A boundary integral approach to unstable solidification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strain, J.
1989-01-01
We consider the supercooled Stefan problem with a general anisotropic curvature- and velocity-dependent boundary condition on the moving interface. We present numerical methods, based on an integral equation formulation and including a new algorithm for moving curves with curvature-dependent velocity. These methods compute a periodic interface with O(Δt) accuracy, where Δt is the time step. Previous work has been limited to short time spans and achieved slightly less than O(Δt 1/2 ) accuracy. Accurate numerical results are seen to agree with the predictions of linear stability theory. This agreement has eluded previous authors, because their numerical methods suffered from grid effects and their linear stability theory was incorrect. We study the long-time evolution of an unstable interface. Our computations exhibit the beginnings of a sidebranching instability when the boundary condition includes anisotropy and tip-splitting in the isotropic case. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc
Inviscid/Boundary-Layer Aeroheating Approach for Integrated Vehicle Design
Lee, Esther; Wurster, Kathryn E.
2017-01-01
A typical entry vehicle design depends on the synthesis of many essential subsystems, including thermal protection system (TPS), structures, payload, avionics, and propulsion, among others. The ability to incorporate aerothermodynamic considerations and TPS design into the early design phase is crucial, as both are closely coupled to the vehicle's aerodynamics, shape and mass. In the preliminary design stage, reasonably accurate results with rapid turn-representative entry envelope was explored. Initial results suggest that for Mach numbers ranging from 9-20, a few inviscid solutions could reasonably sup- port surface heating predictions at Mach numbers variation of +/-2, altitudes variation of +/-10 to 20 kft, and angle-of-attack variation of +/- 5. Agreement with Navier-Stokes solutions was generally found to be within 10-15% for Mach number and altitude, and 20% for angle of attack. A smaller angle-of-attack increment than the 5 deg around times for parametric studies and quickly evolving configurations are necessary to steer design decisions. This investigation considers the use of an unstructured 3D inviscid code in conjunction with an integral boundary-layer method; the former providing the flow field solution and the latter the surface heating. Sensitivity studies for Mach number, angle of attack, and altitude, examine the feasibility of using this approach to populate a representative entry flight envelope based on a limited set of inviscid solutions. Each inviscid solution is used to generate surface heating over the nearby trajectory space. A subset of a considered in this study is recommended. Results of the angle-of-attack sensitivity studies show that smaller increments may be needed for better heating predictions. The approach is well suited for application to conceptual multidisciplinary design and analysis studies where transient aeroheating environments are critical for vehicle TPS and thermal design. Concurrent prediction of aeroheating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khambampati, Anil Kumar; Kim, Sin; Lee, Bo An; Kim, Kyung Youn
2012-01-01
This paper is about locating the boundary of a moving cavity within a homogeneous background from the voltage measurements recorded on the outer boundary. An inverse boundary problem of a moving cavity is formulated by considering a two-phase vapor–liquid flow in a pipe. The conductivity of the flow components (vapor and liquid) is assumed to be constant and known a priori while the location and shape of the inclusion (vapor) are the unknowns to be estimated. The forward problem is solved using the boundary element method (BEM) with the integral equations solved analytically. A special situation is considered such that the cavity changes its location and shape during the time taken to acquire a full set of independent measurement data. The boundary of a cavity is assumed to be elliptic and is parameterized with Fourier series. The inverse problem is treated as a state estimation problem with the Fourier coefficients that represent the center and radii of the cavity as the unknowns to be estimated. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used as an inverse algorithm to estimate the time varying Fourier coefficients. Numerical experiments are shown to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Through the results, it can be noticed that the proposed BEM with EKF method is successful in estimating the boundary of a moving cavity. (paper)
A time-domain finite element boundary integral approach for elastic wave scattering
Shi, F.; Lowe, M. J. S.; Skelton, E. A.; Craster, R. V.
2018-04-01
The response of complex scatterers, such as rough or branched cracks, to incident elastic waves is required in many areas of industrial importance such as those in non-destructive evaluation and related fields; we develop an approach to generate accurate and rapid simulations. To achieve this we develop, in the time domain, an implementation to efficiently couple the finite element (FE) method within a small local region, and the boundary integral (BI) globally. The FE explicit scheme is run in a local box to compute the surface displacement of the scatterer, by giving forcing signals to excitation nodes, which can lie on the scatterer itself. The required input forces on the excitation nodes are obtained with a reformulated FE equation, according to the incident displacement field. The surface displacements computed by the local FE are then projected, through time-domain BI formulae, to calculate the scattering signals with different modes. This new method yields huge improvements in the efficiency of FE simulations for scattering from complex scatterers. We present results using different shapes and boundary conditions, all simulated using this approach in both 2D and 3D, and then compare with full FE models and theoretical solutions to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this numerical approach.
Duijn, M.; Rijnveld, M.
2008-01-01
Knowledge transfer and integration is the main challenge in many knowledge management projects. This challenge follows from the observation that it is difficult to determine how and what knowledge may transfer from one person to another, from one team to another and from one network or organization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
TIAN Jialei
2015-11-01
Full Text Available By using the ground as the boundary, Molodensky problem usually gets the solution in form of series. Higher order terms reflect the correction between a smooth surface and the ground boundary. Application difficulties arise from not only computational complexity and stability maintenance, but also data-intensiveness. Therefore, in this paper, starting from the application of external gravity disturbance, Green formula is used on digital terrain surface. In the case of ignoring the influence of horizontal component of the integral, the expression formula of external disturbance potential determined by boundary value consisted of ground gravity anomalies and height anomaly difference are obtained, whose kernel function is reciprocal of distance and Poisson core respectively. With this method, there is no need of continuation of ground data. And kernel function is concise, and suitable for the stochastic computation of external disturbing gravity field.
Yang, S A
2002-10-01
This paper presents an effective solution method for predicting acoustic radiation and scattering fields in two dimensions. The difficulty of the fictitious characteristic frequency is overcome by incorporating an auxiliary interior surface that satisfies certain boundary condition into the body surface. This process gives rise to a set of uniquely solvable boundary integral equations. Distributing monopoles with unknown strengths over the body and interior surfaces yields the simple source formulation. The modified boundary integral equations are further transformed to ordinary ones that contain nonsingular kernels only. This implementation allows direct application of standard quadrature formulas over the entire integration domain; that is, the collocation points are exactly the positions at which the integration points are located. Selecting the interior surface is an easy task. Moreover, only a few corresponding interior nodal points are sufficient for the computation. Numerical calculations consist of the acoustic radiation and scattering by acoustically hard elliptic and rectangular cylinders. Comparisons with analytical solutions are made. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the current solution method.
Feynman Integrals with Absorbing Boundaries
Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.
1997-01-01
We propose a formulation of an absorbing boundary for a quantum particle. The formulation is based on a Feynman-type integral over trajectories that are confined to the non-absorbing region. Trajectories that reach the absorbing wall are discounted from the population of the surviving trajectories with a certain weighting factor. Under the assumption that absorbed trajectories do not interfere with the surviving trajectories, we obtain a time dependent absorption law. Two examples are worked ...
Integrable boundary conditions and modified Lax equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avan, Jean; Doikou, Anastasia
2008-01-01
We consider integrable boundary conditions for both discrete and continuum classical integrable models. Local integrals of motion generated by the corresponding 'transfer' matrices give rise to time evolution equations for the initial Lax operator. We systematically identify the modified Lax pairs for both discrete and continuum boundary integrable models, depending on the classical r-matrix and the boundary matrix
Terraneo, Tullia Isotta
2015-12-01
In the present study the species boundaries of the scleractinian coral genus Goniopora from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea were investigated. An integrated morpho-molecular approach was used to better clarify the complex scenario derived from traditional classification efforts based on skeletal morphology. Traditional taxonomy of this genus considers skeletal morphology first and polyp morphology as a secondary discriminating character. This leads to potential complication due to plasticity in skeletal features within a species. To address this issue, molecular analyses of evolutionary relationships between nine traditional morphospecies of Goniopora from the Red Sea were performed and were used to re-evaluate the informativeness of macromorphological and micromorphological features. Between four and six putative molecular lineages were identified within Goniopora samples from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea on the basis of four molecular markers: the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between Cytochrome b and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2, the entire nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, the ATP synthase subunit β gene, and a portion of the Calmodulin gene. The results were strongly corroborated by three distinct analyses of species delimitation. Subsequent analyses of micromorphological and microstructural skeletal features identified the presence of distinctive characters in each of the molecular clades. Unique in vivo morphologies were associated with the genetic-delimited lineages, further supporting the molecular findings. The proposed re-organization of Goniopora will resolve several taxonomic problems in this genus while reconciling molecular and morphological evidence. Reliable species-level identification of Goniopora spp. can be achieved with polyp morphology under the proposed revision.
Integrability and boundary conditions of supersymmetric systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yue Ruihong; Liang Hong
1996-01-01
By studying the solutions of the reflection equations, we find out a series of integrable supersymmetric systems with different boundary conditions. The Hamiltonian contains four free parameters which describe the contribution of the boundary terms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guirao, Julio, E-mail: julio@natec-ingenieros.com [Numerical Analysis Technologies S.L. (NATEC), Gijon (Spain); Iglesias, Silvia; Vacas, Christian; Udintsev, Victor [CHD, Diagnostic Division, ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Pak, Sunil [Diagnostic and Control Team, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Maquet, Philippe [CHD, Diagnostic Division, ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Rodriguez, Eduardo; Roces, Jorge [Department of Construction and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Oviedo, Gijon (Spain)
2015-10-15
Highlights: • A parametric submodel of the spot under study is developed. • The associated macro has the capability to successively re-build the submodel implementing the crack with the geometry of the updated crack front as a function of the predicted increments of length in the apexes of the crack from the calculated stress intensity factor at the crack front. • The analysis incorporates the crack behavior model to predict the evolution of the postulated defect under the application of the different transients. • The analysis is based on the Elasto-Plastic Fracture Mechanics (EPFM) theory to account for the ductility of the materials (316LN type stainless steel). - Abstract: This paper demonstrates structural integrity of the first confinement boundary in Generic Upper Port Plug structures against cracking during service. This constitutes part of the justification to demonstrate that the non-aggression to the confinement barrier requirement may be compatible with the absent of a specific in-service inspections (ISI) program in the trapezoidal section. Since the component will be subjected to 100% volumetric inspections it can be assumed that no defects below the threshold of applied Nondestructive Evaluation techniques will be present before its commissioning. Cracks during service would be associated to defects under Code acceptance limit. This limit can be reasonably taken as 2 mm. Using elastic–plastic fracture mechanics an initial defect is postulated at the worst location in terms of probability and impact on the confinement boundary. Its evolution is simulated through finite element analysis and final dimension at the end of service is estimated. Applying the procedures in RCC-MR 2007 (App-16) the stability of the crack is assessed. As relative high safety margin was achieved, a complementary assessment postulating an initial defect of 6 mm was also conducted. New margin calculated provides a more robust design.
Classically integrable boundary conditions for affine Toda field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowcock, P.; Corrigan, E.; Dorey, P.E.; Rietdijk, R.H.
1995-01-01
Boundary conditions compatible with classical integrability are studied both directly, using an approach based on the explicit construction of conserved quantities, and indirectly by first developing a generalisation of the Lax pair idea. The latter approach is closer to the spirit of earlier work by Sklyanin and yields a complete set of conjectures for permissible boundary conditions for any affine Toda field theory. (orig.)
Integral Method of Boundary Characteristics: Neumann Condition
Kot, V. A.
2018-05-01
A new algorithm, based on systems of identical equalities with integral and differential boundary characteristics, is proposed for solving boundary-value problems on the heat conduction in bodies canonical in shape at a Neumann boundary condition. Results of a numerical analysis of the accuracy of solving heat-conduction problems with variable boundary conditions with the use of this algorithm are presented. The solutions obtained with it can be considered as exact because their errors comprise hundredths and ten-thousandths of a persent for a wide range of change in the parameters of a problem.
The transactional approach in company boundaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruno Chaihuaque Dueñas
2009-12-01
Full Text Available This article shows the relationship between market and firms through the theory of transactional cost and the relationsthat determine the structure and boundaries of the firm. Using the assumptions from the transactional cost approach,this article proposes some variables that determine optimal organizational structures and their boundaries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozgener, B.
1998-01-01
A boundary integral equation (BIE) is developed for the application of the boundary element method to the multigroup neutron diffusion equations. The developed BIE contains no explicit scattering term; the scattering effects are taken into account by redefining the unknowns. Boundary elements of the linear and constant variety are utilised for validation of the developed boundary integral formulation
Numerical solution of boundary-integral equations for molecular electrostatics.
Bardhan, Jaydeep P
2009-03-07
Numerous molecular processes, such as ion permeation through channel proteins, are governed by relatively small changes in energetics. As a result, theoretical investigations of these processes require accurate numerical methods. In the present paper, we evaluate the accuracy of two approaches to simulating boundary-integral equations for continuum models of the electrostatics of solvation. The analysis emphasizes boundary-element method simulations of the integral-equation formulation known as the apparent-surface-charge (ASC) method or polarizable-continuum model (PCM). In many numerical implementations of the ASC/PCM model, one forces the integral equation to be satisfied exactly at a set of discrete points on the boundary. We demonstrate in this paper that this approach to discretization, known as point collocation, is significantly less accurate than an alternative approach known as qualocation. Furthermore, the qualocation method offers this improvement in accuracy without increasing simulation time. Numerical examples demonstrate that electrostatic part of the solvation free energy, when calculated using the collocation and qualocation methods, can differ significantly; for a polypeptide, the answers can differ by as much as 10 kcal/mol (approximately 4% of the total electrostatic contribution to solvation). The applicability of the qualocation discretization to other integral-equation formulations is also discussed, and two equivalences between integral-equation methods are derived.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yixin; Luo Xudong
1998-01-01
By the zero curvature condition in classically integrable system, the generating functions for integrals of motion and equations for solving K +- matrices are obtained in two-dimensional integrable systems on a finite interval with independent boundary conditions on each end. Classically integrable boundary conditions will be found by solving K +- matrices. The authors develop a Hamiltonian method in classically integrable system with independent boundary conditions on each end. The result can be applied to more integrable systems than those associated with E.K. Sklyanin's approach
Boundary integral methods for unsaturated flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez, M.J.; McTigue, D.F.
1990-01-01
Many large simulations may be required to assess the performance of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the nations first high level nuclear waste repository. A boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is described for numerical analysis of quasilinear steady unsaturated flow in homogeneous material. The applicability of the exponential model for the dependence of hydraulic conductivity on pressure head is discussed briefly. This constitutive assumption is at the heart of the quasilinear transformation. Materials which display a wide distribution in pore-size are described reasonably well by the exponential. For materials with a narrow range in pore-size, the exponential is suitable over more limited ranges in pressure head. The numerical implementation of the BIEM is used to investigate the infiltration from a strip source to a water table. The net infiltration of moisture into a finite-depth layer is well-described by results for a semi-infinite layer if αD > 4, where α is the sorptive number and D is the depth to the water table. the distribution of moisture exhibits a similar dependence on αD. 11 refs., 4 figs.,
Surface free energy for systems with integrable boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goehmann, Frank; Bortz, Michael; Frahm, Holger
2005-01-01
The surface free energy is the difference between the free energies for a system with open boundary conditions and the same system with periodic boundary conditions. We use the quantum transfer matrix formalism to express the surface free energy in the thermodynamic limit of systems with integrable boundary conditions as a matrix element of certain projection operators. Specializing to the XXZ spin-1/2 chain we introduce a novel 'finite temperature boundary operator' which characterizes the thermodynamical properties of surfaces related to integrable boundary conditions
Mixed Element Formulation for the Finite Element-Boundary Integral Method
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Meese, J; Kempel, L. C; Schneider, S. W
2006-01-01
A mixed element approach using right hexahedral elements and right prism elements for the finite element-boundary integral method is presented and discussed for the study of planar cavity-backed antennas...
Fused integrable lattice models with quantum impurities and open boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doikou, Anastasia
2003-01-01
The alternating integrable spin chain and the RSOS(q 1 ,q 2 ;p) model in the presence of a quantum impurity are investigated. The boundary free energy due to the impurity is derived, the ratios of the corresponding g functions at low and high temperature are specified and their relevance to boundary flows in unitary minimal and generalized coset models is discussed. Finally, the alternating spin chain with diagonal and non-diagonal integrable boundaries is studied, and the corresponding boundary free energy and g functions are derived
A boundary integral formalism for stochastic ray tracing in billiards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chappell, David J.; Tanner, Gregor
2014-01-01
Determining the flow of rays or non-interacting particles driven by a force or velocity field is fundamental to modelling many physical processes. These include particle flows arising in fluid mechanics and ray flows arising in the geometrical optics limit of linear wave equations. In many practical applications, the driving field is not known exactly and the dynamics are determined only up to a degree of uncertainty. This paper presents a boundary integral framework for propagating flows including uncertainties, which is shown to systematically interpolate between a deterministic and a completely random description of the trajectory propagation. A simple but efficient discretisation approach is applied to model uncertain billiard dynamics in an integrable rectangular domain
Integration a functional approach
Bichteler, Klaus
1998-01-01
This book covers Lebesgue integration and its generalizations from Daniell's point of view, modified by the use of seminorms. Integrating functions rather than measuring sets is posited as the main purpose of measure theory. From this point of view Lebesgue's integral can be had as a rather straightforward, even simplistic, extension of Riemann's integral; and its aims, definitions, and procedures can be motivated at an elementary level. The notion of measurability, for example, is suggested by Littlewood's observations rather than being conveyed authoritatively through definitions of (sigma)-algebras and good-cut-conditions, the latter of which are hard to justify and thus appear mysterious, even nettlesome, to the beginner. The approach taken provides the additional benefit of cutting the labor in half. The use of seminorms, ubiquitous in modern analysis, speeds things up even further. The book is intended for the reader who has some experience with proofs, a beginning graduate student for example. It might...
APPLICATION OF BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR THERMOELASTICITY PROBLEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vorona Yu.V.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Boundary Integral Equation Method is used for solving analytically the problems of coupled thermoelastic spherical wave propagation. The resulting mathematical expressions coincide with the solutions obtained in a conventional manner.
Boundary conditions in conformal and integrable theories
Petkova, V B
2000-01-01
The study of boundary conditions in rational conformal field theories is not only physically important. It also reveals a lot on the structure of the theory ``in the bulk''. The same graphs classify both the torus and the cylinder partition functions and provide data on their hidden ``quantum symmetry''. The Ocneanu triangular cells -- the 3j-symbols of these symmetries, admit various interpretations and make a link between different problems.
De La Rosa Gomez, Alejandro; MacKay, Niall; Regelskis, Vidas
2017-04-01
We present a general method of folding an integrable spin chain, defined on a line, to obtain an integrable open spin chain, defined on a half-line. We illustrate our method through two fundamental models with sl2 Lie algebra symmetry: the Heisenberg XXX and the Inozemtsev hyperbolic spin chains. We obtain new long-range boundary Hamiltonians and demonstrate that they exhibit Yangian symmetries, thus ensuring integrability of the models we obtain. The method presented provides a ;bottom-up; approach for constructing integrable boundaries and can be applied to any spin chain model.
Panafricanism, African Boundaries and Regional Integration ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The Pan African idea of closer unity is examined. Regional economic integration as a Pan African perspective is presented as a major way out of the deep and worsening economic crises bedeviling African economics. Attempts have been made since the 1960s to create and re-create institutions for regional economic ...
Infinite number of integrals of motion in classically integrable system with boundary: Pt.2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yixin; Luo Xudong
1998-01-01
In Affine Toda field theory, links among three generating functions for integrals of motion derived from Part (I) are studied, and some classically integrable boundary conditions are obtained. An infinite number of integrals of motion are calculated in ZMS model with quasi-periodic condition. The authors find the classically integrable boundary conditions and K +- matrices of ZMS model with independent boundary conditions on each end. It is identified that an infinite number of integrals of motion does exist and one of them is the Hamiltonian, so this system is completely integrable
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
2012-01-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) of flow in a wind farm is studied in neutral as well as thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). An approach has been practiced to simulate the flow in a fully developed wind farm boundary layer. The approach is based on the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM......) and involves implementation of an arbitrary prescribed initial boundary layer (See [1]). A prescribed initial boundary layer profile is enforced through the computational domain using body forces to maintain a desired flow field. The body forces are then stored and applied on the domain through the simulation...... and the boundary layer shape will be modified due to the interaction of the turbine wakes and buoyancy contributions. The implemented method is capable of capturing the most important features of wakes of wind farms [1] while having the advantage of resolving the wall layer with a coarser grid than typically...
Classically integrable boundary conditions for symmetric-space sigma models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacKay, N.J.; Young, C.A.S.
2004-01-01
We investigate boundary conditions for the non-linear sigma model on the compact symmetric space G/H. The Poisson brackets and the classical local conserved charges necessary for integrability are preserved by boundary conditions which correspond to involutions which commute with the involution defining H. Applied to SO(3)/SO(2), the non-linear sigma model on S 2 , these yield the great circles as boundary submanifolds. Applied to GxG/G, they reproduce known results for the principal chiral model
Hodille, E. A.; Ghiorghiu, F.; Addab, Y.; Založnik, A.; Minissale, M.; Piazza, Z.; Martin, C.; Angot, T.; Gallais, L.; Barthe, M.-F.; Becquart, C. S.; Markelj, S.; Mougenot, J.; Grisolia, C.; Bisson, R.
2017-07-01
Fusion fuel retention (trapping) and release (desorption) from plasma-facing components are critical issues for ITER and for any future industrial demonstration reactors such as DEMO. Therefore, understanding the fundamental mechanisms behind the retention of hydrogen isotopes in first wall and divertor materials is necessary. We developed an approach that couples dedicated experimental studies with modelling at all relevant scales, from microscopic elementary steps to macroscopic observables, in order to build a reliable and predictive fusion reactor wall model. This integrated approach is applied to the ITER divertor material (tungsten), and advances in the development of the wall model are presented. An experimental dataset, including focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, isothermal desorption, temperature programmed desorption, nuclear reaction analysis and Auger electron spectroscopy, is exploited to initialize a macroscopic rate equation wall model. This model includes all elementary steps of modelled experiments: implantation of fusion fuel, fuel diffusion in the bulk or towards the surface, fuel trapping on defects and release of trapped fuel during a thermal excursion of materials. We were able to show that a single-trap-type single-detrapping-energy model is not able to reproduce an extended parameter space study of a polycrystalline sample exhibiting a single desorption peak. It is therefore justified to use density functional theory to guide the initialization of a more complex model. This new model still contains a single type of trap, but includes the density functional theory findings that the detrapping energy varies as a function of the number of hydrogen isotopes bound to the trap. A better agreement of the model with experimental results is obtained when grain boundary defects are included, as is consistent with the polycrystalline nature of the studied sample. Refinement of this grain boundary model is discussed as well as the inclusion
Bulger, Carrie A; Matthews, Russell A; Hoffman, Mark E
2007-10-01
While researchers are increasingly interested in understanding the boundaries surrounding the work and personal life domains, few have tested the propositions set forth by theory. Boundary theory proposes that individuals manage the boundaries between work and personal life through processes of segmenting and/or integrating the domains. The authors investigated boundary management profiles of 332 workers in an investigation of the segmentation-integration continuum. Cluster analysis indicated consistent clusters of boundary management practices related to varying segmentation and integration of the work and personal life domains. But, the authors suggest that the segmentation-integration continuum may be more complicated. Results also indicated relationships between boundary management practices and work-personal life interference and work-personal life enhancement. Less flexible and more permeable boundaries were related to more interference, while more flexible and more permeable boundaries were related to more enhancement.
Brown, Phil
2013-06-01
This article reviews the personal and professional processes of developing an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complex issues of environmental health in their community, political-economic, social science, and scientific contexts. This interdisciplinary approach includes a synthesis of research, policy work, and advocacy. To examine multiple forms of interdisciplinarity, I examine pathways of integrating medical and environmental sociology via three challenges to the boundaries of traditional research: (1) crossing the boundaries of medical and environmental sociology, (2) linking social science and environmental health science, and (3) crossing the boundary of research and advocacy. These boundary crossings are discussed in light of conceptual and theoretical developments of popular epidemiology, contested illnesses, and health social movements. This interdisciplinary work offers a more comprehensive sociological lens for understanding complex problems and a practical ability to join with scientists, activists, and officials to meet public health needs for amelioration and prevention of environmental health threats.
Integrated care in the daily work: coordination beyond organisational boundaries.
Petrakou, Alexandra
2009-07-09
In this paper, integrated care in an inter-organisational cooperative setting of in-home elderly care is studied. The aim is to explore how home care workers coordinate their daily work, identify coordination issues in situ and discuss possible actions for supporting seamless and integrated elderly care at home. The empirical findings are drawn from an ethnographic workplace study of the cooperation and coordination taking place between home care workers in a Swedish county. Data were collected through observational studies, interviews and group discussions. The paper identifies a need to support two core issues. Firstly, it must be made clear how the care interventions that are currently defined as 'self-treatment' by the home health care should be divided. Secondly, the distributed and asynchronous coordination between all care workers involved, regardless of organisational belonging must be better supported. Integrated care needs to be developed between organisations as well as within each organisation. As a matter of fact, integrated care needs to be built up beyond organisational boundaries. Organisational boundaries affect the planning of the division of care interventions, but not the coordination during the home care process. During the home care process, the main challenge is the coordination difficulties that arise from the fact that workers are distributed in time and/or space, regardless of organisational belonging. A core subject for future practice and research is to develop IT tools that reach beyond formal organisational boundaries and processes while remaining adaptable in view of future structure changes.
Local defect correction for boundary integral equation methods
Kakuba, G.; Anthonissen, M.J.H.
2014-01-01
The aim in this paper is to develop a new local defect correction approach to gridding for problems with localised regions of high activity in the boundary element method. The technique of local defect correction has been studied for other methods as finite difference methods and finite volume
Local defect correction for boundary integral equation methods
Kakuba, G.; Anthonissen, M.J.H.
2013-01-01
This paper presents a new approach to gridding for problems with localised regions of high activity. The technique of local defect correction has been studied for other methods as ¿nite difference methods and ¿nite volume methods. In this paper we develop the technique for the boundary element
Retarded potentials and time domain boundary integral equations a road map
Sayas, Francisco-Javier
2016-01-01
This book offers a thorough and self-contained exposition of the mathematics of time-domain boundary integral equations associated to the wave equation, including applications to scattering of acoustic and elastic waves. The book offers two different approaches for the analysis of these integral equations, including a systematic treatment of their numerical discretization using Galerkin (Boundary Element) methods in the space variables and Convolution Quadrature in the time variable. The first approach follows classical work started in the late eighties, based on Laplace transforms estimates. This approach has been refined and made more accessible by tailoring the necessary mathematical tools, avoiding an excess of generality. A second approach contains a novel point of view that the author and some of his collaborators have been developing in recent years, using the semigroup theory of evolution equations to obtain improved results. The extension to electromagnetic waves is explained in one of the appendices...
A Probabilistic Approach for Breast Boundary Extraction in Mammograms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamed Habibi Aghdam
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The extraction of the breast boundary is crucial to perform further analysis of mammogram. Methods to extract the breast boundary can be classified into two categories: methods based on image processing techniques and those based on models. The former use image transformation techniques such as thresholding, morphological operations, and region growing. In the second category, the boundary is extracted using more advanced techniques, such as the active contour model. The problem with thresholding methods is that it is a hard to automatically find the optimal threshold value by using histogram information. On the other hand, active contour models require defining a starting point close to the actual boundary to be able to successfully extract the boundary. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic approach to address the aforementioned problems. In our approach we use local binary patterns to describe the texture around each pixel. In addition, the smoothness of the boundary is handled by using a new probability model. Experimental results show that the proposed method reaches 38% and 50% improvement with respect to the results obtained by the active contour model and threshold-based methods respectively, and it increases the stability of the boundary extraction process up to 86%.
Discretization of the induced-charge boundary integral equation.
Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Eisenberg, Robert S; Gillespie, Dirk
2009-07-01
Boundary-element methods (BEMs) for solving integral equations numerically have been used in many fields to compute the induced charges at dielectric boundaries. In this paper, we consider a more accurate implementation of BEM in the context of ions in aqueous solution near proteins, but our results are applicable more generally. The ions that modulate protein function are often within a few angstroms of the protein, which leads to the significant accumulation of polarization charge at the protein-solvent interface. Computing the induced charge accurately and quickly poses a numerical challenge in solving a popular integral equation using BEM. In particular, the accuracy of simulations can depend strongly on seemingly minor details of how the entries of the BEM matrix are calculated. We demonstrate that when the dielectric interface is discretized into flat tiles, the qualocation method of Tausch [IEEE Trans Comput.-Comput.-Aided Des. 20, 1398 (2001)] to compute the BEM matrix elements is always more accurate than the traditional centroid-collocation method. Qualocation is not more expensive to implement than collocation and can save significant computational time by reducing the number of boundary elements needed to discretize the dielectric interfaces.
Discretization of the induced-charge boundary integral equation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bardhan, J. P.; Eisenberg, R. S.; Gillespie, D.; Rush Univ. Medical Center
2009-07-01
Boundary-element methods (BEMs) for solving integral equations numerically have been used in many fields to compute the induced charges at dielectric boundaries. In this paper, we consider a more accurate implementation of BEM in the context of ions in aqueous solution near proteins, but our results are applicable more generally. The ions that modulate protein function are often within a few angstroms of the protein, which leads to the significant accumulation of polarization charge at the protein-solvent interface. Computing the induced charge accurately and quickly poses a numerical challenge in solving a popular integral equation using BEM. In particular, the accuracy of simulations can depend strongly on seemingly minor details of how the entries of the BEM matrix are calculated. We demonstrate that when the dielectric interface is discretized into flat tiles, the qualocation method of Tausch et al. [IEEE Trans Comput.-Comput.-Aided Des. 20, 1398 (2001)] to compute the BEM matrix elements is always more accurate than the traditional centroid-collocation method. Qualocation is not more expensive to implement than collocation and can save significant computational time by reducing the number of boundary elements needed to discretize the dielectric interfaces.
Integrated care in the daily work: coordination beyond organisational boundaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandra Petrakou
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Objectives: In this paper, integrated care in an inter-organisational cooperative setting of in-home elderly care is studied. The aim is to explore how home care workers coordinate their daily work, identify coordination issues in situ and discuss possible actions for supporting seamless and integrated elderly care at home. Method: The empirical findings are drawn from an ethnographic workplace study of the cooperation and coordination taking place between home care workers in a Swedish county. Data were collected through observational studies, interviews and group discussions. Findings: The paper identifies a need to support two core issues. Firstly, it must be made clear how the care interventions that are currently defined as ‘self-treatment’ by the home health care should be divided. Secondly, the distributed and asynchronous coordination between all care workers involved, regardless of organisational belonging must be better supported. Conclusion: Integrated care needs to be developed between organisations as well as within each organisation. As a matter of fact, integrated care needs to be built up beyond organisational boundaries. Organisational boundaries affect the planning of the division of care interventions, but not the coordination during the home care process. During the home care process, the main challenge is the coordination difficulties that arise from the fact that workers are distributed in time and/or space, regardless of organisational belonging. A core subject for future practice and research is to develop IT tools that reach beyond formal organisational boundaries and processes while remaining adaptable in view of future structure changes.
State space approach to mixed boundary value problems.
Chen, C. F.; Chen, M. M.
