Sample records for boundary integral formulation

  1. Boundary integral formulation for cracks at imperfect interfaces


    Mishuris, G.; Piccolroaz, A.; Vellender, A.


    We consider an infinite bi-material plane containing a semi-infinite crack situated on a soft imperfect interface. The crack is loaded by a general asymmetrical system of forces distributed along the crack faces. On the basis of the weight function approach and the fundamental reciprocal identity, we derive the corresponding boundary integral formulation, relating physical quantities. The boundary integral equations derived in this paper in the imperfect interface setting show a weak singular...

  2. Mixed direct-iterative methods for boundary integral formulations of continuum dielectric solvation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcelli, S.A.; Kress, J.D.; Pratt, L.R.


    This paper develops and characterizes mixed direct-iterative methods for boundary integral formulations of continuum dielectric solvation models. We give an example, the Ca{sup ++}{hor_ellipsis}Cl{sup {minus}} pair potential of mean force in aqueous solution, for which a direct solution at thermal accuracy is difficult and, thus for which mixed direct-iterative methods seem necessary to obtain the required high resolution. For the simplest such formulations, Gauss-Seidel iteration diverges in rare cases. This difficulty is analyzed by obtaining the eigenvalues and the spectral radius of the non-symmetric iteration matrix. This establishes that those divergences are due to inaccuracies of the asymptotic approximations used in evaluation of the matrix elements corresponding to accidental close encounters of boundary elements on different atomic spheres. The spectral radii are then greater than one for those diverging cases. This problem is cured by checking for boundary element pairs closer than the typical spatial extent of the boundary elements and for those cases performing an ``in-line`` Monte Carlo integration to evaluate the required matrix elements. These difficulties are not expected and have not been observed for the thoroughly coarsened equations obtained when only a direct solution is sought. Finally, we give an example application of hybrid quantum-classical methods to deprotonation of orthosilicic acid in water.

  3. A New Formulation of Time Domain Boundary Integral Equation for Acoustic Wave Scattering in the Presence of a Uniform Mean Flow (United States)

    Hu, Fang; Pizzo, Michelle E.; Nark, Douglas M.


    It has been well-known that under the assumption of a constant uniform mean flow, the acoustic wave propagation equation can be formulated as a boundary integral equation, in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Compared with solving partial differential equations, numerical methods based on the boundary integral equation have the advantage of a reduced spatial dimension and, hence, requiring only a surface mesh. However, the constant uniform mean flow assumption, while convenient for formulating the integral equation, does not satisfy the solid wall boundary condition wherever the body surface is not aligned with the uniform mean flow. In this paper, we argue that the proper boundary condition for the acoustic wave should not have its normal velocity be zero everywhere on the solid surfaces, as has been applied in the literature. A careful study of the acoustic energy conservation equation is presented that shows such a boundary condition in fact leads to erroneous source or sink points on solid surfaces not aligned with the mean flow. A new solid wall boundary condition is proposed that conserves the acoustic energy and a new time domain boundary integral equation is derived. In addition to conserving the acoustic energy, another significant advantage of the new equation is that it is considerably simpler than previous formulations. In particular, tangential derivatives of the solution on the solid surfaces are no longer needed in the new formulation, which greatly simplifies numerical implementation. Furthermore, stabilization of the new integral equation by Burton-Miller type reformulation is presented. The stability of the new formulation is studied theoretically as well as numerically by an eigenvalue analysis. Numerical solutions are also presented that demonstrate the stability of the new formulation.

  4. An axisymmetric hypersingular boundary integral formulation for simulating acoustic wave propagation in supercavitating flows (United States)

    Ramesh, Sai Sudha; Lim, K. M.; Khoo, B. C.


    Flow supercavitation begins when fluid is accelerated over a sharp edge, usually at the nose of an underwater vehicle, where a phase change occurs and causes a low density gaseous cavity to gradually envelop the whole object (supercavity) thereby allowing for higher speeds of underwater vehicles. The supercavity may be maintained through ventilated cavitation caused by injection of gases into the cavity, which causes fluctuations at the vapor-water interface. A major issue that concerns the efficient operation of an underwater object's guidance system (which is achieved by high frequency acoustic sensors mounted within the nose region), is the hydrodynamic noise produced due to the fluctuating vapor-water interface. It is important to carry out a detailed study on the effect of self-noise at the vehicle's nose that is generated by the ventilating gas jet impingement on the supercavity wall. For this purpose, the present study uses a boundary element method which is more versatile compared to other numerical techniques such as the finite element/finite difference methods. The variation of acoustic pressure at the vehicle nose for various shapes of cavitators, boundary conditions and jet impact diameters are presented. Comparisons are made with the semi-analytical procedure of Howe et al. (Howe et al., On self-noise at the nose of a supercavitating vehicle. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 322 (2009a), 772-784) and finite element based COMSOL commercial package. Several issues pertaining to the behaviour of analytical and numerical results are highlighted. Finally, the proposed boundary element technique is used to study arbitrary shapes of supercavities which may encountered at various stages of supercavity development.

  5. Project Integration Architecture: Formulation of Semantic Parameters (United States)

    Jones, William Henry


    One of several key elements of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is the intention to formulate parameter objects which convey meaningful semantic information. In so doing, it is expected that a level of automation can be achieved in the consumption of information content by PIA-consuming clients outside the programmatic boundary of a presenting PIA-wrapped application. This paper discusses the steps that have been recently taken in formulating such semantically-meaningful parameters.

  6. Role of spacetime boundaries in a vierbein formulation of gravity (United States)

    Oshita, Naritaka; Wu, Yi-Peng


    Einstein's vierbein formulation of general relativity based on the notion of distant parallelism (teleparallelism) naturally introduces a covariant surface term in addition to the Einstein-Hilbert action. We investigate the action principle in teleparallelism with the existence of spacetime boundaries and find that the covariant surface term exactly eliminates all the unwanted surface terms that reside in the metric formulation of general relativity, in the role of a Gibbons-Hawking-York (GHY) term. The identity of such a covariant GHY term is further confirmed by the recovery of the correct black hole entropy from the free energy due to the spacetime boundary. These results indicate that the vierbein formulation of gravity generally exhibits a well-posed action principle and readily admits the path-integral approach to quantization.

  7. A boundary integral method for two-dimensional (non)-Newtonian drops in slow viscous flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toose, E.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.


    A boundary integral method for the simulation of the time-dependent deformation of Newtonian or non-Newtonian drops suspended in a Newtonian fluid is developed. The boundary integral formulation for Stokes flow is used and the non-Newtonian stress is treated as a source term which yields an extra

  8. Integral equations formulation of plasmonic transmission lines. (United States)

    Sallam, Mai O; Vandenbosch, Guy A E; Gielen, Georges; Soliman, Ezzeldin A


    In this paper, a comprehensive integral equation formulation of plasmonic transmission lines is presented for the first time. Such lines are made up of a number of metallic strips with arbitrary shapes and dimensions immersed within a stack of planar dielectric or metallic layers. These lines support a number of propagating modes. Each mode has its own phase constant, attenuation constant, and field distribution. The presented integral equation formulation is solved using the Method of Moments (MoM). It provides all the propagation characteristics of the modes. The new formulation is applied to a number of plasmonic transmission lines, such as: single rectangular strip, horizontally coupled strips, vertically coupled strips, triangular strip, and circular strip. The numerical study is performed in the frequency (wavelength) range of 150-450 THz (0.66-2.0 μm). The results of the proposed technique are compared with those obtained using Lumerical mode solution, and CST. Very good agreement has been observed. The main advantage of the MoM is its intrinsic speed for this type of problem compared to general purpose solvers.

  9. Path Integrals on Manifolds with Boundary (United States)

    Ludewig, Matthias


    We give time-slicing path integral formulas for solutions to the heat equation corresponding to a self-adjoint Laplace type operator acting on sections of a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary. More specifically, we show that such a solution can be approximated by integrals over finite-dimensional path spaces of piecewise geodesics subordinated to increasingly fine partitions of the time interval. We consider a subclass of mixed boundary conditions which includes standard Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions.

  10. Functional differential inclusions with integral boundary conditions

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    Mouffak Benchohra


    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the existence of solutions for a class of second order functional differential inclusions with integral boundary conditions. By using suitable fixed point theorems, we study the case when the right hand side has convex as well as nonconvex values.

  11. Panafricanism, African Boundaries and Regional Integration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is indicated that this division has led to the emergence of small states with small market economics competing rather than completing each other's economy. It is argued that regional economic integration cannot take place with boundaries as obstacles. The Pan African idea of closer unity is examined. Regional economic ...

  12. Boundary conditions in the Ginzburg Landau Formulation in heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The linearized gap equation is the basis for the microscopic derivation of the second order terms in the Ginzburg-Landau free energy expansion. However, close to the boundary these second order terms do not have the same form, since the kernel is changed due to quasi-particle scattering. In addition, these boundary ...

  13. parabolic equation with integral boundary condition

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    M. Denche


    Full Text Available In this paper we study the problem of control by the initial conditions of the heat equation with an integral boundary condition. This problem is ill-posed. Perturbing the final condition we obtain an approximate nonlocal problem depending on a small parameter. We show that the approximate problems are well posed. We also obtain estimates of the solutions of the approximate problems and a convergence result of these solutions. Finally, we give explicit convergence rates.

  14. An axisymmetric boundary element formulation of sound wave propagation in fluids including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller


    The formulation presented in this paper is based on the Boundary Element Method (BEM) and implements Kirchhoff’s decomposition into viscous, thermal and acoustic components, which can be treated independently everywhere in the domain except on the boundaries. The acoustic variables with losses ar...

  15. Boundary formulations for sensitivity analysis without matrix derivatives (United States)

    Kane, J. H.; Guru Prasad, K.


    A new hybrid approach to continuum structural shape sensitivity analysis employing boundary element analysis (BEA) is presented. The approach uses iterative reanalysis to obviate the need to factor perturbed matrices in the determination of surface displacement and traction sensitivities via a univariate perturbation/finite difference (UPFD) step. The UPFD approach makes it possible to immediately reuse existing subroutines for computation of BEA matrix coefficients in the design sensitivity analysis process. The reanalysis technique computes economical response of univariately perturbed models without factoring perturbed matrices. The approach provides substantial computational economy without the burden of a large-scale reprogramming effort.

  16. The initial boundary value problem for free-evolution formulations of general relativity (United States)

    Hilditch, David; Ruiz, Milton


    We consider the initial boundary value problem for free-evolution formulations of general relativity coupled to a parametrized family of coordinate conditions that includes both the moving puncture and harmonic gauges. We concentrate primarily on boundaries that are geometrically determined by the outermost normal observer to spacelike slices of the foliation. We present high-order-derivative boundary conditions for the gauge, constraint violating and gravitational wave degrees of freedom of the formulation. Second order derivative boundary conditions are presented in terms of the conformal variables used in numerical relativity simulations. Using Kreiss–Agranovich–Métivier theory we demonstrate, in the frozen coefficient approximation, that with sufficiently high order derivative boundary conditions the initial boundary value problem can be rendered boundary stable. The precise number of derivatives required depends on the gauge. For a choice of the gauge condition that renders the system strongly hyperbolic of constant multiplicity, well-posedness of the initial boundary value problem follows in this approximation. Taking into account the theory of pseudo-differential operators, it is expected that the nonlinear problem is also well-posed locally in time.

  17. Finite element formulation of fluctuating hydrodynamics for fluids filled with rigid particles using boundary fitted meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Corato, M., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Slot, J.J.M., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hütter, M., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); D' Avino, G., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Maffettone, P.L., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Hulsen, M.A., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    In this paper, we present a finite element implementation of fluctuating hydrodynamics with a moving boundary fitted mesh for treating the suspended particles. The thermal fluctuations are incorporated into the continuum equations using the Landau and Lifshitz approach [1]. The proposed implementation fulfills the fluctuation–dissipation theorem exactly at the discrete level. Since we restrict the equations to the creeping flow case, this takes the form of a relation between the diffusion coefficient matrix and friction matrix both at the particle and nodal level of the finite elements. Brownian motion of arbitrarily shaped particles in complex confinements can be considered within the present formulation. A multi-step time integration scheme is developed to correctly capture the drift term required in the stochastic differential equation (SDE) describing the evolution of the positions of the particles. The proposed approach is validated by simulating the Brownian motion of a sphere between two parallel plates and the motion of a spherical particle in a cylindrical cavity. The time integration algorithm and the fluctuating hydrodynamics implementation are then applied to study the diffusion and the equilibrium probability distribution of a confined circle under an external harmonic potential.

  18. Generalized variational formulations for extended exponentially fractional integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo-Jun Wang


    Full Text Available Recently, the fractional variational principles as well as their applications yield a special attention. For a fractional variational problem based on different types of fractional integral and derivatives operators, corresponding fractional Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation and relevant Euler–Lagrange type equations are already presented by scholars. The formulations of fractional variational principles still can be developed more. We make an attempt to generalize the formulations for fractional variational principles. As a result we obtain generalized and complementary fractional variational formulations for extended exponentially fractional integral for example and corresponding Euler–Lagrange equations. Two illustrative examples are presented. It is observed that the formulations are in exact agreement with the Euler–Lagrange equations.

  19. Symplectic Hamiltonina formulation of Transmission Line Systems with Boundary Energy Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaft, A.J.; Jeltsema, D


    The classical Langrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of an electrical transmission line is reviewed and extended to allow for varying boundary conditions. The method is based on the definition of an infinite-dimensional analogue of the affine Langrangian and Hamiltonian input-output systems

  20. Symplectic Hamiltonian Formulation of Transmission Line Systems with Boundary Energy Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltsema, Dimitri; Schaft, Arjan van der


    The classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of an electrical transmission line is reviewed and extended to allow for varying boundary conditions. This extension is based on the definition of an infinite-dimensional analogue of the affine Lagrangian and Hamiltonian input-output systems

  1. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Formulation of Transmission Line Systems with Boundary Energy Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltsema, Dimitri; Schaft, Arjan J. van der

    The classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of an electrical transmission line is reviewed and extended to allow for varying boundary conditions, The method is based on the definition of an infinite-dimensional analogue of the affine Lagrangian and Hamiltonian input-output systems

  2. Port Hamiltonian Formulation of Infinite Dimensional Systems II. Boundary Control by Interconnection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macchelli, Alessandro; Schaft, Arjan J. van der; Melchiorri, Claudio


    In this paper, some new results concerning the boundary control of distributed parameter systems in port Hamiltonian form are presented. The classical finite dimensional port Hamiltonian formulation of a dynamical system has been generalized to the distributed parameter and multi-variable case by

  3. Explicit formulation for natural frequencies of double-beam system with arbitrary boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzabeigy, Alborz; Madoliat, Reza [Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dabbagh, Vahid [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    In this paper, free transverse vibration of two parallel beams connected through Winkler type elastic layer is investigated. Euler- Bernoulli beam hypothesis has been applied and it is assumed that boundary conditions of upper and lower beams are similar while arbitrary without any limitation even for non-ideal boundary conditions. Material properties and cross-section geometry of beams could be different from each other. The motion of the system is described by a homogeneous set of two partial differential equations, which is solved by using the classical Bernoulli-Fourier method. Explicit expressions are derived for the natural frequencies. In order to verify accuracy of results, the problem once again solved using modified Adomian decomposition method. Comparison between results indicates excellent accuracy of proposed formulation for any arbitrary boundary conditions. Derived explicit formulation is simplest method to determine natural frequencies of double-beam systems with high level of accuracy in comparison with other methods in literature.

  4. Second-order domain derivative of normal-dependent boundary integrals

    KAUST Repository

    Balzer, Jonathan


    Numerous reconstruction tasks in (optical) surface metrology allow for a variational formulation. The occurring boundary integrals may be interpreted as shape functions. The paper is concerned with the second-order analysis of such functions. Shape Hessians of boundary integrals are considered difficult to find analytically because they correspond to third-order derivatives of an, in a sense equivalent, domain integral. We complement previous results by considering cost functions depending explicitly on the surface normal. The correctness and practicability of our calculations are verified in the context of a Newton-type shape reconstruction method. © 2010 Birkhäuser / Springer Basel AG.

  5. On integrable boundaries in the 2 dimensional O(N) σ-models (United States)

    Aniceto, Inês; Bajnok, Zoltán; Gombor, Tamás; Kim, Minkyoo; Palla, László


    We make an attempt to map the integrable boundary conditions for 2 dimensional non-linear O(N) σ-models. We do it at various levels: classically, by demanding the existence of infinitely many conserved local charges and also by constructing the double row transfer matrix from the Lax connection, which leads to the spectral curve formulation of the problem; at the quantum level, we describe the solutions of the boundary Yang-Baxter equation and derive the Bethe-Yang equations. We then show how to connect the thermodynamic limit of the boundary Bethe-Yang equations to the spectral curve.

  6. Cleansing Formulations That Respect Skin Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel M. Walters


    Full Text Available Surfactants in skin cleansers interact with the skin in several manners. In addition to the desired benefit of providing skin hygiene, surfactants also extract skin components during cleansing and remain in the stratum corneum (SC after rinsing. These side effects disrupt SC structure and degrade its barrier properties. Recent applications of vibrational spectroscopy and two-photon microscopy in skin research have provided molecular-level information to facilitate our understanding of the interaction between skin and surfactant. In the arena of commercial skin cleansers, technologies have been developed to produce cleansers that both cleanse and respect skin barrier. The main approach is to minimize surfactant interaction with skin through altering its solution properties. Recently, hydrophobically modified polymers (HMPs have been introduced to create skin compatible cleansing systems. At the presence of HMP, surfactants assemble into larger, more stable structures. These structures are less likely to penetrate the skin, thereby resulting in less aggressive cleansers and the integrity of the skin barrier is maintained. In this paper, we reviewed our recent findings on surfactant and SC interactions at molecular level and provided an overview of the HM technology for developing cleansers that respect skin barrier.

  7. The path integral formulation of climate dynamics.

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    Antonio Navarra

    Full Text Available The chaotic nature of the atmospheric dynamics has stimulated the applications of methods and ideas derived from statistical dynamics. For instance, ensemble systems are used to make weather predictions recently extensive, which are designed to sample the phase space around the initial condition. Such an approach has been shown to improve substantially the usefulness of the forecasts since it allows forecasters to issue probabilistic forecasts. These works have modified the dominant paradigm of the interpretation of the evolution of atmospheric flows (and oceanic motions to some extent attributing more importance to the probability distribution of the variables of interest rather than to a single representation. The ensemble experiments can be considered as crude attempts to estimate the evolution of the probability distribution of the climate variables, which turn out to be the only physical quantity relevant to practice. However, little work has been done on a direct modeling of the probability evolution itself. In this paper it is shown that it is possible to write the evolution of the probability distribution as a functional integral of the same kind introduced by Feynman in quantum mechanics, using some of the methods and results developed in statistical physics. The approach allows obtaining a formal solution to the Fokker-Planck equation corresponding to the Langevin-like equation of motion with noise. The method is very general and provides a framework generalizable to red noise, as well as to delaying differential equations, and even field equations, i.e., partial differential equations with noise, for example, general circulation models with noise. These concepts will be applied to an example taken from a simple ENSO model.

  8. Estimation of Soil Electrical Properties in a Multilayer Earth Model with Boundary Element Formulation


    Islam, T.; Z. Chik; M. M. Mustafa; H. Sanusi


    This paper presents an efficient model for estimation of soil electric resistivity with depth and layer thickness in a multilayer earth structure. This model is the improvement of conventional two-layer earth model including Wenner resistivity formulations with boundary conditions. Two-layer soil model shows the limitations in specific soil characterizations of different layers with the interrelationships between soil apparent electrical resistivity (ρ) and several soil physical or chemical p...

  9. On Solutions of Fractional Order Boundary Value Problems with Integral Boundary Conditions in Banach Spaces

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    Hussein A. H. Salem


    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the existence of a class of solutions for some boundary value problems of fractional order with integral boundary conditions. The considered problems are very interesting and important from an application point of view. They include two, three, multipoint, and nonlocal boundary value problems as special cases. We stress on single and multivalued problems for which the nonlinear term is assumed only to be Pettis integrable and depends on the fractional derivative of an unknown function. Some investigations on fractional Pettis integrability for functions and multifunctions are also presented. An example illustrating the main result is given.

  10. Existence Results for Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems of Fractional Integrodifferential Equations with Integral Boundary Conditions

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    Nieto JuanJ


    Full Text Available This paper deals with some existence results for a boundary value problem involving a nonlinear integrodifferential equation of fractional order with integral boundary conditions. Our results are based on contraction mapping principle and Krasnosel'skiĭ's fixed point theorem.

  11. Estimation of Soil Electrical Properties in a Multilayer Earth Model with Boundary Element Formulation

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    T. Islam


    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient model for estimation of soil electric resistivity with depth and layer thickness in a multilayer earth structure. This model is the improvement of conventional two-layer earth model including Wenner resistivity formulations with boundary conditions. Two-layer soil model shows the limitations in specific soil characterizations of different layers with the interrelationships between soil apparent electrical resistivity (ρ and several soil physical or chemical properties. In the multilayer soil model, the soil resistivity and electric potential at any points in multilayer anisotropic soil medium are expressed according to the variation of electric field intensity for geotechnical investigations. For most soils with varying layers, multilayer soil resistivity profile is therefore more suitable to get soil type, bulk density of compacted soil and to detect anomalous materials in soil. A boundary element formulation is implemented to show the multilayer soil model with boundary conditions in soil resistivity estimations. Numerical results of soil resistivity ratio and potential differences for different layers are presented to illustrate the application, accuracy, and efficiency of the proposed model. The nobility of the research is obtaining multilayer soil characterizations through soil electric properties in near surface soil profile.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorona Yu.V.


    Full Text Available Boundary Integral Equation Method is used for solving analytically the problems of coupled thermoelastic spherical wave propagation. The resulting mathematical expressions coincide with the solutions obtained in a conventional manner.

  13. Boundary conditions in conformal and integrable theories

    CERN Document Server

    Petkova, V B


    The study of boundary conditions in rational conformal field theories is not only physically important. It also reveals a lot on the structure of the theory ``in the bulk''. The same graphs classify both the torus and the cylinder partition functions and provide data on their hidden ``quantum symmetry''. The Ocneanu triangular cells -- the 3j-symbols of these symmetries, admit various interpretations and make a link between different problems.

  14. Project Integration Architecture: Formulation of Dimensionality in Semantic Parameters Outline (United States)

    Jones, William Henry


    One of several key elements of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is the formulation of parameter objects which convey meaningful semantic information. The infusion of measurement dimensionality into such objects is an important part of that effort since it promises to automate the conversion of units between cooperating applications and, thereby, eliminate the mistakes that have occasionally beset other systems of information transport. This paper discusses the conceptualization of dimensionality developed as a result of that effort.

  15. Implications of a wavepacket formulation for the nonlinear parabolized stability equations to hypersonic boundary layers (United States)

    Kuehl, Joseph


    The parabolized stability equations (PSE) have been developed as an efficient and powerful tool for studying the stability of advection-dominated laminar flows. In this work, a new "wavepacket" formulation of the PSE is presented. This method accounts for the influence of finite-bandwidth-frequency distributions on nonlinear stability calculations. The methodology is motivated by convolution integrals and is found to appropriately represent nonlinear energy transfer between primary modes and harmonics, in particular nonlinear feedback, via a "nonlinear coupling coefficient." It is found that traditional discrete mode formulations overestimate nonlinear feedback by approximately 70%. This results in smaller maximum disturbance amplitudes than those observed experimentally. The new formulation corrects this overestimation, accounts for the generation of side lobes responsible for spectral broadening and results in disturbance saturation amplitudes consistent with experiment. A Mach 6 flared-cone example is presented. Support from the AFOSR Young Investigator Program via Grant FA9550-15-1-0129 is gratefully acknowledges.

  16. A scaled boundary finite element formulation with bubble functions for elasto-static analyses of functionally graded materials (United States)

    Ooi, E. T.; Song, C.; Natarajan, S.


    This manuscript presents an extension of the recently-developed high order complete scaled boundary shape functions to model elasto-static problems in functionally graded materials. Both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded materials are modelled. The high order complete properties of the shape functions are realized through the introduction of bubble-like functions derived from the equilibrium condition of a polygon subjected to body loads. The bubble functions preserve the displacement compatibility between the elements in the mesh. The heterogeneity resulting from the material gradient introduces additional terms in the polygon stiffness matrix that are integrated analytically. Few numerical benchmarks were used to validate the developed formulation. The high order completeness property of the bubble functions result in superior accuracy and convergence rates for generic elasto-static and fracture problems involving functionally graded materials.

  17. A new formulation of electromagnetic wave scattering using an on-surface radiation boundary condition approach (United States)

    Kriegsmann, Gregory A.; Taflove, Allen; Umashankar, Koradar R.


    A new formulation of electromagnetic wave scattering by convex, two-dimensional conducting bodies is reported. This formulation, called the on-surface radiation condition (OSRC) approach, is based upon an expansion of the radiation condition applied directly on the surface of a scatterer. It is now shown that application of a suitable radiation condition directly on the surface of a convex conducting scatterer can lead to substantial simplification of the frequency-domain integral equation for the scattered field, which is reduced to just a line integral. For the transverse magnetic case, the integrand is known explicitly. For the transverse electric case, the integrand can be easily constructed by solving an ordinary differential equation around the scatterer surface contour. Examples are provided which show that OSRC yields computed near and far fields which approach the exact results for canonical shapes such as the circular cylinder, square cylinder, and strip. Electrical sizes for the examples are ka = 5 and ka = 10. The new OSRC formulation of scattering may present a useful alternative to present integral equation and uniform high-frequency approaches for convex cylinders larger than ka = 1. Structures with edges or corners can also be analyzed, although more work is needed to incorporate the physics of singular currents at these discontinuities. Convex dielectric structures can also be treated using OSRC.

  18. Implicit Boundary Integral Methods for the Helmholtz Equation in Exterior Domains (United States)


    solutions computed by EIBIM and IBIM using different mesh sizes . The scattering surface is the bean shape shown in Figure (3.3). k = 1, 0 = √ ∆x. Evaluated...methods (IBIMs) We now describe the implicit boundary integral formulation for integral equation of the form ∫ Γ β(y)K(x, y)ds(y) + λβ(x) = f(x), for x...1)sc,0.1) 142.9 141.2 140.9 Cond(w(2)∞,0.1) 1666.5 1419.2 1413.01 Table 2: Condition numbers of matrices formed by using different kernels. The

  19. Formulation of market strategies for Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The ANL Energy and Environmental Systems Division has undertaken studies of implementation mechanisms and commercialization prospects for ''integrated community energy systems.'' Real Estate Research Corp. was commissioned to formulate marketing strategies appropriate to the implementation of ICES in the U.S. Objectives of this assignment are to: assist ICES program managers in formulating market strategies for the acceptance and widespread application of ICES systems; provide sufficient background information on the processes of development so that marketing strategies can be suitably tailored to particular concerns and characteristics of development projects; establish an information system for identifying areas, subareas, sites, or projects with substantial growth and development activity, as potential candidates for the application of ICES; test the information system to determine its potential usefulness for identifying candidate sites; and provide recommendations on strategies and techniques that might be used in a comprehensive marketing program for application of ICES systems. Chapter 2 presents information on the development process, which is used as a framework for other elements of the report. The project information system for identifying candidate projects for ICES applications is described in Chapter 3, and that system is subjected to a limited test and evaluation in Chapter 4. Description of the characteristics of development process appears in Chapter 5, and discussion of the formulation of marketing strategies in Chapter 6, and presentation of marketing techniques as part of an ICES marketing program in Chapter 7.

  20. Formulation and study some inverse problems in modeling of hydrophysical fields in water areas with "liquid" boundaries (United States)

    Agoshkov, Valery


    There are different approaches for modeling boundary conditions describing hydrophysical fields in water areas with "liquid" boundaries. Variational data assimilation may also be considered as one of such approaches. Development of computer equipment, together with an increase in the quantity and quality of data from the satellites and other monitoring tools proves that the development of this particular approach is perspective. The range of connected the problems is wide - different recording forms of boundary conditions, observational data assimilation procedures and used models of hydrodynamics are possible. In this work some inverse problems and corresponding variational data assimilation ones, connected with mathematical modeling of hydrophysical fields in water areas (seas and oceans) with "liquid" ("open") boundaries, are formulated and studied. Note that the surface of water area (which can also be considered as a "liquid" boundary) is not included in the set of "liquid" boundaries, in this case "liquid" boundaries are borders between the areas "water-water". In the work, mathematical model of hydrothermodynamics in the water areas with "liquid" ("open") part of the boundary, a generalized statement of the problem and the splitting method for time approximation are formulated. Also the problem of variational data assimilation and iterative algorithm for solving inverse problems mentioned above are formulated. The work is based on [1]. The work was partly supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project 14-11-00609, the general formulation of the inverse problems) and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 16-01-00548, the formulation of the problem and its study). [1] V.I. Agoshkov, Methods for solving inverse problems and variational data assimilation problems of observations in the problems of the large-scale dynamics of the oceans and seas, Institute of Numerical Mathematics, RAS, Moscow, 2016 (in Russian).

  1. An Integrated Methodology for Emulsified Formulated Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele

    The consumer oriented chemical based products are used every day by millions of people. They are structured products constituted of numerous chemicals, and many of them, especially household and personal care products, are emulsions where active ingredients, solvents, additives and surfactants...... are mixed together to determine the desired emulsified product. They are still mainly designed and analysed through trial - and - error based exper- imental techniques, therefore a systematic approach , integrating model-based as well a s experiment - based techniques, for design of these products could...... significantly reduce both time and cost connected to product development by doing only the necessary experi- ments , and ensuring chances for innovation . The main contribution of this project i s the development of an integrated methodology for the design of emulsified formulated products. The methodology...

  2. A discontinuous galerkin time domain-boundary integral method for analyzing transient electromagnetic scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping


    This paper presents an algorithm hybridizing discontinuous Galerkin time domain (DGTD) method and time domain boundary integral (BI) algorithm for 3-D open region electromagnetic scattering analysis. The computational domain of DGTD is rigorously truncated by analytically evaluating the incoming numerical flux from the outside of the truncation boundary through BI method based on the Huygens\\' principle. The advantages of the proposed method are that it allows the truncation boundary to be conformal to arbitrary (convex/ concave) scattering objects, well-separated scatters can be truncated by their local meshes without losing the physics (such as coupling/multiple scattering) of the problem, thus reducing the total mesh elements. Furthermore, low frequency waves can be efficiently absorbed, and the field outside the truncation domain can be conveniently calculated using the same BI formulation. Numerical examples are benchmarked to demonstrate the accuracy and versatility of the proposed method.

  3. Diffraction of Elastic Waves in Fluid-Layered Solid Interfaces by an Integral Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Basaldúa-Sánchez


    Full Text Available In the present communication, scattering of elastic waves in fluid-layered solid interfaces is studied. The indirect boundary element method is used to deal with this wave propagation phenomenon in 2D fluid-layered solid models. The source is represented by Hankel’s function of second kind and this is always applied in the fluid. Our method is an approximate boundary integral technique which is based upon an integral representation for scattered elastic waves using single-layer boundary sources. This approach is typically called indirect because the sources’ strengths are calculated as an intermediate step. In addition, this formulation is regarded as a realization of Huygens’ principle. The results are presented in frequency and time domains. Various aspects related to the different wave types that emerge from this kind of problems are emphasized. A near interface pulse generates changes in the pressure field and can be registered by receivers located in the fluid. In order to show the accuracy of our method, we validated the results with those obtained by the discrete wave number applied to a fluid-solid interface joining two half-spaces, one fluid and the other an elastic solid.

  4. From path integrals to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation: Time evolution in spacetimes with a spatial boundary (United States)

    Feng, Justin C.; Matzner, Richard A.


    We reexamine the relationship between the path integral and canonical formulation of quantum general relativity. In particular, we present a formal derivation of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation from the path integral for quantum general relativity by way of boundary variations. One feature of this approach is that it does not require an explicit 3 +1 splitting of spacetime in the bulk. For spacetimes with a spatial boundary, we show that the dependence of the transition amplitudes on spatial boundary conditions is determined by a Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the spatial boundary surface. We find that variations in the induced metric at the spatial boundary can be used to describe time evolution—time evolution in quantum general relativity is therefore governed by boundary conditions on the gravitational field at the spatial boundary. We then briefly describe a formalism for computing the dependence of transition amplitudes on spatial boundary conditions. Finally, we argue that for nonsmooth boundaries meaningful transition amplitudes must depend on boundary conditions at the joint surfaces.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim H. Güzelbey


    Full Text Available This study proposes Genetic Progran1ming (GP as a new tool for the analysis and formulation of the J-integral for theopening mode offracture mechanics. The proposed GP formulation is based on extensive Finite Element (FE results. AGP based I-integral formulation for the three different geometries w

  6. Optimal control problems for impulsive systems with integral boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaberen Ashyralyev


    Full Text Available In this article, the optimal control problem is considered when the state of the system is described by the impulsive differential equations with integral boundary conditions. Applying the Banach contraction principle the existence and uniqueness of the solution is proved for the corresponding boundary problem by the fixed admissible control. The first and second variation of the functional is calculated. Various necessary conditions of optimality of the first and second order are obtained by the help of the variation of the controls.

  7. The boundary-domain integral method for elliptic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pomp, Andreas


    This monograph gives a description of all algorithmic steps and a mathematical foundation for a special numerical method, namely the boundary-domain integral method (BDIM). This method is a generalization of the well-known boundary element method, but it is also applicable to linear elliptic systems with variable coefficients, especially to shell equations. The text should be understandable at the beginning graduate-level. It is addressed to researchers in the fields of numerical analysis and computational mechanics, and will be of interest to everyone looking at serious alternatives to the well-established finite element methods.

  8. An overview of integration methods for hypersingular boundary integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, E.; Ingraffea, A.R. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Gray, L.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))


    Several methods of analyzing the hypersignular gradient BIE have been developed recently. This paper is a review highlighting the numerous common aspects and several differences among the methods. Significant common aspects include (a) a regularization of constant and linear terms, (b) analysis of integration points near rather than on the surface, and (c) analysis of the neighborhood of the singular point rather than of individual elements. 26 refs.

  9. Spectral element boundary integral method with periodic layered medium dyadic Green's function for multiscale nano-optical scattering analysis. (United States)

    Niu, Jun; Ren, Yi; Liu, Qing Huo


    In this work, we propose a numerical solver combining the spectral element - boundary integral (SEBI) method with the periodic layered medium dyadic Green's function. The periodic layered medium dyadic Green's function is formulated under matrix representation. The surface integral equations (SIEs) are then implemented as the radiation boundary condition to truncate the top and bottom computation domain. After describing the interior computation domain with the vector wave equations, and treating the lateral boundaries with Bloch periodic boundary conditions, the whole computation domains are discretized with mixed-order Gauss- Lobatto-Legendre basis functions in the SEBI method. This method avoids the discretization of the top and bottom layered media, so it can be much more efficient than conventional methods. Numerical results validate the proposed solver with fast convergence throughout the whole computation domain and good performance for typical multiscale nano-optical applications.

  10. Surface integrals approach to solution of some free boundary problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Malyshev


    Full Text Available Inverse problems in which it is required to determine the coefficients of an equation belong to the important class of ill-posed problems. Among these, of increasing significance, are problems with free boundaries. They can be found in a wide range of disciplines including medicine, materials engineering, control theory, etc. We apply the integral equations techniques, typical for parabolic inverse problems, to the solution of a generalized Stefan problem. The regularization of the corresponding system of nonlinear integral Volterra equations, as well as local existence, uniqueness, continuation of its solution, and several numerical experiments are discussed.

  11. A boundary integral method for a dynamic, transient mode I crack problem with viscoelastic cohesive zone

    KAUST Repository

    Leise, Tanya L.


    We consider the problem of the dynamic, transient propagation of a semi-infinite, mode I crack in an infinite elastic body with a nonlinear, viscoelastic cohesize zone. Our problem formulation includes boundary conditions that preclude crack face interpenetration, in contrast to the usual mode I boundary conditions that assume all unloaded crack faces are stress-free. The nonlinear viscoelastic cohesive zone behavior is motivated by dynamic fracture in brittle polymers in which crack propagation is preceeded by significant crazing in a thin region surrounding the crack tip. We present a combined analytical/numerical solution method that involves reducing the problem to a Dirichlet-to-Neumann map along the crack face plane, resulting in a differo-integral equation relating the displacement and stress along the crack faces and within the cohesive zone. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Integral analysis of boundary layer flows with pressure gradient (United States)

    Wei, Tie; Maciel, Yvan; Klewicki, Joseph


    This Rapid Communication investigates boundary layer flows with a pressure gradient using a similarity/integral analysis of the continuity equation and momentum equation in the streamwise direction. The analysis yields useful analytical relations for Ve, the mean wall-normal velocity at the edge of the boundary layer, and for the skin friction coefficient Cf in terms of the boundary layer parameters and in particular βRC, the Rotta-Clauser pressure gradient parameter. The analytical results are compared with experimental and numerical data and are found to be valid. One of the main findings is that for large positive βRC (an important effect of an adverse pressure gradient), the friction coefficient is closely related to βRC as Cf∝1 /βRC , because δ /δ1,δ1/δ2=H , and d δ /d x become approximately constant. Here, δ is the boundary layer thickness, δ1 is the displacement thickness, δ2 is the momentum thickness, and H is the shape factor. Another finding is that the mean wall-normal velocity at the edge of the boundary layer is related to other flow variables as UeVe/uτ2=H +(1 +δ /δ1+H ) βRC , where Ue is the streamwise velocity at the edge of the boundary layer. At zero pressure gradient, this relation reduces to U∞V∞/uτ2=H , as recently derived by Wei and Klewicki [Phys. Rev. Fluids 1, 082401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.1.082401].

  13. Integrated care in the daily work: coordination beyond organisational boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Petrakou


    Full Text Available Objectives: In this paper, integrated care in an inter-organisational cooperative setting of in-home elderly care is studied. The aim is to explore how home care workers coordinate their daily work, identify coordination issues in situ and discuss possible actions for supporting seamless and integrated elderly care at home. Method: The empirical findings are drawn from an ethnographic workplace study of the cooperation and coordination taking place between home care workers in a Swedish county. Data were collected through observational studies, interviews and group discussions. Findings: The paper identifies a need to support two core issues. Firstly, it must be made clear how the care interventions that are currently defined as ‘self-treatment’ by the home health care should be divided. Secondly, the distributed and asynchronous coordination between all care workers involved, regardless of organisational belonging must be better supported. Conclusion: Integrated care needs to be developed between organisations as well as within each organisation. As a matter of fact, integrated care needs to be built up beyond organisational boundaries. Organisational boundaries affect the planning of the division of care interventions, but not the coordination during the home care process. During the home care process, the main challenge is the coordination difficulties that arise from the fact that workers are distributed in time and/or space, regardless of organisational belonging. A core subject for future practice and research is to develop IT tools that reach beyond formal organisational boundaries and processes while remaining adaptable in view of future structure changes.

  14. An ALE formulation of embedded boundary methods for tracking boundary layers in turbulent fluid-structure interaction problems (United States)

    Farhat, Charbel; Lakshminarayan, Vinod K.


    Embedded Boundary Methods (EBMs) for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are usually constructed in the Eulerian setting. They are particularly attractive for complex Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problems characterized by large structural motions and deformations. They are also critical for flow problems with topological changes and FSI problems with cracking. For all of these problems, the alternative Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) methods are often unfeasible because of the issue of mesh crossovers. However for viscous flows, Eulerian EBMs for CFD do not track the boundary layers around dynamic rigid or flexible bodies. Consequently, the application of these methods to viscous FSI problems requires either a high mesh resolution in a large part of the computational fluid domain, or adaptive mesh refinement. Unfortunately, the first option is computationally inefficient, and the second one is labor intensive. For these reasons, an alternative approach is proposed in this paper for maintaining all moving boundary layers resolved during the simulation of a turbulent FSI problem using an EBM for CFD. In this approach, which is simple and computationally reasonable, the underlying non-body-fitted mesh is rigidly translated and/or rotated in order to track the rigid component of the motion of the dynamic obstacle. Then, the flow computations away from the embedded surface are performed using the ALE framework, and the wall boundary conditions are treated by the chosen Eulerian EBM for CFD. Hence, the solution of the boundary layer tracking problem proposed in this paper can be described as an ALE implementation of a given EBM for CFD. Its basic features are illustrated with the Large Eddy Simulation using a non-body-fitted mesh of a turbulent flow past an airfoil in heaving motion. Its strong potential for the solution of challenging FSI problems at reasonable computational costs is also demonstrated with the simulation of turbulent flows past a family of

  15. New formulations on the finite element method for boundary value problems with internal/external boundary layers; Novas formulacoes de elementos finitos para problemas de valor de contorno com camadas limite interna/externa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luis Carlos Martins


    New Petrov-Galerkin formulations on the finite element methods for convection-diffusion problems with boundary layers are presented. Such formulations are based on a consistent new theory on discontinuous finite element methods. Existence and uniqueness of solutions for these problems in the new finite element spaces are demonstrated. Some numerical experiments shows how the new formulation operate and also their efficacy. (author)

  16. Formule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Comité de Rédaction d'


    Full Text Available Vous découvrez aujourd’hui la nouvelle formule d’EspacesTemps. net. Ce basculement repose sur des changements techniques d’une certaine ampleur et nous vous demandons d’être indulgents si quelques imperfections subsistent dans les prochains jours. Il s’agit d’abord de la substitution du dispositif de mise en ligne : à partir de maintenant, nous utilisons le logiciel Lodel. Dans l’esprit de l’association, à laquelle EspacesTemps adhère, l’unification du ...

  17. Issues and Methods Concerning the Evaluation of Hypersingular and Near-Hypersingular Integrals in BEM Formulations (United States)

    Fink, P. W.; Khayat, M. A.; Wilton, D. R.


    It is known that higher order modeling of the sources and the geometry in Boundary Element Modeling (BEM) formulations is essential to highly efficient computational electromagnetics. However, in order to achieve the benefits of hIgher order basis and geometry modeling, the singular and near-singular terms arising in BEM formulations must be integrated accurately. In particular, the accurate integration of near-singular terms, which occur when observation points are near but not on source regions of the scattering object, has been considered one of the remaining limitations on the computational efficiency of integral equation methods. The method of singularity subtraction has been used extensively for the evaluation of singular and near-singular terms. Piecewise integration of the source terms in this manner, while manageable for bases of constant and linear orders, becomes unwieldy and prone to error for bases of higher order. Furthermore, we find that the singularity subtraction method is not conducive to object-oriented programming practices, particularly in the context of multiple operators. To extend the capabilities, accuracy, and maintainability of general-purpose codes, the subtraction method is being replaced in favor of the purely numerical quadrature schemes. These schemes employ singularity cancellation methods in which a change of variables is chosen such that the Jacobian of the transformation cancels the singularity. An example of the sin,oularity cancellation approach is the Duffy method, which has two major drawbacks: 1) In the resulting integrand, it produces an angular variation about the singular point that becomes nearly-singular for observation points close to an edge of the parent element, and 2) it appears not to work well when applied to nearly-singular integrals. Recently, the authors have introduced the transformation u(x(prime))= sinh (exp -1) x(prime)/Square root of ((y prime (exp 2))+ z(exp 2) for integrating functions of the form I

  18. Revisit boundary conditions for the self-adjoint angular flux formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaqi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gleicher, Frederick N. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    We revisit the boundary conditions for SAAF. We derived the equivalent parity variational form ready for coding up. The more rigorous approach of evaluating odd parity should be solving the odd parity equation coupled with the even parity. We proposed a symmetric reflecting boundary condition although neither positive definiteness nor even-odd decoupling is achieved. A simple numerical test verifies the validity of these boundary conditions.

  19. Integrability of a deterministic cellular automaton driven by stochastic boundaries (United States)

    Prosen, Tomaž; Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos


    We propose an interacting many-body space-time-discrete Markov chain model, which is composed of an integrable deterministic and reversible cellular automaton (rule 54 of Bobenko et al 1993 Commun. Math. Phys. 158 127) on a finite one-dimensional lattice {({{{Z}}}2)}× n, and local stochastic Markov chains at the two lattice boundaries which provide chemical baths for absorbing or emitting the solitons. Ergodicity and mixing of this many-body Markov chain is proven for generic values of bath parameters, implying the existence of a unique nonequilibrium steady state. The latter is constructed exactly and explicitly in terms of a particularly simple form of matrix product ansatz which is termed a patch ansatz. This gives rise to an explicit computation of observables and k-point correlations in the steady state as well as the construction of a nontrivial set of local conservation laws. The feasibility of an exact solution for the full spectrum and eigenvectors (decay modes) of the Markov matrix is suggested as well. We conjecture that our ideas can pave the road towards a theory of integrability of boundary driven classical deterministic lattice systems.

  20. Numerical simulation of particulate flows using a hybrid of finite difference and boundary integral methods. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Kesarkar, Tejas


    A combination of finite difference (FD) and boundary integral (BI) methods is used to formulate an efficient solver for simulating unsteady Stokes flow around particles. The two-dimensional (2D) unsteady Stokes equation is being solved on a Cartesian grid using a second order FD method, while the 2D steady Stokes equation is being solved near the particle using BI method. The two methods are coupled within the viscous boundary layer, a few FD grid cells away from the particle, where solutions from both FD and BI methods are valid. We demonstrate that this hybrid method can be used to accurately solve for the flow around particles with irregular shapes, even though radius of curvature of the particle surface is not resolved by the FD grid. For dilute particle concentrations, we construct a virtual envelope around each particle and solve the BI problem for the flow field located between the envelope and the particle. The BI solver provides velocity boundary condition to the FD solver at "boundary" nodes located on the FD grid, adjacent to the particles, while the FD solver provides the velocity boundary condition to the BI solver at points located on the envelope. The coupling between FD method and BI method is implicit at every time step. This method allows us to formulate an O(N) scheme for dilute suspensions, where N is the number of particles. For semidilute suspensions, where particles may cluster, an envelope formation method has been formulated and implemented, which enables solving the BI problem for each individual particle cluster, allowing efficient simulation of hydrodynamic interaction between particles even when they are in close proximity. The method has been validated against analytical results for flow around a periodic array of cylinders and for Jeffrey orbit of a moving ellipse in shear flow. Simulation of multiple force-free irregular shaped particles in the presence of shear in a 2D slit flow has been conducted to demonstrate the robustness of

  1. The classical nonlinear Schr\\"odinger model with a new integrable boundary


    Zambon, Cristina


    A new integrable boundary for the classical nonlinear Schr\\"odinger model is derived by dressing a boundary with a defect. A complete investigation of the integrability of the new boundary is carried out in the sense that the boundary ${\\cal K}$ matrix is derived and the integrability is proved via the classical $r$-matrix. The issue of conserved charges is also discussed. The key point in proving the integrability of the new boundary is the use of suitable modified Poisson brackets. Finally,...

  2. A hybrid method combining the FDTD and a time domain boundary-integral equation marching-on-in-time algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Becker


    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid method combining the FDTD/FIT with a Time Domain Boundary-Integral Marching-on-in-Time Algorithm (TD-BIM is presented. Inhomogeneous regions are modelled with the FIT-method, an alternative formulation of the FDTD. Homogeneous regions (which is in the presented numerical example the open space are modelled using a TD-BIM with equivalent electric and magnetic currents flowing on the boundary between the inhomogeneous and the homogeneous regions. The regions are coupled by the tangential magnetic fields just outside the inhomogeneous regions. These fields are calculated by making use of a Mixed Potential Integral Formulation for the magnetic field. The latter consists of equivalent electric and magnetic currents on the boundary plane between the homogeneous and the inhomogeneous region. The magnetic currents result directly from the electric fields of the Yee lattice. Electric currents in the same plane are calculated by making use of the TD-BIM and using the electric field of the Yee lattice as boundary condition. The presented hybrid method only needs the interpolations inherent in FIT and no additional interpolation. A numerical result is compared to a calculation that models both regions with FDTD.

