalue bounds Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.426, year: 2016

  15. Positivity bounds for Sivers functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Zhongbo; Soffer, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    We generalize a positivity constraint derived initially for parity-conserving processes to the parity-violating ones, and use it to derive non-trivial bounds on several Sivers functions, entering in the theoretical description of single spin asymmetry for various processes.

  16. Bound states of 'dressed' particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, M.I.

    1994-01-01

    A new approach to the problem of bound states in relativistic quantum field theories is suggested. It uses the creation - destruction operators of 'dresses' particles which have been granted by Faddeev's (1963) 'dressing' formalism. Peculiarities of the proposed approach as compared to the known ones are discussed. 8 refs. (author)

  17. Quantum lower bound for sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yaoyun

    2000-01-01

    We prove that \\Omega(n log(n)) comparisons are necessary for any quantum algorithm that sorts n numbers with high success probability and uses only comparisons. If no error is allowed, at least 0.110nlog_2(n) - 0.067n + O(1) comparisons must be made. The previous known lower bound is \\Omega(n).

  18. Unconditional lower bounds against advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhrman, H.; Fortnow, L.; Santhanam, R.

    2009-01-01

    We show several unconditional lower bounds for exponential time classes against polynomial time classes with advice, including: (1) For any constant c, NEXP not in P^{NP[n^c]} (2) For any constant c, MAEXP not in MA/n^c (3) BPEXP not in BPP/n^{o(1)}. It was previously unknown even whether NEXP in

  19. Binding energies of two deltas bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Saito, Koichi.

    1982-06-01

    Bound states of the two-deltas system are investigated by employing the realistic one boson exchange potential. It is found that there exist many bound states in each isospin channel and also found that the tensor interaction plays important role in producing these bound states. Relationship between these bound states and dibaryon resonances is discussed. (J.P.N.)

  20. Effects of QCD bound states on dark matter relic abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liew, Seng Pei [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo,Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Luo, Feng [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2017-02-17

    We study scenarios where there exists an exotic massive particle charged under QCD in the early Universe. We calculate the formation and dissociation rates of bound states formed by pairs of these particles, and apply the results in dark matter (DM) coannihilation scenarios, including also the Sommerfeld effect. We find that on top of the Sommerfeld enhancement, bound-state effects can further significantly increase the largest possible DM masses which can give the observed DM relic abundance, by ∼30–100% with respect to values obtained by considering the Sommerfeld effect only, for the color triplet or octet exotic particles we consider. In particular, it indicates that the Bino DM mass in the right-handed stop-Bino coannihilation scenario in the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) can reach ∼2.5 TeV, even though the potential between the stop and antistop prior to forming a bound state is repulsive. We also apply the bound-state effects in the calculations of relic abundance of long-lived or metastable massive colored particles, and discuss the implications on the BBN constraints and the abundance of a super-weakly interacting DM. The corrections for the bound-state effect when the exotic massive colored particles also carry electric charges, and the collider bounds are also discussed.

  1. A symmetric Roos bound for linear codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duursma, I.M.; Pellikaan, G.R.

    2006-01-01

    The van Lint–Wilson AB-method yields a short proof of the Roos bound for the minimum distance of a cyclic code. We use the AB-method to obtain a different bound for the weights of a linear code. In contrast to the Roos bound, the role of the codes A and B in our bound is symmetric. We use the bound

  2. DNA methylation profiling of sorted cells from myelofibrosis patients reveals aberrant epigenetic regulation of immune pathways and identifies early MPN driver genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Myrtue; Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Kristensen, Lasse Sommer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) belongs to the heterogeneous group of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) together with essential thrombocytosis (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV). It has been suggested that these neoplasms represent a biological continuum from early cancer stage (ET...

  3. Computer simulation of bounded plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of simulating a one-dimensional bounded plasma system using particles in a gridded space are systematically explored and solutions to them are given. Such problems include the injection of particles at the boundaries, the solution of Poisson's equation, and the inclusion of an external circuit between the confining boundaries. A recently discovered artificial cooling effect is explained as being a side-effect of quiet injection, and its potential for causing serious but subtle errors in bounded simulation is noted. The methods described in the first part of the thesis are then applied to the simulation of an extension of the Pierce diode problem, specifically a Pierce diode modified by an external circuit between the electrodes. The results of these simulations agree to high accuracy with theory when a theory exists, and also show some interesting chaotic behavior in certain parameter regimes. The chaotic behavior is described in detail

  4. Bounded Rationality in Transposition Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first that con......Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first...... that concerns the organisation and financing of national healthcare systems. This article applies the perspective of bounded rationality to explain (irregularities in) the timely and correct transposition of EU directives. The cognitive and organisational constraints long posited by the bounded rationality...

  5. The ATLAS3D project - IX. The merger origin of a fast- and a slow-rotating early-type galaxy revealed with deep optical imaging: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Serra, Paolo; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Ferriere, Etienne; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2011-10-01

    The mass assembly of galaxies leaves imprints in their outskirts, such as shells and tidal tails. The frequency and properties of such fine structures depend on the main acting mechanisms - secular evolution, minor or major mergers - and on the age of the last substantial accretion event. We use this to constrain the mass assembly history of two apparently relaxed nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) selected from the ATLAS3D sample, NGC 680 and 5557. Our ultra-deep optical images obtained with MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope reach 29 mag arcsec-2 in the g band. They reveal very low surface brightness (LSB) filamentary structures around these ellipticals. Among them, a gigantic 160 kpc long, narrow, tail east of NGC 5557 hosts three gas-rich star-forming objects, previously detected in H I with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and in UV with GALEX. NGC 680 exhibits two major diffuse plumes apparently connected to extended H I tails, as well as a series of arcs and shells. Comparing the outer stellar and gaseous morphology of the two ellipticals with that predicted from models of colliding galaxies, we argue that the LSB features are tidal debris and that each of these two ETGs was assembled during a relatively recent, major wet merger, which most likely occurred after the redshift z ≃ 0.5 epoch. Had these mergers been older, the tidal features should have already fallen back or be destroyed by more recent accretion events. However, the absence of molecular gas and of a prominent young stellar population in the core region of the galaxies indicates that the merger is at least 1-2 Gyr old: the memory of any merger-triggered nuclear starburst has indeed been lost. The star-forming objects found towards the collisional debris of NGC 5557 are then likely tidal dwarf galaxies. Such recycled galaxies here appear to be long-lived and continue to form stars while any star formation activity has stopped in their parent galaxy. The inner kinematics of NGC

  6. 78 FR 18326 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report AGENCY: The Office... considered public records. Title of Collection: Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance...) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department is requesting a new APR because of...

  7. Spectrum of gluino bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.; Sharpe, S.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1983-01-01

    Using the bag model to first order in αsub(s) we find that if light gluinos exist they will appear as constituents of electrically charged bound states which are stable against strong interaction decay. We review the present experimental constraints and conclude that light, long-lived charged hadrons containing gluinos might exist with lifetimes between 2x10 - 8 and 10 - 14 s. (orig.)

  8. Cyclotron transitions of bound ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Pavlov, George G.

    2017-06-01

    A charged particle in a magnetic field possesses discrete energy levels associated with particle rotation around the field lines. The radiative transitions between these levels are the well-known cyclotron transitions. We show that a bound complex of particles with a nonzero net charge displays analogous transitions between the states of confined motion of the entire complex in the field. The latter bound-ion cyclotron transitions are affected by a coupling between the collective and internal motions of the complex and, as a result, differ from the transitions of a "reference" bare ion with the same mass and charge. We analyze the cyclotron transitions for complex ions by including the coupling within a rigorous quantum approach. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the transition energies and oscillator strengths to those of the bare ion. Selection rules based on integrals of collective motion are derived for the bound-ion cyclotron transitions analytically, and the perturbation and coupled-channel approaches are developed to study the transitions quantitatively. Representative examples are considered and discussed for positive and negative atomic and cluster ions.

  9. Community Structure Analysis of Transcriptional Networks Reveals Distinct Molecular Pathways for Early- and Late-Onset Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Childhood Febrile Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Bando, Silvia Yumi; Bertonha, Fernanda Bernardi; Iamashita, Priscila; Silva, Filipi Nascimento; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura; Silva, Alexandre Valotta; Castro, Luiz Henrique Martins; Wen, Hung-Tzu

    2015-01-01

    Age at epilepsy onset has a broad impact on brain plasticity and epilepsy pathomechanisms. Prolonged febrile seizures in early childhood (FS) constitute an initial precipitating insult (IPI) commonly associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). FS-MTLE patients may have early disease onset, i.e. just after the IPI, in early childhood, or late-onset, ranging from mid-adolescence to early adult life. The mechanisms governing early (E) or late (L) disease onset are largely unknown. In order to unveil the molecular pathways underlying E and L subtypes of FS-MTLE we investigated global gene expression in hippocampal CA3 explants of FS-MTLE patients submitted to hippocampectomy. Gene coexpression networks (GCNs) were obtained for the E and L patient groups. A network-based approach for GCN analysis was employed allowing: i) the visualization and analysis of differentially expressed (DE) and complete (CO) - all valid GO annotated transcripts - GCNs for the E and L groups; ii) the study of interactions between all the system’s constituents based on community detection and coarse-grained community structure methods. We found that the E-DE communities with strongest connection weights harbor highly connected genes mainly related to neural excitability and febrile seizures, whereas in L-DE communities these genes are not only involved in network excitability but also playing roles in other epilepsy-related processes. Inversely, in E-CO the strongly connected communities are related to compensatory pathways (seizure inhibition, neuronal survival and responses to stress conditions) while in L-CO these communities harbor several genes related to pro-epileptic effects, seizure-related mechanisms and vulnerability to epilepsy. These results fit the concept, based on fMRI and behavioral studies, that early onset epilepsies, although impacting more severely the hippocampus, are associated to compensatory mechanisms, while in late MTLE development the brain is less able to

  10. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adjacency labeling schemes for graphs of bounded degree Δ = O(1). In particular, we present an optimal (up to an additive constant) log n + O(1) adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees. The latter scheme is derived from a labeling scheme for bounded degree outerplanar...... graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  11. Gene expression profiling reveals different molecular patterns in G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathways between early- and late-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mengmeng; Niu, Jianmin; Zhang, Liang; Deng, Hua; Ma, Jian; Zhou, Weiping; Duan, Dongmei; Zhou, Yuheng; Xu, Huikun; Chen, Longding

    2016-04-01

    Early-onset preeclampsia and late-onset preeclampsia have been regarded as two different phenotypes with heterogeneous manifestations; To gain insights into the pathogenesis of the two traits, we analyzed the gene expression profiles in preeclamptic placentas. A whole genome-wide microarray was used to determine the gene expression profiles in placental tissues from patients with early-onset (n = 7; 36 weeks) preeclampsia and their controls who delivered preterm (n = 5; 36 weeks). Genes were termed differentially expressed if they showed a fold-change ≥ 2 and q-value preeclampsia (177 genes were up-regulated and 450 were down-regulated). Gene ontology analysis identified significant alterations in several biological processes; the top two were immune response and cell surface receptor linked signal transduction. Among the cell surface receptor linked signal transduction-related, differentially expressed genes, those involved in the G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway were significantly enriched. G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway related genes, such as GPR124 and MRGPRF, were both found to be down-regulated in early-onset preeclampsia. The results were consistent with those of western blotting that the abundance of GPR124 was lower in early-onset compared with late-onset preeclampsia. The different gene expression profiles reflect the different levels of transcription regulation between the two conditions and supported the hypothesis that they are separate disease entities. Moreover, the G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway related genes may contribute to the mechanism underlying early- and late-onset preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The algebras of bounded and essentially bounded Lebesgue measurable functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortini Raymond

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Let X be a set in ℝn with positive Lebesgue measure. It is well known that the spectrum of the algebra L∞(X of (equivalence classes of essentially bounded, complex-valued, measurable functions on X is an extremely disconnected compact Hausdorff space.We show, by elementary methods, that the spectrum M of the algebra ℒb(X, ℂ of all bounded measurable functions on X is not extremely disconnected, though totally disconnected. Let ∆ = { δx : x ∈ X} be the set of point evaluations and let g be the Gelfand topology on M. Then (∆, g is homeomorphic to (X, Τdis,where Tdis is the discrete topology. Moreover, ∆ is a dense subset of the spectrum M of ℒb(X, ℂ. Finally, the hull h(I, (which is homeomorphic to M(L∞(X, of the ideal of all functions in ℒb(X, ℂ vanishing almost everywhere on X is a nowhere dense and extremely disconnected subset of the Corona M \\ ∆ of ℒb(X, ℂ.

  13. Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, E. T. K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).

  14. Sensitivity analysis using probability bounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferson, Scott; Troy Tucker, W.

    2006-01-01

    Probability bounds analysis (PBA) provides analysts a convenient means to characterize the neighborhood of possible results that would be obtained from plausible alternative inputs in probabilistic calculations. We show the relationship between PBA and the methods of interval analysis and probabilistic uncertainty analysis from which it is jointly derived, and indicate how the method can be used to assess the quality of probabilistic models such as those developed in Monte Carlo simulations for risk analyses. We also illustrate how a sensitivity analysis can be conducted within a PBA by pinching inputs to precise distributions or real values

  15. Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing ...... quantities of interest. To be able to utilise the evidence about the derivative it is suggested to adapt the ‘conventional’ problem statement to variational calculus and the way to do so is demonstrated. A number of examples are given throughout the paper....

  16. Removal of bound metal fasteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R. F.

    1981-04-01

    This project explored the removal of bound metal fasteners through the use of ultrasonically assisted wrenches. Two wrenches were designed, fabricated and tested. Previous studies had indicated an increase in thread tension for a given torque application under the influence of ultrasonics. Based on this, the loosening of seized and corroded fasteners with the aid of ultrasonics was explored. Experimental data confirmed our prior analysis of the torque-tension relationship under the influence of ultrasonics; however, our progress did not satisfy the requirements necessary to loosen seized studs in a shipyard environment.

  17. Space mappings with bounded distortion

    CERN Document Server

    Reshetnyak, Yu G

    1989-01-01

    This book is intended for researchers and students concerned with questions in analysis and function theory. The author provides an exposition of the main results obtained in recent years by Soviet and other mathematicians in the theory of mappings with bounded distortion, an active direction in contemporary mathematics. The mathematical tools presented can be applied to a broad spectrum of problems that go beyond the context of the main topic of investigation. For a number of questions in the theory of partial differential equations and the theory of functions with generalized derivatives, this is the first time they have appeared in an internationally distributed monograph.

  18. Determining Normal-Distribution Tolerance Bounds Graphically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Graphical method requires calculations and table lookup. Distribution established from only three points: mean upper and lower confidence bounds and lower confidence bound of standard deviation. Method requires only few calculations with simple equations. Graphical procedure establishes best-fit line for measured data and bounds for selected confidence level and any distribution percentile.

  19. On semidefinite programming bounds for graph bandwidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, E.; Nagy, M.; Sotirov, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two new lower bounds on graph bandwidth and cyclic bandwidth based on semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations of the quadratic assignment problem. We compare the new bounds with two other SDP bounds reported in [A. Blum, G. Konjevod, R. Ravi, and S. Vempala,

  20. Observational Bounds on Cosmic Doomsday

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmakova, Marina

    2003-07-11

    Recently it was found, in a broad class of models, that the dark energy density may change its sign during the evolution of the universe. This may lead to a global collapse of the universe within the time t{sub c} {approx} 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} years. Our goal is to find what bounds on the future lifetime of the universe can be placed by the next generation of cosmological observations. As an example, we investigate the simplest model of dark energy with a linear potential V({phi}) = V{sub 0}(1 + {alpha}{phi}). This model can describe the present stage of acceleration of the universe if {alpha} is small enough. However, eventually the field {phi} rolls down, V({phi}) becomes negative, and the universe collapses. The existing observational data indicate that the universe described by this model will collapse not earlier than t{sub c} {approx_equal} 10 billion years from the present moment. We show that the data from SNAP and Planck satellites may extend the bound on the ''doomsday'' time to tc 40 billion years at the 95% confidence level.

  1. Quantum bounds on Bell inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, Károly F.; Vértesi, Tamás

    2009-02-01

    We have determined the maximum quantum violation of 241 tight bipartite Bell inequalities with up to five two-outcome measurement settings per party by constructing the appropriate measurement operators in up to six-dimensional complex and eight-dimensional real-component Hilbert spaces using numerical optimization. Out of these inequalities 129 have been introduced here. In 43 cases higher-dimensional component spaces gave larger violation than qubits, and in three occasions the maximum was achieved with six-dimensional spaces. We have also calculated upper bounds on these Bell inequalities using a method proposed recently. For all but 20 inequalities the best solution found matched the upper bound. Surprisingly, the simplest inequality of the set examined, with only three measurement settings per party, was not among them, despite the high dimensionality of the Hilbert space considered. We also computed detection threshold efficiencies for the maximally entangled qubit pair. These could be lowered in several instances if degenerate measurements were also allowed.

  2. Early transcriptome analyses of Z-3-Hexenol-treated zea mays revealed distinct transcriptional networks and anti-herbivore defense potential of green leaf volatiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen Engelberth

    Full Text Available Green leaf volatiles (GLV, which are rapidly emitted by plants in response to insect herbivore damage, are now established as volatile defense signals. Receiving plants utilize these molecules to prime their defenses and respond faster and stronger when actually attacked. To further characterize the biological activity of these compounds we performed a microarray analysis of global gene expression. The focus of this project was to identify early transcriptional events elicited by Z-3-hexenol (Z-3-HOL as our model GLV in maize (Zea mays seedlings. The microarray results confirmed previous studies on Z-3-HOL -induced gene expression but also provided novel information about the complexity of Z-3-HOL -induced transcriptional networks. Besides identifying a distinct set of genes involved in direct and indirect defenses we also found significant expression of genes involved in transcriptional regulation, Ca(2+-and lipid-related signaling, and cell wall reinforcement. By comparing these results with those obtained by treatment of maize seedlings with insect elicitors we found a high degree of correlation between the two expression profiles at this early time point, in particular for those genes related to defense. We further analyzed defense gene expression induced by other volatile defense signals and found Z-3-HOL to be significantly more active than methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate, and ethylene. The data presented herein provides important information on early genetic networks that are activated by Z-3-HOL and demonstrates the effectiveness of this compound in the regulation of typical plant defenses against insect herbivores in maize.

  3. Magnetic fabrics of arc plutons reveal a significant Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous change in the relative plate motions of the Pacific Ocean basin and North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žák, J.; Verner, K.; Tomek, Filip; Johnson, K.; Schwartz, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2017), s. 11-21 ISSN 1553-040X Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) MSM100131601 Program:Program na podporu mezinárodní spolupráce začínajících výzkumných pracovníků Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : PB geochronology * Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous * Blue Mountains province Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.304, year: 2016

  4. High performance mass spectrometry based proteomics reveals enzyme and signaling pathway regulation in neutrophils during the early stage of surgical trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arshid, Samina; Tahir, Muhammad; Fontes, Belchor

    2017-01-01

    and surgical trauma rats in this study. Extracted proteins were analyzed using nano liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 2924 rat neutrophil proteins were identified in our analysis, of which 393 were found differentially regulated between control and trauma groups. By using...... functional pathways analysis of the 190 proteins up-regulated in surgical trauma we found proteins related to transcription initiation and protein biosynthesis. On the other hand, among the 203 proteins down-regulated in surgical trauma we found enrichment for proteins of the immune response, proteasome...... degradation and actin cytoskeleton. Overall, enzyme prediction analysis revealed that regulated enzymes are directly involved in neutrophil apoptosis, directional migration and chemotaxis. Our observations were then confirmed by in silico protein-protein interaction analysis. Collectively, our results reveal...

  5. Capacity Bounds for Parallel Optical Wireless Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    A system consisting of parallel optical wireless channels with a total average intensity constraint is studied. Capacity upper and lower bounds for this system are derived. Under perfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT), the bounds have to be optimized with respect to the power allocation over the parallel channels. The optimization of the lower bound is non-convex, however, the KKT conditions can be used to find a list of possible solutions one of which is optimal. The optimal solution can then be found by an exhaustive search algorithm, which is computationally expensive. To overcome this, we propose low-complexity power allocation algorithms which are nearly optimal. The optimized capacity lower bound nearly coincides with the capacity at high SNR. Without CSIT, our capacity bounds lead to upper and lower bounds on the outage probability. The outage probability bounds meet at high SNR. The system with average and peak intensity constraints is also discussed.

  6. Diffusion tractography and graph theory analysis reveal the disrupted rich-club organization of white matter structural networks in early Tourette Syndrome children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hongwei; Liu, Yue; Wang, Shengpei; Zhang, Jishui; Peng, Yun; He, Huiguang

    2017-03-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurobehavioral disorder. At present, the topological disruptions of the whole brain white matter (WM) structural networks remain poorly understood in TS children. Considering the unique position of the topologically central role of densely interconnected brain hubs, namely the rich club regions, therefore, we aimed to investigate whether the rich club regions and their related connections would be particularly vulnerable in early TS children. In our study, we used diffusion tractography and graph theoretical analyses to explore the rich club structures in 44 TS children and 48 healthy children. The structural networks of TS children exhibited significantly increased normalized rich club coefficient, suggesting that TS is characterized by increased structural integrity of this centrally embedded rich club backbone, potentially resulting in increased global communication capacity. In addition, TS children showed a reorganization of rich club regions, as well as significantly increased density and decreased number in feeder connections. Furthermore, the increased rich club coefficients and feeder connections density of TS children were significantly positively correlated to tic severity, indicating that TS may be characterized by a selective alteration of the structural connectivity of the rich club regions, tending to have higher bridging with non-rich club regions, which may increase the integration among tic-related brain circuits with more excitability but less inhibition for information exchanges between highly centered brain regions and peripheral areas. In all, our results suggest the disrupted rich club organization in early TS children and provide structural insights into the brain networks.

  7. Analysis of the early heterocyst Cys-proteome in the multicellular cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme reveals novel insights into the division of labor within diazotrophic filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandh, Gustaf; Ramström, Margareta; Stensjö, Karin

    2014-12-04

    In the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133, removal of combined nitrogen induces the differentiation of heterocysts, a cell-type specialized in N2 fixation. The differentiation involves genomic, structural and metabolic adaptations. In cyanobacteria, changes in the availability of carbon and nitrogen have also been linked to redox regulated posttranslational modifications of protein bound thiol groups. We have here employed a thiol targeting strategy to relatively quantify the putative redox proteome in heterocysts as compared to N2-fixing filaments, 24 hours after combined nitrogen depletion. The aim of the study was to expand the coverage of the cell-type specific proteome and metabolic landscape of heterocysts. Here we report the first cell-type specific proteome of newly formed heterocysts, compared to N2-fixing filaments, using the cysteine-specific selective ICAT methodology. The data set defined a good quantitative accuracy of the ICAT reagent in complex protein samples. The relative abundance levels of 511 proteins were determined and 74% showed a cell-type specific differential abundance. The majority of the identified proteins have not previously been quantified at the cell-type specific level. We have in addition analyzed the cell-type specific differential abundance of a large section of proteins quantified in both newly formed and steady-state diazotrophic cultures in N. punctiforme. The results describe a wide distribution of members of the putative redox regulated Cys-proteome in the central metabolism of both vegetative cells and heterocysts of N. punctiforme. The data set broadens our understanding of heterocysts and describes novel proteins involved in heterocyst physiology, including signaling and regulatory proteins as well as a large number of proteins with unknown function. Significant differences in cell-type specific abundance levels were present in the cell-type specific proteomes of newly formed diazotrophic filaments

  8. VORONOI DIAGRAMS WITHOUT BOUNDING BOXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. K. Sang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010 and Nerbonne et al (2011.

  9. Spectral computations for bounded operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan

    2001-01-01

    Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...

  10. Examination of two lowland rice cultivars reveals that gibberellin-dependent early response to submergence is not necessarily mediated by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Vincent; Moritz, Thomas; García-Martínez, José L

    2011-01-01

    Using two lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars we found that in both cases submerged-induced elongation early after germination depends on gibberellins (GAs). Submergence increases the content of the active GA 1 by enhancing the expression of GA biosynthesis genes, thus facilitating the seedlings to escape from the water and preventing asphyxiation. However, the two cultivars differ in their response to ethylene. The cultivar Senia (short), by contrast to cultivar Bomba (tall), does not elongate after ethylene application, and submerged-induced elongation is not negated by an inhibitor of ethylene perception. Also, while ethylene emanation in Senia is not altered by submergence, Bomba seedlings emanate more ethylene upon de-submergence, associated with enhanced expression of the ethylene biosynthesis gene OsACS5. The cultivar Senia thus allows the possibility of clarifying the role of ethylene and other factors as triggers of GA biosynthesis enhancement in rice seedlings under submergence.

  11. Transmission of clonal hepatitis C virus genomes reveals the dominant but transitory role of CD8¿ T cells in early viral evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callendret, Benoît; Bukh, Jens; Eccleston, Heather B

    2011-01-01

    occurred slowly over several years of chronic infection. Together these observations indicate that during acute hepatitis C, virus evolution was driven primarily by positive selection pressure exerted by CD8(+) T cells. This influence of immune pressure on viral evolution appears to subside as chronic......The RNA genome of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) diversifies rapidly during the acute phase of infection, but the selective forces that drive this process remain poorly defined. Here we examined whether Darwinian selection pressure imposed by CD8(+) T cells is a dominant force driving early amino acid...... replacement in HCV viral populations. This question was addressed in two chimpanzees followed for 8 to 10 years after infection with a well-defined inoculum composed of a clonal genotype 1a (isolate H77C) HCV genome. Detailed characterization of CD8(+) T cell responses combined with sequencing of recovered...

  12. De novo analysis of Wolfiporia cocos transcriptome to reveal the differentially expressed carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes genes during the early stage of sclerotial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng eZhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The sclerotium of Wolfiporia cocos has been used as an edible mushroom and/or a traditional herbal medicine for centuries. W. cocos sclerotial formation is dependent on parasitism of the wood of Pinus species. Currently, the sclerotial development mechanisms of W. cocos remain largely unknown and the lack of pine resources limit the commercial production. The CAZymes (carbohydrate-active enzymes play important roles in degradation of the plant cell wall to provide carbohydrates for fungal growth, development and reproduction. In this study, the transcript profiles from W. cocos mycelium and two-months-old sclerotium, the early stage of sclerotial growth, were specially analyzed using de novo sequencing technology. A total of 142,428,180 high-quality reads of mycelium and 70,594,319 high-quality reads of two-months-old sclerotium were obtained. Additionally, differentially expressed genes from the W. cocos mycelium and two-months-old sclerotium stages were analyzed, resulting in identification of 69 CAZymes genes which were significantly up-regulated during the early stage of sclerotial growth compared to that of in mycelium stage, and more than half of them belonged to glycosyl hydrolases (GHs family, indicating the importance of W. cocos GHs family for degrading the pine woods. And qRT-PCR was further used to confirm the expression pattern of these up-regulated CAZymes genes. Our results will provide comprehensive CAZymes genes expression information during W. cocos sclerotial growth at the transcriptional level and will lay a foundation for functional genes studies in this fungus. In addition, our study will also facilitate the efficient use of limited pine resources, which is significant for promoting steady development of Chinese W. cocos industry.