1973-01-01
A state-space procedure for the formulation and solution of mixed boundary value problems is established. This procedure is a natural extension of the method used in initial value problems; however, certain special theorems and rules must be developed. The scope of the applications of the approach includes beam, arch, and axisymmetric shell problems in structural analysis, boundary layer problems in fluid mechanics, and eigenvalue problems for deformable bodies. Many classical methods in these fields developed by Holzer, Prohl, Myklestad, Thomson, Love-Meissner, and others can be either simplified or unified under new light shed by the state-variable approach. A beam problem is included as an illustration.
Tokamak plasma shape identification based on the boundary integral equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurihara, Kenichi; Kimura, Toyoaki
1992-05-01
A necessary condition for tokamak plasma shape identification is discussed and a new identification method is proposed in this article. This method is based on the boundary integral equations governing a vacuum region around a plasma with only the measurement of either magnetic fluxes or magnetic flux intensities. It can identify various plasmas with low to high ellipticities with the precision determined by the number of the magnetic sensors. This method is applicable to real-time control and visualization using a 'table-look-up' procedure. (author)
Methods for assessing NPP containment pressure boundary integrity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naus, D.J.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Graves, H.L.
2004-01-01
Research is being conducted to address aging of the containment pressure boundary in light-water reactor plants. Objectives of this research are to (1) understand the significant factors relating to corrosion occurrence, efficacy of inspection, and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and of liners of concrete containments; (2) provide the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) reviewers a means of establishing current structural capacity margins or estimating future residual structural capacity margins for steel containments and concrete containments as limited by liner integrity; and (3) provide recommendations, as appropriate, on information to be requested of licensees for guidance that could be utilized by USNRC reviewers in assessing the seriousness of reported incidences of containment degradation. Activities include development of a degradation assessment methodology; reviews of techniques and methods for inspection and repair of containment metallic pressure boundaries; evaluation of candidate techniques for inspection of inaccessible regions of containment metallic pressure boundaries; establishment of a methodology for reliability-based condition assessments of steel containments and liners; and fragility assessments of steel containments with localized corrosion
An Integrated Approach to Biology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 8. An Integrated Approach to Biology. Aniket Bhattacharya. General Article Volume 16 Issue 8 August 2011 pp 742-753. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/08/0742-0753 ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nahed S. Hussein
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical boundary integral scheme is proposed for the solution to the system of eld equations of plane. The stresses are prescribed on one-half of the circle, while the displacements are given. The considered problem with mixed boundary conditions in the circle is replaced by two problems with homogeneous boundary conditions, one of each type, having a common solution. The equations are reduced to a system of boundary integral equations, which is then discretized in the usual way, and the problem at this stage is reduced to the solution to a rectangular linear system of algebraic equations. The unknowns in this system of equations are the boundary values of four harmonic functions which define the full elastic solution and the unknown boundary values of stresses or displacements on proper parts of the boundary. On the basis of the obtained results, it is inferred that a stress component has a singularity at each of the two separation points, thought to be of logarithmic type. The results are discussed and boundary plots are given. We have also calculated the unknown functions in the bulk directly from the given boundary conditions using the boundary collocation method. The obtained results in the bulk are discussed and three-dimensional plots are given. A tentative form for the singular solution is proposed and the corresponding singular stresses and displacements are plotted in the bulk. The form of the singular tangential stress is seen to be compatible with the boundary values obtained earlier. The efficiency of the used numerical schemes is discussed.
Kreienkamp, Amelia B.; Liu, Lucy Y.; Minkara, Mona S.; Knepley, Matthew G.; Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Radhakrishnan, Mala L.
2013-01-01
We analyze and suggest improvements to a recently developed approximate continuum-electrostatic model for proteins. The model, called BIBEE/I (boundary-integral based electrostatics estimation with interpolation), was able to estimate electrostatic solvation free energies to within a mean unsigned error of 4% on a test set of more than 600 proteins—a significant improvement over previous BIBEE models. In this work, we tested the BIBEE/I model for its capability to predict residue-by-residue interactions in protein–protein binding, using the widely studied model system of trypsin and bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). Finding that the BIBEE/I model performs surprisingly less well in this task than simpler BIBEE models, we seek to explain this behavior in terms of the models’ differing spectral approximations of the exact boundary-integral operator. Calculations of analytically solvable systems (spheres and tri-axial ellipsoids) suggest two possibilities for improvement. The first is a modified BIBEE/I approach that captures the asymptotic eigenvalue limit correctly, and the second involves the dipole and quadrupole modes for ellipsoidal approximations of protein geometries. Our analysis suggests that fast, rigorous approximate models derived from reduced-basis approximation of boundary-integral equations might reach unprecedented accuracy, if the dipole and quadrupole modes can be captured quickly for general shapes. PMID:24466561
Ares I Integrated Test Approach
Taylor, Jim
2008-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the testing approach that NASA is developing for the Ares I launch vehicle. NASA is planning a complete series of development, qualification and verification tests. These include: (1) Upper stage engine sea-level and altitude testing (2) First stage development and qualification motors (3) Upper stage structural and thermal development and qualification test articles (4) Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA) (5) Upper stage green run testing (6) Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing (IVGVT) and (7) Aerodynamic characterization testing.
Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Knepley, Matthew G; Brune, Peter
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present an exact, infinite-series solution to Lorentz nonlocal continuum electrostatics for an arbitrary charge distribution in a spherical solute. Our approach relies on two key steps: (1) re-formulating the PDE problem using boundary-integral equations, and (2) diagonalizing the boundary-integral operators using the fact that their eigenfunctions are the surface spherical harmonics. To introduce this uncommon approach for calculations in separable geometries, we first re-derive Kirkwood's classic results for a protein surrounded concentrically by a pure-water ion-exclusion (Stern) layer and then a dilute electrolyte, which is modeled with the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The eigenfunction-expansion approach provides a computationally efficient way to test some implications of nonlocal models, including estimating the reasonable range of the nonlocal length-scale parameter λ. Our results suggest that nonlocal solvent response may help to reduce the need for very high dielectric constants in calculating pH-dependent protein behavior, though more sophisticated nonlocal models are needed to resolve this question in full. An open-source MATLAB implementation of our approach is freely available online.
Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Knepley, Matthew G.; Brune, Peter
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present an exact, infinite-series solution to Lorentz nonlocal continuum electrostatics for an arbitrary charge distribution in a spherical solute. Our approach relies on two key steps: (1) re-formulating the PDE problem using boundary-integral equations, and (2) diagonalizing the boundary-integral operators using the fact that their eigenfunctions are the surface spherical harmonics. To introduce this uncommon approach for calculations in separable geometries, we first re-derive Kirkwood’s classic results for a protein surrounded concentrically by a pure-water ion-exclusion (Stern) layer and then a dilute electrolyte, which is modeled with the linearized Poisson–Boltzmann equation. The eigenfunction-expansion approach provides a computationally efficient way to test some implications of nonlocal models, including estimating the reasonable range of the nonlocal length-scale parameter λ. Our results suggest that nonlocal solvent response may help to reduce the need for very high dielectric constants in calculating pH-dependent protein behavior, though more sophisticated nonlocal models are needed to resolve this question in full. An open-source MATLAB implementation of our approach is freely available online. PMID:26273581
Boundary integral method for torsion of composite shafts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, S.I.; Mohr, J.A.
1987-01-01
The Saint-Venant torsion problem for homogeneous shafts with simply or multiply-connected regions has received a great deal of attention in the past. However, because of the mathematical difficulties inherent in the problem, very few problems of torsion of shafts with composite cross sections have been solved analytically. Muskhelishvili (1963) studied the torsion problem for shafts with cross sections having several solid inclusions surrounded by an elastic material. The problem of a circular shaft reinforced by a non-concentric round inclusion, a rectangular shaft composed of two rectangular parts made of different materials were solved. In this paper, a boundary integral equation method, which can be used to solve problems more complex than those considered by Katsikadelis et. al., is developed. Square shaft with two dissimilar rectangular parts, square shaft with a square inclusion are solved and the results compared with those given in the reference cited above. Finally, a square shaft composed of two rectangular parts with circular inclusion is solved. (orig./GL)
Integrable systems on so(4) related to XXX spin chains with boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsiganov, A V; Goremykin, O V
2004-01-01
We consider two-site XXX Heisenberg magnets with different boundary conditions, which are integrable systems on so(4) possessing additional cubic and quartic integrals of motion. The separated variables for these models are constructed using the Sklyanin method
Integrity of the reactor coolant boundary of the European pressurized water reactor (EPR)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goetsch, D.; Bieniussa, K.; Schulz, H.; Jalouneix, J.
1997-04-01
This paper is an abstract of the work performed in the frame of the development of the IPSN/GRS approach in view of the EPR conceptual safety features. EPR is a pressurized water reactor which will be based on the experience gained by utilities and designers in France and in Germany. The reactor coolant boundary of a PWR includes the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), those parts of the steam generators (SGs) which contain primary coolant, the pressurizer (PSR), the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs), the main coolant lines (MCLs) with their branches as well as the other connecting pipes and all branching pipes including the second isolation valves. The present work covering the integrity of the reactor coolant boundary is mainly restricted to the integrity of the main coolant lines (MCLs) and reflects the design requirements for the main components of the reactor coolant boundary. In the following the conceptual aspects, i.e. design, manufacture, construction and operation, will be assessed. A main aspect is the definition of break postulates regarding overall safety implications.
Integrity of the reactor coolant boundary of the European pressurized water reactor (EPR)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goetsch, D.; Bieniussa, K.; Schulz, H.; Jalouneix, J.
1997-01-01
This paper is an abstract of the work performed in the frame of the development of the IPSN/GRS approach in view of the EPR conceptual safety features. EPR is a pressurized water reactor which will be based on the experience gained by utilities and designers in France and in Germany. The reactor coolant boundary of a PWR includes the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), those parts of the steam generators (SGs) which contain primary coolant, the pressurizer (PSR), the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs), the main coolant lines (MCLs) with their branches as well as the other connecting pipes and all branching pipes including the second isolation valves. The present work covering the integrity of the reactor coolant boundary is mainly restricted to the integrity of the main coolant lines (MCLs) and reflects the design requirements for the main components of the reactor coolant boundary. In the following the conceptual aspects, i.e. design, manufacture, construction and operation, will be assessed. A main aspect is the definition of break postulates regarding overall safety implications
A boundary integral method for two-dimensional (non)-Newtonian drops in slow viscous flow
Toose, E.M.; Geurts, B.J.; Kuerten, J.G.M.
1995-01-01
A boundary integral method for the simulation of the time-dependent deformation of Newtonian or non-Newtonian drops suspended in a Newtonian fluid is developed. The boundary integral formulation for Stokes flow is used and the non-Newtonian stress is treated as a source term which yields an extra
Work-Nonwork Boundary Management Profiles: A Person-Centered Approach
Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Ruderman, Marian N.; Braddy, Phillip W.; Hannum, Kelly M.
2012-01-01
The goal of this paper is to advance the measurement and theory of work-nonwork boundary management styles. Boundary management styles are defined as the approaches individuals use to demarcate boundaries and attend to work and family and other nonwork roles, given identity centralities and perceived boundary control. We argue that research should…
Piloting and Path Integration within and across Boundaries
Mou, Weimin; Wang, Lin
2015-01-01
Three experiments investigated whether navigation is less efficient across boundaries than within boundaries. In an immersive virtual environment, participants learned objects' locations in a large room or a small room. Participants then pointed to the objects' original locations after physically walking a circuitous path without vision.…
Malaysia implements the integrated approach.
1977-01-01
Malaysia has implemented an integrated approach in providing family planning services to eligible couples. In 1964 the government of Malaysia adopted a national family planning program, and implementation began in the urban areas and extended into the rural areas. Other agencies are involved in providing family planning services and information including the Federation of Family Planning Associations, the Ministry of Health, the National Family Planning Board, and the Federal Land Development Authority. The number of women practicing contraception has increased from 20,726 in 1967 to 533,646 by 1976. and other methods, 3.9%, respectively. There has been an increase in the percentage of acceptors between ages 15-29 from 56% in 1968 to 71.3% in 1975. The 2nd Malaysian national plan will use a multidisciplinary approach to the problem.
Approaches for the accurate definition of geological time boundaries
Schaltegger, Urs; Baresel, Björn; Ovtcharova, Maria; Goudemand, Nicolas; Bucher, Hugo
2015-04-01
Which strategies lead to the most precise and accurate date of a given geological boundary? Geological units are usually defined by the occurrence of characteristic taxa and hence boundaries between these geological units correspond to dramatic faunal and/or floral turnovers and they are primarily defined using first or last occurrences of index species, or ideally by the separation interval between two consecutive, characteristic associations of fossil taxa. These boundaries need to be defined in a way that enables their worldwide recognition and correlation across different stratigraphic successions, using tools as different as bio-, magneto-, and chemo-stratigraphy, and astrochronology. Sedimentary sequences can be dated in numerical terms by applying high-precision chemical-abrasion, isotope-dilution, thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) U-Pb age determination to zircon (ZrSiO4) in intercalated volcanic ashes. But, though volcanic activity is common in geological history, ashes are not necessarily close to the boundary we would like to date precisely and accurately. In addition, U-Pb zircon data sets may be very complex and difficult to interpret in terms of the age of ash deposition. To overcome these difficulties we use a multi-proxy approach we applied to the precise and accurate dating of the Permo-Triassic and Early-Middle Triassic boundaries in South China. a) Dense sampling of ashes across the critical time interval and a sufficiently large number of analysed zircons per ash sample can guarantee the recognition of all system complexities. Geochronological datasets from U-Pb dating of volcanic zircon may indeed combine effects of i) post-crystallization Pb loss from percolation of hydrothermal fluids (even using chemical abrasion), with ii) age dispersion from prolonged residence of earlier crystallized zircon in the magmatic system. As a result, U-Pb dates of individual zircons are both apparently younger and older than the depositional age
Neumann Casimir effect: A singular boundary-interaction approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fosco, C.D.; Lombardo, F.C.; Mazzitelli, F.D.
2010-01-01
Dirichlet boundary conditions on a surface can be imposed on a scalar field, by coupling it quadratically to a δ-like potential, the strength of which tends to infinity. Neumann conditions, on the other hand, require the introduction of an even more singular term, which renders the reflection and transmission coefficients ill-defined because of UV divergences. We present a possible procedure to tame those divergences, by introducing a minimum length scale, related to the nonzero 'width' of a nonlocal term. We then use this setup to reach (either exact or imperfect) Neumann conditions, by taking the appropriate limits. After defining meaningful reflection coefficients, we calculate the Casimir energies for flat parallel mirrors, presenting also the extension of the procedure to the case of arbitrary surfaces. Finally, we discuss briefly how to generalize the worldline approach to the nonlocal case, what is potentially useful in order to compute Casimir energies in theories containing nonlocal potentials; in particular, those which we use to reproduce Neumann boundary conditions.
General approach to polymer chains confined by interacting boundaries.
Freed, Karl F; Dudowicz, Jacek; Stukalin, Evgeny B; Douglas, Jack F
2010-09-07
Polymer chains, confined to cavities or polymer layers with dimensions less than the chain radius of gyration, appear in many phenomena, such as gel chromatography, rubber elasticity, viscolelasticity of high molar mass polymer melts, the translocation of polymers through nanopores and nanotubes, polymer adsorption, etc. Thus, the description of how the constraints alter polymer thermodynamic properties is a recurrent theoretical problem. A realistic treatment requires the incorporation of impenetrable interacting (attractive or repulsive) boundaries, a process that introduces significant mathematical complications. The standard approach involves developing the generalized diffusion equation description of the interaction of flexible polymers with impenetrable confining surfaces into a discrete eigenfunction expansion, where the solutions are normally truncated at the first mode (the "ground state dominance" approximation). This approximation is mathematically well justified under conditions of strong confinement, i.e., a confinement length scale much smaller than the chain radius of gyration, but becomes unreliable when the polymers are confined to dimensions comparable to their typically nanoscale size. We extend a general approach to describe polymers under conditions of weak to moderate confinement and apply this semianalytic method specifically to determine the thermodynamics and static structure factor for a flexible polymer confined between impenetrable interacting parallel plate boundaries. The method is first illustrated by analyzing chain partitioning between a pore and a large external reservoir, a model system with application to chromatography. Improved agreement is found for the partition coefficients of a polymer chain in the pore geometry. An expression is derived for the structure factor S(k) in a slit geometry to assist in more accurately estimating chain dimensions from scattering measurements for thin polymer films.
δ'-function perturbations and Neumann boundary-conditions by path integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosche, C.
1994-02-01
δ'-function perturbations and Neumann boundary conditions are incorporated into the path integral formalism. The starting point is the consideration of the path integral representation for the one dimensional Dirac particle together with a relativistic point interaction. The non-relativistic limit yields either a usual δ-function or a δ'-function perturbation; making their strengths infinitely repulsive one obtains Dirichlet, respectively Neumann boundary conditions in the path integral. (orig.)
Integrated approaches to perceptual learning.
Jacobs, Robert A
2010-04-01
New technologies and new ways of thinking have recently led to rapid expansions in the study of perceptual learning. We describe three themes shared by many of the nine articles included in this topic on Integrated Approaches to Perceptual Learning. First, perceptual learning cannot be studied on its own because it is closely linked to other aspects of cognition, such as attention, working memory, decision making, and conceptual knowledge. Second, perceptual learning is sensitive to both the stimulus properties of the environment in which an observer exists and to the properties of the tasks that the observer needs to perform. Moreover, the environmental and task properties can be characterized through their statistical regularities. Finally, the study of perceptual learning has important implications for society, including implications for science education and medical rehabilitation. Contributed articles relevant to each theme are summarized. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
DOE systems approach and integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logan, J.A.
1987-01-01
Six sites are now disposing of most of DOE's currently generated waste. These are: Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Nevada Test Site, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. Within DOE, experience with disposal of solid LLW has been that arid site disposal facilities (first four) appear to have performed well, while humid site disposal facilities (last two) have experienced some waste migration. DOE's intent, of course, is to operate all its waste disposal facilities so that public health and safety are not adversely affected. To ensure that this continues to be the case, activities are underway to increase use of waste form stabilization and engineered barriers where appropriate. For the sake of overall economy, these measures are to be applied as and where needed, through use of the systems approach. In this paper the author discusses two topics: the system approach, which DOE has decided to use for resolving waste disposal problems in the management of DOE's low-level wastes; and DOE's intended integration of activities underway at the waste management systems throughout DOE facilities. 2 figures
Signatures of chaos and non-integrability in two-dimensional gravity with dynamical boundary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fitkevich Maxim
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a model of two-dimensional dilaton gravity with a boundary. In the bulk our model coincides with the classically integrable CGHS model; the dynamical boundary cuts of the CGHS strong-coupling region. As a result, classical dynamics in our model reminds that in the spherically-symmetric gravity: wave packets of matter fields either reflect from the boundary or form black holes. We find large integrable sector of multisoliton solutions in this model. At the same time, we argue that the model is globally non-integrable because solutions at the verge of black hole formation display chaotic properties.
A Duality Approach for the Boundary Variation of Neumann Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bucur, Dorin; Varchon, Nicolas
2002-01-01
In two dimensions, we study the stability of the solution of an elliptic equation with Neumann boundary conditions for nonsmooth perturbations of the geometric domain. Using harmonic conjugates, we relate this problem to the shape stability of the solution of an elliptic equation with Dirichlet b...... boundary conditions. As a particular case, we prove the stability of the solution under a topological constraint ( uniform number of holes), which is analogous to Sverak's result for Dirichlet boundary conditions....
A duality approach or the boundary variation of Neumann problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bucur, D.; Varchon, Nicolas
2002-01-01
In two dimensions, we study the stability of the solution of an elliptic equation with Neumann boundary conditions for nonsmooth perturbations of the geometric domain. Using harmonic conjugates, we relate this problem to the shape stability of the solution of an elliptic equation with Dirichlet b...... boundary conditions. As a particular case, we prove the stability of the solution under a topological constraint ( uniform number of holes), which is analogous to Sverak's result for Dirichlet boundary conditions....
One out of many? Boundary negotiation and identity formation in postmerger integration
Drori, Israel; Wrzesniewski, Amy; Ellis, Shmuel
2013-01-01
This research investigates how boundaries are utilized during the postmerger integration process to influence the postmerger identity of the firm. We suggest that the boundaries that define the structures, practices, and values of firms prior to a merger become reinforced, contested, or revised in
Second-order domain derivative of normal-dependent boundary integrals
Balzer, Jonathan
2010-01-01
Numerous reconstruction tasks in (optical) surface metrology allow for a variational formulation. The occurring boundary integrals may be interpreted as shape functions. The paper is concerned with the second-order analysis of such functions. Shape
Integrating Sustainability into the Curriculum: Crossing Disciplinary Boundaries
Pushnik, J.
2012-12-01
The next generation will confront an increased number of global issues that interface the complexities of socioeconomic perspectives, environmental stability, poverty and development. Recently California State University Chico undertook a general education reform, providing a unique opportunity to craft a general education pathway to prepare students for these challenges by focusing a curriculum on sustainability. The Sustainability Pathway emphasizes a system thinking approach to help students understand and be able to address a set of problems involving the biosphere processes, human institutions and the economic vitality. The curriculum intentionally integrates courses from across the disciplines of natural sciences, social sciences, agriculture, engineering, economics, arts and humanities into a central focused theme of sustainability. The diverse backgrounds and academic focus of the participating faculty has necessitate the development of a common language and a cohesion within the curriculum. To address these needs a faculty learning community (FLC) was established to build on a common set of case studies. Three regional environmental water related issues were selected that had demonstrable socioeconomic, equity/ethical dimensions and environmental consequences. These case studies are Klamath River basin in northern California, the Bay-Delta project in the central part of the state and the Sultan Sea in southern California. Members of the FLC has contributed a perspective from their academic discipline which includes proposed reading lists, web based resources and PowerPoint presentations which are housed in common web- based resource repository. The pedagogical rational is to create linkages and cohesion among the courses in the curriculum by iteratively examining these case studies as basis for development of a multidisciplinary perspective as students progress through their general education.
Topology and boundary shape optimization as an integrated design tool
Bendsoe, Martin Philip; Rodrigues, Helder Carrico
1990-01-01
The optimal topology of a two dimensional linear elastic body can be computed by regarding the body as a domain of the plane with a high density of material. Such an optimal topology can then be used as the basis for a shape optimization method that computes the optimal form of the boundary curves of the body. This results in an efficient and reliable design tool, which can be implemented via common FEM mesh generator and CAD type input-output facilities.
Expanding the Boundaries of Behavioral Integrity in Organizations
2010-07-01
happened to someone else, subordinates can rationally seek behavioral solutions that punish the managers or the organization they represent (i.e...Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Brief, A. P., & Motowidlo, S. J. 1986. Prosocial organizational behaviors . Academy of Management Review, 11(4): 710-725...Dissertation Publication 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-03-2009 to 25-07-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Expanding the Boundaries of Behavioral
Li, Xiaofan; Nie, Qing
2009-01-01
Many applications in materials involve surface diffusion of elastically stressed solids. Study of singularity formation and long-time behavior of such solid surfaces requires accurate simulations in both space and time. Here we present a high-order boundary integral method for an elastically stressed solid with axi-symmetry due to surface diffusions. In this method, the boundary integrals for isotropic elasticity in axi-symmetric geometry are approximated through modified alternating quadratu...
From integrated control to integrated farming, an experimental approach
Vereijken, P.H.
1989-01-01
Integrated control or integrated pest management (IPM), as envisaged originally, is not being practised to any large extent in arable farming, notwithstanding considerable research efforts. The reasons for this are discussed. A more basic approach called integrated farming is suggested. Preliminary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Volodymyr S. Il'kiv
2016-11-01
Full Text Available We study a problem with integral boundary conditions in the time coordinate for a system of Lame equations of dynamic elasticity theory of an arbitrary dimension. We find necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of solution in the class of almost periodic functions in the spatial variables. To solve the problem of small denominators arising while constructing solutions, we use the metric approach.
Sequential boundaries approach in clinical trials with unequal allocation ratios
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayatollahi Seyyed
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical trials, both unequal randomization design and sequential analyses have ethical and economic advantages. In the single-stage-design (SSD, however, if the sample size is not adjusted based on unequal randomization, the power of the trial will decrease, whereas with sequential analysis the power will always remain constant. Our aim was to compare sequential boundaries approach with the SSD when the allocation ratio (R was not equal. Methods We evaluated the influence of R, the ratio of the patients in experimental group to the standard group, on the statistical properties of two-sided tests, including the two-sided single triangular test (TT, double triangular test (DTT and SSD by multiple simulations. The average sample size numbers (ASNs and power (1-β were evaluated for all tests. Results Our simulation study showed that choosing R = 2 instead of R = 1 increases the sample size of SSD by 12% and the ASN of the TT and DTT by the same proportion. Moreover, when R = 2, compared to the adjusted SSD, using the TT or DTT allows to retrieve the well known reductions of ASN observed when R = 1, compared to SSD. In addition, when R = 2, compared to SSD, using the TT and DTT allows to obtain smaller reductions of ASN than when R = 1, but maintains the power of the test to its planned value. Conclusion This study indicates that when the allocation ratio is not equal among the treatment groups, sequential analysis could indeed serve as a compromise between ethicists, economists and statisticians.
Abelian Chern endash Simons theory. II. A functional integral approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manoliu, M.
1998-01-01
Following Witten, [Commun. Math. Phys. 21, 351 endash 399 (1989)] we approach the Abelian quantum Chern endash Simons (CS) gauge theory from a Feynman functional integral point of view. We show that for 3-manifolds with and without a boundary the formal functional integral definitions lead to mathematically proper expressions that agree with the results from the rigorous construction [J. Math. Phys. 39, 170 endash 206 (1998)] of the Abelian CS topological quantum field theory via geometric quantization. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Data integration approaches using ETL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandra Maria Ioana FLOREA
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Traditional data warehouses and ETL tools have been slowly pushed to expand their limits as big data has become a more and more prominent actor on the analytics stage. This paper analyzes and compares the features of Pentaho Data Integration and Oracle Data Integrator, two of the main data integration platforms. Such tools are relevant in the context of the evolution of the analytics field, which is expanding from classical business intelligence activities to the use and analysis of big data.
An(1) affine Toda field theories with integrable boundary conditions revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doikou, Anastasia
2008-01-01
Generic classically integrable boundary conditions for the A n (1) affine Toda field theories (ATFT) are investigated. The present analysis rests primarily on the underlying algebra, defined by the classical version of the reflection equation. We use as a prototype example the first non-trivial model of the hierarchy i.e. the A 2 (1) ATFT, however our results may be generalized for any A n (1) (n > 1). We assume here two distinct types of boundary conditions called some times soliton preserving (SP), and soliton non-preserving (SNP) associated to two distinct algebras, i.e. the reflection algebra and the (q) twisted Yangian respectively. The boundary local integrals of motion are then systematically extracted from the asymptotic expansion of the associated transfer matrix. In the case of SNP boundary conditions we recover previously known results. The other type of boundary conditions (SP), associated to the reflection algebra, are novel in this context and lead to a different set of conserved quantities that depend on free boundary parameters. It also turns out that the number of local integrals of motion for SP boundary conditions is 'double' compared to those of the SNP case.
Kot, V. A.
2017-11-01
The modern state of approximate integral methods used in applications, where the processes of heat conduction and heat and mass transfer are of first importance, is considered. Integral methods have found a wide utility in different fields of knowledge: problems of heat conduction with different heat-exchange conditions, simulation of thermal protection, Stefantype problems, microwave heating of a substance, problems on a boundary layer, simulation of a fluid flow in a channel, thermal explosion, laser and plasma treatment of materials, simulation of the formation and melting of ice, inverse heat problems, temperature and thermal definition of nanoparticles and nanoliquids, and others. Moreover, polynomial solutions are of interest because the determination of a temperature (concentration) field is an intermediate stage in the mathematical description of any other process. The following main methods were investigated on the basis of the error norms: the Tsoi and Postol’nik methods, the method of integral relations, the Gudman integral method of heat balance, the improved Volkov integral method, the matched integral method, the modified Hristov method, the Mayer integral method, the Kudinov method of additional boundary conditions, the Fedorov boundary method, the method of weighted temperature function, the integral method of boundary characteristics. It was established that the two last-mentioned methods are characterized by high convergence and frequently give solutions whose accuracy is not worse that the accuracy of numerical solutions.
McCullough, Jeffrey S; Snir, Eli M
2010-05-01
We study the relationship between physician-hospital integration and its relation to monitoring IT utilization. We develop a theoretical model in which monitoring IT may complement or substitute for integration and test these relationships using a novel data source. Physician labor market heterogeneity identifies the empirical model. We find that monitoring IT utilization is increasing in integration, implying that expanded firm boundaries complement monitoring IT adoption. We argue that the relationship between monitoring IT and firm boundaries depends upon the contractibility of the monitored information.
Second-order domain derivative of normal-dependent boundary integrals
Balzer, Jonathan
2010-03-17
Numerous reconstruction tasks in (optical) surface metrology allow for a variational formulation. The occurring boundary integrals may be interpreted as shape functions. The paper is concerned with the second-order analysis of such functions. Shape Hessians of boundary integrals are considered difficult to find analytically because they correspond to third-order derivatives of an, in a sense equivalent, domain integral. We complement previous results by considering cost functions depending explicitly on the surface normal. The correctness and practicability of our calculations are verified in the context of a Newton-type shape reconstruction method. © 2010 Birkhäuser / Springer Basel AG.
OhioLINK: Implementing Integrated Library Services across Institutional Boundaries.
Hawks, Carol Pitts
1995-01-01
Discusses the implementation of the OhioLINK (Ohio Library and Information Network) system, an integrated library system linking 23 public and private academic institutions and the Ohio State Library. Topics include a history of OhioLINK; organizational structure; decision-making procedures; public relations strategies; cooperative circulation;…
Approaches to defining a planetary boundary for biodiversity
Mace, G.M.; Reyers, B.; Alkemade, R.; Biggs, R.; Stuart Chapin, F.; Cornell, S.E.; Diaz, S.
2014-01-01
The idea that there is an identifiable set of boundaries, beyond which anthropogenic change will put the Earth system outside a safe operating space for humanity, is attracting interest in the scientific community and gaining support in the environmental policy world. Rockstrom et al. (2009)
A situated approach to VET students' reflection processes across boundaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wegener, Charlotte
2014-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to illuminate the intersection between institutional requirements for reflection and students’ actual reflection initiatives in the social and health care education programmes. A situated perspective makes it possible to illuminate individuals’ commitment, curiosity a...... be enhanced. The paper adds to previous research on boundary crossing in vocational education and highlights the notion of visible reflection....