  3. Least-Squares PN Formulation of the Transport Equation Using Self-Adjoint-Angular-Flux Consistent Boundary Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laboure, Vincent M.; Wang, Yaqi; DeHart, Mark D.


    In this paper, we study the Least-Squares (LS) PN form of the transport equation compatible with voids [1] in the context of Continuous Finite Element Methods (CFEM).We first deriveweakly imposed boundary conditions which make the LS weak formulation equivalent to the Self-Adjoint Angular Flux (SAAF) variational formulation with a void treatment [2], in the particular case of constant cross-sections and a uniform mesh. We then implement this method in Rattlesnake with the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework [3] using a spherical harmonics (PN) expansion to discretize in angle. We test our implementation using the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) and find the expected convergence behavior both in angle and space. Lastly, we investigate the impact of the global non-conservation of LS by comparing the method with SAAF on a heterogeneous test problem.

  4. Least-Squares PN Formulation of the Transport Equation Using Self-Adjoint-Angular-Flux Consistent Boundary Conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent M. Laboure; Yaqi Wang; Mark D. DeHart


    In this paper, we study the Least-Squares (LS) PN form of the transport equation compatible with voids in the context of Continuous Finite Element Methods (CFEM).We first deriveweakly imposed boundary conditions which make the LS weak formulation equivalent to the Self-Adjoint Angular Flux (SAAF) variational formulation with a void treatment, in the particular case of constant cross-sections and a uniform mesh. We then implement this method in Rattlesnake with the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework using a spherical harmonics (PN) expansion to discretize in angle. We test our implementation using the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) and find the expected convergence behavior both in angle and space. Lastly, we investigate the impact of the global non-conservation of LS by comparing the method with SAAF on a heterogeneous test problem.

  5. Solution of a Problem Linear Plane Elasticity with Mixed Boundary Conditions by the Method of Boundary Integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed S. Hussein


    Full Text Available A numerical boundary integral scheme is proposed for the solution to the system of …eld equations of plane. The stresses are prescribed on one-half of the circle, while the displacements are given. The considered problem with mixed boundary conditions in the circle is replaced by two problems with homogeneous boundary conditions, one of each type, having a common solution. The equations are reduced to a system of boundary integral equations, which is then discretized in the usual way, and the problem at this stage is reduced to the solution to a rectangular linear system of algebraic equations. The unknowns in this system of equations are the boundary values of four harmonic functions which define the full elastic solution and the unknown boundary values of stresses or displacements on proper parts of the boundary. On the basis of the obtained results, it is inferred that a stress component has a singularity at each of the two separation points, thought to be of logarithmic type. The results are discussed and boundary plots are given. We have also calculated the unknown functions in the bulk directly from the given boundary conditions using the boundary collocation method. The obtained results in the bulk are discussed and three-dimensional plots are given. A tentative form for the singular solution is proposed and the corresponding singular stresses and displacements are plotted in the bulk. The form of the singular tangential stress is seen to be compatible with the boundary values obtained earlier. The efficiency of the used numerical schemes is discussed.

  6. Formulation of a Prototype Coupled Atmospheric and Oceanic Boundary Layer Model. (United States)


    layers. The approach will be to compare observed evolutions in the oceanic and atmospheric boundary layers with predictions from bulk modelo wherein...a very complex subject and is beyond the scope of this paper. An excellent review of this sub- ject has beer. published by Fairall (1981). An

  7. Non-isothermal compositional liquid gas Darcy flow: formulation, soil-atmosphere boundary condition and application to high energy geothermal simulations


    Beaude, Laurence; Brenner, Konstantin; Lopez, Simon; Masson, Roland; Smai, Farid


    This article deals with the modelling and formulation of compositional gas liquid Darcy flow. Our model includes an advanced boundary condition at the interface between the porous medium and the atmosphere accounting for convective mass and energy transfer, liquid evaporation and liquid outflow. The formulation is based on a fixed set of unknowns whatever the set of present phases. The thermody-namic equilibrium is expressed as complementary constraints. The model and its formulation are appl...

  8. A variational formulation of the coupled thermo-mechanical boundary-value problem for general dissipative solids (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Stainier, L.; Ortiz, M.


    A variational formulation of the coupled thermo-mechanical boundary-value problem for general dissipative solids is presented. The coupled thermo-mechanical boundary-value problem under consideration consists of the equilibrium problem for a deformable, inelastic and dissipative solid with the heat conduction problem appended in addition. The variational formulation allows for general dissipative solids, including finite elastic and plastic deformations, non-Newtonian viscosity, rate sensitivity, arbitrary flow and hardening rules, as well as heat conduction. We show that a joint potential function exists such that both the conservation of energy and the balance of linear momentum equations follow as Euler-Lagrange equations. The identification of the joint potential requires a careful distinction between equilibrium and external temperatures, which are equal at equilibrium. The variational framework predicts the fraction of dissipated energy that is converted to heat. A comparison of this prediction and experimental data suggests that α-titanium and Al2024-T conform to the variational framework.

  9. Boundary conditions and the generalized metric formulation of the double sigma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Te Ma


    Full Text Available Double sigma model with strong constraints is equivalent to the ordinary sigma model by imposing a self-duality relation. The gauge symmetries are the diffeomorphism and one-form gauge transformation with the strong constraints. We consider boundary conditions in the double sigma model from three ways. The first way is to modify the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions with a fully O(D,D description from double gauge fields. We perform the one-loop β function for the constant background fields to find low-energy effective theory without using the strong constraints. The low-energy theory can also have O(D,D invariance as the double sigma model. The second way is to construct different boundary conditions from the projectors. The third way is to combine the antisymmetric background field with field strength to redefine an O(D,D generalized metric. We use this generalized metric to reconstruct a consistent double sigma model with the classical and quantum equivalence.

  10. Radiation Boundary Conditions for Maxwell’s Equations: A Review of Accurate Time-Domain Formulations (United States)


    common to all the planes which make up the boundary Γ. Let B(r, t) represent the radius –r sphere at time t and centered at the origin. With this...cos θ, t)dS, where B∗(r, t) is the radius –r spherical portion centered at the origin for which (θ, φ) ∈ S∗. This average does not use the proper area...their application to electro- magnetism,˜rprice. 56. T. Regge and J. Wheeler, Stability of a Schwarzschild singularity, Phys. Rev

  11. The Existence of Solutions to Integral Boundary Value Problems of Fractional Differential Equations at Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Zou


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the integral boundary value problems of fractional differential equations at resonance. By Mawhin’s coincidence degree theory, we present some new results on the existence of solutions for a class of differential equations of fractional order with integral boundary conditions at resonance. An example is also included to illustrate the main results.

  12. Incorporating boundary conditions in the integral form of the radiative transfer equation for transcranial imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Zhu, Yansong; Kang, Jin U.


    An integral Neumann-series implementation of the Radiative Transfer Equation that accounts for boundary conditions is proposed to simulate photon transport through tissue for transcranial optical imaging.......An integral Neumann-series implementation of the Radiative Transfer Equation that accounts for boundary conditions is proposed to simulate photon transport through tissue for transcranial optical imaging....

  13. A nodal boundary elements formulation. Application to the solution of the Laplace equation for irrotational flows (United States)

    Ardonceau, Pascal


    The Note presents an unconventional computational method for irrotational and incompressible fluid flows over lifting bodies. At first, Laplace's equation for the velocity potential is solved with internal Dirichlet conditions expressed at the nodes of the mesh rather than at smooth surface positions. Continuous distributions of surface normal doublets are used, and obtaining the surface velocity field with such distributions becomes straightforward. Secondly, an original Neumann type formulation of the Kutta conditions is proposed. Expressing the minimization of the velocity flux across the wall shows a significant reduction of the discretization impact upon the computed global efforts when compared to local no-load conditions. The method can be applied to 2 or 3-dimensional flows, steady or not. To cite this article: P. Ardonceau, C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  14. A consistent turbulence formulation for the dynamic wake meandering model in the atmospheric boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik; Veldkamp, Dick; Wedel-Heinen, Jens Jakob

    evolution 4. atmospheric stability effects on wake deficit evolution and meandering The conducted research is to a large extent based on detailed wake investigations and reference data generated through computational fluid dynamics simulations, where the wind turbine rotor has been represented...... as a standalone flow-solver for the velocity and turbulence distribution, and power production in a wind farm. The performance of the standalone implementation is validated against field data, higher-order computational fluid dynamics models, as well as the most common engineering wake models in the wind industry....... 2. The EllipSys3D actuator line model, including the synthetic methods used to model atmospheric boundary layer shear and turbulence, is verified for modelling the evolution of wind turbine wake turbulence by comparison to field data and wind tunnel experiments. 3. A two-dimensional eddy viscosity...

  15. Integrable boundary conditions for a non-Abelian anyon chain with D(D{sub 3}) symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dancer, K.A.; Finch, P.E.; Isaac, P.S. [The University of Queensland, Centre for Mathematical Physics, School of Physical Sciences, 4072 (Australia); Links, J. [The University of Queensland, Centre for Mathematical Physics, School of Physical Sciences, 4072 (Australia)], E-mail:


    A general formulation of the Boundary Quantum Inverse Scattering Method is given which is applicable in cases where R-matrix solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation do not have the property of crossing unitarity. Suitably modified forms of the reflection equations are presented which permit the construction of a family of commuting transfer matrices. As an example, we apply the formalism to determine the most general solutions of the reflection equations for a solution of the Yang-Baxter equation with underlying symmetry given by the Drinfeld double D(D{sub 3}) of the dihedral group D{sub 3}. This R-matrix does not have the crossing unitarity property. In this manner we derive integrable boundary conditions for an open chain model of interacting non-Abelian anyons.

  16. Integrating competencies: exploring complex problem solving through case formulation in developmental pediatrics. (United States)

    Kawamura, Anne A; Orsino, Angela; Mylopoulos, Maria


    To understand how experienced clinicians formulate cases and to use this understanding to explore the broader processes involved in how clinicians solve complex problems in their daily work. Case formulation is a process that allows clinicians to provide a tentative explanation for why a patient with a certain condition presents in a particular way at a particular time. In this constructivist grounded theory study, the authors conducted semistructured interviews with 12 physicians (9 experienced clinicians, 3 new graduates and residents) from the University of Toronto Division of Developmental Pediatrics between July and December 2012. They used a constant comparative analysis to identify themes and iteratively developed a thematic structure, which one researcher applied to the entire data set. They maintained a detailed audit trail throughout the process. Experienced clinician participants articulated three interconnected themes that characterize their complex problem solving during case formulation: (1) interpreting individual patient factors in the context of medical and clinical knowledge, (2) strategically co-constructing the case formulation with parents and team members, and (3) refining the case formulation over time. Findings suggest that these interpretive, strategic, and longitudinal processes appear to be central to the complex problem solving of experienced clinicians engaged in case formulation. They illuminate how clinicians integrate multiple competencies when they solve complex problems in their daily work. Exploring this integration of competencies has broader implications for understanding expertise and expert development and may inform pedagogical practices that promote the development of complex problem solving in trainees.

  17. Inviscid/Boundary-Layer Aeroheating Approach for Integrated Vehicle Design (United States)

    Lee, Esther; Wurster, Kathryn E.


    A typical entry vehicle design depends on the synthesis of many essential subsystems, including thermal protection system (TPS), structures, payload, avionics, and propulsion, among others. The ability to incorporate aerothermodynamic considerations and TPS design into the early design phase is crucial, as both are closely coupled to the vehicle's aerodynamics, shape and mass. In the preliminary design stage, reasonably accurate results with rapid turn-representative entry envelope was explored. Initial results suggest that for Mach numbers ranging from 9-20, a few inviscid solutions could reasonably sup- port surface heating predictions at Mach numbers variation of +/-2, altitudes variation of +/-10 to 20 kft, and angle-of-attack variation of +/- 5. Agreement with Navier-Stokes solutions was generally found to be within 10-15% for Mach number and altitude, and 20% for angle of attack. A smaller angle-of-attack increment than the 5 deg around times for parametric studies and quickly evolving configurations are necessary to steer design decisions. This investigation considers the use of an unstructured 3D inviscid code in conjunction with an integral boundary-layer method; the former providing the flow field solution and the latter the surface heating. Sensitivity studies for Mach number, angle of attack, and altitude, examine the feasibility of using this approach to populate a representative entry flight envelope based on a limited set of inviscid solutions. Each inviscid solution is used to generate surface heating over the nearby trajectory space. A subset of a considered in this study is recommended. Results of the angle-of-attack sensitivity studies show that smaller increments may be needed for better heating predictions. The approach is well suited for application to conceptual multidisciplinary design and analysis studies where transient aeroheating environments are critical for vehicle TPS and thermal design. Concurrent prediction of aeroheating

  18. Signatures of chaos and non-integrability in two-dimensional gravity with dynamical boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitkevich Maxim


    Full Text Available We propose a model of two-dimensional dilaton gravity with a boundary. In the bulk our model coincides with the classically integrable CGHS model; the dynamical boundary cuts of the CGHS strong-coupling region. As a result, classical dynamics in our model reminds that in the spherically-symmetric gravity: wave packets of matter fields either reflect from the boundary or form black holes. We find large integrable sector of multisoliton solutions in this model. At the same time, we argue that the model is globally non-integrable because solutions at the verge of black hole formation display chaotic properties.

  19. The collocation method for first-kind boundary integral equations on polygonal regions (United States)

    Yan, Yi


    In this paper the collocation method for first-kind boundary integral equations, by using piecewise constant trial functions with uniform mesh, is shown to be equivalent to a projection method for second-kind Fredholm equations. In a certain sense this projection is an interpolation projection. By introducing this technique of analysis, we particularly consider the case of polygonal boundaries. We give asymptotic error estimates in {L_2} norm on the boundaries, and some superconvergence results for the single layer potential.

  20. One out of many? Boundary negotiation and identity formation in postmerger integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, Israel; Wrzesniewski, Amy; Ellis, Shmuel


    This research investigates how boundaries are utilized during the postmerger integration process to influence the postmerger identity of the firm. We suggest that the boundaries that define the structures, practices, and values of firms prior to a merger become reinforced, contested, or revised in

  1. Integrable boundary interaction in 3D target space: The “pillow-brane” model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukyanov, Sergei L., E-mail: [NHETC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08855-0849 (United States); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chernogolovka, 142432 (Russian Federation); Zamolodchikov, Alexander B. [NHETC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08855-0849 (United States); Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We propose a model of boundary interaction, with three-dimensional target space, and the boundary values of the field X∈R{sup 3} constrained to lay on a two-dimensional surface of the “pillow” shape. We argue that the model is integrable, and suggest that its exact solution is described in terms of certain linear ordinary differential equation.

  2. Algebraic Bethe Ansatz for O(2N) sigma models with integrable diagonal boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombor, Tamás [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre,H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Roland Eötvös University,1117 Budapest, Pázmány s. 1/A (Hungary); Palla, László [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Roland Eötvös University,1117 Budapest, Pázmány s. 1/A (Hungary)


    The finite volume problem of O(2N) sigma models with integrable diagonal boundaries on a finite interval is investigated. The double row transfer matrix is diagonalized by Algebraic Bethe Ansatz. The boundary Bethe Yang equations for the particle rapidities and the accompanying Bethe Ansatz equations are derived.

  3. Topology and boundary shape optimization as an integrated design tool (United States)

    Bendsoe, Martin Philip; Rodrigues, Helder Carrico


    The optimal topology of a two dimensional linear elastic body can be computed by regarding the body as a domain of the plane with a high density of material. Such an optimal topology can then be used as the basis for a shape optimization method that computes the optimal form of the boundary curves of the body. This results in an efficient and reliable design tool, which can be implemented via common FEM mesh generator and CAD type input-output facilities.

  4. Integrating Observations of the Boundary Current Flow around Sri Lanka (United States)


    around Sri Lanka Uwe Send and Matthias Lankhorst Scripps Institution of Oceanography 9500 Gilman Drive, Mail Code 0230 La Jolla, CA 92093-0230...of Bengal. For this, the flow around Sri Lanka is critical since it exchanges salt and freshwater between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea...OBJECTIVES In-situ continuous observations of the boundary current flow around Sri Lanka will be collected over a period of several years. In order

  5. How to fold a spin chain: Integrable boundaries of the Heisenberg XXX and Inozemtsev hyperbolic models (United States)

    De La Rosa Gomez, Alejandro; MacKay, Niall; Regelskis, Vidas


    We present a general method of folding an integrable spin chain, defined on a line, to obtain an integrable open spin chain, defined on a half-line. We illustrate our method through two fundamental models with sl2 Lie algebra symmetry: the Heisenberg XXX and the Inozemtsev hyperbolic spin chains. We obtain new long-range boundary Hamiltonians and demonstrate that they exhibit Yangian symmetries, thus ensuring integrability of the models we obtain. The method presented provides a ;bottom-up; approach for constructing integrable boundaries and can be applied to any spin chain model.

  6. Analytical Solutions Using Integral Formulations and Their Coupling with Numerical Approaches. (United States)

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J


    Analytical and numerical approaches have their own distinct domains of merit and application. Unfortunately there has been a tendency to use either one or the other even when their domains overlap. Yet there is definite advantage in combining the two approaches. Being relatively new this emerging technique of combining the approaches is, at this stage, more of an art than a science. In this article we suggest approaches for the combination through simple examples. We also suggest that the integral formulation of the analytical problems may have some advantages over the differential formulation. The differential formulation limits somewhat the range of linear system descriptions that can be applied to a variety of practical problems. On the other hand the integral approach tends to focus attention to overall integrated behavior and properties of the system rather than on minute details. This is particularly useful in the coupling with a numerical model as in practice it generally deals also with only the integrated behavior of the system. The thesis of this article is illustrated with some simple stream-aquifer flow exchange examples. © 2014, National GroundWater Association.

  7. An initial-boundary value problem for the integrable spin-1 Gross-Pitaevskii equations with a 4 × 4 Lax pair on the half-line (United States)

    Yan, Zhenya


    We extend the idea of the Fokas unified transform to investigate the initial-boundary value problem for the integrable spin-1 Gross-Pitaevskii equations with a 4 × 4 Lax pair on the half-line. The solution of this system can be expressed in terms of the solution of a 4 × 4 matrix Riemann-Hilbert (RH) problem formulated in the complex k-plane. The relevant jump matrices of the RH problem can be explicitly found using the two spectral functions s(k) and S(k), which can be defined by the initial data, the Dirichlet-Neumann boundary data at x = 0. The global relation is established between the two dependent spectral functions. The general mappings between Dirichlet and Neumann boundary values are analyzed in terms of the global relation. These results may be of the potential significance in both spinor Bose-Einstein condensates and the theory of multi-component integrable systems.

  8. Integrating gene set analysis and nonlinear predictive modeling of disease phenotypes using a Bayesian multitask formulation. (United States)

    Gönen, Mehmet


    Identifying molecular signatures of disease phenotypes is studied using two mainstream approaches: (i) Predictive modeling methods such as linear classification and regression algorithms are used to find signatures predictive of phenotypes from genomic data, which may not be robust due to limited sample size or highly correlated nature of genomic data. (ii) Gene set analysis methods are used to find gene sets on which phenotypes are linearly dependent by bringing prior biological knowledge into the analysis, which may not capture more complex nonlinear dependencies. Thus, formulating an integrated model of gene set analysis and nonlinear predictive modeling is of great practical importance. In this study, we propose a Bayesian binary classification framework to integrate gene set analysis and nonlinear predictive modeling. We then generalize this formulation to multitask learning setting to model multiple related datasets conjointly. Our main novelty is the probabilistic nonlinear formulation that enables us to robustly capture nonlinear dependencies between genomic data and phenotype even with small sample sizes. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithms using repeated random subsampling validation experiments on two cancer and two tuberculosis datasets by predicting important disease phenotypes from genome-wide gene expression data. We are able to obtain comparable or even better predictive performance than a baseline Bayesian nonlinear algorithm and to identify sparse sets of relevant genes and gene sets on all datasets. We also show that our multitask learning formulation enables us to further improve the generalization performance and to better understand biological processes behind disease phenotypes.

  9. Assessing the Problem Formulation in an Integrated Assessment Model: Implications for Climate Policy Decision-Support (United States)

    Garner, G. G.; Reed, P. M.; Keller, K.


    Integrated assessment models (IAMs) are often used with the intent to aid in climate change decisionmaking. Numerous studies have analyzed the effects of parametric and/or structural uncertainties in IAMs, but uncertainties regarding the problem formulation are often overlooked. Here we use the Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (DICE) to analyze the effects of uncertainty surrounding the problem formulation. The standard DICE model adopts a single objective to maximize a weighted sum of utilities of per-capita consumption. Decisionmakers, however, may be concerned with a broader range of values and preferences that are not captured by this a priori definition of utility. We reformulate the problem by introducing three additional objectives that represent values such as (i) reliably limiting global average warming to two degrees Celsius and minimizing both (ii) the costs of abatement and (iii) the damages due to climate change. We derive a set of Pareto-optimal solutions over which decisionmakers can trade-off and assess performance criteria a posteriori. We illustrate the potential for myopia in the traditional problem formulation and discuss the capability of this multiobjective formulation to provide decision support.

  10. Shape integral method for magnetospheric shapes. [boundary layer calculations (United States)

    Michel, F. C.


    A method is developed for calculating the shape of any magnetopause to arbitrarily high precision. The method uses an integral equation which is evaluated for a trial shape. The resulting values of the integral equation as a function of auxiliary variables indicate how close one is to the desired solution. A variational method can then be used to improve the trial shape. Some potential applications are briefly mentioned.

  11. Existence and Uniqueness Theorem of Fractional Mixed Volterra-Fredholm Integrodifferential Equation with Integral Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayma Adil Murad


    Full Text Available We study the existence and uniqueness of the solutions of mixed Volterra-Fredholm type integral equations with integral boundary condition in Banach space. Our analysis is based on an application of the Krasnosel'skii fixed-point theorem.

  12. Integral methods of solving boundary-value problems of nonstationary heat conduction and their comparative analysis (United States)

    Kot, V. A.


    The modern state of approximate integral methods used in applications, where the processes of heat conduction and heat and mass transfer are of first importance, is considered. Integral methods have found a wide utility in different fields of knowledge: problems of heat conduction with different heat-exchange conditions, simulation of thermal protection, Stefantype problems, microwave heating of a substance, problems on a boundary layer, simulation of a fluid flow in a channel, thermal explosion, laser and plasma treatment of materials, simulation of the formation and melting of ice, inverse heat problems, temperature and thermal definition of nanoparticles and nanoliquids, and others. Moreover, polynomial solutions are of interest because the determination of a temperature (concentration) field is an intermediate stage in the mathematical description of any other process. The following main methods were investigated on the basis of the error norms: the Tsoi and Postol’nik methods, the method of integral relations, the Gudman integral method of heat balance, the improved Volkov integral method, the matched integral method, the modified Hristov method, the Mayer integral method, the Kudinov method of additional boundary conditions, the Fedorov boundary method, the method of weighted temperature function, the integral method of boundary characteristics. It was established that the two last-mentioned methods are characterized by high convergence and frequently give solutions whose accuracy is not worse that the accuracy of numerical solutions.

  13. Boundary integral equation Neumann-to-Dirichlet map method for gratings in conical diffraction. (United States)

    Wu, Yumao; Lu, Ya Yan


    Boundary integral equation methods for diffraction gratings are particularly suitable for gratings with complicated material interfaces but are difficult to implement due to the quasi-periodic Green's function and the singular integrals at the corners. In this paper, the boundary integral equation Neumann-to-Dirichlet map method for in-plane diffraction problems of gratings [Y. Wu and Y. Y. Lu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A26, 2444 (2009)] is extended to conical diffraction problems. The method uses boundary integral equations to calculate the so-called Neumann-to-Dirichlet maps for homogeneous subdomains of the grating, so that the quasi-periodic Green's functions can be avoided. Since wave field components are coupled on material interfaces with the involvement of tangential derivatives, a least squares polynomial approximation technique is developed to evaluate tangential derivatives along these interfaces for conical diffraction problems. Numerical examples indicate that the method performs equally well for dielectric or metallic gratings.

  14. A general integral form of the boundary-layer equation for incompressible flow with an application to the calculation of the separation point of turbulent boundary layers (United States)

    Tetervin, Neal; Lin, Chia Chiao


    A general integral form of the boundary-layer equation, valid for either laminar or turbulent incompressible boundary-layer flow, is derived. By using the experimental finding that all velocity profiles of the turbulent boundary layer form essentially a single-parameter family, the general equation is changed to an equation for the space rate of change of the velocity-profile shape parameter. The lack of precise knowledge concerning the surface shear and the distribution of the shearing stress across turbulent boundary layers prevented the attainment of a reliable method for calculating the behavior of turbulent boundary layers.

  15. OhioLINK: Implementing Integrated Library Services across Institutional Boundaries. (United States)

    Hawks, Carol Pitts


    Discusses the implementation of the OhioLINK (Ohio Library and Information Network) system, an integrated library system linking 23 public and private academic institutions and the Ohio State Library. Topics include a history of OhioLINK; organizational structure; decision-making procedures; public relations strategies; cooperative circulation;…

  16. Engaging Students: Integrated Learning and Research across Disciplinary Boundaries (United States)

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Schuilt, Paige E.; Ekland-Olson, Sheldon


    As campuses across the country explore ways to strengthen interdisciplinary studies and involve undergraduates in research, questions emerge about how best to integrate existing course offerings and majors, develop curricular rigor and agility, and strengthen administrative coordination. This article discusses two successful initiatives to…

  17. Behavior of boundary string field theory associated with integrable massless flow. (United States)

    Fujii, A; Itoyama, H


    We put forward an idea that the boundary entropy associated with integrable massless flow of thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) is identified with tachyon action of boundary string field theory. We show that the temperature parametrizing a massless flow in the TBA formalism can be identified with tachyon energy for the classical action at least near the ultraviolet fixed point, i.e., the open string vacuum.

  18. Fractional boundary value problems with multiple orders of fractional derivatives and integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris K. Ntouyas


    Full Text Available In this article we study a new class of boundary value problems for fractional differential equations and inclusions with multiple orders of fractional derivatives and integrals, in both fractional differential equation and boundary conditions. The Sadovski's fixed point theorem is applied in the single-valued case while, in multi-valued case, the nonlinear alternative for contractive maps is used. Some illustrative examples are also included.

  19. Quantum mechanics 1. Path-integral formulation and operator formalism; Quantenmechanik 1. Pfadintegralformulierung und Operatorformalismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Hugo [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik


    The first volume of this two-volume textbook gives a modern introduction to the quantum theory, which connects Feynman's path-integral formulation with the traditional operator formalism. In easily understandable form starting from the double-slit experiment the characteristic features and foundations of quantum theory are made accessible by means of the functional-integral approach. Just this approach makes a ''derivation'' of the Schroedinger equation from the principle of the interfering alternatives possible. In the following the author developes the traditional operator formulation of quantum mechanics, which is better suited for practical solution of elementary problems. However he then refers to the functional-integral approach, when this contributes to a better understanding. A further advance of this concept: The functional-integral approach facilitates essentially the later access to quantum field theory. The work is in like manner suited for the self-study as for the deepening accompanying of the course.

  20. Analyzing diffraction gratings by a boundary integral equation Neumann-to-Dirichlet map method. (United States)

    Wu, Yumao; Lu, Ya Yan


    For analyzing diffraction gratings, a new method is developed based on dividing one period of the grating into homogeneous subdomains and computing the Neumann-to-Dirichlet (NtD) maps for these subdomains by boundary integral equations. For a subdomain, the NtD operator maps the normal derivative of the wave field to the wave field on its boundary. The integral operators used in this method are simple to approximate, since they involve only the standard Green's function of the Helmholtz equation in homogeneous media. The method retains the advantages of existing boundary integral equation methods for diffraction gratings but avoids the quasi-periodic Green's functions that are expensive to evaluate.

  1. Singularity Preserving Numerical Methods for Boundary Integral Equations (United States)

    Kaneko, Hideaki (Principal Investigator)


    In the past twelve months (May 8, 1995 - May 8, 1996), under the cooperative agreement with Division of Multidisciplinary Optimization at NASA Langley, we have accomplished the following five projects: a note on the finite element method with singular basis functions; numerical quadrature for weakly singular integrals; superconvergence of degenerate kernel method; superconvergence of the iterated collocation method for Hammersteion equations; and singularity preserving Galerkin method for Hammerstein equations with logarithmic kernel. This final report consists of five papers describing these projects. Each project is preceeded by a brief abstract.

  2. [Boundaries and integrity in the "Social Contract for Spanish Science", 1907-1939]. (United States)

    Gómez, Amparo


    This article analyzes the relationship between science and politics in Spain in the early 20th century from the perspective of the Social Contract for Science. The article shows that a genuine social contract for science was instituted in Spain during this period, although some boundary and integrity problems emerged. These problems are analyzed, showing that the boundary problems were a product of the conservative viewpoint on the relationship between science and politics, while the integrity problems involved the activation of networks of influence in the awarding of scholarships to study abroad. Finally, the analysis reveals that these problems did not invalidate the Spanish social contract for science.

  3. A Domain Specific Embedded Language in C++ for Automatic Differentiation, Projection, Integration and Variational Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Prud'homme


    Full Text Available In this article, we present a domain specific embedded language in C++ that can be used in various contexts such as numerical projection onto a functional space, numerical integration, variational formulations and automatic differentiation. Albeit these tools operate in different ways, the language overcomes this difficulty by decoupling expression constructions from evaluation. The language is implemented using expression templates and meta-programming techniques and uses various Boost libraries. The language is exercised on a number of non-trivial examples and a benchmark presents the performance behavior on a few test problems.

  4. Acoustic boundary element method formulation with treatment of nearly singular integrands by element subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller


    It is well known that the Boundary Element Method (BEM) in its standard version cannot readily handle situations where the calculation point is very close to a surface. These problems are found: i) when two boundary surfaces are very close together, such as in narrow gaps and thin bodies, and ii)...

  5. Integrating Sustainability into the Curriculum: Crossing Disciplinary Boundaries (United States)

    Pushnik, J.


    The next generation will confront an increased number of global issues that interface the complexities of socioeconomic perspectives, environmental stability, poverty and development. Recently California State University Chico undertook a general education reform, providing a unique opportunity to craft a general education pathway to prepare students for these challenges by focusing a curriculum on sustainability. The Sustainability Pathway emphasizes a system thinking approach to help students understand and be able to address a set of problems involving the biosphere processes, human institutions and the economic vitality. The curriculum intentionally integrates courses from across the disciplines of natural sciences, social sciences, agriculture, engineering, economics, arts and humanities into a central focused theme of sustainability. The diverse backgrounds and academic focus of the participating faculty has necessitate the development of a common language and a cohesion within the curriculum. To address these needs a faculty learning community (FLC) was established to build on a common set of case studies. Three regional environmental water related issues were selected that had demonstrable socioeconomic, equity/ethical dimensions and environmental consequences. These case studies are Klamath River basin in northern California, the Bay-Delta project in the central part of the state and the Sultan Sea in southern California. Members of the FLC has contributed a perspective from their academic discipline which includes proposed reading lists, web based resources and PowerPoint presentations which are housed in common web- based resource repository. The pedagogical rational is to create linkages and cohesion among the courses in the curriculum by iteratively examining these case studies as basis for development of a multidisciplinary perspective as students progress through their general education.

  6. Histone crosstalk directed by H2B ubiquitination is required for chromatin boundary integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiji Kit-Wan Ma


    Full Text Available Genomic maps of chromatin modifications have provided evidence for the partitioning of genomes into domains of distinct chromatin states, which assist coordinated gene regulation. The maintenance of chromatin domain integrity can require the setting of boundaries. The HS4 insulator element marks the 3' boundary of a heterochromatin region located upstream of the chicken β-globin gene cluster. Here we show that HS4 recruits the E3 ligase RNF20/BRE1A to mediate H2B mono-ubiquitination (H2Bub1 at this insulator. Knockdown experiments show that RNF20 is required for H2Bub1 and processive H3K4 methylation. Depletion of RNF20 results in a collapse of the active histone modification signature at the HS4 chromatin boundary, where H2Bub1, H3K4 methylation, and hyperacetylation of H3, H4, and H2A.Z are rapidly lost. A remarkably similar set of events occurs at the HSA/HSB regulatory elements of the FOLR1 gene, which mark the 5' boundary of the same heterochromatin region. We find that persistent H2Bub1 at the HSA/HSB and HS4 elements is required for chromatin boundary integrity. The loss of boundary function leads to the sequential spreading of H3K9me2, H3K9me3, and H4K20me3 over the entire 50 kb FOLR1 and β-globin region and silencing of FOLR1 expression. These findings show that the HSA/HSB and HS4 boundary elements direct a cascade of active histone modifications that defend the FOLR1 and β-globin gene loci from the pervasive encroachment of an adjacent heterochromatin domain. We propose that many gene loci employ H2Bub1-dependent boundaries to prevent heterochromatin spreading.

  7. The Existence of Positive Solution to a Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equation with Integral Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hanying


    Full Text Available The expression and properties of Green's function for a class of nonlinear fractional differential equations with integral boundary conditions are studied and employed to obtain some results on the existence of positive solutions by using fixed point theorem in cones. The proofs are based on the reduction of the problem considered to the equivalent Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. The results significantly extend and improve many known results even for integer-order cases.

  8. Positive Solutions for Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations with Boundary Conditions Involving Riemann-Stieltjes Integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiqiang Jiang


    Full Text Available We consider the existence of positive solutions for a class of nonlinear integral boundary value problems for fractional differential equations. By using some fixed point theorems, the existence and multiplicity results of positive solutions are obtained. The results obtained in this paper improve and generalize some well-known results.

  9. Breaking Concept Boundaries to Enhance Creative Potential: Using Integrated Concept Maps for Conceptual Self-Awareness (United States)

    Kao, Gloria Yi-Ming; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Sun, Chuen-Tsai


    The authors address the role of computer support for building conceptual self-awareness--that is, enabling students to think outside of concept boundaries in hope of enhancing creative potential. Based on meta-cognition theory, we developed an integrated concept mapping system (ICMSys) to improve users' conceptual self-awareness in addition to…

  10. On preconditioning techniques for dense linear systems arising from singular boundary integral equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ke [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom)


    We study various preconditioning techniques for the iterative solution of boundary integral equations, and aim to provide a theory for a class of sparse preconditioners. Two related ideas are explored here: singularity separation and inverse approximation. Our preliminary conclusion is that singularity separation based preconditioners perform better than approximate inverse based while it is desirable to have both features.

  11. Positive Solutions of a Nonlinear Fourth-order Integral Boundary Value Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benaicha Slimane


    Full Text Available In this paper, the existence of positive solutions for a nonlinear fourth-order two-point boundary value problem with integral condition is investigated. By using Krasnoselskii’s fixed point theorem on cones, sufficient conditions for the existence of at least one positive solutions are obtained.

  12. An Integrated Neuroscience Perspective on Formulation and Treatment Planning for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Educational Review. (United States)

    Ross, David A; Arbuckle, Melissa R; Travis, Michael J; Dwyer, Jennifer B; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Ressler, Kerry J


    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric illness, increasingly in the public spotlight in the United States due its prevalence in the soldiers returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. This educational review presents a contemporary approach for how to incorporate a modern neuroscience perspective into an integrative case formulation. The article is organized around key neuroscience "themes" most relevant for PTSD. Within each theme, the article highlights how seemingly diverse biological, psychological, and social perspectives all intersect with our current understanding of neuroscience. Any contemporary neuroscience formulation of PTSD should include an understanding of fear conditioning, dysregulated circuits, memory reconsolidation, epigenetics, and genetic factors. Fear conditioning and other elements of basic learning theory offer a framework for understanding how traumatic events can lead to a range of behaviors associated with PTSD. A circuit dysregulation framework focuses more broadly on aberrant network connectivity, including between the prefrontal cortex and limbic structures. In the process of memory reconsolidation, it is now clear that every time a memory is reactivated it becomes momentarily labile-with implications for the genesis, maintenance, and treatment of PTSD. Epigenetic changes secondary to various experiences, especially early in life, can have long-term effects, including on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, thereby affecting an individual's ability to regulate the stress response. Genetic factors are surprisingly relevant: PTSD has been shown to be highly heritable despite being definitionally linked to specific experiences. The relevance of each of these themes to current clinical practice and its potential to transform future care are discussed. Together, these perspectives contribute to an integrative, neuroscience-informed approach to case formulation and treatment planning. This may

  13. Formulation of an Integrated Community Based Disaster Management for Hydroelectric facilities: The Malaysia Case (United States)

    Hijazzi, Norshamirra; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Sabri Muda, Rahsidi; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Che Muda, Zakaria; Ghazali, Azrul; Kamal Kadir, Ahmad; Hakimie, Hazlinda; Sahari, Khairul Salleh Mohamed; Hasini, Hasril; Mohd Sidek, Lariyah; Itam, Zarina; Fadhli Mohamad, Mohd; Razad, Azwin Zailti Abdul


    Dams, however significant their contributions are to the society, are not immune to failures and diminishing lifespan not unlike other structural elements in our infrastructure. Despite continuing efforts on design, construction, operation, and maintenance of dams to improve the safety of the dams, the possibility of unforeseen events of dam failures is still possible. Seeing that dams are usually integrated into close approximities with the community, dam failures may consequent in tremendous loss of lives and properties. The aims of formulation of Integrated Community Based Disaster Management (ICBDM) is to simulate evacuation modelling and emergency planning in order to minimize loss of life and property damages in the event of a dam-related disaster. To achieve the aim above, five main pillars have been identified for the formulation of ICBDM. A series of well-defined program inclusive of hydrological 2-D modelling, life safety modelling, community based EWS and CBTAP will be conducted. Finally, multiple parties’ engagement is to be carried out in the form of table top exercise to measure the readiness of emergency plans and response capabilities of key players during the state of a crisis.

  14. On a way to save memory when solving time domain boundary integral equations for acoustic and vibroacoustic applications (United States)

    Thirard, Christophe; Parot, Jean-Marc


    Solving acoustic equations in the time domain, possibly coupled with the description of flexible structure dynamics, remains attractive as compared to solving the same in the frequency domain: this allows for better consideration of local non-linearities (acoustics/structure), and the boundary integral formulation (also known as BEM) offers an exact description of the infinite acoustic field based on a simple surface mesh (no need for 3D-volume discretization). Some issues remain however: the required memory space and computation time continue to grow rapidly when the number of elements of the surface mesh increases. In the case of a structure with a regular non-slender shape, the computational cost, measured in terms of required memory space, varies by Helmholtz number to the power of 4. This paper illustrates how the accelerating method called NGTD helps overcome this difficulty. This paper shows the applicability of 2 level NGTD to acoustic and vibroacoustic problems described solely by the hypersingular formulation for surfaces. It goes into more detail on some important aspects of the interpolation process and on the memory saving obtained. Implementation within the MOT (;March-On-Time;) ASTRYD code shows the benefits of this method. The memory requirement shows an estimated trend lower than power 1.35 of the number of surface elements.

  15. Boundary Integral Equations for an Anisotropic Bimaterial with Thermally Imperfect Interface and Internal Inhomogeneities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulym Heorhiy


    Full Text Available This paper studies a thermoelastic anisotropic bimaterial with thermally imperfect interface and internal inhomogeneities. Based on the complex variable calculus and the extended Stroh formalism a new approach is proposed for obtaining the Somigliana type integral formulae and corresponding boundary integral equations for a thermoelastic bimaterial consisting of two half-spaces with different thermal and mechanical properties. The half-spaces are bonded together with mechanically perfect and thermally imperfect interface, which model interfacial adhesive layers present in bimaterial solids. Obtained integral equations are introduced into the modified boundary element method that allows solving arbitrary 2D thermoelacticity problems for anisotropic bimaterial solids with imperfect thin thermo-resistant inter-facial layer, which half-spaces contain cracks and thin inclusions. Presented numerical examples show the effect of thermal resistance of the bimaterial interface on the stress intensity factors at thin inhomogeneities.

  16. Multiple positive solutions for singular semipositone nonlinear integral boundary-value problems on infinite intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang


    Full Text Available In this article, we study the existence of multiple positive solutions for singular semipositone boundary-value problem (BVP with integral boundary conditions on infinite intervals. By using the properties of the Green's function and the Guo-Krasnosel'skii fixed point theorem, we obtain the existence of multiple positive solutions under conditions concerning the nonlinear functions. The method in this article can be used for a large number of problems. We illustrate the validity of our results with an example in the last section.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the existence of positive solutions of a three-point integral boundary value problem (BVP for the following second-order differential equation u''(t + \\lambda a(tf(u(t = 0; 0 0 is a parameter, 0 <\\eta < 1, 0 <\\alpha < 1/{\\eta}. . By using the properties of the Green's function and Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem on cones, the eigenvalue intervals of the nonlinear boundary value problem are considered, some sufficient conditions for the existence of at least one positive solutions are established.

  18. Boundary integral equation methods in eigenvalue problems of elastodynamics and thin plates

    CERN Document Server

    Kitahara, M


    The boundary integral equation (BIE) method has been used more and more in the last 20 years for solving various engineering problems. It has important advantages over other techniques for numerical treatment of a wide class of boundary value problems and is now regarded as an indispensable tool for potential problems, electromagnetism problems, heat transfer, fluid flow, elastostatics, stress concentration and fracture problems, geomechanical problems, and steady-state and transient electrodynamics.In this book, the author gives a complete, thorough and detailed survey of the method. It pro

  19. Discretely Conservative Finite-Difference Formulations for Nonlinear Conservation Laws in Split Form: Theory and Boundary Conditions (United States)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Nordstroem, Jan; Yamaleev, Nail K.; Swanson, R. Charles


    Simulations of nonlinear conservation laws that admit discontinuous solutions are typically restricted to discretizations of equations that are explicitly written in divergence form. This restriction is, however, unnecessary. Herein, linear combinations of divergence and product rule forms that have been discretized using diagonal-norm skew-symmetric summation-by-parts (SBP) operators, are shown to satisfy the sufficient conditions of the Lax-Wendroff theorem and thus are appropriate for simulations of discontinuous physical phenomena. Furthermore, special treatments are not required at the points that are near physical boundaries (i.e., discrete conservation is achieved throughout the entire computational domain, including the boundaries). Examples are presented of a fourth-order, SBP finite-difference operator with second-order boundary closures. Sixth- and eighth-order constructions are derived, and included in E. Narrow-stencil difference operators for linear viscous terms are also derived; these guarantee the conservative form of the combined operator.

  20. A hybrid time-domain discontinuous galerkin-boundary integral method for electromagnetic scattering analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping


    A scheme hybridizing discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) and time-domain boundary integral (TDBI) methods for accurately analyzing transient electromagnetic scattering is proposed. Radiation condition is enforced using the numerical flux on the truncation boundary. The fields required by the flux are computed using the TDBI from equivalent currents introduced on a Huygens\\' surface enclosing the scatterer. The hybrid DGTDBI ensures that the radiation condition is mathematically exact and the resulting computation domain is as small as possible since the truncation boundary conforms to scatterer\\'s shape and is located very close to its surface. Locally truncated domains can also be defined around each disconnected scatterer additionally reducing the size of the overall computation domain. Numerical examples demonstrating the accuracy and versatility of the proposed method are presented. © 2014 IEEE.

  1. Path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulation with open-boundary conditions (United States)

    Jiang, Zhang; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Boixo, Sergio; Neven, Hartmut


    The tunneling decay event of a metastable state in a fully connected quantum spin model can be simulated efficiently by path-integral quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) [Isakov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 180402 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.180402]. This is because the exponential scaling with the number of spins of the thermally assisted quantum tunneling rate and the Kramers escape rate of QMC are identical [Jiang et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 012322 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.012322], a result of a dominant instantonic tunneling path. In Isakov et al., it was also conjectured that the escape rate in open-boundary QMC is quadratically larger than that of conventional periodic-boundary QMC; therefore, open-boundary QMC might be used as a powerful tool to solve combinatorial optimization problems. The intuition behind this conjecture is that the action of the instanton in open-boundary QMC is a half of that in periodic-boundary QMC. Here, we show that this simple intuition—although very useful in interpreting some numerical results—deviates from the actual situation in several ways. Using a fully connected quantum spin model, we derive a set of conditions on the positions and momenta of the end points of the instanton, which remove the extra degrees of freedom due to open boundaries. In comparison, the half-instanton conjecture incorrectly sets the momenta at the end points to zero. We also found that the instantons in open-boundary QMC correspond to quantum tunneling events in the symmetric subspace (maximum total angular momentum) at all temperatures, whereas the instantons in periodic-boundary QMC typically lie in subspaces with lower total angular momenta at finite temperatures. This leads to a lesser-than-quadratic speedup at finite temperatures. The results provide useful insights in utilizing open-boundary QMC to solve hard optimization problems. We also outline the generalization of the instantonic tunneling method to many-qubit systems without permutation

  2. Wing aeroelasticity analysis based on an integral boundary-layer method coupled with Euler solver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yanfeng


    Full Text Available An interactive boundary-layer method, which solves the unsteady flow, is developed for aeroelastic computation in the time domain. The coupled method combines the Euler solver with the integral boundary-layer solver (Euler/BL in a “semi-inverse” manner to compute flows with the inviscid and viscous interaction. Unsteady boundary conditions on moving surfaces are taken into account by utilizing the approximate small-perturbation method without moving the computational grids. The steady and unsteady flow calculations for the LANN wing are presented. The wing tip displacement of high Reynolds number aero-structural dynamics (HIRENASD Project is simulated under different angles of attack. The flutter-boundary predictions for the AGARD 445.6 wing are provided. The results of the interactive boundary-layer method are compared with those of the Euler method and experimental data. The study shows that viscous effects are significant for these cases and the further data analysis confirms the validity and practicability of the coupled method.

  3. Hierarchical matrices implemented into the boundary integral approaches for gravity field modelling (United States)

    Čunderlík, Róbert; Vipiana, Francesca


    Boundary integral approaches applied for gravity field modelling have been recently developed to solve the geodetic boundary value problems numerically, or to process satellite observations, e.g. from the GOCE satellite mission. In order to obtain numerical solutions of "cm-level" accuracy, such approaches require very refined level of the disretization or resolution. This leads to enormous memory requirements that need to be reduced. An implementation of the Hierarchical Matrices (H-matrices) can significantly reduce a numerical complexity of these approaches. A main idea of the H-matrices is based on an approximation of the entire system matrix that is split into a family of submatrices. Large submatrices are stored in factorized representation, while small submatrices are stored in standard representation. This allows reducing memory requirements significantly while improving the efficiency. The poster presents our preliminary results of implementations of the H-matrices into the existing boundary integral approaches based on the boundary element method or the method of fundamental solution.

  4. Retarded potentials and time domain boundary integral equations a road map

    CERN Document Server

    Sayas, Francisco-Javier


    This book offers a thorough and self-contained exposition of the mathematics of time-domain boundary integral equations associated to the wave equation, including applications to scattering of acoustic and elastic waves. The book offers two different approaches for the analysis of these integral equations, including a systematic treatment of their numerical discretization using Galerkin (Boundary Element) methods in the space variables and Convolution Quadrature in the time variable. The first approach follows classical work started in the late eighties, based on Laplace transforms estimates. This approach has been refined and made more accessible by tailoring the necessary mathematical tools, avoiding an excess of generality. A second approach contains a novel point of view that the author and some of his collaborators have been developing in recent years, using the semigroup theory of evolution equations to obtain improved results. The extension to electromagnetic waves is explained in one of the appendices...

  5. Fractal boundary value problems for integral and differential equations with local fractional operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao-Jun


    Full Text Available In the present paper we investigate the fractal boundary value problems for the Fredholm\\Volterra integral equations, heat conduction and wave equations by using the local fractional decomposition method. The operator is described by the local fractional operators. The four illustrative examples are given to elaborate the accuracy and reliability of the obtained results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 174001, III41006 i br. TI 35006

  6. A Boundary Value Problem with Multivariables Integral Type Condition for Parabolic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Marhoune


    Full Text Available We study a boundary value problem with multivariables integral type condition for a class of parabolic equations. We prove the existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence of the solution upon the data in the functional wieghted Sobolev spaces. Results are obtained by using a functional analysis method based on two-sided a priori estimates and on the density of the range of the linear operator generated by the considered problem.