  13. Eye Tracking Reveals Abnormal Visual Preference for Geometric Images as an Early Biomarker of an Autism Spectrum Disorder Subtype Associated With Increased Symptom Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Karen; Marinero, Steven; Hazin, Roxana; McKenna, Benjamin; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Malige, Ajith

    2016-04-15

    Clinically and biologically, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is heterogeneous. Unusual patterns of visual preference as indexed by eye tracking are hallmarks; however, whether they can be used to define an early biomarker of ASD as a whole or leveraged to define a subtype is unclear. To begin to examine this issue, large cohorts are required. A sample of 334 toddlers from six distinct groups (115 toddlers with ASD, 20 toddlers with ASD features, 57 toddlers with developmental delay, 53 toddlers with other conditions [e.g., premature birth, prenatal drug exposure], 64 toddlers with typical development, and 25 unaffected toddlers with siblings with ASD) was studied. Toddlers watched a movie containing geometric and social images. Fixation duration and number of saccades within each area of interest and validation statistics for this independent sample were computed. Next, to maximize power, data from our previous study (n = 110) were added for a total of 444 subjects. A subset of toddlers repeated the eye-tracking procedure. As in the original study, a subset of toddlers with ASD fixated on geometric images >69% of the time. Using this cutoff, sensitivity for ASD was 21%, specificity was 98%, and positive predictive value was 86%. Toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred geometric images had 1) worse cognitive, language, and social skills relative to toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred social images and 2) fewer saccades when viewing geometric images. Unaffected siblings of ASD probands did not show evidence of heightened preference for geometric images. Test-retest reliability was good. Examination of age effects suggested that this test may not be appropriate with children >4 years old. Enhanced visual preference for geometric repetition may be an early developmental biomarker of an ASD subtype with more severe symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Eye-tracking Reveals Abnormal Visual Preference for Geometric Images as an Early Biomarker of an ASD Subtype Associated with Increased Symptom Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Karen; Marinero, Steven; Hazin, Roxana; McKenna, Benjamin; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Malige, Ajith

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinically and biologically, ASD is heterogeneous. Unusual patterns of visual preference as indexed by eye-tracking are hallmarks, yet whether they can be used to define an early biomarker of ASD as a whole, or leveraged to define a subtype is unclear. To begin to examine this issue, large cohorts are required. Methods A sample of 334 toddlers from 6 distinct groups (115 ASD, 20 ASD-Features, 57 DD, 53 Other, 64 TD, and 25 Typ SIB) participated. Toddlers watched a movie containing both geometric and social images. Fixation duration and number of saccades within each AOI and validation statistics for this independent sample computed. Next, to maximize power, data from our previous study (N=110) was added totaling 444 subjects. A subset of toddlers repeated the eye-tracking procedure. Results As in the original study, a subset of toddlers with ASD fixated on geometric images greater than 69%. Using this cutoff, sensitivity for ASD was 21%, specificity 98%, and PPV 86%. Toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred geometric images had (a) worse cognitive, language, and social skills relative to toddlers with ASD who strongly preferred social images and (b) fewer saccades when viewing geometric images. Unaffected siblings of ASD probands did not show evidence of heightened preference for geometric images. Test-retest reliability was good. Examination of age effects suggest that this test may not be appropriate with children > 4 years. Conclusions Enhanced visual preference for geometric repetition may be an early developmental biomarker of an ASD subtype with more severe symptoms. PMID:25981170

  15. Unbiased cell quantification reveals a continued increase in the number of neocortical neurones during early post-natal development in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise; Krøigård, Thomas; Finsen, Bente

    2007-01-01

    The post-natal growth spurt of the mammalian neocortex has been attributed to maturation of dendritic arborizations, growth and myelination of axons, and addition of glia. It is unclear whether this growth may also involve recruitment of additional neurones. Using stereological methods, we analysed...... the number of neurones and glia in the neocortex during post-natal development in two separate strains of mice. Cell counting by the optical fractionator revealed that the number of neurones increased 80-100% from the time of birth to post-natal day (P)16, followed by a reduction by approximately 25...... was delayed until P16. The number of glia reached its maximum at P16, whereas the number of oligodendroglia, identified using a transgenic marker, increased until P55, the latest time of observation. Neurones continued to accumulate in the developing neocortex during the first 2 weeks of post...

  16. Decision theory with resource-bounded agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Joseph Y; Pass, Rafael; Seeman, Lior

    2014-04-01

    There have been two major lines of research aimed at capturing resource-bounded players in game theory. The first, initiated by Rubinstein (), charges an agent for doing costly computation; the second, initiated by Neyman (), does not charge for computation, but limits the computation that agents can do, typically by modeling agents as finite automata. We review recent work on applying both approaches in the context of decision theory. For the first approach, we take the objects of choice in a decision problem to be Turing machines, and charge players for the "complexity" of the Turing machine chosen (e.g., its running time). This approach can be used to explain well-known phenomena like first-impression-matters biases (i.e., people tend to put more weight on evidence they hear early on) and belief polarization (two people with different prior beliefs, hearing the same evidence, can end up with diametrically opposed conclusions) as the outcomes of quite rational decisions. For the second approach, we model people as finite automata, and provide a simple algorithm that, on a problem that captures a number of settings of interest, provably performs optimally as the number of states in the automaton increases. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Detection of histone acetylation levels in the dorsal hippocampus reveals early tagging on specific residues of H2B and H4 histones in response to learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bousiges

    Full Text Available The recent literature provides evidence that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modification are crucial to gene transcription linked to synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain--notably in the hippocampus--and memory formation. We measured global histone acetylation levels in the rat hippocampus at an early stage of spatial or fear memory formation. We found that H3, H4 and H2B underwent differential acetylation at specific sites depending on whether rats had been exposed to the context of a task without having to learn or had to learn about a place or fear therein: H3K9K14 acetylation was mostly responsive to any experimental conditions compared to naive animals, whereas H2B N-terminus and H4K12 acetylations were mostly associated with memory for either spatial or fear learning. Altogether, these data suggest that behavior/experience-dependent changes differently regulate specific acetylation modifications of histones in the hippocampus, depending on whether a memory trace is established or not: tagging of H3K9K14 could be associated with perception/processing of testing-related manipulations and context, thereby enhancing chromatin accessibility, while tagging of H2B N-terminus tail and H4K12 could be more closely associated with the formation of memories requiring an engagement of the hippocampus.

  18. Fetal and early post-natal mineralization of the tympanic bulla in fin whales may reveal a Hitherto undiscovered evolutionary trait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cozzi

    Full Text Available The evolution of the cetacean skeleton followed a path that differentiated this group from other terrestrial mammals about 50 million years ago [1], and debate is still going on about the relationships between Cetacea and Artiodactyla [2], [3], [4]. Some skeletal traits of the basilosaurids (the more advanced forms of Archaeocetes, such as the expansion of the peribullary air sinuses, dental modification and vertebral size uniformity [5] are maintained and further emphasized also in contemporary odontocetes and mysticetes. Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry here we report that the deposition of bone mineral in fetal and newborn specimens of the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus is remarkably higher in the bulla tympanica than in the adjacent basal skull or in the rest of the skeleton. Ossification of the tympanic bulla in fetal Artiodactyla (bovine, hippopotamus is minimal, becomes sensible after birth and then progresses during growth, contrarily to the precocious mineralization that we observed in fin whales. Given the importance of the ear bones for the precise identification of phylogenetic relationship in therian evolution [6], this feature may indicate a specific evolutionary trait of fin whales and possibly other cetacean species or families. Early mineralization of the tympanic bulla allows immediate sound conduction in the aquatic medium and consequently holds potential importance for mother-calf relationship and postnatal survival.

  19. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Abnormal Electron Transport and Excessive Oxidative Stress Cause Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Placental Tissues of Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongwei; Jin, Xiaohan; Cai, Wei; Zhou, Maobin; Shao, Ping; Yang, Zhen; Fu, Rong; Cao, Jin; Liu, Yan; Yu, Fang; Fan, Rong; Zhang, Yan; Zou, Shuang; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Ning; Chen, Xu; Li, Yuming

    2018-04-20

    Early-onset preeclampsia (EOS-PE) refers to preeclampsia that occurred before 34 gestation weeks. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of EOS-PE using proteomic strategy. To identify altering expressed mitochondrial proteins between severe EOS-PE and healthy pregnancies, enrichment of mitochondria coupled with iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic method was performed. IHC and western blot were performed to detect the alteration of changing expression proteins, and confirmed the accuracy of proteomic results. We totally quantified 1372 proteins and screened 132 altering expressed mitochondrial proteins, including 86 down-regulated expression proteins and 46 up-regulated expression proteins (pelectron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Especially, mitochondrial related molecules, PRDX2, PARK7, BNIP3, BCL2, PDHA1, SUCLG1, ACADM and NDUFV1, were involved in energy production process in the matrix and membrane of mitochondria. Our results showed that abnormal electron transport, excessive oxidative stress and mitochondrion disassembly might be the main cause of mitochondrial dysfunction, and was related to the pathogenesis of EOS-PE. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. THE LOCATION OF NON-THERMAL VELOCITY IN THE EARLY PHASES OF LARGE FLARES—REVEALING PRE-ERUPTION FLUX ROPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harra, Louise K.; Matthews, Sarah; Culhane, J. L.; Cheung, Mark C. M.; Kontar, Eduard P.; Hara, Hirohisa

    2013-01-01

    Non-thermal velocity measurements of the solar atmosphere, particularly from UV and X-ray emission lines have demonstrated over the decades that this parameter is important in understanding the triggering of solar flares. Enhancements have often been observed before intensity enhancements are seen. However, until the launch of Hinode, it has been difficult to determine the spatial location of the enhancements to better understand the source region. The Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer has the spectral and spatial resolution to allow us to probe the early stages of flares in detail. We analyze four events, all of which are GOES M- or X-classification flares, and all are located toward the limb for ease of flare geometry interpretation. Three of the flares were eruptive and one was confined. In all events, pre-flare enhancement in non-thermal velocity at the base of the active region and its surroundings has been found. These enhancements seem to be consistent with the footpoints of the dimming regions, and hence may be highlighting the activation of a coronal flux rope for the three eruptive events. In addition, pre-flare enhancements in non-thermal velocity were found above the looptops for the three eruptive events

  1. Molecular characterization of WFS1 in an Iranian family with Wolfram syndrome reveals a novel frameshift mutation associated with early symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Maryam; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Rajab, Asadollah; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad Reza

    2013-10-10

    Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder that represents a likely source of childhood diabetes especially among countries in the consanguinity belt. The main responsible gene is WFS1 for which over one hundred mutations have been reported from different ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular etiology of WS and to perform a possible genotype-phenotype correlation in Iranian kindred. An Iranian family with two patients was clinically studied and WS was suspected. Genetic linkage analysis via 5 STR markers was carried out. For identification of mutations, DNA sequencing of WFS1 including all the exons, exon-intron boundaries and the promoter was performed. Linkage analysis indicated linkage to the WFS1 region. After DNA sequencing of WFS1, one novel pathogenic mutation, which causes frameshift alteration c.2177_2178insTCTTC (or c.2173_2177dupTCTTC) in exon eight, was found. The genotype-phenotype correlation analysis suggests that the presence of the homozygous mutation may be associated with early onset of disease symptoms. This study stresses the necessity of considering the molecular analysis of WFS1 in childhood diabetes with some symptoms of WS. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Instanton bound states in ABJM theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-06-15

    The partition function of the ABJM theory receives non-perturbative corrections due to instanton effects. We study these non-perturbative corrections, including bound states of worldsheet instantons and membrane instantons, in the Fermi-gas approach. We require that the total non-perturbative correction should be always finite for arbitrary Chern-Simons level. This finiteness is realized quite non-trivially because each bound state contribution naively diverges at some levels. The poles of each contribution should be canceled out in total. We use this pole cancellation mechanism to find unknown bound state corrections from known ones. We conjecture a general expression of the bound state contribution. Summing up all the bound state contributions, we find that the effect of bound states is simply incorporated into the worldsheet instanton correction by a redefinition of the chemical potential in the Fermi-gas system. Analytic expressions of the 3- and 4-membrane instanton corrections are also proposed.

  3. Angular-momentum nonclassicality by breaking classical bounds on statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Rivas, Angel [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We derive simple practical procedures revealing the quantum behavior of angular momentum variables by the violation of classical upper bounds on the statistics. Data analysis is minimum and definite conclusions are obtained without evaluation of moments, or any other more sophisticated procedures. These nonclassical tests are very general and independent of other typical quantum signatures of nonclassical behavior such as sub-Poissonian statistics, squeezing, or oscillatory statistics, being insensitive to the nonclassical behavior displayed by other variables.

  4. Bounded elements in Locally C*-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Harti, Rachid

    2001-09-01

    In order to get more useful information about Locally C*-algebras, we introduce in this paper the notion of bounded elements. First, we study the connection between bounded elements and spectrally bounded elements. Some structural results of Locally C*-algebras are established in Theorems 1 , 2 and 3. As an immediate consequence of Theorem 3, we give a characterization of the connected component of the identity in the group of unitary elements for a Locally C*-algebra. (author)

  5. Fuzzy upper bounds and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleimani-damaneh, M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematical Science and Computer Engineering, Teacher Training University, 599 Taleghani Avenue, Tehran 15618 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: soleimani_d@yahoo.com

    2008-04-15

    This paper considers the concept of fuzzy upper bounds and provides some relevant applications. Considering a fuzzy DEA model, the existence of a fuzzy upper bound for the objective function of the model is shown and an effective approach to solve that model is introduced. Some dual interpretations are provided, which are useful for practical purposes. Applications of the concept of fuzzy upper bounds in two physical problems are pointed out.

  6. Integrative testis transcriptome analysis reveals differentially expressed miRNAs and their mRNA targets during early puberty in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaftnesmo, K O; Edvardsen, R B; Furmanek, T; Crespo, D; Andersson, E; Kleppe, L; Taranger, G L; Bogerd, J; Schulz, R W; Wargelius, A

    2017-10-18

    Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms implementing pubertal maturation of the testis in vertebrates is incomplete. This topic is relevant in Atlantic salmon aquaculture, since precocious male puberty negatively impacts animal welfare and growth. We hypothesize that certain miRNAs modulate mRNAs relevant for the initiation of puberty. To explore which miRNAs regulate mRNAs during initiation of puberty in salmon, we performed an integrated transcriptome analysis (miRNA and mRNA-seq) of salmon testis at three stages of development: an immature, long-term quiescent stage, a prepubertal stage just before, and a pubertal stage just after the onset of single cell proliferation activity in the testis. Differentially expressed miRNAs clustered into 5 distinct expression profiles related to the immature, prepubertal and pubertal salmon testis. Potential mRNA targets of these miRNAs were predicted with miRmap and filtered for mRNAs displaying negatively correlated expression patterns. In summary, this analysis revealed miRNAs previously known to be regulated in immature vertebrate testis (miR-101, miR-137, miR-92b, miR-18a, miR-20a), but also miRNAs first reported here as regulated in the testis (miR-new289, miR-30c, miR-724, miR-26b, miR-new271, miR-217, miR-216a, miR-135a, miR-new194 and the novel predicted n268). By KEGG enrichment analysis, progesterone signaling and cell cycle pathway genes were found regulated by these differentially expressed miRNAs. During the transition into puberty we found differential expression of miRNAs previously associated (let7a/b/c), or newly associated (miR-15c, miR-2184, miR-145 and the novel predicted n7a and b) with this stage. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that mRNAs of the Wnt, Hedgehog and Apelin signaling pathways were potential regulated targets during the transition into puberty. Likewise, several regulated miRNAs in the pubertal stage had earlier been associated (miR-20a, miR-25, miR-181a, miR-202, let7c/d/a, miR-125b

  7. Bounded cohomology of discrete groups

    CERN Document Server

    Frigerio, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The author manages a near perfect equilibrium between necessary technicalities (always well motivated) and geometric intuition, leading the readers from the first simple definition to the most striking applications of the theory in 13 very pleasant chapters. This book can serve as an ideal textbook for a graduate topics course on the subject and become the much-needed standard reference on Gromov's beautiful theory. -Michelle Bucher The theory of bounded cohomology, introduced by Gromov in the late 1980s, has had powerful applications in geometric group theory and the geometry and topology of manifolds, and has been the topic of active research continuing to this day. This monograph provides a unified, self-contained introduction to the theory and its applications, making it accessible to a student who has completed a first course in algebraic topology and manifold theory. The book can be used as a source for research projects for master's students, as a thorough introduction to the field for graduate student...

  8. High-Throughput Genetic Screen Reveals that Early Attachment and Biofilm Formation Are Necessary for Full Pyoverdine Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghoon Kang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a re-emerging, multidrug-resistant, opportunistic pathogen that threatens the lives of immunocompromised patients, patients with cystic fibrosis, and those in critical care units. One of the most important virulence factors in this pathogen is the siderophore pyoverdine. Pyoverdine serves several critical roles during infection. Due to its extremely high affinity for ferric iron, pyoverdine gives the pathogen a significant advantage over the host in their competition for iron. In addition, pyoverdine can regulate the production of multiple bacterial virulence factors and perturb host mitochondrial homeostasis. Inhibition of pyoverdine biosynthesis decreases P. aeruginosa pathogenicity in multiple host models. To better understand the regulation of pyoverdine production, we developed a high-throughput genetic screen that uses the innate fluorescence of pyoverdine to identify genes necessary for its biosynthesis. A substantial number of hits showing severe impairment of pyoverdine production were in genes responsible for early attachment and biofilm formation. In addition to genetic disruption of biofilm, both physical and chemical perturbations also attenuated pyoverdine production. This regulatory relationship between pyoverdine and biofilm is particularly significant in the context of P. aeruginosa multidrug resistance, where the formation of biofilm is a key mechanism preventing access to antimicrobials and the immune system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the biofilm inhibitor 2-amino-5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole effectively attenuates pyoverdine production and rescues Caenorhabditis elegans from P. aeruginosa-mediated pathogenesis. Our findings suggest that targeting biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa infections may have multiple therapeutic benefits and that employing an unbiased, systems biology-based approach may be useful for understanding the regulation of specific virulence factors and identifying novel anti

  9. Spatiotemporal analysis of putative notochordal cell markers reveals CD24 and keratins 8, 18, and 19 as notochord-specific markers during early human intervertebral disc development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Pinto, Ricardo; Berry, Andrew; Piper-Hanley, Karen; Hanley, Neil; Richardson, Stephen M; Hoyland, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    In humans, the nucleus pulposus (NP) is composed of large vacuolated notochordal cells in the fetus but, soon after birth, becomes populated by smaller, chondrocyte-like cells. Although animal studies indicate that notochord-derived cells persist in the adult NP, the ontogeny of the adult human NP cell population is still unclear. As such, identification of unique notochordal markers is required. This study was conducted to determine the spatiotemporal expression of putative human notochordal markers to aid in the elucidation of the ontogeny of adult human NP cells. Human embryos and fetuses (3.5-18 weeks post-conception (WPC)) were microdissected to isolate the spine anlagens (notochord and somites/sclerotome). Morphology of the developing IVD was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin. Expression of keratin (KRT) 8, KRT18, KRT19, CD24, GAL3, CD55, BASP1, CTGF, T, CD90, Tie2, and E-cadherin was assessed using immunohistochemistry. KRT8, KRT18, KRT19 were uniquely expressed by notochordal cells at all spine levels at all stages studied; CD24 was expressed at all stages except 3.5 WPC. While GAL3, CD55, BASP1, CTGF, and T were expressed by notochordal cells at specific stages, they were also co-expressed by sclerotomal cells. CD90, Tie2, and E-cadherin expression was not detectable in developing human spine cells at any stage. This study has identified, for the first time, the consistent expression of KRT8, KRT18, KRT19, and CD24 as human notochord-specific markers during early IVD development. Thus, we propose that these markers can be used to help ascertain the ontogeny of adult human NP cells. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1327-1340, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Spatiotemporal analysis of putative notochordal cell markers reveals CD24 and keratins 8, 18, and 19 as notochord‐specific markers during early human intervertebral disc development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues‐Pinto, Ricardo; Berry, Andrew; Piper‐Hanley, Karen; Hanley, Neil; Richardson, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In humans, the nucleus pulposus (NP) is composed of large vacuolated notochordal cells in the fetus but, soon after birth, becomes populated by smaller, chondrocyte‐like cells. Although animal studies indicate that notochord‐derived cells persist in the adult NP, the ontogeny of the adult human NP cell population is still unclear. As such, identification of unique notochordal markers is required. This study was conducted to determine the spatiotemporal expression of putative human notochordal markers to aid in the elucidation of the ontogeny of adult human NP cells. Human embryos and fetuses (3.5–18 weeks post‐conception (WPC)) were microdissected to isolate the spine anlagens (notochord and somites/sclerotome). Morphology of the developing IVD was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin. Expression of keratin (KRT) 8, KRT18, KRT19, CD24, GAL3, CD55, BASP1, CTGF, T, CD90, Tie2, and E‐cadherin was assessed using immunohistochemistry. KRT8, KRT18, KRT19 were uniquely expressed by notochordal cells at all spine levels at all stages studied; CD24 was expressed at all stages except 3.5 WPC. While GAL3, CD55, BASP1, CTGF, and T were expressed by notochordal cells at specific stages, they were also co‐expressed by sclerotomal cells. CD90, Tie2, and E‐cadherin expression was not detectable in developing human spine cells at any stage. This study has identified, for the first time, the consistent expression of KRT8, KRT18, KRT19, and CD24 as human notochord‐specific markers during early IVD development. Thus, we propose that these markers can be used to help ascertain the ontogeny of adult human NP cells. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1327–1340, 2016. PMID:26910849

  11. Unsupervised Analysis of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Data from Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer Reveals Equivalence with Molecular Classification and Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Arriba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether chromosomal instability (CIN is associated with tumor phenotypes and/or with global genomic status based on MSI (microsatellite instability and CIMP (CpG island methylator phenotype in early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC. METHODS: Taking as a starting point our previous work in which tumors from 60 EOCRC cases (≤45 years at the time of diagnosis were analyzed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH, in the present study we performed an unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of those aCGH data in order to unveil possible associations between the CIN profile and the clinical features of the tumors. In addition, we evaluated the MSI and the CIMP statuses of the samples with the aim of investigating a possible relationship between copy number alterations (CNAs and the MSI/CIMP condition in EOCRC. RESULTS: Based on the similarity of the CNAs detected, the unsupervised analysis stratified samples into two main clusters (A, B and four secondary clusters (A1, A2, B3, B4. The different subgroups showed a certain correspondence with the molecular classification of colorectal cancer (CRC, which enabled us to outline an algorithm to categorize tumors according to their CIMP status. Interestingly, each subcluster showed some distinctive clinicopathological features. But more interestingly, the CIN of each subcluster mainly affected particular chromosomes, allowing us to define chromosomal regions more specifically affected depending on the CIMP/MSI status of the samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings may provide a basis for a new form of classifying EOCRC according to the genomic status of the tumors.

  12. Some Improved Nonperturbative Bounds for Fermionic Expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Martin, E-mail: marlohmann@gmail.com [Universita di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    We reconsider the Gram-Hadamard bound as it is used in constructive quantum field theory and many body physics to prove convergence of Fermionic perturbative expansions. Our approach uses a recursion for the amplitudes of the expansion, discovered in a model problem by Djokic (2013). It explains the standard way to bound the expansion from a new point of view, and for some of the amplitudes provides new bounds, which avoid the use of Fourier transform, and are therefore superior to the standard bounds for models like the cold interacting Fermi gas.

  13. Dual pulse-chase microscopy reveals early divergence in the biosynthetic trafficking of the Na,K-ATPase and E-cadherin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Glen A.; Hull, Michael; Stoops, Emily H.; Bateson, Rosalie; Caplan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that newly synthesized membrane proteins that share the same distributions in the plasma membranes of polarized epithelial cells can pursue a variety of distinct trafficking routes as they travel from the Golgi complex to their common destination at the cell surface. In most polarized epithelial cells, both the Na,K-ATPase and E-cadherin are localized to the basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. To examine the itineraries pursued by newly synthesized Na,K-ATPase and E-cadherin in polarized MDCK epithelial cells, we used the SNAP and CLIP labeling systems to fluorescently tag temporally defined cohorts of these proteins and observe their behaviors simultaneously as they traverse the secretory pathway. These experiments reveal that E-cadherin is delivered to the cell surface substantially faster than is the Na,K-ATPase. Furthermore, the surface delivery of newly synthesized E-cadherin to the plasma membrane was not prevented by the 19°C temperature block that inhibits the trafficking of most proteins, including the Na,K-ATPase, out of the trans-Golgi network. Consistent with these distinct behaviors, populations of newly synthesized E-cadherin and Na,K-ATPase become separated from one another within the trans-Golgi network, suggesting that they are sorted into different carrier vesicles that mediate their post-Golgi trafficking. PMID:26424804

  14. Variational lower bound on the scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.

    1975-01-01

    The scattering length A characterizes the zero-energy scattering of one system by another. It was shown some time ago that a variational upper bound on A could be obtained using methods, of the Rayleigh-Ritz type, which are commonly employed to obtain upper bounds on energy eigenvalues. Here we formulate a method for obtaining a variational lower bound on A. Once again the essential idea is to express the scattering length as a variational estimate plus an error term and then to reduce the problem of bounding the error term to one involving bounds on energy eigenvalues. In particular, the variational lower bound on A is rigorously established provided a certin modified Hamiltonian can be shown to have no discrete states lying below the level of the continuum threshold. It is unfortunately true that necessary conditions for the existence of bound states are not available for multiparticle systems in general. However, in the case of positron-atom scattering the adiabatic approximation can be introduced as an (essentially) solvable comparison problem to rigorously establish the nonexistence of bound states of the modified Hamiltonian. It has recently been shown how the validity of the variational upper bound on A can be maintained when the target ground-state wave function is imprecisely known. Similar methods can be used to maintain the variational lower bound on A. Since the bound is variational, the error in the calculated scattering length will be of second order in the error in the wave function. The use of the adiabatic approximation in the present context places no limitation in principle on the accuracy achievable

  15. Effect of Telecollaboration on Translation of Culture-Bound Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafieyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most problematic perspectives of translation phenomenon is the cultural gap between the source language and the target language (Yang, 2010. This gap can be ideally filled through telecollaboration which provides internationally dispersed language learners in parallel language classes with cost-effective access to, and engagement with, peers who are expert speakers of the language under study (Belz, 2005. To investigate the effect of telecollaboration on the quality of translation of culture-bound texts, the current study was conducted on 64 Iranian undergraduate students of English translation at a university in Iran. Instruments used in the study consisted of three texts containing news excerpts from Voice of America (VOA. The study consisted of three phases: 1 assessing quality of translation of culture-bound texts, 2 random assignment of participants to two groups: one merely receiving cultural instruction while the other being linked to native English speakers through LinkedIn alongside receiving cultural instruction, and 3 assessing quality of translation of culture-bound texts immediately and two months following treatment. The results of mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance revealed the significant positive effect of telecollaboration on developing quality of translation of culture-bound texts and sustaining the attained knowledge. The pedagogical implications of the findings suggested incorporation of cultural components of source language society into translation courses and providing opportunities for translation students to be exposed to authentic and intensive source language culture through telecollaboration.