Science of Integrated Approaches to Natural Resources Management
Tengberg, Anna; Valencia, Sandra
2017-04-01
To meet multiple environmental objectives, integrated programming is becoming increasingly important for the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), the financial mechanism of the multilateral environmental agreements, including the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). Integration of multiple environmental, social and economic objectives also contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in a timely and cost-effective way. However, integration is often not well defined. This paper therefore focuses on identifying key aspects of integration and assessing their implementation in natural resources management (NRM) projects. To that end, we draw on systems thinking literature, and carry out an analysis of a random sample of GEF integrated projects and in-depth case studies demonstrating lessons learned and good practices in addressing land degradation and other NRM challenges. We identify numerous challenges and opportunities of integrated approaches that need to be addressed in order to maximise the catalytic impact of the GEF during problem diagnosis, project design, implementation and governance. We highlight the need for projects to identify clearer system boundaries and main feedback mechanisms within those boundaries, in order to effectively address drivers of environmental change. We propose a theory of change for Integrated Natural Resources Management (INRM) projects, where short-term environmental and socio-economic benefits will first accrue at the local level. Implementation of improved INRM technologies and practices at the local level can be extended through spatial planning, strengthening of innovation systems, and financing and incentive mechanisms at the watershed and/or landscape/seascape level to sustain and enhance ecosystem services at larger scales and longer time spans. We conclude that the evolving scientific understanding of factors influencing social, technical and institutional innovations and
INTEGRATED EXPERIENCE APPROACH TO LEARNING.
POSTLETHWAIT, S.N.; AND OTHERS
THE USE OF AUDIOTUTORIAL TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING INTRODUCTORY COLLEGE BOTANY IS DESCRIBED. SPECIFIC PRACTICES USED AT PURDUE UNIVERSITY TO ILLUSTRATE DIFFERENT FACETS OF THE APPROACH ARE ANALYZED. INCLUDED ARE INDEPENDENT STUDY SESSIONS, SMALL ASSEMBLY SESSIONS, GENERAL ASSEMBLY SESSIONS, AND HOME STUDY SESSIONS. ILLUSTRATIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS…
Integrative approaches to computational biomedicine
Coveney, Peter V.; Diaz-Zuccarini, Vanessa; Graf, Norbert; Hunter, Peter; Kohl, Peter; Tegner, Jesper; Viceconti, Marco
2013-01-01
The new discipline of computational biomedicine is concerned with the application of computer-based techniques and particularly modelling and simulation to human health. Since 2007, this discipline has been synonymous, in Europe, with the name given to the European Union's ambitious investment in integrating these techniques with the eventual aim of modelling the human body as a whole: the virtual physiological human. This programme and its successors are expected, over the next decades, to transform the study and practice of healthcare, moving it towards the priorities known as ‘4P's’: predictive, preventative, personalized and participatory medicine.
Expanded-boundary approach to impurity control in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohyabu, N.
1981-01-01
It is proposed to expand the outermost flux surfaces in tokamaks to divert the heat flux emerging from the plasma core. The expanded flux surfaces provide a large volume for radiative cooling. The radiative power at the boundary is enhanced by the effects of plasma flow as well as by a volumetric factor, and the resultant edge cooling and reduced heat load on the limiter may significantly retard impurity generation. Furthermore, it seems to be compatible with reactor engineering requirements. (author)
[Boundaries and integrity in the "Social Contract for Spanish Science", 1907-1939].
Gómez, Amparo
2014-01-01
This article analyzes the relationship between science and politics in Spain in the early 20th century from the perspective of the Social Contract for Science. The article shows that a genuine social contract for science was instituted in Spain during this period, although some boundary and integrity problems emerged. These problems are analyzed, showing that the boundary problems were a product of the conservative viewpoint on the relationship between science and politics, while the integrity problems involved the activation of networks of influence in the awarding of scholarships to study abroad. Finally, the analysis reveals that these problems did not invalidate the Spanish social contract for science.
Integrative medicine approach to chronic pain.
Teets, Raymond Y; Dahmer, Stephen; Scott, Emilie
2010-06-01
Chronic pain can be a frustrating condition for patient and clinician. The integrative medicine approach to pain can offer hope, adding safe complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies to mitigate pain and suffering. Such CAM therapies include nutrition, supplements and herbs, manual medicine, acupuncture, yoga, and mind-body approaches. The evidence is heterogeneous regarding these approaches, but some evidence suggests efficacy and confirms safety. The integrative medicine approach can be beneficial in a patient with chronic pain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Statistical inference an integrated approach
Migon, Helio S; Louzada, Francisco
2014-01-01
Introduction Information The concept of probability Assessing subjective probabilities An example Linear algebra and probability Notation Outline of the bookElements of Inference Common statistical modelsLikelihood-based functions Bayes theorem Exchangeability Sufficiency and exponential family Parameter elimination Prior Distribution Entirely subjective specification Specification through functional forms Conjugacy with the exponential family Non-informative priors Hierarchical priors Estimation Introduction to decision theoryBayesian point estimation Classical point estimation Empirical Bayes estimation Comparison of estimators Interval estimation Estimation in the Normal model Approximating Methods The general problem of inference Optimization techniquesAsymptotic theory Other analytical approximations Numerical integration methods Simulation methods Hypothesis Testing Introduction Classical hypothesis testingBayesian hypothesis testing Hypothesis testing and confidence intervalsAsymptotic tests Prediction...
Functional integral approach to classical statistical dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, R.V.
1980-04-01
A functional integral method is developed for the statistical solution of nonlinear stochastic differential equations which arise in classical dynamics. The functional integral approach provides a very natural and elegant derivation of the statistical dynamical equations that have been derived using the operator formalism of Martin, Siggia, and Rose
A Wave-Optics Approach to Paraxial Geometrical Laws Based on Continuity at Boundaries
Linares, J.; Nistal, M. C.
2011-01-01
We present a derivation of the paraxial geometrical laws starting from a wave-optics approach, in particular by using simple continuity conditions of paraxial spherical waves at boundaries (discontinuities) between optical media. Paraxial geometrical imaging and magnification laws, under refraction and reflection at boundaries, are derived for…
A combined analytic-numeric approach for some boundary-value problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustafa Turkyilmazoglu
2016-02-01
Full Text Available A combined analytic-numeric approach is undertaken in the present work for the solution of boundary-value problems in the finite or semi-infinite domains. Equations to be treated arise specifically from the boundary layer analysis of some two and three-dimensional flows in fluid mechanics. The purpose is to find quick but accurate enough solutions. Taylor expansions at either boundary conditions are computed which are next matched to the other asymptotic or exact boundary conditions. The technique is applied to the well-known Blasius as well as Karman flows. Solutions obtained in terms of series compare favorably with the existing ones in the literature.
Gao, Y.; Balaram, P.; Islam, S.
2009-12-01
Water issues and problems have bewildered humankind for a long time yet a systematic approach for understanding such issues remain elusive. This is partly because many water-related problems are framed from a contested terrain in which many actors (individuals, communities, businesses, NGOs, states, and countries) compete to protect their own and often conflicting interests. We argue that origin of many water problems may be understood as a dynamic consequence of competition, interconnections, and feedback among variables in the Natural and Societal Systems (NSSs). Within the natural system, we recognize that triple constraints on water- water quantity (Q), water quality (P), and ecosystem (E)- and their interdependencies and feedback may lead to conflicts. Such inherent and multifaceted constraints of the natural water system are exacerbated often at the societal boundaries. Within the societal system, interdependencies and feedback among values and norms (V), economy (C), and governance (G) interact in various ways to create intractable contextual differences. The observation that natural and societal systems are linked is not novel. Our argument here, however, is that rigid disciplinary boundaries between these two domains will not produce solutions to the water problems we are facing today. The knowledge needed to address water problems need to go beyond scientific assessment in which societal variables (C, G, and V) are treated as exogenous or largely ignored, and policy research that does not consider the impact of natural variables (E, P, and Q) and that coupling among them. Consequently, traditional quantitative methods alone are not appropriate to address the dynamics of water conflicts, because we cannot quantify the societal variables and the exact mathematical relationships among the variables are not fully known. On the other hand, conventional qualitative study in societal domain has mainly been in the form of individual case studies and therefore
Geopotential coefficient determination and the gravimetric boundary value problem: A new approach
Sjoeberg, Lars E.
1989-01-01
New integral formulas to determine geopotential coefficients from terrestrial gravity and satellite altimetry data are given. The formulas are based on the integration of data over the non-spherical surface of the Earth. The effect of the topography to low degrees and orders of coefficients is estimated numerically. Formulas for the solution of the gravimetric boundary value problem are derived.
Toward an Integrated Psychological Approach - Phase II
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
Trauma, Development and Peacebuilding : Toward an Integrated Psychological Approach - Phase II. Over the past decade, the peace, conflict and development community has begun to question the value of medicalized approaches such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in dealing with aftermath of political violence ...
An integral boundary layer method for modelling the effects of vortex generators
Baldacchino, D.; Ragni, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.
2015-01-01
In this work, the measured modulated integral boundary layer (IBL) characteristics of low-profile vortex generators (VGs) are used to validate new developments in a viscousinviscid interaction code which is modified to incorporate the effect of the passive mixing devices. The motivations are laid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Archana Chauhan
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this article, we establish a general framework for finding solutions for impulsive fractional integral boundary-value problems. Then, we prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions by applying well known fixed point theorems. The obtained results are illustrated with an example for their feasibility.
On the boundary conditions and optimization methods in integrated digital image correlation
Kleinendorst, S.M.; Verhaegh, B.J.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Ruybalid, A.; van der Sluis, O.; Geers, M.G.D.; Lamberti, L.; Lin, M.-T.; Furlong, C.; Sciammarella, C.
2018-01-01
In integrated digital image correlation (IDIC) methods attention must be paid to the influence of using a correct geometric and material model, but also to make the boundary conditions in the FE simulation match the real experiment. Another issue is the robustness and convergence of the IDIC
M. Denche; A. L. Marhoune
2003-01-01
In this paper, we study a mixed problem with integral boundary conditions for a high order partial differential equation of mixed type. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution. The proof is based on energy inequality, and on the density of the range of the operator generated by the considered problem.
Kuijpers, A.H.W.M.; Verbeek, G.; Verheij, J.W.
1997-01-01
Effective use of the Fourier series boundary element method (FBEM) for everyday applications is hindered by the significant numerical problems that have to be overcome for its implementation. In the FBEM formulation for acoustics, some integrals over the angle of revolution arise, which need to be
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Ke [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom)
1996-12-31
We study various preconditioning techniques for the iterative solution of boundary integral equations, and aim to provide a theory for a class of sparse preconditioners. Two related ideas are explored here: singularity separation and inverse approximation. Our preliminary conclusion is that singularity separation based preconditioners perform better than approximate inverse based while it is desirable to have both features.
A free boundary approach to the Rosensweig instability of ferrofluids
Parini, Enea; Stylianou, Athanasios
2018-04-01
We establish the existence of saddle points for a free boundary problem describing the two-dimensional free surface of a ferrofluid undergoing normal field instability. The starting point is the ferrohydrostatic equations for the magnetic potentials in the ferrofluid and air, and the function describing their interface. These constitute the strong form for the Euler-Lagrange equations of a convex-concave functional, which we extend to include interfaces that are not necessarily graphs of functions. Saddle points are then found by iterating the direct method of the calculus of variations and applying classical results of convex analysis. For the existence part, we assume a general nonlinear magnetization law; for a linear law, we also show, via convex duality, that the saddle point is a constrained minimizer of the relevant energy functional.
Experimental approaches for probing interfaces and grain boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrera, E.V.; Marcus, H.L.
1990-01-01
This paper focuses its attention on several research efforts performed by the authors and colleagues whose primary aim is probing interfacial and grain boundary properties. The first investigations described pertain to impurity segregation induced embrittlement which were modeled using thermodynamic considerations and were characterized by fracture testing using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Localized interface chemical characterization is essential in this research. The second investigation focuses on interface/impurity interaction determination. Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), a structure characterization tool, was used to determine the local environment of impurities in metal-impurity-metal laminate composites, where the impurities were in monolayer to submonolayer interface concentrations. The third study pertains to the interface fracture in metal-matrix (metal/metal oxide/graphite) composites where a correlation was made between electronic states and fracture path
Microlocal approach towards construction of nonreflecting boundary conditions
Vaibhav, V.
2014-09-01
This paper addresses the problem of construction of non-reflecting boundary condition for certain second-order nonlinear dispersive equations. It is shown that using the concept of microlocality it is possible to relax the requirement of compact support of the initial data. The method is demonstrated for a class of initial data such that outside the computational domain it behaves like a continuous-wave. The generalization is detailed for two existing schemes in the framework of pseudo-differential calculus, namely, Szeftel's method (Szeftel (2006) [1]) and gauge transformation strategy (Antoine et al. (2006) [2]). Efficient numerical implementation is discussed and a comparative performance analysis is presented. The paper also briefly surveys the possibility of extension of the method to higher-dimensional PDEs.
Description of internal flow problems by a boundary integral method with dipole panels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krieg, R.; Hailfinger, G.
1979-01-01
In reactor safety studies the failure of single components is postulated or sudden accident loadings are assumed and the consequences are investigated. Often as a first consequence highly transient three dimensional flow problems occur. In contrast to classical flow problems, in most of the above cases the fluid velocities are relatively small whereas the accelerations assume high values. As a consequence both, viscosity effects and dynamic pressures which are proportional to the square of the fluid velocities are usually negligible. For cases, where the excitation times are considerably longer than the times necessary for a wave to traverse characteristic regions of the fluid field, also the fluid compressibility is negligible. Under these conditions boundary integral methods are an appropriate tool to deal with the problem. Flow singularities are distributed over the fluid boundaries in such a way that pressure and velocity fields are obtained which satisfy the boundary conditions. In order to facilitate the numerical treatment the fluid boundaries are approximated by a finite number of panels with uniform singularity distributions on each of them. Consequently the pressure and velocity field of the given problem may be obtained by superposition of the corresponding fields due to these panels with their singularity intensities as unknown factors. Then satisfying the boundary conditions in so many boundary points as panels have been introduced, yields a system of linear equations which in general allows for a unique determination of the unknown intensities. (orig./RW)
Bardhan, Jaydeep P
2008-10-14
The importance of molecular electrostatic interactions in aqueous solution has motivated extensive research into physical models and numerical methods for their estimation. The computational costs associated with simulations that include many explicit water molecules have driven the development of implicit-solvent models, with generalized-Born (GB) models among the most popular of these. In this paper, we analyze a boundary-integral equation interpretation for the Coulomb-field approximation (CFA), which plays a central role in most GB models. This interpretation offers new insights into the nature of the CFA, which traditionally has been assessed using only a single point charge in the solute. The boundary-integral interpretation of the CFA allows the use of multiple point charges, or even continuous charge distributions, leading naturally to methods that eliminate the interpolation inaccuracies associated with the Still equation. This approach, which we call boundary-integral-based electrostatic estimation by the CFA (BIBEE/CFA), is most accurate when the molecular charge distribution generates a smooth normal displacement field at the solute-solvent boundary, and CFA-based GB methods perform similarly. Conversely, both methods are least accurate for charge distributions that give rise to rapidly varying or highly localized normal displacement fields. Supporting this analysis are comparisons of the reaction-potential matrices calculated using GB methods and boundary-element-method (BEM) simulations. An approximation similar to BIBEE/CFA exhibits complementary behavior, with superior accuracy for charge distributions that generate rapidly varying normal fields and poorer accuracy for distributions that produce smooth fields. This approximation, BIBEE by preconditioning (BIBEE/P), essentially generates initial guesses for preconditioned Krylov-subspace iterative BEMs. Thus, iterative refinement of the BIBEE/P results recovers the BEM solution; excellent agreement
Curriculum Integration Using Enterprise Resource Planning: An Integrative Case Approach
Cannon, David M.; Klein, Helen A; Koste, Lori L.; Magal, Simha R.
2004-01-01
Efforts to achieve greater curriculum integration in schools of business have included team teaching, student group projects, multidisciplinary cases, and, more recently, the use of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. Although these approaches are beneficial, they tend to be implemented on an ad hoc basis rather than through curriculum…
On the elastostatic significance of four boundary integrals involving biharmonic functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Søren
1998-01-01
For a biharmonic function U, depending upon two space variables, it is known that four curve integrals, which involve U and some derivatives of U evaluated at a closed boundary, must be equal to zero. When U plays the role of an Airy stress function, we investigate the elastostatic significance o...... with the values of the four integrals. The computer algebra system Maple V has been an invaluable tool. By suitable comparisons among the various results obtained we are led to the conclusions about the elastostatic significance of the integrals....
POSITIVE SOLUTIONS OF A NONLINEAR THREE-POINT EIGENVALUE PROBLEM WITH INTEGRAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
FAOUZI HADDOUCHI
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the existence of positive solutions of a three-point integral boundary value problem (BVP for the following second-order differential equation u''(t + \\lambda a(tf(u(t = 0; 0 0 is a parameter, 0 <\\eta < 1, 0 <\\alpha < 1/{\\eta}. . By using the properties of the Green's function and Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem on cones, the eigenvalue intervals of the nonlinear boundary value problem are considered, some sufficient conditions for the existence of at least one positive solutions are established.
Boundary integral equation methods in eigenvalue problems of elastodynamics and thin plates
Kitahara, M
1985-01-01
The boundary integral equation (BIE) method has been used more and more in the last 20 years for solving various engineering problems. It has important advantages over other techniques for numerical treatment of a wide class of boundary value problems and is now regarded as an indispensable tool for potential problems, electromagnetism problems, heat transfer, fluid flow, elastostatics, stress concentration and fracture problems, geomechanical problems, and steady-state and transient electrodynamics.In this book, the author gives a complete, thorough and detailed survey of the method. It pro
CANDU plant life management - An integrated approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hopkins, J.R.
1998-01-01
An integrated approach to plant life management has been developed for CANDU reactors. Strategies, methods, and procedures have been developed for assessment of critical systems structures and components and for implementing a reliability centred maintenance program. A Technology Watch program is being implemented to eliminate 'surprises'. Specific work has been identified for 1998. AECL is working on the integrated program with CANDU owners and seeks participation from other CANDU owners
Collins, Jeffery D.; Volakis, John L.; Jin, Jian-Ming
1990-01-01
A new technique is presented for computing the scattering by 2-D structures of arbitrary composition. The proposed solution approach combines the usual finite element method with the boundary-integral equation to formulate a discrete system. This is subsequently solved via the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm. A particular characteristic of the method is the use of rectangular boundaries to enclose the scatterer. Several of the resulting boundary integrals are therefore convolutions and may be evaluated via the fast Fourier transform (FFT) in the implementation of the CG algorithm. The solution approach offers the principal advantage of having O(N) memory demand and employs a 1-D FFT versus a 2-D FFT as required with a traditional implementation of the CGFFT algorithm. The speed of the proposed solution method is compared with that of the traditional CGFFT algorithm, and results for rectangular bodies are given and shown to be in excellent agreement with the moment method.
Li, Ping
2014-07-01
This paper presents an algorithm hybridizing discontinuous Galerkin time domain (DGTD) method and time domain boundary integral (BI) algorithm for 3-D open region electromagnetic scattering analysis. The computational domain of DGTD is rigorously truncated by analytically evaluating the incoming numerical flux from the outside of the truncation boundary through BI method based on the Huygens\\' principle. The advantages of the proposed method are that it allows the truncation boundary to be conformal to arbitrary (convex/ concave) scattering objects, well-separated scatters can be truncated by their local meshes without losing the physics (such as coupling/multiple scattering) of the problem, thus reducing the total mesh elements. Furthermore, low frequency waves can be efficiently absorbed, and the field outside the truncation domain can be conveniently calculated using the same BI formulation. Numerical examples are benchmarked to demonstrate the accuracy and versatility of the proposed method.
Li, Ping; Shi, Yifei; Jiang, Lijun; Bagci, Hakan
2014-01-01
A scheme hybridizing discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) and time-domain boundary integral (TDBI) methods for accurately analyzing transient electromagnetic scattering is proposed. Radiation condition is enforced using the numerical flux on the truncation boundary. The fields required by the flux are computed using the TDBI from equivalent currents introduced on a Huygens' surface enclosing the scatterer. The hybrid DGTDBI ensures that the radiation condition is mathematically exact and the resulting computation domain is as small as possible since the truncation boundary conforms to scatterer's shape and is located very close to its surface. Locally truncated domains can also be defined around each disconnected scatterer additionally reducing the size of the overall computation domain. Numerical examples demonstrating the accuracy and versatility of the proposed method are presented. © 2014 IEEE.
Li, Ping
2014-05-01
A scheme hybridizing discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) and time-domain boundary integral (TDBI) methods for accurately analyzing transient electromagnetic scattering is proposed. Radiation condition is enforced using the numerical flux on the truncation boundary. The fields required by the flux are computed using the TDBI from equivalent currents introduced on a Huygens\\' surface enclosing the scatterer. The hybrid DGTDBI ensures that the radiation condition is mathematically exact and the resulting computation domain is as small as possible since the truncation boundary conforms to scatterer\\'s shape and is located very close to its surface. Locally truncated domains can also be defined around each disconnected scatterer additionally reducing the size of the overall computation domain. Numerical examples demonstrating the accuracy and versatility of the proposed method are presented. © 2014 IEEE.
Studying the active deformation of distributed plate boundaries by integration of GNSS networks
D'Agostino, Nicola; Avallone, Antonio; Cecere, Gianpaolo; D'Anastasio, Elisabetta
2013-04-01
In the last decade GNSS networks installed for different purposes have proliferated in Italy and now provide a large amount of data available to geophysical studies. In addition to the existing regional and nation-wide scientific GNSS networks developed by ASI (http://geodaf.mt.asi.it), INGV (http://ring.gm.ingv.it) and OGS (http://crs.inogs.it/frednet), a large number (> 400) of continuously-operating GPS stations have been installed in the framework of regional and national networks, both publicly-operated and commercial, developed to provide real-time positioning capability to surveyors. Although the quality of the data and metadata associated to these stations is generally lower with respect to the "scientific" CGPS stations, the increased density and redundancy in crustal motion information, resulting in more than 500 stations with more than 2.5 years of observations, significantly increase the knowledge of the active deformation of the Italian territory and provides a unique image of the crustal deformation field. The obtained GPS velocity field is analysed and various features ranging from the definition of strain distribution and microplate kinematics within the plate boundary, to the evaluation of tectonic strain accumulation on active faults are presented in this work. Undeforming, aseismic regions (Sardinia, Southern Apulia) provide test sites to evaluate the lower bound on the accuracy achievable to measure tectonic deformation. Integration of GNSS networks significantly improves the resolution of the strain rate field in Central Italy showing that active deformation is concentrated in a narrow belt along the crest of the Apennines, consistently with the distribution of the largest historical and recent earthquakes. Products derived from dense GPS velocity and strain rate fields include map of earthquake potential developed under the assumption that the rate of seismic moment accumulation measured from geodesy distributes into earthquake sizes that
Li, Xiaofan; Nie, Qing
2009-07-01
Many applications in materials involve surface diffusion of elastically stressed solids. Study of singularity formation and long-time behavior of such solid surfaces requires accurate simulations in both space and time. Here we present a high-order boundary integral method for an elastically stressed solid with axi-symmetry due to surface diffusions. In this method, the boundary integrals for isotropic elasticity in axi-symmetric geometry are approximated through modified alternating quadratures along with an extrapolation technique, leading to an arbitrarily high-order quadrature; in addition, a high-order (temporal) integration factor method, based on explicit representation of the mean curvature, is used to reduce the stability constraint on time-step. To apply this method to a periodic (in axial direction) and axi-symmetric elastically stressed cylinder, we also present a fast and accurate summation method for the periodic Green's functions of isotropic elasticity. Using the high-order boundary integral method, we demonstrate that in absence of elasticity the cylinder surface pinches in finite time at the axis of the symmetry and the universal cone angle of the pinching is found to be consistent with the previous studies based on a self-similar assumption. In the presence of elastic stress, we show that a finite time, geometrical singularity occurs well before the cylindrical solid collapses onto the axis of symmetry, and the angle of the corner singularity on the cylinder surface is also estimated.
Wing aeroelasticity analysis based on an integral boundary-layer method coupled with Euler solver
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ma Yanfeng
2016-10-01
Full Text Available An interactive boundary-layer method, which solves the unsteady flow, is developed for aeroelastic computation in the time domain. The coupled method combines the Euler solver with the integral boundary-layer solver (Euler/BL in a “semi-inverse” manner to compute flows with the inviscid and viscous interaction. Unsteady boundary conditions on moving surfaces are taken into account by utilizing the approximate small-perturbation method without moving the computational grids. The steady and unsteady flow calculations for the LANN wing are presented. The wing tip displacement of high Reynolds number aero-structural dynamics (HIRENASD Project is simulated under different angles of attack. The flutter-boundary predictions for the AGARD 445.6 wing are provided. The results of the interactive boundary-layer method are compared with those of the Euler method and experimental data. The study shows that viscous effects are significant for these cases and the further data analysis confirms the validity and practicability of the coupled method.
Integrated Approach to User Account Management
Kesselman, Glenn; Smith, William
2007-01-01
IT environments consist of both Windows and other platforms. Providing user account management for this model has become increasingly diffi cult. If Microsoft#s Active Directory could be enhanced to extend a W indows identity for authentication services for Unix, Linux, Java and Macintosh systems, then an integrated approach to user account manag ement could be realized.
Dependence-Based Segmentation Approach for Detecting Morpheme Boundaries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Khorsi
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The unsupervised morphology processing in the emerging mutant languages has the advantage over the human/supervised processing of being more agiler. The main drawback is, however, their accuracy. This article describes an unsupervised morphemes identification approach based on an intuitive and formal definition of event dependence. The input is no more than a plain text of the targeted language. Although the original objective of this work was classical Arabic, the test was conducted on an English set as well. Tests on these two languages show a very acceptable precision and recall. A deeper refinement of the output allowed 89% precision and 78% recall on Arabic.
Statistical inference an integrated Bayesianlikelihood approach
Aitkin, Murray
2010-01-01
Filling a gap in current Bayesian theory, Statistical Inference: An Integrated Bayesian/Likelihood Approach presents a unified Bayesian treatment of parameter inference and model comparisons that can be used with simple diffuse prior specifications. This novel approach provides new solutions to difficult model comparison problems and offers direct Bayesian counterparts of frequentist t-tests and other standard statistical methods for hypothesis testing.After an overview of the competing theories of statistical inference, the book introduces the Bayes/likelihood approach used throughout. It pre
THE FEMINIST APPROACH TO PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorena Božac Deležan
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The goal of Integrative Psychotherapy is to establish full inner and external contact (Moursund & Erskine, 2004. The most important goal in feminist therapy is the transformation of an individual as well as the transformation of the society as a whole (Herlihy & Corey, 2004. In my work I attempt to integrate both: to help the client establish inner and external contact, but also help him/her to become aware and recognize inner messages connected with his/her gender and replace them with constructive beliefs of his/her own, as well as for him/her to learn, regardless of his/her gender, to trust his/her intuition and experience. In this article I present my approach to integration in psychotherapy and the way I use feminist principles in Integrative Psychotherapy.
A design approach for integrating thermoelectric devices using topology optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soprani, S.; Haertel, J.H.K.; Lazarov, B.S.; Sigmund, O.; Engelbrecht, K.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The integration of a thermoelectric (TE) cooler into a robotic tool is optimized. • Topology optimization is suggested as design tool for TE integrated systems. • A 3D optimization technique using temperature dependent TE properties is presented. • The sensitivity of the optimization process to the boundary conditions is studied. • A working prototype is constructed and compared to the model results. - Abstract: Efficient operation of thermoelectric devices strongly relies on the thermal integration into the energy conversion system in which they operate. Effective thermal integration reduces the temperature differences between the thermoelectric module and its thermal reservoirs, allowing the system to operate more efficiently. This work proposes and experimentally demonstrates a topology optimization approach as a design tool for efficient integration of thermoelectric modules into systems with specific design constraints. The approach allows thermal layout optimization of thermoelectric systems for different operating conditions and objective functions, such as temperature span, efficiency, and power recovery rate. As a specific application, the integration of a thermoelectric cooler into the electronics section of a downhole oil well intervention tool is investigated, with the objective of minimizing the temperature of the cooled electronics. Several challenges are addressed: ensuring effective heat transfer from the load, minimizing the thermal resistances within the integrated system, maximizing the thermal protection of the cooled zone, and enhancing the conduction of the rejected heat to the oil well. The design method incorporates temperature dependent properties of the thermoelectric device and other materials. The 3D topology optimization model developed in this work was used to design a thermoelectric system, complete with insulation and heat sink, that was produced and tested. Good agreement between experimental results and
Hess, G. D.; Garratt, J. R.
Data for the cross-isobaric angle 0, the geostrophic drag coefficient Cg, and the functions A and B of Rossby number similarity theory, obtained from meteorological field experiments, are used to evaluate a range of models of the neutral, barotropic planetary boundary layer. The data give well-defined relationships for 0, Cg, and the integrated dissipation rate over the boundary layer, as a function of the surface Rossby number. Lettau's first-order closure mixing-length model gives an excellent fit to the data; other simple models give reasonable agreement. However more sophisticated models, e.g., higher-order closure, large-eddy simulation, direct numerical simulation and laboratory models, give poor fits to the data. The simplemodels have (at least) one free parameter in their turbulence closure that is matched toatmospheric observations; the more sophisticated models either base their closure onmore general flows or have no free closure parameters. It is suggested that all of theatmospheric experiments that we could locate violate the strict simplifying assumptionsof steady, homogeneous, neutral, barotropic flow required by the sophisticated models.The angle 0 is more sensitive to violations of the assumptions than is Cg.The behaviour of the data varies in three latitude regimes. In middle and high latitudes the observed values of A and B exhibit little latitudinal dependence; the best estimates are A = 1.3 and B = 4.4. In lower latitudes the neutral, barotropic Rossby number theory breaks down. The value of B increases towards the Equator; the determination of A is ambiguous - the trend can increase or decrease towards the Equator. Between approximately 5° and 30° latitude, the scatter in the data is thought to be primarily due to the inherent presence of baroclinicity. The presence of the trade-wind inversion, thermal instability and the horizontal component of the Earth's rotation ΩH also contribute.Marked changes in the values of A and B occur in the
Muskhelishvili, N I
2011-01-01
Singular integral equations play important roles in physics and theoretical mechanics, particularly in the areas of elasticity, aerodynamics, and unsteady aerofoil theory. They are highly effective in solving boundary problems occurring in the theory of functions of a complex variable, potential theory, the theory of elasticity, and the theory of fluid mechanics.This high-level treatment by a noted mathematician considers one-dimensional singular integral equations involving Cauchy principal values. Its coverage includes such topics as the Hölder condition, Hilbert and Riemann-Hilbert problem
Performance improvement integration: a whole systems approach.
Page, C K
1999-02-01
Performance improvement integration in health care organizations is a challenge for health care leaders. Required for accreditation by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (Joint Commission), performance improvement (PI) can be designed as a sustainable model for performance to survive in a turbulent period. Central Baptist Hospital developed a model for PI that focused on strategy established by the leadership team, delineated responsibility through the organizational structure of shared governance, and accountability for outcomes evidenced through the organization's profitability. Such an approach integrated into the culture of the organization can produce positive financial margins, positive customer satisfaction, and commendations from the Joint Commission.
Active flow control insight gained from a modified integral boundary layer equation
Seifert, Avraham
2016-11-01
Active Flow Control (AFC) can alter the development of boundary layers with applications (e.g., reducing drag by separation delay or separating the boundary layers and enhancing vortex shedding to increase drag). Historically, significant effects of steady AFC methods were observed. Unsteady actuation is significantly more efficient than steady. Full-scale AFC tests were conducted with varying levels of success. While clearly relevant to industry, AFC implementation relies on expert knowledge with proven intuition and or costly and lengthy computational efforts. This situation hinders the use of AFC while simple, quick and reliable design method is absent. An updated form of the unsteady integral boundary layer (UIBL) equations, that include AFC terms (unsteady wall transpiration and body forces) can be used to assist in AFC analysis and design. With these equations and given a family of suitable velocity profiles, the momentum thickness can be calculated and matched with an outer, potential flow solution in 2D and 3D manner to create an AFC design tool, parallel to proven tools for airfoil design. Limiting cases of the UIBL equation can be used to analyze candidate AFC concepts in terms of their capability to modify the boundary layers development and system performance.