  7. Positive Solutions for Integral Boundary Value Problem with ϕ-Laplacian Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Yonghong


    Full Text Available We consider the existence, multiplicity of positive solutions for the integral boundary value problem with -Laplacian , , , , where is an odd, increasing homeomorphism from onto . We show that it has at least one, two, or three positive solutions under some assumptions by applying fixed point theorems. The interesting point is that the nonlinear term is involved with the first-order derivative explicitly.

  8. Analysis of fast boundary-integral approximations for modeling electrostatic contributions of molecular binding (United States)

    Kreienkamp, Amelia B.; Liu, Lucy Y.; Minkara, Mona S.; Knepley, Matthew G.; Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Radhakrishnan, Mala L.


    We analyze and suggest improvements to a recently developed approximate continuum-electrostatic model for proteins. The model, called BIBEE/I (boundary-integral based electrostatics estimation with interpolation), was able to estimate electrostatic solvation free energies to within a mean unsigned error of 4% on a test set of more than 600 proteins—a significant improvement over previous BIBEE models. In this work, we tested the BIBEE/I model for its capability to predict residue-by-residue interactions in protein–protein binding, using the widely studied model system of trypsin and bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). Finding that the BIBEE/I model performs surprisingly less well in this task than simpler BIBEE models, we seek to explain this behavior in terms of the models’ differing spectral approximations of the exact boundary-integral operator. Calculations of analytically solvable systems (spheres and tri-axial ellipsoids) suggest two possibilities for improvement. The first is a modified BIBEE/I approach that captures the asymptotic eigenvalue limit correctly, and the second involves the dipole and quadrupole modes for ellipsoidal approximations of protein geometries. Our analysis suggests that fast, rigorous approximate models derived from reduced-basis approximation of boundary-integral equations might reach unprecedented accuracy, if the dipole and quadrupole modes can be captured quickly for general shapes. PMID:24466561

  9. Singular integral equations boundary problems of function theory and their application to mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Muskhelishvili, N I


    Singular integral equations play important roles in physics and theoretical mechanics, particularly in the areas of elasticity, aerodynamics, and unsteady aerofoil theory. They are highly effective in solving boundary problems occurring in the theory of functions of a complex variable, potential theory, the theory of elasticity, and the theory of fluid mechanics.This high-level treatment by a noted mathematician considers one-dimensional singular integral equations involving Cauchy principal values. Its coverage includes such topics as the Hölder condition, Hilbert and Riemann-Hilbert problem

  10. Maintaining a cognitive map in darkness: the need to fuse boundary knowledge with path integration. (United States)

    Cheung, Allen; Ball, David; Milford, Michael; Wyeth, Gordon; Wiles, Janet


    Spatial navigation requires the processing of complex, disparate and often ambiguous sensory data. The neurocomputations underpinning this vital ability remain poorly understood. Controversy remains as to whether multimodal sensory information must be combined into a unified representation, consistent with Tolman's "cognitive map", or whether differential activation of independent navigation modules suffice to explain observed navigation behaviour. Here we demonstrate that key neural correlates of spatial navigation in darkness cannot be explained if the path integration system acted independently of boundary (landmark) information. In vivo recordings demonstrate that the rodent head direction (HD) system becomes unstable within three minutes without vision. In contrast, rodents maintain stable place fields and grid fields for over half an hour without vision. Using a simple HD error model, we show analytically that idiothetic path integration (iPI) alone cannot be used to maintain any stable place representation beyond two to three minutes. We then use a measure of place stability based on information theoretic principles to prove that featureless boundaries alone cannot be used to improve localization above chance level. Having shown that neither iPI nor boundaries alone are sufficient, we then address the question of whether their combination is sufficient and--we conjecture--necessary to maintain place stability for prolonged periods without vision. We addressed this question in simulations and robot experiments using a navigation model comprising of a particle filter and boundary map. The model replicates published experimental results on place field and grid field stability without vision, and makes testable predictions including place field splitting and grid field rescaling if the true arena geometry differs from the acquired boundary map. We discuss our findings in light of current theories of animal navigation and neuronal computation, and elaborate on

  11. The use of parabolic variations and the direct determination of stress intensity factors using the BIE method. [Boundary Integral Equation (United States)

    Mendelson, A.


    Two advances in the numerical techniques of utilizing the BIE method are presented. The boundary unknowns are represented by parabolas over each interval which are integrated in closed form. These integrals are listed for easy use. For problems involving crack tip singularities, these singularities are included in the boundary integrals so that the stress intensity factor becomes just one more unknown in the set of boundary unknowns thus avoiding the uncertainties of plotting and extrapolating techniques. The method is applied to the problems of a notched beam in tension and bending, with excellent results.

  12. Wave breaking over sloping beaches using a coupled boundary integral-level set method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, M.; Adalsteinsson, D.; Gray, L.; Sethian, J.A.


    We present a numerical method for tracking breaking waves over sloping beaches. We use a fully non-linear potential model for in-compressible, irrotational and inviscid flow, and consider the effects of beach topography on breaking waves. The algorithm uses a Boundary Element Method (BEM) to compute the velocity at the interface, coupled to a Narrow Band Level Set Method to track the evolving air/water interface, and an associated extension equation to update the velocity potential both on and off the interface. The formulation of the algorithm is applicable to two and three dimensional breaking waves; in this paper, we concentrate on two-dimensional results showing wave breaking and rollup, and perform numerical convergence studies and comparison with previous techniques.

  13. Integrity of the reactor coolant boundary of the European pressurized water reactor (EPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetsch, D.; Bieniussa, K.; Schulz, H.; Jalouneix, J.


    This paper is an abstract of the work performed in the frame of the development of the IPSN/GRS approach in view of the EPR conceptual safety features. EPR is a pressurized water reactor which will be based on the experience gained by utilities and designers in France and in Germany. The reactor coolant boundary of a PWR includes the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), those parts of the steam generators (SGs) which contain primary coolant, the pressurizer (PSR), the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs), the main coolant lines (MCLs) with their branches as well as the other connecting pipes and all branching pipes including the second isolation valves. The present work covering the integrity of the reactor coolant boundary is mainly restricted to the integrity of the main coolant lines (MCLs) and reflects the design requirements for the main components of the reactor coolant boundary. In the following the conceptual aspects, i.e. design, manufacture, construction and operation, will be assessed. A main aspect is the definition of break postulates regarding overall safety implications.

  14. Individualized formulation-led interventions for analyzing and managing challenging behavior of people with dementia - an integrative review. (United States)

    Holle, Daniela; Halek, Margareta; Holle, Bernhard; Pinkert, Christiane


    Individualized formulation-led interventions offer a promising approach for analyzing and managing challenging behaviors in people with dementia. Little is known about which individualized formulation-led interventions exist and what effects these interventions have on people with dementia and their caregivers. Therefore, the review aims to describe and examine existing interventions and to review their evidence. An integrative review of individualized formulation-led interventions for managing challenging behavior in people with dementia was conducted. PUBMED, PsycINFO [EBSCO] and CINAHL [EBSCO] databases were searched between February and April 2014 using key terms related to dementia, challenging behavior and individualized formulation- led interventions. The literature search was limited to German and English publications published from 1995. No limitations were placed on the type of paper, type of study design and stage of disease or setting. 37 relevant papers that met the inclusion criteria were included in this review. The literature review provided 14 different individualized formulation-led interventions. The effects on people with dementia were diverse, as only half of the studies showed a significant reduction in behaviors compared with the control group. Family caregivers felt less upset about the challenging behavior and more confident in their ability to manage the behavior. There is a clear need for further research on individualized formulation-led interventions. The results of this review have the potential for developing interventions and for designing methodological robust evaluation studies that take into account the effectiveness of individualized formulation-led interventions on patient and caregiver outcomes.

  15. Integrated stratigraphy and astronomical calibration of the Serravallian/Tortonian boundary section at Monte Gibliscemi (Sicily, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgen, F.J.; Krijgsman, W.; Raffi, I.; Turco, E.; Zachariasse, W.J.


    Results are presented of an integrated stratigraphic (calcareous plankton biostratigraphy, cyclostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy) study of the Serravallian=Tortonian (S=T) boundary section of Monte Gibliscemi (Sicily, Italy). Astronomical calibration of the sedimentary cycles provides absolute

  16. Derivation of the Schrodinger Equation from the Hamilton-Jacobi Equation in Feynman's Path Integral Formulation of Quantum Mechanics (United States)

    Field, J. H.


    It is shown how the time-dependent Schrodinger equation may be simply derived from the dynamical postulate of Feynman's path integral formulation of quantum mechanics and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of classical mechanics. Schrodinger's own published derivations of quantum wave equations, the first of which was also based on the Hamilton-Jacobi…

  17. An integrative approach to knowledge transfer and integration: Spanning boundaries through objects, people and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, M.; Rijnveld, M.


    Knowledge transfer and integration is the main challenge in many knowledge management projects. This challenge follows from the observation that it is difficult to determine how and what knowledge may transfer from one person to another, from one team to another and from one network or organization

  18. The Metric Operator and the Functional Integral Formulation of Pseudo-Hermitian Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Jones


    Full Text Available Pseudo-Hermitian quantum theories are those in which the Hamiltonian H satisfies H† = ηHη-1, where η = e-Q is a positive-definite Hermitian operator, rather than the usual H† = H. In the operator formulation of such theories the standard Hilbert-space metric must be modified by the inclusion of η in order to ensure their probabilistic interpretation. With possible generalizations to quantum field theory in mind, it is important to ask how the functional integral formalism for pseudo-Hermitian theories differs from that of standard theories. It turns out that here Q plays quite a different role, serving primarily to implement a canonical transformation of the variables. It does not appear explicitly in the expression for the vacuum generating functional. Instead, the relation to the Hermitian theory is encoded via the dependence of Z on the external source j(t. These points are illustrated and amplified in various versions of the Swanson model, a non-Hermitian transform of the simple harmonic oscillator.

  19. Comment on: "Corrections to the Mathematical Formulation of a Backwards Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model" by Gibson and Sailor (2012: Boundary-Layer Meteorology 145, 399-406) (United States)

    Stöckl, Stefan; Rotach, Mathias W.; Kljun, Natascha


    We discuss the results of Gibson and Sailor (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 145:399-406, 2012) who suggest several corrections to the mathematical formulation of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model of Rotach et al. (Q J R Meteorol Soc 122:367-389, 1996). While most of the suggested corrections had already been implemented in the 1990s, one suggested correction raises a valid point, but results in a violation of the well-mixed criterion. Here we improve their idea and test the impact on model results using a well-mixed test and a comparison with wind-tunnel experimental data. The new approach results in similar dispersion patterns as the original approach, while the approach suggested by Gibson and Sailor leads to erroneously reduced concentrations near the ground in convective and especially forced convective conditions.

  20. A finite element: Boundary integral method for electromagnetic scattering. Ph.D. Thesis Technical Report, Feb. - Sep. 1992 (United States)

    Collins, J. D.; Volakis, John L.


    A method that combines the finite element and boundary integral techniques for the numerical solution of electromagnetic scattering problems is presented. The finite element method is well known for requiring a low order storage and for its capability to model inhomogeneous structures. Of particular emphasis in this work is the reduction of the storage requirement by terminating the finite element mesh on a boundary in a fashion which renders the boundary integrals in convolutional form. The fast Fourier transform is then used to evaluate these integrals in a conjugate gradient solver, without a need to generate the actual matrix. This method has a marked advantage over traditional integral equation approaches with respect to the storage requirement of highly inhomogeneous structures. Rectangular, circular, and ogival mesh termination boundaries are examined for two-dimensional scattering. In the case of axially symmetric structures, the boundary integral matrix storage is reduced by exploiting matrix symmetries and solving the resulting system via the conjugate gradient method. In each case several results are presented for various scatterers aimed at validating the method and providing an assessment of its capabilities. Important in methods incorporating boundary integral equations is the issue of internal resonance. A method is implemented for their removal, and is shown to be effective in the two-dimensional and three-dimensional applications.

  1. Extending the diffusion approximation to the boundary using an integrated diffusion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen; Du, Zhidong; Pan, Liang, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)


    The widely used diffusion approximation is inaccurate to describe the transport behaviors near surfaces and interfaces. To solve such stochastic processes, an integro-differential equation, such as the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), is typically required. In this work, we show that it is possible to keep the simplicity of the diffusion approximation by introducing a nonlocal source term and a spatially varying diffusion coefficient. We apply the proposed integrated diffusion model (IDM) to a benchmark problem of heat conduction across a thin film to demonstrate its feasibility. We also validate the model when boundary reflections and uniform internal heat generation are present.

  2. Extending the diffusion approximation to the boundary using an integrated diffusion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen


    Full Text Available The widely used diffusion approximation is inaccurate to describe the transport behaviors near surfaces and interfaces. To solve such stochastic processes, an integro-differential equation, such as the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE, is typically required. In this work, we show that it is possible to keep the simplicity of the diffusion approximation by introducing a nonlocal source term and a spatially varying diffusion coefficient. We apply the proposed integrated diffusion model (IDM to a benchmark problem of heat conduction across a thin film to demonstrate its feasibility. We also validate the model when boundary reflections and uniform internal heat generation are present.

  3. An exterior Poisson solver using fast direct methods and boundary integral equations with applications to nonlinear potential flow (United States)

    Young, D. P.; Woo, A. C.; Bussoletti, J. E.; Johnson, F. T.


    A general method is developed combining fast direct methods and boundary integral equation methods to solve Poisson's equation on irregular exterior regions. The method requires O(N log N) operations where N is the number of grid points. Error estimates are given that hold for regions with corners and other boundary irregularities. Computational results are given in the context of computational aerodynamics for a two-dimensional lifting airfoil. Solutions of boundary integral equations for lifting and nonlifting aerodynamic configurations using preconditioned conjugate gradient are examined for varying degrees of thinness.

  4. A Local Integral Equation Formulation Based on Moving Kriging Interpolation for Solving Coupled Nonlinear Reaction-Diffusion Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanittha Yimnak


    Full Text Available The meshless local Pretrov-Galerkin method (MLPG with the test function in view of the Heaviside step function is introduced to solve the system of coupled nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations in two-dimensional spaces subjected to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions on a square domain. Two-field velocities are approximated by moving Kriging (MK interpolation method for constructing nodal shape function which holds the Kronecker delta property, thereby enhancing the arrangement nodal shape construction accuracy, while the Crank-Nicolson method is chosen for temporal discretization. The nonlinear terms are treated iteratively within each time step. The developed formulation is verified in two numerical examples with investigating the convergence and the accuracy of numerical results. The numerical experiments revealing the solutions by the developed formulation are stable and more precise.

  5. Integration of Image Data for Refining Building Boundaries Derived from Point Clouds (United States)

    Perera, S. N.; Hetti Arachchige, N.; Schneider, D.


    Geometrically and topologically correct 3D building models are required to satisfy with new demands such as 3D cadastre, map updating, and decision making. More attention on building reconstruction has been paid using Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point cloud data. The planimetric accuracy of roof outlines, including step-edges is questionable in building models derived from only point clouds. This paper presents a new approach for the detection of accurate building boundaries by merging point clouds acquired by ALS and aerial photographs. It comprises two major parts: reconstruction of initial roof models from point clouds only, and refinement of their boundaries. A shortest closed circle (graph) analysis method is employed to generate building models in the first step. Having the advantages of high reliability, this method provides reconstruction without prior knowledge of primitive building types even when complex height jumps and various types of building roof are available. The accurate position of boundaries of the initial models is determined by the integration of the edges extracted from aerial photographs. In this process, scene constraints defined based on the initial roof models are introduced as the initial roof models are representing explicit unambiguous geometries about the scene. Experiments were conducted using the ISPRS benchmark test data. Based on test results, we show that the proposed approach can reconstruct 3D building models with higher geometrical (planimetry and vertical) and topological accuracy.

  6. Boundary integral equation methods and numerical solutions thin plates on an elastic foundation

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian; Hamill, William


    This book presents and explains a general, efficient, and elegant method for solving the Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary value problems for the extensional deformation of a thin plate on an elastic foundation. The solutions of these problems are obtained both analytically—by means of direct and indirect boundary integral equation methods (BIEMs)—and numerically, through the application of a boundary element technique. The text discusses the methodology for constructing a BIEM, deriving all the attending mathematical properties with full rigor. The model investigated in the book can serve as a template for the study of any linear elliptic two-dimensional problem with constant coefficients. The representation of the solution in terms of single-layer and double-layer potentials is pivotal in the development of a BIEM, which, in turn, forms the basis for the second part of the book, where approximate solutions are computed with a high degree of accuracy. The book is intended for graduate students and r...

  7. On exact solutions for disturbances to the asymptotic suction boundary layer: transformation of Barnes integrals to convolution integrals (United States)

    Russell, John


    A modified Orr-Sommerfeld equation that applies to the asymptotic suction boundary layer was reported by Bussmann & Münz in a wartime report dated 1942 and by Hughes & Reid in J.F.M. ( 23, 1965, p715). Fundamental systems of exact solutions of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation for this mean velocity distribution were reported by D. Grohne in an unpublished typescript dated 1950. Exact solutions of the equation of Bussmann, Münz, Hughes, & Reid were reported by P. Baldwin in Mathematika ( 17, 1970, p206). Grohne and Baldwin noticed that these exact solutions may be expressed either as Barnes integrals or as convolution integrals. In a later paper (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, 399, 1985, p321), Baldwin applied the convolution integrals in the contruction of large-Reynolds number asymptotic approximations that hold uniformly. The present talk discusses the subtleties that arise in the construction of such convolution integrals, including several not reported by Grohne or Baldwin. The aim is to recover the full set of seven solutions (one well balanced, three balanced, and three dominant-recessive) postulated by W.H. Reid in various works on the uniformly valid solutions.

  8. Integrated approach in the assessment of skin compatibility of cosmetic formulations with green coffee oil. (United States)

    Wagemaker, T A L; Rijo, P; Rodrigues, L M; Maia Campos, P M B G; Fernandes, A S; Rosado, C


    Green coffee oil (GCO) has been used in cosmetic formulations due to its emollient and anti-ageing properties. However, there are insufficient studies about its safety when applied in cosmetic formulations. Cytotoxicity of GCO and of formulations containing 2.5-15% of GCO was evaluated by the MTT reduction assay, in human keratinocytes. Formulations containing 15% of GCO and the vehicle were applied under in use conditions in the volar forearm of human volunteers during 3 days. Transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum water content and erythema index were evaluated each 24 h using biophysical techniques. The same formulations were probed for skin tolerance through a patch test. Neither pure GCO nor its formulations showed cytotoxic effects in concentrations up to 100 μg mL(-1) . Transepidermal water loss values showed a slight reduction when the formulation containing GCO was applied. Stratum corneum water content and erythema index did not show significant differences, as the results observed in the first day of the study were maintained throughout 3 days. None of the volunteers display any reaction after using an occlusive patch. The results obtained in the study indicate that GCO seems to be safe for topical applications and showed good skin compatibility under the experimental conditions of the study. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Integration policies in a Brazilian south-eastern capital: formulation, implementation and some comparisons with four European countries.


    Santos, Mónica Pereira dos


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the processes of formulation and implementation of policies regarding the integration of disabled children in the mainstream schools of a Brazilian South-eastern State Capital. The investigation was carried out through a documentary analysis and through the application of a questionnaire and an interview to 25 head teachers of the primary State schools of VitOria. The intention was to identify gaps between what is mandated by laws...

  10. The exclusionary side-effects of the civic-integration paradigm: boundary processes among youth in Swiss schools.


    Duemmler Kerstin


    Civic integration policies have become common in many European states and require that immigrants commit to integrating into the host society. This article draws on a study with young people in Swiss schools and investigates how these new political debates around civic integration find resonance in everyday narratives about immigration. The boundary approach is used as a framework to study the daily (re)production of the ‘Swiss–foreigner divide’. It reveals that assimilation into ‘Swiss cultu...

  11. Existence and Uniqueness Theorems for Impulsive Fractional Differential Equations with the Two-Point and Integral Boundary Conditions (United States)

    Mardanov, M. J.; Mahmudov, N. I.; Sharifov, Y. A.


    We study a boundary value problem for the system of nonlinear impulsive fractional differential equations of order α (0 < α ≤ 1) involving the two-point and integral boundary conditions. Some new results on existence and uniqueness of a solution are established by using fixed point theorems. Some illustrative examples are also presented. We extend previous results even in the integer case α = 1. PMID:24782675

  12. Existence and Analytic Approximation of Solutions of Duffing Type Nonlinear Integro-Differential Equation with Integral Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsaedi Ahmed


    Full Text Available A generalized quasilinearization technique is developed to obtain a sequence of approximate solutions converging monotonically and quadratically to a unique solution of a boundary value problem involving Duffing type nonlinear integro-differential equation with integral boundary conditions. The convergence of order for the sequence of iterates is also established. It is found that the work presented in this paper not only produces new results but also yields several old results in certain limits.

  13. Advances in the study of boundary value problems for nonlinear integrable PDEs (United States)

    Pelloni, Beatrice


    In this review I summarize some of the most significant advances of the last decade in the analysis and solution of boundary value problems for integrable partial differential equations (PDEs) in two independent variables. These equations arise widely in mathematical physics, and in order to model realistic applications, it is essential to consider bounded domain and inhomogeneous boundary conditions. I focus specifically on a general and widely applicable approach, usually referred to as the unified transform or Fokas transform, that provides a substantial generalization of the classical inverse scattering transform. This approach preserves the conceptual efficiency and aesthetic appeal of the more classical transform approaches, but presents a distinctive and important difference. While the inverse scattering transform follows the ‘separation of variables’ philosophy, albeit in a nonlinear setting, the unified transform is based on the idea of synthesis, rather than separation, of variables. I will outline the main ideas in the case of linear evolution equations, and then illustrate their generalization to certain nonlinear cases of particular significance.

  14. A Family of Well-Clear Boundary Models for the Integration of UAS in the NAS (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony; Chamberlain, James; Consiglio, Maria; Upchurch, Jason


    The FAA-sponsored Sense and Avoid Workshop for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) defines the concept of sense and avoid for remote pilots as "the capability of a UAS to remain well clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne traffic." Hence, a rigorous definition of well clear is fundamental to any separation assurance concept for the integration of UAS into civil airspace. This paper presents a family of well-clear boundary models based on the TCAS II Resolution Advisory logic. For these models, algorithms that predict well-clear violations along aircraft current trajectories are provided. These algorithms are analogous to conflict detection algorithms but instead of predicting loss of separation, they predict whether well-clear violations will occur during a given lookahead time interval. Analytical techniques are used to study the properties and relationships satisfied by the models.

  15. Experimental asymptotic convergence of the collocation method for boundary integral equations on polygons governing Laplace's equation (United States)

    Costabel, M.; Ervin, V. J.; Stephan, E. P.


    Previously Costabel and Stephan proved the convergence of the collocation method for boundary integral equations on polygonal domains for piecewise linear trial functions which are constant on subintervals next to corners. The convergence and associated error estimates were given in suitable Sobolev spaces with appropriately weighted norms. In this paper we present, for Laplace's equation, the implementation of their method and a slightly modified version. In the latter we use piecewise linear trial functions which are discontinuous at the corners. Of particular note is that the computed experimental convergence rates are in complete agreement with the predicted theoretical rates. In particular, our numerical results underline clearly how the order of convergence depends on the graded mesh.

  16. Boundary integral equation method calculations of surface regression effects in flame spreading (United States)

    Altenkirch, R. A.; Rezayat, M.; Eichhorn, R.; Rizzo, F. J.


    A solid-phase conduction problem that is a modified version of one that has been treated previously in the literature and is applicable to flame spreading over a pyrolyzing fuel is solved using a boundary integral equation (BIE) method. Results are compared to surface temperature measurements that can be found in the literature. In addition, the heat conducted through the solid forward of the flame, the heat transfer responsible for sustaining the flame, is also computed in terms of the Peclet number based on a heated layer depth using the BIE method and approximate methods based on asymptotic expansions. Agreement between computed and experimental results is quite good as is agreement between the BIE and the approximate results.

  17. Prediction of metallic nano-optical trapping forces by finite element-boundary integral method. (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-Min; Xu, Kai-Jiang; Yang, Ming-Lin; Sheng, Xin-Qing


    The hybrid of finite element and boundary integral (FE-BI) method is employed to predict nano-optical trapping forces of arbitrarily shaped metallic nanostructures. A preconditioning strategy is proposed to improve the convergence of the iterative solution. Skeletonization is employed to speed up the design and optimization where iteration has to be repeated for each beam configuration. The radiation pressure force (RPF) is computed by vector flux of the Maxwell's stress tensor. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the developed method in analyzing the plasmonic effects as well as the optical trapping forces. It is shown that the proposed method is capable of predicting the trapping forces of complex metallic nanostructures accurately and efficiently.

  18. Using MathCad to Evaluate Exact Integral Formulations of Spacecraft Orbital Heats for Primitive Surfaces at Any Orientation (United States)

    Pinckney, John


    With the advent of high speed computing Monte Carlo ray tracing techniques has become the preferred method for evaluating spacecraft orbital heats. Monte Carlo has its greatest advantage where there are many interacting surfaces. However Monte Carlo programs are specialized programs that suffer from some inaccuracy, long calculation times and high purchase cost. A general orbital heating integral is presented here that is accurate, fast and runs on MathCad, a generally available engineering mathematics program. The integral is easy to read, understand and alter. The integral can be applied to unshaded primitive surfaces at any orientation. The method is limited to direct heating calculations. This integral formulation can be used for quick orbit evaluations and spot checking Monte Carlo results.


    Andrews, D.J.


    A numerical boundary integral method, relating slip and traction on a plane in an elastic medium by convolution with a discretized Green function, can be linked to a slip-dependent friction law on the fault plane. Such a method is developed here in two-dimensional plane-strain geometry. Spontaneous plane-strain shear ruptures can make a transition from sub-Rayleigh to near-P propagation velocity. Results from the boundary integral method agree with earlier results from a finite difference method on the location of this transition in parameter space. The methods differ in their prediction of rupture velocity following the transition. The trailing edge of the cohesive zone propagates at the P-wave velocity after the transition in the boundary integral calculations. Refs.

  20. Green’s Function and Positive Solutions for a Second-Order Singular Boundary Value Problem with Integral Boundary Conditions and a Delayed Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Zhang


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the expression and properties of Green’s function for a second-order singular boundary value problem with integral boundary conditions and delayed argument -x′′t-atx′t+btxt=ωtft, xαt,  t∈0, 1;  x′0=0,  x1-∫01htxtdt=0, where a∈0, 1, 0, +∞, b∈C0, 1, 0, +∞ and, ω may be singular at t=0 or/and at t=1. Furthermore, several new and more general results are obtained for the existence of positive solutions for the above problem by using Krasnosel’skii’s fixed point theorem. We discuss our problems with a delayed argument, which may concern optimization issues of some technical problems. Moreover, the approach to express the integral equation of the above problem is different from earlier approaches. Our results cover a second-order boundary value problem without deviating arguments and are compared with some recent results.

  1. Development and evaluation of matrix material formulations for potential integration into immunodiagnostic biosensors (United States)

    Aminayi, Payam

    This study supports the development, characterization and optimization of biosensor material formulations for immunodiagnostic applications based on experimental findings and hypotheses by Wang and Wu [1, 2], and using a test-plate apparatus and thin-film design developed by Young [3]. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  2. Knowledge mobilization in bridging patient-practitioner-researcher boundaries: A systematic integrative review protocol. (United States)

    Cowdell, Fiona; Booth, Andrew; Appleby, Ben


    To review published literature to identify when and how patients and healthcare practitioners have been involved in knowledge mobilization activity and the impact this may have had on their care. Improving patient outcomes, satisfaction and quality of care is increasingly reliant on shared decision-making between health professionals and patients. Knowledge mobilization, at its simplest: "moving knowledge to where it can be most useful" is a growing field of academic study. To date, it appears that much effort has focused on moving knowledge from researchers to healthcare practitioners. Knowledge mobilization to patients is currently under-researched. Integrative review. Methods of integrative review will be used to address the review problem. PRISMA guidelines were used as a general framework to guide structuring and reporting the review. Elements of method-specific reporting guidelines for specific streams of evidence will be used as required. This review will aim to provide a broad and deep understanding of patient-practitioner-researcher engagement in knowledge mobilization activity. This synthesis of the extant literature should offer insights into the optimum characteristics of methods for bridging patient-practitioner-researcher boundaries in knowledge mobilization action. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Biotherapeutic protein formulation variables influence protein integrity and can promote post-translational modifications as shown using chicken egg white lysozyme as a model system. (United States)

    Gourbatsi, Evdoxia; Povey, Jane; Uddin, Shahid; Smales, C Mark


    The effect of different formulations variables on protein integrity were investigated using lysozyme as a model protein for the development of biotherapeutic protein formulations for use in the clinic. Buffer composition/concentration was the key variable of formulation reagents investigated in determining lysozyme stability and authenticity independent of protein concentration whilst the storage temperature and time, not surprisingly, were also key variables. Tryptic peptide mapping of the protein showed that the modifications occurred when formulated under specific conditions but not others. A model peptide system was developed that reflected the same behavior under formulation conditions as intact lysozyme. Peptide models may mirror the stability of proteins, or regions of proteins, in the same formulations and be used to help develop a rapid screen of formulations for stabilisation of biotherapeutic proteins.

  4. Biotherapeutic protein formulation variables influence protein integrity and can promote post-translational modifications as shown using chicken egg white lysozyme as a model system


    Gourbatsi, Evdoxia; Povey, Jane; Uddin, Shahid; Smales, C. Mark


    Objectives The effect of different formulations variables on protein integrity were investigated using lysozyme as a model protein for the development of biotherapeutic protein formulations for use in the clinic. Results Buffer composition/concentration was the key variable of formulation reagents investigated in determining lysozyme stability and authenticity independent of protein concentration whilst the storage temperature and time, not surprisingly, were also key variables. Tryptic pepti...

  5. Optimization of a High Temperature PEMFC micro-CHP System by Formulation and Application of a Process Integration Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen


    A 1 kWe micro combined heat and power (CHP) system based on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is modeled and optimized by formulation and application of a process integration methodology. The system can provide heat and electricity for a singlefamily household....... It consists of a fuel cell stack, a fuel processing subsystem, heat exchangers, and balance-of-plant components. The optimization methodology involves system optimization attempting to maximize the net electrical efficiency, and then by use of a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem formulation......, the heat exchange network (HEN) annual cost is minimized. The results show the high potential of the proposed model since high efficiencies are accomplished. The net electrical efficiency and total system efficiency, based on lower heating value (LHV), are 35.2% and 91.1%, respectively. The minimized total...

  6. The contrast-source stress-velocity integral-equation formulation of three-dimensional time-domain elastodynamic scattering problems : A structured approach using tensor partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hoop, A.T.; Abubakar, A.; Habashy, T.M.


    The contrast-source stress-velocity integral-equation formulation of three-dimensional time-domain elastodynamic scattering problems is discussed. A novel feature of the formulation is a tensor partitioning of the relevant dynamic stress and the contrast source volume density of deformation rate.

  7. On the formulation, parameter identification and numerical integration of the EMMI model :plasticity and isotropic damage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bammann, Douglas J.; Johnson, G. C. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Marin, Esteban B.; Regueiro, Richard A. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO)


    In this report we present the formulation of the physically-based Evolving Microstructural Model of Inelasticity (EMMI) . The specific version of the model treated here describes the plasticity and isotropic damage of metals as being currently applied to model the ductile failure process in structural components of the W80 program . The formulation of the EMMI constitutive equations is framed in the context of the large deformation kinematics of solids and the thermodynamics of internal state variables . This formulation is focused first on developing the plasticity equations in both the relaxed (unloaded) and current configurations. The equations in the current configuration, expressed in non-dimensional form, are used to devise the identification procedure for the plasticity parameters. The model is then extended to include a porosity-based isotropic damage state variable to describe the progressive deterioration of the strength and mechanical properties of metals induced by deformation . The numerical treatment of these coupled plasticity-damage constitutive equations is explained in detail. A number of examples are solved to validate the numerical implementation of the model.

  8. Analysis of Water Conflicts across Natural and Societal Boundaries: Integration of Quantitative Modeling and Qualitative Reasoning (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.


    Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore

  9. Improved formulations and an Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search heuristic for the integrated berth allocation and quay crane assignment problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario; Røpke, Stefan


    This paper focuses on the integrated berth allocation and quay crane assignment problem in container terminals. We consider the decrease in the marginal productivity of quay cranes and the increase in handling time due to deviation from the desired position. We consider a continuous berth......, discretized in small equal-sized sections. A number of enhancements over the state-of-the-art formulation and an Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS) heuristic are presented. Computational results reveal that the enhancements improve many of the best-known bounds, and the ALNS outperforms the state-of-the-art...

  10. Advanced Amine Solvent Formulations and Process Integration for Near-Term CO2 Capture Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Kevin S.; Searcy, Katherine; Rochelle, Gary T.; Ziaii, Sepideh; Schubert, Craig


    This Phase I SBIR project investigated the economic and technical feasibility of advanced amine scrubbing systems for post-combustion CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Numerous combinations of advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were screened for energy requirements, and three cases were selected for detailed analysis: a monoethanolamine (MEA) base case and two “advanced” cases: an MEA/Piperazine (PZ) case, and a methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) / PZ case. The MEA/PZ and MDEA/PZ cases employed an advanced “double matrix” stripper configuration. The basis for calculations was a model plant with a gross capacity of 500 MWe. Results indicated that CO2 capture increased the base cost of electricity from 5 cents/kWh to 10.7 c/kWh for the MEA base case, 10.1 c/kWh for the MEA / PZ double matrix, and 9.7 c/kWh for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. The corresponding cost per metric tonne CO2 avoided was 67.20 $/tonne CO2, 60.19 $/tonne CO2, and 55.05 $/tonne CO2, respectively. Derated capacities, including base plant auxiliary load of 29 MWe, were 339 MWe for the base case, 356 MWe for the MEA/PZ double matrix, and 378 MWe for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. When compared to the base case, systems employing advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were estimated to reduce reboiler steam requirements by 20 to 44%, to reduce derating due to CO2 capture by 13 to 30%, and to reduce the cost of CO2 avoided by 10 to 18%. These results demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in the overall economics of CO2 capture via advanced solvent formulations and process configurations.

  11. Integrated and Consistent Active Control Formulation and Piezotransducer Position Optimization of Plate Structures considering Spillover Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Biglar


    Full Text Available This study addresses new formulation for active vibration control of plates by optimal locations of attached piezotransducers. Free vibrations are solved by Rayleigh-Ritz and transient by assumed modes methods. Optimal orientations of patches are determined by spatial controllability/observability, as well as residual modes to reduce spillover. These criteria are used to achieve optimal fitness function defined for genetic algorithm to find optimal locations. To control vibrations, negative velocity feedback control is designed. Results indicate that, by locating piezopatches at optimal positions, depreciation rate increases and amplitudes of vibrations reduce effectively. The effect of number of piezodevices is analyzed.

  12. Numerical Modeling of 3-D Dynamics of Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles Using the Boundary Integral Method (United States)

    Calvisi, Michael; Manmi, Kawa; Wang, Qianxi


    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are microbubbles stabilized with a shell typically of lipid, polymer, or protein and are emerging as a unique tool for noninvasive therapies ranging from gene delivery to tumor ablation. The nonspherical dynamics of contrast agents are thought to play an important role in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications, for example, causing the emission of subharmonic frequency components and enhancing the uptake of therapeutic agents across cell membranes and tissue interfaces. A three-dimensional model for nonspherical contrast agent dynamics based on the boundary integral method is presented. The effects of the encapsulating shell are approximated by adapting Hoff's model for thin-shell, spherical contrast agents to the nonspherical case. A high-quality mesh of the bubble surface is maintained by implementing a hybrid approach of the Lagrangian method and elastic mesh technique. Numerical analyses for the dynamics of UCAs in an infinite liquid and near a rigid wall are performed in parameter regimes of clinical relevance. The results show that the presence of a coating significantly reduces the oscillation amplitude and period, increases the ultrasound pressure amplitude required to incite jetting, and reduces the jet width and velocity.

  13. Off-shell amplitudes as boundary integrals of analytically continued Wilson line slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotko, P. [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University,University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Serino, M. [The Henryk Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342, Kraków (Poland); Staśto, A.M. [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University,University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    One of the methods to calculate tree-level multi-gluon scattering amplitudes is to use the Berends-Giele recursion relation involving off-shell currents or off-shell amplitudes, if working in the light cone gauge. As shown in recent works using the light-front perturbation theory, solutions to these recursions naturally collapse into gauge invariant and gauge-dependent components, at least for some helicity configurations. In this work, we show that such structure is helicity independent and emerges from analytic properties of matrix elements of Wilson line operators, where the slope of the straight gauge path is shifted in a certain complex direction. This is similar to the procedure leading to the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion, however we apply a complex shift to the Wilson line slope instead of the external momenta. While in the original BCFW procedure the boundary integrals over the complex shift vanish for certain deformations, here they are non-zero and are equal to the off-shell amplitudes. The main result can thus be summarized as follows: we derive a decomposition of a helicity-fixed off-shell current into gauge invariant component given by a matrix element of a straight Wilson line plus a reminder given by a sum of products of gauge invariant and gauge dependent quantities. We give several examples realizing this relation, including the five-point next-to-MHV helicity configuration.

  14. Rigorous speckle simulation using surface integral equations and higher order boundary element method. (United States)

    Fu, Liwei; Frenner, Karsten; Osten, Wolfgang


    The scattering of electromagnetic waves from rough surfaces has been actively studied for more than a century now because of its involvement in vast application areas. In the past two decades, great advances have been made by incorporating multiple scattering effects into analytical approaches. However, no model can yet be applied to surfaces with arbitrary roughness. It is also very difficult to study the cross-polarization, shadowing, or multiple scattering effects. In order to study more fundamentally the interaction of polarized light with more general rough surfaces of general media, we have developed a rigorous numerical simulator to calculate the resulting speckle fields. The full Maxwell equations were solved using surface integral equations combined with a boundary element method. The rough surface was discretized by higher order quadrilateral edge elements. The effective tangential electric and magnetic fields in each element in terms of 10 edges were first solved. The scattered electric and magnetic fields everywhere in space were then calculated correspondingly. One of the great advantages of such a simulator is that both the near and far fields can be calculated directly. Preliminary results of different kinds of metallic structures are presented, by which the advantages of the method are demonstrated.

  15. An optimized probucol microencapsulated formulation integrating a secondary bile acid (deoxycholic acid) as a permeation enhancer (United States)

    Mooranian, Armin; Negrulj, Rebecca; Chen-Tan, Nigel; Watts, Gerald F; Arfuso, Frank; Al-Salami, Hani


    The authors have previously designed, developed, and characterized a novel microencapsulated formulation as a platform for the targeted delivery of therapeutics in an animal model of type 2 diabetes, using the drug probucol (PB). The aim of this study was to optimize PB microcapsules by incorporating the bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA), which has good permeation-enhancing properties, and to examine its effect on microcapsules’ morphology, rheology, structural and surface characteristics, and excipients’ chemical and thermal compatibilities. Microencapsulation was carried out using a BÜCHI-based microencapsulating system established in the authors’ laboratory. Using the polymer sodium alginate (SA), two microencapsulated formulations were prepared: PB-SA (control) and PB-DCA-SA (test) at a constant ratio (1:30 and 1:3:30, respectively). Complete characterization of the microcapsules was carried out. The incorporation of DCA resulted in better structural and surface characteristics, uniform morphology, and stable chemical and thermal profiles, while size and rheological parameters remained similar to control. In addition, PB-DCA-SA microcapsules showed good excipients’ compatibilities, which were supported by data from differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray studies, suggesting microcapsule stability. Hence, PB-DCA-SA microcapsules have good rheological and compatibility characteristics and may be suitable for the oral delivery of PB in type 2 diabetes. PMID:25302020

  16. Moving Towards Integrated Policy Formulation and Evaluation: The Green Economy Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrea M. Bassi


    The mainstreaming of concepts related to the Green Economy, an action-oriented approach to reach sustainable development, has increased demands for integrated models that can shed light on the complex...

  17. Integral and Variational Formulations for the Helmholtz Equation Inverse Source Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo L. Rainha


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the Hilbert space functional structure of the Helmholtz equation inverse source problem. An integral equation for the sources reconstruction based on the composition of the trace and Green's function operators is introduced and compared with the reciprocity source reconstruction methodologies. An equivalence theorem comparing the integral inverse source equation with the variational weak reciprocity gap functional equation is then demonstrated. Some examples on applications to the unitary disk are presented.

  18. On the removal of boundary errors caused by Runge-Kutta integration of non-linear partial differential equations (United States)

    Abarbanel, Saul; Gottlieb, David; Carpenter, Mark H.


    It has been previously shown that the temporal integration of hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDE's) may, because of boundary conditions, lead to deterioration of accuracy of the solution. A procedure for removal of this error in the linear case has been established previously. In the present paper we consider hyperbolic (PDE's) (linear and non-linear) whose boundary treatment is done via the SAT-procedure. A methodology is present for recovery of the full order of accuracy, and has been applied to the case of a 4th order explicit finite difference scheme.

  19. An optimized probucol microencapsulated formulation integrating a secondary bile acid (deoxycholic acid as a permeation enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooranian A


    Full Text Available Armin Mooranian,1 Rebecca Negrulj,1 Nigel Chen-Tan,2 Gerald F Watts,3 Frank Arfuso,4 Hani Al-Salami11Biotechnology and Drug Development Research Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, 2Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, 3School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia, 4School of Biomedical Science, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, Perth, AustraliaAbstract: The authors have previously designed, developed, and characterized a novel microencapsulated formulation as a platform for the targeted delivery of therapeutics in an animal model of type 2 diabetes, using the drug probucol (PB. The aim of this study was to optimize PB microcapsules by incorporating the bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA, which has good permeation-enhancing properties, and to examine its effect on microcapsules’ morphology, rheology, structural and surface characteristics, and excipients’ chemical and thermal compatibilities. Microencapsulation was carried out using a BÜCHI-based microencapsulating system established in the authors’ laboratory. Using the polymer sodium alginate (SA, two microencapsulated formulations were prepared: PB-SA (control and PB-DCA-SA (test at a constant ratio (1:30 and 1:3:30, respectively. Complete characterization of the microcapsules was carried out. The incorporation of DCA resulted in better structural and surface characteristics, uniform morphology, and stable chemical and thermal profiles, while size and rheological parameters remained similar to control. In addition, PB-DCA-SA microcapsules showed good excipients’ compatibilities, which were supported by data from differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray studies, suggesting

  20. Preconditioning first and second kind integral formulations of the capacitance problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausch, J.; White, J.


    Engineering programs which compute electrostatic capacitances for complicated arrangements of conductors commonly set up the electrostatic potential u as a superposition of surface carges {sigma} u(x) = {integral}{sub s}G(x, y){sigma}(y) dS(y). Where G(x, y) = {1/4}{pi}{vert_bar}x - y{vert_bar} is the Green`s function for the Laplacian in the three-space. For a specified potential on the conductor surface(s) S, this approach leads to an integral equation of the first kind on S for the charge density {sigma}. The capacitance is the net-charge on the conductors and is given by the surface integral of {sigma}.

  1. Boundary value problem of Pontryagin's maximum principle in a two-sector economy model with an integral utility function (United States)

    Kiselev, Yu. N.; Orlov, M. V.; Orlov, S. M.


    An infinite-horizon two-sector economy model with a Cobb-Douglas production function and a utility function that is an integral functional with discounting and a logarithmic integrand is investigated. The application of Pontryagin's maximum principle yields a boundary value problem with special conditions at infinity. The search for the solution of the maximum-principle boundary value problem is complicated by singular modes in its optimal solution. In the construction of the solution to the problem, they are described in analytical form. Additionally, a special version of the sweep method in continuous form is proposed, which is of interest from theoretical and computational points of view. An important result is the proof of the optimality of the extremal solution obtained by applying the maximum-principle boundary value problem.

  2. A Direct Approach to Determine the External Disturbing Gravity Field by Applying Green Integral with the Ground Boundary Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Jialei


    Full Text Available By using the ground as the boundary, Molodensky problem usually gets the solution in form of series. Higher order terms reflect the correction between a smooth surface and the ground boundary. Application difficulties arise from not only computational complexity and stability maintenance, but also data-intensiveness. Therefore, in this paper, starting from the application of external gravity disturbance, Green formula is used on digital terrain surface. In the case of ignoring the influence of horizontal component of the integral, the expression formula of external disturbance potential determined by boundary value consisted of ground gravity anomalies and height anomaly difference are obtained, whose kernel function is reciprocal of distance and Poisson core respectively. With this method, there is no need of continuation of ground data. And kernel function is concise, and suitable for the stochastic computation of external disturbing gravity field.

  3. A flow in a trough: An integral equations formulation | Shola | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of fluid flow in an open trough driven by the base moving horizontally along its plane, was considered in [2, 3]. The approach used was based on finite difference technique which takes a lot of memory. This paper reformulates the problem in terms of integral equations and the resulting equations solved ...

  4. Effects of planar element formulation and numerical integration order on checkerboard material layouts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Long, CS


    Full Text Available Strain energy density, w Q8, 9pt Fig. 6 Strain energy density of fully integrated Q8 elements... Science & Man- ufacturing, Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001. Tel.: +27-12-8412498 E-mail: P.W. Loveday Sensor Science & Technology, CSIR Material Science & Man- ufacturing, Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001. Tel.: +27...

  5. On integrals, Hamiltonian and metriplectic formulations of polynomial systems in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esen Oğul


    Full Text Available The first integrals of the reduced three-wave interaction problem, the Rabinovich system, the Hindmarsh-Rose model, and the Oregonator model are derived using the method of Darboux polynomials. It is shown that, the reduced three-wave interaction problem, the Rabinovich system, the Hindmarsh-Rose model can be written in a bi-Hamiltonian/Nambu metriplectic form.

  6. Integrative modeling reveals the principles of multi-scale chromatin boundary formation in human nuclear organization. (United States)

    Moore, Benjamin L; Aitken, Stuart; Semple, Colin A


    Interphase chromosomes adopt a hierarchical structure, and recent data have characterized their chromatin organization at very different scales, from sub-genic regions associated with DNA-binding proteins at the order of tens or hundreds of bases, through larger regions with active or repressed chromatin states, up to multi-megabase-scale domains associated with nuclear positioning, replication timing and other qualities. However, we have lacked detailed, quantitative models to understand the interactions between these different strata. Here we collate large collections of matched locus-level chromatin features and Hi-C interaction data, representing higher-order organization, across three human cell types. We use quantitative modeling approaches to assess whether locus-level features are sufficient to explain higher-order structure, and identify the most influential underlying features. We identify structurally variable domains between cell types and examine the underlying features to discover a general association with cell-type-specific enhancer activity. We also identify the most prominent features marking the boundaries of two types of higher-order domains at different scales: topologically associating domains and nuclear compartments. We find parallel enrichments of particular chromatin features for both types, including features associated with active promoters and the architectural proteins CTCF and YY1. We show that integrative modeling of large chromatin dataset collections using random forests can generate useful insights into chromosome structure. The models produced recapitulate known biological features of the cell types involved, allow exploration of the antecedents of higher-order structures and generate testable hypotheses for further experimental studies.

  7. Computation of the radiation Q of dielectric-loaded electrically small antennas in integral equation formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.


    A new technique for estimating the impedance frequency bandwidth of electrically small antennas loaded with magneto-dielectric material from a single-frequency simulation in a surface integral equation solver is presented. The estimate is based on the inverse of the radiation Q computed using newly...... derived expressions for the stored energy and the radiated power of arbitrary coupled electric and magnetic currents in free space....

  8. Integrating theory and practice in conservatoires: formulating holistic models for teaching and learning improvisation


    Parsonage, Catherine; Fadnes, Petter Frost; Taylor, James


    Academic study has become a more significant part of a conservatoire education in recent times, but it has not always informed performance as effectively as it might. There is a need for further development of an academic curriculum that is specifically relevant to performers, in which the links between theory and practice are made explicit rather than expecting students to construct these for themselves. This article reports on research into the integration of theory and practice at Leeds Co...