  16. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASUDEB DATTA

    2011-11-20

    Nov 20, 2011 ... Preliminaries. Lower bound theorem. On going work. Definitions. An n-simplex is a convex hull of n + 1 affinely independent points. (called vertices) in some Euclidean space R. N . Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta. Indian Institute of Science. 2 / 27 ...

  17. A strongly quasiconvex PAC-Bayesian bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiemann, Niklas; Igel, Christian; Wintenberger, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new PAC-Bayesian bound and a way of constructing a hypothesis space, so that the bound is convex in the posterior distribution and also convex in a trade-off parameter between empirical performance of the posterior distribution and its complexity. The complexity is measured by the Ku...

  18. On the range of completely bounded maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I. Loebl

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that if every bounded linear map from a C*-algebra α to a von Neumann algebra β is completely bounded, then either α is finite-dimensional or β⫅⊗Mn, where is a commutative von Neumann algebra and Mn is the algebra of n×n complex matrices.

  19. Bounds in the location-allocation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1981-01-01

    Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....

  20. Experimental evidence for bounds on quantum correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, F A; Castagnoli, G; Degiovanni, I P; Castelletto, S

    2004-02-13

    We implemented the experiment proposed by Cabello in the preceding Letter to test the bounds of quantum correlation. As expected from the theory we found that, for certain choices of local observables, Tsirelson's bound of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality (2 x square root of 2) is not reached by any quantum states.

  1. Exponential Lower Bounds For Policy Iteration

    OpenAIRE

    Fearnley, John

    2010-01-01

    We study policy iteration for infinite-horizon Markov decision processes. It has recently been shown policy iteration style algorithms have exponential lower bounds in a two player game setting. We extend these lower bounds to Markov decision processes with the total reward and average-reward optimality criteria.

  2. Conductivity bound from dirty black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitaghsir Fadafan, Kazem, E-mail: bitaghsir@shahroodut.ac.ir

    2016-11-10

    We propose a lower bound of the dc electrical conductivity in strongly disordered, strongly interacting quantum field theories using holography. We study linear response of black holes with broken translational symmetry in Einstein–Maxwell-dilaton theories of gravity. Using the generalized Stokes equations at the horizon, we derive the lower bound of the electrical conductivity for the dual two dimensional disordered field theory.

  3. No-arbitrage bounds for financial scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Alois; Hanke, Michael; Weissensteiner, Alex

    2014-01-01

    We derive no-arbitrage bounds for expected excess returns to generate scenarios used in financial applications. The bounds allow to distinguish three regions: one where arbitrage opportunities will never exist, a second where arbitrage may be present, and a third, where arbitrage opportunities...

  4. New bounds on isotropic Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Sher, Marc; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Violations of Lorentz invariance that appear via operators of dimension four or less are completely parametrized in the Standard Model Extension (SME). In the pure photonic sector of the SME, there are 19 dimensionless, Lorentz-violating parameters. Eighteen of these have experimental upper bounds ranging between 10 -11 and 10 -32 ; the remaining parameter, k-tilde tr , is isotropic and has a much weaker bound of order 10 -4 . In this Brief Report, we point out that k-tilde tr gives a significant contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and find a new upper bound of order 10 -8 . With reasonable assumptions, we further show that this bound may be improved to 10 -14 by considering the renormalization of other Lorentz-violating parameters that are more tightly constrained. Using similar renormalization arguments, we also estimate bounds on Lorentz-violating parameters in the pure gluonic sector of QCD

  5. Covariant entropy bound and loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2008-01-01

    We examine Bousso's covariant entropy bound conjecture in the context of radiation filled, spatially flat, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. The bound is violated near the big bang. However, the hope has been that quantum gravity effects would intervene and protect it. Loop quantum cosmology provides a near ideal setting for investigating this issue. For, on the one hand, quantum geometry effects resolve the singularity and, on the other hand, the wave function is sharply peaked at a quantum corrected but smooth geometry, which can supply the structure needed to test the bound. We find that the bound is respected. We suggest that the bound need not be an essential ingredient for a quantum gravity theory but may emerge from it under suitable circumstances.

  6. A novel comparative pattern count analysis reveals a chronic ethanol-induced dynamic shift in immediate early NF-κB genome-wide promoter binding during liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttippurathu, Lakshmi; Patra, Biswanath; Hoek, Jan B; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth

    2016-03-01

    Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is a clinically important process that is impaired by adaptation to chronic alcohol intake. We focused on the initial time points following partial hepatectomy (PHx) to analyze the genome-wide binding activity of NF-κB, a key immediate early regulator. We investigated the effect of chronic alcohol intake on immediate early NF-κB genome-wide localization, in the adapted state as well as in response to partial hepatectomy, using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by promoter microarray analysis. We found many ethanol-specific NF-κB binding target promoters in the ethanol-adapted state, corresponding to the regulation of biosynthetic processes, oxidation-reduction and apoptosis. Partial hepatectomy induced a diet-independent shift in NF-κB binding loci relative to the transcription start sites. We employed a novel pattern count analysis to exhaustively enumerate and compare the number of promoters corresponding to the temporal binding patterns in ethanol and pair-fed control groups. The highest pattern count corresponded to promoters with NF-κB binding exclusively in the ethanol group at 1 h post PHx. This set was associated with the regulation of cell death, response to oxidative stress, histone modification, mitochondrial function, and metabolic processes. Integration with the global gene expression profiles to identify putative transcriptional consequences of NF-κB binding patterns revealed that several of ethanol-specific 1 h binding targets showed ethanol-specific differential expression through 6 h post PHx. Motif analysis yielded co-incident binding loci for STAT3, AP-1, CREB, C/EBP-β, PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α, likely participating in co-regulatory modules with NF-κB in shaping the immediate early response to PHx. We conclude that adaptation to chronic ethanol intake disrupts the NF-κB promoter binding landscape with consequences for the immediate early gene regulatory response to the acute challenge of PHx.

  7. Continuous bounded cohomology of locally compact groups

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Recent research has repeatedly led to connections between important rigidity questions and bounded cohomology. However, the latter has remained by and large intractable. This monograph introduces the functorial study of the continuous bounded cohomology for topological groups, with coefficients in Banach modules. The powerful techniques of this more general theory have successfully solved a number of the original problems in bounded cohomology. As applications, one obtains, in particular, rigidity results for actions on the circle, for representations on complex hyperbolic spaces and on Teichmüller spaces. A special effort has been made to provide detailed proofs or references in quite some generality.

  8. Positivity bounds on double parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Kasemets, Tomas

    2013-03-01

    Double hard scattering in proton-proton collisions is described in terms of double parton distributions. We derive bounds on these distributions that follow from their interpretation as probability densities, taking into account all possible spin correlations between two partons in an unpolarized proton. These bounds constrain the size of the polarized distributions and can for instance be used to set upper limits on the effects of spin correlations in double hard scattering. We show that the bounds are stable under leading-order DGLAP evolution to higher scales.

  9. Remarks on Bousso's covariant entropy bound

    CERN Document Server

    Mayo, A E

    2002-01-01

    Bousso's covariant entropy bound is put to the test in the context of a non-singular cosmological solution of general relativity found by Bekenstein. Although the model complies with every assumption made in Bousso's original conjecture, the entropy bound is violated due to the occurrence of negative energy density associated with the interaction of some the matter components in the model. We demonstrate how this property allows for the test model to 'elude' a proof of Bousso's conjecture which was given recently by Flanagan, Marolf and Wald. This corroborates the view that the covariant entropy bound should be applied only to stable systems for which every matter component carries positive energy density.

  10. The bound state problem and quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaichian, M.; Demichev, A.P.; Nelipa, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    A quantum field-theoretic model in which quark is confined is considered. System of equations for the Green functions of colour singlet and octet bound states is obtained. The method is based on the nonperturbative Schwinger-Dyson equations with the use of Slavnov-Taylor identities. It is shown that in the framework of the model if there exist singlet, then also exist octet bound states of the quark-antiquark system. Thus in general, confinement of free quarks does not mean absence of their coloured bound states. (author)

  11. Quasi-bound states in continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroaki; Hatano, Naomichi; Garmon, Sterling; Petrosky, Tomio

    2007-08-01

    We report the prediction of quasi-bound states (resonant states with very long lifetimes) that occur in the eigenvalue continuum of propagating states for a wide region of parameter space. These quasi-bound states are generated in a quantum wire with two channels and an adatom, when the energy bands of the two channels overlap. A would-be bound state that lays just below the upper energy band is slightly destabilized by the lower energy band and thereby becomes a resonant state with a very long lifetime (a second QBIC lays above the lower energy band). (author)

  12. The Subduction of an Exhumed and Serpentinized Magma-Poor Basement Beneath the Northern Lesser Antilles Reveals the Early Tectonic Fabric at Slow-Spreading Mid-Oceanic Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcaillou, B.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Laurencin, M.; Biari, Y.; Graindorge, D.; Jean-Frederic, L.; Laigle, M.; Lallemand, S.

    2017-12-01

    Multichannel and wide-angle seismic data as well as heat-flow measurements (ANTITHESIS cruise, 2016) reveal a 200x200km patch of magma-poor oceanic basement in the trench and beneath the outer fore-arc offshore of Antigua to Saint Martin in the Northern Lesser Antilles. These data highlight an oceanic basement with the following features: 1/ Absence of any reflection at typical Moho depth and layer2/layer3 limit depths. 2/ High Velocity Vp at the top (>5.5 km/s), low velocity gradient with depth (serpentinized at the slow-spreading mid-Atlantic Ridge 80 Myr ago, is currently subducting beneath the Northern Lesser Antilles. During the exhumation, early extension triggers penetrative shear zones sub-parallel to the ridge and to the transform fault. Eventually, this early extension generates sliding along the so-called detachment fault, while the other proto-detachment abort. Approaching the trench, the plate bending reactivates these weak zones in normal faults and fluid pathways promoting deep serpentinisation and localizing tectonic deformation at the plate interface. These subducting fluid-rich mechanically weak mantle rocks rise questions about their relation to the faster slab deepening, the lower seismic activity and the pervasive tectonic partitioning in this margin segment.

  13. A Comparison of Error Bounds for a Nonlinear Tracking System with Detection Probability Pd < 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Huisi; Zhang, Hao; Meng, Huadong; Wang, Xiqin

    2012-01-01

    Error bounds for nonlinear filtering are very important for performance evaluation and sensor management. This paper presents a comparative study of three error bounds for tracking filtering, when the detection probability is less than unity. One of these bounds is the random finite set (RFS) bound, which is deduced within the framework of finite set statistics. The others, which are the information reduction factor (IRF) posterior Cramer-Rao lower bound (PCRLB) and enumeration method (ENUM) PCRLB are introduced within the framework of finite vector statistics. In this paper, we deduce two propositions and prove that the RFS bound is equal to the ENUM PCRLB, while it is tighter than the IRF PCRLB, when the target exists from the beginning to the end. Considering the disappearance of existing targets and the appearance of new targets, the RFS bound is tighter than both IRF PCRLB and ENUM PCRLB with time, by introducing the uncertainty of target existence. The theory is illustrated by two nonlinear tracking applications: ballistic object tracking and bearings-only tracking. The simulation studies confirm the theory and reveal the relationship among the three bounds. PMID:23242274

  14. The shock formation distance in a bounded sound beam of finite amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chao; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Zhemin; Du, Gonghuan; Ping, Zihong

    2003-07-01

    This paper investigates the shock formation distance in a bounded sound beam of finite amplitude by solving the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation using frequency-domain numerical method. Simulation results reveal that, besides the nonlinearity and absorption, the diffraction is another important factor that affects the shock formation of a bounded sound beam. More detailed discussions of the shock formation in a bounded sound beam, such as the waveform of sound pressure and the spatial distribution of shock formation, are also presented and compared for different parameters.

  15. Tight Bounds for Distributed Functional Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodruff, David P.; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    $, our bound resolves their main open question. Our lower bounds are based on new direct sum theorems for approximate majority, and yield significant improvements to problems in the data stream model, improving the bound for estimating $F_p, p > 2,$ in $t$ passes from $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{1-2/p}/(\\eps^{2/p......} t))$ to $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{1-2/p}/(\\eps^{4/p} t))$, giving the first bound for estimating $F_0$ in $t$ passes of $\\Omega(1/(\\eps^2 t))$ bits of space that does not use the gap-hamming problem, and showing a distribution for the gap-hamming problem with high external information cost or super...

  16. Redshift-space limits of bound structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duenner, Rolando; Reisenegger, Andreas; Meza, Andres; Araya, Pablo A.; Quintana, Hernan

    2007-01-01

    An exponentially expanding Universe, possibly governed by a cosmological constant, forces gravitationally bound structures to become more and more isolated, eventually becoming causally disconnected from each other and forming so-called 'island universes'. This new scenario reformulates the question

  17. Upper Bound for Neutron Emission from Sonoluminescing Bubbles in Deuterated Acetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camara, C. G.; Putterman, S. J.; Hopkins, S. D.; Suslick, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental search for nuclear fusion inside imploding bubbles of degassed deuterated acetone at 0 degree sign C driven by a 15 atm sound field and seeded with a neutron generator reveals an upper bound that is a factor of 10 000 less than the signal reported by Taleyarkhan et al. The strength of our upper bound is limited by the weakness of sonoluminescence, which we ascribe to the relatively high vapor pressure of acetone

  18. Error Bounds: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Outrata, Jiří; Kruger, A.Y.; Fabian, Marián; Henrion, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2010), s. 121-149 ISSN 1877-0533 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506; CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Error bounds * Calmness * Subdifferential * Slope Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/MTR/outrata-error bounds necessary and sufficient conditions.pdf

  19. Malabsorption of protein bound vitamin B12.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, D W; Sawers, A H; Sharma, R K

    1984-01-01

    Patients with subnormal serum vitamin B12 concentrations were tested for absorption of protein bound vitamin B12 and compared with controls. Absorption of the protein bound vitamin appeared to decrease with increasing age in healthy subjects. Differences between the result of this test and the result of the Schilling test in patients who had undergone gastric surgery were confirmed; such differences were also seen in some patients who had iron deficiency anaemia, an excessive alcohol intake, ...

  20. New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments...... with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section....

  1. Automatic bounding estimation in modified NLMS algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahtalebi, K.; Doost-Hoseini, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Modified Normalized Least Mean Square algorithm, which is a sign form of Nlm based on set-membership (S M) theory in the class of optimal bounding ellipsoid (OBE) algorithms, requires a priori knowledge of error bounds that is unknown in most applications. In a special but popular case of measurement noise, a simple algorithm has been proposed. With some simulation examples the performance of algorithm is compared with Modified Normalized Least Mean Square

  2. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  3. Absolute Lower Bound on the Bounce Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ryosuke; Takimoto, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    The decay rate of a false vacuum is determined by the minimal action solution of the tunneling field: bounce. In this Letter, we focus on models with scalar fields which have a canonical kinetic term in N (>2 ) dimensional Euclidean space, and derive an absolute lower bound on the bounce action. In the case of four-dimensional space, we show the bounce action is generically larger than 24 /λcr, where λcr≡max [-4 V (ϕ )/|ϕ |4] with the false vacuum being at ϕ =0 and V (0 )=0 . We derive this bound on the bounce action without solving the equation of motion explicitly. Our bound is derived by a quite simple discussion, and it provides useful information even if it is difficult to obtain the explicit form of the bounce solution. Our bound offers a sufficient condition for the stability of a false vacuum, and it is useful as a quick check on the vacuum stability for given models. Our bound can be applied to a broad class of scalar potential with any number of scalar fields. We also discuss a necessary condition for the bounce action taking a value close to this lower bound.

  4. Generalized surface tension bounds in vacuum decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Ali; Paban, Sonia; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2018-02-01

    Coleman and De Luccia (CDL) showed that gravitational effects can prevent the decay by bubble nucleation of a Minkowski or AdS false vacuum. In their thin-wall approximation this happens whenever the surface tension in the bubble wall exceeds an upper bound proportional to the difference of the square roots of the true and false vacuum energy densities. Recently it was shown that there is another type of thin-wall regime that differs from that of CDL in that the radius of curvature grows substantially as one moves through the wall. Not only does the CDL derivation of the bound fail in this case, but also its very formulation becomes ambiguous because the surface tension is not well defined. We propose a definition of the surface tension and show that it obeys a bound similar in form to that of the CDL case. We then show that both thin-wall bounds are special cases of a more general bound that is satisfied for all bounce solutions with Minkowski or AdS false vacua. We discuss the limit where the parameters of the theory attain critical values and the bound is saturated. The bounce solution then disappears and a static planar domain wall solution appears in its stead. The scalar field potential then is of the form expected in supergravity, but this is only guaranteed along the trajectory in field space traced out by the bounce.

  5. A cosmological lower bound on the neutron electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Rudaz, S.; Gaillard, M.K.

    1980-10-01

    We argue that in a wide class of grand unified theories diagrams similar to those generating baryon number in the early universe also contribute to renormalization of the CP-violating theta parameter of QCD and hence to the neutron electric dipole moment dsub(n). We then use the apparent baryon-to-photon ratio (nsub(B)/nsub(γ))>=1.3 x 10 -10 to deduce an order-of-magnitude lower bound on the neutron electric dipole moment: dsub(n) > approximately 3 x 10 -28 e-cm. Conversely the present experimental upper limit on dsub(n) implies (nsub(B)/nsub(γ) -7 . We find as a corollary that there is not much scope for entropy generation after the creation of the baryon-antibaryon asymmetry in the very early universe

  6. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  7. The ultimate security bounds of quantum key distribution protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, G.M.; Alber, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols exploit quantum correlations in order to establish a secure key between two legitimate users. Recent work on QKD has revealed a remarkable link between quantum and secret correlations. In this talk we report on recent results concerning the ultimate upper security bounds of various QKD schemes (i.e., the maximal disturbance up to which the two legitimate users share quantum correlations) under the assumption of general coherent attacks. In particular, we derive an analytic expression for the ultimate upper security bound of QKD schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases. As long as the two legitimate users focus on the sifted key and treat each pair of data independently during the post processing, our results are valid for arbitrary dimensions of the information carriers. The bound we have derived is well below the predictions of optimal cloning machines. The possibility of extraction of a secret key beyond entanglement distillation is also discussed. In the case of qutrits we argue that any eavesdropping strategy is equivalent to a symmetric one. For higher dimensions, however, such equivalence is generally no longer valid. (author)

  8. Upper bounds on superpartner masses from upper bounds on the Higgs boson mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M E; Casas, J A; Delgado, A

    2012-01-13

    The LHC is putting bounds on the Higgs boson mass. In this Letter we use those bounds to constrain the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) parameter space using the fact that, in supersymmetry, the Higgs mass is a function of the masses of sparticles, and therefore an upper bound on the Higgs mass translates into an upper bound for the masses for superpartners. We show that, although current bounds do not constrain the MSSM parameter space from above, once the Higgs mass bound improves big regions of this parameter space will be excluded, putting upper bounds on supersymmetry (SUSY) masses. On the other hand, for the case of split-SUSY we show that, for moderate or large tanβ, the present bounds on the Higgs mass imply that the common mass for scalars cannot be greater than 10(11)  GeV. We show how these bounds will evolve as LHC continues to improve the limits on the Higgs mass.

  9. Bounds on poloidal kinetic energy in plane layer convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilgner, A.

    2017-12-01

    A numerical method is presented that conveniently computes upper bounds on heat transport and poloidal energy in plane layer convection for infinite and finite Prandtl numbers. The bounds obtained for the heat transport coincide with earlier results. These bounds imply upper bounds for the poloidal energy, which follow directly from the definitions of dissipation and energy. The same constraints used for computing upper bounds on the heat transport lead to improved bounds for the poloidal energy.

  10. Bounds for nonlinear composites via iterated homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte Castañeda, P.

    2012-09-01

    Improved estimates of the Hashin-Shtrikman-Willis type are generated for the class of nonlinear composites consisting of two well-ordered, isotropic phases distributed randomly with prescribed two-point correlations, as determined by the H-measure of the microstructure. For this purpose, a novel strategy for generating bounds has been developed utilizing iterated homogenization. The general idea is to make use of bounds that may be available for composite materials in the limit when the concentration of one of the phases (say phase 1) is small. It then follows from the theory of iterated homogenization that it is possible, under certain conditions, to obtain bounds for more general values of the concentration, by gradually adding small amounts of phase 1 in incremental fashion, and sequentially using the available dilute-concentration estimate, up to the final (finite) value of the concentration (of phase 1). Such an approach can also be useful when available bounds are expected to be tighter for certain ranges of the phase volume fractions. This is the case, for example, for the "linear comparison" bounds for porous viscoplastic materials, which are known to be comparatively tighter for large values of the porosity. In this case, the new bounds obtained by the above-mentioned "iterated" procedure can be shown to be much improved relative to the earlier "linear comparison" bounds, especially at low values of the porosity and high triaxialities. Consistent with the way in which they have been derived, the new estimates are, strictly, bounds only for the class of multi-scale, nonlinear composites consisting of two well-ordered, isotropic phases that are distributed with prescribed H-measure at each stage in the incremental process. However, given the facts that the H-measure of the sequential microstructures is conserved (so that the final microstructures can be shown to have the same H-measure), and that H-measures are insensitive to length scales, it is conjectured

  11. Thermalization Time Bounds for Pauli Stabilizer Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Kristan

    2017-03-01

    We prove a general lower bound to the spectral gap of the Davies generator for Hamiltonians that can be written as the sum of commuting Pauli operators. These Hamiltonians, defined on the Hilbert space of N-qubits, serve as one of the most frequently considered candidates for a self-correcting quantum memory. A spectral gap bound on the Davies generator establishes an upper limit on the life time of such a quantum memory and can be used to estimate the time until the system relaxes to thermal equilibrium when brought into contact with a thermal heat bath. The bound can be shown to behave as {λ ≥ O(N^{-1} exp(-2β overline{ɛ}))}, where {overline{ɛ}} is a generalization of the well known energy barrier for logical operators. Particularly in the low temperature regime we expect this bound to provide the correct asymptotic scaling of the gap with the system size up to a factor of N -1. Furthermore, we discuss conditions and provide scenarios where this factor can be removed and a constant lower bound can be proven.

  12. Universal bounds in even-spin CFTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, Joshua D. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University,Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    We prove using invariance under the modular S− and ST−transformations that every unitary two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) having only even-spin primary operators (with no extended chiral algebra and with right- and left-central charges c,c̃>1) contains a primary operator with dimension Δ{sub 1} satisfying 0<Δ{sub 1}<((c+c̃)/24)+0.09280…. After deriving both analytical and numerical bounds, we discuss how to extend our methods to bound higher conformal dimensions before deriving lower and upper bounds on the number of primary operators in a given energy range. Using the AdS{sub 3}/CFT{sub 2} dictionary, the bound on Δ{sub 1} proves the lightest massive excitation in appropriate theories of 3D matter and gravity with cosmological constant Λ<0 can be no heavier than 1/8G{sub N}+O(√(−Λ)); the bounds on the number of operators are related via AdS/CFT to the entropy of states in the dual gravitational theory. In the flat-space approximation, the limiting mass is exactly that of the lightest BTZ black hole.

  13. Computing Bounds on Resource Levels for Flexible Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscvettola, Nicola; Rijsman, David

    2009-01-01

    A new algorithm efficiently computes the tightest exact bound on the levels of resources induced by a flexible activity plan (see figure). Tightness of bounds is extremely important for computations involved in planning because tight bounds can save potentially exponential amounts of search (through early backtracking and detection of solutions), relative to looser bounds. The bound computed by the new algorithm, denoted the resource-level envelope, constitutes the measure of maximum and minimum consumption of resources at any time for all fixed-time schedules in the flexible plan. At each time, the envelope guarantees that there are two fixed-time instantiations one that produces the minimum level and one that produces the maximum level. Therefore, the resource-level envelope is the tightest possible resource-level bound for a flexible plan because any tighter bound would exclude the contribution of at least one fixed-time schedule. If the resource- level envelope can be computed efficiently, one could substitute looser bounds that are currently used in the inner cores of constraint-posting scheduling algorithms, with the potential for great improvements in performance. What is needed to reduce the cost of computation is an algorithm, the measure of complexity of which is no greater than a low-degree polynomial in N (where N is the number of activities). The new algorithm satisfies this need. In this algorithm, the computation of resource-level envelopes is based on a novel combination of (1) the theory of shortest paths in the temporal-constraint network for the flexible plan and (2) the theory of maximum flows for a flow network derived from the temporal and resource constraints. The measure of asymptotic complexity of the algorithm is O(N O(maxflow(N)), where O(x) denotes an amount of computing time or a number of arithmetic operations proportional to a number of the order of x and O(maxflow(N)) is the measure of complexity (and thus of cost) of a maximumflow

  14. Yukawa Bound States and Their LHC Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkhbat Tsedenbaljir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the current status on the possible bound states of extra generation quarks. These include phenomenology and search strategy at the LHC. If chiral fourth-generation quarks do exist their strong Yukawa couplings, implied by current experimental lower bound on their masses, may lead to formation of bound states. Due to nearly degenerate 4G masses suggested by Precision Electroweak Test one can employ “heavy isospin” symmetry to classify possible spectrum. Among these states, the color-octet isosinglet vector ω 8 is the easiest to be produced at the LHC. The discovery potential and corresponding decay channels are covered in this paper. With possible light Higgs at ~125 GeV two-Higgs doublet version is briefly discussed.

  15. Bounded Gaps between Products of Special Primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ngai Chung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In their breakthrough paper in 2006, Goldston, Graham, Pintz and Yıldırım proved several results about bounded gaps between products of two distinct primes. Frank Thorne expanded on this result, proving bounded gaps in the set of square-free numbers with r prime factors for any r ≥ 2, all of which are in a given set of primes. His results yield applications to the divisibility of class numbers and the triviality of ranks of elliptic curves. In this paper, we relax the condition on the number of prime factors and prove an analogous result using a modified approach. We then revisit Thorne’s applications and give a better bound in each case.

  16. Braneworld black holes and entropy bounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Heydarzade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bousso's D-bound entropy for the various possible black hole solutions on a 4-dimensional brane is checked. It is found that the D-bound entropy here is apparently different from that of obtained for the 4-dimensional black hole solutions. This difference is interpreted as the extra loss of information, associated to the extra dimension, when an extra-dimensional black hole is moved outward the observer's cosmological horizon. Also, it is discussed that N-bound entropy is hold for the possible solutions here. Finally, by adopting the recent Bohr-like approach to black hole quantum physics for the excited black holes, the obtained results are written also in terms of the black hole excited states.