Introduction to solid mechanics an integrated approach
Lubliner, Jacob
2017-01-01
This expanded second edition presents in one text the concepts and processes covered in statics and mechanics of materials curricula following a systematic, topically integrated approach. Building on the novel pedagogy of fusing concepts covered in traditional undergraduate courses in rigid-body statics and deformable body mechanics, rather than simply grafting them together, this new edition develops further the authors’ very original treatment of solid mechanics with additional figures, an elaboration on selected solved problems, and additional text as well as a new subsection on viscoelasticity in response to students’ feedback. Introduction to Solid Mechanics: An Integrated Approach, Second Edition, offers a holistic treatment of the depth and breadth of solid mechanics and the inter-relationships of its underlying concepts. Proceeding from first principles to applications, the book stands as a whole greater than the sum of its parts. .
Design of pressure vessels using shape optimization: An integrated approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carbonari, R.C., E-mail: ronny@usp.br [Department of Mechatronic Engineering, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2231 Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Munoz-Rojas, P.A., E-mail: pablo@joinville.udesc.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Bom Retiro, Joinville, SC 89223-100 (Brazil); Andrade, E.Q., E-mail: edmundoq@petrobras.com.br [CENPES, PDP/Metodos Cientificos, Petrobras (Brazil); Paulino, G.H., E-mail: paulino@uiuc.edu [Newmark Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205 North Mathews Av., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 158 Mechanical Engineering Building, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801-2906 (United States); Nishimoto, K., E-mail: knishimo@usp.br [Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2231 Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Silva, E.C.N., E-mail: ecnsilva@usp.br [Department of Mechatronic Engineering, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2231 Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil)
2011-05-15
Previous papers related to the optimization of pressure vessels have considered the optimization of the nozzle independently from the dished end. This approach generates problems such as thickness variation from nozzle to dished end (coupling cylindrical region) and, as a consequence, it reduces the optimality of the final result which may also be influenced by the boundary conditions. Thus, this work discusses shape optimization of axisymmetric pressure vessels considering an integrated approach in which the entire pressure vessel model is used in conjunction with a multi-objective function that aims to minimize the von-Mises mechanical stress from nozzle to head. Representative examples are examined and solutions obtained for the entire vessel considering temperature and pressure loading. It is noteworthy that different shapes from the usual ones are obtained. Even though such different shapes may not be profitable considering present manufacturing processes, they may be competitive for future manufacturing technologies, and contribute to a better understanding of the actual influence of shape in the behavior of pressure vessels. - Highlights: > Shape optimization of entire pressure vessel considering an integrated approach. > By increasing the number of spline knots, the convergence stability is improved. > The null angle condition gives lower stress values resulting in a better design. > The cylinder stresses are very sensitive to the cylinder length. > The shape optimization of the entire vessel must be considered for cylinder length.
Solution of the Stokes system by boundary integral equations and fixed point iterative schemes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chidume, C.E.; Lubuma, M.S.
1990-01-01
The solution to the exterior three dimensional Stokes problem is sought in the form of a single layer potential of unknown density. This reduces the problem to a boundary integral equation of the first kind whose operator is the velocity component of the single layer potential. It is shown that this component is an isomorphism between two appropriate Sobolev spaces containing the unknown densities and the data respectively. The isomorphism corresponds to a variational problem with coercive bilinear form. The latter property allows us to consider various fixed point iterative schemes that converge to the unique solution of the integral equation. Explicit error estimates are also obtained. The successive approximations are also considered in a more computable form by using the product integration method of Atkinson. (author). 47 refs
Leise, Tanya L.
2009-08-19
We consider the problem of the dynamic, transient propagation of a semi-infinite, mode I crack in an infinite elastic body with a nonlinear, viscoelastic cohesize zone. Our problem formulation includes boundary conditions that preclude crack face interpenetration, in contrast to the usual mode I boundary conditions that assume all unloaded crack faces are stress-free. The nonlinear viscoelastic cohesive zone behavior is motivated by dynamic fracture in brittle polymers in which crack propagation is preceeded by significant crazing in a thin region surrounding the crack tip. We present a combined analytical/numerical solution method that involves reducing the problem to a Dirichlet-to-Neumann map along the crack face plane, resulting in a differo-integral equation relating the displacement and stress along the crack faces and within the cohesive zone. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Addressing uncertainties in the ERICA Integrated Approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oughton, D.H.; Agueero, A.; Avila, R.; Brown, J.E.; Copplestone, D.; Gilek, M.
2008-01-01
Like any complex environmental problem, ecological risk assessment of the impacts of ionising radiation is confounded by uncertainty. At all stages, from problem formulation through to risk characterisation, the assessment is dependent on models, scenarios, assumptions and extrapolations. These include technical uncertainties related to the data used, conceptual uncertainties associated with models and scenarios, as well as social uncertainties such as economic impacts, the interpretation of legislation, and the acceptability of the assessment results to stakeholders. The ERICA Integrated Approach has been developed to allow an assessment of the risks of ionising radiation, and includes a number of methods that are intended to make the uncertainties and assumptions inherent in the assessment more transparent to users and stakeholders. Throughout its development, ERICA has recommended that assessors deal openly with the deeper dimensions of uncertainty and acknowledge that uncertainty is intrinsic to complex systems. Since the tool is based on a tiered approach, the approaches to dealing with uncertainty vary between the tiers, ranging from a simple, but highly conservative screening to a full probabilistic risk assessment including sensitivity analysis. This paper gives on overview of types of uncertainty that are manifest in ecological risk assessment and the ERICA Integrated Approach to dealing with some of these uncertainties
On Solutions of the Integrable Boundary Value Problem for KdV Equation on the Semi-Axis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ignatyev, M. Yu.
2013-01-01
This paper is concerned with the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation on the semi-axis. The boundary value problem with inhomogeneous integrable boundary conditions is studied. We establish some characteristic properties of solutions of the problem. Also we construct a wide class of solutions of the problem using the inverse spectral method.
A new approach to implement absorbing boundary condition in biomolecular electrostatics.
Goni, Md Osman
2013-01-01
This paper discusses a novel approach to employ the absorbing boundary condition in conjunction with the finite-element method (FEM) in biomolecular electrostatics. The introduction of Bayliss-Turkel absorbing boundary operators in electromagnetic scattering problem has been incorporated by few researchers. However, in the area of biomolecular electrostatics, this boundary condition has not been investigated yet. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, to solve nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation using Newton's method and second, to find an efficient and acceptable solution with minimum number of unknowns. In this work, a Galerkin finite-element formulation is used along with a Bayliss-Turkel absorbing boundary operator that explicitly accounts for the open field problem by mapping the Sommerfeld radiation condition from the far field to near field. While the Bayliss-Turkel condition works well when the artificial boundary is far from the scatterer, an acceptable tolerance of error can be achieved with the second order operator. Numerical results on test case with simple sphere show that the treatment is able to reach the same level of accuracy achieved by the analytical method while using a lower grid density. Bayliss-Turkel absorbing boundary condition (BTABC) combined with the FEM converges to the exact solution of scattering problems to within discretization error.
The Site Approach - Lessons Learned from the Integrated Safeguards Approach for JNC-1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikuchi, M.; Iso, S.; Tomine, K.; Hirato, Y.; Namekawa, M.; Takasugi, N.; Watanabe, M.; Tsutaki, Y.; Asano, T.; Nagatani, T.; Ninagawa, J.; Fujiwara, S.; Takahashi, S.; Kimura, T.; Kodani, Y.; Fukuhara, J.; Miyaji, N.; Kawakami, Y.; Koizumi, A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Nishinosono, S.; Sasaki, K.
2010-01-01
Integrated safeguards approaches for specific sites are recognized important elements in the design of a State-level approach under the concept of grouping facilities. Japan and the IAEA agreed further improvement of integrated safeguards implementation in effective and efficient manner, particularly at large complex nuclear sites in Japan. Japan and the IAEA developed the integrated safeguards approach for specific sites defined at Article 18 of Additional Protocol. In 2008, the IAEA started the three-year test implementation of JNC-1 site approach for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the safeguards implementation of UDU material handling facilities. Japan and IAEA agreed to adopt the sector concept in order to make clear of subjected nuclear material to be verified. The sector is defined as spatial assignment that treats the same material stratum beyond MBAs in the site. The arrangement of MBAs and related material balance calculations as well as statistical analysis is maintained as a fundamental safeguards measure. At the boundaries of each sector, appropriate unattended NDA system and/or C/S system are installed, and material flows across the boundaries are verified by the system or attendance of resident inspectors. For inventory verification of the nuclear material stayed in sectors, an appropriate numbers of randomly scheduled inspections will be implemented. IAEA can access to the randomly selected sectors within 2 hours after notification. NRTA based on frequent operator's declaration will be performed for achievement of timeliness detection goal. The JNC-1 site approach has been implemented under the enhanced co-operation between the IAEA and SSAC through joint use of equipment and arrangements for DA analysis. Especially, national inspectors are working with IAEA together for coordination with operators. Because NMCC lab analyses all DA samples taken from facilities and the analysis results will be shared by the IAEA, certain numbers of DA
Combining the boundary shift integral and tensor-based morphometry for brain atrophy estimation
Michalkiewicz, Mateusz; Pai, Akshay; Leung, Kelvin K.; Sommer, Stefan; Darkner, Sune; Sørensen, Lauge; Sporring, Jon; Nielsen, Mads
2016-03-01
Brain atrophy from structural magnetic resonance images (MRIs) is widely used as an imaging surrogate marker for Alzheimers disease. Their utility has been limited due to the large degree of variance and subsequently high sample size estimates. The only consistent and reasonably powerful atrophy estimation methods has been the boundary shift integral (BSI). In this paper, we first propose a tensor-based morphometry (TBM) method to measure voxel-wise atrophy that we combine with BSI. The combined model decreases the sample size estimates significantly when compared to BSI and TBM alone.
The boundary integral equations method for analysis of high-frequency vibrations of an elastic layer
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sorokin, S.; Kolman, Radek; Kopačka, Ján
2017-01-01
Roč. 87, č. 4 (2017), s. 737-750 ISSN 0939-1533 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03823S; GA MŠk(CZ) EF15_003/0000493 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : an elastic layer * symmetric and skew-symmetric waves * the Green’s matrix * boundary integral equations * eigen frequencies Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Acoustics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00419-016-1220-y
Integration models: multicultural and liberal approaches confronted
Janicki, Wojciech
2012-01-01
European societies have been shaped by their Christian past, upsurge of international migration, democratic rule and liberal tradition rooted in religious tolerance. Boosting globalization processes impose new challenges on European societies, striving to protect their diversity. This struggle is especially clearly visible in case of minorities trying to resist melting into mainstream culture. European countries' legal systems and cultural policies respond to these efforts in many ways. Respecting identity politics-driven group rights seems to be the most common approach, resulting in creation of a multicultural society. However, the outcome of respecting group rights may be remarkably contradictory to both individual rights growing out from liberal tradition, and to reinforced concept of integration of immigrants into host societies. The hereby paper discusses identity politics upturn in the context of both individual rights and integration of European societies.
Introduction to solid mechanics an integrated approach
Lubliner, Jacob
2014-01-01
This textbook presents for the first time in one text the concepts and processes covered in statics and mechanics of materials curricula following a systematic, topically integrated approach. Since the turn of the millennium, it has become common in engineering schools to combine the traditional undergraduate offerings in rigid-body statics (usually called “statics”) and deformable body mechanics (known traditionally as “strength of materials” or, more recently, “mechanics of materials”) into a single, introductory course in solid mechanics. Many textbooks for the new course sequentially meld pieces of existing, discrete books—sometimes, but not always, acknowledging the origin—into two halves covering Statics and Mechanics of Materials. In this volume, Professors Lubliner and Papadopoulos methodically combine the essentials of statics and mechanics of materials, illustrating the relationship of concepts throughout, into one "integrated" text. This book also: · Offers thorough...
Pedagogic process modeling: Humanistic-integrative approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boritko Nikolaj M.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with some current problems of modeling the dynamics of the subject-features development of the individual. The term "process" is considered in the context of the humanistic-integrative approach, in which the principles of self education are regarded as criteria for efficient pedagogic activity. Four basic characteristics of the pedagogic process are pointed out: intentionality reflects logicality and regularity of the development of the process; discreteness (stageability in dicates qualitative stages through which the pedagogic phenomenon passes; nonlinearity explains the crisis character of pedagogic processes and reveals inner factors of self-development; situationality requires a selection of pedagogic conditions in accordance with the inner factors, which would enable steering the pedagogic process. Offered are two steps for singling out a particular stage and the algorithm for developing an integrative model for it. The suggested conclusions might be of use for further theoretic research, analyses of educational practices and for realistic predicting of pedagogical phenomena. .
FUPOL: an Integrated Approach to Participative Policies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silvana Tomic Rotim
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The Future Policy Modelling Project (FUPOL is a research project funded by the 7th framework program of the European Union. Its research focus are new technologies and methods for e-governance, e-participation and policy modelling. The FUPOL consortium consists of partners from European countries, China and Kenya. and comprises innovative multinational companies, leading research institutes, high-level political organizations as well as strong pilot partners. This paper describes the FUPOL new integrated approach to policy design and implementation including also specific examples from real life pilots in cities from different countries. FUPOL consists of an advanced policy lifecycle and an IT-solution with features supporting all phases of the proposed lifecycle. The FUPOL concept and functional modules as well as the technical architecture to achieve such a complete integration are described.
Advances in Ecological Speciation: an integrative approach.
Faria, Rui; Renaut, Sebastien; Galindo, Juan; Pinho, Catarina; Melo-Ferreira, José; Melo, Martim; Jones, Felicity; Salzburger, Walter; Schluter, Dolph; Butlin, Roger
2014-02-01
The role of natural selection in promoting reproductive isolation has received substantial renewed interest within the last two decades. As a consequence, the study of ecological speciation has become an extremely productive research area in modern evolutionary biology. Recent innovations in sequencing technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to study the mechanisms involved in ecological speciation. Genome scans provide significant insights but have some important limitations; efforts are needed to integrate them with other approaches to make full use of the sequencing data deluge. An international conference 'Advances in Ecological Speciation' organized by the University of Porto (Portugal) aimed to review current progress in ecological speciation. Using some of the examples presented at the conference, we highlight the benefits of integrating ecological and genomic data and discuss different mechanisms of parallel evolution. Finally, future avenues of research are suggested to advance our knowledge concerning the role of natural selection in the establishment of reproductive isolation during ecological speciation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Boundary integral equation methods and numerical solutions thin plates on an elastic foundation
Constanda, Christian; Hamill, William
2016-01-01
This book presents and explains a general, efficient, and elegant method for solving the Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary value problems for the extensional deformation of a thin plate on an elastic foundation. The solutions of these problems are obtained both analytically—by means of direct and indirect boundary integral equation methods (BIEMs)—and numerically, through the application of a boundary element technique. The text discusses the methodology for constructing a BIEM, deriving all the attending mathematical properties with full rigor. The model investigated in the book can serve as a template for the study of any linear elliptic two-dimensional problem with constant coefficients. The representation of the solution in terms of single-layer and double-layer potentials is pivotal in the development of a BIEM, which, in turn, forms the basis for the second part of the book, where approximate solutions are computed with a high degree of accuracy. The book is intended for graduate students and r...
Young, D. P.; Woo, A. C.; Bussoletti, J. E.; Johnson, F. T.
1986-01-01
A general method is developed combining fast direct methods and boundary integral equation methods to solve Poisson's equation on irregular exterior regions. The method requires O(N log N) operations where N is the number of grid points. Error estimates are given that hold for regions with corners and other boundary irregularities. Computational results are given in the context of computational aerodynamics for a two-dimensional lifting airfoil. Solutions of boundary integral equations for lifting and nonlifting aerodynamic configurations using preconditioned conjugate gradient are examined for varying degrees of thinness.
Russell, John
2000-11-01
A modified Orr-Sommerfeld equation that applies to the asymptotic suction boundary layer was reported by Bussmann & Münz in a wartime report dated 1942 and by Hughes & Reid in J.F.M. ( 23, 1965, p715). Fundamental systems of exact solutions of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation for this mean velocity distribution were reported by D. Grohne in an unpublished typescript dated 1950. Exact solutions of the equation of Bussmann, Münz, Hughes, & Reid were reported by P. Baldwin in Mathematika ( 17, 1970, p206). Grohne and Baldwin noticed that these exact solutions may be expressed either as Barnes integrals or as convolution integrals. In a later paper (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, 399, 1985, p321), Baldwin applied the convolution integrals in the contruction of large-Reynolds number asymptotic approximations that hold uniformly. The present talk discusses the subtleties that arise in the construction of such convolution integrals, including several not reported by Grohne or Baldwin. The aim is to recover the full set of seven solutions (one well balanced, three balanced, and three dominant-recessive) postulated by W.H. Reid in various works on the uniformly valid solutions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imen Boutana
2007-12-01
Full Text Available This paper provide some applications of Pettis integration to differential inclusions in Banach spaces with three point boundary conditions of the form $$ ddot{u}(t in F(t,u(t,dot u(t+H(t,u(t,dot u(t,quad hbox{a.e. } t in [0,1], $$ where $F$ is a convex valued multifunction upper semicontinuous on $Eimes E$ and $H$ is a lower semicontinuous multifunction. The existence of solutions is obtained under the non convexity condition for the multifunction $H$, and the assumption that $F(t,x,ysubset Gamma_{1}(t$, $H(t,x,ysubset Gamma_{2}(t$, where the multifunctions $Gamma_{1},Gamma_{2}:[0,1] ightrightarrows E$ are uniformly Pettis integrable.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Lointier
2008-02-01
Full Text Available Identifying and tracking the projection of magnetospheric regions on the high-latitude ionosphere is of primary importance for studying the Solar Wind-Magnetosphere-Ionosphere system and for space weather applications. By its unique spatial coverage and temporal resolution, the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN provides key parameters, such as the Doppler spectral width, which allows the monitoring of the ionospheric footprint of some magnetospheric boundaries in near real-time. In this study, we present the first results of a statistical approach for monitoring these magnetospheric boundaries. The singular value decomposition is used as a data reduction tool to describe the backscattered echoes with a small set of parameters. One of these is strongly correlated with the Doppler spectral width, and can thus be used as a proxy for it. Based on this, we propose a Bayesian classifier for identifying the spectral width boundary, which is classically associated with the Polar Cap boundary. The results are in good agreement with previous studies. Two advantages of the method are: the possibility to apply it in near real-time, and its capacity to select the appropriate threshold level for the boundary detection.
The D(D3)-anyon chain: integrable boundary conditions and excitation spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finch, Peter E; Frahm, Holger
2013-01-01
Chains of interacting non-Abelian anyons with local interactions invariant under the action of the Drinfeld double of the dihedral group D 3 are constructed. Formulated as a spin chain the Hamiltonians are generated from commuting transfer matrices of an integrable vertex model for periodic and braided as well as open boundaries. A different anyonic model with the same local Hamiltonian is obtained within the fusion path formulation. This model is shown to be related to an integrable fusion interaction round the face model. Bulk and surface properties of the anyon chain are computed from the Bethe equations for the spin chain. The low-energy effective theories and operator content of the models (in both the spin chain and fusion path formulation) are identified from analytical and numerical studies of the finite-size spectra. For all boundary conditions considered the continuum theory is found to be a product of two conformal field theories. Depending on the coupling constants the factors can be a Z 4 parafermion or a M (5,6) minimal model. (paper)
APPROACH FOR IMPROVING THE INTEGRATED SENSOR ORIENTATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Mitishita
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The direct determination of exterior orientation parameters (EOP of aerial images via integration of the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and GPS is often used in photogrammetric mapping nowadays. The accuracies of the EOP depend on the accurate parameters related to sensors mounting when the job is performed (offsets of the IMU relative to the projection centre and the angles of boresigth misalignment between the IMU and the photogrammetric coordinate system. In principle, when the EOP values do not achieve the required accuracies for the photogrammetric application, the approach, known as Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO, is used to refine the direct EOP. ISO approach requires accurate Interior Orientation Parameters (IOP and standard deviation of the EOP under flight condition. This paper investigates the feasibility of use the in situ camera calibration to obtain these requirements. The camera calibration uses a small sub block of images, extracted from the entire block. A digital Vexcel UltraCam XP camera connected to APPLANIX POS AVTM system was used to get two small blocks of images that were use in this study. The blocks have different flight heights and opposite flight directions. The proposed methodology improved significantly the vertical and horizontal accuracies of the 3D point intersection. Using a minimum set of control points, the horizontal and vertical accuracies achieved nearly one image pixel of resolution on the ground (GSD. The experimental results are shown and discussed.
Healing and Preventing Pain: Complementary and Integrative Approaches
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A Comprehensive Review of Boundary Integral Formulations of Acoustic Scattering Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.I. Zaman
2000-12-01
Full Text Available This is a review presenting an overview of the developments in boundary integral formulations of the acoustic scattering problems. Generally, the problem is formulated in one of two ways viz. Green’s representation formula, and the Layer-theoretic formulation utilizing either a simple-layer or a double-layer potential. The review presents and expounds the major contributions in this area over the last four decades. The need for a robust and improved formulation of the exterior scattering problem (Neumann or Dirichlet arose due to the fact that the classical formulation failed to yield a unique solution at (acoustic wave-numbers which correspond to eigenvalues (eigenfrequencies of the corresponding interior scattering problem. Moreover, this correlation becomes more pronounced as the wave-numbers become larger i.e. as the (acoustic frequency increases. The robust integral formulations which are discussed here yield Fredholms integral equations of the second kind which are more amenable to computation than the first kind. However, the integral equation involves a hypersingular kernel which creates ill-conditioning in the final matrix representation. This is circumvented by a regularisation technique. An extensive useful list of references is also presented here for researchers in this area.
2. Gestaltdrama as an Integrative Psychotherapeutic Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Polínek Martin Dominik
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The following text is an overview study which defines the basic phenomena and effective factors of Gestalt drama and outlines some of the researches carried out in this area by the author during recent years. Gestalt drama is the name of a specific psychotherapeutic approach applied by the author in his practice, which combines Gestalt therapy with expressive approaches (especially with dramatherapy, theatrotherapy and fairytale-therapy. Linking Gestalt therapy and expressive techniques results in a specific psychotherapeutic approach whose versatility and holistic conception makes it suitable not only for psychotherapy but also for self-development of people with special needs, as it has the potential to meet the higher psychological needs even when the lower needs are not sufficiently saturated. The article further presents the interpretation of the partial results of research focusing on the analysis of integration performance where gestaltdrama techniques have been applied. These performances resulted from one-day dramatherapy workshops with clients suffering from mental retardation and with clients with behavioural disorders. This includes the analysis of differences between dramatical expression within the above target groups.
Elliptic boundary value problems with fractional regularity data the first order approach
Amenta, Alex
2018-01-01
In this monograph the authors study the well-posedness of boundary value problems of Dirichlet and Neumann type for elliptic systems on the upper half-space with coefficients independent of the transversal variable and with boundary data in fractional Hardy-Sobolev and Besov spaces. The authors use the so-called "first order approach" which uses minimal assumptions on the coefficients and thus allows for complex coefficients and for systems of equations. This self-contained exposition of the first order approach offers new results with detailed proofs in a clear and accessible way and will become a valuable reference for graduate students and researchers working in partial differential equations and harmonic analysis.
Permutation statistical methods an integrated approach
Berry, Kenneth J; Johnston, Janis E
2016-01-01
This research monograph provides a synthesis of a number of statistical tests and measures, which, at first consideration, appear disjoint and unrelated. Numerous comparisons of permutation and classical statistical methods are presented, and the two methods are compared via probability values and, where appropriate, measures of effect size. Permutation statistical methods, compared to classical statistical methods, do not rely on theoretical distributions, avoid the usual assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance, and depend only on the data at hand. This text takes a unique approach to explaining statistics by integrating a large variety of statistical methods, and establishing the rigor of a topic that to many may seem to be a nascent field in statistics. This topic is new in that it took modern computing power to make permutation methods available to people working in the mainstream of research. This research monograph addresses a statistically-informed audience, and can also easily serve as a ...
Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics an integrated approach
Shell, M Scott
2015-01-01
Learn classical thermodynamics alongside statistical mechanics with this fresh approach to the subjects. Molecular and macroscopic principles are explained in an integrated, side-by-side manner to give students a deep, intuitive understanding of thermodynamics and equip them to tackle future research topics that focus on the nanoscale. Entropy is introduced from the get-go, providing a clear explanation of how the classical laws connect to the molecular principles, and closing the gap between the atomic world and thermodynamics. Notation is streamlined throughout, with a focus on general concepts and simple models, for building basic physical intuition and gaining confidence in problem analysis and model development. Well over 400 guided end-of-chapter problems are included, addressing conceptual, fundamental, and applied skill sets. Numerous worked examples are also provided together with handy shaded boxes to emphasize key concepts, making this the complete teaching package for students in chemical engineer...
Stakeholder interaction within the ERICA Integrated Approach.
Zinger, I; Oughton, D H; Jones, S R
2008-09-01
Within the ERICA project, stakeholder involvement has been addressed within three main areas: generic interactions throughout the project, specific consultation by means of attendance to events and considerations as part of the ERICA Integrated Approach and Assessment Tool. The word stakeholders meant namely any individual or group who may be affected by or have an interest in an issue, and to include experts, lay-people and the public. An End-Users-Group (EUG) was set up to facilitate the two-way dialogue between the ERICA Consortium and stakeholders. The ERICA EUG consisted of representatives of 60 organisations ranging from regulatory bodies, national advisory bodies, academia, non-governmental organisations, industry, consultants and inter-governmental organisations. Stakeholder interaction was included from the very start of the project. Inputs from the EUG were recorded and in most instances incorporated within the development of the project and thus influenced and helped to shape some of the ERICA deliverables.
MODELS OF TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION: AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrei OGREZEANU
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The interdisciplinary study of information technology adoption has developed rapidly over the last 30 years. Various theoretical models have been developed and applied such as: the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM, Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT, Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, etc. The result of these many years of research is thousands of contributions to the field, which, however, remain highly fragmented. This paper develops a theoretical model of technology adoption by integrating major theories in the field: primarily IDT, TAM, and TPB. To do so while avoiding mess, an approach that goes back to basics in independent variable type’s development is proposed; emphasizing: 1 the logic of classification, and 2 psychological mechanisms behind variable types. Once developed these types are then populated with variables originating in empirical research. Conclusions are developed on which types are underpopulated and present potential for future research. I end with a set of methodological recommendations for future application of the model.
Integrating systems Approaches into Pharmaceutical Sciences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westerhoff, H.V.; Mosekilde, Erik; Noe, C. R.
2008-01-01
During the first week of December 2007, the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) and BioSim, the major European Network of Excellence on Systems Biology, held a challenging conference on the use of mathematical models in the drug development process. More precisely, the purpose...... of the conference was to promote the ‘Integration of Systems Approaches into Pharmaceutical Sciences’ in view of optimising the development of new effective drugs. And a challenge this is, considering both the high attrition rates in the pharmaceutical industry and the failure of finding definitive drug solutions...... for many of the diseases that plague mankind today. The conference was co-sponsored by the American College of Clinical Pharmacology, the European Center for Pharmaceutical Medicine, and the Swiss Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and, besides representatives from the European Regulatory Agencies and FDA...
Systematic Approach to Better Understanding Integration Costs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stark, Gregory B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2015-09-01
This research presents a systematic approach to evaluating the costs of integrating new generation and operational procedures into an existing power system, and the methodology is independent of the type of change or nature of the generation. The work was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy and performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to investigate three integration cost-related questions: (1) How does the addition of new generation affect a system's operational costs, (2) How do generation mix and operating parameters and procedures affect costs, and (3) How does the amount of variable generation (non-dispatchable wind and solar) impact the accuracy of natural gas orders? A detailed operational analysis was performed for seven sets of experiments: variable generation, large conventional generation, generation mix, gas prices, fast-start generation, self-scheduling, and gas supply constraints. For each experiment, four components of integration costs were examined: cycling costs, non-cycling VO&M costs, fuel costs, and reserves provisioning costs. The investigation was conducted with PLEXOS production cost modeling software utilizing an updated version of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 118-bus test system overlaid with projected operating loads from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Puget Sound Energy, and Public Service Colorado in the year 2020. The test system was selected in consultation with an industry-based technical review committee to be a reasonable approximation of an interconnection yet small enough to allow the research team to investigate a large number of scenarios and sensitivity combinations. The research should prove useful to market designers, regulators, utilities, and others who want to better understand how system changes can affect production costs.
Quantum gravitation. The Feynman path integral approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamber, Herbert W.
2009-01-01
The book covers the theory of Quantum Gravitation from the point of view of Feynman path integrals. These provide a manifestly covariant approach in which fundamental quantum aspects of the theory such as radiative corrections and the renormalization group can be systematically and consistently addressed. The path integral method is suitable for both perturbative as well as non-perturbative studies, and is known to already provide a framework of choice for the theoretical investigation of non-abelian gauge theories, the basis for three of the four known fundamental forces in nature. The book thus provides a coherent outline of the present status of the theory gravity based on Feynman's formulation, with an emphasis on quantitative results. Topics are organized in such a way that the correspondence to similar methods and results in modern gauge theories becomes apparent. Covariant perturbation theory are developed using the full machinery of Feynman rules, gauge fixing, background methods and ghosts. The renormalization group for gravity and the existence of non-trivial ultraviolet fixed points are investigated, stressing a close correspondence with well understood statistical field theory models. Later the lattice formulation of gravity is presented as an essential tool towards an understanding of key features of the non-perturbative vacuum. The book ends with a discussion of contemporary issues in quantum cosmology such as scale dependent gravitational constants and quantum effects in the early universe. (orig.)
Trapping of diffusing particles by striped cylindrical surfaces. Boundary homogenization approach
Dagdug, Leonardo; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Skvortsov, Alexei T.
2015-01-01
We study trapping of diffusing particles by a cylindrical surface formed by rolling a flat surface, containing alternating absorbing and reflecting stripes, into a tube. For an arbitrary stripe orientation with respect to the tube axis, this problem is intractable analytically because it requires dealing with non-uniform boundary conditions. To bypass this difficulty, we use a boundary homogenization approach which replaces non-uniform boundary conditions on the tube wall by an effective uniform partially absorbing boundary condition with properly chosen effective trapping rate. We demonstrate that the exact solution for the effective trapping rate, known for a flat, striped surface, works very well when this surface is rolled into a cylindrical tube. This is shown for both internal and external problems, where the particles diffuse inside and outside the striped tube, at three orientations of the stripe direction with respect to the tube axis: (a) perpendicular to the axis, (b) parallel to the axis, and (c) at the angle of π/4 to the axis. PMID:26093574
Pressure Shell Approach to Integrated Environmental Protection
Kennedy, Kriss J.