  9. On the Numerical Solution of the Integral Equation Formulation for Transient Structural Synthesis (United States)


    Keenan L. Coleman Lieutenant, United States Navy B.S., University of Arizona, 2007 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for...history of integral equations dates back to the early nineteenth century when the profound mathematical insights of Newton and Leibniz were being...Neta for their guidance and patience during this process. Finally, I would like to thank Dr. Richard Feynman, whose marriage of genius and common

  10. Integral method for the calculation of three-dimensional, laminar and turbulent boundary layers (United States)

    Stock, H. W.


    The method for turbulent flows is a further development of an existing method; profile families with two parameters and a lag entrainment method replace the simple entrainment method and power profiles with one parameter. The method for laminar flows is a new development. Moment of momentum equations were used for the solution of the problem, the profile families were derived from similar solutions of boundary layer equations. Laminar and turbulent flows at the wings were calculated. The influence of wing tapering on the boundary layer development was shown. The turbulent boundary layer for a revolution ellipsoid is calculated for 0 deg and 10 deg incidence angles.

  11. Path-integral derivation of black-hole radiance inside the de-Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley formulation of massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arraut, Ivan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)


    If we apply the path-integral formulation in order to analyze the particle creation process of black holes inside the non-linear formulation of massive gravity, it is possible to demonstrate that the effect of the extra degrees of freedom is to deform the periodicity of the poles of the propagator in the complex t-plane. This might create the effect of extra particle creation process at scales where the extra degrees of freedom become relevant. For stationary solutions, depending on the values taken by the free parameters of the theory, the periodicity structure of the propagator reveal two effects. The first one is a shift on the positions of the pole of the propagator with respect to the GR case, affecting then the instant at which the particles are detected. The second one is the existence of branch points, affecting then the perception of particles. The branch point can be finite (including the zero order case) or infinite, depending on the free parameters of the theory. (orig.)

  12. Path-integral derivation of black-hole radiance inside the de-Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley formulation of massive gravity (United States)

    Arraut, Ivan


    If we apply the path-integral formulation in order to analyze the particle creation process of black holes inside the non-linear formulation of massive gravity, it is possible to demonstrate that the effect of the extra degrees of freedom is to deform the periodicity of the poles of the propagator in the complex t-plane. This might create the effect of extra particle creation process at scales where the extra degrees of freedom become relevant. For stationary solutions, depending on the values taken by the free parameters of the theory, the periodicity structure of the propagator reveal two effects. The first one is a shift on the positions of the pole of the propagator with respect to the GR case, affecting then the instant at which the particles are detected. The second one is the existence of branch points, affecting then the perception of particles. The branch point can be finite (including the zero order case) or infinite, depending on the free parameters of the theory.

  13. Space-time domain solutions of the wave equation by a non-singular boundary integral method and Fourier transform. (United States)

    Klaseboer, Evert; Sepehrirahnama, Shahrokh; Chan, Derek Y C


    The general space-time evolution of the scattering of an incident acoustic plane wave pulse by an arbitrary configuration of targets is treated by employing a recently developed non-singular boundary integral method to solve the Helmholtz equation in the frequency domain from which the space-time solution of the wave equation is obtained using the fast Fourier transform. The non-singular boundary integral solution can enforce the radiation boundary condition at infinity exactly and can account for multiple scattering effects at all spacings between scatterers without adverse effects on the numerical precision. More generally, the absence of singular kernels in the non-singular integral equation confers high numerical stability and precision for smaller numbers of degrees of freedom. The use of fast Fourier transform to obtain the time dependence is not constrained to discrete time steps and is particularly efficient for studying the response to different incident pulses by the same configuration of scatterers. The precision that can be attained using a smaller number of Fourier components is also quantified.

  14. Impact of Large-Scale Wind Power Integration on Small Signal Stability Based on Stability Region Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying Liu


    Full Text Available Up until now, study results on the impact of large-scale wind power integration on small signal stability have often been in conflict. Sometimes, the conclusions are even completely opposite, making people unable to agree on which is right. The reason behind this phenomenon is that most of these studies are based on a certain grid and typical working conditions, so conclusions are reached by comparing changes in oscillation mode, one by one. This study method lacks a broader perspective, and often reflects only a part of the grid conditions. However, the small signal stability region boundary describes the critical operating range of power system small signal stability as a whole, making possible an overall evaluation of the system from a more macro perspective. Thus it is more suitable for analysis of the impact of large-scale wind power integration on small signal stability. Based on the above, using the model of wind farm integration to the single-machine infinite bus power system, this paper studies the impact of wind power integration scale and the coupling strength with synchronous generator on small signal stability through the comparison of the stability region boundaries, thus providing a new method and support for analyzing the impact of wind power integration on small signal stability.

  15. Combined Helmholtz Integral Equation - Fourier series formulation of acoustical radiation and scattering problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fedotov, I


    Full Text Available OF THE METHOD Helmholtz integral equation for the radiation-scattering steady-state acoustic field could be written as follows: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ), , 4 in QA g P Q C P P Q g P Q V Q dA P n pi  ∂ ⋅Φ = ⋅Φ + ⋅ + ⋅ Ψ ∂  ∫ (1... and Q ; ( ), Q g P Q n ∂ ∂ - normal outer derivative of the Green function; ( )C P - coefficient, depending on location of point P , which is equal to 4pi , if P is in outer space of the surface; 0, if P is inside the surface. In general case...

  16. Moving Towards Integrated Policy Formulation and Evaluation: The Green Economy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassi Andrea M.


    Full Text Available The mainstreaming of concepts related to the Green Economy, an action-oriented approach to reach sustainable development, has increased demands for integrated models that can shed light on the complex relations existing across social, economic and environmental indicators. A gap exists, whereby our thinking is rapidly evolving, but the tools available are still in the vast majority of cases sectorial, leading to planning processes taking place in silos. To avoid the emergence of side effects, and anticipate future threats and opportunities, a more systemic approach is needed. The Green Economy Model (GEM was created taking into account four main capitals and their interconnections: physical capital, human capital, social capital and natural capital. The application of GEM in 10 countries has shown its capability to coherently represent reality and generate results that can more effectively inform decision making.

  17. Moving Towards Integrated Policy Formulation and Evaluation: The Green Economy Model (United States)

    Bassi, Andrea M.


    The mainstreaming of concepts related to the Green Economy, an action-oriented approach to reach sustainable development, has increased demands for integrated models that can shed light on the complex relations existing across social, economic and environmental indicators. A gap exists, whereby our thinking is rapidly evolving, but the tools available are still in the vast majority of cases sectorial, leading to planning processes taking place in silos. To avoid the emergence of side effects, and anticipate future threats and opportunities, a more systemic approach is needed. The Green Economy Model (GEM) was created taking into account four main capitals and their interconnections: physical capital, human capital, social capital and natural capital. The application of GEM in 10 countries has shown its capability to coherently represent reality and generate results that can more effectively inform decision making.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimov Pavel Alekseevich


    Full Text Available The proposed paper covers the operator-related formulation of the eigenvalue problem of analysis of a three-dimensional structure that has piecewise-constant physical and geometrical parameters alongside the so-called basic direction within the framework of a discrete-continual approach (a discrete-continual finite element method, a discrete-continual variation method. Generally, discrete-continual formulations represent contemporary mathematical models that become available for computer implementation. They make it possible for a researcher to consider the boundary effects whenever particular components of the solution represent rapidly varying functions. Another feature of discrete-continual methods is the absence of any limitations imposed on lengths of structures. The three-dimensional problem of elasticity is used as the design model of a structure. In accordance with the so-called method of extended domain, the domain in question is embordered by an extended one of an arbitrary shape. At the stage of numerical implementation, relative key features of discrete-continual methods include convenient mathematical formulas, effective computational patterns and algorithms, simple data processing, etc. The authors present their formulation of the problem in question for an isotropic medium with allowance for supports restrained by elastic elements while standard boundary conditions are also taken into consideration.

  19. Minimizing the condition number of integral operator in elastic Neumann problem using the modified fundamental solution (United States)

    Sahli, B.; Bencheikh, L.


    The question of non-uniqueness in boundary integral equation formulations of exterior Neumann boundary-value problem in elasticity can be resolved by seeking the solution in the form of a single-layer potential. We present an analysis of the appropriate choice of the multipole coefficients which is optimal in the sense of minimizing the condition number of the boundary integral operator.

  20. Formulation of a strategy for monitoring control integrity in critical digital control systems (United States)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe


    Advanced aircraft will require flight critical computer systems for stability augmentation as well as guidance and control that must perform reliably in adverse, as well as nominal, operating environments. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that can occur in electromagnetically harsh environments, involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. A strategy is presented for dynamic upset detection to be used in the evaluation of critical digital controllers during the design and/or validation phases of development. Critical controllers must be able to be used in adverse environments that result from disturbances caused by an electromagnetic source such as lightning, high intensity radiated field (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The upset detection strategy presented provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity that can result from redundancy management errors and control command calculation error that could occur in an electromagnetically harsh operating environment. The use is discussed of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors, redundancy management errors, and control effectiveness.

  1. Formulation of an Integrated Model for Freshwater Resources Policy Evaluation in Jordan (United States)

    Gorelick, S.; Yoon, J.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Klassert, C. J. A.; Sigel, K.; Tilmant, A.; Lachaut, T.; Avisse, N.; Harou, J. J.; Padula, S.; Mustafa, D.


    Jordan is one of the four water poorest countries in the world. It is a highly vulnerable arid region whose freshwater system is at a tipping point due to the confluence of severely limited water supplies, rapid population growth, refugee influxes, climate change and variability, internal and transboundary competition for shared freshwater resources, and institutional impediments. Our team is engaged in an interdisciplinary effort aimed at developing a new approach to evaluate policies that enhance sustainability of freshwater resource systems. Our work adopts a multi-agent modeling framework that incorporates institutional complexity to evaluate policy instruments for improving water security in Jordan. We are developing this model using a modular approach, integrating biophysical modules that simulate natural and engineered phenomena (e.g., groundwater-surface water flow, reservoir storage, network routing, salt balance, and crop yield) with human modules that represent behavior at multiple scales of decision making. The human modules adopt a multi-agent simulation approach, defining agents as autonomous decision-makers at the government, administrative, organizational, and user levels. Our goal is to construct a suite of policy intervention scenarios that will form the basis for analysis of freshwater sustainability. This work has benefitted from a strong working relationship with leaders of the water sector in Jordan. Our approach and the merit of the policy interventions should have significant transfer value to other water-stressed regions.

  2. Lost in translation? 'Evidence' and the articulation of institutional logics in integrated care pathways: from positive to negative boundary object? (United States)

    Allen, Davina


    This article examines the translation of a clinical governance concept - integrated care pathways (ICPs)--into an infrastructural technology. Building on previous work, the application of boundary object theory is extended in this article to argue that stakeholder enrolment in pathway methodology may be less thoroughgoing than originally assumed. Pathways have effectively aligned management and nursing interests around a quality agenda and nurses have emerged as the leaders in this field, but doctors have rather lower levels of engagement. It is suggested that the contradictory logics inherent in pathway philosophy (primarily as these relate to 'evidence') and the social organisation of ICP development foster a transformation of the concept when this is translated into the technology, creating a negative boundary object from the perspective of doctors. Medicine is a powerful actor in health care, which is consequential for whether pathways, as designated boundary objects, become boundary objects-in-use. It also has implications for the diffusion of the concept as a mechanism of clinical governance and the credibility of nurses as emergent leaders in this field. Qualitative case studies of ICP development processes undertaken in the UK National Health Service and ethnographic research on the ICP community provide the empirical foundations for the analysis. © 2014 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. In Vivo Evidence of Reduced Integrity of the Gray-White Matter Boundary in Autism Spectrum Disorder. (United States)

    Andrews, Derek Sayre; Avino, Thomas A; Gudbrandsen, Maria; Daly, Eileen; Marquand, Andre; Murphy, Clodagh M; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Williams, Steven C; Bullmore, Edward T; The Mrc Aims Consortium; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M; Ecker, Christine


    Atypical cortical organization and reduced integrity of the gray-white matter boundary have been reported by postmortem studies in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there are no in vivo studies that examine these particular features of cortical organization in ASD. Hence, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging to examine differences in tissue contrast between gray and white matter in 98 adults with ASD and 98 typically developing controls, to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASD have significantly reduced tissue contrast. More specifically, we examined contrast as a percentage between gray and white matter tissue signal intensities (GWPC) sampled at the gray-white matter boundary, and across different cortical layers. We found that individuals with ASD had significantly reduced GWPC in several clusters throughout the cortex (cluster, P < 0.05). As expected, these reductions were greatest when tissue intensities were sampled close to gray-white matter interface, which indicates a less distinct gray-white matter boundary in ASD. Our in vivo findings of reduced GWPC in ASD are therefore consistent with prior postmortem findings of a less well-defined gray-white matter boundary in ASD. Taken together, these results indicate that GWPC might be utilized as an in vivo proxy measure of atypical cortical microstructural organization in future studies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Integration of a Portfolio-based Approach to Evaluate Aerospace R and D Problem Formulation Into a Parametric Synthesis Tool (United States)

    Oza, Amit R.

    The focus of this study is to improve R&D effectiveness towards aerospace and defense planning in the early stages of the product development lifecycle. Emphasis is on: correct formulation of a decision problem, with special attention to account for data relationships between the individual design problem and the system capability required to size the aircraft, understanding of the meaning of the acquisition strategy objective and subjective data requirements that are required to arrive at a balanced analysis and/or "correct" mix of technology projects, understanding the meaning of the outputs that can be created from the technology analysis, and methods the researcher can use at effectively support decisions at the acquisition and conceptual design levels through utilization of a research and development portfolio strategy. The primary objectives of this study are to: (1) determine what strategy should be used to initialize conceptual design parametric sizing processes during requirements analysis for the materiel solution analysis stage of the product development lifecycle when utilizing data already constructed in the latter phase when working with a generic database management system synthesis tool integration architecture for aircraft design , and (2) assess how these new data relationships can contribute for innovative decision-making when solving acquisition hardware/technology portfolio problems. As such, an automated composable problem formulation system is developed to consider data interactions for the system architecture that manages acquisition pre-design concept refinement portfolio management, and conceptual design parametric sizing requirements. The research includes a way to: • Formalize the data storage and implement the data relationship structure with a system architecture automated through a database management system. • Allow for composable modeling, in terms of level of hardware abstraction, for the product model, mission model, and

  5. On the elastostatic significance of four boundary integrals involving biharmonic functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren


    of the four integrals and we find that it is related to the displacements of the elastic material: Single valued displacements are obtained provided that three of the integrals are zero. (The fourth integral does not provide further information.) It is already known from the classical literature that two...

  6. A new Bayesian formulation to integrate body-wave polarisation in non-linear probabilistic earthquake location (United States)

    Gaucher, Emmanuel; Gesret, Alexandrine; Noble, Mark; Kohl, Thomas


    Earthquake location is most of the time computed using the arrival time of the seismic waves observed on monitoring networks. However, three-component seismometers enable measurement of the seismic wave polarisation which is also hypocentre dependent. This information is necessary when considering single-station locations but may also be applied to local and sparse seismic networks with poor coverage to better constrain the local earthquake hypocentres, as typically seen in hydraulic fracturing or geothermal field monitoring. In this work, we propose a new Bayesian formulation that integrates the information associated with the P-wave polarisation into a probabilistic earthquake location scheme. The approach takes a single 3C-sensor perspective and uses the covariance matrix to quantify the polarisation. This matrix contains all necessary axial information including uncertainties. According to directional statistics, the tri-variate Gaussian distribution represented by the covariance matrix corresponds to an angular central Gaussian distribution when axial data are considered. This property allows us defining a simple probability density function associated with a modelled polarisation vector given the observed covariance matrix. With this approach, the non-linearity of the location problem is kept. Unlike existing least-square misfit functions, this formulation does not reduce the polarisation to a single axis and avoids inexact estimate of a priori angular uncertainties. Furthermore, it replaces the polarisation information in the spherical data space, which yields correct probability density normalisation and prevents from any weighting when combined with e.g. travel-time probability density function. We first present the Bayesian formalism. Then, several synthetic tests on a 1D velocity model are performed to illustrate the technique and to show the effect of integrating the polarisation information. In this synthetic test, we also compare the results with an

  7. Negotiating boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke


    to maintain the order of the home when managing disease and adopting new healthcare technology. In our analysis we relate this boundary work to two continuums of visibility-invisibility and integration-segmentation in disease management. We explore five factors that affect the boundary work: objects......To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work......, activities, places, character of disease, and collaboration. Furthermore, the processes are explored of how boundary objects move between social worlds pushing and shaping boundaries. From this we discuss design implications for future healthcare technologies for the home....

  8. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors...... in the period of post-acquisition when their organization is being integrated into the acquiring MNC. The paper contributes to the literature on boundary spanning in three ways: First, by illustrating that boundary spanning is performed by numerous organizational actors in a variety of positions in MNCs......, inclusively by locals in subsidiaries. Second, by showing that boundary spanning is ‘situated’ in the sense that its result depends on the kind of knowledge to be transmitted and the attitude of the receivers. A third contribution is methodological. The study illustrates that combining bottom-up grounded...

  9. Spanning organizational boundaries to manage creative processes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Kragh, Hanne; Lettl, Christopher


    In order to continue to be innovative in the current fast-paced and competitive environment, organizations are increasingly dependent on creative inputs developed outside their boundaries. The paper addresses the boundary spanning activities that managers undertake to a) select and mobilize...... creative talent, b) create shared identity, and c) combine and integrate knowledge in innovation projects involving external actors. We study boundary spanning activities in two creative projects in the LEGO group. One involves identifying and integrating deep, specialized knowledge, the other focuses...... on the use of external actors as a source of broad, not necessarily fully developed ideas. We find that the boundary spanning activities in these two projects differ in respect, among other things, of how the firm selects participants, formulates problems, and aligns the expectations of internal and external...

  10. Boundary Value Problems with Integral Gluing Conditions for Fractional-Order Mixed-Type Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Berdyshev


    Full Text Available Analogs of the Tricomi and the Gellerstedt problems with integral gluing conditions for mixed parabolic-hyperbolic equation with parameter have been considered. The considered mixed-type equation consists of fractional diffusion and telegraph equation. The Tricomi problem is equivalently reduced to the second-kind Volterra integral equation, which is uniquely solvable. The uniqueness of the Gellerstedt problem is proven by energy integrals' method and the existence by reducing it to the ordinary differential equations. The method of Green functions and properties of integral-differential operators have been used.

  11. Enhanced ethanol production from pomelo peel waste by integrated hydrothermal treatment, multienzyme formulation, and fed-batch operation. (United States)

    Huang, Renliang; Cao, Ming; Guo, Hong; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin


    Pomelo peel is an abundant pectin-rich biomass waste in China and has the potential to serve as a source of fuels and chemicals. This study reports a promising way to deal with pomelo peel waste and to utilize it as raw material for ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). An integrated strategy, incorporating hydrothermal treatment, multienzyme formulation, and fed-batch operation, was further developed to enhance the ethanol production. The results show that hydrothermal treatment (120 °C, 15 min) could significantly reduce the use of cellulase (from 7 to 3.8 FPU g(-1)) and pectinase (from 20 to 10 U g(-1)). A multienzyme complex, which consists of cellulase, pectinase, β-glucosidase, and xylanase, was also proven to be effective to improve the hydrolysis of pretreated pomelo peel, leading to higher concentrations of fermentative sugars (36 vs 14 g L(-1)) and galacturonic acid (23 vs 9 g L(-1)) than those with the use of a single enzyme. Furthermore, to increase the final ethanol concentration, fed-batch operation by adding fresh substrate was employed in the SSF process. A final solid loading of 25% (w/v), which is achieved by adding 15% fresh substrate to the SSF system at an initial solid loading of 10%, produced 36 g L(-1) ethanol product in good yield (73.5%). The ethanol concentration is about 1.73-fold that at the maximum solid loading of 14% for batch operation, whereas both of them have a closed ethanol yield. The results indicate that the use of the fed-batch mode could alleviate the decrease in ethanol yield at high solid loading, which is caused by significant mass transfer limitation and increased inhibition of toxic compounds in the SSF process. The integrated strategy demonstrated in this work could open a new avenue for dealing with pectin-rich biomass wastes and utilization of the wastes to produce ethanol.

  12. A well-conditioned integral-equation formulation for efficient transient analysis of electrically small microelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan


    A hierarchically regularized coupled set of time-domain surface and volume electric field integral-equations (TD-S-EFIE and TD-V-EFIE) for analyzing electromagnetic wave interactions with electrically small and geometrically intricate composite structures comprising perfect electrically conducting surfaces and finite dielectric volumes is presented. A classically formulated coupled set of TD-S- and V-EFIEs is shown to be ill-conditioned at low frequencies owing to the hypersingular nature of the TD-S-EFIE. To eliminate low-frequency breakdown in marching-on-in-time solvers for these coupled equations, a hierarchical regularizer leveraging generalized RaoWiltonGlisson functions is applied to the TD-S-EFIE; no regularization is applied to the TD-V-EFIE as it is protected from low-frequency breakdown by an identity term. The resulting hierarchically regularized hybrid TD-S- and V-EFIE solver is applicable to the analysis of wave interactions with electrically small and densely meshed structures of arbitrary topology. The accuracy, efficiency, and applicability of the proposed solver are demonstrated by analyzing crosstalk in a six-port transmission line, radiation from a miniature radio-frequency identification antenna, and, plane-wave coupling onto a partially-shielded and fully loaded two-layer computer board. © 2006 IEEE.

  13. Numerical modeling of the 3D dynamics of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles using the boundary integral method (United States)

    Wang, Qianxi; Manmi, Kawa; Calvisi, Michael L.


    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are microbubbles stabilized with a shell typically of lipid, polymer, or protein and are emerging as a unique tool for noninvasive therapies ranging from gene delivery to tumor ablation. While various models have been developed to describe the spherical oscillations of contrast agents, the treatment of nonspherical behavior has received less attention. However, the nonspherical dynamics of contrast agents are thought to play an important role in therapeutic applications, for example, enhancing the uptake of therapeutic agents across cell membranes and tissue interfaces, and causing tissue ablation. In this paper, a model for nonspherical contrast agent dynamics based on the boundary integral method is described. The effects of the encapsulating shell are approximated by adapting Hoff's model for thin-shell, spherical contrast agents. A high-quality mesh of the bubble surface is maintained by implementing a hybrid approach of the Lagrangian method and elastic mesh technique. The numerical model agrees well with a modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation for encapsulated spherical bubbles. Numerical analyses of the dynamics of UCAs in an infinite liquid and near a rigid wall are performed in parameter regimes of clinical relevance. The oscillation amplitude and period decrease significantly due to the coating. A bubble jet forms when the amplitude of ultrasound is sufficiently large, as occurs for bubbles without a coating; however, the threshold amplitude required to incite jetting increases due to the coating. When a UCA is near a rigid boundary subject to acoustic forcing, the jet is directed towards the wall if the acoustic wave propagates perpendicular to the boundary. When the acoustic wave propagates parallel to the rigid boundary, the jet direction has components both along the wave direction and towards the boundary that depend mainly on the dimensionless standoff distance of the bubble from the boundary. In all cases, the jet

  14. Integrated chronostratigraphy of Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary beds in the western Anabar region, northern Siberia (United States)

    Kaufman, A. J.; Knoll, A. H.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Adams, W.


    Carbonate-rich sedimentary rocks of the western Anabar region, northern Siberia, preserve an exceptional record of evolutionary and biogeochemical events near the Proterozoic/Cambrian boundary. Sedimentologically, the boundary succession can be divided into three sequences representing successive episodes of late transgressive to early highstand deposition; four parasequences are recognized in the sequence corresponding lithostratigraphically to the Manykal Formation. Small shelly fossils are abundant and include many taxa that also occur in standard sections of southeastern Siberia. Despite this coincidence of faunal elements, biostratigraphic correlations between the two regions have been controversial because numerous species that first appear at or immediately above the basal Tommotian boundary in southeastern sections have first appearances scattered through more than thirty metres of section in the western Anabar. Carbon- and Sr-isotopic data on petrographically and geochemically screened samples collected at one- to two-metre intervals in a section along the Kotuikan River, favour correlation of the Staraya Reckha Formation and most of the overlying Manykai Formation with sub-Tommotian carbonates in southeastern Siberia. In contrast, isotopic data suggest that the uppermost Manykai Formation and the basal 26 m of the unconformably overlying Medvezhya Formation may have no equivalent in the southeast; they appear to provide a sedimentary and palaeontological record of an evolutionarily significant time interval represented in southeastern Siberia only by the sub-Tommotian unconformity. Correlations with radiometrically dated horizons in the Olenek and Kharaulakh regions of northern Siberia suggest that this interval lasted approximately three to six million years, during which essentially all 'basal Tommotian' small shelly fossils evolved.

  15. Optimal convergence for adaptive IGA boundary element methods for weakly-singular integral equations. (United States)

    Feischl, Michael; Gantner, Gregor; Haberl, Alexander; Praetorius, Dirk


    In a recent work (Feischl et al. in Eng Anal Bound Elem 62:141-153, 2016), we analyzed a weighted-residual error estimator for isogeometric boundary element methods in 2D and proposed an adaptive algorithm which steers the local mesh-refinement of the underlying partition as well as the multiplicity of the knots. In the present work, we give a mathematical proof that this algorithm leads to convergence even with optimal algebraic rates. Technical contributions include a novel mesh-size function which also monitors the knot multiplicity as well as inverse estimates for NURBS in fractional-order Sobolev norms.

  16. The boundary integral theory for slow and rapid curved solid/liquid interfaces propagating into binary systems. (United States)

    Galenko, Peter K; Alexandrov, Dmitri V; Titova, Ekaterina A


    The boundary integral method for propagating solid/liquid interfaces is detailed with allowance for the thermo-solutal Stefan-type models. Two types of mass transfer mechanisms corresponding to the local equilibrium (parabolic-type equation) and local non-equilibrium (hyperbolic-type equation) solidification conditions are considered. A unified integro-differential equation for the curved interface is derived. This equation contains the steady-state conditions of solidification as a special case. The boundary integral analysis demonstrates how to derive the quasi-stationary Ivantsov and Horvay-Cahn solutions that, respectively, define the paraboloidal and elliptical crystal shapes. In the limit of highest Péclet numbers, these quasi-stationary solutions describe the shape of the area around the dendritic tip in the form of a smooth sphere in the isotropic case and a deformed sphere along the directions of anisotropy strength in the anisotropic case. A thermo-solutal selection criterion of the quasi-stationary growth mode of dendrites which includes arbitrary Péclet numbers is obtained. To demonstrate the selection of patterns, computational modelling of the quasi-stationary growth of crystals in a binary mixture is carried out. The modelling makes it possible to obtain selected structures in the form of dendritic, fractal or planar crystals.This article is part of the theme issue 'From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. An integer order approximation method based on stability boundary locus for fractional order derivative/integrator operators. (United States)

    Deniz, Furkan Nur; Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Tan, Nusret; Atherton, Derek P


    This paper introduces an integer order approximation method for numerical implementation of fractional order derivative/integrator operators in control systems. The proposed method is based on fitting the stability boundary locus (SBL) of fractional order derivative/integrator operators and SBL of integer order transfer functions. SBL defines a boundary in the parametric design plane of controller, which separates stable and unstable regions of a feedback control system and SBL analysis is mainly employed to graphically indicate the choice of controller parameters which result in stable operation of the feedback systems. This study reveals that the SBL curves of fractional order operators can be matched with integer order models in a limited frequency range. SBL fitting method provides straightforward solutions to obtain an integer order model approximation of fractional order operators and systems according to matching points from SBL of fractional order systems in desired frequency ranges. Thus, the proposed method can effectively deal with stability preservation problems of approximate models. Illustrative examples are given to show performance of the proposed method and results are compared with the well-known approximation methods developed for fractional order systems. The integer-order approximate modeling of fractional order PID controllers is also illustrated for control applications. Copyright © 2016 ISA. All rights reserved.

  18. Design and formulation of a topical hydrogel integrating lemongrass-loaded nanosponges with an enhanced antifungal effect: in vitro/in vivo evaluation (United States)

    Aldawsari, Hibah M; Badr-Eldin, Shaimaa M; Labib, Gihan S; El-Kamel, Amal H


    Lemongrass oil (LGO) is a volatile oil extracted from the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus that has become one of the most important natural oils in the pharmaceutical industry because of its diverse pharmacologic and clinical effects. However, LGO suffers from low aqueous solubility, which could lead to a reduced effect. Moreover, the instability of its major active constituent, citral, could lead to volatilization, reaction with other formulation ingredients, and consequently, skin irritation. To surmount these problems, this research aims to formulate lemongrass-loaded ethyl cellulose nanosponges with a topical hydrogel with an enhanced antifungal effect and decreased irritation. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration of LGO against Candida albicans strain ATC 100231, determined using the broth macrodilution method, were found to be 2 and 8 μL/mL, respectively. The emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used for the preparation of the nanosponges. The nanosponge dispersions were then integrated into carbopol hydrogels (0.4%). Nine formulations were prepared based on a 32 full factorial design employing the ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate as independent variables. The prepared formulations were evaluated for particle size, citral content, and in vitro release. Results revealed that all the nanosponge dispersions were nanosized, with satisfactory citral content and sustained release profiles. Statistical analysis revealed that both ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate have significant effects on particle size and percentage released after 6 hours; however, the effect of the stirring rate was more prominent on both responses. The selected hydrogel formulation, F9, was subjected to surface morphological investigations, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, where results showed that the nanosponges possess a spherical uniform shape with a spongy structure, the integrity

  19. Design and formulation of a topical hydrogel integrating lemongrass-loaded nanosponges with an enhanced antifungal effect: in vitro/in vivo evaluation. (United States)

    Aldawsari, Hibah M; Badr-Eldin, Shaimaa M; Labib, Gihan S; El-Kamel, Amal H


    Lemongrass oil (LGO) is a volatile oil extracted from the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus that has become one of the most important natural oils in the pharmaceutical industry because of its diverse pharmacologic and clinical effects. However, LGO suffers from low aqueous solubility, which could lead to a reduced effect. Moreover, the instability of its major active constituent, citral, could lead to volatilization, reaction with other formulation ingredients, and consequently, skin irritation. To surmount these problems, this research aims to formulate lemongrass-loaded ethyl cellulose nanosponges with a topical hydrogel with an enhanced antifungal effect and decreased irritation. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration of LGO against Candida albicans strain ATC 100231, determined using the broth macrodilution method, were found to be 2 and 8 μL/mL, respectively. The emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used for the preparation of the nanosponges. The nanosponge dispersions were then integrated into carbopol hydrogels (0.4%). Nine formulations were prepared based on a 32 full factorial design employing the ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate as independent variables. The prepared formulations were evaluated for particle size, citral content, and in vitro release. Results revealed that all the nanosponge dispersions were nanosized, with satisfactory citral content and sustained release profiles. Statistical analysis revealed that both ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate have significant effects on particle size and percentage released after 6 hours; however, the effect of the stirring rate was more prominent on both responses. The selected hydrogel formulation, F9, was subjected to surface morphological investigations, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, where results showed that the nanosponges possess a spherical uniform shape with a spongy structure, the integrity

  20. A general formulation for the efficient evaluation of n-electron integrals over products of Gaussian charge distributions with Gaussian geminal functions. (United States)

    Komornicki, Andrew; King, Harry F


    In this work, we present a general formulation for the evaluation of many-electron integrals which arise when traditional one particle expansions are augmented with explicitly correlated Gaussian geminal functions. The integrand is expressed as a product of charge distributions, one for each electron, multiplied by one or more Gaussian geminal factors. Our formulation begins by focusing on the quadratic form that arises in the general n-electron integral. Using the Rys polynomial method for the evaluation of potential energy integrals, we derive a general formula for the evaluation of any n-electron integral. This general expression contains four parameters ω, θ, v, and h, which can be evaluated by an examination of the general quadratic form. Our analysis contains general expressions for any n-electron integral over s-type functions as well as the recursion needed to build up arbitrary angular momentum. The general recursion relation requires at most n + 1 terms for any n-electron integral. To illustrate the general method, we develop explicit expressions for the evaluation of two, three, and four particle electron repulsion integrals as well as two and three particle overlap and nuclear attraction integrals. We conclude our exposition with a discussion of a preliminary computational implementation as well as general computational requirements. Implementation on parallel computers is briefly discussed.

  1. Significance of Strain in Formulation in Theory of Solid Mechanics (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.


    The basic theory of solid mechanics was deemed complete circa 1860 when St. Venant provided the strain formulation or the field compatibility condition. The strain formulation was incomplete. The missing portion has been formulated and identified as the boundary compatibility condition (BCC). The BCC, derived through a variational formulation, has been verified through integral theorem and solution of problems. The BCC, unlike the field counterpart, do not trivialize when expressed in displacements. Navier s method and the stiffness formulation have to account for the extra conditions especially at the inter-element boundaries in a finite element model. Completion of the strain formulation has led to the revival of the direct force calculation methods: the Integrated Force Method (IFM) and its dual (IFMD) for finite element analysis, and the completed Beltrami-Michell formulation (CBMF) in elasticity. The benefits from the new methods in elasticity, in finite element analysis, and in design optimization are discussed. Existing solutions and computer codes may have to be adjusted for the compliance of the new conditions. Complacency because the discipline is over a century old and computer codes have been developed for half a century can lead to stagnation of the discipline.

  2. Integral Boundary Value Problems for Fractional Impulsive Integro Differential Equations in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anguraj


    Full Text Available We study in this paper,the existence of solutions for fractional integro differential equations with impulsive and integral conditions by using fixed point method. We establish the Sufficient conditions and unique solution for given problem. An Example is also explained to the main results.

  3. The Blurred Boundaries and Multiple Effects of European Integration and Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet


    of how European integration contribute to, and are effected by, globalisation. By means of concrete research examples the chapter discusses the advantages of the research strategies and tools typically applied on the area and the challenges we face in this regard. This includes discussions of top...

  4. Transient integral boundary layer method to calculate the translesional pressure drop and the fractional flow reserve in myocardial bridges (United States)

    Bernhard, Stefan; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Tilgner, Andreas


    Background The pressure drop – flow relations in myocardial bridges and the assessment of vascular heart disease via fractional flow reserve (FFR) have motivated many researchers the last decades. The aim of this study is to simulate several clinical conditions present in myocardial bridges to determine the flow reserve and consequently the clinical relevance of the disease. From a fluid mechanical point of view the pathophysiological situation in myocardial bridges involves fluid flow in a time dependent flow geometry, caused by contracting cardiac muscles overlying an intramural segment of the coronary artery. These flows mostly involve flow separation and secondary motions, which are difficult to calculate and analyse. Methods Because a three dimensional simulation of the haemodynamic conditions in myocardial bridges in a network of coronary arteries is time-consuming, we present a boundary layer model for the calculation of the pressure drop and flow separation. The approach is based on the assumption that the flow can be sufficiently well described by the interaction of an inviscid core and a viscous boundary layer. Under the assumption that the idealised flow through a constriction is given by near-equilibrium velocity profiles of the Falkner-Skan-Cooke (FSC) family, the evolution of the boundary layer is obtained by the simultaneous solution of the Falkner-Skan equation and the transient von-Kármán integral momentum equation. Results The model was used to investigate the relative importance of several physical parameters present in myocardial bridges. Results have been obtained for steady and unsteady flow through vessels with 0 – 85% diameter stenosis. We compare two clinical relevant cases of a myocardial bridge in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The pressure derived FFR of fixed and dynamic lesions has shown that the flow is less affected in the dynamic case, because the distal pressure partially recovers

  5. Discovering Plate Boundaries in Data-integrated Environments: Preservice Teachers' Conceptualization and Implementation of Scientific Practices (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Moore, Joel; Roig, Cara E.


    Drawn from the norms and rules of their fields, scientists use variety of practices, such as asking questions and arguing based on evidence, to engage in research that will contribute to our understanding of Earth and beyond. In this study, we explore how preservice teachers' learn to teach scientific practices while teaching plate tectonic theory. In particular, our aim is to observe which scientific practices preservice teachers use while teaching an earth science unit, how do they integrate these practices into their lessons, and what challenges do they face during their first time teaching of an earth science content area integrated with scientific practices. The study is designed as a qualitative, exploratory case study of seven preservice teachers while they were learning to teach plate tectonic theory to a group of middle school students. The data were driven from the video records and artifacts of the preservice teachers' learning and teaching processes as well as written reflections on the teaching. Intertextual discourse analysis was used to understand what scientific practices preservice teachers choose to integrate into their teaching experience. Our results showed that preservice teachers chose to focus on four aspects of scientific practices: (1) employing historical understanding of how the theory emerged, (2) encouraging the use of evidence to build up a theory, (3) observation and interpretation of data maps, and (4) collaborative practices in making up the theory. For each of these practices, we also looked at the common challenges faced by preservice teachers by using constant comparative analysis. We observed the practices that preservice teachers decided to use and the challenges they faced, which were determined by what might have come as in their personal history as learners. Therefore, in order to strengthen preservice teachers' background, college courses should be arranged to teach important scientific ideas through scientific practices

  6. A Robust Multi-Scale Field-Only Formulation of Electromagnetic Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Qiang; Chan, Derek Y C


    We present a boundary integral formulation of electromagnetic scattering by homogeneous bodies that are characterized by linear constitutive equations in the frequency domain. By working with the Cartesian components of the electric, E and magnetic, H fields and with the scalar functions (r*E) and (r*H), the problem is cast as solving a set of scalar Helmholtz equations for the field components that are coupled by the usual electromagnetic boundary conditions at material boundaries. This facilitates a direct solution for E and H rather than working with surface currents as intermediate quantities in existing methods. Consequently, our formulation is free of the well-known numerical instability that occurs in the zero frequency or long wavelength limit in traditional surface integral solutions of Maxwell's equations and our numerical results converge uniformly to the static results in the long wavelength limit. Furthermore, we use a formulation of the scalar Helmholtz equation that is expressed as classically ...

  7. Blurring Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth


    This article builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context and on the integration...... of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services; 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law aspects......; and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...

  8. Colloidal carrier integrating biomaterials for oral insulin delivery: Influence of component formulation on physicochemical and biological parameters. (United States)

    Woitiski, Camile B; Neufeld, Ronald J; Ribeiro, António J; Veiga, Francisco


    Strategies to design effective and safe colloidal carriers for biopharmaceuticals have evolved through applying the knowledge gained in nanotechnology to medicine. Designing a colloidal carrier to serve as a protein delivery device requires an understanding of the effect of different materials on the physicochemical, physiological and toxicological parameters for clinical application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of formulation components on the physicochemical factors and biological function involved in the development and optimization of newly designed nanoparticles for orally dosed insulin. Biodegradable, biocompatible, mucoadhesive and protease-protective biomaterials were combined through ionotropic pre-gelation and polyelectrolyte complexation forming an alginate, dextran sulfate and poloxamer hydrogel containing insulin, stabilized in nanoparticles with chitosan and poly(ethyleneglycol) and coated with albumin. Nanoparticles ranged in size from 200 to 500nm with 70-90% insulin entrapment efficiency, and electrostatic stabilization was suggested by zeta potential values lower than -30mV. This combination of formulation components was selected for insulin protection against harsh gastric pH and proteolytic conditions, and to improve insulin absorption through intestinal mucosa by combining nanoparticle uptake and insulin release at the site of absorption. Insulin was shown to be bioactive after nanoparticle formulation and release in neutral pH conditions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of formulations components in the nanoparticle structure and to identify potential interactions between biomaterials.

  9. Fracture mechanics analysis approach to assess structural integrity of the first confinement boundaries in ITER Generic Upper Port Plug structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirao, Julio, E-mail: [Numerical Analysis Technologies S.L. (NATEC), Gijon (Spain); Iglesias, Silvia; Vacas, Christian; Udintsev, Victor [CHD, Diagnostic Division, ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Pak, Sunil [Diagnostic and Control Team, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Maquet, Philippe [CHD, Diagnostic Division, ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Rodriguez, Eduardo; Roces, Jorge [Department of Construction and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Oviedo, Gijon (Spain)


    Highlights: • A parametric submodel of the spot under study is developed. • The associated macro has the capability to successively re-build the submodel implementing the crack with the geometry of the updated crack front as a function of the predicted increments of length in the apexes of the crack from the calculated stress intensity factor at the crack front. • The analysis incorporates the crack behavior model to predict the evolution of the postulated defect under the application of the different transients. • The analysis is based on the Elasto-Plastic Fracture Mechanics (EPFM) theory to account for the ductility of the materials (316LN type stainless steel). - Abstract: This paper demonstrates structural integrity of the first confinement boundary in Generic Upper Port Plug structures against cracking during service. This constitutes part of the justification to demonstrate that the non-aggression to the confinement barrier requirement may be compatible with the absent of a specific in-service inspections (ISI) program in the trapezoidal section. Since the component will be subjected to 100% volumetric inspections it can be assumed that no defects below the threshold of applied Nondestructive Evaluation techniques will be present before its commissioning. Cracks during service would be associated to defects under Code acceptance limit. This limit can be reasonably taken as 2 mm. Using elastic–plastic fracture mechanics an initial defect is postulated at the worst location in terms of probability and impact on the confinement boundary. Its evolution is simulated through finite element analysis and final dimension at the end of service is estimated. Applying the procedures in RCC-MR 2007 (App-16) the stability of the crack is assessed. As relative high safety margin was achieved, a complementary assessment postulating an initial defect of 6 mm was also conducted. New margin calculated provides a more robust design.

  10. Integrated hot-melt extrusion - injection molding continuous tablet manufacturing platform: Effects of critical process parameters and formulation attributes on product robustness and dimensional stability. (United States)

    Desai, Parind M; Hogan, Rachael C; Brancazio, David; Puri, Vibha; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L


    This study provides a framework for robust tablet development using an integrated hot-melt extrusion-injection molding (IM) continuous manufacturing platform. Griseofulvin, maltodextrin, xylitol and lactose were employed as drug, carrier, plasticizer and reinforcing agent respectively. A pre-blended drug-excipient mixture was fed from a loss-in-weight feeder to a twin-screw extruder. The extrudate was subsequently injected directly into the integrated IM unit and molded into tablets. Tablets were stored in different storage conditions up to 20 weeks to monitor physical stability and were evaluated by polarized light microscopy, DSC, SEM, XRD and dissolution analysis. Optimized injection pressure provided robust tablet formulations. Tablets manufactured at low and high injection pressures exhibited the flaws of sink marks and flashing respectively. Higher solidification temperature during IM process reduced the thermal induced residual stress and prevented chipping and cracking issues. Polarized light microscopy revealed a homogeneous dispersion of crystalline griseofulvin in an amorphous matrix. DSC underpinned the effect of high tablet residual moisture on maltodextrin-xylitol phase separation that resulted in dimensional instability. Tablets with low residual moisture demonstrated long term dimensional stability. This study serves as a model for IM tablet formulations for mechanistic understanding of critical process parameters and formulation attributes required for optimal product performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A study of methods to predict and measure the transmission of sound through the walls of light aircraft. Integration of certain singular boundary element integrals for applications in linear acoustics (United States)

    Zimmerle, D.; Bernhard, R. J.


    An alternative method for performing singular boundary element integrals for applications in linear acoustics is discussed. The method separates the integral of the characteristic solution into a singular and nonsingular part. The singular portion is integrated with a combination of analytic and numerical techniques while the nonsingular portion is integrated with standard Gaussian quadrature. The method may be generalized to many types of subparametric elements. The integrals over elements containing the root node are considered, and the characteristic solution for linear acoustic problems are examined. The method may be generalized to most characteristic solutions.

  12. Extemporaneous Formulations of Metformin for Pediatric Endocrinology: Physicochemical Integrity, Cytotoxicity of Sweeteners, and Quantitation of Plasma Levels. (United States)

    Alemón-Medina, Radamés; Chávez-Pacheco, Juan Luis; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Ramírez-Mendiola, Blanca; García-Álvarez, Raquel; Sámano-Salazar, Cynthia; Manuel Dávila-Borja, Víctor


    In response to the lack of pediatric formulations of metformin to control type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperinsulinemic obesity, and dyslipidemias, we developed liquid formulations of metformin by dissolving 3 generic brands of 500-mg metformin(*,)(†,)(‡) tablets in water sweetened with sucralose. The physicochemical stabilities of these drugs were assessed and compared with those of formulations made with the innovative brand of metformin.(∥) A method to measure metformin plasma levels was proposed and then tested in 2 healthy subjects. This method may be useful to survey treatment compliance in the future. The biological safety profiles of the metformin solutions were assessed preliminarily in a system of hormone-dependent cancer cells (human breast cancer MCF-7 cells). Metformin solutions stored at 25°C exposed to light and at 25°C, 4°C, and 40°C protected from light, underwent physicochemical analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, the mobile phase consisting of 0.2 M potassium monobasic phosphate (pH 6.5), 4.6 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), and acetonitrile (63:7:30) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in a Symmetry C8 150 × 4.6 mm column (Milford, Massachusetts) at 40°C (236 nm). MCF-7 cells were grown in 96-well ELISA plates (2 × 10(5) cells/well) and were exposed to 10, 20, and 40 mg/mL sucralose(§), Stevia rebaudiana (Svetia; Metco, S.A. de C.V., México, D.F., Mexico), and metformin (50 mg/mL) for 48 hours. Cytotoxicity was determined using the WST-1 colorimetric assay (Roche, USA) in an Epoch ELISA reader (BioTek, Winooski, Vermont) at 440 nm. All brands of metformin were stable at all storage conditions for up to 30 days and retained >90% of the initial amount. Sucralose and Stevia rebaudiana caused zero cytotoxicity (ANOVA, P ≤ 0.05). The ultra-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection method was adapted to determine metformin level in very small blood samples (40 μL), which was

  13. Noninvasive stratum corneum sampling and electron microscopical examination of skin barrier integrity: pilot study with a topical glycerin formulation for atopic dermatitis. (United States)

    Daehnhardt-Pfeiffer, S; Surber, C; Wilhelm, K-P; Daehnhardt, D; Springmann, G; Boettcher, M; Foelster-Holst, R


    Therapy of atopic dermatitis encloses use of medicated and nonmedicated preparations. Results of clinical and biophysical procedures indirectly describe the condition of the impaired skin barrier (SB). Direct evaluation of SB integrity is only possible by electron microscopical visualization, e.g. intercellular lipid lamellae (ICLL) organization of the stratum corneum. SB integrity was measured by morphometric analysis of ICLL in healthy and atopic skin and after a 15-day treatment (plus 7-day follow-up) of atopic skin with a glycerin preparation. Significant treatment effect was shown by the restoration of the ICLL. The study reveals that morphometric analysis of ICLL organization is suitable to differentiate between healthy and diseased skin and to semiquantitatively determine the effect of a nonmedicated glycerin formulation. Small treatment cohort. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Integrated Surface-groundwater Flow Modeling: a Free-surface Overland Flow Boundary Condition in a Parallel Groundwater Flow Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollet, S J; Maxwell, R M


    Interactions between surface and ground water are a key component of the hydrologic budget on the watershed scale. Models that honor these interactions are commonly based on the conductance concept that presumes a distinct interface at the land surface, separating the surface from the subsurface domain. These types of models link the subsurface and surface domains via an exchange flux that depends upon the magnitude and direction of the hydraulic gradient across the interface and a proportionality constant (a measure of the hydraulic connectivity). Because experimental evidence of such a distinct interface is often lacking in field systems, there is a need for a more general coupled modeling approach. A more general coupled model is presented that incorporates a new two-dimensional overland flow simulator into the parallel three-dimensional variable saturated subsurface flow code ParFlow. In ParFlow, the overland flow simulator takes the form of an upper boundary condition and is, thus, fully integrated without relying on the conductance concept. Another important advantage of this approach is the efficient parallelism incorporated into ParFlow, which is efficiently exploited by the overland flow simulator. Several verification and simulation examples are presented that focus on the two main processes of runoff production: excess infiltration and saturation. The model is shown to reproduce an analytical solution for overland flow and compares favorably to other commonly used hydrologic models. The influence of heterogeneity of the shallow subsurface on overland flow is also examined. The results show the uncertainty in overland flow predictions due to subsurface heterogeneity and demonstrate the usefulness of our approach. Both the overland flow component and the coupled model are evaluated in a parallel scaling study and show to be efficient.