  17. Energy conditions bounds and supernovae data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.P.; Vitenti, S.D.P.; Reboucas, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The energy conditions play an important role in the description of some important properties of the Universe, including the current accelerating expansion phase and the possible recent phase of super-acceleration. In a recent work we have provided a detailed study of the energy conditions for the recent past by deriving bounds from energy conditions and by making the confrontation of the bounds with supernovae data. Here, we extend and update these results in two different ways. First, by carrying out a new statistical analysis for q(z) estimates needed for the confrontation between the bounds and supernovae data. Second, by providing a new picture of the energy conditions fulfillment and violation in the light of the recently compiled Union set of 307 type Ia supernovae and by using two different statistical approaches

  18. Bound water in Kevlar 49 fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garza, R.G.; Pruneda, C.O.; Morgan, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    From elemental analyses, thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy studies and re-evaluation of previous water diffusion studies in Kevlar 49 fibers it is concluded that these fibers can contain two types of sorbed moisture. The fibers can absorb up to approx. 6 wt % loosely bound water with an activation energy for outgassing by desorption of 6 kcal/mole. This loosely bound water is a direct result of the presence of Na 2 SO 4 impurities and the perturbations they induce on the packing of the rod-like poly (p-phenylene terephthalamide) macromolecules. Kevlar 49 fibers also inherently contain up to 30 wt % additional water which is tightly bound within the crystal lattice. This water exhibits an activation energy for outgassing by diffusion of approx. 40 kcal/mole and is only evolved from the fiber in significant quantities at t > 350 0 C over a period of hours

  19. Cosmological implications of Dark Matter bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitridate, Andrea [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126, Pisa (Italy); Redi, Michele; Smirnov, Juri [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Strumia, Alessandro, E-mail: andrea.mitridate@gmail.com, E-mail: michele.redi@fi.infn.it, E-mail: juri.smirnov@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: alessandro.strumia@cern.ch [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2017-05-01

    We present generic formulæ for computing how Sommerfeld corrections together with bound-state formation affects the thermal abundance of Dark Matter with non-abelian gauge interactions. We consider DM as a fermion 3plet (wino) or 5plet under SU(2) {sub L} . In the latter case bound states raise to 11.5 TeV the DM mass required to reproduce the cosmological DM abundance and give indirect detection signals such as (for this mass) a dominant γ-line around 70 GeV. Furthermore, we consider DM co-annihilating with a colored particle, such as a squark or a gluino, finding that bound state effects are especially relevant in the latter case.

  20. Prognostic implications of serial risk score assessments in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: a Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benza, Raymond L; Miller, Dave P; Foreman, Aimee J; Frost, Adaani E; Badesch, David B; Benton, Wade W; McGoon, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Data from the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL) were used previously to develop a risk score calculator to predict 1-year survival. We evaluated prognostic implications of changes in the risk score and individual risk-score parameters over 12 months. Patients were grouped by decreased, unchanged, or increased risk score from enrollment to 12 months. Kaplan-Meier estimates of subsequent 1-year survival were made based on change in the risk score during the initial 12 months of follow-up. Cox regression was used for multivariable analysis. Of 2,529 patients in the analysis cohort, the risk score was decreased in 800, unchanged in 959, and increased in 770 at 12 months post-enrollment. Six parameters (functional class, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, 6-minute walk distance, brain natriuretic peptide levels, and pericardial effusion) each changed sufficiently over time to improve or worsen risk scores in ≥5% of patients. One-year survival estimates in the subsequent year were 93.7%, 90.3%, and 84.6% in patients with a decreased, unchanged, and increased risk score at 12 months, respectively. Change in risk score significantly predicted future survival, adjusting for risk at enrollment. Considering follow-up risk concurrently with risk at enrollment, follow-up risk was a much stronger predictor, although risk at enrollment maintained a significant effect on future survival. Changes in REVEAL risk scores occur in most patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension over a 12-month period and are predictive of survival. Thus, serial risk score assessments can identify changes in disease trajectory that may warrant treatment modifications. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  1. Culture-Bound Words of the Danube Basin Countries: Translation into English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetverikova Olena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Any course in linguistic country study or popular text translation is impossible without adequate understanding and presentation of culture-bound elements, which present one of the most difficult topics to deal with, especially in multicultural countries. Our investigation aims to show the problems, which appear when we deal with equivalent-lacking words related to culture. Sometimes equivalent-lacking words are associated with culture-bound words, the Ukrainian equivalent for them is “реалії” (derived from Latin realis, pl. realia. However, the term “culture-bound word” is of narrower meaning than the term “equivalent-lacking word”. A culture-bound word names an object peculiar to this or that ethnic culture. Equivalent-lacking words include, along with culture-bound words, neologisms, i.e. newly coined forms, dialect words, slang, taboo-words, foreign (third language terms, proper names, misspellings, archaisms. Comparison of languages and cultures reveals the various types of culture-bound words. Reasons for using them can be extralinguistic, lexical or stylistic. When translating culture-bound words a translator should be aware of the receptor’s potential problems, take into account his background knowledge and choose the best means of translation.

  2. Comparison of Lasserre's Measure-based Bounds for Polynomial Optimization to Bounds Obtained by Simulated Annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, Etienne; Laurent, Monique

    We consider the problem of minimizing a continuous function f over a compact set K. We compare the hierarchy of upper bounds proposed by Lasserre in [SIAM J. Optim. 21(3) (2011), pp. 864-885] to bounds that may be obtained from simulated annealing. We show that, when f is a polynomial and K a convex

  3. Career Development and Personal Functioning Differences between Work-Bound and Non-Work Bound Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Hood, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed 506 Australian high school students on career development (exploration, planning, job-knowledge, decision-making, indecision), personal functioning (well-being, self-esteem, life satisfaction, school satisfaction) and control variables (parent education, school achievement), and tested differences among work-bound, college-bound and…

  4. A note on BPS vortex bound states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alonso-Izquierdo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.

  5. A note on BPS vortex bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A., E-mail: alonsoiz@usal.es [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Garcia Fuertes, W., E-mail: wifredo@uniovi.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo (Spain); Mateos Guilarte, J., E-mail: guilarte@usal.es [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2016-02-10

    In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.

  6. [Membrane-bound cytokine and feedforward regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke-Fu; Zheng, Guo-Guang; Ma, Xiao-Tong; Song, Yu-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Feedback and feedforward widely exist in life system, both of them are the basic processes of control system. While the concept of feedback has been widely used in life science, feedforward regulation was systematically studied in neurophysiology, awaiting further evidence and mechanism in molecular biology and cell biology. The authors put forward a hypothesis about the feedforward regulation of membrane bound macrophage colony stimulation factor (mM-CSF) on the basis of their previous work. This hypothesis might provide a new direction for the study on the biological effects of mM-CSF on leukemia and solid tumors, and contribute to the study on other membrane bound cytokines.

  7. The covariant entropy bound in gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Sijie; Lemos, Jose P. S.

    2004-01-01

    We study the covariant entropy bound in the context of gravitational collapse. First, we discuss critically the heuristic arguments advanced by Bousso. Then we solve the problem through an exact model: a Tolman-Bondi dust shell collapsing into a Schwarzschild black hole. After the collapse, a new black hole with a larger mass is formed. The horizon, L, of the old black hole then terminates at the singularity. We show that the entropy crossing L does not exceed a quarter of the area of the old horizon. Therefore, the covariant entropy bound is satisfied in this process. (author)

  8. Bound states in curved quantum waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, P.; Seba, P.

    1987-01-01

    We study free quantum particle living on a curved planar strip Ω of a fixed width d with Dirichlet boundary conditions. It can serve as a model for electrons in thin films on a cylindrical-type substrate, or in a curved quantum wire. Assuming that the boundary of Ω is infinitely smooth and its curvature decays fast enough at infinity, we prove that a bound state with energy below the first transversal mode exists for all sufficiently small d. A lower bound on the critical width is obtained using the Birman-Schwinger technique. (orig.)

  9. Lower Bounds for External Memory Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    We study trade-offs between the update time and the query time for comparison based external memory dictionaries. The main contributions of this paper are two lower bound trade offs between the I/O complexity of member queries and insertions: If N < M insertions perform at most δ · N/B I/Os, then......We study trade-offs between the update time and the query time for comparison based external memory dictionaries. The main contributions of this paper are two lower bound trade offs between the I/O complexity of member queries and insertions: If N

  10. Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    1999-01-01

    . In this paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....

  11. Bound constrained quadratic programming via piecewise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Pinar, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    of a symmetric, positive definite matrix, and is solved by Newton iteration with line search. The paper describes the algorithm and its implementation including estimation of lambda/sub 1/ , how to get a good starting point for the iteration, and up- and downdating of Cholesky factorization. Results of extensive......We consider the strictly convex quadratic programming problem with bounded variables. A dual problem is derived using Lagrange duality. The dual problem is the minimization of an unconstrained, piecewise quadratic function. It involves a lower bound of lambda/sub 1/ , the smallest eigenvalue...

  12. Quantum Kolmogorov complexity and bounded quantum memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyadera, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bounded quantum memory in a primitive information protocol has been examined using the quantum Kolmogorov complexity as a measure of information. We employed a toy two-party protocol in which Bob, by using a bounded quantum memory and an unbounded classical memory, estimates a message that was encoded in qubits by Alice in one of the bases X or Z. Our theorem gave a nontrivial effect of the memory boundedness. In addition, a generalization of the uncertainty principle in the presence of quantum memory has been obtained.

  13. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  14. Models of bounded rationality under certainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This chapter reviews models of decision-making and choice under conditions of certainty. It allows readers to position the contribution of the other chapters in this book in the historical development of the topic area. Theory Bounded rationality is defined in terms of a strategy to simplify

  15. Sobolev spaces on bounded symmetric domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engliš, Miroslav

    Roč. 60, č. 12 ( 2015 ), s. 1712-1726 ISSN 1747-6933 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bounded symmetric domain * Sobolev space * Bergman space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.466, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17476933. 2015 .1043910

  16. Properties of Excitons Bound to Ionized Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben; Suffczynski, M.; Gorzkowski, W.

    1971-01-01

    Binding energies, interparticle distances, oscillator strengths, and exchange corrections are calculated for the three-particle complex corresponding to an exciton bound to an ionized donor. The results are given as functions of the mass ratio of the electron and hole. Binding of the complex is o...

  17. Bogomol'nyi bounds for cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comtet, A.; Gibbons, G.W.; Cambridge Univ.

    1987-09-01

    We establish Bogomol'nyi inequalities for the deficit angle of some cylindrically symmetric asymptotically local flat (CALF) spacetimes containing cosmic strings. These results prove the stability against arbitrary cylindrical deformations of those configurations which saturate the bound. Such configurations satisfy first order equations which can, in some cases, be solved exactly

  18. Bounding the bias of contrastive divergence learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Anja; Igel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Optimization based on k-step contrastive divergence (CD) has become a common way to train restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs). The k-step CD is a biased estimator of the log-likelihood gradient relying on Gibbs sampling. We derive a new upper bound for this bias. Its magnitude depends on k...

  19. Bound States in the Mirror TBA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutyunov, G.E.; Frolov, S.; van Tongeren, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    The spectrum of the light-cone AdS_5 \\times S^5 superstring contains states composed of particles with complex momenta including in particular those which turn into bound states in the decompactification limit. We propose the mirror TBA description for these states. We focus on a three-particle

  20. Harmonic maps of the bounded symmetric domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Y.L.

    1994-06-01

    A shrinking property of harmonic maps into R IV (2) is proved which is used to classify complete spacelike surfaces of the parallel mean curvature in R 4 2 with a reasonable condition on the Gauss image. Liouville-type theorems of harmonic maps from the higher dimensional bounded symmetric domains are also established. (author). 25 refs

  1. Scattering theory methods for bound state problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, R.B.; Tobocman, W.

    1978-01-01

    For the analysis of the properties of a bound state system one may use in place of the Schroedinger equation the Lippmann-Schwinger (LS) equation for the wave function or the LS equation for the reactance operator. Use of the LS equation for the reactance operator constrains the solution to have correct asymptotic behaviour, so this approach would appear to be desirable when the bound state wave function is to be used to calculate particle transfer form factors. The Schroedinger equation based N-level analysis of the s-wave bound states of a square well is compared to the ones based on the LS equation. It is found that the LS equation methods work better than the Schroedinger equation method. The method that uses the LS equation for the wave function gives the best results for the wave functions while the method that uses the LS equation for the reactance operator gives the best results for the binding energies. The accuracy of the reactance operator based method is remarkably insensitive to changes in the oscillator constant used for the harmonic oscillator function basis set. It is also remarkably insensitive to the number of nodes in the bound state wave function. (Auth.)

  2. Lower bounds on scintillation detector timing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinthorne, N.H.; Rogers, W.L.; Hero, A.O. III.; Petrick, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental method-independent limits on the timing performance of scintillation detectors are useful for identifying regimes in which either present timing methods are nearly optimal or where a considerable performance gain might be realized using better pulse processing techniques. Several types of lower bounds on mean-squared timing error (MSE) performance have been developed and applied to scintillation detectors. The simple Cramer-Rao (CR) bound can be useful in determining the limiting MSE for scintillators having a relatively high rate of photon problction such as BaF 2 and NaI(Tl); however, it tends to overestimate the achievalbe performance for scintillators with lower rates such as BGO. For this reason, alternative bounds have been developed using rate-distortion theory or by assuming that the conversion of energy to scintillation light must pass through excited states which have exponential lifetime densities. The bounds are functions of the mean scintillation pulse shape, the scintillation intensity, and photodetector characteristics; they are simple to evaluate and can be used to conveniently assess the limiting timing performance of scintillation detectors. (orig.)

  3. Efficiency gains, bounds, and risk in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarisoy, Cisil

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The first chapter analyzes efficiency gains in the estimation of expected returns based on asset pricing models and examines the economic implications of such gains in portfolio allocation exercises. The second chapter provides nonparametric efficiency bounds

  4. Book Selection, Collection Development, and Bounded Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews previously proposed schemes of classical rationality in book selection, describes new approaches to rational choice behavior, and presents a model of book selection based on bounded rationality in a garbage can decision process. The role of tacit knowledge and symbolic content in the selection process are also discussed. (102 references)…

  5. Monotonicity and bounds on Bessel functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Landau

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available survey my recent results on monotonicity with respect to order of general Bessel functions, which follow from a new identity and lead to best possible uniform bounds. Application may be made to the "spreading of the wave packet" for a free quantum particle on a lattice and to estimates for perturbative expansions.

  6. Collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear dimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, B.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.; Petrov, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    We consider collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear molecules (dimers) formed in a two-species mixture of atoms with a large mass difference. We focus on dimers containing light fermionic atoms as they manifest collisional stability due to an effective dimer-dimer repulsion originating

  7. Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.

  8. Bounded Rationality in Individual Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are: (i) To give a pithy, opinionated summary of what has been learned about bounded rationality in individual decision making from experiments in economics and psychology (drawing on my 1995 Handbook of Experimental Economics chapter); and (ii) mention some promising new directions for research which would be included if that chapter were written today.

  9. Sharp Bounds for Symmetric and Asymmetric Diophantine Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cornelis KRAAIKAMP; Ionica SMEETS

    2011-01-01

    In 2004,Tong found bounds for the approximation quality of a regular continued fraction convergent to a rational number,expressed in bounds for both the previous and next approximation.The authors sharpen his results with a geometric method and give both sharp upper and lower bounds.The asymptotic frequencies that these bounds occur are also calculated.

  10. Bounds on fluid permeability for viscous flow through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    General properties of variational bounds on Darcy's constant for slow viscous flow through porous media are studied. The bounds are also evaluated numerically for the penetrable sphere model. The bound of Doi depending on two-point correlations and the analytical bound of Weissberg and Prager give comparable results in the low density limit but the analytical bound is superior for higher densities. Prager's bound depending on three-point correlation functions is worse than the analytical bound at low densities but better (although comparable to it) at high densities. A procedure for methodically improving Prager's three point bound is presented. By introducing a Gaussian trial function, the three-point bound is improved by an order of magnitude for moderate values of porosity. The new bounds are comparable in magnitude to the Kozeny--Carman empirical relation for porous materials

  11. Maturation-related changes in the distribution of ester-bound fatty acids and alcohols in a coal series from the New Zealand Coal Band covering diagenetic to catagenetic coalification levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian

    2009-01-01

    A rank series of lignites and coals of low to moderate maturation levels (vitrinite reflectance (R0): 0.27–0.8%) from the New Zealand Coal Band were investigated using alkaline ester cleavage experiments to reveal compositional changes of ester bound components (fatty acids and alcohols) during...... increase during early catagenesis before decreasing again during main catagenesis. This intermittent increase was related to the short chain fatty acids. To obtain a maturity related signal and to eliminate facies related scattering in the amounts of fatty acids in the coal samples, the carbon preference...

  12. Upper bounds for reversible circuits based on Young subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdessaied, Nabila; Soeken, Mathias; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2014-01-01

    We present tighter upper bounds on the number of Toffoli gates needed in reversible circuits. Both multiple controlled Toffoli gates and mixed polarity Toffoli gates have been considered for this purpose. The calculation of the bounds is based on a synthesis approach based on Young subgroups...... that results in circuits using a more generalized gate library. Starting from an upper bound for this library we derive new bounds which improve the existing bound by around 77%....

  13. Bounds on the gluon mass from nucleon decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, M.A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Permanent confinement of quarks is assumed to hold in QCD. However, if the gluon has a small mass it is possible to produce-quarks in hadron decays, high-energy reactions or in the early-universe. This situation is modelled by a quark-diquark potential composed of a linear (or harmonic) plus a Yukawa term. We compare our prediction for the proton decay with the experimental lower bound on its life-time, and obtain an upper bound on the gluon mass. [Spanish] Se supone se cumple el confinamiento permanente de quarks en cromodinamica cuantica. Si el gluon tiene masa pequena es posible producir quarks libres en decaimiento hadronicos, reacciones de altas energias o en el universo temprano. Esta situacion es modelada por un potencial quark-diquark, compuesto de un termino lineal (o armonico) mas un termino Yukawa. Comparamos nuestra prediccion para el decaimiento del proton con la cota inferior experimental de su vida media y obtenemos una cota superior sobre la masa del gluon.

  14. Optima and bounds for irreversible thermodynamic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper bounds and optima for irreversible thermodynamic processes and their application in different fields are discussed. The tools of finite time thermodynamics are presented and especially optimal control theory is introduced. These methods are applied to heat engines, including models of the Diesel engine and a light-driven engine. Further bounds for irreversible processes are introduced, discussing work deficiency and its relation to thermodynamic length. Moreover the problem of dissipation in systems composed of several subsystems is studied. Finally, the methods of finite time thermodynamics are applied to thermodynamic processes described on a more microscopic level. The process used as an example is simulated annealing. It is shown how optimal control theory is applied to find the optimal cooling schedule for this important stochastic optimization method

  15. Bounded excursion stable gravastars and black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, P [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida Litoranea, s/n, Boa Viagem 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Miguelote, A Y; Chan, R [Coordenacao de Astronomia e Astrofisica, Observatorio Nacional, Rua General Jose Cristino, 77, Sao Cristovao 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Da Silva, M F; Wang, Anzhong [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Maracana 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Santos, N O, E-mail: pedrosennarocha@gmail.com, E-mail: yasuda@on.br, E-mail: chan@on.br, E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com, E-mail: N.O.Santos@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu [LERMA/CNRS-FRE 2460, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, ERGA, Boite 142, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-06-15

    Dynamical models of prototype gravastars were constructed in order to study their stability. The models are the Visser-Wiltshire three-layer gravastars, in which an infinitely thin spherical shell of stiff fluid divides the whole spacetime into two regions, where the internal region is de Sitter, and the external one is Schwarzschild. It is found that in some cases the models represent the 'bounded excursion' stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes occurs. In the phase space, the region for the 'bounded excursion' gravastars is very small in comparison to that of black holes, but not empty. Therefore, although the possibility of the existence of gravastars cannot be excluded from such dynamical models, our results indicate that, even if gravastars do indeed exist, that does not exclude the possibility of the existence of black holes.

  16. Optimal Bounds in Parametric LTL Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zimmermann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider graph games of infinite duration with winning conditions in parameterized linear temporal logic, where the temporal operators are equipped with variables for time bounds. In model checking such specifications were introduced as "PLTL" by Alur et al. and (in a different version called "PROMPT-LTL" by Kupferman et al.. We present an algorithm to determine optimal variable valuations that allow a player to win a game. Furthermore, we show how to determine whether a player wins a game with respect to some, infinitely many, or all valuations. All our algorithms run in doubly-exponential time; so, adding bounded temporal operators does not increase the complexity compared to solving plain LTL games.

  17. Asymptotic Sharpness of Bounds on Hypertrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypertree can be defined in many different ways. Katona and Szabó introduced a new, natural definition of hypertrees in uniform hypergraphs and investigated bounds on the number of edges of the hypertrees. They showed that a k-uniform hypertree on n vertices has at most (nk−1$\\left( {\\matrix{n \\cr {k - 1} } } \\right$ edges and they conjectured that the upper bound is asymptotically sharp. Recently, Szabó verified that the conjecture holds by recursively constructing an infinite sequence of k-uniform hypertrees and making complicated analyses for it. In this note we give a short proof of the conjecture by directly constructing a sequence of k-uniform k-hypertrees.

  18. A holographic bound for D3-brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Davood; Myrzakul, Aizhan; Myrzakulov, Ratbay [Eurasian National University, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Eurasian National University, Department of General Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, we will regularize the holographic entanglement entropy, holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for a configuration of D3-branes. We will also study the regularization of the holographic complexity from the action for a configuration of D3-branes. It will be demonstrated that for a spherical shell of D3-branes the regularized holographic complexity is always greater than or equal to the regularized fidelity susceptibility. Furthermore, we will also demonstrate that the regularized holographic complexity is related to the regularized holographic entanglement entropy for this system. Thus, we will obtain a holographic bound involving regularized holographic complexity, regularized holographic entanglement entropy and regularized fidelity susceptibility of a configuration of D3-brane. We will also discuss a bound for regularized holographic complexity from action, for a D3-brane configuration. (orig.)

  19. Bound states in weakly disordered spin ladders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlego, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: arlego@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Brenig, W. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Cabra, D.C. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg (France); Heidrich-Meisner, F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Honecker, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Rossini, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-04-30

    We study the appearance of bound states in the spin gap of spin-12 ladders induced by weak bond disorder. Starting from the strong-coupling limit, i.e., the limit of weakly coupled dimers, we perform a projection on the single-triplet subspace and derive the position of bound states for the single impurity problem of one modified coupling as well as for small impurity clusters. The case of a finite concentration of impurities is treated with the coherent-potential approximation (CPA) in the strong-coupling limit and compared with numerical results. Further, we analyze the details in the structure of the density of states and relate their origin to the influence of impurity clusters.

  20. Entanglement detection with bounded reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Caslav; Harrigan, Nicholas; Rudolph, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Quantum experiments usually assume the existence of perfect, classical reference frames (RFs), which allow for the specification of measurement settings (e.g. orientation of the Stern-Gerlach magnet in spin measurements) with arbitrary precision. If the RFs are 'bounded' (i.e. quantum systems themselves, having a finite number of degrees of freedom), only limited precision can be attained. Using spin coherent states as bounded RFs, we have found the minimum size needed for them to violate local realism for entangled spin systems. For composite systems of spin 1/2 particles, RFs of very small size are sufficient for the violation; however, to see this violation for macroscopic entangled spins, the size of the RF must be at least quadratically larger than that of the spins. The unavailability of such RFs gives a possible explanation for the non-observance of violation of local realism in everyday experience.

  1. A proof of the conformal collider bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, Diego M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Li, Daliang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Meltzer, David [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Rejon-Barrera, Fernando [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-20

    In this paper, we prove that the “conformal collider bounds” originally proposed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2008/05/012 hold for any unitary parity-preserving conformal field theory (CFT) with a unique stress tensor in dimensions d≥3. In particular this implies that the ratio of central charges for a unitary 4d CFT lies in the interval (31/18)≥(a/c)≥(1/3). For superconformal theories this is further reduced to (3/2)≥(a/c)≥(1/2). The proof relies only on CFT first principles — in particular, bootstrap methods — and thus constitutes the first complete field theory proof of these bounds. We further elaborate on similar bounds for non-conserved currents and relate them to results obtained recently from deep inelastic scattering.

  2. Efficiency bounds for nonequilibrium heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Pankaj; Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the efficiency of thermal engines (either quantum or classical) working with a single heat reservoir like an atmosphere. The engine first gets an energy intake, which can be done in an arbitrary nonequilibrium way e.g. combustion of fuel. Then the engine performs the work and returns to the initial state. We distinguish two general classes of engines where the working body first equilibrates within itself and then performs the work (ergodic engine) or when it performs the work before equilibrating (non-ergodic engine). We show that in both cases the second law of thermodynamics limits their efficiency. For ergodic engines we find a rigorous upper bound for the efficiency, which is strictly smaller than the equivalent Carnot efficiency. I.e. the Carnot efficiency can be never achieved in single reservoir heat engines. For non-ergodic engines the efficiency can be higher and can exceed the equilibrium Carnot bound. By extending the fundamental thermodynamic relation to nonequilibrium processes, we find a rigorous thermodynamic bound for the efficiency of both ergodic and non-ergodic engines and show that it is given by the relative entropy of the nonequilibrium and initial equilibrium distributions. These results suggest a new general strategy for designing more efficient engines. We illustrate our ideas by using simple examples. -- Highlights: ► Derived efficiency bounds for heat engines working with a single reservoir. ► Analyzed both ergodic and non-ergodic engines. ► Showed that non-ergodic engines can be more efficient. ► Extended fundamental thermodynamic relation to arbitrary nonequilibrium processes

  3. Recent advances in bound state quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.

    1977-06-01

    Recent developments are reviewed in four areas of computational quantum electrodynamics: a new relativistic two-body formalism equal in rigor to the Bethe-Salpeter formalism but with strong calculational advantages is discussed; recent work on the computation of the decay rate of bound systems (positronium in particular) is presented; limits on possible composite structure of leptons are discussed; a new multidimensional integration program ('VEGAS') suitable for higher order calculations is presented

  4. Bounding probabilistic safety assessment probabilities by reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragola, J.R.; Shooman, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The investigation of the failure in systems where failure is a rare event makes the continual comparisons between the developed probabilities and empirical evidence difficult. The comparison of the predictions of rare event risk assessments with historical reality is essential to prevent probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) predictions from drifting into fantasy. One approach to performing such comparisons is to search out and assign probabilities to natural events which, while extremely rare, have a basis in the history of natural phenomena or human activities. For example the Segovian aqueduct and some of the Roman fortresses in Spain have existed for several millennia and in many cases show no physical signs of earthquake damage. This evidence could be used to bound the probability of earthquakes above a certain magnitude to less than 10 -3 per year. On the other hand, there is evidence that some repetitive actions can be performed with extremely low historical probabilities when operators are properly trained and motivated, and sufficient warning indicators are provided. The point is not that low probability estimates are impossible, but continual reassessment of the analysis assumptions, and a bounding of the analysis predictions by historical reality. This paper reviews the probabilistic predictions of PSA in this light, attempts to develop, in a general way, the limits which can be historically established and the consequent bounds that these limits place upon the predictions, and illustrates the methodology used in computing such limits. Further, the paper discusses the use of empirical evidence and the requirement for disciplined systematic approaches within the bounds of reality and the associated impact on PSA probabilistic estimates

  5. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  6. Closed form bound-state perturbation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollie J. Rose

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The perturbed Schrödinger eigenvalue problem for bound states is cast into integral form using Green's Functions. A systematic algorithm is developed and applied to the resulting equation giving rise to approximate solutions expressed as functions of the given perturbation parameter. As a by-product, convergence radii for the traditional Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theories emerge in a natural way.