2011-01-01
The next generation of exploration mission human systems will require environmental protection such as radiation protection that is effective and efficient. In order to continue human exploration, habitat systems will require special shells to protect astronauts from hostile environments. The Pressure Shell Approach to integrated environmental (radiation) protection is a multi-layer shell that can be used for multifunctional environmental protection. Self-healing, self-repairing nano technologies and sensors are incorporated into the shell. This shell consists of multiple layers that can be tailored for specific environmental protection needs. Mainly, this innovation focuses on protecting crew from exposure to micrometeorites, thermal, solar flares, and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation. The Pressure Shell Approach consists of a micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta protection layer; a thin, composite shell placed in between two layers that is non-structural; an open cavity layer that can be filled with water, regolith, or polyethylene foam; a thicker composite shell that is a structural load bearing that is placed between two layers; and a bladder coating on the interior composite shell. This multi-layer shell creates an effective radiation protection system. Most of its layers can be designed with the materials necessary for specific environments. In situ materials such as water or regolith can be added to the shell design for supplemental radiation protection.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alsaedi Ahmed
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A generalized quasilinearization technique is developed to obtain a sequence of approximate solutions converging monotonically and quadratically to a unique solution of a boundary value problem involving Duffing type nonlinear integro-differential equation with integral boundary conditions. The convergence of order for the sequence of iterates is also established. It is found that the work presented in this paper not only produces new results but also yields several old results in certain limits.
An implicit boundary integral method for computing electric potential of macromolecules in solvent
Zhong, Yimin; Ren, Kui; Tsai, Richard
2018-04-01
A numerical method using implicit surface representations is proposed to solve the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation that arises in mathematical models for the electrostatics of molecules in solvent. The proposed method uses an implicit boundary integral formulation to derive a linear system defined on Cartesian nodes in a narrowband surrounding the closed surface that separates the molecule and the solvent. The needed implicit surface is constructed from the given atomic description of the molecules, by a sequence of standard level set algorithms. A fast multipole method is applied to accelerate the solution of the linear system. A few numerical studies involving some standard test cases are presented and compared to other existing results.
Boundary-integral equation formulation for time-dependent inelastic deformation in metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, V; Mukherjee, S
1977-01-01
The mathematical structure of various constitutive relations proposed in recent years for representing time-dependent inelastic deformation behavior of metals at elevated temperatues has certain features which permit a simple formulation of the three-dimensional inelasticity problem in terms of real time rates. A direct formulation of the boundary-integral equation method in terms of rates is discussed for the analysis of time-dependent inelastic deformation of arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional metallic bodies subjected to arbitrary mechanical and thermal loading histories and obeying constitutive relations of the kind mentioned above. The formulation is based on the assumption of infinitesimal deformations. Several illustrative examples involving creep of thick-walled spheres, long thick-walled cylinders, and rotating discs are discussed. The implementation of the method appears to be far easier than analogous BIE formulations that have been suggested for elastoplastic problems.
Furukawa, Hideaki; Miyazawa, Takaya; Wada, Naoya; Harai, Hiroaki
2014-01-13
Optical packet and circuit integrated (OPCI) networks provide both optical packet switching (OPS) and optical circuit switching (OCS) links on the same physical infrastructure using a wavelength multiplexing technique in order to deal with best-effort services and quality-guaranteed services. To immediately respond to changes in user demand for OPS and OCS links, OPCI networks should dynamically adjust the amount of wavelength resources for each link. We propose a resource-adjustable hybrid optical packet/circuit switch and transponder. We also verify that distributed control of resource adjustments can be applied to the OPCI ring network testbed we developed. In cooperation with the resource adjustment mechanism and the hybrid switch and transponder, we demonstrate that automatically allocating a shared resource and moving the wavelength resource boundary between OPS and OCS links can be successfully executed, depending on the number of optical paths in use.
A Family of Well-Clear Boundary Models for the Integration of UAS in the NAS
Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony; Chamberlain, James; Consiglio, Maria; Upchurch, Jason
2014-01-01
The FAA-sponsored Sense and Avoid Workshop for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) defines the concept of sense and avoid for remote pilots as "the capability of a UAS to remain well clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne traffic." Hence, a rigorous definition of well clear is fundamental to any separation assurance concept for the integration of UAS into civil airspace. This paper presents a family of well-clear boundary models based on the TCAS II Resolution Advisory logic. For these models, algorithms that predict well-clear violations along aircraft current trajectories are provided. These algorithms are analogous to conflict detection algorithms but instead of predicting loss of separation, they predict whether well-clear violations will occur during a given lookahead time interval. Analytical techniques are used to study the properties and relationships satisfied by the models.
A knowledge integration approach to flood vulnerability
Mazzorana, Bruno; Fuchs, Sven
2014-05-01
Understanding, qualifying and quantifying vulnerability is an essential need for implementing effective and efficient flood risk mitigation strategies; in particular if possible synergies between different mitigation alternatives, such as active and passive measures, should be achieved. In order to combine different risk management options it is necessary to take an interdisciplinary approach to vulnerability reduction, and as a result the affected society may be willing to accept a certain degree of self-responsibility. However, due to differing mono-disciplinary approaches and regional foci undertaken until now, different aspects of vulnerability to natural hazards in general and to floods in particular remain uncovered and as a result the developed management options remain sub-optimal. Taking an even more fundamental viewpoint, the empirical vulnerability functions used in risk assessment specifically fail to capture physical principles of the damage-generating mechanisms to the build environment. The aim of this paper is to partially close this gap by discussing a balanced knowledge integration approach which can be used to resolve the multidisciplinary disorder in flood vulnerability research. Modelling techniques such as mathematical-physical modelling of the flood hazard impact to and response from the building envelope affected, and formative scenario analyses of possible consequences in terms of damage and loss are used in synergy to provide an enhanced understanding of vulnerability and to render the derived knowledge into interdisciplinary mitigation strategies. The outlined formal procedure allows for a convincing knowledge alignment of quantified, but partial, information about vulnerability as a result of the application of physical and engineering notions and valuable, but often underspecified, qualitative argumentation strings emerging from the adopted socio-economic viewpoint.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Möhlenkamp Stefan
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The pressure drop – flow relations in myocardial bridges and the assessment of vascular heart disease via fractional flow reserve (FFR have motivated many researchers the last decades. The aim of this study is to simulate several clinical conditions present in myocardial bridges to determine the flow reserve and consequently the clinical relevance of the disease. From a fluid mechanical point of view the pathophysiological situation in myocardial bridges involves fluid flow in a time dependent flow geometry, caused by contracting cardiac muscles overlying an intramural segment of the coronary artery. These flows mostly involve flow separation and secondary motions, which are difficult to calculate and analyse. Methods Because a three dimensional simulation of the haemodynamic conditions in myocardial bridges in a network of coronary arteries is time-consuming, we present a boundary layer model for the calculation of the pressure drop and flow separation. The approach is based on the assumption that the flow can be sufficiently well described by the interaction of an inviscid core and a viscous boundary layer. Under the assumption that the idealised flow through a constriction is given by near-equilibrium velocity profiles of the Falkner-Skan-Cooke (FSC family, the evolution of the boundary layer is obtained by the simultaneous solution of the Falkner-Skan equation and the transient von-Kármán integral momentum equation. Results The model was used to investigate the relative importance of several physical parameters present in myocardial bridges. Results have been obtained for steady and unsteady flow through vessels with 0 – 85% diameter stenosis. We compare two clinical relevant cases of a myocardial bridge in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD. The pressure derived FFR of fixed and dynamic lesions has shown that the flow is less affected in the dynamic case, because the distal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Jia
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We study a model arising from porous media, electromagnetic, and signal processing of wireless communication system -tαx(t=f(t,x(t,x'(t,x”(t,…,x(n-2(t, 0
Cowdell, Fiona; Booth, Andrew; Appleby, Ben
2017-11-01
To review published literature to identify when and how patients and healthcare practitioners have been involved in knowledge mobilization activity and the impact this may have had on their care. Improving patient outcomes, satisfaction and quality of care is increasingly reliant on shared decision-making between health professionals and patients. Knowledge mobilization, at its simplest: "moving knowledge to where it can be most useful" is a growing field of academic study. To date, it appears that much effort has focused on moving knowledge from researchers to healthcare practitioners. Knowledge mobilization to patients is currently under-researched. Integrative review. Methods of integrative review will be used to address the review problem. PRISMA guidelines were used as a general framework to guide structuring and reporting the review. Elements of method-specific reporting guidelines for specific streams of evidence will be used as required. This review will aim to provide a broad and deep understanding of patient-practitioner-researcher engagement in knowledge mobilization activity. This synthesis of the extant literature should offer insights into the optimum characteristics of methods for bridging patient-practitioner-researcher boundaries in knowledge mobilization action. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
On the Theoretical Integration of Accounting Discipline and the Boundary of Accounting
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Wei
2016-01-01
The discipline of accounting has formed many branches,and from it split some independent majors as well,such as financial management,auditing and so on.However,due to lacking of comprehensive thinking and theoretical summary,some of the basic relationships between accounting branches still cannot be explained clearly in theory,thus making people have difficulty in understanding clearly the hierarchical structure of the accounting discipline and the nature and boundary of accounting.The idea of theoretical integration presented by this study is:to reconstruct (or return to) the basic theoretical structure of accounting,and on this basis to establish the basic accounting;to shape some accounting branches through the cross links between the basic accounting and other related disciplines;to form a narrow-sense accounting with the external and internal two information systems of the accounting entity,which should be developed on the basis of the basic accounting;and to integrate such disciplines as the narrow-sense accounting,financial management and auditing into a generalized accounting through the value management of the accounting entity,which is necessary.Some interdisciplinary subjects shaped by the accounting information system with some related crossing disciplines (such as national economic accounting,forensic accounting,etc.) belong to a more generalized accounting.
A highly accurate boundary integral equation method for surfactant-laden drops in 3D
Sorgentone, Chiara; Tornberg, Anna-Karin
2018-05-01
The presence of surfactants alters the dynamics of viscous drops immersed in an ambient viscous fluid. This is specifically true at small scales, such as in applications of droplet based microfluidics, where the interface dynamics become of increased importance. At such small scales, viscous forces dominate and inertial effects are often negligible. Considering Stokes flow, a numerical method based on a boundary integral formulation is presented for simulating 3D drops covered by an insoluble surfactant. The method is able to simulate drops with different viscosities and close interactions, automatically controlling the time step size and maintaining high accuracy also when substantial drop deformation appears. To achieve this, the drop surfaces as well as the surfactant concentration on each surface are represented by spherical harmonics expansions. A novel reparameterization method is introduced to ensure a high-quality representation of the drops also under deformation, specialized quadrature methods for singular and nearly singular integrals that appear in the formulation are evoked and the adaptive time stepping scheme for the coupled drop and surfactant evolution is designed with a preconditioned implicit treatment of the surfactant diffusion.
Nuclear power programme planning: An integrated approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2001-12-01
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published material on different policy considerations in the introduction of nuclear power, primarily addressed to top level decision makers in government and industry in Member States. Several Member States and experts recommended to the IAEA to address the aspects of an integrated approach to nuclear power programme planning and to serve as guidance to those countries wishing to embark on a nuclear power programme. As a follow-up, the present publication is primarily intended to serve as guidance for executives and managers in Member States in planning for possible introduction of nuclear power plants in their electricity generating systems. Nuclear power programme planning, as dealt with in this publication, includes all activities that need to be carried out up to a well-founded decision to proceed with a project feasibility study. Project implementation beyond this decision is not in the scope of this publication. Although it is possible to use nuclear energy as a heat source for industrial processes, desalination and other heat applications, it is assumed in this publication that the planning is aimed towards nuclear power for electricity generation. Much of the information given would, however, also be relevant for planning of nuclear reactors for heat production. The publication was prepared within the framework of the IAEA programme on nuclear power planning, implementation and performance as a joint activity of the Nuclear Power Engineering Section and the Planning and Economic Studies Section (Division of Nuclear Power)
Institutional economics and economic organisation theory: An integrated approach
Slangen, L.H.G.; Loucks, L.A.; Slangen, A.H.L.
2008-01-01
This publication presents one of the first attempts to integrate two emerging bodies of economic research: institutional economics and organizational theory. It begins within the framework of neoclassical economics, and then extends the boundaries of this framework to offer answers to questions that
Institutional economics and economic organisation theory : an integrated approach
Slangen, L.H.G.; Loucks, L.; Slangen, A.H.L.
2008-01-01
This publication presents one of the first attempts to integrate two emerging bodies of economic research: institutional economics and organizational theory. It begins within the framework of neoclassical economics, and then extends the boundaries of this framework to offer answers to questions that
Safety in Schools: An Integral Approach
Gairin, Joaquin; Castro, Diego
2011-01-01
The present paper summarizes a research project into integral safety in schools. The aims of this particular research are, firstly, to evaluate the degree of integral safety in schools, secondly, to propose means for improving prevention and integral safety systems and thirdly, to identify the characteristics of safety culture. The field work was…
Numerical approach to one-loop integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimoto, Junpei; Shimizu, Yoshimitsu; Kato, Kiyoshi; Oyanagi, Yoshio.
1992-01-01
Two numerical methods are proposed for the calculation of one-loop scalar integrals. In the first method, the singularity is cancelled by the symmetrization of the integrand and the integration is done by a Monte-Carlo method. In the second one, after the transform of the integrand into a standard form, the integral is reduced into a regular numerical integral. These methods provide us practical tools to evaluate one-loop Feynman diagrams with desired numerical accuracy. They are extended to the integral with numerator and the treatment of the one-loop virtual correction to the cross section is also presented. (author)
Review of Reliability-Based Design Optimization Approach and Its Integration with Bayesian Method
Zhang, Xiangnan
2018-03-01
A lot of uncertain factors lie in practical engineering, such as external load environment, material property, geometrical shape, initial condition, boundary condition, etc. Reliability method measures the structural safety condition and determine the optimal design parameter combination based on the probabilistic theory. Reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) is the most commonly used approach to minimize the structural cost or other performance under uncertainty variables which combines the reliability theory and optimization. However, it cannot handle the various incomplete information. The Bayesian approach is utilized to incorporate this kind of incomplete information in its uncertainty quantification. In this paper, the RBDO approach and its integration with Bayesian method are introduced.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kislov Roman
2012-10-01
due to historical factors, competition and strong organisational identification. Manipulated emergence of multi-organisational CoPs in the context of primary care may thus be problematic. Conclusions In cases when manipulated emergence of new CoPs is problematic, boundary issues could be addressed by adopting a developmental perspective on CoPs, which provides an alternative to the analytical and instrumental perspectives previously described in the CoP literature. This perspective implies a pragmatic, situational approach to mapping existing CoPs and their characteristics and potentially modifying them in the process of service improvement through the combination of internal and external facilitation.
Kislov, Roman; Walshe, Kieran; Harvey, Gill
2012-10-15
organisational identification. Manipulated emergence of multi-organisational CoPs in the context of primary care may thus be problematic. In cases when manipulated emergence of new CoPs is problematic, boundary issues could be addressed by adopting a developmental perspective on CoPs, which provides an alternative to the analytical and instrumental perspectives previously described in the CoP literature. This perspective implies a pragmatic, situational approach to mapping existing CoPs and their characteristics and potentially modifying them in the process of service improvement through the combination of internal and external facilitation.
Biala, T A; Jator, S N
2015-01-01
In this article, the boundary value method is applied to solve three dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations. The partial derivatives with respect to two of the spatial variables (y, z) are discretized using finite difference approximations to obtain a large system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in the third spatial variable (x). Using interpolation and collocation techniques, a continuous scheme is developed and used to obtain discrete methods which are applied via the Block unification approach to obtain approximations to the resulting large system of ODEs. Several test problems are investigated to elucidate the solution process.
An Integrated Computer-Aided Approach for Environmental Studies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gani, Rafiqul; Chen, Fei; Jaksland, Cecilia
1997-01-01
A general framework for an integrated computer-aided approach to solve process design, control, and environmental problems simultaneously is presented. Physicochemical properties and their relationships to the molecular structure play an important role in the proposed integrated approach. The sco...... and applicability of the integrated approach is highlighted through examples involving estimation of properties and environmental pollution prevention. The importance of mixture effects on some environmentally important properties is also demonstrated....
CANDU plant life management - An integrated approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charlebois, P.; Hart, R.S.; Hopkins, J.R.
1998-01-01
Commercial versions of CANDU reactors were put into service starting more than 25 years ago. The first unit of Ontario Hydro's Pickering A station was put into service in 1971, and Bruce A in 1977. Most CANDU reactors, however, are only now approaching their mid-life of 15 to 20 years of operation. In particular, the first series of CANDU 6 plants which entered service in the early 1980's were designed for a 30 year life and are now approaching mid life. The current CANDU 6 design is based on a 40 year life as a result of advancement in design and materials through research and development. In order to assure safe and economic operation of these reactors, a comprehensive CANDU Plant Life Management (PLIM) program is being developed from the knowledge gained during the operation of Ontario Hydro's Pickering, Bruce, and Darlington stations, worldwide information from CANDU 6 stations, CANDU research and development programs, and other national and international sources. This integration began its first phase in 1994, with the identification of most of the critical systems structures and components in these stations, and a preliminary assessment of degradation and mechanisms that could affect their fitness for service for their planned life. Most of these preliminary assessments are now complete, together with the production of the first iteration of Life Management Plans for several of the systems and components. The Generic CANDU 6 PLIM program is now reaching its maturity, with formal processes to systematically identify and evaluate the major CSSCs in the station, and a plan to ensure that the plant surveillance, operation, and maintenance programs monitor and control component degradation well within the original design specifications essential for the plant life attainment. A Technology Watch program is being established to ensure that degradation mechanisms which could impact on plant life are promptly investigated and mitigating programs established. The
Global Environmental Change: An integrated modelling approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Den Elzen, M.
1993-01-01
Two major global environmental problems are dealt with: climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion (and their mutual interactions), briefly surveyed in part 1. In Part 2 a brief description of the integrated modelling framework IMAGE 1.6 is given. Some specific parts of the model are described in more detail in other Chapters, e.g. the carbon cycle model, the atmospheric chemistry model, the halocarbon model, and the UV-B impact model. In Part 3 an uncertainty analysis of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion is presented (Chapter 4). Chapter 5 briefly reviews the social and economic uncertainties implied by future greenhouse gas emissions. Chapters 6 and 7 describe a model and sensitivity analysis pertaining to the scientific uncertainties and/or lacunae in the sources and sinks of methane and carbon dioxide, and their biogeochemical feedback processes. Chapter 8 presents an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the carbon cycle model, the halocarbon model, and the IMAGE model 1.6 as a whole. Part 4 presents the risk assessment methodology as applied to the problems of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion more specifically. In Chapter 10, this methodology is used as a means with which to asses current ozone policy and a wide range of halocarbon policies. Chapter 11 presents and evaluates the simulated globally-averaged temperature and sea level rise (indicators) for the IPCC-1990 and 1992 scenarios, concluding with a Low Risk scenario, which would meet the climate targets. Chapter 12 discusses the impact of sea level rise on the frequency of the Dutch coastal defence system (indicator) for the IPCC-1990 scenarios. Chapter 13 presents projections of mortality rates due to stratospheric ozone depletion based on model simulations employing the UV-B chain model for a number of halocarbon policies. Chapter 14 presents an approach for allocating future emissions of CO 2 among regions. (Abstract Truncated)
A management systems approach to pipeline integrity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abes, J. [CC Technologies Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)
2008-07-01
A management systems approach to pipeline integrity was discussed in terms of accident causation models, lessons from accidents, and management systems. Accident causation models include the Heinrich domino theory; epidemiological models; event chain models; and system-based models. A review of the Bellingham pipeline accident showed that if the pipeline had not been weakened by external damage, it likely would have been able to withstand the pressure that occurred on the day of the rupture, and the accident would not have happened. It was also determined that there was inadequate inspection of excavation work during the water treatment plant project and consequently, there was a failure to identify and repair the damage done to the pipeline. The presentation also addressed other findings, such as inaccurate evaluation of in-line pipeline inspection data; failure to manage and protect the supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA); and ineffective management oversight of construction and activation of products terminal. The Carlsbad pipeline explosion was also presented as another example of an accident. Several violations by El Paso were cited, including failure to ensure that qualified personnel performed internal corrosion control procedures; failure to perform necessary tests for corrosion; and failure to follow procedures for continuing surveillance of its facilities. Last, the presentation provided a definition of management systems and discussed the characteristics and elements of a management system. These elements included policy and leadership commitment; organizational structure and responsibilities; management of resources; communication plan; document and records management; operational controls; management of change; and continual improvement. 1 fig.
Integrated NPP life cycle management - Agency's approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gueorguiev, B.
2002-01-01
Full text: The number of nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating in the world has been roughly constant for the past seven years. There are 438 reactors of 353,489 MW(e) capacity in the world and they generated 2448.9 TWh in 2001 giving a total world operating experience with nuclear power of 10,363 years. About 230 units have reached already over 15 years of operation and significant number of these plants are fully depreciated. Share of nuclear power in electricity production sector in Member States utilising nuclear power plants represents a meaningful amount and in 14 countries it exceeds 30%. Therefore, a loss of this share should be covered by new installed capacities either from conventional or alternative sources of electricity generation. Recent forecasts, for nuclear power use over the next two decades range from ∼350 to ∼500 GW(e) worldwide. While assessing the need for any nuclear power related programmes there are several important factors that must be considered since even 350 GW(e) is a very large programme requiring several hundred thousand highly qualified personnel and a substantial infrastructure to assure its continued safe, reliable and cost-effective operation. It is important to assure reliable, safe and economic beneficial performance of the plant, which requires in turn an appropriated management of any activity connected with any taken period of a plant life starting from design and ending by the decided mode of decommissioning. The period between the first and the last payment for the activities connected with the existence of a plant could be defined as a life cycle of the plant. Such integrated approach requires considering the life cycle of the plant in a much broader sense than just operational life and is characterized by the variety of activities and their management represents in a whole a plant life management programme (PLIM). Therefore PLIM could be defined as an aggregate (totality) of technical, financial, economical and
RISK INTEGRATION MECHANISMS AND APPROACHES IN BANKING INDUSTRY
JIANPING LI; JICHUANG FENG; XIAOLEI SUN; MINGLU LI
2012-01-01
Recently, the number of consultative documents and research papers that discuss risk integration has grown considerably. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the work done on risk integration in the banking industry. This survey includes: (1) risk integration methods within regulatory frameworks and the banking industry; (2) challenges of risk integration; (3) risk interaction mechanisms; (4) development of risk integration approaches; (5) risk interaction results: diversification ve...
Sorokin, Sergey V
2011-03-01
Helical springs serve as vibration isolators in virtually any suspension system. Various exact and approximate methods may be employed to determine the eigenfrequencies of vibrations of these structural elements and their dynamic transfer functions. The method of boundary integral equations is a meaningful alternative to obtain exact solutions of problems of the time-harmonic dynamics of elastic springs in the framework of Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. In this paper, the derivations of the Green's matrix, of the Somigliana's identities, and of the boundary integral equations are presented. The vibrational power transmission in an infinitely long spring is analyzed by means of the Green's matrix. The eigenfrequencies and the dynamic transfer functions are found by solving the boundary integral equations. In the course of analysis, the essential features and advantages of the method of boundary integral equations are highlighted. The reported analytical results may be used to study the time-harmonic motion in any wave guide governed by a system of linear differential equations in a single spatial coordinate along its axis. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Decomposition approaches to integration without a measure
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Greco, S.; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, F.; Sipeky, L.
2016-01-01
Roč. 287, č. 1 (2016), s. 37-47 ISSN 0165-0114 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Choquet integral * Decision making * Decomposition integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/mesiar-0457408.pdf
Yang, Tung-Mou
2011-01-01
Information sharing and integration has long been considered an important approach for increasing organizational efficiency and performance. With advancements in information and communication technologies, sharing and integrating information across organizations becomes more attractive and practical to organizations. However, achieving…
Martin, D. F.; Cornford, S. L.; Schwartz, P.; Bhalla, A.; Johansen, H.; Ng, E.
2017-12-01
Correctly representing grounding line and calving-front dynamics is of fundamental importance in modeling marine ice sheets, since the configuration of these interfaces exerts a controlling influence on the dynamics of the ice sheet. Traditional ice sheet models have struggled to correctly represent these regions without very high spatial resolution. We have developed a front-tracking discretization for grounding lines and calving fronts based on the Chombo embedded-boundary cut-cell framework. This promises better representation of these interfaces vs. a traditional stair-step discretization on Cartesian meshes like those currently used in the block-structured AMR BISICLES code. The dynamic adaptivity of the BISICLES model complements the subgrid-scale discretizations of this scheme, producing a robust approach for tracking the evolution of these interfaces. Also, the fundamental discontinuous nature of flow across grounding lines is respected by mathematically treating it as a material phase change. We present examples of this approach to demonstrate its effectiveness.
Extreme Scale FMM-Accelerated Boundary Integral Equation Solver for Wave Scattering
AbdulJabbar, Mustafa Abdulmajeed
2018-03-27
Algorithmic and architecture-oriented optimizations are essential for achieving performance worthy of anticipated energy-austere exascale systems. In this paper, we present an extreme scale FMM-accelerated boundary integral equation solver for wave scattering, which uses FMM as a matrix-vector multiplication inside the GMRES iterative method. Our FMM Helmholtz kernels treat nontrivial singular and near-field integration points. We implement highly optimized kernels for both shared and distributed memory, targeting emerging Intel extreme performance HPC architectures. We extract the potential thread- and data-level parallelism of the key Helmholtz kernels of FMM. Our application code is well optimized to exploit the AVX-512 SIMD units of Intel Skylake and Knights Landing architectures. We provide different performance models for tuning the task-based tree traversal implementation of FMM, and develop optimal architecture-specific and algorithm aware partitioning, load balancing, and communication reducing mechanisms to scale up to 6,144 compute nodes of a Cray XC40 with 196,608 hardware cores. With shared memory optimizations, we achieve roughly 77% of peak single precision floating point performance of a 56-core Skylake processor, and on average 60% of peak single precision floating point performance of a 72-core KNL. These numbers represent nearly 5.4x and 10x speedup on Skylake and KNL, respectively, compared to the baseline scalar code. With distributed memory optimizations, on the other hand, we report near-optimal efficiency in the weak scalability study with respect to both the logarithmic communication complexity as well as the theoretical scaling complexity of FMM. In addition, we exhibit up to 85% efficiency in strong scaling. We compute in excess of 2 billion DoF on the full-scale of the Cray XC40 supercomputer.
Tello-Leal, Edgar; Chiotti, Omar; Villarreal, Pablo David
2012-12-01
The paper presents a methodology that follows a top-down approach based on a Model-Driven Architecture for integrating and coordinating healthcare services through cross-organizational processes to enable organizations providing high quality healthcare services and continuous process improvements. The methodology provides a modeling language that enables organizations conceptualizing an integration agreement, and identifying and designing cross-organizational process models. These models are used for the automatic generation of: the private view of processes each organization should perform to fulfill its role in cross-organizational processes, and Colored Petri Net specifications to implement these processes. A multi-agent system platform provides agents able to interpret Colored Petri-Nets to enable the communication between the Healthcare Information Systems for executing the cross-organizational processes. Clinical documents are defined using the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture. This methodology guarantees that important requirements for healthcare services integration and coordination are fulfilled: interoperability between heterogeneous Healthcare Information Systems; ability to cope with changes in cross-organizational processes; guarantee of alignment between the integrated healthcare service solution defined at the organizational level and the solution defined at technological level; and the distributed execution of cross-organizational processes keeping the organizations autonomy.
The influence of a scaled boundary response on integral system transient behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimenna, R.A.; Kullberg, C.M.
1989-01-01
Scaling relationships associated with the thermal-hydraulic response of a closed-loop system are applied to a calculational assessment of a feed-and-bleed recovery in a nuclear reactor integral effects test. The analysis demonstrates both the influence of scale on the system response and the ability of the thermal-hydraulics code to represent those effects. The qualitative response of the fluid is shown to be coupled to the behavior of the bounding walls through the energy equation. The results of the analysis described in this paper influence the determination of computer code applicability. The sensitivity of the code response to scaling variations introduced in the analysis is found to be appropriate with respect to scaling criteria determined from the scaling literature. Differences in the system response associated with different scaling criteria are found to be plausible and easily explained using well-known principles of heat transfer. Therefore, it is concluded that RELAP5/MOD2 can adequately represent the scaled effects of heat transfer boundary conditions of the thermal-hydraulic calculations through the mechanism of communicating walls. The results of the analysis also serve to clarify certain aspects of experiment and facility design
Measuring brain atrophy with a generalized formulation of the boundary shift integral.
Prados, Ferran; Cardoso, Manuel Jorge; Leung, Kelvin K; Cash, David M; Modat, Marc; Fox, Nick C; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Ourselin, Sebastien
2015-01-01
Brain atrophy measured using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used as an imaging biomarker for disease diagnosis and tracking of pathologic progression in neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we present a generalized and extended formulation of the boundary shift integral (gBSI) using probabilistic segmentations to estimate anatomic changes between 2 time points. This method adaptively estimates a non-binary exclusive OR region of interest from probabilistic brain segmentations of the baseline and repeat scans to better localize and capture the brain atrophy. We evaluate the proposed method by comparing the sample size requirements for a hypothetical clinical trial of Alzheimer's disease to that needed for the current implementation of BSI as well as a fuzzy implementation of BSI. The gBSI method results in a modest but reduced sample size, providing increased sensitivity to disease changes through the use of the probabilistic exclusive OR region. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Off-shell amplitudes as boundary integrals of analytically continued Wilson line slope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotko, P.; Serino, M.; Staśto, A.M.
2016-01-01
One of the methods to calculate tree-level multi-gluon scattering amplitudes is to use the Berends-Giele recursion relation involving off-shell currents or off-shell amplitudes, if working in the light cone gauge. As shown in recent works using the light-front perturbation theory, solutions to these recursions naturally collapse into gauge invariant and gauge-dependent components, at least for some helicity configurations. In this work, we show that such structure is helicity independent and emerges from analytic properties of matrix elements of Wilson line operators, where the slope of the straight gauge path is shifted in a certain complex direction. This is similar to the procedure leading to the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion, however we apply a complex shift to the Wilson line slope instead of the external momenta. While in the original BCFW procedure the boundary integrals over the complex shift vanish for certain deformations, here they are non-zero and are equal to the off-shell amplitudes. The main result can thus be summarized as follows: we derive a decomposition of a helicity-fixed off-shell current into gauge invariant component given by a matrix element of a straight Wilson line plus a reminder given by a sum of products of gauge invariant and gauge dependent quantities. We give several examples realizing this relation, including the five-point next-to-MHV helicity configuration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esmaeilzadeh, Hamid; Arzi, Ezatollah; Légaré, François; Hassani, Alireza
2013-01-01
In this paper, using the boundary integral method (BIM), we simulate the effect of temperature fluctuation on the sensitivity of microstructured optical fibre (MOF) surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors. The final results indicate that, as the temperature increases, the refractometry sensitivity of our sensor decreases from 1300 nm/RIU at 0 °C to 1200 nm/RIU at 50 °C, leading to ∼7.7% sensitivity reduction and the sensitivity temperature error of 0.15% °C −1 for this case. These results can be used for biosensing temperature-error adjustment in MOF SPR sensors, since biomaterials detection usually happens in this temperature range. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of our sensor decreases from 0.265 at 0 °C to 0.154 at 100 °C with the average reduction rate of ∼0.42% °C −1 . The results suggest that at lower temperatures the sensor has a higher SNR. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Gonzalez
Full Text Available Abstract The analysis of cracked brittle mechanical components considering linear elastic fracture mechanics is usually reduced to the evaluation of stress intensity factors (SIFs. The SIF calculation can be carried out experimentally, theoretically or numerically. Each methodology has its own advantages but the use of numerical methods has become very popular. Several schemes for numerical SIF calculations have been developed, the J-integral method being one of the most widely used because of its energy-like formulation. Additionally, some variations of the J-integral method, such as displacement-based methods, are also becoming popular due to their simplicity. In this work, a simple displacement-based scheme is proposed to calculate SIFs, and its performance is compared with contour integrals. These schemes are all implemented with the Boundary Element Method (BEM in order to exploit its advantages in crack growth modelling. Some simple examples are solved with the BEM and the calculated SIF values are compared against available solutions, showing good agreement between the different schemes.