  15. Investigating Species Boundaries within the Hard Coral Genus Goniopora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) from the Red Sea Using an Integrative Morphomolecular Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia Isotta


    In the present study the species boundaries of the scleractinian coral genus Goniopora from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were investigated. An integrated morpho-molecular approach was used to better clarify the complex scenario derived from traditional classification efforts based on skeletal morphology. Traditional taxonomy of this genus considers skeletal morphology first and polyp morphology as a secondary discriminating character. This leads to potential complication due to plasticity in skeletal features within a species. To address this issue, molecular analyses of evolutionary relationships between nine traditional morphospecies of Goniopora from the Red Sea were performed and were used to re-evaluate the informativeness of macromorphological and micromorphological features. Between four and six putative molecular lineages were identified within Goniopora samples from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea on the basis of four molecular markers: the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between Cytochrome b and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2, the entire nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, the ATP synthase subunit β gene, and a portion of the Calmodulin gene. The results were strongly corroborated by three distinct analyses of species delimitation. Subsequent analyses of micromorphological and microstructural skeletal features identified the presence of distinctive characters in each of the molecular clades. Unique in vivo morphologies were associated with the genetic-delimited lineages, further supporting the molecular findings. The proposed re-organization of Goniopora will resolve several taxonomic problems in this genus while reconciling molecular and morphological evidence. Reliable species-level identification of Goniopora spp. can be achieved with polyp morphology under the proposed revision.

  16. Comparison of a sprayable pheromone formulation and two hand-applied pheromone dispensers foruse in the integrated control of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). (United States)

    Trimble, R M; Pree, D J; Barszcz, E S; Carter, N J


    The efficacy of integrated programs using a sprayable pheromone formulation or one of two hand-applied pheromone dispensers, and a conventional oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) control program, was compared using 4-5-ha blocks of peach orchard at three Niagara Peninsula farms during 2000-2002. In the integrated programs, chlorpyrifos and mating disruption with 3M Sprayable Pheromone, Isomate OFM Rosso, or Rak 5 hand-applied dispensers were used to control first-generation larvae, and mating disruption alone was used to control second- and third-generation larvae. In the conventional program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae, and pyrethroid insecticides were used to control larvae of the later generations. All programs were effective at maintaining fruit infestation by G. molesta below the industry tolerance level of 1%. An integrated program using sprayable pheromone required the use of more supplementary insecticide applications to control second- and third-generation larvae than a program using hand-applied dispensers. The elimination of insecticide sprays from integrated program blocks did not result in an increase in damage by plant bugs, Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) or by the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

  17. Application of a boundary element method to the study of dynamical torsion of beams (United States)

    Czekajski, C.; Laroze, S.; Gay, D.


    During dynamic torsion of beam elements, consideration of nonuniform warping effects involves a more general technical formulation then that of Saint-Venant. Nonclassical torsion constants appear in addition to the well known torsional rigidity. The adaptation of the boundary integral element method to the calculation of these constants for general section shapes is described. The suitability of the formulation is investigated with some examples of thick as well as thin walled cross sections.

  18. Marketing Mix Formulation for Higher Education: An Integrated Analysis Employing Analytic Hierarchy Process, Cluster Analysis and Correspondence Analysis (United States)

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu; Hung, Chia-Chi


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how a graduate institute at National Chiayi University (NCYU), by using a model that integrates analytic hierarchy process, cluster analysis and correspondence analysis, can develop effective marketing strategies. Design/methodology/approach: This is primarily a quantitative study aimed at…

  19. Meshfree analysis with the aid of NURBS boundary (United States)

    Chi, Sheng-Wei; Lin, Shih-Po


    We present a meshfree analysis framework to integrate the geometric exactness of non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS)-based isogeometric analysis (IGA) (Hughes et al., Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 194:4135-4195, 2005) with the flexibility of meshfree approximations. In the framework, only the NURBS boundary surface immediately available from CAD tools is used to describe the exact problem domain, and meshfree particles are inserted inside the boundary surface, in a flexible manner, for construction of the approximation for analysis. Nitche's method is employed for imposing essential boundary conditions and the domain integration in the Galerkin formulation is performed based on variationally consistent integration (VCI) to recover integration exactness. The NURBS boundary surface from CAD serves as an aid in selecting particle distributions and as the integration net for the boundary integration required both for the Nitche's method and the VCI. As shown in numerical studies, the VCI is essential for the solution accuracy of the method. Several benchmarks are tested to examine the effectiveness of the proposed framework and numerical results are compared with those obtained by the IGA.

  20. Oxygen boundary crossing probabilities. (United States)

    Busch, N A; Silver, I A


    The probability that an oxygen particle will reach a time dependent boundary is required in oxygen transport studies involving solution methods based on probability considerations. A Volterra integral equation is presented, the solution of which gives directly the boundary crossing probability density function. The boundary crossing probability is the probability that the oxygen particle will reach a boundary within a specified time interval. When the motion of the oxygen particle may be described as strongly Markovian, then the Volterra integral equation can be rewritten as a generalized Abel equation, the solution of which has been widely studied.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper deals with a definition of the lower boundary stratotype of the Tithonian Stage in the Upper Jurassic succession of Monte Inici, Western Sicily. The upper member of the Rosso Ammonitico Fm. is 27 m thick and shows a typical nodular-calcareous lithofacies; its lower beds have been sampled for biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic purposes. Though the succession is affected by high stratigraphic condensation, the resulting hiatuses have been shown to be below biochronological resolution and thus do not hinder any biostratigraphic definition. The biostratigraphic analysis has been based on the rich ammonite assemblages in which the common genus Hybonoticeras is the index-key for characterizing the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian boundary. Four ammonite biozones have been identified; the basal Tithonian one is defined by the assemblage of Hybonoticeras gr. hybonotum and Haploceras staszycii. The recorded calcareous nannofossil bioevents allow recognition of the V. stradneri and C. mexicana Zones, whose boundary is located a little below the identified Tithonian lower boundary. The paleomagnetic record shows normal polarity in the S. darwini/V. albertinum Zone and mainly reverse polarity in the H. beckeri and H. hybonotum Zones, with three minor normal polarity intervals; the lower boundary of the Tithonian falls in the oldest of these intervals. The integrated multidisciplinary stratigraphic information gathered from the Contrada Fornazzo section defines the lower boundary of the H. hybonotum Zone at the base of Bed 110, and supplies elements of chrono-correlation sufficient to regard this section as a possible G.S.S.P. of the Tithonian Stage.

  2. Application of impedance boundary conditions to numerical solution of corrugated circular horns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskander, K; Shafai, L; Frandsen, Aksel


    An integral equation method is used to formulate the problem of scattering by rotationally symmetric horn antennas. The excitation is assumed to be due to an infinitesimal dipole antenna, while the secondary field is obtained by assuming anisotropic impedance boundary conditions on the horn surface...

  3. Formulating the American Geophysical Union's Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy: Challenges and lessons learned: Chapter 8 (United States)

    Gundersen, Linda C.; Townsend, Randy


    Creating an ethics policy for a large, diverse geosciences organization is a challenge, especially in the midst of the current contentious dialogue in the media related to such issues as climate change, sustaining natural resources, and responding to natural hazards. In 2011, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) took on this challenge, creating an Ethics Task Force to update their ethics policies to better support their new Strategic Plan and respond to the changing scientific research environment. Dialogue with AGU members and others during the course of creating the new policy unveiled some of the following issues to be addressed. Scientific results and individual scientists are coming under intense political and public scrutiny, with the efficacy of the science being questioned. In some cases, scientists are asked to take sides and/or provide opinions on issues beyond their research, impacting their objectivity. Pressure related to competition for funding and the need to publish high quality and quantities of papers has led to recent high profile plagiarism, data fabrication, and conflict of interest cases. The complexities of a continuously advancing digital environment for conducting, reviewing, and publishing science has raised concerns over the ease of plagiarism, fabrication, falsification, inappropriate peer review, and the need for better accessibility of data and methods. Finally, students and scientists need consistent education and encouragement on the importance of ethics and integrity in scientific research. The new AGU Scientific Integrity and Ethics Policy tries to address these issues and provides an inspirational code of conduct to encourage a responsible, positive, open, and honest scientific research environment.

  4. Extending Current Theories of Cross-Boundary Information Sharing and Integration: A Case Study of Taiwan e-Government (United States)

    Yang, Tung-Mou


    Information sharing and integration has long been considered an important approach for increasing organizational efficiency and performance. With advancements in information and communication technologies, sharing and integrating information across organizations becomes more attractive and practical to organizations. However, achieving…

  5. Determination of regional surface heat fluxes over heterogeneous landscapes by integrating satellite remote sensing with boundary layer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Y.M.


    Keywords: satellite remote sensing, surface layer observations, atmospheric boundary layer observations, land surface variables, vegetation variables, land surface heat fluxes, validation, heterogeneous landscape,

  6. Integrating remote sensing and forest inventory data for assessing forest blowdown in the boundary waters canoe area wilderness (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; W. Keith Moser


    The USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program conducts strategic inventories of our Nation's forest resources. There is increasing need to assess effects of forest disturbance from catastrophic events, often within geographic extents not typically addressed by strategic forest inventories. One such event occurred within the Boundary...

  7. Determination of regional surface heat fluxes over heterogeneous landscapes by integrating satellite remote sensing with boundary layer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Y.M.


    Keywords: satellite remote sensing, surface layer observations, atmospheric boundary layer observations, land surface variables, vegetation variables, land surface heat fluxes, validation, heterogeneous landscape,

  8. [Effect of the intake of an integral bread formulated with gum from Hymenaea courbaril on the concentrations of blood lipids of patients with mild-moderate dyslipidemia]. (United States)

    Abed El Kader, Dina; León de Pinto, Gladys; Martínez, Maritza; Cano-Ponce, Clímaco; Reyna, Nadia; Larrazaval, Marvelys


    The seeds of Hymenaea courbaril (Caesalpiniace), a species widely disseminated in Venezuela, produce a clear and soluble gum. The dietetic fiber content (60.7%) of the gum was used as a good criterion for the formulation of integral bread in a diet for dyslipidemia patients. The proximal composition of the integral bread was determined. The product acceptability evaluation was done by a comparison test and by a hedonic scale. The experimental design was carried out with a total of 30 male volunteers with dyslipidemia. They were divided into two groups: Group A was fed with a modified diet, which included bread prepared with the H. courbaril gum; and Group B received the same diet without the gum, based on the American Dietetic Association recommendations. Both groups were maintained on their respective diets for six weeks. The lipid profile was determined in each patient, before starting the diets and after the specified period. The bread formula contained 17.60% protein, 1.19% fat and 0.97% crude fiber, in accordance with standards established by COVENIN. The paired preference test showed grater acceptance of the bread prepared with a gum concentration of 7% and low fat content. Significant decreases in the concentrations of triacylglycerol and VLDL-cholesterol were observed in Group A. These findings suggest a possible use of the H. courbaril gum, as a diet modifier for dyslipidemic patients.

  9. An integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to monitoring the effect of supercooling on lyophilization product and process parameters of model monoclonal antibody formulations. (United States)

    Awotwe Otoo, David; Agarabi, Cyrus; Khan, Mansoor A


    The aim of the present study was to apply an integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to control and monitor the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters of a lyophilization cycle. Two concentrations of a mAb formulation were used as models for lyophilization. ControLyo™ technology was applied to control the onset of ice nucleation, whereas tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was utilized as a noninvasive tool for the inline monitoring of the water vapor concentration and vapor flow velocity in the spool during primary drying. The instantaneous measurements were then used to determine the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters. Controlled nucleation resulted in uniform nucleation at lower degrees of supercooling for both formulations, higher sublimation rates, lower mass transfer resistance, lower product temperatures at the sublimation interface, and shorter primary drying times compared with the conventional shelf-ramped freezing. Controlled nucleation also resulted in lyophilized cakes with more elegant and porous structure with no visible collapse or shrinkage, lower specific surface area, and shorter reconstitution times compared with the uncontrolled nucleation. Uncontrolled nucleation however resulted in lyophilized cakes with relatively lower residual moisture contents compared with controlled nucleation. TDLAS proved to be an efficient tool to determine the endpoint of primary drying. There was good agreement between data obtained from TDLAS-based measurements and SMART™ technology. ControLyo™ technology and TDLAS showed great potential as PAT tools to achieve enhanced process monitoring and control during lyophilization cycles. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. An accurate boundary element method for the exterior elastic scattering problem in two dimensions (United States)

    Bao, Gang; Xu, Liwei; Yin, Tao


    This paper is concerned with a Galerkin boundary element method solving the two dimensional exterior elastic wave scattering problem. The original problem is first reduced to the so-called Burton-Miller [1] boundary integral formulation, and essential mathematical features of its variational form are discussed. In numerical implementations, a newly-derived and analytically accurate regularization formula [2] is employed for the numerical evaluation of hyper-singular boundary integral operator. A new computational approach is employed based on the series expansions of Hankel functions for the computation of weakly-singular boundary integral operators during the reduction of corresponding Galerkin equations into a discrete linear system. The effectiveness of proposed numerical methods is demonstrated using several numerical examples.

  11. Boundary conditions for the gravitational field (United States)

    Winicour, Jeffrey


    A review of the treatment of boundaries in general relativity is presented with the emphasis on application to the formulations of Einstein's equations used in numerical relativity. At present, it is known how to treat boundaries in the harmonic formulation of Einstein's equations and a tetrad formulation of the Einstein-Bianchi system. However, a universal approach valid for other formulations is not in hand. In particular, there is no satisfactory boundary theory for the 3+1 formulations which have been highly successful in binary black hole simulation. I discuss the underlying problems that make the initial-boundary-value problem much more complicated than the Cauchy problem. I review the progress that has been made and the important open questions that remain. Science is a differential equation. Religion is a boundary condition. (Alan Turing, quoted in J D Barrow, ‘Theories of Everything’)

  12. A boundary problem with integral gluing condition for a parabolic-hyperbolic equation involving the Caputo fractional derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkinjon T. Karimov


    Full Text Available In the present work we investigate the Tricomi problem with an integral gluing condition for a parabolic-hyperbolic equation involving the Caputo fractional differential operator. Using the method of energy integrals, we prove the uniqueness of the solution for the considered problem. The existence of the solution have been proved applying methods of ordinary differential equations and Fredholm integral equations. The solution is represented in an explicit form.

  13. Geothermal system boundary at the northern edge of Patuha Geothermal Field based on integrated study of volcanostratigraphy, geological field mapping, and cool springs contamination by thermal fluids (United States)

    Suryantini; Rachmawati, C.; Abdurrahman, M.


    Patuha Geothermal System is a volcanic hydrothermal system. In this type of system, the boundary of the system is often determined by low resistivity (10 ohm.m) anomaly from Magnetotelluric (MT) or DC-Resistivity survey. On the contrary, during geothermal exploration, the system boundary often need to be determined as early as possible even prior of resistivity data available. Thus, a method that use early stage survey data must be developed properly to reduce the uncertainty of the geothermal area extent delineation at the time the geophysical data unavailable. Geological field mapping, volcanostratigraphy analysis and fluid chemistry of thermal water and cold water are the data available at the early stage of exploration. This study integrates this data to delineate the geothermal system boundary. The geological mapping and volcanostratigraphy are constructed to limit the extent of thermal and cold springs. It results that springs in the study area are controlled hydrologically by topography of Patuha Volcanic Crown (complex) or so called PVC, the current geothermal field and Masigit Volcanic Crown (complex) or so called MVC, the dormant volcano not associated with active geothermal system. Some of the cold springs at PVC are contaminated by subsurface steam heated outflow while others are not contaminated. The contaminated cold springs have several characteristics such as higher water temperature than ambient temperature at the time it was measured, higher total disolved solid (TDS), and lower pH. The soluble elements analysis support the early contamination indication by showing higher cation and anion, and positive oxygen shifting of stable isotope of these cool springs. Where as the uncontaminated spring shows similar characteristic with cool springs occur at MVC. The boundary of the system is delineated by an arbitrary line drawn between distal thermal springs from the upflow or contaminated cool springs with the cool uncontaminated springs. This boundary is

  14. Assessment of strategy formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acur, Nuran; Englyst, Linda


    Purpose – Today, industrial firms need to cope with competitive challenges related to innovation, dynamic responses, knowledge sharing, etc. by means of effective and dynamic strategy formulation. In light of these challenges, the purpose of the paper is to present and evaluate an assessment tool...... for strategy formulation processes that ensures high quality in process and outcome. Design/methodology/approach – A literature review was conducted to identify success criteria for strategy formulation processes. Then, a simple questionnaire and assessment tool was developed and used to test the validity...... of the success criteria through face-to-face interviews with 46 managers, workshops involving 40 managers, and two in-depth case studies. The success criteria have been slightly modified due to the empirical results, to yield the assessment tool. Findings – The resulting assessment tool integrates three generic...

  15. The aetiology and maintenance of social anxiety disorder: A synthesis of complimentary theoretical models and formulation of a new integrated model. (United States)

    Wong, Quincy J J; Rapee, Ronald M


    Within maintenance models of social anxiety disorder (SAD), a number of cognitive and behavioural factors that drive the persistence of SAD have been proposed. However, these maintenance models do not address how SAD develops, or the origins of the proposed maintaining factors. There are also models of the development of SAD that have been proposed independently from maintenance models. These models highlight multiple factors that contribute risk to the onset of SAD, but do not address how these aetiological factors may lead to the development of the maintaining factors associated with SAD. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify aetiological and maintenance models of SAD. We then united key factors identified in these models and formulated an integrated aetiological and maintenance (IAM) model of SAD. A systematic review of the literature was then conducted on the components of the IAM model. A number of aetiological and maintaining factors were identified in models of SAD. These factors could be drawn together into the IAM model. On balance, there is empirical evidence for the association of each of the factors in the IAM model with social anxiety or SAD, providing preliminary support for the model. There are relationships between components of the IAM model that require empirical attention. Future research will need to continue to test the IAM model. The IAM model provides a framework for future investigations into the development and persistence of SAD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Knowing their lines : how social boundaries undermine equity-based integration policies in United States and South African schools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foster, Jessica; Caruthers, Jakeya; Carter, Prudence


    In this paper we argue that although the United States and South Africa have produced qualitatively different national frames about the necessity for racial integration in education, certain practices...

  17. Calculation of compressible nonadiabatic boundary layers in laminar, transitional and turbulent flow by the method of integral relations (United States)

    Kuhn, G. D.


    A computer program was developed to do the calculations for two-dimensional or axisymmetric configurations from low speeds to hypersonic speeds with arbitrary streamwise pressure, temperature, and Mach number distributions. Options are provided for obtaining initial conditions either from experimental information or from a theoretical similarity solution. The transition region can be described either by an arbitrary distribution of intermittency or by a function based on Emmons' probability theory. Correlations were developed for use in estimating the parameters of the theoretical intermittency function. Correlations obtained from other sources are used for estimating the transition point. Comparisons were made between calculated and measured boundary layer quantities for laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows on flat plates, cones, cone flares, and a waisted body of revolution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the present theory and two other theories based on the method of finite differences. The intermittency required to reproduce some experimental heat transfer results in hypersonic flow was found to be quite different from the theoretical function. It is suggested that the simple probability theory of Emmons may not be valid for representing the intermittency of hypersonic transitional boundary layers and that the program could be useful as a tool for detailed study of the intermittency of the transition region.

  18. On fictitious domain formulations for Maxwell's equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahmen, W.; Jensen, Torben Klint; Urban, K.


    We consider fictitious domain-Lagrange multiplier formulations for variational problems in the space H(curl: Omega) derived from Maxwell's equations. Boundary conditions and the divergence constraint are imposed weakly by using Lagrange multipliers. Both the time dependent and time harmonic...... formulations of the Maxwell's equations are considered. and we derive well-posed formulations for both cases. The variational problem that arises can be discretized by functions that do not satisfy an a-priori divergence constraint....

  19. Integrating canopy and large-scale effects in the convective boundary-layer dynamics during the CHATS experiment (United States)

    Shapkalijevski, Metodija M.; Ouwersloot, Huug G.; Moene, Arnold F.; Vilà-Guerau de Arrellano, Jordi


    By characterizing the dynamics of a convective boundary layer above a relatively sparse and uniform orchard canopy, we investigated the impact of the roughness-sublayer (RSL) representation on the predicted diurnal variability of surface fluxes and state variables. Our approach combined numerical experiments, using an atmospheric mixed-layer model including a land-surface-vegetation representation, and measurements from the Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (CHATS) field experiment near Dixon, California. The RSL is parameterized using an additional factor in the standard Monin-Obukhov similarity theory flux-profile relationships that takes into account the canopy influence on the atmospheric flow. We selected a representative case characterized by southerly wind conditions to ensure well-developed RSL over the orchard canopy. We then investigated the sensitivity of the diurnal variability of the boundary-layer dynamics to the changes in the RSL key scales, the canopy adjustment length scale, Lc, and the β = u*/|U| ratio at the top of the canopy due to their stability and dependence on canopy structure. We found that the inclusion of the RSL parameterization resulted in improved prediction of the diurnal evolution of the near-surface mean quantities (e.g. up to 50 % for the wind velocity) and transfer (drag) coefficients. We found relatively insignificant effects on the modelled surface fluxes (e.g. up to 5 % for the friction velocity, while 3 % for the sensible and latent heat), which is due to the compensating effect between the mean gradients and the drag coefficients, both of which are largely affected by the RSL parameterization. When varying Lc (from 10 to 20 m) and β (from 0.25 to 0.4 m), based on observational evidence, the predicted friction velocity is found to vary by up to 25 % and the modelled surface-energy fluxes (sensible heat, SH, and latent heat of evaporation, LE) vary up to 2 and 9 %. Consequently, the boundary-layer height varies up to

  20. Integrating complementarity into the 2D displacement discontinuity boundary element method to model faults and fractures with frictional contact properties (United States)

    Ritz, Elizabeth; Mutlu, Ovunc; Pollard, David D.


    We present a two-dimensional displacement discontinuity method (DDM) in combination with a complementarity solver to simulate quasi-static slip on cracks as models for faults and fractures in an otherwise homogeneous, isotropic, linear elastic material. A complementarity algorithm enforces appropriate contact boundary conditions along the cracks so that variable friction and frictional strength can be included. This method accurately computes slip and opening distributions along the cracks, displacement and stress fields within the surrounding material, and stress intensity factors at the crack tips. The DDM with complementarity is a simple yet powerful tool to investigate many aspects of the mechanical behavior of faults and fractures in Earth's brittle crust. Implementation in Excel and Matlab enables easy saving, organization, and sharing.

  1. Ground boundaries (United States)

    Balluffi, R. W.; Bristowe, P. D.

    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished on the study of grain boundaries in Ag, Au, Ni, Si, and Ge. Research was focused on the following four major efforts: study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; grain boundary migration; short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of Thin-Film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

  2. Integrating surface, entrainment and mesoscale in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer dynamics: a 10-year study in Cabauw (The Netherlands) (United States)

    Ander Arrillaga, Jon; Bosveld, Fred; Jiménez, Pedro A.; Baltink, Henk K.; Yagüe, Carlos; Hensen, Arjan; van Dinther, Danielle; Frumau, Arnoud; Dudhia, Jimy; Zhao, Wanjun; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi


    The diurnal evolution of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) in Cabauw (Netherlands) is investigated by considering the role of local and non-local forcings. By local, we understand, the surface fluxes that drive the growing of the ABL in addition to the non-local entrained fluxes. We study potential disruptions occurring in spring and particularly in summer driven by the formation of sea-breeze flows in the form of density currents, due to the proximity of both The North Sea and the Ijsselmeer closed sea. Moreover, this interactive system of surface, boundary layer and mesoscale may play a role in the transport of carbon dioxide and its diurnal variability. Our method is based on the analysis of a comprehensive 10-yr observational database (2001-2010), which gives the opportunity to understand the ABL dynamics from a robust perspective. To support the analysis, modelling results obtained from the WRF mesoscale model are available during the entire 10-year period. The model is run every 48 h to maintain it close to the synoptic conditions calculated by the ERA-Interim state. A fine horizontal resolution of 2 km is used, and the vertical levels are set to match the observational ones (2, 10, 20, 40, 80, 140 and 200 m). In order to identify the sea-breeze arrival, we apply a sea-breeze criteria selection algorithm. It is developed and adapted after a sea-breeze observational study in the Cantabrian Coast (Spain) to filter the sea-breeze events occurring in Cabauw, and consequently analyse their impact in the ABL and the surface fluxes. Preliminary results show that this criteria is able to distinguish between the two main wind directions related to the sea breeze in Cabauw. Our finding shows that the sea-breeze days are characterized by a sharp increment of the wind speed and a noticeable increase of the specific humidity at around 16-17 UTC.

  3. Integrated geophysics reveals a steep lithologic boundary and Moho offset at the western Idaho shear zone that strongly influenced later tectonic events (United States)

    Davenport, K. K.; Ghanekar, S.; Stanciu, A. C.; Bremner, P. M.; Hole, J. A.; Tikoff, B.; Russo, R. M.


    Multiple geophysical data sets from the EarthScope Idaho-Oregon (IDOR) project were integrated to examine crustal structure and composition across the boundary between accreted terranes and the Precambrian craton in Idaho and Oregon. New results from controlled-source seismic S-wave data and gravity data are incorporated with previous results from controlled-source seismic P-waves, broadband seismic receiver functions, and broadband ambient noise surface waves. The geophysical data constrain the deeper structure of the western Idaho shear zone (WISZ), imaging a near-vertical, through-going structure that juxtaposes different seismic velocities and densities throughout the crust and offsets the Moho by 7-8 km. Previous work suggested that the WISZ, which formed when transpressional deformation overprinted the original terrane-craton suture, was less steep at depth or was offset within the crust. West of the WISZ, the crust of the Blue Mountains Province oceanic accreted terranes is characterized by faster seismic velocities and higher densities, intermediate lithology with a mafic lower crust, and a shallower, 30 km deep Moho. East of the WISZ the crust of the Precambrian craton and the Idaho batholith has slower seismic velocities, lower densities, felsic lithology with an intermediate-composition lower crust, and a deeper 35-40 km Moho. The juxtaposition of crustal blocks with distinctly contrasting lithologies created a fundamental rheologic boundary that strongly influenced the response of the crust to subsequent tectonic events, including emplacement of the Idaho batholith and the Columbia River basalts, and Basin and Range extension. The strong contrast across the WISZ restricted these tectonic events to primarily one side or the other, and has likely contributed to the survival of this steep vertical boundary and Moho offset through the later tectonic and heating events.

  4. Towards an Integral Meta-Studies: Describing and Transcending Boundaries in the Development of Big Picture Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G. Edwards


    Full Text Available We are entering a period in human civilisation when we will either act globally to establish a sustainable and sustaining network of world societies or be enmired, for the foreseeable future, in a regressive cycle of ever-deepening global crises. We will need to develop global forms of big picture science that possess institutionalised capacities for carrying out meta-level research and practice. It will be global in that such research cannot be undertaken in isolation from practical global concerns and global social movements. In this paper I propose a general schema, called integral meta-studies, that describes some of the characteristics of this meta-level science. Integral here refers to the long tradition of scientific and philosophic endeavours to develop integrative models and methods. Given the disastrous outcomes of some of the totalising theories of the nineteenth century, the subsequent focus on ideas of the middle-range is entirely understandable. But middle-range theory will not resolve global problems. A more reflexive and wider conceptual vision is required. Global problems of the scale that we currently face require a response that can navigate through theoretical pluralism and not be swallowed up by it. In saying that, twenty-first-century metatheories will need to be different from the monistic, grand theories of the past. They will have to be integrative rather than totalising, pluralistic rather than monistic, based on science and not only on philosophy, methodical rather than idiosyncratic, find inspiration in theories, methods and interpretive frameworks from the edge more than from the centre and provide means for inventing new ways of understanding as much as new technologies. Integrative meta-studies describes an open system of knowledge acquisition that has a place for many forms of scientific inquiry and their respective theories, methods, techniques of analysis and interpretive frameworks. Note: The word

  5. Study on resources and environmental data integration towards data warehouse construction covering trans-boundary area of China, Russia and Mongolia (United States)

    Wang, J.; Song, J.; Gao, M.; Zhu, L.


    The trans-boundary area between Northern China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia of Russia is a continuous geographical area located in north eastern Asia. Many common issues in this region need to be addressed based on a uniform resources and environmental data warehouse. Based on the practice of joint scientific expedition, the paper presented a data integration solution including 3 steps, i.e., data collection standards and specifications making, data reorganization and process, data warehouse design and development. A series of data collection standards and specifications were drawn up firstly covering more than 10 domains. According to the uniform standard, 20 resources and environmental survey databases in regional scale, and 11 in-situ observation databases were reorganized and integrated. North East Asia Resources and Environmental Data Warehouse was designed, which included 4 layers, i.e., resources layer, core business logic layer, internet interoperation layer, and web portal layer. The data warehouse prototype was developed and deployed initially. All the integrated data in this area can be accessed online.

  6. Analysis and calculation by integral methods of laminar compressible boundary-layer with heat transfer and with and without pressure gradient (United States)

    Morduchow, Morris


    A survey of integral methods in laminar-boundary-layer analysis is first given. A simple and sufficiently accurate method for practical purposes of calculating the properties (including stability) of the laminar compressible boundary layer in an axial pressure gradient with heat transfer at the wall is presented. For flow over a flat plate, the method is applicable for an arbitrarily prescribed distribution of temperature along the surface and for any given constant Prandtl number close to unity. For flow in a pressure gradient, the method is based on a Prandtl number of unity and a uniform wall temperature. A simple and accurate method of determining the separation point in a compressible flow with an adverse pressure gradient over a surface at a given uniform wall temperature is developed. The analysis is based on an extension of the Karman-Pohlhausen method to the momentum and the thermal energy equations in conjunction with fourth- and especially higher degree velocity and stagnation-enthalpy profiles.

  7. Ground boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.


    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished on the study of grain boundaries in Ag, Au, Ni, Si, and Ge. Research was focused on the following four major efforts: study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; grain boundary migration; short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of Thin-Film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Geophysical modelling of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath the Atlantic-Mediterranean Transition Region: integrating potential field, surface heat flow, elevation, seismological and petrological data (United States)

    Fullea, J.; Fernàndez, M.; Afonso, J.; Verges, J.; Zeyen, H. J.


    In this work we study the present-day thermal and compositional 3D structure of the lithosphere beneath the Atlantic-Mediterranean Transition Region (AMTR) and the lithosphere-asthenosphere interaction from Jurassic times to present. The AMTR comprises the western segment of the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary, encompassing two main large-scale tectonic domains: the Gibraltar Arc System and the Atlas Mountains. We apply an integrated and self-consistent geophysical-petrological methodology (LitMod3D) that combines elevation, gravity, geoid, surface heat flow, and seismic data and allows modelling of compositional heterogeneities within the lithospheric mantle. Our results reveal large variations in the depth of the Moho and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) as well as a lack of spatial correlation between the thicknesses of these two boundaries. The Moho essentially mimics the topography with depths ranging from ~10 km beneath the oceanic domains of the Atlantic abyssal plains and the Algerian Basin to >34 km in the Eastern Betics and Rif, the High Atlas mountains, and the Sahara Platform. In contrast, the LAB is shallower beneath the central and eastern Alboran Basin (~70 km) and all along the High, Middle and Anti Atlas (140 km) with values exceeding 230 km beneath the Rif and the Sahara Platform. We find that the average bulk composition of the lithospheric mantle corresponds to that of a typical Tecton (i.e. Phanerozoic) domain, with the exceptions of the Sahara Platform, the Alboran Basin, and Atlas Mountains. Distinct mantle compositions are required in these areas to make model predictions and geophysical observables compatible. We propose that the highly irregular LAB topography is the result of the superposition of three different geodynamic mechanisms, which include shortening and thickening related to NW-SE Iberia-Africa convergence lasting from Late Cretaceous to Recent; impingement of a baby-like mantle plume or small-scale convection beneath

  9. EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory in Alaska: Building on Existing Infrastructure to Provide a Platform for Integrated Research and Hazard-monitoring Efforts (United States)

    Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R. M.; Willoughby, H.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Enders, M.; Busby, R. W.


    EarthScope's geodetic component in Alaska, the UNAVCO-operated Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network, includes 139 continuous GPS sites and 41 supporting telemetry relays. These are spread across a vast area, from northern AK to the Aleutians. Forty-five of these stations were installed or have been upgraded in cooperation with various partner agencies and currently provide data collection and transmission for more than one group. Leveraging existing infrastructure normally has multiple benefits, such as easier permitting requirements and costs savings through reduced overall construction and maintenance expenses. At some sites, PBO-AK power and communications systems have additional capacity beyond that which is needed for reliable acquisition of GPS data. Where permits allow, such stations could serve as platforms for additional instrumentation or real-time observing needs. With the expansion of the Transportable Array (TA) into Alaska, there is increased interest to leverage existing EarthScope resources for station co-location and telemetry integration. Because of the complexity and difficulty of long-term O&M at PBO sites, however, actual integration of GPS and seismic equipment must be considered on a case-by-case basis. UNAVCO currently operates two integrated GPS/seismic stations in collaboration with the Alaska Earthquake Center, and three with the Alaska Volcano Observatory. By the end of 2014, PBO and TA plan to install another four integrated and/or co-located geodetic and seismic systems. While three of these are designed around existing PBO stations, one will be a completely new TA installation, providing PBO with an opportunity to expand geodetic data collection in Alaska within the limited operations and maintenance phase of the project. We will present some of the design considerations, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing projects to integrate seismometers and other instrumentation at PBO-Alaska stations. Developing the PBO

  10. Mixed finite-element formulations in piezoelectricity and flexoelectricity (United States)

    Mao, Sheng; Purohit, Prashant K.; Aravas, Nikolaos


    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling of strain gradient and electric polarization, is inherently a size-dependent phenomenon. The energy storage function for a flexoelectric material depends not only on polarization and strain, but also strain-gradient. Thus, conventional finite-element methods formulated solely on displacement are inadequate to treat flexoelectric solids since gradients raise the order of the governing differential equations. Here, we introduce a computational framework based on a mixed formulation developed previously by one of the present authors and a colleague. This formulation uses displacement and displacement-gradient as separate variables which are constrained in a `weighted integral sense' to enforce their known relation. We derive a variational formulation for boundary-value problems for piezo- and/or flexoelectric solids. We validate this computational framework against available exact solutions. Our new computational method is applied to more complex problems, including a plate with an elliptical hole, stationary cracks, as well as tension and shear of solids with a repeating unit cell. Our results address several issues of theoretical interest, generate predictions of experimental merit and reveal interesting flexoelectric phenomena with potential for application.

  11. Mixed finite-element formulations in piezoelectricity and flexoelectricity (United States)


    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling of strain gradient and electric polarization, is inherently a size-dependent phenomenon. The energy storage function for a flexoelectric material depends not only on polarization and strain, but also strain-gradient. Thus, conventional finite-element methods formulated solely on displacement are inadequate to treat flexoelectric solids since gradients raise the order of the governing differential equations. Here, we introduce a computational framework based on a mixed formulation developed previously by one of the present authors and a colleague. This formulation uses displacement and displacement-gradient as separate variables which are constrained in a ‘weighted integral sense’ to enforce their known relation. We derive a variational formulation for boundary-value problems for piezo- and/or flexoelectric solids. We validate this computational framework against available exact solutions. Our new computational method is applied to more complex problems, including a plate with an elliptical hole, stationary cracks, as well as tension and shear of solids with a repeating unit cell. Our results address several issues of theoretical interest, generate predictions of experimental merit and reveal interesting flexoelectric phenomena with potential for application. PMID:27436967

  12. Nonlinear streak computation using boundary region equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J A; Martel, C, E-mail:, E-mail: [Depto. de Fundamentos Matematicos, E.T.S.I Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    The boundary region equations (BREs) are applied for the simulation of the nonlinear evolution of a spanwise periodic array of streaks in a flat plate boundary layer. The well-known BRE formulation is obtained from the complete Navier-Stokes equations in the high Reynolds number limit, and provides the correct asymptotic description of three-dimensional boundary layer streaks. In this paper, a fast and robust streamwise marching scheme is introduced to perform their numerical integration. Typical streak computations present in the literature correspond to linear streaks or to small-amplitude nonlinear streaks computed using direct numerical simulation (DNS) or the nonlinear parabolized stability equations (PSEs). We use the BREs to numerically compute high-amplitude streaks, a method which requires much lower computational effort than DNS and does not have the consistency and convergence problems of the PSE. It is found that the flow configuration changes substantially as the amplitude of the streaks grows and the nonlinear effects come into play. The transversal motion (in the wall normal-streamwise plane) becomes more important and strongly distorts the streamwise velocity profiles, which end up being quite different from those of the linear case. We analyze in detail the resulting flow patterns for the nonlinearly saturated streaks and compare them with available experimental results. (paper)

  13. Grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.


    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished to date during the second year of our four-year grant (February 15, 1990--February 14, 1994) to study grain boundaries. The research was focused on the following three major efforts: Study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; study of short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of a Thin-film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

  14. Grain boundaries (United States)

    Balluffi, R. W.; Bristowe, P. D.

    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished to date during the second year of our four-year grant (February 15, 1990 to February 14, 1994) to study grain boundaries. The research was focused on the following three major efforts: study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; study of short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of a Thin-film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

  15. Initial-boundary value problem with a nonlocal condition for a viscosity equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfatah Bouziani


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the proof of the existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence of a strong solution upon the data, for an initial-boundary value problem which combine Neumann and integral conditions for a viscosity equation. The proof is based on an energy inequality and on the density of the range of the linear operator corresponding to the abstract formulation of the studied problem.

  16. Accuracy and convergence of a finite element algorithm for turbulent boundary layer flow (United States)

    Soliman, M. O.; Baker, A. J.


    The Galerkin-Weighted Residuals formulation is employed to derive an implicit finite element solution algorithm for the nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation system governing turbulent boundary layer flow. Solution accuracy and convergence with discretization refinement are quantized in several error norms using linear and quadratic basis functions. Richardson extrapolation is used to isolate integration truncation error in all norms, and Newton iteration is employed for all equation solutions performed in double-precision. The mathematical theory supporting accuracy and convergence concepts for linear elliptic equations appears extensible to the nonlinear equations characteristic of turbulent boundary layer flow.

  17. Numerical solutions of multi-dimensional solidification/melting problems by the dual reciprocity boundary element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Shin, Won Ky [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper presents an effective and simple procedure for the simulation of the motion of the solid-liquid interfacial boundary and the transient temperature field during phase change process. To accomplish this purpose, an iterative implicit solution algorithm has been developed by employing the dual reciprocity boundary element method. The dual reciprocity boundary element approach provided in this paper is much simpler than the usual boundary element method applying a reciprocity principle and an available technique for dealing with domain integral of boundary element formulation simultaneously. The effectiveness of the present analysis method have been illustrated through comparisons of the calculation results of an example with its semi-analytical or other numerical solutions where available. 22 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  18. A Galleria Boundary Element Method for two-dimensional nonlinear magnetostatics (United States)

    Brovont, Aaron D.

    The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is a numerical technique for solving partial differential equations that is used broadly among the engineering disciplines. The main advantage of this method is that one needs only to mesh the boundary of a solution domain. A key drawback is the myriad of integrals that must be evaluated to populate the full system matrix. To this day these integrals have been evaluated using numerical quadrature. In this research, a Galerkin formulation of the BEM is derived and implemented to solve two-dimensional magnetostatic problems with a focus on accurate, rapid computation. To this end, exact, closed-form solutions have been derived for all the integrals comprising the system matrix as well as those required to compute fields in post-processing; the need for numerical integration has been eliminated. It is shown that calculation of the system matrix elements using analytical solutions is 15-20 times faster than with numerical integration of similar accuracy. Furthermore, through the example analysis of a c-core inductor, it is demonstrated that the present BEM formulation is a competitive alternative to the Finite Element Method (FEM) for linear magnetostatic analysis. Finally, the BEM formulation is extended to analyze nonlinear magnetostatic problems via the Dual Reciprocity Method (DRBEM). It is shown that a coarse, meshless analysis using the DRBEM is able to achieve RMS error of 3-6% compared to a commercial FEM package in lightly saturated conditions.

  19. Crystallization Formulation Lab (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  20. A note on the convergence of the direct collocation boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller


    An overview of the literature dealing with convergence of boundary element formulations is presented, and an intuitive account of the results is given. The convergence of an axisymmetric boundary element formulation is studied using linear, quadratic or superparametric elements. It is demonstrate...

  1. On high-order polynomial heat-balance integral implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Alastair S.


    Full Text Available This article reconsiders aspects of the analysis conventionally used to establish accuracy, performance and limitations of the heat balance integral method: theoretical and practical rates of convergence are confirmed for a familiar piecewise heat-balance integral based upon mesh refinement, and the use of boundary conditions is discussed with respect to fixed and moving boundaries. Alternates to mesh refinement are increased order of approximation or non-polynomial approximants. Here a physically intuitive high-order polynomial heat balance integral formulation is described that exhibits high accuracy, rapid convergence, and desirable qualitative solution properties. The simple approach combines a global approximant of prescribed degree with spatial sub-division of the solution domain. As a variational-type method, it can be argued that heat-balance integral is simply 'one amongst many'. The approach is compared with several established variational formulations and performance is additionally assessed in terms of 'smoothness'.

  2. Chewed ticagrelor tablets provide faster platelet inhibition compared to integral tablets: The inhibition of platelet aggregation after administration of three different ticagrelor formulations (IPAAD-Tica) study, a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Venetsanos, Dimitrios; Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia; Swahn, Eva; Alfredsson, Joakim


    To provide pharmacodynamic data of crushed and chewed ticagrelor tablets, in comparison with standard integral tablets. Ninety nine patients with stable angina were randomly assigned, in a 3:1:1 fashion, to one of the following 180mg ticagrelor loading dose (LD) formulations: A) Integral B) Crushed or C) Chewed tablets. Platelet reactivity (PR) was assessed with VerifyNow before, 20 and 60min after LD. High residual platelet reactivity (HRPR) was defined as >208 P2Y12 reaction units (PRU). There was no significant difference in PRU values at baseline. PRU 20min after LD were 237 (182-295), 112 (53-238) and 84 (29-129) and 60min after LD, 56 (15-150), 51 (18-85) and 9 (7-34) in integral, crushed and chewed ticagrelor LD, respectively (pticagrelor tablets resulted in significantly lower PRU values compared to crushed or integral tablets at 20 and 60min. Crushed ticagrelor LD resulted in significantly lower PRU values compared to integral tablets at 20min whereas no difference was observed at 60min. At 20min, no patients had HRPR with chewed ticagrelor compared to 68% with integral and 30% with crushed ticagrelor LD (pticagrelor tablets a more rapid platelet inhibition may be achieved, compared to standard integral tablets. We also show that administration of chewed tablets is feasible and provides faster inhibition than either crushed or integral tablets. European Clinical Trial Database (EudraCT number 2014-002227-96). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Indirect boundary element method for three dimensional problems. Analytical solution for contribution to wave field by triangular element; Sanjigen kansetsu kyokai yosoho. Sankakukei yoso no kiyo no kaisekikai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, T. [Building Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Sanchez-Sesma, F. [Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Institute de Ingenieria


    Formulation is introduced for discretizing a boundary integral equation into an indirect boundary element method for the solution of 3-dimensional topographic problems. Yokoi and Takenaka propose an analytical solution-capable reference solution (solution for the half space elastic body with flat free surface) to problems of topographic response to seismic motion in a 2-dimensional in-plane field. That is to say, they propose a boundary integral equation capable of effectively suppressing the non-physical waves that emerge in the result of computation in the wake of the truncation of the discretized ground surface making use of the wave field in a semi-infinite elastic body with flat free surface. They apply the proposed boundary integral equation discretized into the indirect boundary element method to solve some examples, and succeed in proving its validity. In this report, the equation is expanded to deal with 3-dimensional topographic problems. A problem of a P-wave vertically landing on a flat and free surface is solved by the conventional boundary integral equation and the proposed boundary integral equation, and the solutions are compared with each other. It is found that the new method, different from the conventional one, can delete non-physical waves from the analytical result. 4 figs.

  4. Fractional extensions of some boundary value problems in oil strata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper, we solve three boundary value problems related to the temperature field in oil strata - the fractional extensions of the incomplete lumped formulation and lumped formulation in the linear case and the fractional generalization of the incomplete lumped formulation in the radial case. By using the Caputo ...

  5. Fractional extensions of some boundary value problems in oil strata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the present paper, we solve three boundary value problems related to the temperature field in oil strata – the fractional extensions of the incomplete lumped formulation and lumped formulation in the linear case and the fractional generalization of the incomplete lumped formulation in the radial case. By using the ...

  6. On the modeling of narrow gaps using the standard boundary element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller; Jacobsen, Finn


    Numerical methods based on the Helmholtz integral equation are well suited for solving acoustic scattering and diffraction problems at relatively low frequencies. However, it is well known that the standard method becomes degenerate if the objects that disturb the sound field are very thin....... This paper makes use of a standard axisymmetric Helmholtz integral equation formulation and its boundary element method (BEM) implementation to study the behavior of the method on two test cases: a thin rigid disk of variable thickness and two rigid cylinders separated by a gap of variable width. Both...... with in the literature. A simple integration technique that can extend the range of thicknesses/widths tractable by the otherwise unmodified standard formulation is presented and tested. This technique is valid for both cases. The modeling of acoustic transducers Like sound intensity probes and condenser microphones has...

  7. Hybrid Finite Element and Volume Integral Methods for Scattering Using Parametric Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volakis, John L.; Sertel, Kubilay; Jørgensen, Erik


    n this paper we address several topics relating to the development and implementation of volume integral and hybrid finite element methods for electromagnetic modeling. Comparisons of volume integral equation formulations with the finite element-boundary integral method are given in terms...... of vanishing divergence within the element but non-zero curl. In addition, a new domain decomposition is introduced for solving array problems involving several million degrees of freedom. Three orders of magnitude CPU reduction is demonstrated for such applications....

  8. Albedo Boundary (United States)


    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-510, 11 October 2003The sharp, nearly straight line that runs diagonally across the center of this April 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is an albedo boundary. Albedois a term that refers to reflectance of sunlight. A surface with a low albedo is one that appears dark because it reflects less light than a high albedo (bright) surface. On Mars, albedo boundaries occur between two materials of differing texture, particle size, or composition, or some combination of these three factors. The boundary shown here is remarkable because it is so sharp and straight. This is caused by wind. Most likely, the entire surface was once covered with the lower-albedo (darker) material that is now seen in the upper half of the image. At some later time, wind stripped away this darker material from the surfaces in the lower half of the image. The difference in albedo here might be related to composition, and possibly particle size. This picture is located near the southwest rim of Schiaparelli Basin at 5.5oS, 345.9oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  9. Dynamic Stationary Response of Reinforced Plates by the Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Facundo Sanches


    Full Text Available A direct version of the boundary element method (BEM is developed to model the stationary dynamic response of reinforced plate structures, such as reinforced panels in buildings, automobiles, and airplanes. The dynamic stationary fundamental solutions of thin plates and plane stress state are used to transform the governing partial differential equations into boundary integral equations (BIEs. Two sets of uncoupled BIEs are formulated, respectively, for the in-plane state (membrane and for the out-of-plane state (bending. These uncoupled systems are joined to form a macro-element, in which membrane and bending effects are present. The association of these macro-elements is able to simulate thin-walled structures, including reinforced plate structures. In the present formulation, the BIE is discretized by continuous and/or discontinuous linear elements. Four displacement integral equations are written for every boundary node. Modal data, that is, natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes of reinforced plates, are obtained from information contained in the frequency response functions (FRFs. A specific example is presented to illustrate the versatility of the proposed methodology. Different configurations of the reinforcements are used to simulate simply supported and clamped boundary conditions for the plate structures. The procedure is validated by comparison with results determined by the finite element method (FEM.