  7. Exact BPS bound for noncommutative baby Skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domrin, Andrei; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Linares, Román; Maceda, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The noncommutative baby Skyrme model is a Moyal deformation of the two-dimensional sigma model plus a Skyrme term, with a group-valued or Grassmannian target. Exact abelian solitonic solutions have been identified analytically in this model, with a singular commutative limit. Inside any given Grassmannian, we establish a BPS bound for the energy functional, which is saturated by these baby Skyrmions. This asserts their stability for unit charge, as we also test in second-order perturbation theory

  8. The organically bound tritium: an analyst vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Baglan, N.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the work of a work group on tritium analysis. They recall the different physical forms of tritium: gas (HT, hydrogen-tritium), water vapour (HTO or tritiated water) or methane (CH3T), but also in organic compounds (OBT, organically bound tritium) which are either exchangeable or non-exchangeable. They evoke measurement techniques and methods, notably to determine the tritium volume activity. They discuss the possibilities to analyse and distinguish exchangeable and non-exchangeable OBTs

  9. New approach to calculate bound state eigenvalues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerck, E.; Gallas, J.A.C.

    1983-01-01

    A method of solving the radial Schrodinger equation for bound states is discussed. The method is based on a new piecewise representation of the second derivative operator on a set of functions that obey the boundary conditions. This representation is trivially diagonalised and leads to closed form expressions of the type E sub(n)=E(ab+b+c/n+...) for the eigenvalues. Examples are given for the power-law and logarithmic potentials. (Author) [pt

  10. A sorting network in bounded arithmetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 4 (2011), s. 341-355 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * sorting network * proof complexity * monotone sequent calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007210001272

  11. Heterogeneity, Bounded Rationality and Market Dysfunctionality

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-Zhong He; Lei Shi

    2008-01-01

    As the main building blocks of the modern finance theory, homogeneity and rational expectation have faced difficulty in explaining many market anomalies, stylized factors, and market inefficiency in empirical studies. As a result, heterogeneity and bounded rationality have been used as an alterative paradigm of asset price dynamics and this paradigm has been widely recognized recently in both academic and financial market practitioners. Within the framework of Chiarella, Dieci and He (2006a, ...

  12. Kinetic simulation on collisional bounded plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, S.P.; Sato, Tetsuya; Tomita, Yukihiro; Hatori, Tadatsugu

    1998-01-01

    A self-consistent kinetic simulation model on collisional bounded plasma is presented. The electric field is given by solving Poisson equation and collisions among particles (including charged particles and neutral particles) are included. The excitation and ionization of neutral particle, and recombination are also contained in the present model. The formation of potential structure near a boundary for a discharge system was used as an application of this model. (author)

  13. Analysis of the organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglan, N.; Alanic, G.

    2011-01-01

    In environmental samples, tritium is very often combined with the fraction of bulk water accumulated in the sample but also in the form of organically bound tritium. When the tritium is organically bound, 2 forms can coexist: the exchangeable fraction and the non-exchangeable fraction. The analysis of the different forms of tritium present in the sample is necessary to assess the sanitary hazards due to tritium. The total tritium is obtained from the analysis of the water released when the fresh sample is burnt while the organically bound tritium is obtained from the analysis of the water released when the dry extract of the sample is burnt. The measurement of the exchangeable fraction and the non-exchangeable fraction requires an additional stage of labile exchange. The exchangeable fraction is determined from the analysis of the water released during the labile exchange and the non-exchangeable fraction is determined from the water released during the combustion of the dry extract of the labile exchange

  14. Search for quasi bound η mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machner, H

    2015-01-01

    The search for a quasi bound η meson in atomic nuclei is reviewed. This tentative state is studied theoretically as well as experimentally. The theory starts from elastic η nucleon scattering which is derived from production data within some models. From this interaction the η nucleus interaction is derived. Model calculations predict binding energies and widths of the quasi bound state. Another method is to derive the η nucleus interaction from excitation functions of η production experiments. The s wave interaction is extracted from such data via final state interaction (FSI) theorem. We give the derivation of s wave amplitudes in partial wave expansion and in helicity amplitudes and their relation to observables. Different experiments extracting the FSI are discussed as are production experiments. So far only three experiments give evidence for the existence of the quasi bound state: a pion double charge exchange experiment, an effective mass measurement, and a transfer reaction at recoil free kinematics with observation of the decay of the state. (topical review)

  15. Lower bounds for the minimum distance of algebraic geometry codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter

    , such as the Goppa bound, the Feng-Rao bound and the Kirfel-Pellikaan bound. I will finish my talk by giving several examples. Especially for two-point codes, the generalized order bound is fairly easy to compute. As an illustration, I will indicate how a lower bound can be obtained for the minimum distance of some...... description of these codes in terms of order domains has been found. In my talk I will indicate how one can use the ideas behind the order bound to obtain a lower bound for the minimum distance of any AG-code. After this I will compare this generalized order bound with other known lower bounds...

  16. Mass size distribution of particle-bound water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepari, S.; Simonetti, G.; Perrino, C.

    2017-09-01

    The thermal-ramp Karl-Fisher method (tr-KF) for the determination of PM-bound water has been applied to size-segregated PM samples collected in areas subjected to different environmental conditions (protracted atmospheric stability, desert dust intrusion, urban atmosphere). This method, based on the use of a thermal ramp for the desorption of water from PM samples and the subsequent analysis by the coulometric KF technique, had been previously shown to differentiate water contributes retained with different strength and associated to different chemical components in the atmospheric aerosol. The application of the method to size-segregated samples has revealed that water showed a typical mass size distribution in each one of the three environmental situations that were taken into consideration. A very similar size distribution was shown by the chemical PM components that prevailed during each event: ammonium nitrate in the case of atmospheric stability, crustal species in the case of desert dust, road-dust components in the case of urban sites. The shape of the tr-KF curve varied according to the size of the collected particles. Considering the size ranges that better characterize the event (fine fraction for atmospheric stability, coarse fraction for dust intrusion, bi-modal distribution for urban dust), this shape is coherent with the typical tr-KF shape shown by water bound to the chemical species that predominate in the same PM size range (ammonium nitrate, crustal species, secondary/combustion species - road dust components).

  17. Hybridization thermodynamics of DNA bound to gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was used to study the thermodynamics of hybridization on DNA-functionalized colloidal gold nanoparticles. When compared to the thermodynamics of hybridization of DNA that is free in solution, the differences in the values of the Gibbs free energy of reaction, Δ r G o , the enthalpy, Δ r H o , and entropy, Δ r S o , were small. The change in Δ r G o between the free and bound states was always positive but with statistical significance outside the 95% confidence interval, implying the free DNA is slightly more stable than when in the bound state. Additionally, ITC was also able to reveal information about the binding stoichiometry of the hybridization reactions on the DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles, and indicates that there is a significant fraction of the DNA on gold nanoparticle surface that is unavailable for DNA hybridization. Furthermore, the fraction of available DNA is dependent on the spacer group on the DNA that is used to span the gold surface from that to the probe DNA.

  18. Cosmological bounds on large extra dimensions from nonthermal production of Kaluza-Klein modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Bird, Chris; Groot Nibbelink, Stefan; Pospelov, Maxim

    2004-01-01

    The existing cosmological constraints on theories with large extra dimensions rely on the thermal production of the Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes of gravitons and radions in the early Universe. Successful inflation and reheating, as well as baryogenesis, typically requires the existence of a TeV-scale field in the bulk, most notably the inflaton. The nonthermal production of KK modes with masses of order 100 GeV accompanying the inflaton decay sets the lower bounds on the fundamental scale M * . For a 1-TeV inflaton, the late decay of these modes distorts the successful predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis unless M * >35, 13, 7, 5, and 3 TeV for two, three, four, five, and six extra dimensions, respectively. This improves the existing bounds from cosmology on M * for four, five, and six extra dimensions. Even more stringent bounds are derived for a heavier inflaton

  19. Bound-state formation for thermal relic dark matter and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, Benedict von; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2014-01-01

    We show that the relic abundance of thermal dark matter annihilating via a long-range interaction, is significantly affected by the formation and decay of dark matter bound states in the early universe, if the dark matter mass is above a few TeV . We determine the coupling required to obtain the observed dark matter density, taking into account both the direct 2-to-2 annihilations and the formation of bound states, and provide an analytical fit. We argue that the unitarity limit on the inelastic cross-section is realized only if dark matter annihilates via a long-range interaction, and we determine the upper bound on the mass of thermal-relic dark matter to be about 197 (139) TeV for (non)-self-conjugate dark matter

  20. Maturation related changes in the distribution of ester bound fatty acids and alcohols in a coal series from the New Zealand Coal Band covering diagenetic to catagenetic coalification levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glombitza, C.; Mangelsdorf, K.; Horsfield, B. [German Research Cemter of Geoscience GFZ, Potsdam (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Several lignites and coals of low to moderate maturation levels from the New Zealand Coal Band were investigated using alkaline ester cleavage experiments to reveal compositional changes of ester bound components during increasing maturation. Ester bound alcohols are found to be present in highest amounts in the very immature lignite samples but show a rapid decrease during early diagenesis. Ester bound fatty acids also show an initial exponential decrease during diagenesis but reveal an intermittent increase during early catagenesis before decreasing again during main catagenesis. This was related to the short chain fatty acids. To obtain a maturity related signal and to eliminate facies related scattering in the amounts of fatty acids in the coal samples, the carbon preference index of fatty acids (CPIFA) parameter is introduced. For the long chain fatty acids the CPIFA decreases with increasing maturity. During diagenesis, the same trend can be observed for the short chain fatty acids but the intermittent increase in the amounts of short chain fatty acids is also accompanied by high CPIFA values. This indicates less altered organic biomass at this maturation level and is in contrast to the mature CPIFA signal of the long chain fatty acids of the same samples. Thus could be due to extremely different amounts of short and long chain fatty acids in the original source organic matter or it could due to the incorporation of immature bacterial biomass from deep microbial communities containing C{sub 16} and C{sub 18} fatty acids as main cell membrane components. Deep microbial life might be stimulated at this interval by the increasing release of thermally generated potential substrates from the organic matrix during early catagenesis. The high amounts of alcohols in the immature lignite samples are also visible in the alkene distribution from the open system pyrolysis experiments of the organic matrix before and after saponification.

  1. Structure of Escherichia coli Hfq bound to polyriboadenylate RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Link, Todd M; Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Brennan, Richard G

    2009-01-01

    (A) RNA, A(15). The structure reveals a unique RNA binding mechanism. Unlike uridine-containing sequences, which bind to the "proximal" face, the poly(A) tract binds to the "distal" face of Hfq using 6 tripartite binding motifs. Each motif consists of an adenosine specificity site (A site), which......Hfq is a small, highly abundant hexameric protein that is found in many bacteria and plays a critical role in mRNA expression and RNA stability. As an "RNA chaperone," Hfq binds AU-rich sequences and facilitates the trans annealing of small RNAs (sRNAs) to their target mRNAs, typically resulting...... in the down-regulation of gene expression. Hfq also plays a key role in bacterial RNA decay by binding tightly to polyadenylate [poly(A)] tracts. The structural mechanism by which Hfq recognizes and binds poly(A) is unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of Escherichia coli Hfq bound to the poly...

  2. Transcriptome of E. coli K1 bound to human brain microvascular endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yi; Parthasarathy, Geetha; Di Cello, Francescopaolo; Teng, Ching-Hao; Paul-Satyaseela, Maneesh; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli K1 is the most common Gram-negative organism causing neonatal meningitis. Binding to human brain microvascdular endothelial cells (HBMEC) is an essential step for E. coli K1 traversal of the blood-brain barrier. In this study, we examined expression profiles of E. coli K1 strain RS218 during its binding to HBMEC. Comparison of HBMEC-bound E. coli K1 with collagen-bound E. coli revealed more than one hundred genes whose expression patterns were significantly changed in HBMEC-b...

  3. Derivation of upper bound concentration of LLW for land disposal in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, F.D.; Liou, C.T.; Su, M.F.; Tsai, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    The upper bound concentrations of radionuclides in the low level waste to be disposed in Taiwan are investigated based on a proposed reference site with all of the scenarios and exposure pathways reflecting the local conditions and environmental characteristics. The analysis reveals that most of the upper bound concentrations are determined from the scenario of intruder-agriculture. It can also be found that the Transuranic radionuclides and those with long half-lives are the dominant radionuclides which result in major radiological impact to the environment in this intruder-agriculture scenario

  4. OPRA capacity bounds for selection diversity over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad Fainan; Yang, Hongchuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    , lower and upper bounds on OPRA capacity for selection diversity scheme are presented. These bounds hold for variety of fading channels including log-normal and generalized Gamma distributed models and have very simple analytic expressions for easy

  5. Bounded Perturbation Regularization for Linear Least Squares Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Ballal, Tarig; Suliman, Mohamed Abdalla Elhag; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of selecting the regularization parameter for linear least-squares estimation. We propose a new technique called bounded perturbation regularization (BPR). In the proposed BPR method, a perturbation with a bounded

  6. Bound values for Hall conductivity of heterogeneous medium under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - ditions in inhomogeneous medium has been studied. It is shown that bound values for. Hall conductivity differ from bound values for metallic conductivity. This is due to the unusual character of current percolation under quantum Hall effect ...

  7. Bound states of Θ+ in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oset, E.; Cabrera, D.; Li, Q.B.; Magas, V.K.; Vicente Vacas, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We study the binding energy and the width of the Θ + in nuclei, associated to the KN and KπN components. The first one leads to negligible contributions while the second one leads to a sizeable attraction, enough to bind the Θ + in nuclei. Pauli blocking and binding effects on the KN decay reduce considerably the Θ + decay width in nuclei and medium effects associated to the KπN component also lead to a very small width, as a consequence of which one finds separation between the bound levels considerably larger than the width of the states

  8. Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)

  9. Quarks as quasiparticles of bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyapkin, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    Interpretation of quarks as strongly bound subsystems of the baryon structure, being in various states with integer the quantum numbers Q and B, is considered. Three original quark states, distinguished by Q, B, and J, are unambiguously determined from the condition that the quarks have the corresponding fractional quantum numbers while the integer quantum numbers for the whole system are known. With this in view the new quantum number ''colour'' is interpreted as a quantity, specifying the appearance of the subsystems in various eigen-states. Basing on the generalized Sakata model, the self-consistency of change of the colour states in the three-quark system is explained

  10. Magnetic moment of a bound electron

    CERN Document Server

    Czarnecki, Andrzej; Mondejar, Jorge; Piclum, Jan H

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical predictions underlying determinations of the fine structure constant alpha and the electron-to-proton mass ratio m_e/m_p are reviewed, with the emphasis on the bound electron magnetic anomaly g-2. The theory of the interaction of hydrogen-like ions with a magnetic field is discussed. The status of efforts aimed at the determination of O(alpha (Z alpha)^5) and O(alpha^2 (Z alpha)^5) corrections to the g factor is presented. The reevaluation of analogous corrections to the Lamb shift and the hyperfine splitting is summarized.

  11. Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.; Leggett, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it

  12. Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y., E-mail: yiriolin@illinois.edu; Leggett, A. J. [University of Illinois at Urhana-Champaign, Dept. of Physics (United States)

    2014-12-15

    We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it.

  13. Uniformly bounded representations of the Lorentz groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brega, A.O.

    1982-01-01

    For the Lorentz group G = SO/sub e/(n + 1, 1)(ngreater than or equal to 2) the author constructs a family of uniformly bounded representations by means of analytically continuing a certain normalization of the unitary principal series. The method the author uses relies on an analysis of various operators under a Mellin transform and extends earlier work of E.N. Wilson. In a series of papers Kunze and Stein initiated the theory of uniformly bounded representations of semisimple Lie groups; the starting point is the unitary principal series T(sigma,s) obtained in a certain subgroup M of G and a purely imaginary number s. From there Kunze and Stein constructed families of representations R(sigma,s) depending analytically on a parameter s in a domain D of C containing the imaginary axis which are unitarily equilvalent to T(sigma,s) for s contained in the set of imaginary numbers and whose operator norms are uniformly bounded for each s in D. In the case of the Lorentz groups SO/sub e/(n + 1, 1)(ngreater than or equal to2) and the trivial representation 1 of M, E.N. Wilson obtained such a family R(1,s) for the domain D = [s contained in the set of C: absolute value Re(s) Vertical Bar2]. For this domain D and for any representation sigma of M the author provides a family R(sigma,s) of uniformly bounded representations analytically continuing T(sigma,s), thereby generalizing Wilson's work. The author has also investigated certain symmetry properties of the representations R(sigma,s) under the action of the Weyl group. The trivial representation is Weyl group invariant and the family R(1,s) obtained by Wilson satisfies R(1,s) = R(1,-s) reflecting this. Obtained was the analogous result R(sigma,s) = R(sigma,-s) for some well known representations sigma that are Weyl group invariant. This involves the explicit computation of certain constants arising in the Fourier transforms of intertwining operators

  14. BOUND PERIODICAL HOLDINGS BATTELLE - NORTHWEST LIBRARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1967-05-01

    This report lists the bound periodicals in the Technical Library at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. It was prepared from a computer program and is arranged in two parts. Part one is an alphabetical list of journals by title; part two is an arrangement of the journals by subject. The list headings are self-explanatory, with the exception of the title code, which is necessary in the machine processing. The listing is complete through June, 1966 and updates an earlier publication issued in March, 1965.

  15. Total-variation regularization with bound constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartrand, Rick; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2009-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for bound-constrained total-variation (TV) regularization that in comparison with its predecessors is simple, fast, and flexible. We use a splitting approach to decouple TV minimization from enforcing the constraints. Consequently, existing TV solvers can be employed with minimal alteration. This also makes the approach straightforward to generalize to any situation where TV can be applied. We consider deblurring of images with Gaussian or salt-and-pepper noise, as well as Abel inversion of radiographs with Poisson noise. We incorporate previous iterative reweighting algorithms to solve the TV portion.

  16. Bound Alternative Direction Optimization for Image Deblurring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangrong Zeng

    2014-01-01

    the ℓp regularizer by a novel majorizer and then, based on a variable splitting, to reformulate the bound unconstrained problem into a constrained one, which is then addressed via an augmented Lagrangian method. The proposed algorithm actually combines the reweighted ℓ1 minimization method and the alternating direction method of multiples (ADMM such that it succeeds in extending the application of ADMM to ℓp minimization problems. The conducted experimental studies demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm for the synthesis ℓp minimization over the state-of-the-art algorithms for the synthesis ℓ1 minimization on image deblurring.

  17. Lower bound on inconclusive probability of unambiguous discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuan; Zhang Shengyu; Duan Runyao; Ying Mingsheng

    2002-01-01

    We derive a lower bound on the inconclusive probability of unambiguous discrimination among n linearly independent quantum states by using the constraint of no signaling. It improves the bound presented in the paper of Zhang, Feng, Sun, and Ying [Phys. Rev. A 64, 062103 (2001)], and when the optimal discrimination can be reached, these two bounds coincide with each other. An alternative method of constructing an appropriate measurement to prove the lower bound is also presented

  18. Thermodynamic Upper Bound on Broadband Light Coupling with Photonic Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zongfu; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2012-01-01

    to an upper bound dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. Such bound limits how efficient light can be coupled to any photonic structure. As one example of application, we use this upper bound to derive the limit of light absorption in broadband solar

  19. Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run-l...

  20. Bounded Rationality, Retaliation, and the Spread of Urban Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bruce A.; Wright, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from in-depth interviews with 52 active street criminals, this article examines the grounded theoretic implications of bounded rationality for retaliatory street violence. The bounds on rationality that this article explores are anger, uncertainty, and time pressure. These bounds create imperfections in the retaliatory decision-making…

  1. Accounting for Epistemic and Aleatory Uncertainty in Early System Design, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project extends Probability Bounds Analysis to model epistemic and aleatory uncertainty during early design of engineered systems in an Integrated Concurrent...

  2. Accounting for Epistemic and Aleatory Uncertainty in Early System Design, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work extends Probability Bounds Analysis to model epistemic and aleatory uncertainty during early design of engineered systems in an Integrated...

  3. Di- or polysulphide-bound biomarkers in sulphur-rich geomacromolecules as revealed by selective chemolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Kock-van Dalen, A.C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1991-01-01

    Three types of sulphur-rich, high-molecular-weight material in the alkylsulphide, the polar and the asphaltene fracions isolated from the bitumen of an immature bituminous shale from the Vena del Gesso basin (Italy) were desulphurised.

  4. Bounded dust-acoustic waves in a cylindrically bounded collisional dusty plasma with dust charge variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Nanxia; Xue Jukui

    2006-01-01

    Taking into account the boundary, particle collisions, and dust charging effects, dust-acoustic waves in a uniform cylindrically bounded dusty plasma is investigated analytically, and the dispersion relation for the dust-acoustic wave is obtained. The effects of boundary, dust charge variation, particle collision, and dust size on the dust-acoustic wave are discussed in detail. Due to the bounded cylindrical boundary effects, the radial wave number is discrete, i.e., the spectrum is discrete. It is shown that the discrete spectrum, the adiabatic dust charge variation, dust grain size, and the particle collision have significant effects on the dust-acoustic wave

  5. Effect of uniaxial stress on free and bismuth-bound excitons in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.; Ruehle, W.

    1979-01-01

    The reduction of the shear deformation potentials of holes bound to the isoelectronic impurity Bi in InP is determined by piezoluminescence. It is compared with the corresponding reduction for holes bound to the Coulomb-type acceptors C and Zn. The theory for an effective mass acceptor describes well the cases of C and Zn. However, additional effects as local strain and Stark fields must be involved in the case of Bi leading to an extremely large reduction of the deformation potentials. No change in binding energy with applied stress as well as no exchange splitting of the Bi-bound exciton can be detected within experimental accuracy. The stress dependence of the free exciton reflectance reveals values for the band deformation potentials and a value of 0.07 meV for the exchange splitting of the free exciton in InP. (author)

  6. A Branch and Bound Algorithm for a Class of Biobjective Mixed Integer Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Andersen, Kim Allan; Dammann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    there is the complicating factor that some of the variables are required to be integral. The resulting class of problems is named multiobjective mixed integer programming (MOMIP) problems. Solving these kinds of optimization problems exactly requires a method that can generate the whole set of nondominated points (the...... Pareto-optimal front). In this paper, we first give a survey of the newly developed branch and bound methods for solving MOMIP problems. After that, we propose a new branch and bound method for solving a subclass of MOMIP problems, where only two objectives are allowed, the integer variables are binary......, and one of the two objectives has only integer variables. The proposed method is able to find the full set of nondominated points. It is tested on a large number of problem instances, from six different classes of MOMIP problems. The results reveal that the developed biobjective branch and bound method...

  7. Analytic quantum bounds on Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipp, S.; Svozil, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Can realism be combined with the quantum world? An important tool to investigate in this question are Bell's inequalities and violations thereof - they represent a cornerstone of our present understanding of quantum mechanics and therefore the description of nature. Here we present a simple algebraic method to calculate violations for any measurement arrangements that are maximal in the sense that quantum mechanics does not allow a stronger violation. Having two or more polarization analyzers available and a source producing photon-pairs in arbitrary polarization states Bell-type inequalities tell us which probabilities for measuring the polarization in particular directions are viable in a deterministic theory. Quantum mechanics does not obey these rules, but yields a violation of these inequalities. The questions is to what extent the inequalities are violated. Making use of a min-max principle analytical expressions can be found for the 'fine structure' of the maximal violations of arbitrary Bell-like inequalities, i. e. the upper bound reachable by any state when the analyzers measure in given directions. Knowing these bounds is useful for experimental tests of the validity of quantum mechanics and can serve as a prerequisite to answer the even more pressing question, why no stronger violation has been observed until now. (author)

  8. Electromagnetic structure of a bound nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of binding on the electromagnetic (e.m.) structure of a nucleon in a nucleus is examined by means of a model consisting of a single nucleon which is bound in a harmonic oscillator potential and also coupled to the pion field through the Chew-Low interaction. The 'two-pion contribution' to the e.m. structure is considered. This is the part which is probably most susceptible to the binding effect. By the binding effect it is meant the one which arises because the nucleon wave functions, in the intermediate state as well as in the initial and final states, are distorted by the potential in which the nucleon is bound. This may be compared to a similar correction to the impulse approximation for pion-nucleus scattering. Unlike the latter which is likely to be quite appreciable, the binding correction to the e.m. structure of the nucleon is found to be negligibly small. The so-called quenching effect due to the Pauli principle when there are other nucleons is also discussed [pt

  9. Dynamic bounds coupled with Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajabalinejad, M., E-mail: M.Rajabalinejad@tudelft.n [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Meester, L.E. [Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Gelder, P.H.A.J.M. van; Vrijling, J.K. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    For the reliability analysis of engineering structures a variety of methods is known, of which Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is widely considered to be among the most robust and most generally applicable. To reduce simulation cost of the MC method, variance reduction methods are applied. This paper describes a method to reduce the simulation cost even further, while retaining the accuracy of Monte Carlo, by taking into account widely present monotonicity. For models exhibiting monotonic (decreasing or increasing) behavior, dynamic bounds (DB) are defined, which in a coupled Monte Carlo simulation are updated dynamically, resulting in a failure probability estimate, as well as a strict (non-probabilistic) upper and lower bounds. Accurate results are obtained at a much lower cost than an equivalent ordinary Monte Carlo simulation. In a two-dimensional and a four-dimensional numerical example, the cost reduction factors are 130 and 9, respectively, where the relative error is smaller than 5%. At higher accuracy levels, this factor increases, though this effect is expected to be smaller with increasing dimension. To show the application of DB method to real world problems, it is applied to a complex finite element model of a flood wall in New Orleans.

  10. More loosely bound hadron molecules at CDF?

    CERN Document Server

    Bignamini, C; Piccinini, F; Polosa, A D; Riquer, V; Sabelli, C

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper we have proposed a method to estimate the prompt production cross section of X(3872) at the Tevatron assuming that this particle is a loosely bound molecule of a D and a D*bar meson. Under this hypothesis we find that it is impossible to explain the high prompt production cross section found by CDF at sigma(X(3872)) \\sim 30-70 nb as our theoretical prediction is about 300 times smaller than the measured one. Following our work, Artoisenet and Braaten, have suggested that final state interactions in the DD*bar system might be so strong to push the result we obtained for the cross section up to the experimental value. Relying on their conclusions we show that the production of another very narrow loosely bound molecule, the X_s=D_s D_s*bar, could be similarly enhanced. X_s should then be detectable at CDF with a mass of 4080 MeV and a prompt production cross section of sigma(X_s) \\sim 1-3 nb.

  11. Generalized bounds for convex multistage stochastic programs

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, H; Fandel, G; Trockel, W; Basile, A; Drexl, A; Dawid, H; Inderfurth, K; Kürsten, W; Schittko, U

    2005-01-01

    This work was completed during my tenure as a scientific assistant and d- toral student at the Institute for Operations Research at the University of St. Gallen. During that time, I was involved in several industry projects in the field of power management, on the occasion of which I was repeatedly c- fronted with complex decision problems under uncertainty. Although usually hard to solve, I quickly learned to appreciate the benefit of stochastic progr- ming models and developed a strong interest in their theoretical properties. Motivated both by practical questions and theoretical concerns, I became p- ticularly interested in the art of finding tight bounds on the optimal value of a given model. The present work attempts to make a contribution to this important branch of stochastic optimization theory. In particular, it aims at extending some classical bounding methods to broader problem classes of practical relevance. This book was accepted as a doctoral thesis by the University of St. Gallen in June 2004.1...

  12. Phenomenological bounds in inclusive neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubrecht, G.J. II; Takasugi, E.; Tanaka, K.