An integrated approach to change leadership.
Skelton-Green, Judith; Simpson, Beverley; Scott, Julia
2007-01-01
Leading change has become one of the essential core competencies of health professionals today. Since 2001, the authors have been the key designers and facilitators of the Dorothy Wylie Nursing Leadership Institute (DMW-NLI). The background, key characteristics and benefits of the DMW-NLI have been described in detail elsewhere (Simpson et al. 2002). One of the Institute's key features is that participants bring a change initiative that they wish to pursue and - during their time on site - we assist them in developing that project to the point where it has a strong chance of success. When we incorporated this aspect into the DMW-NLI program, we believed that opportunity to apply the learning of the Institute to a desired initiative in the home setting would add significant value, not only to the participants, but also to their sponsoring organizations. Further, it was our hope that we could develop a methodology to advance the change initiative, which would be a valuable tool that participants could use in future change projects.As we looked to the literature, we found no shortage of articles on change theory, as well as numerous tools and techniques for project management. However, we did not find one single approach or methodology that we felt was comprehensive yet concise enough to serve as a practical guide for those who wish to advance a change initiative in their practice settings today. Therefore, we developed an integrated conceptual framework and methodology for leading change initiatives, building on selected current and classic theories of change that are relevant today. Both the framework and methodology have proven very hardy, and will, we believe, be of interest to nurse leaders and other health professionals in leadership roles. This paper will provide a brief overview of relevant background literature on leading change initiatives, introduce the DMW-NLI Change Leadership conceptual framework, describe a number of activities that support the
Data Integration The Relational Logic Approach
Genesereth, Michael
2010-01-01
Data integration is a critical problem in our increasingly interconnected but inevitably heterogeneous world. There are numerous data sources available in organizational databases and on public information systems like the World Wide Web. Not surprisingly, the sources often use different vocabularies and different data structures, being created, as they are, by different people, at different times, for different purposes. The goal of data integration is to provide programmatic and human users with integrated access to multiple, heterogeneous data sources, giving each user the illusion of a sin
A physical approach to the numerical treatment of boundaries in gas dynamics
Moretti, G.
1981-01-01
Two types of boundaries are considered: rigid walls, and artificial (open) boundaries which were arbitrarily drawn somewhere across a wider flow field. A set of partial differential equations (typically, the Euler equations) has an infinite number of solutions, each one defined by a set of initial and boundary conditions. The initial conditions remaining the same, any change in the boundary conditions will produce a new solution. To pose the problem well, a necessary and sufficient number of boundary conditions are prescribed.
Polymer reaction engineering, an integrated approach
Meyer, T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Meyer, T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.
2005-01-01
Summary This chapter contains sections titled: Polymer Materials A Short History of Polymer Reaction Engineering The Position of Polymer Reaction Engineering Toward Integrated Polymer Reaction Engineering The Disciplines in Polymer Reaction Engineering The Future: Product-inspired Polymer Reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleming, K. N.; Gamble, R.; Gosselin, S.; Fletcher, J.; Broom, N.
2008-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study to establish strategies for the reliability and integrity management (RIM) of passive metallic components for the PBMR. The RIM strategies investigated include design elements, leak detection and testing approaches, and non-destructive examinations. Specific combinations of strategies are determined to be necessary and sufficient to achieve target reliability goals for passive components. This study recommends a basis for the RIM program for the PBMR Demonstration Power Plant (DPP) and provides guidance for the development by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) of RIM requirements for Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (MHRs). (authors)
AIM: An Integrated Approach to Organizational Improvement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ronald A. Styron, Jr.
2016-02-01
Full Text Available This concept paper is based on the new problem-solving model of Blended Leadership called Alloy Improvement Model (AIM. This model consists of an integration of change theory, leadership theory, and democratic principles and practices to form a comprehensive problem-solving strategy for organizational leaders. The utilization of AIM will assist leaders in moving from problems to solutions while engaging stakeholders in a comprehensive, efficient, inclusive, informative, integrated and transparent process.
Integrated crop protection as a system approach
Haan, de, J.J.; Wijnands, F.G.; Sukkel, W.
2005-01-01
New farming systems in vegetable production are required as demands for high quality products that do not pollute the environment are rising, and production risks are large and incomes low. The methodology of prototyping new systems is described, especially the themes, parameters and target values connected to integrated crop protection. The role of integrated crop protection in prototyping new systems is discussed. The results of twenty years working with this prototyping methodology are pre...
The Impact of Technology Integration through a Transformative Approach
Cubillos, Jo Ann
2013-01-01
The integration of technology into classroom instruction in K-12 schools remains problematic. The problems associated with this integration are troubling, as technology integration may change a teacher's pedagogy toward more innovative approaches that increase student achievement. The purpose of this study was to document teachers' experiences as…
Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches
Wang, Victor C. X.
2010-01-01
As adult learners and educators pioneer the use of technology in the new century, attention has been focused on developing strategic approaches to effectively integrate adult learning and technology in different learning environments. "Integrating Adult Learning and Technologies for Effective Education: Strategic Approaches" provides innovative…
HeartMath and Ubuntu integral healing approaches for social ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HeartMath and Ubuntu integral healing approaches for social coherence and physical activity. Stephen D. Edwards. Abstract. This research was motivated by many social health problems confronting planet earth. Its aim is to introduce HeartMath and Ubuntu as complimentary, integral healing approaches for promoting ...
The Intersystem Model of Psychotherapy: An Integrated Systems Treatment Approach
Weeks, Gerald R.; Cross, Chad L.
2004-01-01
This article introduces the intersystem model of psychotherapy and discusses its utility as a truly integrative and comprehensive approach. The foundation of this conceptually complex approach comes from dialectic metatheory; hence, its derivation requires an understanding of both foundational and integrational constructs. The article provides a…
Abarbanel, Saul; Gottlieb, David; Carpenter, Mark H.
1994-01-01
It has been previously shown that the temporal integration of hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDE's) may, because of boundary conditions, lead to deterioration of accuracy of the solution. A procedure for removal of this error in the linear case has been established previously. In the present paper we consider hyperbolic (PDE's) (linear and non-linear) whose boundary treatment is done via the SAT-procedure. A methodology is present for recovery of the full order of accuracy, and has been applied to the case of a 4th order explicit finite difference scheme.
Investigation of Integrated Vehicle Health Management Approaches
Paris, Deidre
2005-01-01
This report is to present the work that was performed during the summer in the Advance Computing Application office. The NFFP (NASA Faculty Fellow Program) had ten summer faculty members working on IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) technologies. The objective of this project was two-fold: 1) to become familiar with IVHM concepts and key demonstrated IVHM technologies; and 2) to integrate the research that has been performed by IVHM faculty members into the MASTLAB (Marshall Avionic Software Test Lab). IVHM is a NASA-wide effort to coordinate, integrate and apply advanced software, sensors and design technologies to increase the level of intelligence, autonomy, and health state of future vehicles. IVHM is an important concept because it is consistent with the current plan for NASA to go to the moon, mars, and beyond. In order for NASA to become more involved in deep exploration, avionic systems will need to be highly adaptable and autonomous.
THE FEMINIST APPROACH TO PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION
Lorena Božac Deležan
2011-01-01
The goal of Integrative Psychotherapy is to establish full inner and external contact (Moursund & Erskine, 2004). The most important goal in feminist therapy is the transformation of an individual as well as the transformation of the society as a whole (Herlihy & Corey, 2004). In my work I attempt to integrate both: to help the client establish inner and external contact, but also help him/her to become aware and recognize inner messages connected with his/her gender and replace them with con...
Design of Integrated Circuits Approaching Terahertz Frequencies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yan, Lei
In this thesis, monolithic microwave integrated circuits(MMICs) are presented for millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave or terahertz(THz) applications. Millimeter-wave power generation from solid state devices is not only crucial for the emerging high data rate wireless communications but also...... heterodyne receivers with requirements of room temperature operation, low system complexity, and high sensitivity, monolithic integrated Schottky diode technology is chosen for the implementation of submillimeterwave components. The corresponding subharmonic mixer and multiplier for a THz radiometer system...
Approaches to Integrated Building Design Environments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagger-Petersen, Susanne C; Andersen, Tom
1996-01-01
This report discusses functional requirements and specification which needs to be defined and fulfilled to initiate development of an integrated building design environment. The purpose is to outline specifications for further discussion and development. The report documents the first phase...... in an ongoing project at the Technical University of Denmark. The overall project objective is to provide a theoretically well-founded prototype of an integrated IT-system which can serve as a device of feedback from practice and as a test-bed for the developed concept and architecture....
Field theory a path integral approach
Das, Ashok
2006-01-01
This unique book describes quantum field theory completely within the context of path integrals. With its utility in a variety of fields in physics, the subject matter is primarily developed within the context of quantum mechanics before going into specialized areas.Adding new material keenly requested by readers, this second edition is an important expansion of the popular first edition. Two extra chapters cover path integral quantization of gauge theories and anomalies, and a new section extends the supersymmetry chapter, where singular potentials in supersymmetric systems are described.
Development of Multisensory Integration Approach Model
Kumar, S. Prasanna; Nathan, B. Sami
2016-01-01
Every teacher expects optimum level of processing in mind of them students. The level of processing is mainly depends upon memory process. Most of the students have retrieval difficulties on past learning. Memory difficulties directly related to sensory integration. In these circumstances the investigator made an attempt to construct Multisensory…
The Integration Movement in the Caribbean at Crossroads: Towards a New Approach of Integration
Uziel Nogueira
1997-01-01
The Institute for the Integration of Latin America and the Caribbean (INTAL) has inaugurated a Working Papers Series with the publication of a study by Uziel Nogueira, the Institute's Economist. Entitled "The Integration Movement in the Caribbean at the Crossroads: Towards a New Approach to Integration", the study opens with an overview of the movement towards integration among the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean. It continues with an analysis of the integration process during thi...
An integrative approach to apprehend desistance.
F-Dufour, Isabelle; Brassard, Renée; Martel, Joane
2015-05-01
The process underlying desistance is still a strong subject of debate. This article seeks to introduce several core concepts of Archer's morphogenic approach to study how people desist from crime. At first, it discusses the primary existing theories of desistance. Then, this article demonstrates the usefulness of this approach by presenting empirical evidence drawn from semistructured interviews collected with 29 men who desisted from crime in an eastern province of Canada. The study demonstrates how this alternative approach allows for the consolidation of existing knowledge on desistance. Then implication of these findings for both theory and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.
Superfluid kinetic equation approach to the dynamics of the 3He A-B phase boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palmeri, J.
1990-01-01
The dynamics of the A-B phase boundary is studied using a nonequilibrium theory inspired by the microscopic approach to flux flow in type-II superconductors, namely a generalized two-fluid model consisting of coupled dynamical equations for the superfluid order parameter and the quasiparticle fluid. The interface mobility is obtained to lowest order in the front velocity in three different dynamical regimes: the gapless, hydrodynamic, and ballistic. Experiments have so far only been performed in the ballistic regime, and in this regime we find that, if only Andreev scattering processes are accounted for in the interface mobility, then the theoretical predictions for the terminal velocity of the planar interface are too big by a factor ∼2. From this we conclude that there may be other important contributions to the interface mobility in the ballistic regime, and we discuss a few possibilities
Integrated approach to economical, reliable, safe nuclear power production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1982-06-01
An Integrated Approach to Economical, Reliable, Safe Nuclear Power Production is the latest evolution of a concept which originated with the Defense-in-Depth philosophy of the nuclear industry. As Defense-in-Depth provided a framework for viewing physical barriers and equipment redundancy, the Integrated Approach gives a framework for viewing nuclear power production in terms of functions and institutions. In the Integrated Approach, four plant Goals are defined (Normal Operation, Core and Plant Protection, Containment Integrity and Emergency Preparedness) with the attendant Functional and Institutional Classifications that support them. The Integrated Approach provides a systematic perspective that combines the economic objective of reliable power production with the safety objective of consistent, controlled plant operation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Becker
2003-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid method combining the FDTD/FIT with a Time Domain Boundary-Integral Marching-on-in-Time Algorithm (TD-BIM is presented. Inhomogeneous regions are modelled with the FIT-method, an alternative formulation of the FDTD. Homogeneous regions (which is in the presented numerical example the open space are modelled using a TD-BIM with equivalent electric and magnetic currents flowing on the boundary between the inhomogeneous and the homogeneous regions. The regions are coupled by the tangential magnetic fields just outside the inhomogeneous regions. These fields are calculated by making use of a Mixed Potential Integral Formulation for the magnetic field. The latter consists of equivalent electric and magnetic currents on the boundary plane between the homogeneous and the inhomogeneous region. The magnetic currents result directly from the electric fields of the Yee lattice. Electric currents in the same plane are calculated by making use of the TD-BIM and using the electric field of the Yee lattice as boundary condition. The presented hybrid method only needs the interpolations inherent in FIT and no additional interpolation. A numerical result is compared to a calculation that models both regions with FDTD.
Design of Integrated Circuits Approaching Terahertz Frequencies
Yan, Lei; Johansen, Tom Keinicke
2013-01-01
In this thesis, monolithic microwave integrated circuits(MMICs) are presented for millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave or terahertz(THz) applications. Millimeter-wave power generation from solid state devices is not only crucial for the emerging high data rate wireless communications but also important for driving THz signal sources. To meet the requirement of high output power, amplifiers based on InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) devices from the III-V Lab in Marcoussic,...
Virtual integration: A game-theoretic approach
Schorer, Michael
2014-01-01
Embedded systems are playing a key role to enable the features of todays cars and other road vehicles. Advances in current hardware platforms of these embedded systems and growing implementation of features in software rather than in new hardware modules lead to new and continuously more complex automotive software systems. The integration process in the course of development of automotive software systems is a crucial and complex phase. An efficient combination of the set of components i...
Concept for integrated environmental monitoring. Scientific approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haber, W [comp.; Schoenthaler, K; Kerner, H F; Koeppel, J; Spandau, L
1998-09-01
Despite considerable expenditures for environmental protection and intensified efforts in the areas of environmental research and monitoring, environmental damage increasingly occurs, sometimes with global effects, largely due to the lack of early diagnosis. In the past few years various institutions have therefore demanded improvements in environmental monitoring. The Council of Experts on Environmental Issues (`Rat von Sachverstaendigen fuer Umweltfragen`, SRU), in particular, in its `Environmental Report` of 1987 and in its Special Report on `General Ecological Environmental Monitoring` (1990) presented far-reaching demands for a nationwide ecological early warning system which should integrate the various local, regional, national, and even global monitoring levels, and which should encompass an environmental monitoring of entire ecosystems at representative locations. This is aimed at creating the prerequisites for - detection of long-term gradual environmental change, - confirmation of refutation of initial assumptions regarding the causes of these environmental changes, - permitting decisions on preventive actions to stabilize or improve environmental conditions and - making it possible to assess the success of environmental protection policies. This report includes an abbreviated version and documentation of the conference on the `Concept for Integrated Environmental Monitoring` and the final report `Specification of the Concept for Integrated Environmental Monitoring from the Perspective of Nature Conservation`. (orig.)
Integrated care for diabetes - The Singapore Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Su Qian Yeo
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is 12.7% in Singapore. Managing people with diabetes in the community may be needed to reduce unnecessary utilisation of expensive specialist resources and to reduce hospital waiting times for patients with complications. Care Practice The Singapore General Hospital (SGH Delivering on Target (DOT Programme was launched in 2005 to right-site clinically stable diabetic patients from the hospital to private DOT GPs. The Chronic Disease Management Office (CDMO was established and a fully customised DOT information technology (IT system was developed. Three initiatives were implemented: (i Subsidised Drug Delivery Programme, (ii Diagnostic Tests Incentive Programme, and (iii Allied Healthcare Incentive Programme. Discussion Right-siting was enabled through patient incentives that eased the burden of out-of-pocket expenditure. Right Siting Officers (RSOs maintained a general oversight of the patient pathway. The integrated system supported shared care follow-up by enabling DOT GPs to share updates on the patients' health status with the referring specialists. Conclusion A coherent process across all healthcare providers similar to the SGH DOT Programme may facilitate efforts to shift the care for people with diabetes to the community and to provide integrated care. Successful integration may require incentives for institutional partners and patients.
Integrated Artificial Intelligence Approaches for Disease Diagnostics.
Vashistha, Rajat; Chhabra, Deepak; Shukla, Pratyoosh
2018-06-01
Mechanocomputational techniques in conjunction with artificial intelligence (AI) are revolutionizing the interpretations of the crucial information from the medical data and converting it into optimized and organized information for diagnostics. It is possible due to valuable perfection in artificial intelligence, computer aided diagnostics, virtual assistant, robotic surgery, augmented reality and genome editing (based on AI) technologies. Such techniques are serving as the products for diagnosing emerging microbial or non microbial diseases. This article represents a combinatory approach of using such approaches and providing therapeutic solutions towards utilizing these techniques in disease diagnostics.
Leise, Tanya L.; Walton, Jay R.; Gorb, Yuliya
2009-01-01
interpenetration, in contrast to the usual mode I boundary conditions that assume all unloaded crack faces are stress-free. The nonlinear viscoelastic cohesive zone behavior is motivated by dynamic fracture in brittle polymers in which crack propagation
Integrative studies of cultural evolution: crossing disciplinary boundaries to produce new insights.
Kolodny, Oren; Feldman, Marcus W; Creanza, Nicole
2018-04-05
Culture evolves according to dynamics on multiple temporal scales, from individuals' minute-by-minute behaviour to millennia of cultural accumulation that give rise to population-level differences. These dynamics act on a range of entities-including behavioural sequences, ideas and artefacts as well as individuals, populations and whole species-and involve mechanisms at multiple levels, from neurons in brains to inter-population interactions. Studying such complex phenomena requires an integration of perspectives from a diverse array of fields, as well as bridging gaps between traditionally disparate areas of study. In this article, which also serves as an introduction to the current special issue, we highlight some specific respects in which the study of cultural evolution has benefited and should continue to benefit from an integrative approach. We showcase a number of pioneering studies of cultural evolution that bring together numerous disciplines. These studies illustrate the value of perspectives from different fields for understanding cultural evolution, such as cognitive science and neuroanatomy, behavioural ecology, population dynamics, and evolutionary genetics. They also underscore the importance of understanding cultural processes when interpreting research about human genetics, neuroscience, behaviour and evolution.This article is part of the theme issue 'Bridging cultural gaps: interdisciplinary studies in human cultural evolution'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Alcoholism: integrating approaches to influence policy
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Adele
Most importantly that these disorders are treatable and treatment can be cost effective. It is crucial that we continually challenge our assumptions of best treatment practices. Rehabilitation programs in the. USA have in the last decade radically changed their approach to treatment, providing most treatment in ambulatory reha ...
Founding Editorial: Embryology — An Integrated Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Richardson
2001-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce the Embryology domain of TheScientificWorld and outline the scope and aims. We argue for an interdisciplinary approach to problems in develop-mental biology. Three areas are identified as being of particular relevance to this domain: evolutionary developmental biology, teratology, and descriptive or experimental embryology.
New Theoretical Approach Integrated Education and Technology
Ding, Gang
2010-01-01
The paper focuses on exploring new theoretical approach in education with development of online learning technology, from e-learning to u-learning and virtual reality technology, and points out possibilities such as constructing a new teaching ecological system, ubiquitous educational awareness with ubiquitous technology, and changing the…
Integrated approach to transmission services pricing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, C.W.; David, A.K.
1999-01-01
The paper presents an intuitively logical split between: (a) embedded, (b) operating, and (c) expansion cost based pricing and methodologies for implementation, for transmission services. A conceptually straightforward mechanism for the equitable allocation of transmission network embedded cost recovery based on capacity-use and reliability benefit is proposed, expansion cost is charged on a long-run marginal cost basis and finally, operating cost recovery is based on short-run marginal pricing. This is followed by co-ordinating these alternatives and integrating the pricing mechanisms to achieve appropriate price signals for bulk power users of transmission systems. (author)
Tisdell, Christopher C.
2017-01-01
This paper presents some critical perspectives regarding pedagogical approaches to the method of reversing the order of integration in double integrals from prevailing educational literature on multivariable calculus. First, we question the message found in popular textbooks that the traditional process of reversing the order of integration is…
Undergraduate hematology – a more integrated approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Di Carlofelice MA
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Matteo A Di Carlofelice,* Jack FT Cope*Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK*These authors contributed equally to this workAs fellow medical students we read with great interest the article by Mandan et al1 proposing a dedicated hematology rotation. The authors highlight a gap in clinical hematology teaching, particularly compared to “conventional rotations”.1 Their suggestion has merits and we agree with most of the points raised; however, propose instead for us to build on current teaching as opposed to establishing a new rotation.The integration of theoretical and practical learning was concluded to be beneficial to both teacher and student by Wrenn and Wrenn.2 In the original article it is mentioned that “clinical experience allows students to comprehend and apply this knowledge in practice, enabling the all-important integration of their learning”.1 As we agree that hematology overlaps with other specialties and therefore requires a thorough understanding, we value how a clinical attachment would be useful to solidify lecture-based teaching.View the original paper by Mandan et al.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vahidinasab, V.; Jadid, S.
2010-01-01
In this paper the problem of developing optimal bidding strategies for the participants of oligopolistic energy markets is studied. Special attention is given to the impacts of suppliers' emission of pollutants on their bidding strategies. The proposed methodology employs supply function equilibrium (SFE) model to represent the strategic behavior of each supplier and locational marginal pricing mechanism for the market clearing. The optimal bidding strategies are developed mathematically using a bilevel optimization problem where the upper-level subproblem maximizes individual supplier payoff and the lower-level subproblem solves the Independent System Operator's market clearing problem. In order to solve market clearing mechanism the multiobjective optimal power flow is used with supplier emission of pollutants, as an extra objective, subject to the supplier physical constraints. This paper uses normal boundary intersection (NBI) approach for generating Pareto optimal set and then fuzzy decision making to select the best compromise solution. The developed algorithm is applied to an IEEE 30-bus test system. Numerical results demonstrate the potential and effectiveness of the proposed multiobjective approach to develop successful bidding strategies in those energy markets that minimize generation cost and emission of pollutants simultaneously.
Leisure market segmentation : an integrated preferences/constraints-based approach
Stemerding, M.P.; Oppewal, H.; Beckers, T.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
1996-01-01
Traditional segmentation schemes are often based on a grouping of consumers with similar preference functions. The research steps, ultimately leading to such segmentation schemes, are typically independent. In the present article, a new integrated approach to segmentation is introduced, which
SESSION V: INTEGRATED APPROACHES IN LAND AND WATER ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
SESSION V: INTEGRATED APPROACHES IN LAND AND WATER MANAGEMENT RESEARCH/LAND AND WATER MANAGEMENT ECONOMICS AND POLICY - Socioeconomic implications of improved forage species on smallholder farms in Kenya.
Integration of case study approach, project design and computer ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Integration of case study approach, project design and computer modeling in managerial accounting education ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... in the Laboratory of Management Accounting and Controlling Systems at the ...
Integrated landscape approach : Closing the gap between theory and application
Bürgi, Matthias; Ali, Panna; Chowdhury, Afroza; Heinimann, Andreas; Hett, Cornelia; Kienast, Felix; Mondal, Manoranjan Kumar; Upreti, Bishnu Raj; Verburg, Peter H.
2017-01-01
Recently, the integrated landscape approach has gained increasing interest of the scientific community, as well as of organizations active in the field of sustainable development. However, the enthusiastic welcome is challenged by little consensus on theory, terminology and definitions. Moreover,
Path integral approach to multidimensional quantum tunnelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balantekin, A.B.; Takigawa, N.
1985-01-01
Path integral formulation of the coupled channel problem in the case of multidimensional quantum tunneling is presented and two-time influence functionals are introduced. The two-time influence functionals are calculated explicitly for the three simplest cases: Harmonic oscillators linearly or quadratically coupled to the translational motion and a system with finite number of equidistant energy levels linearly coupled to the translational motion. The effects of these couplings on the transmission probability are studied for two limiting cases, adiabatic case and when the internal system has a degenerate energy spectrum. The condition for the transmission probability to show a resonant structure is discussed and exemplified. Finally, the properties of the dissipation factor in the adiabatic limit and its correlation with the friction coefficient in the classically accessible region are studied
Aluminum recycling—An integrated, industrywide approach
Das, Subodh K.; Green, John A. S.; Kaufman, J. Gilbert; Emadi, Daryoush; Mahfoud, M.
2010-02-01
The aluminum industry is a leading proponent of global sustainability and strongly advocates the use of recycled metal. As the North American primary aluminum industry continues to move offshore to other geographic areas such as Iceland and the Middle East, where energy is more readily available at lower cost, the importance of the secondary (i.e., recycled metal) market in the U.S. will continue to increase. The purpose of this paper is to take an integrated, industry-wide look at the recovery of material from demolished buildings, shredded automobiles, and aging aircraft, as well as from traditional cans and other rigid containers. Attempts will be made to assess how the different alloys used in these separate markets can be recycled in the most energy-efficient manner.
An integrated approach for prioritized process improvement.
Vanteddu, Gangaraju; McAllister, Charles D
2014-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated framework to simultaneously identify and improve healthcare processes that are important from the healthcare provider's and patient's perspectives. A modified quality function deployment (QFD) chart is introduced to the field of healthcare quality assurance. A healthcare service example is used to demonstrate the utility of the proposed chart. The proposed framework is versatile and can be used in a wide variety of healthcare quality improvement contexts, wherein, two different perspectives are needed to be considered for identifying and improving critical healthcare processes. The modified QFD chart used in conjunction with the stacked Pareto chart will facilitate the identification of key performance metrics from the patient's and the hospital's perspectives. Subsequently, the chief contributory factors at different levels are identified in a very efficient manner. Healthcare quality improvement professionals will be able to use the proposed modified QFD chart in association with stacked Pareto chart for effective quality assurance.
Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Approaches to Ecosystem Management Project
CIPAV (Centre For Research on Sustainable Agricultural Production Systems); CATIE (Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza); NITLAPAN
2007-01-01
Metadata only record The Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Approaches to Ecosystem Management Project introduces the payment for environmental services approach to silvopastoral farmers in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. The objectives of the project are to "demonstrate and measure a) the effects the introduction of payment incentives for environmental services to farmers on their adoption of integrated silvopastoral farming systems in degraded pasture lands; and b) the resulting impr...
Integrative approaches to childhood constipation and encopresis.
Culbert, Timothy P; Banez, Gerard A
2007-12-01
Constipation and encopresis (fecal soiling) are common childhood disorders that may lead to significant functional impairment. The etiology and course of constipation and encopresis are increasingly conceptualized from a broad biopsychosocial perspective, and therefore a holistic approach to assessment and treatment is indicated. Many children experience symptoms of chronic constipation and/or encopresis that are only partially responsive to conventional medical therapy. Complementary/alternative therapies can often help in the treatment of constipation/encopresis and are well accepted by patients and families.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adem Esmail, Blal; Geneletti, Davide
2017-01-01
Watershed investments, whose main aim is to secure water for cities, represent a promising opportunity for large-scale sustainability transitions in the near future. If properly designed, they promote activities in the watershed that enhance ecosystem services while protecting nature and biodiversity, as well as achieving other societal goals. In this paper, we build on the concepts of ecosystem services and boundary work, to develop and test an operative approach for designing and assessing the impact of watershed investments. The approach is structured to facilitate negotiations among stakeholders. Its strategic component includes setting the agenda; defining investment scenarios; and assessing the performance of watershed investments as well as planning for a follow-up. Its technical component concerns data processing; tailoring spatially explicit ecosystem service models; hence their application to design a set of “investment portfolios”, generate future land use scenarios, and model impacts on selected ecosystem services. A case study illustrates how the technical component can be developed in a data scarce context in sub-Saharan Africa in a way that is functional to support the steps of the strategic component. The case study addresses soil erosion and water scarcity-related challenges affecting Asmara, a medium-sized city in Eritrea, and considers urban water security and rural poverty alleviation as two illustrative objectives, within a ten-year planning horizon. The case study results consist in spatially explicit data (investment portfolio, land use scenario, impact on ecosystem services), which were aggregated to quantitatively assess the performance of different watershed investments scenarios, in terms of changes in soil erosion control. By addressing stakeholders' concerns of credibility, saliency, and legitimacy, the approach is expected to facilitate negotiation of objectives, definition of scenarios, and assessment of alternative watershed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adem Esmail, Blal, E-mail: blal.ademesmail@unitn.it; Geneletti, Davide
2017-01-15
Watershed investments, whose main aim is to secure water for cities, represent a promising opportunity for large-scale sustainability transitions in the near future. If properly designed, they promote activities in the watershed that enhance ecosystem services while protecting nature and biodiversity, as well as achieving other societal goals. In this paper, we build on the concepts of ecosystem services and boundary work, to develop and test an operative approach for designing and assessing the impact of watershed investments. The approach is structured to facilitate negotiations among stakeholders. Its strategic component includes setting the agenda; defining investment scenarios; and assessing the performance of watershed investments as well as planning for a follow-up. Its technical component concerns data processing; tailoring spatially explicit ecosystem service models; hence their application to design a set of “investment portfolios”, generate future land use scenarios, and model impacts on selected ecosystem services. A case study illustrates how the technical component can be developed in a data scarce context in sub-Saharan Africa in a way that is functional to support the steps of the strategic component. The case study addresses soil erosion and water scarcity-related challenges affecting Asmara, a medium-sized city in Eritrea, and considers urban water security and rural poverty alleviation as two illustrative objectives, within a ten-year planning horizon. The case study results consist in spatially explicit data (investment portfolio, land use scenario, impact on ecosystem services), which were aggregated to quantitatively assess the performance of different watershed investments scenarios, in terms of changes in soil erosion control. By addressing stakeholders' concerns of credibility, saliency, and legitimacy, the approach is expected to facilitate negotiation of objectives, definition of scenarios, and assessment of alternative watershed
Semantic web approach for dealing with administrative boundary revisions: a case study of Dhaka City
Pervin, Shiuli
2013-01-01
Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Geospatial Technologies. Dhaka City is the capital of Bangladesh and boundary revisions of Dhaka city refers to the changes of Dhaka city administrative boundary or jurisdiction over time. Dhaka is growing very fast in terms of population and area. So, government is redefining city boundaries and also making big units into several parts for better city management. Now, the challenge is ...