  10. Dirichlet-Neumann bracketing for boundary-value problems on graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Currie


    Full Text Available We consider the spectral structure of second order boundary-value problems on graphs. A variational formulation for boundary-value problems on graphs is given. As a consequence we can formulate an analogue of Dirichlet-Neumann bracketing for boundary-value problems on graphs. This in turn gives rise to eigenvalue and eigenfunction asymptotic approximations.

  11. Bridging Boundaries in Networked Military Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, R. van der; Broek, J. van den; Cornelissen, M.; Essens, P.J.D.M.


    One of the challenges facing networked military organizations is to coordinate and integrate activities of organization components. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of boundary spanning as integrative mechanism, and, more specifically, individual communication holes within

  12. Working with boundaries in systems psychodynamic consulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Struwig


    Full Text Available Orientation: The researcher described the systems psychodynamics of boundary management in organisations. The data showed how effective boundary management leads to good holding environments that, in turn, lead to containing difficult emotions.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to produce a set of theoretical assumptions about organisational boundaries and boundary management in organisations and, from these, to develop a set of hypotheses as a thinking framework for practising consulting psychologists when they work with boundaries from a systems psychodynamic stance.Motivation for the study: The researcher used the belief that organisational boundaries reflect the essence of organisations. Consulting to boundary managers could facilitate a deep understanding of organisational dynamics.Research design, approach and method: The researcher followed a case study design. He used systems psychodynamic discourse analysis. It led to six working hypotheses.Main findings: The primary task of boundary management is to hold the polarities of integration and differentiation and not allow the system to become fragmented or overly integrated. Boundary management is a primary task and an ongoing activity of entire organisations.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should work actively at effective boundary management and at balancing integration and differentiation. Leaders should become aware of how effective boundary management leads to good holding environments that, in turn, lead to containing difficult emotions in organisations.Contribution/value-add: The researcher provided a boundary-consulting framework in order to assist consultants to balance the conceptual with the practical when they consult.

  13. Boundary issues (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen


    What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine

  14. boundary dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Camurdan


    are coupled by appropriate trace operators. This overall model differs from those previously studied in the literature in that the elastic chamber floor is here more realistically modeled by a hyperbolic Kirchoff equation, rather than by a parabolic Euler-Bernoulli equation with Kelvin-Voight structural damping, as in past literature. Thus, the hyperbolic/parabolic coupled system of past literature is replaced here by a hyperbolic/hyperbolic coupled model. The main result of this paper is a uniform stabilization of the coupled PDE system by a (physically appealing boundary dissipation.

  15. Formulation of D-brane Dynamics (United States)

    Evans, Thomas


    It is the purpose of this paper (within the context of STS rules & guidelines ``research report'') to formulate a statistical-mechanical form of D-brane dynamics. We consider first the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, and extend this to a path-integral formulation of D-brane mechanics, summing over all the possible path integral sectors of R-R, NS charged states. We then investigate this generalization utilizing a path-integral formulation summing over all the possible path integral sectors of R-R charged states, calculated from the mean probability tree-level amplitude of type I, IIA, and IIB strings, serving as a generalization of all strings described by D-branes. We utilize this generalization to study black holes in regimes where the initial D-brane system is legitimate, and further this generalization to look at information loss near regions of nonlocality on a non-ordinary event horizon. We see here that in these specific regimes, we can calculate a path integral formulation, as describing D0-brane mechanics, tracing the dissipation of entropy throughout the event horizon. This is used to study the information paradox, and to propose a resolution between the phenomena and the correct and expected quantum mechanical description. This is done as our path integral throughout entropy entering the event horizon effectively and correctly encodes the initial state in subtle correlations in the Hawking radiation.

  16. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth


    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  17. On the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with nonzero boundary conditions (United States)

    Fagerstrom, Emily

    integral, provided the initial condition satisfies further conditions. Modulational instability (focusing NLS with symmetric nonzero boundary conditions at infinity.) The focusing NLS equation is considered with potentials that are "box-like" piecewise constant functions. Several results are obtained. In particular, it is shown that there are conditions on the parameters of the potential for which there are no discrete eigenvalues. Thus there is a class of potentials for which the corresponding solutions of the NLS equation have no solitons. Hence, solitons cannot be the medium for the modulational instability. This contradicts a recent conjecture by Zakharov. On the other hand, it is shown for a different class of potentials the scattering problem always has a discrete eigenvalue along the imaginary axis. Thus, there exist arbitrarily small perturbations of the constant potential for which solitons exist, so no area theorem is possible. The existence, number and location of discrete eigenvalues in other situations are studied numerically. Finally, the small-deviation limit of the IST is computed and compared with the direct linearization of the NLS equation around a constant background. From this it is shown that there is an interval of the continuous spectrum on which the eigenvalue is imaginary and the scattering parameter is imaginary. The Jost eigenfunctions corresponding to this interval are the nonlinear analogue of the unstable Fourier modes. Defocusing NLS equation with asymmetric boundary conditions at infinity. The defocusing NLS equation with asymmetric boundary conditions is considered. To do so, first the case of symmetric boundary conditions is revisited. While the IST for this case has been formulated in the literature, it is usually done through the use of a uniformization variable. This was done because the eigenvalues of the scattering problem have branching; the uniformization variable allows one to move from a 2-sheeted Riemann surface to the complex

  18. Data mining of fractured experimental data using neurofuzzy logic-discovering and integrating knowledge hidden in multiple formulation databases for a fluid-bed granulation process. (United States)

    Shao, Q; Rowe, R C; York, P


    In the pharmaceutical field, current practice in gaining process understanding by data analysis or knowledge discovery has generally focused on dealing with single experimental databases. This limits the level of knowledge extracted in the situation where data from a number of sources, so called fractured data, contain interrelated information. This situation is particularly relevant for complex processes involving a number of operating variables, such as a fluid-bed granulation. This study investigated three data mining strategies to discover and integrate knowledge "hidden" in a number of small experimental databases for a fluid-bed granulation process using neurofuzzy logic technology. Results showed that more comprehensive domain knowledge was discovered from multiple databases via an appropriate data mining strategy. This study also demonstrated that the textual information excluded in individual databases was a critical parameter and often acted as the precondition for integrating knowledge extracted from different databases. Consequently generic knowledge of the domain was discovered, leading to an improved understanding of the granulation process. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  19. A User’s Guide for BIE3D - A Boundary Integral Equation Computer Program for Three-Dimensional Elastostatic Analysis. (United States)


    tool for the stress analysis of three-dimensional cracked components in linea elastic Isotropic bodies. Ibs fundamntals of the Boundary Zntegral...linear, algebraic equatioma* which are solved mubj eat to the bousdery cown- diticas (eithei displacement or stress) of the problem. Diplacts u* tioas of

  20. Work/Life Boundary Management in an Integrative Environment: A Study of Residence Life Professionals who Live at Their Place of Work (United States)

    Rankin, Pressley Robinson, IV


    How individuals manage work/life boundaries when they live at the place they work, as opposed to working from home, is a gap in both work/life literature and in higher education literature. An obvious example from higher education is the resident life professional that lives in the residential facility that she or he oversees. Living in a…

  1. Boundary element simulation of petroleum reservoirs with hydraulically fractured wells (United States)

    Pecher, Radek

    The boundary element method is applied to solve the linear pressure-diffusion equation of fluid-flow in porous media. The governing parabolic partial differential equation is transformed into the Laplace space to obtain the elliptic modified-Helmholtz equation including the homogeneous initial condition. The free- space Green's functions, satisfying this equation for anisotropic media in two and three dimensions, are combined with the generalized form of the Green's second identity. The resulting boundary integral equation is solved by following the collocation technique and applying the given time-dependent boundary conditions of the Dirichlet or Neumann type. The boundary integrals are approximated by the Gaussian quadrature along each element of the discretized domain boundary. Heterogeneous regions are represented by the sectionally-homogeneous zones of different rock and fluid properties. The final values of the interior pressure and velocity fields and of their time-derivatives are found by numerically inverting the solutions from the Laplace space by using the Stehfest's algorithm. The main extension of the mostly standard BEM-procedure is achieved in the modelling of the production and injection wells represented by internal sources and sinks. They are treated as part of the boundary by means of special single-node and both-sided elements, corresponding to the line and plane sources respectively. The wellbore skin and storage effects are considered for the line and cylindrical sources. Hydraulically fractured wells of infinite conductivity are handled directly according to the specified constraint type, out of the four alternatives. Fractures of finite conductivity are simulated by coupling the finite element model of their 1D-interior with the boundary element model of their 2D- exterior. Variable fracture width, fractures crossing zone boundaries, ``networking'' of fractures, fracture-tip singularity handling, or the 3D-description are additional advanced

  2. Breaking Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    produce desperate attempts to maintain old or create new differences. Political and sociological research into these complex processes has been mainly guided by structural and normative concerns. Faced with growing evidence about the instability of world order and domestic social structures alike, policy....... As a fundamental human experience, liminality transmits cultural practices, codes, rituals, and meanings in-between aggregate structures and uncertain outcomes. As a methodological tool it is well placed to overcome disciplinary boundaries, which often direct attention to specific structures or sectors of society....... Its capacity to provide explanatory accounts of seemingly unstructured situations provides an opportunity to link experience-based and culture-oriented approaches not only to contemporary problems but also to undertake comparisons across historical periods. From a perspective of liminality...

  3. [Integrity]. (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel


    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  4. Integrated biostratigraphy, stage boundaries and Paleoclimatology of the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Eocene successions in Kharga and Dakhala Oases, Western Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Khalil, H.; Al Sawy, S.


    The Upper Cretaceous-Lower Eocene succession in the studied sections is divided into four rock units that arranged from base to top: the Dakhla, Tarawan, Esna and the Thebes formations. Detailed study of the foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils has led to the recognition of 58 and 82 species, respectively. Based on planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils 8 planktonic foraminiferal biozones (CF4, P2, P3, P4, E1, E2, E3 and E4) have been recognized as well as 8 calcareous nannofossil biozones (CC25b, NP3, NP4, NP5, NP6, NP7/8, NP9, and NP10). At Gabal Teir/Tarawan section, Kharga Oasis, the Paleocene can be divided into three stages; Danian, Selandian and Thanetian. The Danian/Selandian boundary is placed at P3a/P3b zonal boundary (LO of Igorina albeari) which corresponds to the level of LO of Lithoptychius ulii, Fasciculithus pileatus, Fasciculithus involutus and Lithoptychius janii (upper part of Zone NP4). The Selandian/Thanetian boundary, on the other hand, can be traced within the foraminiferal Zone P4 (Globanomalina pseudomenardii Zone) and between the nannofossil zones NP6 and NP7/8 (LO of Discoaster mohleri). At Gabal Ghanima section, the Paleocene/Eocene boundary is located within the lower part of the Esna Formation. It can be traced at the base of planktonic foraminiferal Zone E1 (LOs of Acarinina africana, A sibaiyaensis and Morozovella allinsoensis), and at the NP9a/NP9b subzonal boundary (LO of Rhomboaster spp). However, the lower Eocene succession seems to be condensed and punctuated by minor hiatus (absence of Subzone NP10a). The dominance of cool water nannofossil species in the late Maastrichtian and early Danian interval suggests a gradual decrease in the surface water paleotemperature. However, a slight warming condition prevailed around the Danian/Selandian transition as evidenced by the warm water nannofossil species. At the P/E boundary interval, the high abundance of warm-water taxa (e.g. Discoaster, Sphenolithus, Rhomboaster

  5. Hydrodynamic structure of the boundary layers in a rotating cylindrical cavity with radial inflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann-Priesnitz, Benjamín, E-mail:; Torres, Diego A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 851, Santiago (Chile); Advanced Mining Technology Center, Universidad de Chile, Av. Tupper 2007, Santiago (Chile); Calderón-Muñoz, Williams R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 851, Santiago (Chile); Energy Center, Universidad de Chile, Av. Tupper 2007, Santiago (Chile); Salas, Eduardo A. [CSIRO-Chile International Centre of Excellence, Apoquindo 2827, Floor 12, Santiago (Chile); Vargas-Uscategui, Alejandro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad de Chile, Beauchef 851, Santiago (Chile); CSIRO-Chile International Centre of Excellence, Apoquindo 2827, Floor 12, Santiago (Chile); Duarte-Mermoud, Manuel A. [Advanced Mining Technology Center, Universidad de Chile, Av. Tupper 2007, Santiago (Chile); Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad de Chile, Av. Tupper 2007, Santiago (Chile)


    A flow model is formulated to investigate the hydrodynamic structure of the boundary layers of incompressible fluid in a rotating cylindrical cavity with steady radial inflow. The model considers mass and momentum transfer coupled between boundary layers and an inviscid core region. Dimensionless equations of motion are solved using integral methods and a space-marching technique. As the fluid moves radially inward, entraining boundary layers develop which can either meet or become non-entraining. Pressure and wall shear stress distributions, as well as velocity profiles predicted by the model, are compared to numerical simulations using the software OpenFOAM. Hydrodynamic structure of the boundary layers is governed by a Reynolds number, Re, a Rossby number, Ro, and the dimensionless radial velocity component at the periphery of the cavity, U{sub o}. Results show that boundary layers merge for Re < < 10 and Ro > > 0.1, and boundary layers become predominantly non-entraining for low Ro, low Re, and high U{sub o}. Results may contribute to improve the design of technology, such as heat exchange devices, and turbomachinery.

  6. Integrated synthesis of zeolites 4A and Na-P1 using coal fly ash for application in the formulation of detergents and swine wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Cardoso, Ariela M; Horn, Martha B; Ferret, Lizete S; Azevedo, Carla M N; Pires, Marçal


    Several researchers have reported zeolite synthesis using coal ash for a wide range of applications. However, little attention has been given to green processes, including moderate synthesis conditions, using waste as raw material and effluent reuse or reduction. In this study, Brazilian coal fly ashes were used for integrated synthesis of zeolites 4A and Na-P1 by two different routes and under moderate operating conditions (temperature and pressure). Both procedures produced zeolites with similar conversions (zeolite 4A at 82% purity and zeolite Na-P1 at 57-61%) and high CEC values (zeolites 4A: 4.5meqCa(2+)g(-1) and zeolites Na-P1: 2.6-2.8meqNH4(+)g(-1)). However, process 1 generated less effluent for the zeolite mass produced (7mLg(-1)), with low residual Si and Al levels and 74% of the Si available in the coal fly ash incorporated into the zeolite, while only 55% is used in process 2. For use as a builder in detergents, synthetic zeolite 4A exhibited conformity parameters equal to or greater than those of the commercial zeolite adopted as reference. Treatment of swine wastewater with zeolite Na-P1 resulted in a high removal capacity for total ammoniacal nitrogen (31mgg(-1)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of the effect of wind speed on evaporation from soil through integrated modeling of atmospheric boundary layer and shallow subsurface (United States)

    Davarzani, Hossein; Smits, Kathleen; Tolene, Ryan; Illangasekare, Tissa


    The study of the interaction between the land and atmosphere is paramount to our understanding of many emerging problems to include climate change, the movement of green house gases such as possible leaking of sequestered CO2 and the accurate detection of buried objects such as landmines. Soil moisture distribution in the shallow subsurface becomes a critical factor in all these problems. The heat and mass flux in the form of soil evaporation across the land surface couples the atmospheric boundary layer to the shallow subsurface. The coupling between land and the atmosphere leads to highly dynamic interactions between the porous media properties, transport processes and boundary conditions, resulting in dynamic evaporative behavior. However, the coupling at the land-atmospheric interface is rarely considered in most current models and their validation for practical applications. This is due to the complexity of the problem in field scenarios and the scarcity of field or laboratory data capable of testing and refining coupled energy and mass transfer theories. In most efforts to compute evaporation from soil, only indirect coupling is provided to characterize the interaction between non-isothermal multiphase flows under realistic atmospheric conditions even though heat and mass flux are controlled by the coupled dynamics of the land and the atmospheric boundary layer. In earlier drying modeling concepts, imposing evaporation flux (kinetic of relative humidity) and temperature as surface boundary condition is often needed. With the goal of improving our understanding of the land/atmospheric coupling, we developed a model based on the coupling of Navier-Stokes free flow and Darcy flow in porous medium. The model consists of the coupled equations of mass conservation for the liquid phase (water) and gas phase (water vapor and air) in porous medium with gas phase (water vapor and air) in free flow domain under non-isothermal, non-equilibrium conditions. The boundary

  8. SSPH basis functions for meshless methods, and comparison of solutions with strong and weak formulations (United States)

    Batra, R. C.; Zhang, G. M.


    We propose a new and simple technique called the Symmetric Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SSPH) method to construct basis functions for meshless methods that use only locations of particles. These basis functions are found to be similar to those in the Finite Element Method (FEM) except that the basis for the derivatives of a function need not be obtained by differentiating those for the function. Of course, the basis for the derivatives of a function can be obtained by differentiating the basis for the function as in the FEM and meshless methods. These basis functions are used to numerically solve two plane stress/strain elasto-static problems by using either the collocation method or a weak formulation of the problem defined over a subregion of the region occupied by the body; the latter is usually called the Meshless Local Petrov Galerkin (MLPG) method. For the two boundary-value problems studied, it is found that the weak formulation in which the basis for the first order derivatives of the trial solution are derived directly in the SSPH method (i.e., not obtained by differentiating the basis function for the trial solution) gives the least value of the L2-error norm in the displacements while the collocation method employing the strong formulation of the boundary-value problem has the largest value of the L2-error norm. The numerical solution using the weak formulation requires more CPU time than the solution with the strong formulation of the problem. We have also computed the L2-error norm of displacements by varying the number of particles, the number of Gauss points used to numerically evaluate domain integrals appearing in the weak formulation of the problem, the radius of the compact support of the kernel function used to generate the SSPH basis, the order of complete monomials employed for constructing the SSPH basis, and boundary conditions used at a point on a corner of the rectangular problem domain. It is recommended that for solving two

  9. Organizational development strategies for integrating mental health services. (United States)

    Hoge, M A; Howenstine, R A


    The recent debates about health care reform have focused attention on the need to develop organized systems of care capable of delivering comprehensive services which are coordinated or integrated. Achieving service integration has emerged as a central and pressing objective in most mental health systems in response to existing difficulties with fragmentation of care. However, attempts at service integration often fail at the implementation stage as provider agencies zealously guard their organizational boundaries and struggle with each other for power and control. In this article, the authors formulate an organizational development approach to service integration that focuses on reducing the rigid maintenance of agency boundaries by developing informal networks among staff of local provider agencies. Eight strategies, drawn from the research literature on services integration and recently implemented by a local mental health authority, are described as potential tools for use by systems managers in accomplishing these goals.

  10. Brain response to prosodic boundary cues depends on boundary position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eHolzgrefe


    Full Text Available Prosodic information is crucial for spoken language comprehension and especially for syntactic parsing, because prosodic cues guide the hearer’s syntactic analysis. The time course and mechanisms of this interplay of prosody and syntax are not yet well understood. In particular, there is an ongoing debate whether local prosodic cues are taken into account automatically or whether they are processed in relation to the global prosodic context in which they appear. The present study explores whether the perception of a prosodic boundary is affected by its position within an utterance. In an event-related potential (ERP study we tested if the brain response evoked by the prosodic boundary differs when the boundary occurs early in a list of three names connected by conjunctions (i.e., after the first name as compared to later in the utterance (i.e., after the second name. A closure positive shift (CPS — marking the processing of a prosodic phrase boundary — was elicited only for stimuli with a late boundary, but not for stimuli with an early boundary. This result is further evidence for an immediate integration of prosodic information into the parsing of an utterance. In addition, it shows that the processing of prosodic boundary cues depends on the previously processed information from the preceding prosodic context.

  11. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  12. Homogenization of the stochastic Navier–Stokes equation with a stochastic slip boundary condition

    KAUST Repository

    Bessaih, Hakima


    The two-dimensional Navier–Stokes equation in a perforated domain with a dynamical slip boundary condition is considered. We assume that the dynamic is driven by a stochastic perturbation on the interior of the domain and another stochastic perturbation on the boundaries of the holes. We consider a scaling (ᵋ for the viscosity and 1 for the density) that will lead to a time-dependent limit problem. However, the noncritical scaling (ᵋ, β > 1) is considered in front of the nonlinear term. The homogenized system in the limit is obtained as a Darcy’s law with memory with two permeabilities and an extra term that is due to the stochastic perturbation on the boundary of the holes. The nonhomogeneity on the boundary contains a stochastic part that yields in the limit an additional term in the Darcy’s law. We use the two-scale convergence method after extending the solution with 0 inside the holes to pass to the limit. By Itô stochastic calculus, we get uniform estimates on the solution in appropriate spaces. Due to the stochastic integral, the pressure that appears in the variational formulation does not have enough regularity in time. This fact made us rely only on the variational formulation for the passage to the limit on the solution. We obtain a variational formulation for the limit that is solution of a Stokes system with two pressures. This two-scale limit gives rise to three cell problems, two of them give the permeabilities while the third one gives an extra term in the Darcy’s law due to the stochastic perturbation on the boundary of the holes.

  13. To the boundary value problem of ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serikbai Aisagaliev


    Full Text Available Method for solving of a boundary value problem for ordinary differential equations with boundary conditions at phase and integral constraints is proposed. The base of the method is an immersion principle based on the general solution of the first order Fredholm integral equation which allows to reduce the original boundary value problem to the special problem of the optimal equation.

  14. Investigation of acoustic field near to elastic thin plate using integral method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.І. Токарев


    Full Text Available  Investigation of acoustic field near to elastic thin plate using  integral method The influence of boundary conditions on sound wave propagation, radiation and transmission through thin elastic plate is investigated. Necessary for that numerical model was found using the Helmholtz equation and equation of oscilated plate by means of integral formulation of the solution for acoustic fields near to elastic thin plate and for bending waves of small amplitudes.

  15. On modelling three-dimensional piezoelectric smart structures with boundary spectral element method (United States)

    Zou, Fangxin; Aliabadi, M. H.


    The computational efficiency of the boundary element method in elastodynamic analysis can be significantly improved by employing high-order spectral elements for boundary discretisation. In this work, for the first time, the so-called boundary spectral element method is utilised to formulate the piezoelectric smart structures that are widely used in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The resultant boundary spectral element formulation has been validated by the finite element method (FEM) and physical experiments. The new formulation has demonstrated a lower demand on computational resources and a higher numerical stability than commercial FEM packages. Comparing to the conventional boundary element formulation, a significant reduction in computational expenses has been achieved. In summary, the boundary spectral element formulation presented in this paper provides a highly efficient and stable mathematical tool for the development of SHM applications.

  16. Technology for Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina


    This paper presents a study of an organisation, which is undergoing a process transforming organisational and technological boundaries. In particular, we shall look at three kinds of boundaries: the work to maintain and change the boundary between the organisation and its customers; boundaries.......After analysing the history and the current boundary work, the paper will propose new technological support for boundary work. In particular the paper will suggest means of supporting boundaries when these are productive and for changing boundaries when this seems more appropriate. In total, flexible technologies...... seem a core issue when dealing with technology for boundaries....

  17. On boundary damping for elastic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkaya, T.


    Many mathematical models, which describe oscillations in elastic structures such as suspension bridges, conveyor belts and elevator cables, can be formulated as initial-boundary value problems for string (wave) equations, or for beam equations. In order to build more durable, elegant and lighter

  18. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of pressure-driven flows in microchannels using Navier–Maxwell slip boundary conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Reis, Tim


    We present lattice Boltzmann simulations of rarefied flows driven by pressure drops along two-dimensional microchannels. Rarefied effects lead to non-zero cross-channel velocities, nonlinear variations in the pressure along the channel. Both effects are absent in flows driven by uniform body forces. We obtain second-order accuracy for the two components of velocity the pressure relative to asymptotic solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with slip boundary conditions. Since the common lattice Boltzmann formulations cannot capture Knudsen boundary layers, we replace the usual discrete analogs of the specular diffuse reflection conditions from continuous kinetic theory with a moment-based implementation of the first-order Navier-Maxwell slip boundary conditions that relate the tangential velocity to the strain rate at the boundary. We use these conditions to solve for the unknown distribution functions that propagate into the domain across the boundary. We achieve second-order accuracy by reformulating these conditions for the second set of distribution functions that arise in the derivation of the lattice Boltzmann method by an integration along characteristics. Our moment formalism is also valuable for analysing the existing boundary conditions. It reveals the origin of numerical slip in the bounce-back other common boundary conditions that impose conditions on the higher moments, not on the local tangential velocity itself. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Surface integral formulation of Maxwell's equations for simulation of non-destructive testing by eddy currents. Preliminary study on the implementation of the fast multipole method; Formulation integrale surfacique des equations de Maxwell pour la simulation de controles non destructifs par courant de Foucault. Etude preliminaire a la mise en oeuvre de la methode multipole rapide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, T.


    To simulate numerically a non-destructive by eddy current testing (NDT-CF), the sensor response can be modeled through a semi-analytical approach by volume integral equations. Faster than the finite element method, this approach is however restricted to the study of plane or cylindrical parts (without taking into account the edge effects) because of the complexity of the expression of the dyadic Green function for more general configurations. However, there is an industrial demand to extend the capabilities of the CF model in complex configurations (deformed plates, edges effects...). We were thus brought to formulate the electromagnetic problem differently, by setting ourselves the goal of maintaining a semi-analytical approach. The surface integral equation (SIE) expresses the volume problem by an equivalent transmission one at the interfaces (2D) between homogeneous sub-domains. This problem is approached by a linear system (by the method of moments), whose number of unknowns is reduced due to the nature of the surfacic mesh. Therefore, this system can be solved by a direct solver for small configurations. That enabled us to treat several various positions of the sensor for only one inversion of the impedance matrix. The numerical results obtained using this formulation involve plates with consideration of edge effects such as edge and corner. They are consistent with results obtained by the finite element method. For larger configurations, we conducted a preliminary study for the adaptation of an acceleration method of the matrix vector product involved in an iterative solver (fast multipole method or FMM) to define the conditions under which the FMM calculation works correctly (accuracy, convergence...) in the NDT's domain. A special attention has been given to the choice of basis functions (which have to satisfy an Hdiv conforming property) and on the evaluation of near interactions (which are weakly singular). (author) [French] Pour simuler

  20. Torsional vibration analysis of bars including secondary torsional shear deformation effect by the boundary element method (United States)

    Sapountzakis, E. J.; Tsipiras, V. J.; Argyridi, A. K.


    In this paper a boundary element method (BEM) is developed for the torsional vibration problem of bars of arbitrary doubly symmetric constant cross section, taking into account the nonuniform warping and secondary torsional shear deformation effects (STSDE). The bar is subjected to arbitrarily distributed or concentrated dynamic torsional loading along its length, while its edges are subjected to the most general torsional and warping boundary conditions. Apart from the angle of twist, the primary angle of twist per unit length is considered as an additional 1-D degree of freedom in order to account for the STSDE in the equations of motion of the bar. The warping shear stress distribution and the pertinent secondary torsional rigidity are computed by satisfying local equilibrium considerations under dynamic conditions without adhering to assumptions of Thin Tube Theory (TTT). By employing a distributed mass model system accounting for rotatory and warping inertia, an initial boundary value and two boundary value problems with respect to the variable along the bar time-dependent 1-D kinematical components, to the primary and secondary warping functions, respectively, are formulated. The latter are solved employing a pure BE method, requiring exclusively boundary discretization of the bar's cross section. The numerical solution of the aforementioned initial boundary value problem is performed through a BE method leading to a system of differential equations with displacement only unknowns, which is solved using an efficient direct time integration technique. Additionally, for the free vibrations case, a generalized eigenvalue problem is formulated through a similar BE technique. The accuracy and reliability of the results is assessed by FEM solutions employing solid or shell modelling. Both open- and closed-shaped cross section bars are examined and the necessity to include nonuniform torsional and STSD effects in the dynamic analysis of bars is demonstrated.

  1. 9th International Conference on Boundary Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Wendland, W; Kuhn, G


    This book contains the edited versions of most of the papers presented at the 9th International Conference on Boundary Elements held at the University of Stuttgart, Germany from August 31st to September 4th, 1987, which was organized in co-operation with the Computational Mechanics Institute and GAMM (Society for Applied Mathematics and Mechanics). This Conference, as the previous ones, aimed to review the latest developments in technique and theory and point out new advanced future trends. The emphasis of the meeting was on the engineering advances versus mathematical formulations, in an effort to consolidate the basis of many new applications. Recently engineers have proposed different techniques to solve non-linear and time dependent problems and many of these formulations needed a better mathematical understanding. Furthermore, new approximate formulations have been proposed for boundary elements which appeared to work in engineering practice, but did not have a proper theoretical background. The Conferen...

  2. Recent advances in boundary element methods

    CERN Document Server

    Manolis, GD


    Addresses the needs of the computational mechanics research community in terms of information on boundary integral equation-based methods and techniques applied to a variety of fields. This book collects both original and review articles on contemporary Boundary Element Methods (BEM) as well as on the Mesh Reduction Methods (MRM).

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic cross-field boundary layer flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Ingham


    Full Text Available The Blasius boundary layer on a flat plate in the presence of a constant ambient magnetic field is examined. A numerical integration of the MHD boundary layer equations from the leading edge is presented showing how the asymptotic solution described by Sears is approached.

  4. Vertical and horizontal spheroidal boundary-value problems (United States)

    Šprlák, Michal; Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet


    Vertical and horizontal spheroidal boundary-value problems (BVPs), i.e., determination of the external gravitational potential from the components of the gravitational gradient on the spheroid, are discussed in this article. The gravitational gradient is decomposed into the series of the vertical and horizontal vector spheroidal harmonics, before being orthogonalized in a weighted sense by two different approaches. The vertical and horizontal spheroidal BVPs are then formulated and solved in the spectral and spatial domains. Both orthogonalization methods provide the same analytical solutions for the vertical spheroidal BVP, and give distinct, but equivalent, analytical solutions for the horizontal spheroidal BVP. A closed-loop simulation is performed to test the correctness of the analytical solutions, and we investigate analytical properties of the sub-integral kernels. The systematic treatment of the spheroidal BVPs and the resulting mathematical equations extend the theoretical apparatus of geodesy and of the potential theory.

  5. New Poisson's Type Integral Formula for Thermoelastic Half-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Seremet


    Full Text Available A new Green's function and a new Poisson's type integral formula for a boundary value problem (BVP in thermoelasticity for a half-space with mixed boundary conditions are derived. The thermoelastic displacements are generated by a heat source, applied in the inner points of the half-space and by temperature, and prescribed on its boundary. All results are obtained in closed forms that are formulated in a special theorem. A closed form solution for a particular BVP of thermoelasticity for a half-space also is included. The main difficulties to obtain these results are in deriving of functions of influence of a unit concentrated force onto elastic volume dilatation Θ( and, also, in calculating of a volume integral of the product of function Θ( and Green's function in heat conduction. Using the proposed approach, it is possible to extend the obtained results not only for any canonical Cartesian domain, but also for any orthogonal one.

  6. Integrating petroleum and sulfur data to map the Guadalupian-Ochoan (Middle to Upper Permian) Boundary of the Delaware Basis, Trans-Pecos, Texas (United States)

    Dishron, Joseph B.


    The Delaware Basin of the Permian Basin is a classic intra-cratonic basin of West Texas and Southeast New Mexico. Hydrocarbon exploration and production have occurred in the region since the early 1920s, and, as a result, the formations related to these oil and gas reserves have been studied in great detail. Some formations in the Delaware Basin, however, have not been studied in such detail, and this thesis examines one, lesser-known unit that could have economic potential. The Lamar Limestone (Lamar Lime) of the Bell Canyon Formation has commonly been dismissed as a production interval; rather, it has been described as a source and seal rock for the Ramsey Sand of the lower Bell Canyon Formation. However, recent studies found that the Lamar Lime was contributing to production, and it has been described by Trentham (2006) as a potentia "mini Barnett" reservoir. The depths of these deposits are in a range that is ideal for oil accumulation. This study made use of data from wells and test holes drilled in the western Delaware Basin, Culberson County, Texas. Many oil and gas wells have been drilled in the western Delaware Basin, but they are concentrated in the north and east portions of Culberson County. In addition, sulfur wells were drilled in the area in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Analyses of the well logs of these wells and of core and outcrop studies were completed to gain a better understanding of the distribution and economic potential of the Lamar. Both datasets were combined to provide information not readily available in the oil and gas dataset. The Lamar Lime is an excellent marker bed because it underlies thick evaporites. The evaporite sequences are Ochoan in age, and, therefore, the contact of the Lamar Lime (Bell Canyon Formation) and the Castile Formation is the approximate boundary for the Guadalupian-Ochoan Series. The Castile Formation, the Salado Formation, and the Rustler Formation (from oldest to youngest) are the evaporite units that

  7. A Tensor-Train accelerated solver for integral equations in complex geometries (United States)

    Corona, Eduardo; Rahimian, Abtin; Zorin, Denis


    We present a framework using the Quantized Tensor Train (QTT) decomposition to accurately and efficiently solve volume and boundary integral equations in three dimensions. We describe how the QTT decomposition can be used as a hierarchical compression and inversion scheme for matrices arising from the discretization of integral equations. For a broad range of problems, computational and storage costs of the inversion scheme are extremely modest O (log ⁡ N) and once the inverse is computed, it can be applied in O (Nlog ⁡ N) . We analyze the QTT ranks for hierarchically low rank matrices and discuss its relationship to commonly used hierarchical compression techniques such as FMM and HSS. We prove that the QTT ranks are bounded for translation-invariant systems and argue that this behavior extends to non-translation invariant volume and boundary integrals. For volume integrals, the QTT decomposition provides an efficient direct solver requiring significantly less memory compared to other fast direct solvers. We present results demonstrating the remarkable performance of the QTT-based solver when applied to both translation and non-translation invariant volume integrals in 3D. For boundary integral equations, we demonstrate that using a QTT decomposition to construct preconditioners for a Krylov subspace method leads to an efficient and robust solver with a small memory footprint. We test the QTT preconditioners in the iterative solution of an exterior elliptic boundary value problem (Laplace) formulated as a boundary integral equation in complex, multiply connected geometries.

  8. Eulerian formulation of fluid-structure interaction in reactor containment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C Y


    This paper is concerned with an Eulerian formulation for a fluid-structure interface developed for the nonlinear fluid-structure interaction analysis encountered in the primary containment and piping components of nuclear reactors. The Eulerian finite difference methodology is chosen because of its decisive abilities in: (1) investigating material motion with large distortions, (2) treating fluid flow around internal structures having a geometrical discontinuity, (3) handling wave transients in the vicinity of perforated structures. The ultimate objective is to perform the analysis of the reactor integrity when subject to the transient load. Two types of irregular cells are considered and their formulation corresponding to the ICE technique are described. The first one is for interfaces between a coolant and a deformable structure, where the fluid slides tangentially along the moving boundary. A relaxation equation is derived here, allowing the adjustment of the pressure on the moving boundary of the fluid by an amount proportional to the actual mass flux across the boundary. The second irregular cell is for fluid adjacent to the perforated structure where fluid flow through coolant passage takes place. A modified Poisson equation is obtained to appropriately account for the volume perforation and the flow-area availability of the perforated structure. These two equations, in conjunction with the governing Poisson equation of the ICE technique, are solved iteratively. Convergence is attained when boundary conditions at all interfaces are satisified. The development scheme enables the implicit Eulerian hydrodynamic techniques to be coupled with any structural dynamic program. Presently, a corotational coordinate finite element program, WHAMS, is employed for calculating the structural response. Three sample problems are presented to illustrate the analysis. The results are discussed.

  9. Flood hazard energy in urban areas: a new integrated method for flood risk analysis in synthesizing interactions with urban boundary layer (United States)

    Park, S. Y.; Schmidt, A.


    Since urban physical characteristics (such as morphology and land-use/land-cover) are different from those of nature, altered interactions between the surface and atmosphere (especially urban boundary layer, UBL) or surface and subsurface can affect the hydrologic behavior and hence the flood hazards. In this research we focus on three main aspects of the urban surface/atmosphere interactions that affect flood hazard: urban heat island (UHI) effect, increased surface roughness, and accumulated aerosols. These factors, along with the uncertainties in quantifying these components make risk analysis intractable. In order to perform a risk analysis, the impact of these components needs to be mapped to a variable that can be mathematically described in a risk-analysis framework. We propose defining hazard energy as a surrogate for the combined effect of these three components. Perturbations that can change the hazard energy come from diverse sources in the urban areas and these somewhat disconnected things can be combined by the energy concept to characterize the impacts of urban areas in risk assessment. This approach synthesizes across hydrological and hydraulic processes in UBL, land surface, subsurface, and sewer network with scrutinizing energy exchange across places. We can extend our understanding about not only the influence of cities on local climate in rural areas or larger scales but also the interaction of cities and nature affecting each other.

  10. Grain boundaries: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.


    Quantitative measurements of grain boundary structure factors using x-ray diffraction have been performed on low angle (001) twist boundaries in gold. Also, a computer atomistic simulation program is being implemented to examine the equilibrium properties of a series of boundaries in gold. Simulation of boundaries at room temperature have been performed. Electron microscopy of grain boundary melting in aluminum was also performed. Results indicated an absence of melting. (CBS)

  11. Evaluating the Species Boundaries of Green Microalgae (Coccomyxa, Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta Using Integrative Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding with Further Implications for the Species Identification in Environmental Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Darienko

    Full Text Available Integrative taxonomy is an approach for defining species and genera by taking phylogenetic, morphological, physiological, and ecological data into account. This approach is appropriate for microalgae, where morphological convergence and high levels of morphological plasticity complicate the application of the traditional classification. Although DNA barcode markers are well-established for animals, fungi, and higher plants, there is an ongoing discussion about suitable markers for microalgae and protists because these organisms are genetically more diverse compared to the former groups. To solve these problems, we assess the usage of a polyphasic approach combining phenotypic and genetic parameters for species and generic characterization. The application of barcode markers for database queries further allows conclusions about the 'coverage' of culture-based approaches in biodiversity studies and integrates additional aspects into modern taxonomic concepts. Although the culture-dependent approach revealed three new lineages, which are described as new species in this paper, the culture-independent analyses discovered additional putative new species. We evaluated three barcode markers (V4, V9 and ITS-2 regions, nuclear ribosomal operon and studied the morphological and physiological plasticity of Coccomyxa, which became a model organism because its whole genome sequence has been published. In addition, several biotechnological patents have been registered for Coccomyxa. Coccomyxa representatives are distributed worldwide, are free-living or in symbioses, and colonize terrestrial and aquatic habitats. We investigated more than 40 strains and reviewed the biodiversity and biogeographical distribution of Coccomyxa species using DNA barcoding. The genus Coccomyxa formed a monophyletic group within the Trebouxiophyceae separated into seven independent phylogenetic lineages representing species. Summarizing, the combination of different characteristics

  12. Evaluating the Species Boundaries of Green Microalgae (Coccomyxa, Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) Using Integrative Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding with Further Implications for the Species Identification in Environmental Samples (United States)

    Darienko, Tatyana; Gustavs, Lydia; Eggert, Anja; Wolf, Wiebke; Pröschold, Thomas


    Integrative taxonomy is an approach for defining species and genera by taking phylogenetic, morphological, physiological, and ecological data into account. This approach is appropriate for microalgae, where morphological convergence and high levels of morphological plasticity complicate the application of the traditional classification. Although DNA barcode markers are well-established for animals, fungi, and higher plants, there is an ongoing discussion about suitable markers for microalgae and protists because these organisms are genetically more diverse compared to the former groups. To solve these problems, we assess the usage of a polyphasic approach combining phenotypic and genetic parameters for species and generic characterization. The application of barcode markers for database queries further allows conclusions about the ‘coverage’ of culture-based approaches in biodiversity studies and integrates additional aspects into modern taxonomic concepts. Although the culture-dependent approach revealed three new lineages, which are described as new species in this paper, the culture-independent analyses discovered additional putative new species. We evaluated three barcode markers (V4, V9 and ITS-2 regions, nuclear ribosomal operon) and studied the morphological and physiological plasticity of Coccomyxa, which became a model organism because its whole genome sequence has been published. In addition, several biotechnological patents have been registered for Coccomyxa. Coccomyxa representatives are distributed worldwide, are free-living or in symbioses, and colonize terrestrial and aquatic habitats. We investigated more than 40 strains and reviewed the biodiversity and biogeographical distribution of Coccomyxa species using DNA barcoding. The genus Coccomyxa formed a monophyletic group within the Trebouxiophyceae separated into seven independent phylogenetic lineages representing species. Summarizing, the combination of different characteristics in an

  13. Evaluating the Species Boundaries of Green Microalgae (Coccomyxa, Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) Using Integrative Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding with Further Implications for the Species Identification in Environmental Samples. (United States)

    Darienko, Tatyana; Gustavs, Lydia; Eggert, Anja; Wolf, Wiebke; Pröschold, Thomas


    Integrative taxonomy is an approach for defining species and genera by taking phylogenetic, morphological, physiological, and ecological data into account. This approach is appropriate for microalgae, where morphological convergence and high levels of morphological plasticity complicate the application of the traditional classification. Although DNA barcode markers are well-established for animals, fungi, and higher plants, there is an ongoing discussion about suitable markers for microalgae and protists because these organisms are genetically more diverse compared to the former groups. To solve these problems, we assess the usage of a polyphasic approach combining phenotypic and genetic parameters for species and generic characterization. The application of barcode markers for database queries further allows conclusions about the 'coverage' of culture-based approaches in biodiversity studies and integrates additional aspects into modern taxonomic concepts. Although the culture-dependent approach revealed three new lineages, which are described as new species in this paper, the culture-independent analyses discovered additional putative new species. We evaluated three barcode markers (V4, V9 and ITS-2 regions, nuclear ribosomal operon) and studied the morphological and physiological plasticity of Coccomyxa, which became a model organism because its whole genome sequence has been published. In addition, several biotechnological patents have been registered for Coccomyxa. Coccomyxa representatives are distributed worldwide, are free-living or in symbioses, and colonize terrestrial and aquatic habitats. We investigated more than 40 strains and reviewed the biodiversity and biogeographical distribution of Coccomyxa species using DNA barcoding. The genus Coccomyxa formed a monophyletic group within the Trebouxiophyceae separated into seven independent phylogenetic lineages representing species. Summarizing, the combination of different characteristics in an integrative

  14. Boundary management and integration framework for a joint cyber defence capability for military forces: analysis and synthesis from a through-life capability management perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roodt, JHS


    Full Text Available Management and Integration Framework for a Joint Cyber Defence Capability for Military Forces: Analysis and Synthesis from a Through-Life Capability Management Perspective J H S Roodt 1 , R Oosthuizen 2 , J C Jansen van Vuuren 1 1 Defence Peace... requirements and the JCD Capability (and in fact, any other similar capability) may be synthesised into a coherent capability design. It is recommended that a mission-based, through-life capability management-driven acquisition approach be adopted toward...

  15. The coevent formulation of quantum theory (United States)

    Wallden, Petros


    Understanding quantum theory has been a subject of debate from its birth. Many different formulations and interpretations have been proposed. Here we examine a recent novel formulation, namely the coevents formulation. It is a histories formulation and has as starting point the Feynman path integral and the decoherence functional. The new ontology turns out to be that of a coarse-grained history. We start with a quantum measure defined on the space of histories, and the existence of zero covers rules out single-history as potential reality (the Kochen Specker theorem casted in histories form is a special case of a zero cover). We see that allowing coarse-grained histories as potential realities avoids the previous paradoxes, maintains deductive non-contextual logic (alas non-Boolean) and gives rise to a unique classical domain. Moreover, we can recover the probabilistic predictions of quantum theory with the use of the Cournot's principle. This formulation, being both a realist formulation and based on histories, is well suited conceptually for the purposes of quantum gravity and cosmology.

  16. Integrated study on the topographic and shallow subsurface expression of the Grote Brogel Fault at the boundary of the Roer Valley Graben, Belgium (United States)

    Deckers, Jef; Van Noten, Koen; Schiltz, Marco; Lecocq, Thomas; Vanneste, Kris


    The Grote Brogel Fault (GBF) is a major WNW-ESE striking normal fault in Belgium that diverges westward from the NW-SE striking western border fault system of the Roer Valley Graben. The GBF delimits the topographically higher Campine Block from the subsiding Roer Valley Graben, and is expressed in the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) by relief gradients or scarps. By integrating DTM, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and borehole data, we studied the Quaternary activity of the GBF and its effects on local hydrogeology. In the shallow subsurface (linked stepover in the shallow subsurface, which affects groundwater levels in the different fault blocks, and illustrates the complex small-scale geometry of the GBF.

  17. High order integral equation method for diffraction gratings. (United States)

    Lu, Wangtao; Lu, Ya Yan


    Conventional integral equation methods for diffraction gratings require lattice sum techniques to evaluate quasi-periodic Green's functions. The boundary integral equation Neumann-to-Dirichlet map (BIE-NtD) method in Wu and Lu [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 2444 (2009)], [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1191 (2011)] is a recently developed integral equation method that avoids the quasi-periodic Green's functions and is relatively easy to implement. In this paper, we present a number of improvements for this method, including a revised formulation that is more stable numerically, and more accurate methods for computing tangential derivatives along material interfaces and for matching boundary conditions with the homogeneous top and bottom regions. Numerical examples indicate that the improved BIE-NtD map method achieves a high order of accuracy for in-plane and conical diffractions of dielectric gratings. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  18. Using reciprocity in Boundary Element Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente


    as the reciprocal radiation problem. The present paper concerns the situation of having a point source (which is reciprocal to a point receiver) at or near a discretized boundary element surface. The accuracy of the original and the reciprocal problem is compared in a test case for which an analytical solution......The concept of reciprocity is widely used in both theoretical and experimental work. In Boundary Element calculations reciprocity is sometimes employed in the solution of computationally expensive scattering problems, which sometimes can be more efficiently dealt with when formulated...

  19. Differential and Integral Models of TOKAMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Dolezel


    Full Text Available Modeling of 3D electromagnetic phenomena in TOKAMAK with typically distributed main and additional coils is not an easy business. Evaluated must be not only distribution of the magnetic field, but also forces acting in particular coils. Use of differential methods (such as FDM or FEM for this purpose may be complicated because of geometrical incommensurability of particular subregions in the investigated area or problems with the boundary conditions. That is why integral formulation of the problem may sometimes be an advantages. The theoretical analysis is illustrated on an example processed by both methods, whose results are compared and discussed.

  20. Boundary as Bridge: An Analysis of the Educational Neuroscience Literature from a Boundary Perspective (United States)

    Beauchamp, Catherine; Beauchamp, Miriam H.


    Within the emerging field of educational neuroscience, concerns exist that the impact of neuroscience research on education has been less effective than hoped. In seeking a way forward, it may be useful to consider the problems of integrating two complex fields in the context of disciplinary boundaries. Here, a boundary perspective is used as a…

  1. Variational formulation based analysis on growth of yield front in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    non-linear strain hardening material behavior. You et al. (2000) ... In this paper, the rotational symmetry of the loading, geometry and boundary condition of the problem makes the analysis ... Mises criterion lies in the single equation based formulation that takes care of all possible stress-state conditions in forming the.

  2. Nodal Discontinuous Element Methods: Formulations, Analysis, and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesthaven, Jan

    Part of concluding summary and outlook: "The focus of this thesis has been on the formulation, analysis, and application of high-order accurate computational techniques for solving rather general initial boundary value problems, emphasizing an analysis driven theoretical foundation. As such...

  3. Unified formulation of radiation conditions for the wave equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen


    A family of radiation conditions for the wave equation is derived by truncating a rational function approxiamtion of the corresponding plane wave representation, and it is demonstrated how these boundary conditions can be formulated in terms of fictitious surface densities, governed by second...