    1975-01-01

    Using expressions for the ν and anti ν charged and neutral current cross sections and the electroproduction structure function integral and positivity requirements of the sea contribution, bounds are obtained on sigma/sup anti nu N//sigma/sup anti nu N/, and sigma/sup anti nu N//sub nc//sigma/sup nu N//sub nc/ in the standard model. A bound on sigma/sup anti nu N//sigma/sup nu N/ obtained with a V + A term anti p'γ/sub mu/(1-γ 5 )n is used to rule out such a term in the current. A plot of sigma/sup nu N//sub nc/ + sigma/sup anti nu N//sub nc/ versus sigma/sup nu N//sub nc/ - sigma/sup anti nu N//sub nc/ is introduced to analyze the neutral current data. A new relation connecting moments of y and y distributions at a particular point y/sub n/ for ν and anti ν interactions is found. The results do not depend on the neutral current data

  13. Search for a bound K− pp system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camerini P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Data from the K− absorption reaction on 6,7Li, 9Be, 13C and 16O have recently been collected by FINUDA at the DAΦNE φ-factory (Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati-INFN, following an earlier lower statitics run on 12C and some other targets. FINUDA is a high acceptance magnetic spectrometer which performed a wide range of studies by detecting the charged particles and neutrons exiting the targets after the absorption event. In this paper it is discussed about the study of the A(K− , Λp reaction in the context of the search for deeply bound $ar{K}$ - nuclear states. The observation of a bump in the Λp invariant mass distribution is discussed in terms of a possible signature of a deeply bound K− pp kaonic cluster as well as of more conventional physics. An overview of the experimental situation in this field will be given.

  14. USE OF BOUNDING ANALYSES TO ESTIMATE THE PREFORMANCE OF A SEISMICALLY ISOLATED STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ÖZDEMİR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Current design approach for seismic isolated structures is to perform bounding analyses. These analyses provide an envelope for the response of the seismic isolated structure rather than focusing on the actual performance. In this study, the success of bounding analyses to estimate performance of a seismic isolated structure, in which the isolation is provided by means of lead rubber bearings (LRBs, is evaluated in a comparative manner. For this purpose, nonlinear response history analyses were performed under the effect of bidirectional ground motion excitations. In bounding analyses, non-deteriorating hysteretic representations were used to model the hysteretic behavior of LRBs. On the other hand, to estimate the actual performance of both the superstructure and isolator units, deteriorating hysteretic idealizations were employed. The deterioration in strength of LRBs was defined as a function of temperature rise in the lead core. The analyzed structure is an existing seismically isolated hospital building and analytically modeled in accordance with its reported design properties for both isolation units and superstructure. Results obtained from analyses where LRBs are idealized by both deteriorating and non-deteriorating hysteretic representations are used in the comparisons. The response quantities used in the comparisons are maximum isolator displacement, maximum isolator force, maximum absolute floor acceleration, and maximum relative story displacements. In an average sense, bounding analyses is found to provide conservative estimates for the selected response quantities and fulfills its intended purpose. However, it is revealed that there may be individual cases where bounding analyses fails to provide a safe envelope.

  15. Experimental and theoretical study of bound and quasibound states of Ce{sup -}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, C. W.; Gibson, N. D.; Li, Y.-G.; Matyas, D. J.; Alton, R. M.; Lou, S. E.; Field, R. L. III; Hanstorp, D.; Pan, Lin; Beck, Donald R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Denison University, Granville, Ohio 43023 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The negative ion of cerium is investigated experimentally with tunable infrared laser photodetachment spectroscopy and theoretically with relativistic configuration interaction in the continuum formalism. The relative cross section for neutral atom production is measured with a crossed ion-beam-laser-beam apparatus over the photon energy range of 0.54-0.75 eV. A rich resonance spectrum is revealed near the threshold with, at least, 12 peaks observed due to transitions from bound states of Ce{sup -} to either bound or quasibound excited states of the negative ion. Theoretical calculations of the photodetachment cross sections enable identification of the transitions responsible for the measured peaks. Two of the peaks are due to electric dipole-allowed bound-bound transitions in Ce{sup -}, making cerium only the second atomic negative ion that has been demonstrated to support multiple bound states of opposite parity. In addition, combining the experimental data with the theoretical analysis determines the electron affinity of cerium to be 0.628(10) eV and the fine structure splitting of the ground state of Ce{sup -} ({sup 4} H{sub 7/2}-{sup 4} H{sub 9/2}) to be 0.097 75(4) eV.

  16. Reducing Conservatism of Analytic Transient Response Bounds via Shaping Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Aiyueh; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jan, Jiann-Woei; Grigoriadis, Karolos; Hua, Tuyen (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Recent results show that the peak transient response of a linear system to bounded energy inputs can be computed using the energy-to-peak gain of the system. However, analytically computed peak response bound can be conservative for a class of class bounded energy signals, specifically pulse trains generated from jet firings encountered in space vehicles. In this paper, shaping filters are proposed as a Methodology to reduce the conservatism of peak response analytic bounds. This Methodology was applied to a realistic Space Station assembly operation subject to jet firings. The results indicate that shaping filters indeed reduce the predicted peak response bounds.

  17. Degenerate quantum codes and the quantum Hamming bound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Klappenecker, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The parameters of a nondegenerate quantum code must obey the Hamming bound. An important open problem in quantum coding theory is whether the parameters of a degenerate quantum code can violate this bound for nondegenerate quantum codes. In this article we show that Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes, over a prime power alphabet q≥5, cannot beat the quantum Hamming bound. We prove a quantum version of the Griesmer bound for the CSS codes, which allows us to strengthen the Rains' bound that an [[n,k,d

  18. Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gál, A.; Hansen, A. K.; Koucký, Michal; Pudlák, Pavel; Viola, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 10 (2013), s. 6611-6627 ISSN 0018-9448 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bounded-depth circuits * error-correcting codes * hashing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.650, year: 2013 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6578188

  19. Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gál, A.; Hansen, A. K.; Koucký, Michal; Pudlák, Pavel; Viola, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 10 (2013), s. 6611-6627 ISSN 0018-9448 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bounded-depth circuits * error -correcting codes * hashing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.650, year: 2013 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6578188

  20. Structure and dynamics of weakly bound complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skouteris, D.

    1998-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of weakly bound complexes involving a methane molecule. Studies of these Van der Waals complexes can give valuable information on the relevant intermolecular dynamics and promote the understanding of the interactions between molecules (which can ultimately lead to chemical reactions). Especially interesting are complexes involving molecules of high symmetry (e.g. tetrahedral, such as methane) because of the unusual effects arising from it (selection rules, nuclear Spin statistical weights etc.). The infrared spectrum of the Van der Waals complex between a CH 4 and a N 2 O molecule has been recorded and most of it has been assigned in the region of the N - O stretch (approximately 2225.0 cm -1 ). Despite the fact that this is really a weakly bound complex, it is nevertheless rigid enough so that the standard model for asymmetric top spectra can be applied to it with the usual quantum numbers. From the value of the inertial defect, it turns out that the methane unit is locked in a rigid configuration within the complex rather than freely rotating. The intermolecular distance as well as the tilting angle of the N 2 O linear unit are determined from the rotational constants. The complex itself turns out to have a T - shaped configuration. The infrared spectrum of the Ar - CH 4 complex at the ν 4 (bending) band of methane is also assigned. This is different from the previous one in that the methane unit rotates almost freely Within the complex. As a result, the quantum numbers used to classify rovibrational energy levels include these of the free unit. The concept of 'overall symmetry' is made use of to rationalise selection rules in various sub-bands of the spectrum. Moreover, new terms in the potential anisotropy Hamiltonian are calculated through the use of the overall symmetry concept. These are termed 'mixed anisotropy' terms since they involve both rotational and vibrational degrees of

  1. Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, J.

    2008-01-01

    The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to χ -14 , depending on the hidden photon mass. Furthermore, it is pointed point out that helioscopes looking for solar axions are also sensitive to hidden photons. The recent results of the CAST collaboration are used to further constrain the mixing parameter χ at low masses (m γ' <1 eV) where the luminosity bound is weaker. In this regime the solar hidden photon ux has a sizable contribution of longitudinally polarized hidden photons of low energy which are invisible for current helioscopes. (orig.)

  2. Frenetic Bounds on the Entropy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Christian

    2017-10-01

    We give a systematic derivation of positive lower bounds for the expected entropy production (EP) rate in classical statistical mechanical systems obeying a dynamical large deviation principle. The logic is the same for the return to thermodynamic equilibrium as it is for steady nonequilibria working under the condition of local detailed balance. We recover there recently studied "uncertainty" relations for the EP, appearing in studies about the effectiveness of mesoscopic machines. In general our refinement of the positivity of the expected EP rate is obtained in terms of a positive and even function of the expected current(s) which measures the dynamical activity in the system, a time-symmetric estimate of the changes in the system's configuration. Also underdamped diffusions can be included in the analysis.

  3. Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo

    2016-01-01

    Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim...... rational choice behaviour focuses on how the latter approach can be seriously taken into account within transport applications. As the editors discuss in the introduction, a true optimal choice can only be made if an individual has full and perfect information of all relevant attributes in his/her choice...... set. An individual is said to demonstrate bounded rational behaviour if he/she does not systematically consider all attributes deemed relevant for the decision problem at hand, does not consider all choice options and/or does not choose the best choice alternative. Such simplified representation...

  4. Diffraction scattering of strongly bound system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmichev, V.E.

    1982-04-01

    The scattering of a hadron on a strongly bound system of two hadrons (dihadron) is considered in the high-energy limit for the relative hadron-dihadron motion. The dihadron scatterer motion and the internal interaction are included in our consideration. It is shown that only small values of the internal transfer momentum of dihadron particles bring the principal contribution to the three-particle propagator in eikonal approximation. On the basis of the exact analytical solution of the integral equation for the total Green function the scattering amplitude is derived. It is shown that the scattering amplitude contains only single, double, and triple scattering terms. The three new terms to the Glauber formula for the total cross section are obtained. These terms decrease both the true total hadron-hadron cross section and the screening correction. (orig.)

  5. Transient response in granular bounded heap flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hongyi; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.

    2017-11-01

    Heap formation, a canonical granular flow, is common in industry and is also found in nature. Here, we study the transition between steady flow states in quasi-2D bounded heaps by suddenly changing the feed rate from one fixed value to another. During the transition, in both experiments and discrete element method simulations, an additional wedge of flowing particles propagates over the rising free surface. The downstream edge of the wedge - the wedge front - moves downstream with velocity inversely proportional to the square root of time. An additional longer duration transient process continues after the wedge front reaches the downstream wall. The transient flux profile during the entire transition is well modeled by a diffusion-like equation derived from local mass balance and a local linear relation between the flux and the surface slope. Scalings for the transient kinematics during the flow transitions are developed based on the flux profiles. Funded by NSF Grant CBET-1511450.

  6. Similarity problems and completely bounded maps

    CERN Document Server

    Pisier, Gilles

    2001-01-01

    These notes revolve around three similarity problems, appearing in three different contexts, but all dealing with the space B(H) of all bounded operators on a complex Hilbert space H. The first one deals with group representations, the second one with C* -algebras and the third one with the disc algebra. We describe them in detail in the introduction which follows. This volume is devoted to the background necessary to understand these three problems, to the solutions that are known in some special cases and to numerous related concepts, results, counterexamples or extensions which their investigation has generated. While the three problems seem different, it is possible to place them in a common framework using the key concept of "complete boundedness", which we present in detail. Using this notion, the three problems can all be formulated as asking whether "boundedness" implies "complete boundedness" for linear maps satisfying certain additional algebraic identities. Two chapters have been added on the HALMO...

  7. 'Critical' behaviour of weakly bound systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassaut, M.; Lombard, R.J.; Bulboaca, I.

    1995-11-01

    The class of 3-dimensional finite range or similar potentials λW(r) is discussed, depending on a strength constant λ. The behaviour of the eigenvalue E as function of λ-λ c is studied, where λ c is the critical value at the transition from 0 → 1 bound state. For the l=0 case, E α (λ-λ c ) 2 was found, whereas the relationship is linear for l≥1. Treating l as a continuous parameter in the radial Schroedinger equation, the evolution of the power-law between l=0 and l=1 is given. Besides spherically symmetric scalar potentials, the case of a repulsive scalar potential combined with a spin-orbit component of the Thomas form is also discussed. (author)

  8. Entanglement negativity bounds for fermionic Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisert, Jens; Eisler, Viktor; Zimborás, Zoltán

    2018-04-01

    The entanglement negativity is a versatile measure of entanglement that has numerous applications in quantum information and in condensed matter theory. It can not only efficiently be computed in the Hilbert space dimension, but for noninteracting bosonic systems, one can compute the negativity efficiently in the number of modes. However, such an efficient computation does not carry over to the fermionic realm, the ultimate reason for this being that the partial transpose of a fermionic Gaussian state is no longer Gaussian. To provide a remedy for this state of affairs, in this work, we introduce efficiently computable and rigorous upper and lower bounds to the negativity, making use of techniques of semidefinite programming, building upon the Lagrangian formulation of fermionic linear optics, and exploiting suitable products of Gaussian operators. We discuss examples in quantum many-body theory and hint at applications in the study of topological properties at finite temperature.

  9. Dilation volumes of sets of bounded perimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan

    , this derivative coincides up to sign with the directional derivative of the covariogram of A in direction u. By known results for the covariogram, this derivative can therefore be expressed by the cosine transform of the surface area measure of A. We extend this result to sets Q that are at most countable and use...... it to determine the derivative of the contact distribution function of a stationary random closed set at zero. A variant for uncountable Q is given, too. The proofs are based on approximation of the characteristic function of A by smooth functions of bounded variation and showing corresponding formulas for them....

  10. Hyperquarks and bosonic preon bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Michael L.; Buchmann, Alfons J.

    2009-01-01

    In a model in which leptons, quarks, and the recently introduced hyperquarks are built up from two fundamental spin-(1/2) preons, the standard model weak gauge bosons emerge as preon bound states. In addition, the model predicts a host of new composite gauge bosons, in particular, those responsible for hyperquark and proton decay. Their presence entails a left-right symmetric extension of the standard model weak interactions and a scheme for a partial and grand unification of nongravitational interactions based on, respectively, the effective gauge groups SU(6) P and SU(9) G . This leads to a prediction of the Weinberg angle at low energies in good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, using evolution equations for the effective coupling strengths, we calculate the partial and grand unification scales, the hyperquark mass scale, as well as the mass and decay rate of the lightest hyperhadron.

  11. Factorization Procedure for Harmonically Bound Brownian Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omolo, JK.

    2006-01-01

    The method of factorization to solve the problem of the one-dimensional harmonically bound Brownian particle was applied. Assuming the the rapidily fluctuating random force is Gaussian and has an infinitely short correlation time, explicit expressions for the position-position,velocity-velocity, and the position-velocity correlation functions, which are also use to write down appropriate distribution functions were used. The correlation and distribution functions for the complex quantity (amplititude) which provides the expressions for the position and velocity of the particle are calculated. Finally, Fokker-Planck equations for the joint probability distribution functions for the amplititude and it's complex conjugate as well as for the position and velocity of the particle are obtained. (author)

  12. Lower complexity bounds for lifted inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    instances of the model. Numerous approaches for such “lifted inference” techniques have been proposed. While it has been demonstrated that these techniques will lead to significantly more efficient inference on some specific models, there are only very recent and still quite restricted results that show...... the feasibility of lifted inference on certain syntactically defined classes of models. Lower complexity bounds that imply some limitations for the feasibility of lifted inference on more expressive model classes were established earlier in Jaeger (2000; Jaeger, M. 2000. On the complexity of inference about...... that under the assumption that NETIME≠ETIME, there is no polynomial lifted inference algorithm for knowledge bases of weighted, quantifier-, and function-free formulas. Further strengthening earlier results, this is also shown to hold for approximate inference and for knowledge bases not containing...

  13. Surface-bound states in nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Antonov, Denis; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Bester, Gabriel

    2017-05-01

    We show via ab initio calculations and an electrostatic model that the notoriously low, but positive, electron affinity of bulk diamond becomes negative for hydrogen passivated nanodiamonds and argue that this peculiar situation (type-II offset with a vacuum level at nearly midgap) and the three further conditions: (i) a surface dipole with positive charge on the outside layer, (ii) a spherical symmetry, and (iii) a dielectric mismatch at the surface, results in the emergence of a peculiar type of surface state localized just outside the nanodiamond. These states are referred to as "surface-bound states" and have consequently a strong environmental sensitivity. These type of states should exist in any nanostructure with negative electron affinity. We further quantify the band offsets of different type of nanostructures as well as the exciton binding energy and contrast the results with results for "conventional" silicon quantum dots.

  14. Volume Stability of Bitumen Bound Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers results of laboratory investigations on the volume stability of masonry units incorporating waste materials bound with bitumen (Bitublocks, due to moisture adsorption, thermal exposure and vacuum saturation. The materials used were steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, and 50 pen bitumen. The samples were produced in hot mix method, compacted, then exposed to moist and temperature. It was found that moisture adsorption from the environment caused the Bitublock to expand. The samples with less intense curing regime experienced lower expansion and became stable faster, and vice versa. Under thermal condition (at 70°C, the samples with less intense curing regime underwent higher expansion, and vice versa. They were also highly reversible. Their volume stability was found unique under water exposure. The expansion on first vacuum saturation cycle was irreversible, then largely reversible on the following cycles.

  15. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G. R.; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M.; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  16. Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rupert; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia; Upton, Phaedra; Coussens, Jamie; Allen, Michael; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin; Boles, Austin; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil G R; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Carpenter, Brett M; Célérier, Bernard; Chamberlain, Calum; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon; Craw, Lisa; Doan, Mai-Linh; Eccles, Jennifer; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Jeppson, Tamara; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Timothy; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Massiot, Cécile; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luiz; Morgan, Chance; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, Andre; Nishikawa, Osamu; Prior, David; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha; Schleicher, Anja; Schmitt, Douglas R; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Williams, Jack; Woodman, Nick; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent. Hydrothermal conditions control the stability of mineral phases and hence frictional-mechanical processes associated with earthquake rupture cycles, but there are few temperature and fluid pressure data from active plate-bounding faults. Here we report results from a borehole drilled into the upper part of the Alpine Fault, which is late in its cycle of stress accumulation and expected to rupture in a magnitude 8 earthquake in the coming decades. The borehole (depth 893 metres) revealed a pore fluid pressure gradient exceeding 9 ± 1 per cent above hydrostatic levels and an average geothermal gradient of 125 ± 55 degrees Celsius per kilometre within the hanging wall of the fault. These extreme hydrothermal conditions result from rapid fault movement, which transports rock and heat from depth, and topographically driven fluid movement that concentrates heat into valleys. Shear heating may occur within the fault but is not required to explain our observations. Our data and models show that highly anomalous fluid pressure and temperature gradients in the upper part of the seismogenic zone can be created by positive feedbacks between processes of fault slip, rock fracturing and alteration, and landscape development at plate-bounding faults.

  17. Resignation syndrome: Catatonia? Culture-bound?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl eSallin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resignation syndrome (RS designates a long-standing disorder predominately affecting psychologically traumatised children and adolescents in the midst of a strenuous and lengthy migration process. Typically a depressive onset is followed by gradual withdrawal progressing via stupor into a state that prompts tube feeding and is characterised by failure to respond even to painful stimuli. The patient is seemingly unconscious. Recovery ensues within months to years and is claimed to be dependent on the restoration of hope to the family.Descriptions of disorders resembling RS can be found in the literature and the condition is unlikely novel. Nevertheless, the magnitude and geographical distribution stand out. Several hundred cases have been reported exclusively in Sweden in the past decade prompting the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare to recognise RS as a separate diagnostic entity. The currently prevailing stress hypothesis fails to account for the regional distribution and contributes little to treatment. Consequently, a re-evaluation of diagnostics and treatment is required. Psychogenic catatonia is proposed to supply the best fit with the clinical presentation. Treatment response, altered brain metabolism or preserved awareness would support this hypothesis.Epidemiological data suggests culture-bound beliefs and expectations to generate and direct symptom expression and we argue that culture-bound psychogenesis can accommodate the endemic distribution.Last, we review recent models of predictive coding indicating how expectation processes are crucially involved in the placebo and nocebo effect, delusions and conversion disorders. Building on this theoretical framework we propose a neurobiological model of RS in which the impact of overwhelming negative expectations are directly causative of the down-regulation of higher order and lower order behavioural systems in particularly vulnerable individuals.

  18. Models for light QCD bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaCourse, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    After a brief overview of Regge, tower, and heavy-quark experimental data, this thesis examines two massless wave equations relevant to quark bound states. We establish general conditions on the Lorentz scalar and Lorentz vector potentials which yield arbitrary leading Regge trajectories for the case of circular classical motion. A semi-classical approximation which includes radial motion reproduces remarkably well the exact solutions. Conditions for tower structure are examined, and found to be incompatible with conditions which give a Nambu stringlike Regge slope. The author then proposes a generalization of the usual potential model of quark bound states in which the confining flux tube is a dynamical object carrying both angular momentum and energy. The Q bar Q-string system with spinless quarks is quantized using an implicit operator technique and the resulting relativistic wave equation is solved. For heavy quarks the usual Schroedinger valence-quark model is recovered. The Regge slope with light quarks agree with the classical rotating-string result and is significantly larger and the effects of short-range forces are also considered. A relativistic generalization of the quantized flux tube model predicts the glueball ground state mass to be √3/α' ≅ 1.9 GeV where α' is the normal Regge slope. The groundstate as well as excited levels like considerably above the expectations of previous models and also above various proposed experimental candidates. The glueball Regge slope is only about three-eighths that for valence quark hadrons. A semi-classical calculation of the Regge slope is in good agreement with a numerically exact value

  19. Coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Javier

    2018-05-01

    This article discusses the description of wall-bounded turbulence as a deterministic high-dimensional dynamical system of interacting coherent structures, defined as eddies with enough internal dynamics to behave relatively autonomously from any remaining incoherent part of the flow. The guiding principle is that randomness is not a property, but a methodological choice of what to ignore in the flow, and that a complete understanding of turbulence, including the possibility of control, requires that it be kept to a minimum. After briefly reviewing the underlying low-order statistics of flows at moderate Reynolds numbers, the article examines what two-point statistics imply for the decomposition of the flow into individual eddies. Intense eddies are examined next, including their temporal evolution, and shown to satisfy many of the properties required for coherence. In particular, it is shown that coherent structures larger than the Corrsin scale are a natural consequence of the shear. In wall-bounded turbulence, they can be classified into coherent dispersive waves and transient bursts. The former are found in the viscous layer near the wall and as very-large structures spanning the boundary layer thickness. Although they are shear-driven, these waves have enough internal structure to maintain a uniform advection velocity. Conversely, bursts exist at all scales, are characteristic of the logarithmic layer, and interact almost linearly with the shear. While the waves require a wall to determine their length scale, the bursts are essentially independent from it. The article concludes with a brief review of our present theoretical understanding of turbulent structures, and with a list of open problems and future perspectives.

  20. Stimulation of Tetrabromobisphenol A Binding to Soil Humic Substances by Birnessite and the Chemical Structure of the Bound Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Fei; Gu, Xueyuan; Gu, Cheng; Xie, Jinyu; Xie, Xianchuan; Jiang, Bingqi; Wang, Yongfeng; Ertunc, Tanya; Schäffer, Andreas; Ji, Rong

    2016-06-21

    Studies have shown the main fate of the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in soils is the formation of bound residues, and mechanisms on it are less-understood. This study investigated the effect of birnessite (δ-MnO2), a naturally occurring oxidant in soils, on the formation of bound residues. (14)C-labeled TBBPA was used to investigate the pH dependency of TBBPA bound-residue formation to two soil humic acids (HAs), Elliott soil HA and Steinkreuz soil HA, in the presence of δ-MnO2. The binding of TBBPA and its transformation products to both HAs was markedly increased (3- to 17-fold) at all pH values in the presence of δ-MnO2. More bound residues were formed with the more aromatic Elliott soil HA than with Steinkreuz soil HA. Gel-permeation chromatography revealed a uniform distribution of the bound residues within Steinkreuz soil HA and a nonuniform distribution within Elliott soil HA. (13)C NMR spectroscopy of (13)C-TBBPA residues bound to (13)C-depleted HA suggested that in the presence of δ-MnO2, binding occurred via ester and ether and other types of covalent bonds besides HA sequestration. The insights gained in this study contribute to an understanding of the formation of TBBPA bound residues facilitated by δ-MnO2.

  1. The neural basis of bounded rational behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coricelli, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. We apply a cognitive hierarchy model to classify subject’s choices in the experimental game according to the degree of strategic reasoning so that we can identify the neural substrates of different levels of strategizing. We found a correlation between levels of strategic reasoning and activity in a neural network related to mentalizing, i.e. the ability to think about other’s thoughts and mental states. Moreover, brain data showed how complex cognitive processes subserve the higher level of reasoning about others. We describe how a cognitive hierarchy model fits both behavioural and brain data.

    La racionalidad limitada es un fenómeno observado de manera frecuente tanto en juegos experimentales como en situaciones cotidianas. La Neuroeconomía puede mejorar la comprensión de los procesos mentales que caracterizan la racionalidad limitada; en paralelo nos puede ayudar a comprender comportamientos que violan el equilibrio. Nuestro trabajo presenta resultados recientes sobre la bases neuronales del razonamiento estratégico (y sus límite en juegos competitivos —como el juego del “beauty contest”. Estudiamos las bases neuronales del comportamiento estratégico en juegos con interacción entre sujetos usando resonancia magnética funcional (fMRI. Las decisiones de los participantes se clasifican acorde al grado de razonamiento estratégico: el llamado modelo de Jerarquías Cognitivas. Los resultados muestran una correlación entre niveles de

  2. Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, A.; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucky, Michal

    2013-01-01

    We bound the minimum number w of wires needed to compute any (asymptotically good) error-correcting code C:{0,1}Ω(n)→{0,1}n with minimum distance Ω(n), using unbounded fan-in circuits of depth d with arbitrary gates. Our main results are: 1) if d=2, then w=Θ(n (lgn/lglgn)2); 2) if d=3, then w...

  3. Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gál, Anna; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucký, Michal

    2012-01-01

    We bound the minimum number w of wires needed to compute any (asymptotically good) error-correcting code C:{0,1}Ω(n) -> {0,1}n with minimum distance Ω(n), using unbounded fan-in circuits of depth d with arbitrary gates. Our main results are: (1) If d=2 then w = Θ(n ({log n/ log log n})2). (2) If d...

  4. Establishing bounding internal dose estimates for thorium activities at Rocky Flats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsh, Brant A; Rich, Bryce L; Chew, Melton H; Morris, Robert L; Sharfi, Mutty; Rolfes, Mark R

    2008-07-01

    As part of an evaluation of a Special Exposure Cohort petition filed on behalf of workers at the Rocky Flats Plant, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was required to demonstrate that bounding values could be established for radiation doses due to the potential intake of all radionuclides present at the facility. The main radioactive elements of interest at Rocky Flats were plutonium and uranium, but much smaller quantities of several other elements, including thorium, were occasionally handled at the site. Bounding potential doses from thorium has proven challenging at other sites due to the early historical difficulty in detecting this element through urinalysis methods and the relatively high internal dose delivered per unit intake. This paper reports the results of NIOSH's investigation of the uses of thorium at Rocky Flats and provides bounding dose reconstructions for these operations. During this investigation, NIOSH reviewed unclassified reports, unclassified extracts of classified materials, material balance and inventory ledgers, monthly progress reports from various groups, and health physics field logbooks, and conducted interviews with former Rocky Flats workers. Thorium operations included: (1) an experimental metal forming project with 240 kg of thorium in 1960; (2) the use of pre-formed parts in weapons mockups; (3) the removal of Th from U; (4) numerous analytical procedures involving trace quantities of thorium; and (5) the possible experimental use of thorium as a mold coating compound. The thorium handling operations at Rocky Flats were limited in scope, well-monitored and documented, and potential doses can be bounded.