Approaches to the summability of divergent multidimensional integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vainikko, G M; Lifanov, I K
2003-01-01
Under discussion are various approaches to the concept of summability (finding the finite part - (f.p.)) of divergent integrals with integrand represented as a product of two functions, one with a parameter-dependent non-integrable singularity at one point of the integration and the other absolutely integrable. A study is made of summability methods which are based on the expansion of the absolutely integrable function in a Taylor series with centre at the singular point (f.p.), on the analytic continuation with respect to the parameter of the singularity (a.f.p.), and on integration by parts (f.p.p.). Formulae of changes of variables in such integrals are presented
Integrating lifestyle approaches into osteoarthritis care
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Garver MJ
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Matthew J Garver,1 Brian C Focht,2 Sarah J Taylor3 1Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX, 2Department of Human Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 3School of Occupational Therapy, Texas Woman's University, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: As the lifetime risk, societal cost, and overall functional impact of osteoarthritis (OA is imposing, it is imperative that clinicians provide an individualized care model for patients. Patients must be offered a multiplicity of care strategies and encouraged to embrace lifestyle approaches for self-managing the effects and symptoms of OA. Certainly, the attitude of the clinician and patient will directly influence receptivity and implementation of lifestyle approaches. This work proposes how the use of structured and routine assessments and cognitive therapy ideologies may complement a comprehensive treatment plan. Assessments described herein include objective and/or self-report measures of physical function, pain, attitude about social support, and sleep quality. Baseline assessments followed by systematic monitoring of the results may give patients and clinicians valuable insight into the effectiveness of the care plan. Empirical evidence from randomized trials with OA patients highlights the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral change strategies for addressing salient concerns for OA (pain control, mobility performance, and sleep quality. Cognitive restructuring can provide patients with renewed power in managing their disease. Cognitive therapy topics discussed presently include: 1 what is OA?, 2 effectiveness of exercise and FITT (frequency, intensity, time, and type principles for OA patients, 3 goal-setting and barriers, and 4 translating to independent care. Woven within the discussion about cognitive therapy are ideas about how the results from baseline assessments and group-mediated dynamics might assist more favorable outcomes. There are a plethora
Integrated microsystems packaging approach with LCP
Jaynes, Paul; Shacklette, Lawrence W.
2006-05-01
Within the government communication market there is an increasing push to further miniaturize systems with the use of chip-scale packages, flip-chip bonding, and other advances over traditional packaging techniques. Harris' approach to miniaturization includes these traditional packaging advances, but goes beyond this level of miniaturization by combining the functional and structural elements of a system, thus creating a Multi-Functional Structural Circuit (MFSC). An emerging high-frequency, near hermetic, thermoplastic electronic substrate material, Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP), is the material that will enable the combination of the electronic circuit and the physical structure of the system. The first embodiment of this vision for Harris is the development of a battlefield acoustic sensor module. This paper will introduce LCP and its advantages for MFSC, present an example of the work that Harris has performed, and speak to LCP MFSCs' potential benefits to miniature communications modules and sensor platforms.
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR LINKED DATA BROWSING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Beek
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The Netherlands' Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency – in short Kadaster – collects and registers administrative and spatial data on property and the rights involved. Currently, the Kadaster is publishing its geo-spatial data assets as Linked Open Data. The Kadaster manages hundreds of datasets that describe hundreds of millions of geospatial objects, including all Dutch buildings, roads, and forests. The Kadaster exposes this large collection of data to thousands of daily users that operate from within different contexts and that need to be supported in different use cases. Therefore, Kadaster must offer diverse, yet complementary, approaches for browsing and exploring the data it publishes. Specifically, it supports the following paradigms for browsing and exploring its data assets: hierarchical browsing, graph navigation, faceted browsing, and tabular browsing. These paradigms are useful for different tasks, cover different use cases, and are implemented by reusing and/or developing Open Source libraries and applications.
In Vivo Evidence of Reduced Integrity of the Gray-White Matter Boundary in Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Andrews, Derek Sayre; Avino, Thomas A; Gudbrandsen, Maria; Daly, Eileen; Marquand, Andre; Murphy, Clodagh M; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Williams, Steven C; Bullmore, Edward T; The Mrc Aims Consortium; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M; Ecker, Christine
2017-02-01
Atypical cortical organization and reduced integrity of the gray-white matter boundary have been reported by postmortem studies in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there are no in vivo studies that examine these particular features of cortical organization in ASD. Hence, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging to examine differences in tissue contrast between gray and white matter in 98 adults with ASD and 98 typically developing controls, to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASD have significantly reduced tissue contrast. More specifically, we examined contrast as a percentage between gray and white matter tissue signal intensities (GWPC) sampled at the gray-white matter boundary, and across different cortical layers. We found that individuals with ASD had significantly reduced GWPC in several clusters throughout the cortex (cluster, P gray-white matter interface, which indicates a less distinct gray-white matter boundary in ASD. Our in vivo findings of reduced GWPC in ASD are therefore consistent with prior postmortem findings of a less well-defined gray-white matter boundary in ASD. Taken together, these results indicate that GWPC might be utilized as an in vivo proxy measure of atypical cortical microstructural organization in future studies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Preregularization and the path integral approach to the chiral anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elias, V.; McKeon, G.; Steele, T.; Mann, R.B.; Treml, T.F.; Sherry, T.N.
1987-01-01
We explore the connection between perturbative and non-perturbative (path-integral) approaches to the axial anomaly. In particular, we show how the Jacobian associated with the fermionic measure corresponding to local axial transformations may be calculated directly from shift-of-integration-variable surface terms in four Euclidean dimensions. No regularization (explicit parametrization of UV infinities) is required in this approach, but invariance of the Jacobian under vector gauge transformations (i.e. preregularization) is required to remove a variable-of-integration ambiguity within the expression for the Jacobian of the fermionic measure. (orig.)
The integrated approach methodology for operator information evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stroube, K.; Modarres, M.; Roush, M.; Hunt, N.; Pearce, R.
1986-01-01
The Integrated Approach has developed a complete method for evaluating the relative importance of operation information improvements. By use of decision trees the impact of information on success probability of a function or system can be evaluated. This approach couples goal trees and human success likelihoods to estimate anticipated consequences of a given information system
Towards an integrated approach to health and medicine in Africa
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2016-08-18
Aug 18, 2016 ... As such, a social approach to health-seeking behaviour questions how decisions ... In conclusion, the paper proposes that medicine and the humanities should engage seriously .... mental questions: What story does the integration or separation .... approach which has taken an interest in traditional healing.
Learning about the Weather through an Integrated STEM Approach
Serin, Gokhan
2014-01-01
Introducing concepts through an integrated science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) approach can promote interest and motivation (Bennett, Lubben and Hogarth, 2007; Bybee, 2010). However, implementing such an approach effectively in a classroom setting, with relevant links, is a challenging task. Some concepts lend themselves more…
An integrated artificial neural networks approach for predicting global radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azadeh, A.; Maghsoudi, A.; Sohrabkhani, S.
2009-01-01
This article presents an integrated artificial neural network (ANN) approach for predicting solar global radiation by climatological variables. The integrated ANN trains and tests data with multi layer perceptron (MLP) approach which has the lowest mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The proposed approach is particularly useful for locations where no available measurement equipment. Also, it considers all related climatological and meteorological parameters as input variables. To show the applicability and superiority of the integrated ANN approach, monthly data were collected for 6 years (1995-2000) in six nominal cities in Iran. Separate model for each city is considered and the quantity of solar global radiation in each city is calculated. Furthermore an integrated ANN model has been introduced for prediction of solar global radiation. The acquired results of the integrated model have shown high accuracy of about 94%. The results of the integrated model have been compared with traditional angstrom's model to show its considerable accuracy. Therefore, the proposed approach can be used as an efficient tool for prediction of solar radiation in the remote and rural locations with no direct measurement equipment.
Integrated, regional approach to risk management of industrial systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakraborty, S.
1992-01-01
This paper focuses on the following four main issues: (1) necessity for an integrated, regional approach to risk management of industrial systems; (2) principles of risk management; (3) integrated approach and overall methodology; and (4) implementation of risk management strategies on a regional basis. The U.N. Interagency project on risk management for large industrial areas, which is a pioneer type of international initiative for an integrated approach to risk management, is discussed in this context. Another encouraging activity for further development of overall methodologies for risk management is the ongoing project on the risk and safety of technical systems at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Aurich. The concept of integral risk management takes into account multidimensional factors including technical, economic, political, social, and ethical considerations to allow a well-balanced decision-making process
Implicit Boundary Integral Methods for the Helmholtz Equation in Exterior Domains
2016-06-01
solve the Helmholtz equation as ∂Ω goes through significant change in its shape and topology — applications for which implicit representation of the...boundary-value problems for the wave equation and maxwell’s equations. Russian Math . Surv., 1965. [16] S. Reutskiy. The method of fundamental
Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove
2014-01-01
The typical "double counting" application of the mirage method of boundary correction cannot be applied to sampling systems such as critical height sampling (CHS) that are based on a Monte Carlo sample of a tree (or debris) attribute because the critical height (or other random attribute) sampled from a mirage point is generally not equal to the critical...
Recent developments in the path integral approach to anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujikawa, Kazuo.
1986-08-01
After a brief summary of the path integral approach to anomalous identities, some of the recent developments in this approach are discussed. The topics discussed include (i) Construction of the effective action by means of the covariant current, (ii) Gauss law constraint in anomalous gauge theories, (iii) Path integral approach to anomalies in superconformal transformations, (iv) Conformal and ghost number anomalies in string theory in analogy with the instanton calculation, (v) Covariant local Lorentz anomaly and its connection with the mathematical construction of the consistent anomaly. (author)
High resolution integral holography using Fourier ptychographic approach.
Li, Zhaohui; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Xiaorui; Liu, Delian
2014-12-29
An innovative approach is proposed for calculating high resolution computer generated integral holograms by using the Fourier Ptychographic (FP) algorithm. The approach initializes a high resolution complex hologram with a random guess, and then stitches together low resolution multi-view images, synthesized from the elemental images captured by integral imaging (II), to recover the high resolution hologram through an iterative retrieval with FP constrains. This paper begins with an analysis of the principle of hologram synthesis from multi-projections, followed by an accurate determination of the constrains required in the Fourier ptychographic integral-holography (FPIH). Next, the procedure of the approach is described in detail. Finally, optical reconstructions are performed and the results are demonstrated. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that our proposed approach can reconstruct 3D scenes with high resolution.
Allison, Stuart A; Xin, Yao
2005-08-15
A boundary element (BE) procedure is developed to numerically calculate the electrophoretic mobility of highly charged, rigid model macroions in the thin double layer regime based on the continuum primitive model. The procedure is based on that of O'Brien (R.W. O'Brien, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 92 (1983) 204). The advantage of the present procedure over existing BE methodologies that are applicable to rigid model macroions in general (S. Allison, Macromolecules 29 (1996) 7391) is that computationally time consuming integrations over a large number of volume elements that surround the model particle are completely avoided. The procedure is tested by comparing the mobilities derived from it with independent theory of the mobility of spheres of radius a in a salt solution with Debye-Huckel screening parameter, kappa. The procedure is shown to yield accurate mobilities provided (kappa)a exceeds approximately 50. The methodology is most relevant to model macroions of mean linear dimension, L, with 1000>(kappa)L>100 and reduced absolute zeta potential (q|zeta|/k(B)T) greater than 1.0. The procedure is then applied to the compact form of high molecular weight, duplex DNA that is formed in the presence of the trivalent counterion, spermidine, under low salt conditions. For T4 DNA (166,000 base pairs), the compact form is modeled as a sphere (diameter=600 nm) and as a toroid (largest linear dimension=600 nm). In order to reconcile experimental and model mobilities, approximately 95% of the DNA phosphates must be neutralized by bound counterions. This interpretation, based on electrokinetics, is consistent with independent studies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouferguene, Ahmed
2005-01-01
When computing multicentre integrals over Slater-type orbitals (STOs) by means of the Shavitt and Karplus Gaussian integral transforms (Shavitt and Karplus 1962 J. Chem. Phys. 36 550), one usually ends up with a multiple integral of the form ∫ 0 1 du ∫ 0 1 dv ...∫ 0 ∞ dz F(u, v, ..., z) (Shavitt and Karplus 1965 J. Chem. Phys. 43 398) in which all the integrals are inter-related. The most widely used approach for computing such an integral is to apply a product of Gauss-Legendre quadratures for the integrals over [0, 1] while the semi-infinite term is evaluated by a special procedure. Although numerous approaches have been developed to accurately perform the integration over [0, ∞) efficiently, it is the aim of this work to add a new tool that could be of some benefit in carrying out the hard task of multicentre integrals over STOs. The new approach relies on a special Gauss quadrature referred to as Gauss-Bessel to accurately evaluate the semi-infinite integral of interest. In this work, emphasis is put on accuracy rather than efficiency since its aim is essentially to bring a proof of concept showing that Gauss-Bessel quadrature can successfully be applied in the context of multicentre integrals over STOs. The obtained accuracy is comparable to that obtained with other methods available in the literature
A symbolic summation approach to Feynman integral calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluemlein, Johannes; Klein, Sebastian
2010-11-01
Given a Feynman parameter integral, depending on a single discrete variable N and a real parameter ε, we discuss a new algorithmic framework to compute the first coefficients of its Laurent series expansion in ε. In a first step, the integrals are expressed by hypergeometric multi sums by means of symbolic transformations. Given this sum format, we develop new summation tools to extract the first coefficients of its series expansion whenever they are expressible in terms of indefinite nested product-sum expressions. In particular, we enhance the known multi-sum algorithms to derive recurrences for sums with complicated boundary conditions, and we present new algorithms to find formal Laurent series solutions of a given recurrence relation. (orig.)
A symbolic summation approach to Feynman integral calculus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Klein, Sebastian [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie; Schneider, Carsten; Stan, Flavia [Johannes Kepler Univ. Linz (AT). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC)
2010-11-15
Given a Feynman parameter integral, depending on a single discrete variable N and a real parameter {epsilon}, we discuss a new algorithmic framework to compute the first coefficients of its Laurent series expansion in {epsilon}. In a first step, the integrals are expressed by hypergeometric multi sums by means of symbolic transformations. Given this sum format, we develop new summation tools to extract the first coefficients of its series expansion whenever they are expressible in terms of indefinite nested product-sum expressions. In particular, we enhance the known multi-sum algorithms to derive recurrences for sums with complicated boundary conditions, and we present new algorithms to find formal Laurent series solutions of a given recurrence relation. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarhus, Rikke; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke
2010-01-01
to maintain the order of the home when managing disease and adopting new healthcare technology. In our analysis we relate this boundary work to two continuums of visibility-invisibility and integration-segmentation in disease management. We explore five factors that affect the boundary work: objects......, activities, places, character of disease, and collaboration. Furthermore, the processes are explored of how boundary objects move between social worlds pushing and shaping boundaries. From this we discuss design implications for future healthcare technologies for the home.......To move treatment successfully from the hospital to that of technology assisted self-care at home, it is vital in the design of such technologies to understand the setting in which the health IT should be used. Based on qualitative studies we find that people engage in elaborate boundary work...
Integrated approach to gas accumulation identification in Field M
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malyshevskaya, K; Rukavishnikov, V; Belozerov, B; Podnebesnikh, A
2015-01-01
The given paper describes how the integration of different methods, such as core data, well logs, production logging, seismic data and well test analysis, was used to solve the problem of determining gas accumulation boundaries in sediment complex PK1-3 of Field M. This paper is devoted to the block with wells 2, 36, 49, 85, 127, 148 of the field, since it is characterized by high uncertainty, sc. recently drilled wells 1V, 2V and 120 have produced oil, although according to the present-day geological concept they were considered to be gas saturated in the intervals investigated with production logging. Besides, well 127 that was presumably oil saturated has produced gas. By accounting mismatching production data and the geological concept, the authors have supposed that PK1-3 gas accumulation is characterized by a more complex structure than it was supposed by the predecessors and it is represented by reservoir compartmentalization and high heterogeneity. Therefore, the main goal of the work was to revise the distribution of gas saturated reservoir within the PK1-3 sediment complex. To achieve this goal, the authors have set the following tasks: to revise the geological correlation and gas oil contact; to carry out fault interpretation by means of seismic and well test data; to determine areal facies distribution on the basis of integrated core, perform a log motifs and seismic facies analysis. Thus, the estimation of the gas saturated reservoir portion was implemented in two stages: defining the boundary of gas accumulation in depth on the basis of well logs, production data and fault interpretation; reservoir distribution determination on the basis of the seismic facies analysis within the derived gas accumulation boundary
Integrated Giant Magnetoresistance Technology for Approachable Weak Biomagnetic Signal Detections.
Shen, Hui-Min; Hu, Liang; Fu, Xin
2018-01-07
With the extensive applications of biomagnetic signals derived from active biological tissue in both clinical diagnoses and human-computer-interaction, there is an increasing need for approachable weak biomagnetic sensing technology. The inherent merits of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and its high integration with multiple technologies makes it possible to detect weak biomagnetic signals with micron-sized, non-cooled and low-cost sensors, considering that the magnetic field intensity attenuates rapidly with distance. This paper focuses on the state-of-art in integrated GMR technology for approachable biomagnetic sensing from the perspective of discipline fusion between them. The progress in integrated GMR to overcome the challenges in weak biomagnetic signal detection towards high resolution portable applications is addressed. The various strategies for 1/ f noise reduction and sensitivity enhancement in integrated GMR technology for sub-pT biomagnetic signal recording are discussed. In this paper, we review the developments of integrated GMR technology for in vivo/vitro biomagnetic source imaging and demonstrate how integrated GMR can be utilized for biomagnetic field detection. Since the field sensitivity of integrated GMR technology is being pushed to fT/Hz 0.5 with the focused efforts, it is believed that the potential of integrated GMR technology will make it preferred choice in weak biomagnetic signal detection in the future.
Determination of stable shapes of a thin liquid metal layer using a boundary integral method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hinaje, M [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Vinsard, G [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Dufour, S [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)
2006-03-21
This paper deals with a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field. Experimentally, we have noticed that even if the system (inductor+liquid metal) is axisymmetric, when an ac magnetic field is applied the symmetry is broken. The observed deformations of the liquid metal are in three dimensions. Therefore, our aim is to investigate this deformation using a numerical method as boundary element method in three dimensions.
Determination of stable shapes of a thin liquid metal layer using a boundary integral method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinaje, M; Vinsard, G; Dufour, S
2006-01-01
This paper deals with a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field. Experimentally, we have noticed that even if the system (inductor+liquid metal) is axisymmetric, when an ac magnetic field is applied the symmetry is broken. The observed deformations of the liquid metal are in three dimensions. Therefore, our aim is to investigate this deformation using a numerical method as boundary element method in three dimensions
A design approach for integrating thermoelectric devices using topology optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soprani, Stefano; Haertel, Jan Hendrik Klaas; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov
2016-01-01
Efficient operation of thermoelectric devices strongly relies on the thermal integration into the energy conversion system in which they operate. Effective thermal integration reduces the temperature differences between the thermoelectric module and its thermal reservoirs, allowing the system...... to operate more efficiently. This work proposes and experimentally demonstrates a topology optimization approach as a design tool for efficient integration of thermoelectric modules into systems with specific design constraints. The approach allows thermal layout optimization of thermoelectric systems...... for different operating conditions and objective functions, such as temperature span, efficiency, and power recoveryrate. As a specific application, the integration of a thermoelectric cooler into the electronics section ofa downhole oil well intervention tool is investigated, with the objective of minimizing...
Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Integrated Approach
Adi Putra, M. J.; Widodo, A.; Sopandi, W.
2017-09-01
The integrated approach refers to the stages of pupils’ psychological development. Unfortunately, the competences which are designed into the curriculum is not appropriate with the child development. This Manuscript presents PCK (pedagogical content knowledge) of teachers who teach science content utilizing an integrated approach. The data has been collected by using CoRe, PaP-eR, and interviews from six elementary teachers who teach science. The paper informs that high and stable teacher PCKs have an impact on how teachers present integrated teaching. Because it is influenced by the selection of important content that must be submitted to the students, the depth of the content, the reasons for choosing the teaching procedures and some other things. So for teachers to be able to integrate teaching, they should have a balanced PCK.
Araki, Tadashi; Kumar, P Krishna; Suri, Harman S; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Gupta, Ajay; Saba, Luca; Rajan, Jeny; Lavra, Francesco; Sharma, Aditya M; Shafique, Shoaib; Nicolaides, Andrew; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S
2016-07-01
The degree of stenosis in the carotid artery can be predicted using automated carotid lumen diameter (LD) measured from B-mode ultrasound images. Systolic velocity-based methods for measurement of LD are subjective. With the advancement of high resolution imaging, image-based methods have started to emerge. However, they require robust image analysis for accurate LD measurement. This paper presents two different algorithms for automated segmentation of the lumen borders in carotid ultrasound images. Both algorithms are modeled as a two stage process. Stage one consists of a global-based model using scale-space framework for the extraction of the region of interest. This stage is common to both algorithms. Stage two is modeled using a local-based strategy that extracts the lumen interfaces. At this stage, the algorithm-1 is modeled as a region-based strategy using a classification framework, whereas the algorithm-2 is modeled as a boundary-based approach that uses the level set framework. Two sets of databases (DB), Japan DB (JDB) (202 patients, 404 images) and Hong Kong DB (HKDB) (50 patients, 300 images) were used in this study. Two trained neuroradiologists performed manual LD tracings. The mean automated LD measured was 6.35 ± 0.95 mm for JDB and 6.20 ± 1.35 mm for HKDB. The precision-of-merit was: 97.4 % and 98.0 % w.r.t to two manual tracings for JDB and 99.7 % and 97.9 % w.r.t to two manual tracings for HKDB. Statistical tests such as ANOVA, Chi-Squared, T-test, and Mann-Whitney test were conducted to show the stability and reliability of the automated techniques.
Wong, Rene; Breiner, Petra; Mylopoulos, Maria
2014-09-01
This article reports on research into the relationships that emerged between hospital-based and community-based interprofessional diabetes programs involved in inter-agency care. Using constructivist grounded theory methodology we interviewed a purposive theoretical sample of 21 clinicians and administrators from both types of programs. Emergent themes were identified through a process of constant comparative analysis. Initial boundaries were constructed based on contrasts in beliefs, practices and expertise. In response to bureaucratic and social pressures, boundaries were redefined in a way that created role uncertainty and disempowered community programs, ultimately preventing collaboration. We illustrate the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of social and symbolic boundaries in inter-agency diabetes care and the tacit ways in which hospitals can maintain a power position at the expense of other actors in the field. As efforts continue in Canada and elsewhere to move knowledge and resources into community sectors, we highlight the importance of hospitals seeing beyond their own interests and adopting more altruistic models of inter-agency integration.
Hess, G. D.; Garratt, J. R.
The steady-state, horizontally homogeneous, neutral, barotropiccase forms the foundation of our theoretical understanding of the planetary boundary layer (PBL).While simple analytical models and first-order closure models simulate atmospheric observationsof this case well, more sophisticated models, in general, do not. In this paperwe examine how well three higher-order closure models, E - - l, E - l, and LRR - l,which have been especially modified for PBL applications, perform in predicting the behaviour of thecross-isobaric angle 0, the geostrophic drag coefficient Cg, and the integral of the dissipationrate over the boundary layer, as a function of the surface Rossby number Ro. For comparison we alsoexamine the performance of three first-order closure mixing-length models, two proposed byA. K. Blackadar and one by H. H. Lettau, and the performance of the standard model forsecond-order closure and a modification of it designed to reduce the overprediction of turbulence inthe upper part of the boundary layer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Song
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Urban land–atmosphere interactions can be captured by numerical modeling framework with coupled land surface and atmospheric processes, while the model performance depends largely on accurate input parameters. In this study, we use an advanced stochastic approach to quantify parameter uncertainty and model sensitivity of a coupled numerical framework for urban land–atmosphere interactions. It is found that the development of urban boundary layer is highly sensitive to surface characteristics of built terrains. Changes of both urban land use and geometry impose significant impact on the overlying urban boundary layer dynamics through modification on bottom boundary conditions, i.e., by altering surface energy partitioning and surface aerodynamic resistance, respectively. Hydrothermal properties of conventional and green roofs have different impacts on atmospheric dynamics due to different surface energy partitioning mechanisms. Urban geometry (represented by the canyon aspect ratio, however, has a significant nonlinear impact on boundary layer structure and temperature. Besides, managing rooftop roughness provides an alternative option to change the boundary layer thermal state through modification of the vertical turbulent transport. The sensitivity analysis deepens our insight into the fundamental physics of urban land–atmosphere interactions and provides useful guidance for urban planning under challenges of changing climate and continuous global urbanization.
An integrated lean-methods approach to hospital facilities redesign.
Nicholas, John
2012-01-01
Lean production methods for eliminating waste and improving processes in manufacturing are now being applied in healthcare. As the author shows, the methods are appropriate for redesigning hospital facilities. When used in an integrated manner and employing teams of mostly clinicians, the methods produce facility designs that are custom-fit to patient needs and caregiver work processes, and reduce operational costs. The author reviews lean methods and an approach for integrating them in the redesign of hospital facilities. A case example of the redesign of an emergency department shows the feasibility and benefits of the approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yurii M. Streliaiev
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Three-dimensional quasistatic contact problem of two linearly elastic bodies' interaction with Coulomb friction taken into account is considered. The boundary conditions of the problem have been simplified by the modification of the Coulomb's law of friction. This modification is based on the introducing of a delay in normal contact tractions that bound tangent contact tractions in the Coulomb's law of friction expressions. At this statement the problem is reduced to a sequence of similar systems of nonlinear integral equations describing bodies' interaction at each step of loading. A method for an approximate solution of the integral equations system corresponded to each step of loading is applied. This method consists of system regularization, discretization of regularized system and iterative process application for solving the discretized system. A numerical solution of a contact problem of an elastic sphere with an elastic half-space interaction under increasing and subsequently decreasing normal compressive force has been obtained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adel A.K. Mohsen
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The problem of nonuniqueness (NU of the solution of exterior acoustic problems via boundary integral equations is discussed in this article. The efficient implementation of the CHIEF (Combined Helmholtz Integral Equations Formulation method to axisymmetric problems is studied. Interior axial fields are used to indicate the solution error and to select proper CHIEF points. The procedure makes full use of LU-decomposition as well as the forward solution derived in the solution. Implementations of the procedure for hard spheres are presented. Accurate results are obtained up to a normalised radius of ka = 20.983, using only one CHIEF point. The radiation from a uniformly vibrating sphere is also considered. Accurate results for ka up to 16.927 are obtained using two CHIEF points.
An Integral Method and Its Application to Some Three-Dimensional Boundary-Layer Flows,
1979-07-18
M. Scala Dr. H. Lew Mr. J. W. Faust A . Martellucci W. Daskin J. D. Cresswell J. B. Arnaiz L. A . Marshall J. Cassanto R. Hobbs C. Harris F. George P.O...RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT 18 JULY 1979 Approved for public release, distribution unlimited DTICEILECTE1 APR 2 5 1930,, A NAVAL SURFACE WEAPONS...TITLE (end Subtlle) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED I INVTEGRAL M.ETHOD AND ITS 4PPLICATION TO SSOME THREE-DIMENSIONAL BOUNDARY-LAYER FLOWS 6
A Key Event Path Analysis Approach for Integrated Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingjing Liao
2012-01-01
Full Text Available By studying the key event paths of probabilistic event structure graphs (PESGs, a key event path analysis approach for integrated system models is proposed. According to translation rules concluded from integrated system architecture descriptions, the corresponding PESGs are constructed from the colored Petri Net (CPN models. Then the definitions of cycle event paths, sequence event paths, and key event paths are given. Whereafter based on the statistic results after the simulation of CPN models, key event paths are found out by the sensitive analysis approach. This approach focuses on the logic structures of CPN models, which is reliable and could be the basis of structured analysis for discrete event systems. An example of radar model is given to characterize the application of this approach, and the results are worthy of trust.
Extreme Scale FMM-Accelerated Boundary Integral Equation Solver for Wave Scattering
AbdulJabbar, Mustafa Abdulmajeed; Al Farhan, Mohammed; Al-Harthi, Noha A.; Chen, Rui; Yokota, Rio; Bagci, Hakan; Keyes, David E.
2018-01-01
scattering, which uses FMM as a matrix-vector multiplication inside the GMRES iterative method. Our FMM Helmholtz kernels treat nontrivial singular and near-field integration points. We implement highly optimized kernels for both shared and distributed memory
Integrated Approaches to Occupational Health and Safety: A Systematic Review.
Cooklin, A; Joss, N; Husser, E; Oldenburg, B
2017-09-01
The study objective was to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of integrated workplace interventions that combine health promotion with occupational health and safety. Electronic databases (n = 8), including PsychInfo and MEDLINE, were systematically searched. Studies included were those that reported on workplace interventions that met the consensus definition of an "integrated approach," published in English, in the scientific literature since 1990. Data extracted were occupation, worksite, country, sample size, intervention targets, follow-up period, and results reported. Quality was assessed according to American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Practice Guidelines. Heterogeneity precluded formal meta-analyses. Results were classified according to the outcome(s) assessed into five categories (health promotion, injury prevention, occupational health and safety management, psychosocial, and return-on-investment). Narrative synthesis of outcomes was performed. A total of 31 eligible studies were identified; 23 (74%) were (quasi-)experimental trials. Effective interventions were most of those aimed at improving employee physical or mental health. Less consistent results were reported from integrated interventions targeting occupational health and safety management, injury prevention, or organizational cost savings. Integrated approaches have been posed as comprehensive solutions to complex issues. Empirical evidence, while still emerging, provides some support for this. Continuing investment in, and evaluation of, integrated approaches are worthwhile.
Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John
2014-05-01
A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface Keira Quinn (1), Dr Max Hope (1), Professor John McCloskey (1). (1)University of Ulster Peer-reviewed science has the potential to guide policy-makers and practitioners in developing robust responses to social problems and issues. Despite advances in hazard-related science, it can often be a challenge to translate findings into useful social applications. With natural hazards affecting 2.9 billion people between 2000 and 2012 the need for hazard science to be effectively communicated is undeniable. This is particularly so in humanitarian contexts as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play a key role in the poorer nations most affected by natural disasters. Past methods of 'knowledge transfer' have tended to lead to misinterpretations and misrepresentations of science to the extent that it is often used incorrectly or not at all. 'Knowledge exchange' is currently heralded as a more effective means of bringing about successful communication and understanding, and is characterised by the presence of shared learning. Central to a knowledge exchange approach is an understanding of the social and organisational contexts within which learning takes place. Here we use Etienne Wenger's social-learning approach to analyse selected aspects of the social context influencing knowledge exchange across the geoscience-humanitarian interface. For Wenger (2000) Communities of Practice (CoP) are bounded organisational and social groups united by their own distinct values, goals and ways of working. The boundaries surrounding CoPs can act as barriers to knowledge exchange but can also create opportunities for new shared learning by challenging existing perspectives and practice. Drawing on the findings of ongoing qualitative research into communication and learning between earthquake scientists and humanitarian NGOs in UK/Ireland, this paper outlines a number
Safety Concepts in Structural Glass Engineering : Towards an Integrated Approach
Bos, F.P.
2009-01-01
This dissertation proposes the Integrated Approach to Structural Glass Safety, based on four clearly defined element safety properties, damage sensitivity, relative resistance, redundancy, and fracture mode. The Element Safety Diagram (ESD) is introduced to provide an easy-to-read graphical
Towards an integrated approach in supporting microbiological food safety decisions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Havelaar, A.H.; Braunig, J.; Christiansen, K.
2007-01-01
an integrated scientific approach combining veterinary and medical epidemiology, risk assessment for the farm-to-fork food chain as well as agricultural and health economy. Scientific advice is relevant in all stages of the policy cycle: to assess the magnitude of the food safety problem, to define...