  4. Topology optimization of acoustic-structure interaction problems using a mixed finite element formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Sigmund, Ole


    The paper presents a gradient-based topology optimization formulation that allows to solve acoustic-structure (vibro-acoustic) interaction problems without explicit boundary interface representation. In acoustic-structure interaction problems, the pressure and displacement fields are governed...

  5. Free vibration analysis by BEM using particular integrals (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Banerjee, P. K.


    A new method for the free-vibration analysis using the boundary element technique is presented. The method utilizes a fictitious vector function to approximate the inertia forces and then uses the well-known concept of complementary functions and particular integrals to solve the resulting governing differential equations. The necessary particular integrals are defined for the two and three-dimensional analyses, and the present formulation is applied to a number of two-dimensional problems to show its accuracy and efficiency in the solution of realistic engineering problems.

  6. State Agency Administrative Boundaries (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database comprises 28 State agency boundaries and point of contact. The Kansas Geological Survey collected legal descriptions of the boundaries for various...

  7. Allegheny County Municipal Boundaries (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the municipal boundaries in Allegheny County. Data was created to portray the boundaries of the 130 Municipalities in Allegheny County the...

  8. HUD GIS Boundary Files (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HUD GIS Boundary Files are intended to supplement boundary files available from the U.S. Census Bureau. The files are for community planners interested in...

  9. Political State Boundary (National) (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  10. Retention and release of hydrogen isotopes in tungsten plasma-facing components: the role of grain boundaries and the native oxide layer from a joint experiment-simulation integrated approach (United States)

    Hodille, E. A.; Ghiorghiu, F.; Addab, Y.; Založnik, A.; Minissale, M.; Piazza, Z.; Martin, C.; Angot, T.; Gallais, L.; Barthe, M.-F.; Becquart, C. S.; Markelj, S.; Mougenot, J.; Grisolia, C.; Bisson, R.


    Fusion fuel retention (trapping) and release (desorption) from plasma-facing components are critical issues for ITER and for any future industrial demonstration reactors such as DEMO. Therefore, understanding the fundamental mechanisms behind the retention of hydrogen isotopes in first wall and divertor materials is necessary. We developed an approach that couples dedicated experimental studies with modelling at all relevant scales, from microscopic elementary steps to macroscopic observables, in order to build a reliable and predictive fusion reactor wall model. This integrated approach is applied to the ITER divertor material (tungsten), and advances in the development of the wall model are presented. An experimental dataset, including focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, isothermal desorption, temperature programmed desorption, nuclear reaction analysis and Auger electron spectroscopy, is exploited to initialize a macroscopic rate equation wall model. This model includes all elementary steps of modelled experiments: implantation of fusion fuel, fuel diffusion in the bulk or towards the surface, fuel trapping on defects and release of trapped fuel during a thermal excursion of materials. We were able to show that a single-trap-type single-detrapping-energy model is not able to reproduce an extended parameter space study of a polycrystalline sample exhibiting a single desorption peak. It is therefore justified to use density functional theory to guide the initialization of a more complex model. This new model still contains a single type of trap, but includes the density functional theory findings that the detrapping energy varies as a function of the number of hydrogen isotopes bound to the trap. A better agreement of the model with experimental results is obtained when grain boundary defects are included, as is consistent with the polycrystalline nature of the studied sample. Refinement of this grain boundary model is discussed as well as the inclusion

  11. Boundary-value problems for wave equations with data on the whole boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhmud A. Sadybekov


    Full Text Available In this article we propose a new formulation of boundary-value problem for a one-dimensional wave equation in a rectangular domain in which boundary conditions are given on the whole boundary. We prove the well-posedness of boundary-value problem in the classical and generalized senses. To substantiate the well-posedness of this problem it is necessary to have an effective representation of the general solution of the problem. In this direction we obtain a convenient representation of the general solution for the wave equation in a rectangular domain based on d'Alembert classical formula. The constructed general solution automatically satisfies the boundary conditions by a spatial variable. Further, by setting different boundary conditions according to temporary variable, we get some functional or functional-differential equations. Thus, the proof of the well-posedness of the formulated problem is reduced to question of the existence and uniqueness of solutions of the corresponding functional equations.

  12. Boundary RG flow associated with the AKNS soliton hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fateev, Vladimir A [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Astroparticules, Universite Montpellier II, Pl E Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier (France); Lukyanov, Sergei L [L D Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chernogolovka 142432, Russia (Russian Federation)


    We introduce and study an integrable boundary flow possessing an infinite number of conserving charges which can be thought of as quantum counterparts of the Ablowitz, Kaup, Newell and Segur Hamiltonians. We propose an exact expression for overlap amplitudes of the boundary state with all primary states in terms of solutions of certain ordinary linear differential equations. The boundary flow is terminated at a nontrivial infrared fixed point. We identify a form of whole boundary state corresponding to this fixed point.

  13. A Neumann boundary term for gravity (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash


    The Gibbons-Hawking-York (GHY) boundary term makes the Dirichlet problem for gravity well-defined, but no such general term seems to be known for Neumann boundary conditions. In this paper, we view Neumann not as fixing the normal derivative of the metric (“velocity”) at the boundary, but as fixing the functional derivative of the action with respect to the boundary metric (“momentum”). This leads directly to a new boundary term for gravity: the trace of the extrinsic curvature with a specific dimension-dependent coefficient. In three dimensions, this boundary term reduces to a “one-half” GHY term noted in the literature previously, and we observe that our action translates precisely to the Chern-Simons action with no extra boundary terms. In four dimensions, the boundary term vanishes, giving a natural Neumann interpretation to the standard Einstein-Hilbert action without boundary terms. We argue that in light of AdS/CFT, ours is a natural approach for defining a “microcanonical” path integral for gravity in the spirit of the (pre-AdS/CFT) work of Brown and York.

  14. Management of professional boundaries in rural practice. (United States)

    Brooks, Kathleen D; Eley, Diann S; Pratt, Rebekah; Zink, Therese


    Rural physicians wrestle with professional boundary issues routinely in everyday interactions, and their situation differs from the experience of their urban colleagues. Medical students receive limited exposure to professional boundary management in preclinical training. Increasingly, schools are implementing rural longitudinal clinical clerkships which expose students to rural boundary setting. This qualitative study explored the management of professional boundaries integral to rural practice and how this management may differ from their urban colleagues. Semistructured interviews were conducted in 2010 with 12 rural physicians across Minnesota exploring their perceptions of professionalism in rural practice. A social constructivist approach to grounded theory was used to analyze the data. Five primary themes regarding rural professionalism emerged from the data: centrality of care, rural influences on choice, individualization of boundary setting, advantages of dual relationships, and disadvantages of them. These themes served to illustrate rural boundary management. This study's findings indicate that rural physicians are routinely confronted with professional boundary issues in everyday situations, and these circumstances do not always reflect those of their urban colleagues. Given the increase in longitudinal immersion clinical clerkship programs to nurture student interest in future rural practice, acknowledgment and acceptance of the nuances of dual relationships and boundary setting in different clinical learning contexts are vital to help students identify their personal needs for privacy and be better prepared to negotiate the realities of rural practice. These findings may inform future medical education initiatives on professional boundary setting as an aspect of professionalism.

  15. ICM: an Integrated Compartment Method for numerically solving partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.


    An integrated compartment method (ICM) is proposed to construct a set of algebraic equations from a system of partial differential equations. The ICM combines the utility of integral formulation of finite element approach, the simplicity of interpolation of finite difference approximation, and the flexibility of compartment analyses. The integral formulation eases the treatment of boundary conditions, in particular, the Neumann-type boundary conditions. The simplicity of interpolation provides great economy in computation. The flexibility of discretization with irregular compartments of various shapes and sizes offers advantages in resolving complex boundaries enclosing compound regions of interest. The basic procedures of ICM are first to discretize the region of interest into compartments, then to apply three integral theorems of vectors to transform the volume integral to the surface integral, and finally to use interpolation to relate the interfacial values in terms of compartment values to close the system. The Navier-Stokes equations are used as an example of how to derive the corresponding ICM alogrithm for a given set of partial differential equations. Because of the structure of the algorithm, the basic computer program remains the same for cases in one-, two-, or three-dimensional problems.

  16. Liposomal paclitaxel formulations. (United States)

    Koudelka, Stěpán; Turánek, Jaroslav


    Over the past three decades, taxanes represent one of the most important new classes of drugs approved in oncology. Paclitaxel (PTX), the prototype of this class, is an anti-cancer drug approved for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancer. However, notwithstanding a suitable premedication, present-day chemotherapy employing a commercial preparation of PTX (Taxol®) is associated with serious side effects and hypersensitivity reactions. Liposomes represent advanced and versatile delivery systems for drugs. Generally, both in vivo mice tumor models and human clinical trials demonstrated that liposomal PTX formulations significantly increase a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of PTX which outperform that for Taxol®. Liposomal PTX formulations are in various stages of clinical trials. LEP-ETU (NeoPharm) and EndoTAG®-1 (Medigene) have reached the phase II of the clinical trials; Lipusu® (Luye Pharma Group) has already been commercialized. Present achievements in the preparation of various liposomal formulations of PTX, the development of targeted liposomal PTX systems and the progress in clinical testing of liposomal PTX are discussed in this review summarizing about 30 years of liposomal PTX development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. RAACFDb: Rheumatoid arthritis ayurvedic classical formulations database. (United States)

    Mohamed Thoufic Ali, A M; Agrawal, Aakash; Sajitha Lulu, S; Mohana Priya, A; Vino, S


    In the past years, the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has undergone remarkable changes in all therapeutic modes. The present newfangled care in clinical research is to determine and to pick a new track for better treatment options for RA. Recent ethnopharmacological investigations revealed that traditional herbal remedies are the most preferred modality of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, several ayurvedic modes of treatments and formulations for RA are not much studied and documented from Indian traditional system of medicine. Therefore, this directed us to develop an integrated database, RAACFDb (acronym: Rheumatoid Arthritis Ayurvedic Classical Formulations Database) by consolidating data from the repository of Vedic Samhita - The Ayurveda to retrieve the available formulations information easily. Literature data was gathered using several search engines and from ayurvedic practitioners for loading information in the database. In order to represent the collected information about classical ayurvedic formulations, an integrated database is constructed and implemented on a MySQL and PHP back-end. The database is supported by describing all the ayurvedic classical formulations for the treatment rheumatoid arthritis. It includes composition, usage, plant parts used, active ingredients present in the composition and their structures. The prime objective is to locate ayurvedic formulations proven to be quite successful and highly effective among the patients with reduced side effects. The database (freely available at hopefully enables easy access for clinical researchers and students to discover novel leads with reduced side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On Stable Wall Boundary Conditions for the Hermite Discretization of the Linearised Boltzmann Equation (United States)

    Sarna, Neeraj; Torrilhon, Manuel


    We define certain criteria, using the characteristic decomposition of the boundary conditions and energy estimates, which a set of stable boundary conditions for a linear initial boundary value problem, involving a symmetric hyperbolic system, must satisfy. We first use these stability criteria to show the instability of the Maxwell boundary conditions proposed by Grad (Commun Pure Appl Math 2(4):331-407, 1949). We then recognise a special block structure of the moment equations which arises due to the recursion relations and the orthogonality of the Hermite polynomials; the block structure will help us in formulating stable boundary conditions for an arbitrary order Hermite discretization of the Boltzmann equation. The formulation of stable boundary conditions relies upon an Onsager matrix which will be constructed such that the newly proposed boundary conditions stay close to the Maxwell boundary conditions at least in the lower order moments.

  19. An inverse Stefan problem relevant to boilover: Heat balance integral solutions and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Jordan


    Full Text Available Stefan problems relevant to burning oil-water systems are formulated. Two moving boundary sub-problems are defined: burning liquid surface and formation of a distillation ("hot zone" layer beneath it. The basic model considers a heat transfer equation with internal neat generation due to radiation flux absorbed in the fuel depth. Inverse Stefan problem corresponding to the first case solved by the heat balance integral method and dimensionless scaling of semi-analytical solutions are at issue. .

  20. Time-Discrete Higher-Order ALE Formulations: Stability

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea


    Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulations deal with PDEs on deformable domains upon extending the domain velocity from the boundary into the bulk with the purpose of keeping mesh regularity. This arbitrary extension has no effect on the stability of the PDE but may influence that of a discrete scheme. We examine this critical issue for higher-order time stepping without space discretization. We propose time-discrete discontinuous Galerkin (dG) numerical schemes of any order for a time-dependent advection-diffusion-model problem in moving domains, and study their stability properties. The analysis hinges on the validity of the Reynold\\'s identity for dG. Exploiting the variational structure and assuming exact integration, we prove that our conservative and nonconservative dG schemes are equivalent and unconditionally stable. The same results remain true for piecewise polynomial ALE maps of any degree and suitable quadrature that guarantees the validity of the Reynold\\'s identity. This approach generalizes the so-called geometric conservation law to higher-order methods. We also prove that simpler Runge-Kutta-Radau methods of any order are conditionally stable, that is, subject to a mild ALE constraint on the time steps. Numerical experiments corroborate and complement our theoretical results. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  1. Weak imposition of the slip boundary condition on curved boundaries for Stokes flow (United States)

    Urquiza, José M.; Garon, André; Farinas, Marie-Isabelle


    We study the finite element approximation of two methods to weakly impose a slip boundary condition for incompressible fluid flows: the Lagrange multiplier method and Nitsche's method. For each method, we can distinguish several formulations depending on the values of some real parameters. In the case of a spatial domain with a polygonal or polyhedral boundary, we prove convergence results of their finite element approximations, extending previous results of Verfürth [33] and we show numerical results confirming them. In the case of a spatial domain with a smooth curved boundary, numerical results show that approximations computed on polygonal domains approximating the original domain may not converge to the exact solution, depending on the values of the aforementioned parameters and on the finite element discretization. These negative results seem to highlight Babuska's like paradox, due to the approximation of the boundary by polygonal ones. In particular, they seem to contradict some of Verfürth's theoretical convergence results.

  2. Stokes equations with penalised slip boundary conditions (United States)

    Dione, Ibrahima; Tibirna, Cristian; Urquiza, José


    We consider the finite-element approximation of Stokes equations with slip boundary conditions imposed with the penalty method. In the case of a smooth curved boundary, our numerical results suggest that curved finite elements, regularised normal vectors or reduced integration techniques can be used to avoid a Babuska's-type paradox and ensure the convergence of finite-element approximations to the exact solution. Convergence orders with these remedies are also compared.

  3. Identities beyond Boundaries: Ethnic minority professionals’ negotiation of the boundary between work and non‐work domains


    Van Laer, Koen; Janssens, Maddy


    Whereas most studies approach boundary work as an either/or choice between integration and segmentation of work and non-work, this study aims to develop a more complex understanding by adopting an identity perspective and drawing on the extreme case of ethnic minorities. Based on in-depth interviews, our findings show the construction of boundary transcending identities which allows individuals to combine integration and segmentation, boundary regulation by other domain members which challeng...

  4. Two volume integral equations for the inhomogeneous and anisotropic forward problem in electroencephalography (United States)

    Rahmouni, Lyes; Mitharwal, Rajendra; Andriulli, Francesco P.


    This work presents two new volume integral equations for the Electroencephalography (EEG) forward problem which, differently from the standard integral approaches in the domain, can handle heterogeneities and anisotropies of the head/brain conductivity profiles. The new formulations translate to the quasi-static regime some volume integral equation strategies that have been successfully applied to high frequency electromagnetic scattering problems. This has been obtained by extending, to the volume case, the two classical surface integral formulations used in EEG imaging and by introducing an extra surface equation, in addition to the volume ones, to properly handle boundary conditions. Numerical results corroborate theoretical treatments, showing the competitiveness of our new schemes over existing techniques and qualifying them as a valid alternative to differential equation based methods.

  5. Systematic Equation Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik


    A tutorial giving a very simple introduction to the set-up of the equations used as a model for an electrical/electronic circuit. The aim is to find a method which is as simple and general as possible with respect to implementation in a computer program. The “Modified Nodal Approach”, MNA, and th......, and the “Controlled Source Approach”, CSA, for systematic equation formulation are investigated. It is suggested that the kernel of the P Spice program based on MNA is reprogrammed....

  6. Gelling process differences in reverse emulsion, in situ gelling polymeric materials for intracranial aneurysm embolization, formulated with injectable contrast agents. (United States)

    Riley, Celeste M; McLemore, Ryan; Preul, Mark C; Vernon, Brent L


    The use of liquid-to-solid curing materials for brain aneurysm embolization has become increasingly attractive, as liquid embolics can be delivered noninvasively and can potentially achieve a higher degree of aneurysm volume occlusion. This study was aimed at characterizing differences in the gelling process of a reverse emulsion, crosslinking polymer system formulated with different types of injectable contrast agents. The polymeric system consists of poly(propylene glycol) diacrylate (PPODA) and pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (QT). These monomers undergo Michael-type addition upon initiation by a basic, aqueous solution. Conray™ and Omnipaque™ 300, commercially available contrast agents, were pH-adjusted to basic conditions and used as initiating solutions with the PPODA-QT system. Material characteristics were identified through rheology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that Conray- and Omnipaque-formulated materials progress through the gelling process uniquely, evidenced by distinctly different viscosity profiles and droplet distributions. These results indicate that Conray is more miscible with the PPODA-QT organic phase. Greater solubility in the organic phase allows Conray-formulated gels to have faster and more widespread reaction initiation kinetics when Conray and Omnipaque have the same pH. Omnipaque-formulated gels require a higher pH for the material to solidify in a time frame comparable to Conray-formulated gels. This discrepancy arises because the majority of reaction initiation sites in Omnipaque-formulated gels occur at phase boundaries via hydroxide ion flux from emulsified droplets rather than from hydroxide ions that are solubilized and integrated within the PPODA-QT organic phase. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A direct comparison of a depth-dependent Radiation stress formulation and a Vortex force formulation within a three-dimensional coastal ocean model (United States)

    Moghimi, Saeed; Klingbeil, Knut; Gräwe, Ulf; Burchard, Hans


    In this study a model system consisting of the three-dimensional General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) and the third generation wind wave model SWAN was developed. Both models were coupled in two-way mode. The effects of waves were included into the ocean model by implementing the depth-dependent Radiation stress formulation (RS) of Mellor (2011a) and the Vortex force formulation (VF) presented by Bennis et al. (2011). Thus, the developed model system offers a direct comparison of these two formulations. The enhancement of the vertical eddy viscosity due to the energy transfer by white capping and breaking waves was taken into account by means of injecting turbulent kinetic energy at the surface. Wave-current interaction inside the bottom boundary layer was considered as well. The implementation of both wave-averaged formulations was validated against three flume experiments. One of these experiments with long period surface waves (swell), had not been evaluated before. The validation showed the capability of the model system to reproduce the three-dimensional interaction of waves and currents. For the flume test cases the wave-induced water level changes (wave set-up and set-down) and the corresponding depth-integrated wave-averaged velocities were similar for RS and VF. Both formulations produced comparable velocity profiles for short period waves. However, for large period waves, VF overestimated the wave set-down near the main breaking points and RS showed artificial offshore-directed transport at the surface where wave shoaling was taking place. Finally the validated model system was applied to a realistic barred beach scenario. For RS and VF the resulting velocity profiles were similar after being significantly improved by a roller evolution method. Both wave-averaged formulations generally provided similar results, but some shortcomings were revealed. Although VF partly showed significant deviations from the measurements, its results were still physically

  8. No rescue for the no boundary proposal: Pointers to the future of quantum cosmology (United States)

    Feldbrugge, Job; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Turok, Neil


    In recent work [J. Feldbrugge et al. Phys. Rev. D 95, 103508 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.95.103508 and J. Feldbrugge et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 171301 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.171301], we introduced Picard-Lefschetz theory as a tool for defining the Lorentzian path integral for quantum gravity in a systematic semiclassical expansion. This formulation avoids several pitfalls occurring in the Euclidean approach. Our method provides, in particular, a more precise formulation of the Hartle-Hawking no boundary proposal, as a sum over real Lorentzian four-geometries interpolating between an initial three-geometry of zero size, i.e., a point, and a final three-geometry. With this definition, we calculated the no boundary amplitude for a closed universe with a cosmological constant, assuming cosmological symmetry for the background and including linear perturbations. We found the opposite semiclassical exponent to that obtained by Hartle and Hawking for the creation of a de Sitter spacetime "from nothing." Furthermore, we found the linearized perturbations to be governed by an inverse Gaussian distribution, meaning they are unsuppressed and out of control. Recently, Diaz Dorronsoro et al. [Phys. Rev. D 96, 043505 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevD.96.043505] followed our methods but attempted to rescue the no boundary proposal by integrating the lapse over a different, intrinsically complex contour. Here, we show that, in addition to the desired Hartle-Hawking saddle point contribution, their contour yields extra, nonperturbative corrections which again render the perturbations unsuppressed. We prove there is no choice of complex contour for the lapse which avoids this problem. We extend our discussion to include backreaction in the leading semiclassical approximation, fully nonlinearly for the lowest tensor harmonic and to second order for all higher modes. Implications for quantum de Sitter spacetime and for cosmic inflation are briefly discussed.

  9. Ether formulations of relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, M.C.


    Contemporary ether theories are surveyed and criticized, especially those formally identical to orthodox Relativity. The historical development of Relativity, Special and General, in terms of an ether, is briefly indicated. Classical interpretations of Generalized Relativity using ether are compared to Euclidean formulations using a background space. The history of a sub-group of theories, formulating a 'new' Relativity involving modified transforms, is outlined. According to the theory with which they agree, recent supposed detections of drift are classified and criticized. Cosmological evidence suggesting an ether is mentioned. Only ether theories formally identical to Relativity have been published in depth. They stand criticized as being contrary to the positivist spirit. The history of mechanical analogues is traced, from Hartley's representing gravitating matter as spherical standing waves, to recent suggestions that vortex-sponge might model electromagnetic, quantum, uncertainty and faster-than-light phenomena. Contemporary theories are particular physical theories, themselves 'second interpretations' of a primary mathematical model. Mechanical analogues are auxiliary, not necessary, to other theory, disclosing relationships between classical and non-classical descriptions of assemblies charging state. The ether-relativity polemic, part of a broader dispute about relativity, is founded on mistaken conceptions of the roles of mathematical and physical models, mechanical analogues; and a distored view of history, which indicates that ether theories have become relativistic. 103 references.

  10. Protocol: changes in rates of opioid overdose and poisoning events in an integrated health system following the introduction of a formulation of OxyContin® with abuse-deterrent properties. (United States)

    Janoff, Shannon L; Perrin, Nancy A; Coplan, Paul M; Chilcoat, Howard D; Campbell, Cynthia I; Green, Carla A


    Addiction, overdoses and deaths resulting from prescription opioids have increased dramatically over the last decade. In response, several manufacturers have developed formulations of opioids with abuse-deterrent properties. For many of these products, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognized the formulation with labeling claims and mandated post-marketing studies to assess the abuse-deterrent effects. In response, we assess differences in rates of opioid-related overdoses and poisonings prior to and following the introduction of a formulation of OxyContin® with abuse-deterrent properties. To assess effects of this formulation, electronic medical record (EMR) data from Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW) and Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) are linked to state death data and compared to chart audits. Overdose and poisoning events will be categorized by intentionality and number of agents involved, including illicit drugs and alcohol. Using 6-month intervals over a 10-year period, trends will be compared in rates of opioid-related overdoses and poisoning events associated with OxyContin® to rates of events associated with other oxycodone and opioid formulations. Qualitative interviews with patients and relatives of deceased patients will be conducted to capture circumstances surrounding events. This study assesses and tracks changes in opioid-related overdoses and poisoning events prior to and following the introduction of OxyContin® with abuse-deterrent properties. Public health significance is high because these medications are designed to reduce abuse-related behaviors that lead to important adverse outcomes, including overdoses and deaths.

  11. Characterizations of boundary pluripolar hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djire, I.K.; Wiegerinck, J.


    We present some basic properties of the so-called boundary relative extremal function and discuss boundary pluripolar sets and boundary pluripolar hulls. We show that for B-regular domains the boundary pluripolar hull is always trivial on the boundary of the domain and present a “boundary version”

  12. Grain Boundary Complexions (United States)


    deter- mine bulk materials behavior and properties such as superplasticity, creep, fatigue, corrosion , strength and conductivity [2]. Grain boundary...interface (i.e. lattice mismatch accommodated by interface dislocations ), wetting transitions will not occur. A wetting transition is possible in the case...melting only starts around dislocations at low- angle grain boundaries; the grain boundary structure con- sists of isolated liquid pools separated by

  13. Stable Boundary Layer Issues


    Steeneveld, G.J.


    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  14. Resistance Laws For Stable Baroclinic Boundary Layers Revisited (United States)

    Zilitinkevich, S.; Baklanov, A.; Djolov, G.; Esau, I.

    An advanced theoretical model is proposed including the effects of the free-flow sta- bility and baroclinicity in the resistance law for stable boundary layers. Theoretical predictions are verified against LES and experimental data. This new development ex- plains low accuracy of all earlier resistance law formulation and opens up fresh oppor- tunities for improved parameterisation of stable boundary layers in general circulation models.

  15. Isogeometric Analysis of Boundary Integral Equations (United States)


    grants from the Office of Naval Research (N00014-08-1-0992), the National ScienceFoundation ( CMMI -01101007), and SINTEF (UTA10-000374) with the... CMMI -01101007). We thank these organizations for their generous support. We are also grateful to Professor Michael Scott (Brigham Young University) for

  16. Olaparib tablet formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plummer, Ruth; Swaisland, Helen; Leunen, Karin


    formulation. METHODS: PK data were obtained in Part A using a two-treatment period crossover design; single-dose olaparib 300 mg (two 150 mg tablets) was administered in two prandial states: fasted and fed. In Part B, patients received olaparib tablets (300 mg bid) for 5 days under fasting conditions; in Part...... C, patients were allowed continued access to olaparib. Safety was assessed throughout, with data reported for Parts A and B. RESULTS: A total of 60 and 56 patients were evaluable for safety and PK analyses, respectively; 57 patients entered Part B. Rate of olaparib absorption was slower.......16)]. The point estimate and 90 % CI for the AUC0-∞ treatment ratio were within pre-defined bioequivalence limits (0.80-1.25). Adverse event data were consistent with the known safety profile of olaparib. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study showed that a high-fat meal decreases the rate of absorption and peak...

  17. Design of a Generic and Flexible Data Structure for Efficient Formulation of Large Scale Network Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Sarup, Bent; Sin, Gürkan


    structure for efficient formulation of enterprise-wide optimization problems is presented. Through the integration of the described data structure in our synthesis and design framework, the problem formulation workflow is automated in a software tool, reducing time and resources needed to formulate large...

  18. A simple and self-consistent geostrophic-force-balance model of the thermohaline circulation with boundary mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Callies


    Full Text Available A simple model of the thermohaline circulation (THC is formulated, with the objective to represent explicitly the geostrophic force balance of the basinwide THC. The model comprises advective-diffusive density balances in two meridional-vertical planes located at the eastern and the western walls of a hemispheric sector basin. Boundary mixing constrains vertical motion to lateral boundary layers along these walls. Interior, along-boundary, and zonally integrated meridional flows are in thermal-wind balance. Rossby waves and the absence of interior mixing render isopycnals zonally flat except near the western boundary, constraining meridional flow to the western boundary layer. The model is forced by a prescribed meridional surface density profile.

    This two-plane model reproduces both steady-state density and steady-state THC structures of a primitive-equation model. The solution shows narrow deep sinking at the eastern high latitudes, distributed upwelling at both boundaries, and a western boundary current with poleward surface and equatorward deep flow. The overturning strength has a 2/3-power-law dependence on vertical diffusivity and a 1/3-power-law dependence on the imposed meridional surface density difference. Convective mixing plays an essential role in the two-plane model, ensuring that deep sinking is located at high latitudes. This role of convective mixing is consistent with that in three-dimensional models and marks a sharp contrast with previous two-dimensional models.

    Overall, the two-plane model reproduces crucial features of the THC as simulated in simple-geometry three-dimensional models. At the same time, the model self-consistently makes quantitative a conceptual picture of the three-dimensional THC that hitherto has been expressed either purely qualitatively or not self-consistently.

  19. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.


    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  20. Liposomal Formulation of Amphiphilic Fullerene Antioxidants (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiguo; Lenk, Robert P.; Dellinger, Anthony; Wilson, Stephen R.; Sadler, Robert; Kepley, Christopher L.


    Novel amphiphilic fullerene[70] derivatives that are rationally designed to intercalate in lipid bilayers are reported, as well as its vesicular formulation with surprisingly high loading capacity up to 65% by weight. The amphiphilic C70 bisadduct forms uniform and dimensionally stable liposomes with auxiliary natural phospholipids as demonstrated by buoyant density test, particle size distribution and 31P NMR. The antioxidant property of fullerenes is retained in the bipolarly functionalized C70 derivative, Amphiphilic Liposomal Malonylfullerene[70] (ALM) as well as in its liposomal formulations, as shown by both electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies and in vitro reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibition experiments. The liposomally formulated ALM efficiently quenched hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals. In addition, the fullerene liposome inhibited radical-induced lipid peroxidation and maintained the integrity of the lipid bilayer structure. This new class of liposomally formulated, amphipathic fullerene compounds represents a novel drug delivery system for fullerenes and provides a promising pathway to treat oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:20839887

  1. Integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L


    Two distinct but related approaches hold the solutions to many mathematical problems--the forms of expression known as differential and integral equations. The method employed by the integral equation approach specifically includes the boundary conditions, which confers a valuable advantage. In addition, the integral equation approach leads naturally to the solution of the problem--under suitable conditions--in the form of an infinite series.Geared toward upper-level undergraduate students, this text focuses chiefly upon linear integral equations. It begins with a straightforward account, acco

  2. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.


    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  3. Integral Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hochstadt, Harry


    This classic work is now available in an unabridged paperback edition. Hochstatdt's concise treatment of integral equations represents the best compromise between the detailed classical approach and the faster functional analytic approach, while developing the most desirable features of each. The seven chapters present an introduction to integral equations, elementary techniques, the theory of compact operators, applications to boundary value problems in more than dimension, a complete treatment of numerous transform techniques, a development of the classical Fredholm technique, and applicatio

  4. Paint and Click: Unified Interactions for Image Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summa, B. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Inst.; Gooch, A. A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Inst.; Scorzelli, G. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Inst.; Pascucci, V. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Inst.


    Image boundaries are a fundamental component of many interactive digital photography techniques, enabling applications such as segmentation, panoramas, and seamless image composition. Interactions for image boundaries often rely on two complementary but separate approaches: editing via painting or clicking constraints. In this work, we provide a novel, unified approach for interactive editing of pairwise image boundaries that combines the ease of painting with the direct control of constraints. Rather than a sequential coupling, this new formulation allows full use of both interactions simultaneously, giving users unprecedented flexibility for fast boundary editing. To enable this new approach, we provide technical advancements. In particular, we detail a reformulation of image boundaries as a problem of finding cycles, expanding and correcting limitations of the previous work. Our new formulation provides boundary solutions for painted regions with performance on par with state-of-the-art specialized, paint-only techniques. In addition, we provide instantaneous exploration of the boundary solution space with user constraints. Finally, we provide examples of common graphics applications impacted by our new approach.

  5. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab


    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  6. Numerical quadrature over smooth surfaces with boundaries (United States)

    Reeger, Jonah A.; Fornberg, Bengt


    This paper describes a high order accurate method to calculate integrals over curved surfaces with boundaries. Given data locations that are arbitrarily distributed over the surface, together with some functional description of the surface and its boundary, the algorithm produces matching quadrature weights. This extends on the authors' earlier methods for integrating over the surface of a sphere and over arbitrarily shaped smooth closed surfaces by also considering domain boundaries. The core approach consists again of combining RBF-FD (radial basis function-generated finite difference) approximations for curved surface triangles, which together make up the full surface. The provided examples include both curved and flat domains. In the highly special case of equi-spaced nodes over a regular interval in 1-D, the method provides a new opportunity for improving on the classical Gregory enhancements of the trapezoidal rule.

  7. Seeking the boundary of boundary extension. (United States)

    McDunn, Benjamin A; Siddiqui, Aisha P; Brown, James M


    Boundary extension (BE) is a remarkably consistent visual memory error in which participants remember seeing a more wide-angle image of a scene than was actually viewed (Intraub & Richardson, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15:179-187, 1989). Multiple stimulus factors are thought to contribute to the occurrence of BE, including object recognition, conceptual knowledge of scenes, and amodal perception at the view boundaries (Intraub, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science 3:117-127, 2012). In the present study, we used abstract scenes instead of images of the real world, in order to remove expectations based on semantic associations with objects and the schematic context of the view. Close-angle and wide-angle scenes were created using irregular geometric shapes rated by independent observers as lacking any easily recognizable structure. The abstract objects were tested on either a random-dot or a blank background in order to assess the influence of implied continuation of the image beyond its boundaries. The random-dot background conditions had background occlusion cues either present or absent at the image border, in order to test their influence on BE in the absence of high-level information about the scenes. The results indicate that high-level information about objects and schematic context is unnecessary for BE to occur, and that occlusion information at the image boundary also has little influence on BE. Contrary to previous studies, we also found clear BE for all conditions, despite using scenes depicting undetailed objects on a blank white background. The results highlighted the ubiquitous nature of BE and the adaptability of scene perception processes.

  8. Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 2 (State Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  9. Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  10. A simplified two-dimensional boundary element method with arbitrary uniform mean flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Barhoumi


    Full Text Available To reduce computational costs, an improved form of the frequency domain boundary element method (BEM is proposed for two-dimensional radiation and propagation acoustic problems in a subsonic uniform flow with arbitrary orientation. The boundary integral equation (BIE representation solves the two-dimensional convected Helmholtz equation (CHE and its fundamental solution, which must satisfy a new Sommerfeld radiation condition (SRC in the physical space. In order to facilitate conventional formulations, the variables of the advanced form are expressed only in terms of the acoustic pressure as well as its normal and tangential derivatives, and their multiplication operators are based on the convected Green’s kernel and its modified derivative. The proposed approach significantly reduces the CPU times of classical computational codes for modeling acoustic domains with arbitrary mean flow. It is validated by a comparison with the analytical solutions for the sound radiation problems of monopole, dipole and quadrupole sources in the presence of a subsonic uniform flow with arbitrary orientation. Keywords: Two-dimensional convected Helmholtz equation, Two-dimensional convected Green’s function, Two-dimensional convected boundary element method, Arbitrary uniform mean flow, Two-dimensional acoustic sources

  11. Dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer response to ocean mesoscale sea surface temperatures (United States)

    Schneider, Niklas; Taguchi, Bunmei; Nonaka, Masami; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira; Nakamura, Hisashi


    A recent theory for the mid-latitude atmospheric response to ocean mesoscale sea surface temperature (SST) variations is tested in the Southern Ocean using an extended integration of an atmospheric general circulation model. The theory is based on a linearization of the steady state, atmospheric boundary-layer dynamics, and yields the atmospheric response as classical Ekman dynamics extended to include advection, and sea surface temperature induced changes of atmospheric mixing and hydrostatic pressure. The theory predicts the response at each horizontal wave number to be governed by spectral transfer function between sea surface temperature and boundary layer variables, that are dependent on large-scale winds and the formulation of boundary layer mixing. The general circulation model, AFES, is shown to reproduce observed regressions between surface wind stress and sea surface temperatures. These 'coupling coefficients' are explained by SST induced changes of the surface stability, that directly impact surface stress, and changes of the surface winds. Estimates of the spectral transfer function between the latter and surface temperature are consistent with the theory, and suggest that it faithfully captures the underlying physics.

  12. Inverse boundary spectral problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kachalov, Alexander; Lassas, Matti


    Inverse boundary problems are a rapidly developing area of applied mathematics with applications throughout physics and the engineering sciences. However, the mathematical theory of inverse problems remains incomplete and needs further development to aid in the solution of many important practical problems.Inverse Boundary Spectral Problems develop a rigorous theory for solving several types of inverse problems exactly. In it, the authors consider the following: ""Can the unknown coefficients of an elliptic partial differential equation be determined from the eigenvalues and the boundary value

  13. Beyond the Boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte


    Whether celebratory or critical, STS research on science-industry relations has focused on the blurring of boundaries and hybridization of codes and practices. However, the vocabulary of boundary and hybrid tends to reify science and industry as separate in the attempt to map their relation...... as the negotiation of a preexisting science-industry boundary. Rather, viability is obtained through a strategy of "circumventing" the science-industry food chain and "sequestering" biotech components within the research center. Symbiosis allows academic scientists to do biology while at the same time demonstrating...

  14. Beyond the Boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte


    Whether celebratory or critical, STS research on science-industry relations has focused on the blurring of boundaries and hybridization of codes and practices. However, the vocabulary of boundary and hybrid tends to reify science and industry as separate in the attempt to map their relation...... as the negotiation of a preexisting science-industry boundary. Rather, viability is obtained through a strategy of circumventing the science-industry food chain and sequestering biotech components within the research center. Symbiosis allows academic scientists to do biology while at the same time demonstrating...

  15. "Missing" boundary conditions? Discretize first, substitute next, and combine later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Arthur E.P.


    A simple approach exists to prevent the need for constructing boundary conditions in situations where they are not explicitly supplied by the original analytical formulation of the problem. An example is the Poisson equation for the pressure in calculations of incompressible flow. Other examples are

  16. Role of Buffers in Protein Formulations. (United States)

    Zbacnik, Teddy J; Holcomb, Ryan E; Katayama, Derrick S; Murphy, Brian M; Payne, Robert W; Coccaro, Richard C; Evans, Gabriel J; Matsuura, James E; Henry, Charles S; Manning, Mark Cornell


    Buffers comprise an integral component of protein formulations. Not only do they function to regulate shifts in pH, they also can stabilize proteins by a variety of mechanisms. The ability of buffers to stabilize therapeutic proteins whether in liquid formulations, frozen solutions, or the solid state is highlighted in this review. Addition of buffers can result in increased conformational stability of proteins, whether by ligand binding or by an excluded solute mechanism. In addition, they can alter the colloidal stability of proteins and modulate interfacial damage. Buffers can also lead to destabilization of proteins, and the stability of buffers themselves is presented. Furthermore, the potential safety and toxicity issues of buffers are discussed, with a special emphasis on the influence of buffers on the perceived pain upon injection. Finally, the interaction of buffers with other excipients is examined. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 13. Integration of Renewable Energy Technologies in the national curriculum SPECTRUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, E. [ETC Nederland, Leusden (Netherlands); Permana, I. [Technical Education Development Centre TEDC, Bandung (Indonesia)


    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report focuses on the achievements for settling a national curriculum for Renewable Energy Technologies (RET) within the framework of national programme SPECTRUM, which includes all curricula of the medium technical schools in Indonesia.

  18. Equivariant preconditioners for boundary element methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausch, J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)


    In this paper the author proposes and discusses two preconditioners for boundary integral equations on domains which are nearly symmetric. The preconditioners under consideration are equivariant, that is, they commute with a group of permutation matrices. Numerical experiments demonstrate their efficiency for the GMRES method.

  19. Secure Supply Chains : Design Restrictions & Organizational Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludema, M.W.


    An important issue in the design of secure supply chains is the understanding of the relation between supply chains and the organizational responsibility of specific parts of these supply chains. Organizational boundaries change over time by means of vertical and/or horizontal (des)-integration and

  20. Supersymmetric formulation of multiplicative white-noise stochastic processes. (United States)

    Arenas, Zochil González; Barci, Daniel G


    We present a supersymmetric formulation of Markov processes, represented by a family of Langevin equations with multiplicative white noise. The hidden symmetry encodes equilibrium properties such as fluctuation-dissipation relations. The formulation does not depend on the particular prescription to define the Wiener integral. In this way, different equilibrium distributions, reached at long times for each prescription, can be formally treated on the same footing.

  1. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.


    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products......, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product...

  2. Towards a methodology to formulate sustainable diets for livestock: accounting for environmental impact in diet formulation. (United States)

    Mackenzie, S G; Leinonen, I; Ferguson, N; Kyriazakis, I


    The objective of this study was to develop a novel methodology that enables pig diets to be formulated explicitly for environmental impact objectives using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. To achieve this, the following methodological issues had to be addressed: (1) account for environmental impacts caused by both ingredient choice and nutrient excretion, (2) formulate diets for multiple environmental impact objectives and (3) allow flexibility to identify the optimal nutritional composition for each environmental impact objective. An LCA model based on Canadian pig farms was integrated into a diet formulation tool to compare the use of different ingredients in Eastern and Western Canada. By allowing the feed energy content to vary, it was possible to identify the optimum energy density for different environmental impact objectives, while accounting for the expected effect of energy density on feed intake. A least-cost diet was compared with diets formulated to minimise the following objectives: non-renewable resource use, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, global warming potential and a combined environmental impact score (using these four categories). The resulting environmental impacts were compared using parallel Monte Carlo simulations to account for shared uncertainty. When optimising diets to minimise a single environmental impact category, reductions in the said category were observed in all cases. However, this was at the expense of increasing the impact in other categories and higher dietary costs. The methodology can identify nutritional strategies to minimise environmental impacts, such as increasing the nutritional density of the diets, compared with the least-cost formulation.

  3. An alternative path integral for quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Kumar, K.V. Pavan; Raju, Avinash [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore 560012 (India)


    We define a (semi-classical) path integral for gravity with Neumann boundary conditions in D dimensions, and show how to relate this new partition function to the usual picture of Euclidean quantum gravity. We also write down the action in ADM Hamiltonian formulation and use it to reproduce the entropy of black holes and cosmological horizons. A comparison between the (background-subtracted) covariant and Hamiltonian ways of semi-classically evaluating this path integral in flat space reproduces the generalized Smarr formula and the first law. This “Neumann ensemble” perspective on gravitational thermodynamics is parallel to the canonical (Dirichlet) ensemble of Gibbons-Hawking and the microcanonical approach of Brown-York.

  4. A Numerical Method for Solving the 3D Unsteady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations in Curvilinear Domains with Complex Immersed Boundaries. (United States)

    Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    A novel numerical method is developed that integrates boundary-conforming grids with a sharp interface, immersed boundary methodology. The method is intended for simulating internal flows containing complex, moving immersed boundaries such as those encountered in several cardiovascular applications. The background domain (e.g the empty aorta) is discretized efficiently with a curvilinear boundary-fitted mesh while the complex moving immersed boundary (say a prosthetic heart valve) is treated with the sharp-interface, hybrid Cartesian/immersed-boundary approach of Gilmanov and Sotiropoulos [1]. To facilitate the implementation of this novel modeling paradigm in complex flow simulations, an accurate and efficient numerical method is developed for solving the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in generalized curvilinear coordinates. The method employs a novel, fully-curvilinear staggered grid discretization approach, which does not require either the explicit evaluation of the Christoffel symbols or the discretization of all three momentum equations at cell interfaces as done in previous formulations. The equations are integrated in time using an efficient, second-order accurate fractional step methodology coupled with a Jacobian-free, Newton-Krylov solver for the momentum equations and a GMRES solver enhanced with multigrid as preconditioner for the Poisson equation. Several numerical experiments are carried out on fine computational meshes to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method for standard benchmark problems as well as for unsteady, pulsatile flow through a curved, pipe bend. To demonstrate the ability of the method to simulate flows with complex, moving immersed boundaries we apply it to calculate pulsatile, physiological flow through a mechanical, bileaflet heart valve mounted in a model straight aorta with an anatomical-like triple sinus.

  5. Coupled variational formulations of linear elasticity and the DPG methodology (United States)

    Fuentes, Federico; Keith, Brendan; Demkowicz, Leszek; Le Tallec, Patrick


    This article presents a general approach akin to domain-decomposition methods to solve a single linear PDE, but where each subdomain of a partitioned domain is associated to a distinct variational formulation coming from a mutually well-posed family of broken variational formulations of the original PDE. It can be exploited to solve challenging problems in a variety of physical scenarios where stability or a particular mode of convergence is desired in a part of the domain. The linear elasticity equations are solved in this work, but the approach can be applied to other equations as well. The broken variational formulations, which are essentially extensions of more standard formulations, are characterized by the presence of mesh-dependent broken test spaces and interface trial variables at the boundaries of the elements of the mesh. This allows necessary information to be naturally transmitted between adjacent subdomains, resulting in coupled variational formulations which are then proved to be globally well-posed. They are solved numerically using the DPG methodology, which is especially crafted to produce stable discretizations of broken formulations. Finally, expected convergence rates are verified in two different and illustrative examples.

  6. Efficient modeling of flat and homogeneous acoustic treatments for vibroacoustic finite element analysis. Direct field formulations (United States)

    Alimonti, L.; Atalla, N.


    This paper is concerned with the development of a simplified model for noise control treatments to speed up finite element analysis in vibroacoustic applications. The methodology relies on the assumption that the acoustic treatment is flat and homogeneous. Moreover, its finite lateral extent is neglected. This hypothesis is justified by short wavelength and large dissipation, which suggest that the reflected field emanating from the acoustic treatment lateral boundaries does not substantially affect its dynamic response. Under these circumstances, the response of the noise control treatment can be formally obtained by means of convolution integrals involving simple analytical kernels (i.e. Green functions). Such fundamental solutions can be computed efficiently by the transfer matrix method. However, some arbitrariness arises in the formulation of the mathematical model, resulting in different baffling conditions at the two ends of the treatment to be considered. Thus, the paper investigates the possibility of different formulations (i.e. baffling conditions) within the same hybrid finite element-transfer matrix framework, seeking for the best strategy in terms of tradeoff between efficiency and accuracy. Numerical examples are provided to show strengths and limitations of the proposed methodology.

  7. Finite Elements Based on Strong and Weak Formulations for Structural Mechanics: Stability, Accuracy and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tornabene


    Full Text Available The authors are presenting a novel formulation based on the Differential Quadrature (DQ method which is used to approximate derivatives and integrals. The resulting scheme has been termed strong and weak form finite elements (SFEM or WFEM, according to the numerical scheme employed in the computation. Such numerical methods are applied to solve some structural problems related to the mechanical behavior of plates and shells, made of isotropic or composite materials. The main differences between these two approaches rely on the initial formulation – which is strong or weak (variational – and the implementation of the boundary conditions, that for the former include the continuity of stresses and displacements, whereas in the latter can consider the continuity of the displacements or both. The two methodologies consider also a mapping technique to transform an element of general shape described in Cartesian coordinates into the same element in the computational space. Such technique can be implemented by employing the classic Lagrangian-shaped elements with a fixed number of nodes along the element edges or blending functions which allow an “exact mapping” of the element. In particular, the authors are employing NURBS (Not-Uniform Rational B-Splines for such nonlinear mapping in order to use the “exact” shape of CAD designs.

  8. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C


    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  9. HUC 8 Boundaries (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital hydrologic unit boundary that is at the 4-digit, 6-digit, 8-digit, and 11-digit level. The data set was developed by delineating the...

  10. FWS Approved Acquisition Boundaries (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data layer depicts the external boundaries of lands and waters that are approved for acquisition by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in North America,...

  11. National Forest Boundaries (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  12. VT Telephone Exchange Boundaries (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The UtilityTelecom_EXCHANGE represents Vermont Telephone Exchange boundaries as defined by the VT Public Service Board. The original data was...

  13. State Park Statutory Boundaries (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  14. 500 Cities: City Boundaries (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  15. Allegheny County Parcel Boundaries (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains parcel boundaries attributed with county block and lot number. Use the Property Information Extractor for more control downloading a filtered...

  16. Watershed Boundary Areas (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer contains hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was revised for inclusion in the...

  17. NM School District Boundaries (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  18. Allegheny County Boundary (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the Allegheny County boundary. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  19. Boundary representation modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server


    Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.

  20. Site Area Boundaries (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of site boundaries from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  1. Tax Unit Boundaries (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  2. Formulation of supergravity without superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, S


    Supergravity, the particle theory which unifies under a unique gauge principle the quantum-mechanical concept of spin and space-time geometry, is formulated in terms of quantities defined over Minkowski space-time. 'l'he relation between this formulation and the fonnulation which uses superspace, the space-time supplemented by spinning degrees of freedom, is also briefly discussed.