  5. Persistence-Based Branch Misprediction Bounds for WCET Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Branch prediction is an important feature of pipelined processors to achieve high performance. However, it can lead to overly pessimistic worst-case execution time (WCET) bounds when being modeled too conservatively. This paper presents bounds on the number of branch mispredictions for local...... dynamic branch predictors. To handle interferences between branch instructions we use the notion of persistence, a concept that is also found in cache analyses. The bounds apply to branches in general, not only to branches that close a loop. Furthermore, the bounds can be easily integrated into integer...... linear programming formulations of the WCET problem. An evaluation on a number of benchmarks shows that with these bounds, dynamic branch prediction does not necessarily lead to higher WCET bounds than static prediction schemes....

  6. Architecture-independent power bound for vibration energy harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, E; Le, C P; Mitcheson, P D; Yeatman, E M

    2013-01-01

    The maximum output power of energy harvesters driven by harmonic vibrations is well known for a range of specific harvester architectures. An architecture-independent bound based on the mechanical input-power also exists and gives a strict limit on achievable power with one mechanical degree of freedom, but is a least upper bound only for lossless devices. We report a new theoretical bound on the output power of vibration energy harvesters that includes parasitic, linear mechanical damping while still being architecture independent. This bound greatly improves the previous bound at moderate force amplitudes and is compared to the performance of established harvester architectures which are shown to agree with it in limiting cases. The bound is a hard limit on achievable power with one mechanical degree of freedom and can not be circumvented by transducer or power-electronic-interface design

  7. Sharp bounds for periodic solutions of Lipschitzian differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zevin, A A

    2009-01-01

    A general system of Lipschitzian differential equations, containing simultaneously terms without delay and with arbitrary constant and time-varying delays, is considered. For the autonomous case, a lower bound for the period of nonconstant periodic solutions, expressed in the respective supremum Lipschitz constants, is found. For nonautonomous periodic equations, explicit upper bounds for the amplitudes and maximum derivatives of periodic solutions are obtained. For all n ≥ 2, the bounds do not depend on n and, in general, are different from that for n = 1. All the bounds are sharp; they are attained in linear differential equations with piece-wise constant deviating arguments. A relation between the obtained bounds and the sharp bounds in other metrics is established

  8. ``Carbon Credits'' for Resource-Bounded Computations Using Amortised Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Steffen; Loidl, Hans-Wolfgang; Hammond, Kevin; Scaife, Norman; Hofmann, Martin

    Bounding resource usage is important for a number of areas, notably real-time embedded systems and safety-critical systems. In this paper, we present a fully automatic static type-based analysis for inferring upper bounds on resource usage for programs involving general algebraic datatypes and full recursion. Our method can easily be used to bound any countable resource, without needing to revisit proofs. We apply the analysis to the important metrics of worst-case execution time, stack- and heap-space usage. Our results from several realistic embedded control applications demonstrate good matches between our inferred bounds and measured worst-case costs for heap and stack usage. For time usage we infer good bounds for one application. Where we obtain less tight bounds, this is due to the use of software floating-point libraries.

  9. A simple but usually fast branch-and-bound algorithm for the capacitated facility location problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a simple branch-and-bound method based on Lagrangean relaxation and subgradient optimization for solving large instances of the capacitated facility location problem (CFLP) to optimality. To guess a primal solution to the Lagrangean dual, we average solutions to the Lagrangean...... subproblem. Branching decisions are then based on this estimated (fractional) primal solution. Extensive numerical results reveal that the method is much faster and more robust than other state-of-the-art methods for solving the CFLP exactly....

  10. Interaction of solitons and the formation of bound states in the generalized Lugiato-Lefever equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Rivas, Pedro; Gomila, Damia; Colet, Pere; Gelens, Lendert

    2017-07-01

    Bound states, also called soliton molecules, can form as a result of the interaction between individual solitons. This interaction is mediated through the tails of each soliton that overlap with one another. When such soliton tails have spatial oscillations, locking or pinning between two solitons can occur at fixed distances related with the wavelength of these oscillations, thus forming a bound state. In this work, we study the formation and stability of various types of bound states in the Lugiato-Lefever equation by computing their interaction potential and by analyzing the properties of the oscillatory tails. Moreover, we study the effect of higher order dispersion and noise in the pump intensity on the dynamics of bound states. In doing so, we reveal that perturbations to the Lugiato-Lefever equation that maintain reversibility, such as fourth order dispersion, lead to bound states that tend to separate from one another in time when noise is added. This separation force is determined by the shape of the envelope of the interaction potential, as well as an additional Brownian ratchet effect. In systems with broken reversibility, such as third order dispersion, this ratchet effect continues to push solitons within a bound state apart. However, the force generated by the envelope of the potential is now such that it pushes the solitons towards each other, leading to a null net drift of the solitons. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Theory and Applications of the Lugiato-Lefever Equation", edited by Yanne K. Chembo, Damia Gomila, Mustapha Tlidi, Curtis R. Menyuk.

  11. Lying for the Greater Good: Bounded Rationality in a Team

    OpenAIRE

    Oktay Sürücü

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the interaction between fully and boundedly rational agents in situations where their interests are perfectly aligned. The cognitive limitations of the boundedly rational agent do not allow him to fully understand the market conditions and lead him to take non-optimal decisions in some situations. Using categorization to model bounded rationality, we show that the fully rational agent can nudge, i.e., he can manipulate the information he sends and decrease the exp...

  12. Upper bounds on minimum cardinality of exact and approximate reducts

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we consider the notions of exact and approximate decision reducts for binary decision tables. We present upper bounds on minimum cardinality of exact and approximate reducts depending on the number of rows (objects) in the decision table. We show that the bound for exact reducts is unimprovable in the general case, and the bound for approximate reducts is almost unimprovable in the general case. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. Entropic Lower Bound for Distinguishability of Quantum States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a system randomly prepared in a number of quantum states, we present a lower bound for the distinguishability of the quantum states, that is, the success probability of determining the states in the form of entropy. When the states are all pure, acquiring the entropic lower bound requires only the density operator and the number of the possible states. This entropic bound shows a relation between the von Neumann entropy and the distinguishability.

  14. Uniform Bounds for Black--Scholes Implied Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Tehranchi, Michael Rummine

    2016-01-01

    In this note, Black--Scholes implied volatility is expressed in terms of various optimization problems. From these representations, upper and lower bounds are derived which hold uniformly across moneyness and call price. Various symmetries of the Black--Scholes formula are exploited to derive new bounds from old. These bounds are used to reprove asymptotic formulas for implied volatility at extreme strikes and/or maturities. the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics 10.1137/14095248X

  15. Uniform bounds for Black--Scholes implied volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Tehranchi, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    In this note, Black--Scholes implied volatility is expressed in terms of various optimisation problems. From these representations, upper and lower bounds are derived which hold uniformly across moneyness and call price. Various symmetries of the Black--Scholes formula are exploited to derive new bounds from old. These bounds are used to reprove asymptotic formulae for implied volatility at extreme strikes and/or maturities.

  16. On an extension of the space of bounded deformations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kružík, Martin; Zimmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2012), s. 75-91 ISSN 0232-2064 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bounded sequences of symmetrised gradients * bounded deformation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.620, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/kruzik-on an extension of the space of bounded deformations.pdf

  17. General bounds in Hybrid Natural Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germán, Gabriel; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Sussman, Roberto A.; Tapia, José

    2017-12-01

    Recently we have studied in great detail a model of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) by constructing two simple effective field theories. These two versions of the model allow inflationary energy scales as small as the electroweak scale in one of them or as large as the Grand Unification scale in the other, therefore covering the whole range of possible energy scales. In any case the inflationary sector of the model is of the form V(phi)=V0 (1+a cos(phi/f)) where 0waterfall field. One interesting characteristic of this model is that the slow-roll parameter epsilon(phi) is a non-monotonic function of phi presenting a maximum close to the inflection point of the potential. Because the scalar spectrum Script Ps(k) of density fluctuations when written in terms of the potential is inversely proportional to epsilon(phi) we find that Script Ps(k) presents a minimum at phimin. The origin of the HNI potential can be traced to a symmetry breaking phenomenon occurring at some energy scale f which gives rise to a (massless) Goldstone boson. Non-perturbative physics at some temperature Tmodels is not common. We use this property of HNI to determine bounds for the inflationary energy scale Δ and for the tensor-to-scalar ratio r.

  18. Probabilistic error bounds for reduced order modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, M.G.; Wang, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H.S., E-mail: abdo@purdue.edu, E-mail: wang1730@purdue.edu, E-mail: abdelkhalik@purdue.edu [Purdue Univ., School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Reduced order modeling has proven to be an effective tool when repeated execution of reactor analysis codes is required. ROM operates on the assumption that the intrinsic dimensionality of the associated reactor physics models is sufficiently small when compared to the nominal dimensionality of the input and output data streams. By employing a truncation technique with roots in linear algebra matrix decomposition theory, ROM effectively discards all components of the input and output data that have negligible impact on reactor attributes of interest. This manuscript introduces a mathematical approach to quantify the errors resulting from the discarded ROM components. As supported by numerical experiments, the introduced analysis proves that the contribution of the discarded components could be upper-bounded with an overwhelmingly high probability. The reverse of this statement implies that the ROM algorithm can self-adapt to determine the level of the reduction needed such that the maximum resulting reduction error is below a given tolerance limit that is set by the user. (author)

  19. Tensor squeezed limits and the Higuchi bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordin, Lorenzo [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); Creminelli, Paolo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Mirbabayi, Mehrdad [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Noreña, Jorge, E-mail: lbordin@sissa.it, E-mail: creminel@ictp.it, E-mail: mehrdadm@ias.edu, E-mail: jorge.norena@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Universidad 330, Curauma, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2016-09-01

    We point out that tensor consistency relations—i.e. the behavior of primordial correlation functions in the limit a tensor mode has a small momentum—are more universal than scalar consistency relations. They hold in the presence of multiple scalar fields and as long as anisotropies are diluted exponentially fast. When de Sitter isometries are approximately respected during inflation this is guaranteed by the Higuchi bound, which forbids the existence of light particles with spin: de Sitter space can support scalar hair but no curly hair. We discuss two indirect ways to look for the violation of tensor consistency relations in observations, as a signature of models in which inflation is not a strong isotropic attractor, such as solid inflation: (a) graviton exchange contribution to the scalar four-point function; (b) quadrupolar anisotropy of the scalar power spectrum due to super-horizon tensor modes. This anisotropy has a well-defined statistics which can be distinguished from cases in which the background has a privileged direction.

  20. Boudot's Range-Bounded Commitment Scheme Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhengjun; Liu, Lihua

    Checking whether a committed integer lies in a specific interval has many cryptographic applications. In Eurocrypt'98, Chan et al. proposed an instantiation (CFT Proof). Based on CFT, Boudot presented a popular range-bounded commitment scheme in Eurocrypt'2000. Both CFT Proof and Boudot Proof are based on the encryption E(x, r)=g^xh^r mod n, where n is an RSA modulus whose factorization is unknown by the prover. They did not use a single base as usual. Thus an increase in cost occurs. In this paper, we show that it suffices to adopt a single base. The cost of the modified Boudot Proof is about half of that of the original scheme. Moreover, the key restriction in the original scheme, i.e., both the discrete logarithm of g in base h and the discrete logarithm of h in base g are unknown by the prover, which is a potential menace to the Boudot Proof, is definitely removed.

  1. Dynamics of water bound to crystalline cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Neill, Hugh; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Petridis, Loukas; He, Junhong; Mamontov, Eugene; Hong, Liang; Urban, Volker; Evans, Barbara; Langan, Paul; Smith, Jeremy C.; Davison, Brian H.

    2017-09-19

    Interactions of water with cellulose are of both fundamental and technological importance. Here, we characterize the properties of water associated with cellulose using deuterium labeling, neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering provided quantitative details about the dynamical relaxation processes that occur and was supported by structural characterization using small-angle neutron scattering and X-ray diffraction. We can unambiguously detect two populations of water associated with cellulose. The first is “non-freezing bound” water that gradually becomes mobile with increasing temperature and can be related to surface water. The second population is consistent with confined water that abruptly becomes mobile at ~260 K, and can be attributed to water that accumulates in the narrow spaces between the microfibrils. Quantitative analysis of the QENS data showed that, at 250 K, the water diffusion coefficient was 0.85 ± 0.04 × 10-10 m2sec-1 and increased to 1.77 ± 0.09 × 10-10 m2sec-1 at 265 K. MD simulations are in excellent agreement with the experiments and support the interpretation that water associated with cellulose exists in two dynamical populations. Our results provide clarity to previous work investigating the states of bound water and provide a new approach for probing water interactions with lignocellulose materials.

  2. Bounding the Higgs boson width through interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Lance J; Li, Ye

    2013-09-13

    We study the change in the diphoton-invariant-mass distribution for Higgs boson decays to two photons, due to interference between the Higgs resonance in gluon fusion and the continuum background amplitude for gg→γγ. Previously, the apparent Higgs mass was found to shift by around 100 MeV in the standard model in the leading-order approximation, which may potentially be experimentally observable. We compute the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the apparent mass shift, which reduce it by about 40%. The apparent mass shift may provide a way to measure, or at least bound, the Higgs boson width at the Large Hadron Collider through "interferometry." We investigate how the shift depends on the Higgs width, in a model that maintains constant Higgs boson signal yields. At Higgs widths above 30 MeV, the mass shift is over 200 MeV and increases with the square root of the width. The apparent mass shift could be measured by comparing with the ZZ* channel, where the shift is much smaller. It might be possible to measure the shift more accurately by exploiting its strong dependence on the Higgs transverse momentum.

  3. Photochemistry of triarylmethane dyes bound to proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indig, Guilherme L.

    1996-04-01

    Triarylmethanes represent a class of cationic dyes whose potential as photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy of neoplastic diseases has never been comprehensively evaluated. Here, the laser-induced photodecomposition of three triarylmethane dyes, crystal violet, ethyl violet, and malachite green, non-covalently bound to bovine serum albumin (a model biological target) was investigated. Upon laser excitation at 532 nm, the bleaching of the corresponding dye-protein molecular complexes follows spectroscopic patterns that suggest the formation of reduced forms of the dyes as major reaction photoproducts. That implies that an electron or hydrogen atom transfer from the protein to the dye's moiety within the guest-host complex is the first step of the photobleaching process. Since the availability of dissolved molecular oxygen was not identified as a limiting factor for the phototransformations to occur, these dyes can be seen as potential phototherapeutic agents for use in hypoxic areas of tumors. These triarylmethane dyes strongly absorb at relatively long wavelengths (absorption maximum around 600 nm; (epsilon) max approximately equals 105 M-1 cm-1), and only minor changes in their absorption characteristics are observed upon binding to the protein. However the binding event leads to a remarkable increase in their fluorescence quantum yield and photoreactivity.

  4. Phenomenology of wall-bounded Newtonian turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, Victor S; Pomyalov, Anna; Procaccia, Itamar; Zilitinkevich, Sergej S

    2006-01-01

    We construct a simple analytic model for wall-bounded turbulence, containing only four adjustable parameters. Two of these parameters are responsible for the viscous dissipation of the components of the Reynolds stress tensor. The other two parameters control the nonlinear relaxation of these objects. The model offers an analytic description of the profiles of the mean velocity and the correlation functions of velocity fluctuations in the entire boundary region, from the viscous sublayer, through the buffer layer, and further into the log-law turbulent region. In particular, the model predicts a very simple distribution of the turbulent kinetic energy in the log-law region between the velocity components: the streamwise component contains a half of the total energy whereas the wall-normal and cross-stream components contain a quarter each. In addition, the model predicts a very simple relation between the von Kármán slope k and the turbulent velocity in the log-law region v+ (in wall units): v+=6k. These predictions are in excellent agreement with direct numerical simulation data and with recent laboratory experiments.

  5. Organically bound tritium analysis in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baglan, N. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Arpajon (France); Kim, S.B. [AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Cossonnet, C. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/STEME/LMRE, Orsay (France); Croudace, I.W.; Warwick, P.E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Fournier, M. [IRSN/DG/DMQ, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Galeriu, D. [IFIN-HH, Horia-Hulubei, Inst. Phys. and Nucl. Eng., Bucharest (Romania); Momoshima, N. [Kyushu University, Radioisotope Ctr., Fukuoka (Japan); Ansoborlo, E. [CEA/DEN/DRCP/CETAMA, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2015-03-15

    Organically bound tritium (OBT) has become of increased interest within the last decade, with a focus on its behaviour and also its analysis, which are important to assess tritium distribution in the environment. In contrast, there are no certified reference materials and no standard analytical method through the international organization related to OBT. In order to resolve this issue, an OBT international working group was created in May 2012. Over 20 labs from around the world participated and submitted their results for the first intercomparison exercise results on potato (Sep 2013). The samples, specially-prepared potatoes, were provided in March 2013 to each participant. Technical information and results from this first exercise are discussed here for all the labs which have realised the five replicates necessary to allow a reliable statistical treatment. The results are encouraging as the increased number of participating labs did not degrade the observed dispersion of the results for a similar activity level. Therefore, the results do not seem to depend on the analytical procedure used. From this work an optimised procedure can start to be developed to deal with OBT analysis and will guide subsequent planned OBT trials by the international group.

  6. Revisiting cosmological bounds on sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Aaron C. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP), Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Martínez, Enrique Fernández [Departamento and Instituto de Física Teórica (IFT), UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Hernández, Pilar; Mena, Olga [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Lattanzi, Massimiliano, E-mail: aaron.vincent@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: enrique.fernandez-martinez@uam.es, E-mail: m.pilar.hernandez@uv.es, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: lattanzi@fe.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Science della Terra, Università di Ferrara and INFN, sezione di Ferrara, Polo Scientifico e Tecnologico, Edificio C Via Saragat, 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We employ state-of-the art cosmological observables including supernova surveys and BAO information to provide constraints on the mass and mixing angle of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino species, showing that cosmology can effectively rule out sterile neutrinos which decay between BBN and the present day. The decoupling of an additional heavy neutrino species can modify the time dependence of the Universe's expansion between BBN and recombination and, in extreme cases, lead to an additional matter-dominated period; while this could naively lead to a younger Universe with a larger Hubble parameter, it could later be compensated by the extra radiation expected in the form of neutrinos from sterile decay. However, recombination-era observables including the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the shift parameter R{sub CMB} and the sound horizon r{sub s} from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) severely constrain this scenario. We self-consistently include the full time-evolution of the coupled sterile neutrino and standard model sectors in an MCMC, showing that if decay occurs after BBN, the sterile neutrino is essentially bounded by the constraint sin{sup 2}θ ∼< 0.026 (m{sub s}/eV){sup −2}.

  7. Nonlinear delay monopoly with bounded rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamics of a monopolistic firm in a continuous-time framework. The firm is assumed to be boundedly rational and to experience time delays in obtaining and implementing information on output. The dynamic adjustment process is based on the gradient of the expected profit. The paper is divided into three parts: we examine delay effects on dynamics caused by one-time delay and two-time delays in the first two parts. Global dynamics and analytical results on local dynamics are numerically confirmed in the third part. Four main results are demonstrated. First, the stability switch from stability to instability occurs only once in the case of a single delay. Second, the alternation of stability and instability can continue if two time delays are involved. Third, the occurence of Hopf bifurcation is analytically shown if stability is lost. Finally, in a bifurcation process, there are a period-doubling cascade to chaos and a period-halving cascade to the equilibrium point in the case of two time delays if the difference between the two delays is large.

  8. NITRO MUSK BOUND TO CARP HEMOGLOBIN ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitroaromatic compounds including synthetic nitro musks are important raw materials and intermediates in the synthesis of explosives, dyes, and pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care-products (PPCPs). The nitro musks such as musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) are extensively used as fragrance ingredients in PPCPs and other commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (4-AMX) metabolite as well as a 2- amino-MK (2-AMK) metabolite were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry' (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM) in both the electron ionization (ElMS) and electron capture (EC) negative ion chemical ionization (NICIMS) modes. Detection of 4-AMX and 2-AMK occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin, derived from the nitroso metabolites, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released metabolites were extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation, and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. A comparison between the El and EC approaches was made. EC NICIMS detected both metabolites whereas only 4-AMX was detected by ElMS. The EC NICIMS approach exhibited fewer matrix responses and provided a lower detection limit. Quantitation in both approaches was based on internal standard and a calibration plot. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Q

  9. Charged boson bound states in the kerr-newman metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuanjie; Zhang Duanming

    1986-01-01

    Charged boson bound states in Kerr-Newman metric are discussed. It is found that massless boson cannot be attracted by Kerr-Newman black hole to form bound states. For the massive boson, the condition of the nonbound states when 0 2 - Q 2 and both the condition and wave functions of the bound states when a = √M 2 - Q 2 are obtained. The energy mode of the bound states is single, E = (m√M 2 - Q 2 + eQM)/(2M 2 - Q 2 ). When Q = 0 or e = 0, the conclusion is in agreement with that of Zhang Shiwei and Su Rukeng

  10. On the Applicability of Lower Bounds for Solving Rectilinear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Karisch, Stefan E.; Perregaard, M.

    1998-01-01

    . Recently, lower bounds based on decomposition were proposed for the so called rectilinear QAP that proved to be the strongest for a large class of problem instances. We investigate the strength of these bounds when applied not only at the root node of a search tree but as the bound function used......The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) belongs to the hard core of NP-hard optimization problems. After almost forty years of research only relatively small instances can be solved to optimality. The reason is that the quality of the lower bounds available for exact methods is not sufficient...

  11. Upper bounds on quantum uncertainty products and complexity measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, Angel; Sanchez-Moreno, Pablo; Dehesa, Jesus S. [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain) and Institute Carlos I for Computational and Theoretical Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Institute Carlos I for Computational and Theoretical Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The position-momentum Shannon and Renyi uncertainty products of general quantum systems are shown to be bounded not only from below (through the known uncertainty relations), but also from above in terms of the Heisenberg-Kennard product . Moreover, the Cramer-Rao, Fisher-Shannon, and Lopez-Ruiz, Mancini, and Calbet shape measures of complexity (whose lower bounds have been recently found) are also bounded from above. The improvement of these bounds for systems subject to spherically symmetric potentials is also explicitly given. Finally, applications to hydrogenic and oscillator-like systems are done.

  12. Twisting, supercoiling and stretching in protein bound DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pui-Man; Zhen, Yi

    2018-04-01

    We have calculated theoretical results for the torque and slope of the twisted DNA, with various proteins bound on it, using the Neukirch-Marko model, in the regime where plectonemes exist. We found that the torque in the protein bound DNA decreases compared to that in the bare DNA. This is caused by the decrease in the free energy g(f) , and hence the smaller persistence lengths, in the case of protein bound DNA. We hope our results will encourage experimental investigations of supercoiling in protein bound DNA, which can provide further tests of the Neukirch-Marko model.

  13. Generalized Hofmann quantum process fidelity bounds for quantum filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlák, Michal; Fiurášek, Jaromír

    2016-04-01

    We propose and investigate bounds on the quantum process fidelity of quantum filters, i.e., probabilistic quantum operations represented by a single Kraus operator K . These bounds generalize the Hofmann bounds on the quantum process fidelity of unitary operations [H. F. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160504 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.160504] and are based on probing the quantum filter with pure states forming two mutually unbiased bases. Determination of these bounds therefore requires far fewer measurements than full quantum process tomography. We find that it is particularly suitable to construct one of the probe bases from the right eigenstates of K , because in this case the bounds are tight in the sense that if the actual filter coincides with the ideal one, then both the lower and the upper bounds are equal to 1. We theoretically investigate the application of these bounds to a two-qubit optical quantum filter formed by the interference of two photons on a partially polarizing beam splitter. For an experimentally convenient choice of factorized input states and measurements we study the tightness of the bounds. We show that more stringent bounds can be obtained by more sophisticated processing of the data using convex optimization and we compare our methods for different choices of the input probe states.

  14. Bound entangled states violate a nonsymmetric local uncertainty relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2003-01-01

    As a consequence of having a positive partial transpose, bound entangled states lack many of the properties otherwise associated with entanglement. It is therefore interesting to identify properties that distinguish bound entangled states from separable states. In this paper, it is shown that some bound entangled states violate a nonsymmetric class of local uncertainty relations [H. F. Hofmann and S. Takeuchi, Phys. Rev. A 68, 032103 (2003)]. This result indicates that the asymmetry of nonclassical correlations may be a characteristic feature of bound entanglement

  15. Classical Physics and the Bounds of Quantum Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frustaglia, Diego; Baltanás, José P; Velázquez-Ahumada, María C; Fernández-Prieto, Armando; Lujambio, Aintzane; Losada, Vicente; Freire, Manuel J; Cabello, Adán

    2016-06-24

    A unifying principle explaining the numerical bounds of quantum correlations remains elusive, despite the efforts devoted to identifying it. Here, we show that these bounds are indeed not exclusive to quantum theory: for any abstract correlation scenario with compatible measurements, models based on classical waves produce probability distributions indistinguishable from those of quantum theory and, therefore, share the same bounds. We demonstrate this finding by implementing classical microwaves that propagate along meter-size transmission-line circuits and reproduce the probabilities of three emblematic quantum experiments. Our results show that the "quantum" bounds would also occur in a classical universe without quanta. The implications of this observation are discussed.

  16. Photophysics of aggregated 9-methylthiacarbocyanine bound to polyanions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibisov, Alexander K.; Görner, Helmut

    2002-05-01

    The photophysical properties of 3,3 '-diethyl-9-methylthiacarbocyanine (DTC) were studied in the presence of polystyrene sulfonate (PSS), polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polymethacrylic acid (PMA). The absorption spectra reflect a monomer/dimer equilibrium in neat aqueous solution and a shift towards bound H-aggregates, bound dimers and bound monomers on increasing the ratio of polyanion residue to dye concentrations ( r). These equilibria also determine the photodeactivation modes of DTC. The fluorescence intensity is reduced, when dimers and aggregates are present and strongly enhanced for low dye loading ( r=10 4). In contrast, the quantum yield of intersystem crossing is enhanced for bound dimers ( r=10 3).