  3. Biopsychosocial Formulation: Recognizing Educational Shortcomings (United States)

    McClain, Tina; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.; Clardy, James A.


    Objective: Since Engel introduced the biopsychosocial model, it has been extensively examined. The authors expect psychiatrists to formulate cases using the biopsychosocial model. However, resident psychiatrists' ability to generate formulations using this model has received little attention. Methods: The authors evaluated resident biopsychosocial…

  4. VT Federal Aid Urban Boundaries (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Federal Aid Urban boundaries are defined based on US Census data. The roadways within these boundaries have urban classifications. These FAU boundaries were updated...

  5. Stress Wave Propagation in Soils Modelled by the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K. M.

    This thesis deals with different aspects of the boundary element method (BEM) applied to stress wave propagation problems in soils. Among other things BEM formulations for coupled FEM and BEM, moving loads, direct BEM and indirect BEM are presented. For all the formulations both analytical...

  6. On Continuation of Solutions to Boundary Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modern investigation of the real-analytic continuability of solutions to boundary problems involves elements of complex and microlocal analysis, as well as the theory of pseudodifferential operators. Apart from its purely mathematical interest, this investigation can lead to significant improvement...... of numerical methods used in, e.g., acoustic and electromagnetic scattering. In this talk, I shall take as the starting point the desire to improve one such numerical method, namely the so-called Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS). The latter is a promising numerical scheme, with the potential of replacing...... the traditional boundary layer formulations in the numerical solution of scattering problems. To address the convergence issues inherent to the MAS, I shall introduce a relevant general real-analytic continuation problem and describe how it can be reformulated in terms of an analytic Cauchy problem in the complex...

  7. Stochastic Theory of Turbulence Mixing by Finite Eddies in the Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.; Leeuw, G. de; Maassen van den Brink, A.


    Turbulence mixing is treated by means of a novel formulation of nonlocal K-theory, involving sample paths and a stochastic hypothesis. The theory simplifies for mixing by exchange (strong-eddies) and is then applied to the boundary layer (involving scaling). This maps boundary layer turbulence onto

  8. Investigation of Lattice Boltzmann wetting boundary conditions for capillaries with irregular polygonal cross-section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.


    We have investigated the performance of an alternative wetting boundary condition for complex geometries in a phase field Lattice Boltzmann scheme, which is an alternative to the commonly used formulation by Yeomans and coworkers. Though our boundary condition is much simpler in its implementation,

  9. Existence of solutions to boundary value problem of fractional differential equations with impulsive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua JIANG


    Full Text Available In order to solve the boundary value problem of fractional impulsive differential equations with countable impulses and integral boundary conditions on the half line, the existence of solutions to the boundary problem is specifically studied. By defining suitable Banach spaces, norms and operators, using the properties of fractional calculus and applying the contraction mapping principle and Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem, the existence of solutions for the boundary value problem of fractional impulsive differential equations with countable impulses and integral boundary conditions on the half line is proved, and examples are given to illustrate the existence of solutions to this kind of equation boundary value problems.

  10. Boundary conditions in CO5BOLD (United States)

    Freytag, Bernd

    The declaration of boundary conditions is a crucial step in the setup of a CO5BOLD simulation (and many others) due to the physical nature of the problem, that is reflected in the mathematical description by partial differential equations, discrete versions of which are integrated by the numerical solver(s). While parameters controlling the flux of energy through the computational box are most important for all simulations of convective flows, the detailed specifications describing the behavior of energy, gas and dust densities, velocities, and magnetic fields at or just beyond the boundaries influence the flow, dynamics, and stratification within the box. Recent refinements of the treatment of boundary conditions in CO5BOLD resulted in reliably working implementations of open and closed versions for top, bottom, and ``inner'' boundaries even under conditions with strong velocity fields (waves, shocks, or downdrafts). They are implemented and available in the current version of CO5BOLD - but have to be activated properly with parameters adapted to the type of the star under consideration (by defining for instance the depth of the damping layers for the closed-bottom boundary or by specifying the damping constants for the open-bottom boundary).

  11. Questions on solvability of exterior boundary value problems with fractional boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berikbol Torebek


    Full Text Available In this paper we study questions on solvability of some boundary value problems for the Laplace equation with boundary integro-differential operators in the exterior of a unit ball. We study properties of the given integral - differential operators of fractional order in a class of functions which are harmonic outside a ball. We prove theorems about existence and uniqueness of a solution of the problem. We construct explicit form of the solution of the problem in integral form, by solving the Dirichlet problem.

  12. Stochastic integrals

    CERN Document Server

    McKean, Henry P


    This little book is a brilliant introduction to an important boundary field between the theory of probability and differential equations. -E. B. Dynkin, Mathematical Reviews This well-written book has been used for many years to learn about stochastic integrals. The book starts with the presentation of Brownian motion, then deals with stochastic integrals and differentials, including the famous Itô lemma. The rest of the book is devoted to various topics of stochastic integral equations, including those on smooth manifolds. Originally published in 1969, this classic book is ideal for supplemen

  13. A coupled far-field formulation for time-periodic numerical problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The literature on boundary element methods in fluid dynamics focus mainly on Stokes flow (low Reynolds number) and Oseen flow, because both are linearizations of the. Navier–Stokes equations which mean that a Green's integral representation is possible by the use of Green's functions, from which a boundary integral ...

  14. Solution to the one-dimensional telegrapher's equation subject to a backreaction boundary condition


    Prüstel, Thorsten; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin


    We discuss solutions of the one-dimensional telegrapher's equation in the presence of boundary conditions. We revisit the case of a radiation boundary condition and obtain an alternative expression for the already known Green's function. Furthermore, we formulate a backreaction boundary condition, which has been widely used in the context of diffusion-controlled reversible reactions, for a one-dimensional telegrapher's equation and derive the corresponding Green's function.

  15. On Boundaries of the Language of Physics (United States)

    Kvasz, Ladislav

    The aim of the present paper is to outline a method of reconstruction of the historical development of the language of physical theories. We will apply the theory presented in Patterns of Change, Linguistic Innovations in the Development of Classical Mathematics to the analysis of linguistic innovations in physics. Our method is based on a reconstruction of the following potentialities of language: analytical power, expressive power, integrative power, and explanatory power, as well as analytical boundaries and expressive boundaries. One of the results of our reconstruction is a new interpretation of Kant's antinomies of pure reason. If we relate Kant's antinomies to the language, they retain validity.

  16. Fractal boundaries in chaotic hamiltonian systems (United States)

    Viana, R. L.; Mathias, A. C.; Marcus, F. A.; Kroetz, T.; Caldas, I. L.


    Fractal structures are typically present in the dynamics of chaotic orbits in non-integrable open Hamiltonian systems and result from the extremely complicated nature of the invariant manifolds of unstable periodic orbits. Exit basins, the set of initial conditions leading to orbits escaping through a given exit, have very frequently fractal boundaries. In this work we analyze exit basin boundaries in a dynamical system of physical interest, namely the motion of charged particles in a magnetized plasma subjected to electrostatic drift waves, and characterize in a quantitative way the fractality of these structures and their observable consequences, as the final-state uncertainty.

  17. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  18. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides (United States)

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Carrasco, Letícia Dias de Melo


    Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:25302615

  19. A conformal and covariant formulation of the Z4 system with constraint-violation damping

    CERN Document Server

    Alic, Daniela; Bona, Carles; Rezzolla, Luciano; Palenzuela, Carlos


    We present a new formulation of the Einstein equations based on a conformal and traceless decomposition of the covariant form of the Z4 system. This formulation combines the advantages of a conformal decomposition, such as the one used in the BSSNOK formulation (i.e. well-tested hyperbolic gauges, no need for excision, robustness to imperfect boundary conditions) with the advantages of a constraint-damped formulation, such as the generalized harmonic one (i.e. exponential decay of constraint violations when these are produced). We validate the new set of equations through standard tests and by evolving binary systems of black holes. Overall, the new conformal formulation leads to a better behaviour of the constraint equations and a rapid suppression of the violations when they occur. The changes necessary to implement the new conformal formulation in standard BSSNOK codes are very small as are the additional computational costs.

  20. Level set formulation of two-dimensional Lagrangian vortex detection methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjighasem, Alireza


    We propose here the use of the variational level set methodology to capture Lagrangian vortex boundaries in 2D unsteady velocity fields. This method reformulates earlier approaches that seek material vortex boundaries as extremum solutions of variational problems. We demonstrate the performance of this technique for two different variational formulations built upon different notions of coherence. The first formulation uses an energy functional that penalizes the deviation of a closed material line from piecewise uniform stretching [Haller and Beron-Vera, J. Fluid Mech. 731, R4 (2013)]. The second energy function is derived for a graph-based approach to vortex boundary detection [Hadjighasem et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 063107 (2016)]. Our level-set formulation captures an a priori unknown number of vortices simultaneously at relatively low computational cost. We illustrate the approach by identifying vortices from different coherence principles in several examples.

  1. Boundary control of nonlinear coupled heat systems using backstepping

    KAUST Repository

    Bendevis, Paul


    A state feedback boundary controller is designed for a 2D coupled PDE system modelling heat transfer in a membrane distillation system for water desalination. Fluid is separated into two compartments with nonlinear coupling at a membrane boundary. The controller sets the temperature on one boundary in order to track a temperature difference across the membrane boundary. The control objective is achieved by an extension of backstepping methods to these coupled equations. Stability of the target system via Lyapunov like methods, and the invertibility of the integral transformation are used to show the stability of the tracking error.

  2. Adaptive Sentence Boundary Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, D D; Palmer, David D.; Hearst, Marti A.


    Labeling of sentence boundaries is a necessary prerequisite for many natural language processing tasks, including part-of-speech tagging and sentence alignment. End-of-sentence punctuation marks are ambiguous; to disambiguate them most systems use brittle, special-purpose regular expression grammars and exception rules. As an alternative, we have developed an efficient, trainable algorithm that uses a lexicon with part-of-speech probabilities and a feed-forward neural network. After training for less than one minute, the method correctly labels over 98.5\\% of sentence boundaries in a corpus of over 27,000 sentence-boundary marks. We show the method to be efficient and easily adaptable to different text genres, including single-case texts.

  3. The Bottom Boundary Layer. (United States)

    Trowbridge, John H; Lentz, Steven J


    The oceanic bottom boundary layer extracts energy and momentum from the overlying flow, mediates the fate of near-bottom substances, and generates bedforms that retard the flow and affect benthic processes. The bottom boundary layer is forced by winds, waves, tides, and buoyancy and is influenced by surface waves, internal waves, and stratification by heat, salt, and suspended sediments. This review focuses on the coastal ocean. The main points are that (a) classical turbulence concepts and modern turbulence parameterizations provide accurate representations of the structure and turbulent fluxes under conditions in which the underlying assumptions hold, (b) modern sensors and analyses enable high-quality direct or near-direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes and dissipation rates, and (c) the remaining challenges include the interaction of waves and currents with the erodible seabed, the impact of layer-scale two- and three-dimensional instabilities, and the role of the bottom boundary layer in shelf-slope exchange.

  4. Formulation Optimization of Arecoline Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Chu Wu


    Full Text Available The response surface methodology (RSM including polynomial equations has been used to design an optimal patch formulation with appropriate adhesion and flux. The patch formulations were composed of different polymers, including Eudragit RS 100 (ERS, Eudragit RL 100 (ERL and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP, plasticizers (PEG 400, and drug. In addition, using terpenes as enhancers could increase the flux of the drug. Menthol showed the highest enhancement effect on the flux of arecoline.

  5. Spiritually Integrated Treatment of Depression: A Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Peteet


    Full Text Available Many studies have found an inverse correlation between religious/spiritual involvement and depression. Yet several obstacles impede spiritually integrated treatment of depressed individuals. These include specialization and fragmentation of care, inexperience of clinicians and spiritual care providers, ideological bias, boundary and ethical concerns, and the lack of an accepted conceptual framework for integrated treatment. Here I suggest a framework for approaching these obstacles, constructed from a unified view of human experience (having emotional, existential, and spiritual dimensions; spirituality seen as a response to existential concerns (in domains such as identity, hope, meaning/purpose, morality, and autonomy in relation to authority, which are frequently distorted and amplified in depression; a rationale for locating spiritually oriented approaches within a clinician's assessment, formulation, and treatment plan; and recognition of the challenges and potential pitfalls of integrated treatment.

  6. Wind and boundary layers in Rayleigh-Bénard convection. II. Boundary layer character and scaling. (United States)

    van Reeuwijk, Maarten; Jonker, Harm J J; Hanjalić, Kemo


    The scaling of the kinematic boundary layer thickness lambda(u) and the friction factor C(f) at the top and bottom walls of Rayleigh-Bénard convection is studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS). By a detailed analysis of the friction factor, a new parameterisation for C(f) and lambda(u) is proposed. The simulations were made of an L/H=4 aspect-ratio domain with periodic lateral boundary conditions at Ra=(10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 10(8)) and Pr=1. The continuous spectrum, as well as significant forcing due to Reynolds stresses, clearly indicates a turbulent character of the boundary layer, while viscous effects cannot be neglected, judging from the scaling of classical integral boundary layer parameters with Reynolds number. Using a conceptual wind model, we find that the friction factor C(f) should scale proportionally to the thermal boundary layer thickness as C(f) proportional variant lambda(Theta)/H, while the kinetic boundary layer thickness lambda(u) scales inversely proportionally to the thermal boundary layer thickness and wind Reynolds number lambda(u)/H proportional variant (lambda(Theta)/H)(-1)Re(-1). The predicted trends for C(f) and lambda(u) are in agreement with DNS results.

  7. Fourier analysis and boundary value problems

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Velasco, Enrique A


    Fourier Analysis and Boundary Value Problems provides a thorough examination of both the theory and applications of partial differential equations and the Fourier and Laplace methods for their solutions. Boundary value problems, including the heat and wave equations, are integrated throughout the book. Written from a historical perspective with extensive biographical coverage of pioneers in the field, the book emphasizes the important role played by partial differential equations in engineering and physics. In addition, the author demonstrates how efforts to deal with these problems have lead to wonderfully significant developments in mathematics.A clear and complete text with more than 500 exercises, Fourier Analysis and Boundary Value Problems is a good introduction and a valuable resource for those in the field.Key Features* Topics are covered from a historical perspective with biographical information on key contributors to the field* The text contains more than 500 exercises* Includes practical applicati...

  8. Spheroidal Integral Equations for Geodetic Inversion of Geopotential Gradients (United States)

    Novák, Pavel; Šprlák, Michal


    The static Earth's gravitational field has traditionally been described in geodesy and geophysics by the gravitational potential (geopotential for short), a scalar function of 3-D position. Although not directly observable, geopotential functionals such as its first- and second-order gradients are routinely measured by ground, airborne and/or satellite sensors. In geodesy, these observables are often used for recovery of the static geopotential at some simple reference surface approximating the actual Earth's surface. A generalized mathematical model is represented by a surface integral equation which originates in solving Dirichlet's boundary-value problem of the potential theory defined for the harmonic geopotential, spheroidal boundary and globally distributed gradient data. The mathematical model can be used for combining various geopotential gradients without necessity of their re-sampling or prior continuation in space. The model extends the apparatus of integral equations which results from solving boundary-value problems of the potential theory to all geopotential gradients observed by current ground, airborne and satellite sensors. Differences between spherical and spheroidal formulations of integral kernel functions of Green's kind are investigated. Estimated differences reach relative values at the level of 3% which demonstrates the significance of spheroidal approximation for flattened bodies such as the Earth. The observation model can be used for combined inversion of currently available geopotential gradients while exploring their spectral and stochastic characteristics. The model would be even more relevant to gravitational field modelling of other bodies in space with more pronounced spheroidal geometry than that of the Earth.

  9. Velocity-vorticity formulation of three-dimensional, steady, viscous, incompressible flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meir, A.J. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)


    In this work we discuss some aspects of the velocity-vorticity formulation of three-dimensional, steady, viscous, incompressible flows. We describe reasonable boundary conditions that should be imposed on the vorticity and a compatibility condition that the vorticity must satisfy. This formulation may give rise to efficient numerical algorithms for approximating solutions of the Stokes problem, which in turn yields an iterative method for approximating solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations.

  10. Boundary effects in super-Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Mushtaq B.; Ganai, Prince A. [National Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Srinagar, Kashmir (India); Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Alberta (Canada); Zaz, Zaid [University of Kashmir, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Srinagar, Kashmir (India); Bhat, Anha [National Institute of Technology, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Srinagar, Kashmir (India); Masood, Syed [International Islamic University, Department of Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan)


    In this paper, we shall analyze a three dimensional supersymmetry theory with N = 2 supersymmetry. We will analyze the quantization of this theory, in the presence of a boundary. The effective Lagrangian used in the path integral quantization of this theory, will be given by the sum of the gauge fixing term and the ghost term with the original classical Lagrangian. Even though the supersymmetry of this effective Lagrangian will also be broken due to the presence of a boundary, it will be demonstrated that half of the supersymmetry of this theory can be preserved by adding a boundary Lagrangian to the effective bulk Lagrangian. The supersymmetric transformation of this new boundary Lagrangian will exactly cancel the boundary term generated from the supersymmetric transformation of the effective bulk Lagrangian. We will analyze the Slavnov-Taylor identity for this N = 2 Yang-Mills theory with a boundary. (orig.)

  11. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  12. Knowledge production at boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stange, Kari


    This thesis addresses how knowledge is used and produced in stakeholder-led collaborations to make long-term management plans for European fishery management. Boundary object theory is applied and developed to explain how stakeholders from the fishing industry interact with each other, and with

  13. Environmentalists without Boundaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 16, 2009 ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. ... The most fruitful scientific endeavors invariably cross boundaries – across ... The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much ... cooperation and capacity (7)stimulating economic development and growth, ...

  14. Environmentalists without Boundaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 16, 2009 ... Hence, this is a laudable project, but Coca Cola should also be cognizant of the growing African environmental pollution problems associated with plastics disposal as they market bottled water and other juices on the continent. This is an example of a challenge associated with advertent boundary crossing ...

  15. Minnesota County Boundaries (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  16. Boundaries of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S


    The boundaries of space exploration are being pushed back constantly, but the realm of the partially understood and the totally unknown is as great as ever. Among other things this book deals with astronomical instruments and their application, recent discoveries in the solar system, stellar evolution, the exploding starts, the galaxies, quasars, pulsars, the possibilities of extraterrestrial life and relativity.

  17. Dual boundary spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason


    The extant literature runs short in understanding openness of innovation regarding and the different pathways along which internal and external knowledge resources can be combined. This study proposes a unique typology for outside-in innovations based on two distinct ways of boundary spanning...

  18. Environmentalists without Boundaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 16, 2009 ... idea that development and environmental sustainability require poverty eradication is not a shocking one, but many scholars remain skeptical about the ... in developing countries has potentially solved this boundary problem by asking for donations through the purchase of bottled water at a price that will ...

  19. Tactile friction of topical formulations. (United States)

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L


    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS{reg_sign}): Groundwater pathway formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, G.; McDonald, J.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sato, C. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)


    This report describes the mathematical formulations used for contaminant fate and transport in the groundwater pathway of the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). It is one in a series of reports that collectively describe the components of MEPAS. The groundwater component of the MEPAS methodology models solute transport through the groundwater environment (i.e., partially saturated and saturated zones). Specifically, this component provides estimates of groundwater contaminant fluxes at various transporting medium interfaces (e.g., water table or aquifer/river interface) and contaminant concentrations at withdrawal wells. Contaminant fluxes at transporting medium interfaces represent boundary conditions for the next medium in which contaminant migration and fate is to be simulated (e.g., groundwater contamination entering a surface-water environment). Contaminant concentrations at withdrawal wells provide contaminant levels for the exposure assessment component of MEPAS. A schematic diagram illustrating the groundwater environment is presented. The migration and fate of contaminants through the groundwater environment are described by the three-dimensional, advective-dispersive equation for solute transport. The results are based on semianalytical solutions (i.e., solutions that require numerical integration) that are well established in the scientific literature. To increase computational efficiency, limits of integration are also identified.

  1. The system of equations for mixed BVP with one Dirichlet boundary condition and three Neumann boundary conditions (United States)

    Yusop, Nur Syaza Mohd; Mohamed, Nurul Akmal


    Boundary Element Method (BEM) is a numerical way to approximate the solutions of a Boundary Value Problem (BVP). The potential problem which involves the Laplace's equation on the square shape domain will be considered where the boundary is divided into four sets of linear boundary elements. We study the derivation system of equation for mixed BVP with one Dirichlet Boundary Condition (BC) is prescribed on one element of the boundary and Neumann BC on the other three elements. The mixed BVP will be reduced to a Boundary Integral Equation (BIE) by using a direct method which involves Green's second identity representation formula. Then, linear interpolation is used where the boundary will be discretized into some linear elements. As the result, we then obtain the system of linear equations. In conclusion, the specific element in the mixed BVP will have the specific prescribe value depends on the type of boundary condition. For Dirichlet BC, it has only one value at each node but for the Neumann BC, there will be different values at the corner nodes due to outward normal. Therefore, the assembly process for the system of equations related to the mixed BVP may not be as straight forward as Dirichlet BVP and Neumann BVP. For the future research, we will consider the different shape domains for mixed BVP with different prescribed boundary conditions.

  2. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel


    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  3. An interactive boundary layer modelling methodology for aerodynamic flows

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, L


    Full Text Available is used. The artificial compressibility formulation allows for a finite value of c2 to be used for incompressible flows, calculated as per Malan et al. (2002). 3.2. Boundary layer solution 7 To ensure numerical stability, the Crank... � Similarity coordinate � Momentum thickness m � * Kinetic energy thickness � Dynamic viscosity kg.m-1.s-1 � Density kg.m-3 � Shear stress N.m-2 Kinematic viscosity m2.s-1 Coordinate parallel to the boundary layer m...

  4. Boundary-layer theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann


    This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.

  5. Using the integral spleen method of radiorenogram analysis and a baboon model to compare the diagnostic usefulness of technetium-99m-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid to that of various technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycene formulations and iodine-123-hippuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Van Wyk, A.; Pilloy, W.; Maree, M.; Knoesen, O.; De Winter, R.; Jacobs, L.; Hoppe, H.C.


    In light of the high price of commercially available mercaptoacetyltriglycene (MAG3) it was decided to attempt a local MAG3-formation and to test this against diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), /sup 123/I-Hippuran, and commercial MAG3 for diagnostic radiorenographic capabilities also in conjunction with furosemide and captopril. A baboon model (n = 6) was used, and the parameters evaluated were obtained by the integral spleen method of radiorenogram analysis. Although the images and parameters pointed to /sup 123/I-Hippuran and commercial MAG3 as the ideal renal scanning agents and to DTPA as the least so, with the local product an acceptable alternative, the differences were not significant enough to warrant either the purchase of the commercial product or the extensive development of the local product. Inexpensive /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA in conjunction with modern computer techniques will probably supply most of the answers.

  6. Reflection of equatorial Kelvin waves at eastern ocean boundaries Part I: hypothetical boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soares


    Full Text Available A baroclinic shallow-water model is developed to investigate the effect of the orientation of the eastern ocean boundary on the behavior of equatorial Kelvin waves. The model is formulated in a spherical polar coordinate system and includes dissipation and non-linear terms, effects which have not been previously included in analytical approaches to the problem. Both equatorial and middle latitude response are considered given the large latitudinal extent used in the model. Baroclinic equatorial Kelvin waves of intraseasonal, seasonal and annual periods are introduced into the domain as pulses of finite width. Their subsequent reflection, transmission and dissipation are investigated. It is found that dissipation is very important for the transmission of wave energy along the boundary and for reflections from the boundary. The dissipation was found to be dependent not only on the presence of the coastal Kelvin waves in the domain, but also on the period of these coastal waves. In particular the dissipation increases with wave period. It is also shown that the equatorial β-plane approximation can allow an anomalous generation of Rossby waves at higher latitudes. Nonlinearities generally have a small effect on the solutions, within the confines of this model.Key words. Oceanography: general (equatorial oceanography; numerical modeling · Oceanography: physical (eastern boundary currents

  7. Measuring the Substellar Boundary (United States)

    Cancino, Adolfo Andrew; Dupuy, Trent


    Brown dwarfs are not massive enough to undergo hydrogen fusion and therefore constantly lose heat and change luminosity over their lifetime. Because of this, brown dwarfs do not follow the same pattern that stars on the main sequence follow. Brown dwarfs can have similar luminosities but widely differing masses, or vice versa, while stars follow a tight relationship between mass and luminosity. In principle, mass and luminosity measurements straddling the boundary between stars and brown dwarfs could be used to directly measure this dividing line in mass. We present a method for determining this boundary accurately given a limited sample size. We tested our method with Monte Carlo simulated samples of brown dwarfs and stars with randomly drawn masses and ages, using evolutionary models to infer luminosities. In our simulation designed to mimic the largest current sample of such mass measurements (37 objects; Dupuy & Liu 2017), we find that the uncertainty in the dividing line that can be inferred from the data is ± 4 MJup. This implies that distinguishing between competing evolutionary model predictions for the boundary (~70-80 MJup) will be difficult given the current sample size of mass measurements.

  8. The Effect of Recessions on Firms’ Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eirik Sjåholm; Foss, Kirsten


    The economic theory of the firm offers conflicting predictions of how the two major effects of recessions, changes in demand and access to credit, affect firm boundaries. Using data on Norwegian firms in the recent recession, we find support for both increased and reduced vertical integration...... of core activities in response to a recessionary shock. Further, we find a negative interaction effect between reductions in access to credit and reductions in demand on insourcing of core activities, but no such effect on outsourcing of core activities. We argue that this finding may highlight a possible...... explanation for the conflicting theoretical predictions regarding vertical integration in response to demand and credit shocks....

  9. A quenched study of the Schroedinger functional with chirally rotated boundary conditions. Non-preturbative tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J. Gonzalez [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Renner, D.B. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA (United States); Shindler, A. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik


    The use of chirally rotated boundary conditions provides a formulation of the Schroedinger functional that is compatible with automatic O(a) improvement of Wilson fermions up to O(a) boundary contributions. The elimination of bulk O(a) effects requires the non-perturbative tuning of the critical mass and one additional boundary counterterm. We present the results of such a tuning in a quenched setup for several values of the renormalized gauge coupling, from perturbative to nonperturbative regimes, and for a range of lattice spacings. We also check that the correct boundary conditions and symmetries are restored in the continuum limit. (orig.)

  10. A Cartesian Embedded Boundary Method for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupiainen, M; Sjogreen, B


    We here generalize the embedded boundary method that was developed for boundary discretizations of the wave equation in second order formulation in [6] and for the Euler equations of compressible fluid flow in [11], to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. We describe the method and we implement it on a parallel computer. The implementation is tested for accuracy and correctness. The ability of the embedded boundary technique to resolve boundary layers is investigated by computing skin-friction profiles along the surfaces of the embedded objects. The accuracy is assessed by comparing the computed skin-friction profiles with those obtained by a body fitted discretization.

  11. Boundary issues and personality disorders. (United States)

    Gutheil, Thomas G


    The author first presents an overview of the basic elements of boundary theory and clarifies the distinction between boundary crossings and boundary violations. The concepts of context dependence, power asymmetry, and fiduciary duty as they relate to boundary problems are also discussed. The intrinsic and extrinsic consequences of boundary problems are reviewed. The extrinsic consequences fall into three major categories: civil lawsuits, complaints to the board of registration, and complaints to professional societies. The author then reviews types of boundary issues that arise in relation to histrionic, dependent, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders. Countertransference issues that arise in working with patients with personality disorders are discussed, as well as cultural differences that may affect the perception of boundary problems. The article ends with a list of risk management principles and recommendations for avoiding boundary problems in the therapeutic relationship.

  12. Allegheny County Zip Code Boundaries (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the zip code boundaries that lie within Allegheny County. These are not clipped to the Allgeheny County boundary. If viewing this...

  13. A New Displacement-based Approach to Calculate Stress Intensity Factors With the Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Abstract The analysis of cracked brittle mechanical components considering linear elastic fracture mechanics is usually reduced to the evaluation of stress intensity factors (SIFs. The SIF calculation can be carried out experimentally, theoretically or numerically. Each methodology has its own advantages but the use of numerical methods has become very popular. Several schemes for numerical SIF calculations have been developed, the J-integral method being one of the most widely used because of its energy-like formulation. Additionally, some variations of the J-integral method, such as displacement-based methods, are also becoming popular due to their simplicity. In this work, a simple displacement-based scheme is proposed to calculate SIFs, and its performance is compared with contour integrals. These schemes are all implemented with the Boundary Element Method (BEM in order to exploit its advantages in crack growth modelling. Some simple examples are solved with the BEM and the calculated SIF values are compared against available solutions, showing good agreement between the different schemes.

  14. Multi-domain boundary element method for axi-symmetric layered linear acoustic systems (United States)

    Reiter, Paul; Ziegelwanger, Harald


    Homogeneous porous materials like rock wool or synthetic foam are the main tool for acoustic absorption. The conventional absorbing structure for sound-proofing consists of one or multiple absorbers placed in front of a rigid wall, with or without air-gaps in between. Various models exist to describe these so called multi-layered acoustic systems mathematically for incoming plane waves. However, there is no efficient method to calculate the sound field in a half space above a multi layered acoustic system for an incoming spherical wave. In this work, an axi-symmetric multi-domain boundary element method (BEM) for absorbing multi layered acoustic systems and incoming spherical waves is introduced. In the proposed BEM formulation, a complex wave number is used to model absorbing materials as a fluid and a coordinate transformation is introduced which simplifies singular integrals of the conventional BEM to non-singular radial and angular integrals. The radial and angular part are integrated analytically and numerically, respectively. The output of the method can be interpreted as a numerical half space Green's function for grounds consisting of layered materials.

  15. Formulation and Characterization of Aceclofenac -Aloe vera Transemulgel. (United States)

    Raju, Y Prasanna; Haritha, K; Satyanarayana, Rao P; Vandana, K R; Bindu, D Thushara; Vinesha, V; Chowdary, V Harini


    The present research was aimed to formulate aceclofenac transemulgel using Aloe vera as gel base. The prepared formulations were subjected to physical characterization, in-vitro and in-vivo assessment. Aceclofenac, a hydrophobic potential non steroidal anti inflammatory drug, causes ulceration upon chronic oral administration, could be formulated into transemulgel to enhance therapeutic efficacy and to lower the unwanted side effects. The transemulgel was prepared from aqueous Aloe vera gel and aceclofenac emulsion. The prepared transemulgel was evaluated for its pH, viscosity, drug content, skin irritation, in-vitro diffusion and accelerated stability studies. The prepared aceclofenac-Aloe vera tranemulgel and commercial aceclofenac gel were subjected to pharmacodynamic studies in albino rats of Wistar strain employing carrageenan induced left hind paw edema method to assess the anti-inflammatory effect. The transemulgel showed a pH of 6.78 and viscosity of 18 cps. In-vitro diffusion data revealed better permeation characteristics. Topical application of formulation found no skin irritation. Stability study has proved the integrity of the formulation. The prepared aceclofenac Aloe vera transemulgel showed better in-vitro drug release when compared with the commercial aceclofenac gel formulation. Anti-inflammatory activity in treated rats showed the significant paw volume reduction at pAloe vera as gel base.

  16. A non-iterative immersed boundary method for spherical particles of arbitrary density ratio (United States)

    Tschisgale, Silvio; Kempe, Tobias; Fröhlich, Jochen


    In this paper an immersed boundary method with semi-implicit fluid-solid coupling for mobile particles of arbitrary density ratio is developed. The new scheme does not require any iterations to balance fluid forces and particle forces at the interface. A new formulation of the particle equations of motion is proposed which not only accounts for the particle itself but also for a Lagrangian layer surrounding the particle surface. Furthermore, it is shown by analytical considerations that the six equations for the linear and angular velocity of the spherical particle decouple which allows their sequential solution. On this basis a new time integration scheme is obtained which is unconditionally stable for all fluid-solid density ratios and enables large time steps, with Courant numbers around unity. The new scheme is extensively validated for various test cases and its convergence is assessed. An appealing issue is that compared to existing immersed boundary methods the new scheme only alters coefficients in the particle equations and the order of the steps, making it easy to implement in present codes with explicit coupling. This substantially extends the field of application of such methods.

  17. On Hamiltonian formulation of cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    matter era for some cosmological models. It is argued that these solutions appear to hint at their possible relevance in the early phase of cosmological evolution. Keywords. Hamiltonian formulation; some cosmologies. PACS No. 98.80. Hw. It has been shown by Novelloet al [1,2] that it is possible to study perturbations in the ...

  18. Hamiltonian formulation of the supermembrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Sezgin, E.; Tanii, Y.


    The hamiltonian formulation of the supermembrane theory in eleven dimensions is given. The covariant split of the first and second class constraints is exhibited, and their Dirac brackets are computed. Gauge conditions are imposed in such a way that the reparametrizations of the membrane with

  19. Progress report on grain boundaries (United States)

    Balluffi, R. W.; Bristowe, P. D.


    The research was focused on the following three major areas: (1) study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; (2) study of grain boundary phase transitions by electron microscopy and computer modeling; (3) investigation of the mechanism of high angle grain boundary migration. Results are briefly discussed.

  20. Progress report on grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.


    The research was focused on the following three major areas: (1) study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; (2) study of grain boundary phase transitions by electron microscopy and computer modeling; (3) investigation of the mechanism of high angle grain boundary migration. Results are briefly discussed. 20 refs.

  1. Scaling laws and turbulence closures for stable boundary layers (United States)

    Zilitinkevich, S.; Esau, I.; Baklanov, A.; Djolov, G.


    This paper presents a recently developed theory of non-local turbulence in the stably stratified planetary boundary layers (PBLs): basic theoretical results, new LES code specifically designed for LES of stably stratified flows, and comparison of theoretical predictions with LES and experimental data. The paper includes improved formulations for the PBL depth and resistance laws and outlines an advanced turbulence closure accounting for the transport properties of internal gravity waves.

  2. On two formulations of an optimal insulation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munoz, Eduardo; Allaire, Gregoire; Bendsøe, Martin P.


    Two formulations for the design of the optimal insulation of a domain are investigated by computational means. The results illustrate the similarities and differences that result from the two approaches. One method is in the format of a topology design problem of distributing insulating material...... in a domain surrounding a non-design domain that is heated by a given heat-source; this problem is treated in both a relaxed format as well as a penalized material format. The other approach deals with the optimal distribution of a thin layer of insulation on the boundary of the non-design domain...

  3. Boundaries and Boundary Marks - Substantive Cultural Heritage of Extensive Importance (United States)

    Waldhaeusl, P.; Koenig, H.; Mansberger, R.


    The Austrian Society for surveying and Geoinformation (ASG) has proposed to submit "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" for the UNESCO World Heritage title. It was time that boundaries, borders and limits of all types as well as ownership rights would find the proper attention in the global public. Landmarks symbolize the real property and the associated rights and obligations, in a figurative sense, the property generally and all legal limits. A democratic state of law is impossible at today's population density without a functioning land administration system with surveying and jurisdiction. As monumental World Heritage representatives of the geodetic artwork "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" are specifically proposed: remaining monuments of the original cadastral geodetic network, the first pan-Austrian surveying headquarters in Vienna, and a specific selection of outstanding boundary monuments. Landmarks are monuments to the boundaries which separate rights and obligations, but also connect the neighbors peacefully after written agreement. "And cursed be he who does not respect the boundaries" you wrote already 3000 years ago. Boundaries and Boundary Marks are a real thing; they all belong to the tangible or material heritage of human history. In this context also the intangible heritage is discussed. This refers to oral tradition and expressions, performing arts; social practices, rituals and festive events; as well as to knowledge and practices handling nature and the universe. "Boundaries and Boundary Marks" do not belong to it, but clearly to the material cultural world heritage. "Boundary and Boundary Marks" is proposed to be listed according to the criteria (ii),(iv),(vi).

  4. Spraying explosive formulations. [Quarterly report], July--September 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, G.T.


    A composition of 98/2 weight percent PETN/polybutadiene elastomer was formulated, sprayed on bridgewires and electrically initiated, to determine the,feasibility of such deposition of explosives bonded to test surfaces. Test firing resulted in a detonation reaction which could mean that explosive compositions sprayed on test surfaces may be an important tool in testing structural integrity, e.g., as presently in the Vulnerability Testing Program. A semi-automatic apparatus for spraying explosive formulations on chemically etched electric circuits, support membranes and/or test vehicle surfaces has been designed, and improved application processes are being developed.

  5. Variational formulation for Black-Scholes equations in stochastic volatility models (United States)

    Gyulov, Tihomir B.; Valkov, Radoslav L.


    In this note we prove existence and uniqueness of weak solutions to a boundary value problem arising from stochastic volatility models in financial mathematics. Our settings are variational in weighted Sobolev spaces. Nevertheless, as it will become apparent our variational formulation agrees well with the stochastic part of the problem.

  6. Formulation des bétons autoplaçants : Optimisation du squelette ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple approaches have been developed in the world wide for the formulation of a self-compacting concrete. ... Our contribution is to apprehend the problem formulation sec in a comprehensive manner, integrating both the optimization of the paste volume by adding the limestone filler with three dosages and optimizing ...

  7. Galerkin finite element scheme with Bayliss-Gunzburger-Turkel-like boundary conditions for vectorial optical mode solver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.


    A Galerkin finite element scheme furnished with 1st-order Bayliss-Gunzberger-Turkel-like boundary conditions is formulated to compute both the guided and leaky modes of anisotropic channel waveguides of non-magnetic material with diagonal permitivity tensor. The scheme is formulated using

  8. A classification of ecological boundaries (United States)

    Strayer, D.L.; Power, M.E.; Fagan, W.F.; Pickett, S.T.A.; Belnap, J.


    Ecologists use the term boundary to refer to a wide range of real and conceptual structures. Because imprecise terminology may impede the search for general patterns and theories about ecological boundaries, we present a classification of the attributes of ecological boundaries to aid in communication and theory development. Ecological boundaries may differ in their origin and maintenance, their spatial structure, their function, and their temporal dynamics. A classification system based on these attributes should help ecologists determine whether boundaries are truly comparable. This system can be applied when comparing empirical studies, comparing theories, and testing theoretical predictions against empirical results.

  9. Transcending Organizational Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringelum, Louise Tina Brøns

    This thesis explores how processes of business model innovation can unfold in a port authority by transcending organizational boundaries through inter-organizational collaboration. The findings contribute to two fields of academic inquiry: the study of business model innovation and the study of how...... by applying the engaged scholarship approach, thereby providing a methodological contribution to both port and business model research. Emphasizing the interplay of intra- and inter-organizational business model innovation, the thesis adds insight into the roles of port authorities, business model trends...

  10. Grain Boundary Energies in Copper. (United States)

    Omar, Ramli

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The dependence of grain boundary energy on boundary orientation was studied in copper annealed at 1000 ^circC. Grain boundary orientations and the disorientations across the boundaries were measured. A rotation matrix notation is used to interpret selected area electron channelling patterns observed in a scanning electron microscope. The Herring and Shewmon torque terms were investigated using wire specimens having a "bamboo" structure. The Herring torque terms were determined using the Hess relation. The (110) section of the Sigma 11 gamma-plot (i.e. the variation of grain boundary energy with boundary orientation) was evaluated. In this plot, minima in energies were found at the (311) and (332) mirror planes. Sigma 3 and Sigma9 boundaries were investigated in sheet specimens. The (110) and (111) sections of the Sigma3 gamma -plot were evaluated. In addition to the sharp cusps occurring at the Sigma3 {111} planes, the further shallower cusps occur at the incoherent Sigma 3 boundaries with the interfacial planes approximately parallel to {322} in one crystal and {11.44} in the other crystal. Flat and curved Sigma9 boundaries were investigated. The break up of Sigma9 boundaries into two Sigma3 boundaries and the relation between the Sigma3 and Sigma 9 gamma-plots was also examined. The (110) section of the Sigma9 gamma-plot was constructed.

  11. Explicit formulation of a nodal transport method for discrete ordinates calculations in two-dimensional fixed-source problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tres, Anderson [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada; Becker Picoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Prolo Filho, Joao Francisco [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica; Dias da Cunha, Rudnei; Basso Barichello, Liliane [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst de Matematica


    In this work a study of two-dimensional fixed-source neutron transport problems, in Cartesian geometry, is reported. The approach reduces the complexity of the multidimensional problem using a combination of nodal schemes and the Analytical Discrete Ordinates Method (ADO). The unknown leakage terms on the boundaries that appear from the use of the derivation of the nodal scheme are incorporated to the problem source term, such as to couple the one-dimensional integrated solutions, made explicit in terms of the x and y spatial variables. The formulation leads to a considerable reduction of the order of the associated eigenvalue problems when combined with the usual symmetric quadratures, thereby providing solutions that have a higher degree of computational efficiency. Reflective-type boundary conditions are introduced to represent the domain on a simpler form than that previously considered in connection with the ADO method. Numerical results obtained with the technique are provided and compared to those present in the literature. (orig.)

  12. Boundary crossing in first marriage and remarriage. (United States)

    Choi, Kate H; Tienda, Marta


    Owing to secular increases in divorce rates, remarriage has become a prevalent feature of American family life; yet, research about mate selection behavior in higher order marriages remains limited. Using log-linear methods to recent data from the 2008-2014 American Community Survey, we compare racial and ethnic sorting behavior in first and subsequent marriages. The two most frequently crossed boundaries - those involving White-Asian and White-Hispanic couples - are more permeable in remarriages than in first marriages. Boundaries that are crossed with less frequency - those between minority groups and the White-Black boundary-are less permeable in remarriages than in first marriages. Collectively, these findings suggest that racial and ethnic sorting processes in remarriage may reify existing social distances between pan-ethnic groups. Racial and ethnic variations in how the relative permeability of boundary changes between first and higher-order marriages underscore the importance of considering a broad array of interracial pairings when assessing the ways in which changes in family structure and marital sorting behavior promote integration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Breaking Generalized Covariance, Classical Renormalization and Boundary Conditions from Superpotentials

    CERN Document Server

    Livshits, Gideon I


    Superpotentials offer a direct means of calculating conserved charges associated with the asymptotic symmetries of space-time. Yet superpotentials have been plagued with inconsistencies, resulting in nonphysical or incongruent values for the mass, angular momentum and energy loss due to radiation. The approach of Regge and Teitelboim, aimed at a clear Hamiltonian formulation with a boundary, and its extension to the Lagrangian formulation by Julia and Silva have resolved these issues, and have resulted in a consistent, well-defined and unique variational equation for the superpotential, thereby placing it on a firm footing. A hallmark solution of this equation is the KBL superpotential obtained from the first-order Lovelock Lagrangian. Nevertheless, here we show that these formulations are still insufficient for Lovelock Lagrangians of higher orders. We present a paradox, whereby the choice of fields affects the superpotential for equivalent on-shell dynamics. We offer two solutions to this paradox: either th...

  14. Concepts of Causality in Psychopathology: Applications in Clinical Assessment, Clinical Case Formulation and Functional Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haynes, S.H.; O'Brien, W.H.; Kaholokula, J.K.; Witteman, C.L.M.


    This paper discusses and integrates concepts of causality in psychopathology, clinical assessment, clinical case formulation and the functional analysis. We propose that identifying causal variables, relations and mechanisms in psychopathology and clinical assessment can lead to more powerful and

  15. Boundary-value problems for second-order differential operators with nonlocal boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Denche


    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a second-order differential operator combining weighting integral boundary condition with another two-point boundary condition. Under certain conditions on the weighting functions, called regular and non regular cases, we prove that the resolvent decreases with respect to the spectral parameter in $L^{p}(0,1$, but there is no maximal decrease at infinity for $p>1$. Furthermore, the studied operator generates in $L^{p}(0,1 $, an analytic semi group for $p=1$ in the regular case, and an analytic semi group with singularities for $p>1$, in both cases, and for $p=1$, in the non regular case only. The obtained results are then used to show the correct solvability of a mixed problem for parabolic partial differential equation with non regular boundary conditions.

  16. Reweighting twisted boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bussone, Andrea; Hansen, Martin; Pica, Claudio


    Imposing twisted boundary conditions on the fermionic fields is a procedure extensively used when evaluating, for example, form factors on the lattice. Twisting is usually performed for one flavour and only in the valence, and this causes a breaking of unitarity. In this work we explore the possibility of restoring unitarity through the reweighting method. We first study some properties of the approach at tree level and then we stochastically evaluate ratios of fermionic determinants for different boundary conditions in order to include them in the gauge averages, avoiding in this way the expensive generation of new configurations for each choice of the twisting angle, $\\theta$. As expected the effect of reweighting is negligible in the case of large volumes but it is important when the volumes are small and the twisting angles are large. In particular we find a measurable effect for the plaquette and the pion correlation function in the case of $\\theta=\\pi/2$ in a volume $16\\times 8^3$, and we observe a syst...

  17. Boundary element based 3D-crack growth module for finite element systems; Ein randelementbasiertes 3D-Rissfortschrittsmodul fuer Finite Elemente Systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helldoerfer, Bastian


    Many technical failures are caused by cracks. As a consequence fracture mechanical assessment becomes more and more important during the design of security-relevant components. The simulation of stable crackgrowth provides an essential contribution for understanding these failures and as a consequence for preventing these. In order to benefit from the advantages of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) in the field of fracture mechanical problems as well as from the numerical advantages of the Finite Element Methode (FEM) a combined simulation technique is applied within this work. Here the domain containing the crackfront is discretized with boundary elements, the remaining structure is meshed with finite elements. The direct coupling of both techniques is achieved by applying the Symmetric Galerkin BEM (SGBEM) leading to a stiffness formulation for the boundary element domain. The nonlinearity of crackgrowth requires an incremental simulation procedure. In each increment the state of stress has to be obtained firstly, whereon the fracture mechanical assessment within the framework of linear elastic fracture mechanics is carried out based on the results of the boundary element domain only. The simulation of stable crackgrowth is implemented within a predictor/corrector scheme. For increasing the efficiency several approaches were put into practice, e.g. the parallelization of the SGBEM-code, integrated submodel computations and the adaptive enlargement of the boundary element domain. Using ABAQUS it is shown exemplarily how to combine the boundary element based crackgrowth module with commercial FE-Systems. A series of examples underline the efficiency of the presented simulation technique. (orig.)

  18. An Operator-Integration-Factor Splitting (OIFS) method for Incompressible Flows in Moving Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Saumil S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fischer, Paul F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Min, Misun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tomboulides, Ananias G [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece)


    In this paper, we present a characteristic-based numerical procedure for simulating incompressible flows in domains with moving boundaries. Our approach utilizes an operator-integration-factor splitting technique to help produce an effcient and stable numerical scheme. Using the spectral element method and an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation, we investigate flows where the convective acceleration effects are non-negligible. Several examples, ranging from laminar to turbulent flows, are considered. Comparisons with a standard, semi-implicit time-stepping procedure illustrate the improved performance of the scheme.

  19. Realism Versus Neoliberalism: A Formulation


    Niou, Emerson M. S.; Ordeshook, Peter C.


    Although the debate between realism and neoliberalism offers deep insights and raises fundamental questions into the nature of international systems, it also offers the confusion that accompanies imprecisely formulated concepts and an imperfect application of subsidiary ideas. Using a noncooperative extensive-form game to model anarchic international systems, this essay seeks to resolve that debate by restating it in a more explicit and deductive context. Arguing that collective security corr...

  20. A boundary value problem for the wave equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezam Iraniparast


    Full Text Available Traditionally, boundary value problems have been studied for elliptic differential equations. The mathematical systems described in these cases turn out to be “well posed”. However, it is also important, both mathematically and physically, to investigate the question of boundary value problems for hyperbolic partial differential equations. In this regard, prescribing data along characteristics as formulated by Kalmenov [5] is of special interest. The most recent works in this area have resulted in a number of interesting discoveries [3, 4, 5, 7, 8]. Our aim here is to extend some of these results to a more general domain which includes the characteristics of the underlying wave equation as a part of its boundary.