  17. Bounds on long-lived charged massive particles from Big Bang nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedamzik, Karsten, E-mail: jedamzik@lpta.univ-montp2.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Mathémathique et Théorique, CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2008-03-01

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) process in the presence of charged massive particles (CHAMPs) is studied in detail. All currently known effects due to the existence of bound states between CHAMPs and nuclei, including possible late-time destruction of {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li, are included. The study sets conservative bounds on CHAMP abundances in the decay time range 3×10{sup 2} s∼<τ{sub x}∼<10{sup 12} s. It is stressed that the production of {sup 6}Li at early times T∼10 keV is overestimated by a factor ∼10 when the approximation of the Saha equation for the {sup 4}He bound state fraction is utilized. To obtain conservative limits on the abundance of CHAMPs, a Monte Carlo analysis with ∼3 × 10{sup 6} independent BBN runs, varying the reaction rates of 19 different reactions, is performed. The analysis yields the surprising result that, except for small areas in the particle parameter space, conservative constraints on the abundance of decaying charged particles are currently very close to those of neutral particles. It is shown that, in the case that the rates of a number of heretofore unconsidered reactions may be determined reliably in the future, it is conceivable that the limit on CHAMPs in the early Universe could be tightened by orders of magnitude.

  18. Bounds on long-lived charged massive particles from Big Bang nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Karsten

    2008-03-01

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) process in the presence of charged massive particles (CHAMPs) is studied in detail. All currently known effects due to the existence of bound states between CHAMPs and nuclei, including possible late-time destruction of 6Li and 7Li, are included. The study sets conservative bounds on CHAMP abundances in the decay time range 3\\times 10^2~\\mathrm {s}\\lesssim \\tau_x\\lesssim 10^{12}~\\mathrm {s} . It is stressed that the production of 6Li at early times T~10 keV is overestimated by a factor ~10 when the approximation of the Saha equation for the 4He bound state fraction is utilized. To obtain conservative limits on the abundance of CHAMPs, a Monte Carlo analysis with ~3 × 106 independent BBN runs, varying the reaction rates of 19 different reactions, is performed. The analysis yields the surprising result that, except for small areas in the particle parameter space, conservative constraints on the abundance of decaying charged particles are currently very close to those of neutral particles. It is shown that, in the case that the rates of a number of heretofore unconsidered reactions may be determined reliably in the future, it is conceivable that the limit on CHAMPs in the early Universe could be tightened by orders of magnitude.

  19. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamisiea, Mark E.; Hughes, Chris W.; Williams, Simon D. P.; Bingley, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust. PMID:25157196

  20. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamisiea, Mark E; Hughes, Chris W; Williams, Simon D P; Bingley, Richard M

    2014-09-28

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamic nuclear polarization of nucleic acid with endogenously bound manganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenk, Patricia; Kaushik, Monu; Richter, Diane; Vogel, Marc; Suess, Beatrix; Corzilius, Björn

    2015-01-01

    We report the direct dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of 13 C nuclei of a uniformly [ 13 C, 15 N]-labeled, paramagnetic full-length hammerhead ribozyme (HHRz) complex with Mn 2+ where the enhanced polarization is fully provided by the endogenously bound metal ion and no exogenous polarizing agent is added. A 13 C enhancement factor of ε = 8 was observed by intra-complex DNP at 9.4 T. In contrast, “conventional” indirect and direct DNP experiments were performed using AMUPol as polarizing agent where we obtained a 1 H enhancement factor of ε ≈ 250. Comparison with the diamagnetic (Mg 2+ ) HHRz complex shows that the presence of Mn 2+ only marginally influences the (DNP-enhanced) NMR properties of the RNA. Furthermore two-dimensional correlation spectra ( 15 N– 13 C and 13 C– 13 C) reveal structural inhomogeneity in the frozen, amorphous state indicating the coexistence of several conformational states. These demonstrations of intra-complex DNP using an endogenous metal ion as well as DNP-enhanced MAS NMR of RNA in general yield important information for the development of new methods in structural biology

  2. Dynamic nuclear polarization of nucleic acid with endogenously bound manganese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenk, Patricia [University of Tübingen, Werner Siemens Imaging Center and Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy (Germany); Kaushik, Monu; Richter, Diane [Goethe University, Institute of Physical und Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry und Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ) (Germany); Vogel, Marc; Suess, Beatrix [Technical University Darmstadt, Department of Biology (Germany); Corzilius, Björn, E-mail: corzilius@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Goethe University, Institute of Physical und Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry und Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ) (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    We report the direct dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of {sup 13}C nuclei of a uniformly [{sup 13}C,{sup 15}N]-labeled, paramagnetic full-length hammerhead ribozyme (HHRz) complex with Mn{sup 2+} where the enhanced polarization is fully provided by the endogenously bound metal ion and no exogenous polarizing agent is added. A {sup 13}C enhancement factor of ε = 8 was observed by intra-complex DNP at 9.4 T. In contrast, “conventional” indirect and direct DNP experiments were performed using AMUPol as polarizing agent where we obtained a {sup 1}H enhancement factor of ε ≈ 250. Comparison with the diamagnetic (Mg{sup 2+}) HHRz complex shows that the presence of Mn{sup 2+} only marginally influences the (DNP-enhanced) NMR properties of the RNA. Furthermore two-dimensional correlation spectra ({sup 15}N–{sup 13}C and {sup 13}C–{sup 13}C) reveal structural inhomogeneity in the frozen, amorphous state indicating the coexistence of several conformational states. These demonstrations of intra-complex DNP using an endogenous metal ion as well as DNP-enhanced MAS NMR of RNA in general yield important information for the development of new methods in structural biology.

  3. DETERMINATION OF A BOUND MUSK XYLENE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk xylene (MX) is widely used as a fragrance ingredient in commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (AMX) metabolite was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Detection of AMX occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin, derived from the nitroso metabolite, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released AMX metabolite was extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation, and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. The concentration of AMX metabolite was found to range from 6.0 to 30.6 ng/g in the carp Hb, collected from the Las Vegas Wash and Lake Mead, Nevada areas. The presence of an AMX metabolite in the carp Hb was confirmed when similar mass spectral features and the same retention time of the AMX metabolite were obtained for both standard AMX and carp Hb extract solutions. In the non-hydrolyzed and reagent blank extracts, the AMX metabolite was not detected. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers,

  4. Structure Biology of Membrane Bound Enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Dax [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). School of Medicine. Dept. of Physiology

    2016-11-30

    The overall goal of the proposed research is to understand the membrane-associated active processes catalyzed by an alkane $\\square$-hydroxylase (AlkB) from eubacterium Pseudomonase oleovorans. AlkB performs oxygenation of unactivated hydrocarbons found in crude oils. The enzymatic reaction involves energy-demanding steps in the membrane with the uses of structurally unknown metal active sites featuring a diiron [FeFe] center. At present, a critical barrier to understanding the membrane-associated reaction mechanism is the lack of structural information. The structural biology efforts have been challenged by technical difficulties commonly encountered in crystallization and structural determination of membrane proteins. The specific aims of the current budget cycle are to crystalize AlkB and initiate X-ray analysis to set the stage for structural determination. The long-term goals of our structural biology efforts are to provide an atomic description of AlkB structure, and to uncover the mechanisms of selective modification of hydrocarbons. The structural information will help elucidating how the unactivated C-H bonds of saturated hydrocarbons are oxidized to initiate biodegradation and biotransformation processes. The knowledge gained will be fundamental to biotechnological applications to biofuel transformation of non-edible oil feedstock. Renewable biodiesel is a promising energy carry that can be used to reduce fossil fuel dependency. The proposed research capitalizes on prior BES-supported efforts on over-expression and purification of AlkB to explore the inner workings of a bioenergy-relevant membrane-bound enzyme.

  5. Quantitative proteomic analysis of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells reveals an early host response in important biological pathways: Protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and T-cell activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navare, Arti T.; Sova, Pavel; Purdy, David E.; Weiss, Jeffrey M. [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro [Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Korth, Marcus J.; Chang, Stewart T.; Proll, Sean C. [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Jahan, Tahmina A. [Proteomics Resource, UW Medicine at South Lake Union, Seattle, WA (United States); Krasnoselsky, Alexei L.; Palermo, Robert E. [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Katze, Michael G., E-mail: honey@uw.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) depends upon host-encoded proteins to facilitate its replication while at the same time inhibiting critical components of innate and/or intrinsic immune response pathways. To characterize the host cell response on protein levels in CD4+ lymphoblastoid SUP-T1 cells after infection with HIV-1 strain LAI, we used mass spectrometry (MS)-based global quantitation with iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification). We found 266, 60 and 22 proteins differentially expressed (DE) (P-value{<=}0.05) at 4, 8, and 20 hours post-infection (hpi), respectively, compared to time-matched mock-infected samples. The majority of changes in protein abundance occurred at an early stage of infection well before the de novo production of viral proteins. Functional analyses of these DE proteins showed enrichment in several biological pathways including protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and T-cell activation. Importantly, these early changes before the time of robust viral production have not been described before.

  6. Unbiased simulations reveal the inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter and Na+ ion release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koldsø, Heidi; Noer, Pernille Rimmer; Grouleff, Julie

    2011-01-01

    transporter has resulted in homology models of the monoamine transporters. Here we present extended molecular dynamics simulations of an experimentally supported homology model of hSERT with and without the natural substrate yielding a total of more than 1.5 µs of simulation of the protein dimer....... The simulations reveal a transition of hSERT from an outward-facing occluded conformation to an inward-facing conformation in a one-substrate-bound state. Simulations with a second substrate in the proposed symport effector site did not lead to conformational changes associated with translocation. The central...... substrate binding site becomes fully exposed to the cytoplasm leaving both the Na+-ion in the Na2-site and the substrate in direct contact with the cytoplasm through water interactions. The simulations reveal how sodium is released and show indications of early events of substrate transport. The notion...

  7. Structure of the [delta]-opioid receptor bound to naltrindole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granier, Sébastien; Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford-MED)

    2012-07-11

    The opioid receptor family comprises three members, the {mu}-, {delta}- and {kappa}-opioid receptors, which respond to classical opioid alkaloids such as morphine and heroin as well as to endogenous peptide ligands like endorphins. They belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, and are excellent therapeutic targets for pain control. The {delta}-opioid receptor ({delta}-OR) has a role in analgesia, as well as in other neurological functions that remain poorly understood. The structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR have recently been solved. Here we report the crystal structure of the mouse {delta}-OR, bound to the subtype-selective antagonist naltrindole. Together with the structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR, the {delta}-OR structure provides insights into conserved elements of opioid ligand recognition while also revealing structural features associated with ligand-subtype selectivity. The binding pocket of opioid receptors can be divided into two distinct regions. Whereas the lower part of this pocket is highly conserved among opioid receptors, the upper part contains divergent residues that confer subtype selectivity. This provides a structural explanation and validation for the 'message-address' model of opioid receptor pharmacology, in which distinct 'message' (efficacy) and 'address' (selectivity) determinants are contained within a single ligand. Comparison of the address region of the {delta}-OR with other GPCRs reveals that this structural organization may be a more general phenomenon, extending to other GPCR families as well.

  8. Insight into partial agonism by observing multiple equilibria for ligand-bound and Gs-mimetic nanobody-bound β1-adrenergic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Andras S; Bostock, Mark J; Shrestha, Binesh; Kumar, Prashant; Warne, Tony; Tate, Christopher G; Nietlispach, Daniel

    2017-11-27

    A complex conformational energy landscape determines G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling via intracellular binding partners (IBPs), e.g., G s and β-arrestin. Using 13 C methyl methionine NMR for the β 1 -adrenergic receptor, we identify ligand efficacy-dependent equilibria between an inactive and pre-active state and, in complex with G s -mimetic nanobody, between more and less active ternary complexes. Formation of a basal activity complex through ligand-free nanobody-receptor interaction reveals structural differences on the cytoplasmic receptor side compared to the full agonist-bound nanobody-coupled form, suggesting that ligand-induced variations in G-protein interaction underpin partial agonism. Significant differences in receptor dynamics are observed ranging from rigid nanobody-coupled states to extensive μs-to-ms timescale dynamics when bound to a full agonist. We suggest that the mobility of the full agonist-bound form primes the GPCR to couple to IBPs. On formation of the ternary complex, ligand efficacy determines the quality of the interaction between the rigidified receptor and an IBP and consequently the signalling level.

  9. Bounds on the Effect of Progressive Structural Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Bendsøe, Martin P; Taylor, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Problem formulations are presented for the evaluation of upper and lower bounds on the effect of progressive structural degradation. For the purposes of this study, degradation effect is measured by an increase in global structural compliance (flexibility). Thus the stated bounds are given simply...

  10. Models and Techniques for Proving Data Structure Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green

    In this dissertation, we present a number of new techniques and tools for proving lower bounds on the operational time of data structures. These techniques provide new lines of attack for proving lower bounds in both the cell probe model, the group model, the pointer machine model and the I...... bound of tutq = (lgd􀀀1 n). For ball range searching, we get a lower bound of tutq = (n1􀀀1=d). The highest previous lower bound proved in the group model does not exceed ((lg n= lg lg n)2) on the maximum of tu and tq. Finally, we present a new technique for proving lower bounds....../O-model. In all cases, we push the frontiers further by proving lower bounds higher than what could possibly be proved using previously known techniques. For the cell probe model, our results have the following consequences: The rst (lg n) query time lower bound for linear space static data structures...

  11. Bounds for Tail Probabilities of the Sample Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Zuijlen M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide bounds for tail probabilities of the sample variance. The bounds are expressed in terms of Hoeffding functions and are the sharpest known. They are designed having in mind applications in auditing as well as in processing data related to environment.

  12. Entropy Bounds for Constrained Two-Dimensional Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Justesen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    The maximum entropy and thereby the capacity of 2-D fields given by certain constraints on configurations are considered. Upper and lower bounds are derived.......The maximum entropy and thereby the capacity of 2-D fields given by certain constraints on configurations are considered. Upper and lower bounds are derived....

  13. Optimal Two Parameter Bounds for the Seiffert Mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain sharp bounds for the Seiffert mean in terms of a two parameter family of means. Our results generalize and extend the recent bounds presented in the Journal of Inequalities and Applications (2012 and Abstract and Applied Analysis (2012.

  14. The question of an upper bound on entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.

    1982-08-01

    We discuss the possibility, and significance, of an upper bound on entropy in the light of the arguments of Bekenstein and Unruh and Wald. We obtain a stricter bound than Bekenstein does, and point out some limitations with regard to its significance. (author)

  15. Bounds on the Effect of Progressive Structural Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, W.; Bendsøe, Martin P; Taylor, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Problem formulations are presented for the evaluation of upper and lower bounds on the effect of progressive structural degradation. For the purposes of this study, degradation effect is measured by an increase in global structural compliance (flexibility). Thus the slated bounds are given simply...

  16. Bounds of Certain Dynamic Inequalities on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak B. Pachpatte

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study explicit bounds of certain dynamic integral inequalities on time scales. These estimates give the bounds on unknown functions which can be used in studying the qualitative aspects of certain dynamic equations. Using these inequalities we prove the uniqueness of some partial integro-differential equations on time scales.

  17. Dielectric structures with bound modes for microcavity lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.M.; Allaart, K.; Lenstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    Cavity modes of dielectric microsphcres and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, in spite of their high Q, are never exactly bound, but have a finite width due to leakage at the borders. We propose types of microstructures that sustain three-dimensionally bound modes of the radiation field when

  18. Solving the minimum flow problem with interval bounds and flows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... with crisp data. In this paper, the idea of Ghiyasvand was extended for solving the minimum flow problem with interval-valued lower, upper bounds and flows. This problem can be solved using two minimum flow problems with crisp data. Then, this result is extended to networks with fuzzy lower, upper bounds and flows.

  19. A tail bound for read-k families of functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavinsky, Dmitry; Lovett, S.; Saks, M.; Srinivasan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2015), s. 99-108 ISSN 1042-9832 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : tail bound * deviation bound * random variables Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ rsa .20532/abstract

  20. Bounds on charged lepton mixing with exotic charged leptons Ф

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    imposing the constraints that the amplitude should not exceed the perturbative unitarity limit at high energy (. Ф. × = A), we obtain bounds on light heavy charged lepton mixing parameter sin. 2. (2 a. L) where a. L is the mixing angle of the ordinary charged lepton with its exotic partner. For A = 1 TeV, no bound is obtained on ...

  1. Holographic bounds on the UV cutoff scale in inflationary cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keski-Vakkuri, Esko; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2003-01-01

    We discuss how holographic bounds can be applied to the quantum fluctuations of the inflaton. In general the holographic principle will lead to a bound on the UV cutoff scale of the effective theory of inflation, but it will depend on the coarse-graining prescription involved in calculating...

  2. Supergravity and upper bound on scale of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.E.; Nishino, H.

    1983-09-01

    In locally supersymmetric grand unified models we show rather a model independent upper bound 3x10 11 GeV for the scale of supersymmetry breaking, which is derived by considering SU(2)xU(1) breaking at electro-weak mass scale. This bound necessarily implies the existence of new particles (superpartners) below 10 4 GeV. (author)

  3. A Partitioning and Bounded Variable Algorithm for Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheskin, Theodore J.

    2006-01-01

    An interesting new partitioning and bounded variable algorithm (PBVA) is proposed for solving linear programming problems. The PBVA is a variant of the simplex algorithm which uses a modified form of the simplex method followed by the dual simplex method for bounded variables. In contrast to the two-phase method and the big M method, the PBVA does…

  4. The linear programming bound for binary linear codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Combining Delsarte's (1973) linear programming bound with the information that certain weights cannot occur, new upper bounds for dmin (n,k), the maximum possible minimum distance of a binary linear code with given word length n and dimension k, are derived.

  5. Monetary and fiscal policy under bounded rationality and heterogeneous expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lustenhouwer, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to use plausible and intuitive models of bounded rationality to give new insights in monetary and fiscal policy. Particular focus is put on the zero lower bound on the nominal interest rate, forward guidance, and fiscal consolidations. The thesis considers different forms

  6. Towards an abstract parallel branch and bound machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Bruin (Arie); G.A.P. Kindervater (Gerard); H.W.J.M. Trienekens

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMany (parallel) branch and bound algorithms look very different from each other at first glance. They exploit, however, the same underlying computational model. This phenomenon can be used to define branch and bound algorithms in terms of a set of basic rules that are applied in a

  7. A geometric bound on F-term inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne

    We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll

  8. Relativistic bound states: a mass formula for vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, J.L.; Sorba, P.

    1975-07-01

    In the framework of a relativistic description of two particles bound states, a mass formula for vector mesons considered as quark-antiquark systems bound by harmonic oscillator like forces is proposed. Results in good agreement with experimental values are obtained [fr

  9. A tail bound for read-k families of functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavinsky, Dmitry; Lovett, S.; Saks, M.; Srinivasan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2015), s. 99-108 ISSN 1042-9832 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : tail bound * deviation bound * random variables Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rsa.20532/abstract

  10. Extrinsic Isoperimetric Analysis on Submanifolds with Curvatures bounded from below

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    and on the radial part of the intrinsic unit normals at the boundaries of the extrinsic spheres, respectively. In the same vein we also establish lower bounds on the mean exit time for Brownian motions in the extrinsic balls, i.e. lower bounds for the time it takes (on average) for Brownian particles to diffuse......We obtain upper bounds for the isoperimetric quotients of extrinsic balls of submanifolds in ambient spaces which have a lower bound on their radial sectional curvatures. The submanifolds are themselves only assumed to have lower bounds on the radial part of the mean curvature vector field...... within the extrinsic ball from a given starting point before they hit the boundary of the extrinsic ball. In those cases, where we may extend our analysis to hold all the way to infinity, we apply a capacity comparison technique to obtain a sufficient condition for the submanifolds to be parabolic, i...

  11. Amos-type bounds for modified Bessel function ratios☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornik, Kurt; Grün, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    We systematically investigate lower and upper bounds for the modified Bessel function ratio Rν=Iν+1/Iν by functions of the form Gα,β(t)=t/(α+t2+β2) in case Rν is positive for all t>0, or equivalently, where ν≥−1 or ν is a negative integer. For ν≥−1, we give an explicit description of the set of lower bounds and show that it has a greatest element. We also characterize the set of upper bounds and its minimal elements. If ν≥−1/2, the minimal elements are tangent to Rν in exactly one point 0≤t≤∞, and have Rν as their lower envelope. We also provide a new family of explicitly computable upper bounds. Finally, if ν is a negative integer, we explicitly describe the sets of lower and upper bounds, and give their greatest and least elements, respectively. PMID:24926105

  12. Amos-type bounds for modified Bessel function ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornik, Kurt; Grün, Bettina

    2013-12-01

    We systematically investigate lower and upper bounds for the modified Bessel function ratio [Formula: see text] by functions of the form [Formula: see text] in case [Formula: see text] is positive for all [Formula: see text], or equivalently, where [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] is a negative integer. For [Formula: see text], we give an explicit description of the set of lower bounds and show that it has a greatest element. We also characterize the set of upper bounds and its minimal elements. If [Formula: see text], the minimal elements are tangent to [Formula: see text] in exactly one point [Formula: see text], and have [Formula: see text] as their lower envelope. We also provide a new family of explicitly computable upper bounds. Finally, if [Formula: see text] is a negative integer, we explicitly describe the sets of lower and upper bounds, and give their greatest and least elements, respectively.

  13. Lower Bounds to the Reliabilities of Factor Score Estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, David J

    2016-10-06

    Under the general common factor model, the reliabilities of factor score estimators might be of more interest than the reliability of the total score (the unweighted sum of item scores). In this paper, lower bounds to the reliabilities of Thurstone's factor score estimators, Bartlett's factor score estimators, and McDonald's factor score estimators are derived and conditions are given under which these lower bounds are equal. The relative performance of the derived lower bounds is studied using classic example data sets. The results show that estimates of the lower bounds to the reliabilities of Thurstone's factor score estimators are greater than or equal to the estimates of the lower bounds to the reliabilities of Bartlett's and McDonald's factor score estimators.

  14. Proximity effect tunneling into virtual bound state alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, I.M.; Roongkkeadsakoon, S.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of a narrow virtual bound state formed by transition metal impurities dissolved in the normal layer of a superconducting proximity effect sandwich are studied. Using standard renormalization techniques, we obtain the changes in the transition temperatures and the jumps in the specific heat at T/sub c/ as a function of the thickness of the normal layer, of the widths of the virtual bound states, and of the impurity concentrations. It is seen that narrow virtual bound states lead to decrease in the transition temperatures, while broad virtual bound states do not. It if further seen that the narrow virtual bound state causes the reduced specific heat jump at T/sub c/ to deviate from the BCS behavior expected of the pure sandwich

  15. Viscosity bound violation in holographic solids and the viscoelastic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberte, Lasma [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Baggioli, Matteo [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Physics, Institute for Condensed Matter Theory, University of Illinois,1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Pujolàs, Oriol [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-07-14

    We argue that the Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) lower bound on the viscosity to entropy density ratio holds in fluid systems but is violated in solid materials with a non-zero shear elastic modulus. We construct explicit examples of this by applying the standard gauge/gravity duality methods to massive gravity and show that the KSS bound is clearly violated in black brane solutions whenever the massive gravity theories are of solid type. We argue that the physical reason for the bound violation relies on the viscoelastic nature of the mechanical response in these materials. We speculate on whether any real-world materials can violate the bound and discuss a possible generalization of the bound that involves the ratio of the shear elastic modulus to the pressure.

  16. Viscosity bound violation in holographic solids and the viscoelastic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberte, Lasma; Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) lower bound on the viscosity to entropy density ratio holds in fluid systems but is violated in solid materials with a non-zero shear elastic modulus. We construct explicit examples of this by applying the standard gauge/gravity duality methods to massive gravity and show that the KSS bound is clearly violated in black brane solutions whenever the massive gravity theories are of solid type. We argue that the physical reason for the bound violation relies on the viscoelastic nature of the mechanical response in these materials. We speculate on whether any real-world materials can violate the bound and discuss a possible generalization of the bound that involves the ratio of the shear elastic modulus to the pressure.

  17. Bounds and estimates for the linearly perturbed eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddatz, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis considers the problem of bounding and estimating the discrete portion of the spectrum of a linearly perturbed self-adjoint operator, M(x). It is supposed that one knows an incomplete set of data consisting in the first few coefficients of the Taylor series expansions of one or more of the eigenvalues of M(x) about x = 0. The foundations of the variational study of eigen-values are first presented. These are then used to construct the best possible upper bounds and estimates using various sets of given information. Lower bounds are obtained by estimating the error in the upper bounds. The extension of these bounds and estimates to the eigenvalues of the doubly-perturbed operator M(x,y) is discussed. The results presented have numerous practical application in the physical sciences, including problems in atomic physics and the theory of vibrations of acoustical and mechanical systems

  18. Evacuation of Bed-bound Patients-STEPS Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne; Dederichs, Anne Simone

    2016-01-01

    Fires in hospitals occur, and evacuation of bed-bound patients might be necessary in case of emergency. The current study concerns the evacuation of bed-bound patients from a fire section in a hospital using hospital porters. The simulations are performed using the STEPS program. The aim...... of the study is to investigate the evacuation time of bed-bound hospital patients using different walking speeds from the literature, and the influence of the number of hospital porters on the total evacuation times of bed-bound patients. Different scenarios were carried out with varying staff......-to-patient ratios that simulate the horizontal evacuation of 40 bed-bound patients into a different fire section. It was found that the staff-to-patient-ratio affects the total evacuation times. However, the total evacuation times do not decrease linearly and a saturation effect is seen at a staff-to-patient ratio...

  19. Viète's Formula and an Error Bound without Taylor's Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Chris

    2018-01-01

    This note presents a derivation of Viète's classic product approximation of pi that relies on only the Pythagorean Theorem. We also give a simple error bound for the approximation that, while not optimal, still reveals the exponential convergence of the approximation and whose derivation does not require Taylor's Theorem.

  20. Lorentz violation bounds from torsion trace fermion sector and galaxy M51 data and chiral dynamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia de Andrade, L.C. [IF-UERJ, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    Earlier we have computed a Lorentz violation (LV) bound for torsion terms via galactic dynamos and found bounds similar to the one obtained by Kostelecky et al. (Phys Rev Lett 100:111102, 2008) which is of the order of 10{sup -31} GeV. Their result was found making use of the axial torsion vector in terms of Dirac spinors and minimal torsion coupling in flat space-time of fermions. In this paper, a torsion dynamo equation obtained using the variation of the torsion trace and galaxy M51 data of 500 pc are used to place an upper bound of 10{sup -26} GeV in LV, which agrees with the one by Kostelecky and his group using an astrophysical framework background. Their lowest bound was obtained in earth laboratory using dual masers. One of the purposes of this paper is to apply the Faraday self-induction magnetic equation, recently extended to torsioned space-time, by the author to show that it lends support to physics in Riemann-Cartan space-time, in several distinct physical backgrounds. Backreaction magnetic effects are used to obtain the LV bounds. Previously Bamba et al. (JCAP 10:058, 2012) have used the torsion trace in their teleparallel investigation of the IGMF, with the argument that the torsion trace leads to less weaker effects than the other irreducible components of the torsion tensor. LV is computed in terms of a chiral-torsion-like current in the new dynamo equation analogous to the Dvornikov and Semikoz dynamo equation with chiral magnetic currents. Making use of the chiral-torsion dynamo equation we estimate the LV bounds in the early universe to be of the order of 10{sup -24} GeV, which was the order of the charged-lepton sector. Our main result is that it is possible to obtain more stringent bounds than the ones found in the fermion sector of astrophysics in the new revised 2017 data table for CPT and Lorentz violation by Kostelecky and Mewes. They found in several astrophysical backgrounds, orders of magnitude such as 10{sup -24} and 10{sup -23} Ge