Recent changes in Central European landscapes: An integrative ecological approach
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Těšitel, Jan; Kučera, Tomáš
2005-01-01
Roč. 24, č. 1 (2005), s. 3-6 ISSN 1335-342X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : integrative ecological approach * transdisciplinarity * interdisciplinarity * landscape ecology Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005
Child Psychotherapy, Child Analysis, and Medication: A Flexible, Integrative Approach.
Whitman, Laura
2015-01-01
For children with moderate to severe emotional or behavioral problems, the current approach in child psychiatry is to make an assessment for the use of both psychotherapy and medication. This paper describes integration of antidepressants and stimulants with psychoanalytically oriented techniques.
An Integrated Approach to Indoor and Outdoor Localization
2017-04-17
TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Integrated Approach to Indoor and Outdoor Localization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0299 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Distribution approved for public release. Figure 5: A flowchart of the method of computing an initial position estimate by comparing a single WiFi scan
Availability objectives integration to design. The CIDEM approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degrave, C.; Martin-Onraet, M.
1994-01-01
Considering the operation experience feedback from its nuclear park and from foreign parks, and considering new approaches and design tools such as concurrent engineering, total quality, etc., EDF (Electricite de France) has decided to start the CIDEM approach (integration of availability, operating experience feedback and maintenance into design), an analytical and systematical study process for new projects (REP2000 (or PWR2000)), in order to optimize as much as possible the design phase while integrating maintenance, availability and safety objectives, with the view of a minimized kWh cost. This process, already used in other industries, employs concepts such as RAM (Reliability Availability Maintainability), RCM (Reliability Centered Maintenance) and ILS (Integrated Logistic Support). The availability and maintenance scheduling studies for the REP2000 project are detailed. 10 fig., 6 tab
Boundary conformal field theory and the worldsheet approach to D-branes
Recknagel, Andreas
2013-01-01
Boundary conformal field theory is concerned with a class of two-dimensional quantum field theories which display a rich mathematical structure and have many applications ranging from string theory to condensed matter physics. In particular, the framework allows discussion of strings and branes directly at the quantum level. Written by internationally renowned experts, this comprehensive introduction to boundary conformal field theory reaches from theoretical foundations to recent developments, with an emphasis on the algebraic treatment of string backgrounds. Topics covered include basic concepts in conformal field theory with and without boundaries, the mathematical description of strings and D-branes, and the geometry of strongly curved spacetime. The book offers insights into string geometry that go beyond classical notions. Describing the theory from basic concepts, and providing numerous worked examples from conformal field theory and string theory, this reference is of interest to graduate students and...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Al Qahtani F
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Fahd Al Qahtani,1 Adel Abdelaziz2,31Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia; 2Medical Education Development Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia; 3Medical Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptAbstract: Fulfilling the goal of integrating radiology into undergraduate medical curricula is a real challenge due to the enduring faith assuming that traditional medical disciplines are worthy of consuming the available study time. In this manner, radiology is addressed occasionally and with relevance to these traditional disciplines. In Al-Baha University Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia, efforts have been made to integrate radiology vertically and in a structured manner into the undergraduate curriculum from the first year to the sixth year. For achieving convenient integration of radiology, a triphasic approach to integration is adopted. This approach consists of the integration of radiology foundations into the basic sciences phase, development of a distinct 4-week module in year 4, and finally, integration of clinical applications of radiology in the clinical phase modules. Feedback of students and inferences obtained through assessment and program evaluation are in favor of this approach to integration. Minor reform and some improvement related to time allocated and content balancing are still indicated.Keywords: radiology foundations, radiology module, students assessment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zølner, Mette
The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....
Tisdell, Christopher C.
2017-11-01
This paper presents some critical perspectives regarding pedagogical approaches to the method of reversing the order of integration in double integrals from prevailing educational literature on multivariable calculus. First, we question the message found in popular textbooks that the traditional process of reversing the order of integration is necessary when solving well-known problems. Second, we illustrate that the method of integration by parts can be directly applied to many of the classic pedagogical problems in the literature concerning double integrals, without taking the well-worn steps associated with reversing the order of integration. Third, we examine the benefits and limitations of such a method. In our conclusion, we advocate for integration by parts to be a part of the pedagogical conversation in the learning and teaching of double integral methods; and call for more debate around its use in the learning and teaching of other areas of mathematics. Finally, we emphasize the need for critical approaches in the pedagogy of mathematics more broadly.
Computational Approaches for Integrative Analysis of the Metabolome and Microbiome
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jasmine Chong
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The study of the microbiome, the totality of all microbes inhabiting the host or an environmental niche, has experienced exponential growth over the past few years. The microbiome contributes functional genes and metabolites, and is an important factor for maintaining health. In this context, metabolomics is increasingly applied to complement sequencing-based approaches (marker genes or shotgun metagenomics to enable resolution of microbiome-conferred functionalities associated with health. However, analyzing the resulting multi-omics data remains a significant challenge in current microbiome studies. In this review, we provide an overview of different computational approaches that have been used in recent years for integrative analysis of metabolome and microbiome data, ranging from statistical correlation analysis to metabolic network-based modeling approaches. Throughout the process, we strive to present a unified conceptual framework for multi-omics integration and interpretation, as well as point out potential future directions.
Integrated systems approach to meet the insider threat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, L.D.
1985-01-01
This paper describes an approach to mitigating the insider threat by integrating and supplementing existing data systems and procedures without placing an undue burden on plant management and operating personnel. Nuclear facilities have plans to deal with any forseeable chain of events, and long-term records of activities are maintained to verify that the requirements are met. The integrated systems approach proposed in this paper does not change established facility practices; rather, the approach attempts to utilize the information generated by the system. This will provide real-time interaction between the documented work permits, the operating procedure system, and the security system so that controlled access authorizations are based on a need to enter and access is limited to specific times and places
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Anguraj
2014-02-01
Full Text Available We study in this paper,the existence of solutions for fractional integro differential equations with impulsive and integral conditions by using fixed point method. We establish the Sufficient conditions and unique solution for given problem. An Example is also explained to the main results.
The Nehari manifold approach for $p(x$-Laplacian problem with Neumann boundary condition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Taghavi
2013-07-01
where $\\Omega \\subset R^N$ is a bounded domain with smooth boundary and $\\lambda, \\mu > 0,~\\gamma$ is the outer unit normal to $\\partial\\Omega$. Under suitable assumptions, we prove the existence of positive solutions by using the Nehari manifold and some variational techniques.
Local Similarity in the Stable Boundary Layer and Mixing-Length Approaches : Consistency of Concepts
Van de Wiel, B.J.H.; Moene, A.F.; De Ronde, W.H.; Jonker, H.J.J.
2008-01-01
In stably stratified flows vertical movement of eddies is limited by the fact that kinetic energy is converted into potential energy, leading to a buoyancy displacement scale z B . Our new mixing-length concept for turbulent transport in the stable boundary layer follows a rigid-wall analogy, in the
Local similarity in the stable boundary layer and mixing-length approaches: consistency of concepts
Wiel, van de B.J.H.; Moene, A.F.; Ronde, W.H.; Jonker, H.J.J.
2008-01-01
In stably stratified flows vertical movement of eddies is limited by the fact that kinetic energy is converted into potential energy, leading to a buoyancy displacement scale z B . Our new mixing-length concept for turbulent transport in the stable boundary layer follows a rigid-wall analogy, in the
Local similarity in the stable boundary layer and mixing-length approaches : consistency of concepts
Wiel, van de B.J.H.; Moene, A.F.; Ronde, de W.H.; Jonker, H.J.J.
2008-01-01
In stably stratified flows vertical movement of eddies is limited by the fact that kinetic energy is converted into potential energy, leading to a buoyancy displacement scale zB. Our new mixing-length concept for turbulent transport in the stable boundary layer follows a rigid-wall analogy, in the
Posterior Approach to Kidney Dissection: An Old Surgical Approach for Integrated Medical Curricula
Daly, Frank J.; Bolender, David L.; Jain, Deepali; Uyeda, Sheryl; Hoagland, Todd M.
2015-01-01
Integrated medical curricular changes are altering the historical regional anatomy approach to abdominal dissection. The renal system is linked physiologically and biochemically to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems; yet, anatomists often approach the urinary system as part of the abdomen and pelvic regions. As part of an integrated…
J. Edelenbos (Jurian); I.F. van Meerkerk (Ingmar)
2015-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article deals with water governance to face institutional fragmentation in water management practices. In this holistic approach the connective capacity with domains, levels, scales, organizations and actors is emphasized. Recent literature and empirical research
Graph-based sequence annotation using a data integration approach.
Pesch, Robert; Lysenko, Artem; Hindle, Matthew; Hassani-Pak, Keywan; Thiele, Ralf; Rawlings, Christopher; Köhler, Jacob; Taubert, Jan
2008-08-25
The automated annotation of data from high throughput sequencing and genomics experiments is a significant challenge for bioinformatics. Most current approaches rely on sequential pipelines of gene finding and gene function prediction methods that annotate a gene with information from different reference data sources. Each function prediction method contributes evidence supporting a functional assignment. Such approaches generally ignore the links between the information in the reference datasets. These links, however, are valuable for assessing the plausibility of a function assignment and can be used to evaluate the confidence in a prediction. We are working towards a novel annotation system that uses the network of information supporting the function assignment to enrich the annotation process for use by expert curators and predicting the function of previously unannotated genes. In this paper we describe our success in the first stages of this development. We present the data integration steps that are needed to create the core database of integrated reference databases (UniProt, PFAM, PDB, GO and the pathway database Ara-Cyc) which has been established in the ONDEX data integration system. We also present a comparison between different methods for integration of GO terms as part of the function assignment pipeline and discuss the consequences of this analysis for improving the accuracy of gene function annotation. The methods and algorithms presented in this publication are an integral part of the ONDEX system which is freely available from http://ondex.sf.net/.
Spatial Data Integration Using Ontology-Based Approach
Hasani, S.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.; Jelokhani-Niaraki, M.
2015-12-01
In today's world, the necessity for spatial data for various organizations is becoming so crucial that many of these organizations have begun to produce spatial data for that purpose. In some circumstances, the need to obtain real time integrated data requires sustainable mechanism to process real-time integration. Case in point, the disater management situations that requires obtaining real time data from various sources of information. One of the problematic challenges in the mentioned situation is the high degree of heterogeneity between different organizations data. To solve this issue, we introduce an ontology-based method to provide sharing and integration capabilities for the existing databases. In addition to resolving semantic heterogeneity, better access to information is also provided by our proposed method. Our approach is consisted of three steps, the first step is identification of the object in a relational database, then the semantic relationships between them are modelled and subsequently, the ontology of each database is created. In a second step, the relative ontology will be inserted into the database and the relationship of each class of ontology will be inserted into the new created column in database tables. Last step is consisted of a platform based on service-oriented architecture, which allows integration of data. This is done by using the concept of ontology mapping. The proposed approach, in addition to being fast and low cost, makes the process of data integration easy and the data remains unchanged and thus takes advantage of the legacy application provided.
SPATIAL DATA INTEGRATION USING ONTOLOGY-BASED APPROACH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Hasani
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In today's world, the necessity for spatial data for various organizations is becoming so crucial that many of these organizations have begun to produce spatial data for that purpose. In some circumstances, the need to obtain real time integrated data requires sustainable mechanism to process real-time integration. Case in point, the disater management situations that requires obtaining real time data from various sources of information. One of the problematic challenges in the mentioned situation is the high degree of heterogeneity between different organizations data. To solve this issue, we introduce an ontology-based method to provide sharing and integration capabilities for the existing databases. In addition to resolving semantic heterogeneity, better access to information is also provided by our proposed method. Our approach is consisted of three steps, the first step is identification of the object in a relational database, then the semantic relationships between them are modelled and subsequently, the ontology of each database is created. In a second step, the relative ontology will be inserted into the database and the relationship of each class of ontology will be inserted into the new created column in database tables. Last step is consisted of a platform based on service-oriented architecture, which allows integration of data. This is done by using the concept of ontology mapping. The proposed approach, in addition to being fast and low cost, makes the process of data integration easy and the data remains unchanged and thus takes advantage of the legacy application provided.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheung, K.P. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Luk, C.L.P. [Chu Hai College of Higher Education, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Wong, S.T. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Div. of Arts and Humanities, SPACE; Chung, S.L.; Fung, K.S.; Leung, M.F. [Hong Kong Inst. of Vocational Education, Hong Kong (China)
2006-07-01
Renewable energy sources that are commonly used in buildings include solar energy, wind energy and rainwater collection. High quality environmentally responsive residential buildings are designed to provide good insulation in winter and solar shading in summer. However, this study demonstrated that the green energy design in residential buildings is not usually well integrated. For example, windows with clear double or triple glazed glass, allow good penetration of sunlight during the day in winter, but are not further dynamically insulated for when the sun goes down to avoid heat loss from the building. Additionally, good solar static shading devices often block much needed daylight on cloudy winter days. These examples emphasize the lack of an integrated approach to gain the best advantage of green energies and to minimize energy costs in residential buildings. This study addressed issues facing the integrated approach with particular reference to the design of a small residential building in rural Beijing. The design included a new approach for interpreting a traditional Beijing court yard house in the modern Beijing rural context, while integrating multi-responding innovative green energy applications derived from first principles. This paper also presented a proposal for a village house in Hong Kong to harvest as much renewable energies as possible, primarily wind energy and solar energy, that come into contact with the building. The purpose was to work towards a renewable energy approach for buildings, namely the Bireth approach, which will benefit practically all houses by making them zero energy houses. The paper described the feasibility of integrating renewable energies in buildings to fulfill performance requirements such improving ventilation, providing warm interiors, drying clothes, or storing solar and wind energies into power batteries. The challenges facing the development of a proposed micro solar hot air turbine were also presented. 15 refs., 6
An integrated approach towards future ballistic neck protection materials selection.
Breeze, John; Helliker, Mark; Carr, Debra J
2013-05-01
Ballistic protection for the neck has historically taken the form of collars attached to the ballistic vest (removable or fixed), but other approaches, including the development of prototypes incorporating ballistic material into the collar of an under body armour shirt, are now being investigated. Current neck collars incorporate the same ballistic protective fabrics as the soft armour of the remaining vest, reflecting how ballistic protective performance alone has historically been perceived as the most important property for neck protection. However, the neck has fundamental differences from the thorax in terms of anatomical vulnerability, flexibility and equipment integration, necessitating a separate solution from the thorax in terms of optimal materials selection. An integrated approach towards the selection of the most appropriate combination of materials to be used for each of the two potential designs of future neck protection has been developed. This approach requires evaluation of the properties of each potential material in addition to ballistic performance alone, including flexibility, mass, wear resistance and thermal burden. The aim of this article is to provide readers with an overview of this integrated approach towards ballistic materials selection and an update of its current progress in the development of future ballistic neck protection.
The Blurred Boundaries and Multiple Effects of European Integration and Globalisation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lynggaard, Kennet
2015-01-01
of how European integration contribute to, and are effected by, globalisation. By means of concrete research examples the chapter discusses the advantages of the research strategies and tools typically applied on the area and the challenges we face in this regard. This includes discussions of top......This chapter presents analytical strategies for the study of European integration and Globalisation in concert. This is an increasingly important as well as a highly diverse field of inquiry. The chapter presents a series of research clusters in various ways concerned with the fundamental questions......-down and bottom-up research designs, process tracing, counterfactual analysis, comparative designs and comparative temporal analysis. The chapter gives special attention to the promotion of cross-fertilisation in this otherwise dispersed area of research and concludes by giving pointers to potential areas...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hudson, S.R.
2002-01-01
For stellarators to be feasible candidates for fusion power stations it is essential that the magnetic field lines lie on nested flux surfaces; however, the lack of a continuous symmetry implies that magnetic islands, caused by Pfirsch-Schlueter currents, diamagnetic currents and resonant coil fields, are guaranteed to exist. The challenge is to design the plasma and coils such that these effects cancel. Magnetic islands in free-boundary full-pressure full-current stellarator magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are suppressed using a procedure based on the PIES code [Comp. Phys. Comm., 43:157, 1986] which iterates the equilibrium equations to obtain the plasma equilibrium. At each iteration, changes to a Fourier representation of the coil geometry are made to cancel resonant fields produced by the plasma. The changes are constrained to lie in the nullspace of certain measures of engineering acceptability and kink stability. As the iterations continue, the coil geometry and the plasma simultaneously converge to an equilibrium in which the island content is negligible. The method is applied to a candidate plasma and coil design for NCSX [Phys. Plas., 7:1911, 2000]. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noella J. Gray
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs are an increasingly popular tool for management of the marine commons. Effective governance is essential if MPAs are to achieve their objectives, yet many MPAs face conflicts and governance challenges, including lack of trust and knowledge integration between fishers, scientists, and policy makers. This paper considers the role of a boundary organization in facilitating knowledge integration in a co-managed MPA, the Gladden Spit and Silk Cayes Marine Reserve in Belize. Boundary organizations can play an important role in resource management, by bridging the science-policy divide, facilitating knowledge integration, and enabling communication in conditions of uncertainty. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Belize, the paper identifies four challenges for knowledge integration. First, actors have divergent perspectives on whether and how knowledge is being integrated. Second, actors disagree on resource conditions within the MPA and how these should be understood. Third, in order to maintain accountability with multiple actors, including fishers, government, and funders, the boundary organization has promoted the importance of different types of knowledge for different purposes (science and fishers’ knowledge, rather than the integration of these. Finally, a lack of trust and uneven power relations make it difficult to separate knowledge claims from political claims. However, even if knowledge integration proves difficult, boundary organizations may still play an important role by maintaining accountability, providing space for conflicting understandings to co-exist, and ultimately for governance institutions to evolve.
Working with boundaries in systems psychodynamic consulting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henk Struwig
2012-03-01
Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to produce a set of theoretical assumptions about organisational boundaries and boundary management in organisations and, from these, to develop a set of hypotheses as a thinking framework for practising consulting psychologists when they work with boundaries from a systems psychodynamic stance. Motivation for the study: The researcher used the belief that organisational boundaries reflect the essence of organisations. Consulting to boundary managers could facilitate a deep understanding of organisational dynamics. Research design, approach and method: The researcher followed a case study design. He used systems psychodynamic discourse analysis. It led to six working hypotheses. Main findings: The primary task of boundary management is to hold the polarities of integration and differentiation and not allow the system to become fragmented or overly integrated. Boundary management is a primary task and an ongoing activity of entire organisations. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should work actively at effective boundary management and at balancing integration and differentiation. Leaders should become aware of how effective boundary management leads to good holding environments that, in turn, lead to containing difficult emotions in organisations. Contribution/value-add: The researcher provided a boundary-consulting framework in order to assist consultants to balance the conceptual with the practical when they consult.
Path-integral approach to resonant electron-molecule scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winterstetter, M.; Domcke, W.
1993-01-01
A path-integral formulation of resonant electron-molecule scattering is developed within the framework of the projection-operator formalism of scattering theory. The formation and decay of resonances is treated in real time as a quantum-mechanical electronic-tunneling process, modified by the coupling of the electronic motion with the nuclear degrees of freedom. It is shown that the electronic continuum can be summed over in the path-integral formulation, resulting formally in the path integral for an effective two-state system with coupling to vibrations. The harmonic-oscillator approximation is adopted for the vibrational motion in the present work. Approximation methods are introduced which render the numerical evaluation of the sum over paths feasible for up to ∼10 3 elementary time slices. The theory is numerically realized for simple but nontrivial models representing the 2 Π g d-wave shape resonance in e - +N 2 collisions and the 2 Σ u + p-wave shape resonance in e - +H 2 collisions, respectively. The accuracy of the path-integral results is assessed by comparison with exact numerical reference data for these models. The essential virtue of the path-integral approach is the fact that the computational effort scales at most linearly with the number of vibrational degrees of freedom. The path-integral method is thus well suited to treat electron collisions with polyatomic molecules and molecular aggregates
Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Knepley, Matthew G
2011-09-28
We analyze the mathematically rigorous BIBEE (boundary-integral based electrostatics estimation) approximation of the mixed-dielectric continuum model of molecular electrostatics, using the analytically solvable case of a spherical solute containing an arbitrary charge distribution. Our analysis, which builds on Kirkwood's solution using spherical harmonics, clarifies important aspects of the approximation and its relationship to generalized Born models. First, our results suggest a new perspective for analyzing fast electrostatic models: the separation of variables between material properties (the dielectric constants) and geometry (the solute dielectric boundary and charge distribution). Second, we find that the eigenfunctions of the reaction-potential operator are exactly preserved in the BIBEE model for the sphere, which supports the use of this approximation for analyzing charge-charge interactions in molecular binding. Third, a comparison of BIBEE to the recent GBε theory suggests a modified BIBEE model capable of predicting electrostatic solvation free energies to within 4% of a full numerical Poisson calculation. This modified model leads to a projection-framework understanding of BIBEE and suggests opportunities for future improvements. © 2011 American Institute of Physics
Comparing wall modeled LES and prescribed boundary layer approach in infinite wind farm simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sarlak, Hamid; Mikkelsen, Robert; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2015-01-01
be imposed to study the wake and dynamics of vortices. The methodology is used for simulation of interactions of an infinitely long wind farm with the neutral ABL. Flow statistics are compared with the WMLES computations in terms of mean velocity as well as higher order statistical moments. The results......This paper aims at presenting a simple and computationally fast method for simulation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and comparing the results with the commonly used wall-modelled Large Eddy Simulation (WMLES). The simple method, called Prescribed Mean Shear and Turbulence (PMST) hereafter......, is based on imposing body forces over the whole domain to maintain a desired unsteady ow, where the ground is modeled as a slip-free boundary which in return hampers the need for grid refinement and/or wall modeling close to the solid walls. Another strength of this method besides being computationally...
A purely nonlinear route to transition approaching the edge of chaos in a boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cherubini, S; De Palma, P; Robinet, J-Ch; Bottaro, A
2012-01-01
The understanding of transition in shear flows has recently progressed along new paradigms based on the central role of coherent flow structures and their nonlinear interactions. We follow such paradigms to identify, by means of a nonlinear optimization of the energy growth at short time, the initial perturbation which most easily induces transition in a boundary layer. Moreover, a bisection procedure has been used to identify localized flow structures living on the edge of chaos, found to be populated by hairpin vortices and streaks. Such an edge structure appears to act as a relative attractor for the trajectory of the laminar base state perturbed by the initial finite-amplitude disturbances, mediating the route to turbulence of the flow, via the triggering of a regeneration cycle of Λ and hairpin structures at different space and time scales. These findings introduce a new, purely nonlinear scenario of transition in a boundary-layer flow. (paper)
Pressure and tension waves from bubble collapse near a solid boundary: A numerical approach.
Lechner, Christiane; Koch, Max; Lauterborn, Werner; Mettin, Robert
2017-12-01
The acoustic waves being generated during the motion of a bubble in water near a solid boundary are calculated numerically. The open source package OpenFOAM is used for solving the Navier-Stokes equation and extended to include nonlinear acoustic wave effects via the Tait equation for water. A bubble model with a small amount of gas is chosen, the gas obeying an adiabatic law. A bubble starting from a small size with high internal pressure near a flat, solid boundary is studied. The sequence of events from bubble growth via axial microjet formation, jet impact, annular nanojet formation, torus-bubble collapse, and bubble rebound to second collapse is described. The different pressure and tension waves with their propagation properties are demonstrated.
A nearest-neighbour discretisation of the regularized stokeslet boundary integral equation
Smith, David J.
2018-04-01
The method of regularized stokeslets is extensively used in biological fluid dynamics due to its conceptual simplicity and meshlessness. This simplicity carries a degree of cost in computational expense and accuracy because the number of degrees of freedom used to discretise the unknown surface traction is generally significantly higher than that required by boundary element methods. We describe a meshless method based on nearest-neighbour interpolation that significantly reduces the number of degrees of freedom required to discretise the unknown traction, increasing the range of problems that can be practically solved, without excessively complicating the task of the modeller. The nearest-neighbour technique is tested against the classical problem of rigid body motion of a sphere immersed in very viscous fluid, then applied to the more complex biophysical problem of calculating the rotational diffusion timescales of a macromolecular structure modelled by three closely-spaced non-slender rods. A heuristic for finding the required density of force and quadrature points by numerical refinement is suggested. Matlab/GNU Octave code for the key steps of the algorithm is provided, which predominantly use basic linear algebra operations, with a full implementation being provided on github. Compared with the standard Nyström discretisation, more accurate and substantially more efficient results can be obtained by de-refining the force discretisation relative to the quadrature discretisation: a cost reduction of over 10 times with improved accuracy is observed. This improvement comes at minimal additional technical complexity. Future avenues to develop the algorithm are then discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hudson, S.R.; Monticello, D.A.; Reiman, A.H.; Strickler, D.J.; Hirshman, S.P.; Ku, L-P; Lazarus, E.; Brooks, A.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Boozer, A.H.; Fu, G-Y.; Neilson, G.H.
2003-01-01
For the (non-axisymmetric) stellarator class of plasma confinement devices to be feasible candidates for fusion power stations it is essential that, to a good approximation, the magnetic field lines lie on nested flux surfaces; however, the inherent lack of a continuous symmetry implies that magnetic islands responsible for breaking the smooth topology of the flux surfaces are guaranteed to exist. Thus, the suppression of magnetic islands is a critical issue for stellarator design, particularly for small aspect ratio devices. Pfirsch-Schluter currents, diamagnetic currents, and resonant coil fields contribute to the formation of magnetic islands, and the challenge is to design the plasma and coils such that these effects cancel. Magnetic islands in free-boundary high-pressure full-current stellarator magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are suppressed using a procedure based on the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver [Reiman and Greenside, Comp. Phys. Comm. 43 (1986) 157] which iterate s the equilibrium equations to obtain the plasma equilibrium. At each iteration, changes to a Fourier representation of the coil geometry are made to cancel resonant fields produced by the plasma. The changes are constrained to preserve certain measures of engineering acceptability and to preserve the stability of ideal kink modes. As the iterations continue, the coil geometry and the plasma simultaneously converge to an equilibrium in which the island content is negligible, the plasma is stable to ideal kink modes, and the coils satisfy engineering constraints. The method is applied to a candidate plasma and coil design for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment [Reiman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8 (May 2001) 2083
Self-Trail, J. M.; Robinson, M. M.; Edwards, L. E.; Powars, D. S.; Wandless, G. A.; Willard, D. A.
2013-12-01
An exceptional Paleocene-Eocene boundary section occurs in a cluster of six short (color from gray to alternating gray and pink also occurs within the CIE transition. These alternating changes in color coincide with cyclic peaks in the carbon isotope and percent calcium carbonate curves, where gray color corresponds to a positive shift in carbon isotope values and to a corresponding increase in percent benthic and planktic foraminifera. The upper third of the Marlboro Clay is barren of all calcareous microfossil material, although the presence of foraminiferal molds and linings proves that deposition occurred in a marine environment. Co-occurrence of the dinoflagellates Apectodinium augustum and Phthanoperidinium crenulatum at the top of the Marlboro Clay suggests that the Marlboro Clay at Mattawoman Creek is truncated. This is corroborated by the absence in the Marlboro of specimens of the calcareous nannofossil Rhomboaster-Discoaster assemblage, which is restricted to early Eocene Zone NP9b. Based on planktic/benthic foraminifera ratios, deposition of sediments at Mattawoman Creek occurred predominantly in an inner neritic environment, at water depths between 25-50 m. Occasional deepening to approximately 75m (middle neritic environment) occurred in the early Eocene, as represented by the basal Marlboro Clay. The planktic/benthic ratio, however, could also be affected by surface productivity and/or river runoff. The gradual shift up-section in core color from gray to alternating gray and red, to dark red, coupled with dissolution of calcareous microfossil assemblages, is possibly secondary and may represent lysocline shoaling in a nearshore environment. This would suggest that lysocline shoaling continued after the CIE and well into the early Eocene.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hudson, S.R.; Monticello, D.A.; Reiman, A.H.
2003-01-01
For the (non-axisymmetric) stellarator class of plasma confinement devices to be feasible candidates for fusion power stations it is essential that, to a good approximation, the magnetic field lines lie on nested flux surfaces; however, the inherent lack of a continuous symmetry implies that magnetic islands responsible for breaking the smooth topology of the flux surfaces are guaranteed to exist. Thus, the suppression of magnetic islands is a critical issue for stellarator design, particularly for small aspect ratio devices. Pfirsch-Schlueter currents, diamagnetic currents and resonant coil fields contribute to the formation of magnetic islands, and the challenge is to design the plasma and coils such that these effects cancel. Magnetic islands in free-boundary high-pressure full-current stellarator magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are suppressed using a procedure based on the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver (Reiman and Greenside 1986 Comput. Phys. Commun. 43 157) which iterates the equilibrium equations to obtain the plasma equilibrium. At each iteration, changes to a Fourier representation of the coil geometry are made to cancel resonant fields produced by the plasma. The changes are constrained to preserve certain measures of engineering acceptability and to preserve the stability of ideal kink modes. As the iterations continue, the coil geometry and the plasma simultaneously converge to an equilibrium in which the island content is negligible, the plasma is stable to ideal kink modes, and the coils satisfy engineering constraints. The method is applied to a candidate plasma and coil design for the National Compact Stellarator eXperiment (Reiman et al 2001 Phys. Plasma 8 2083). (author)
Babenko’s Approach to Abel’s Integral Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chenkuan Li
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate the following Abel’s integral equation of the second kind: y ( t + λ Γ ( α ∫ 0 t ( t − τ α − 1 y ( τ d τ = f ( t , ( t > 0 and its variants by fractional calculus. Applying Babenko’s approach and fractional integrals, we provide a general method for solving Abel’s integral equation and others with a demonstration of different types of examples by showing convergence of series. In particular, we extend this equation to a distributional space for any arbitrary α ∈ R by fractional operations of generalized functions for the first time and obtain several new and interesting results that cannot be realized in the classical sense or by the Laplace transform.
Drugs of Abuse and Addiction: An integrated approach to teaching.
Miller, Lindsey N; Mercer, Susan L
2017-05-01
To describe the design, implementation, and student perceptions of a Drugs of Abuse and Addiction elective course utilizing an integrated teaching model. Third-year pharmacy students enrolled in the two credit hour elective. Teaching methodology included didactic lecture, journal club, simulated addiction assignment with reflection, debates, external speakers, site visit to a residential drug court program and research paper with presentation. A course objective survey was administered upon course completion. All students strongly agreed that having science- and clinical-based faculty members develop and deliver course content was beneficial. Additionally, all students agree to strongly agree that their research project helped them integrate and comprehend the science and practice surrounding drugs of abuse and addiction. Students enjoyed an integrated teaching approach and multiple teaching methodologies leading to increased engagement and enhancement of student learning. Course enrollment was beneficial for personalized learning, but limited student perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Integrated Approach to the Accident Evaluation for Advanced LWRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oriolo, F.; Paci, S.
1998-01-01
The present paper discusses some relevant phenomena occurring in advanced LWRs during postulated accident scenarios. In particular, the operation of ESF is the starting point for analysis of those phenomena that cause the mutual influence between PS and containment in these plants. As a consequence, it is highlighted as accident analyses which treat PS and containment phenomena completely separated may be not adequate when applied to innovate reactors. Exemplified thermal-hydraulic analysis are presented for AP600 and SBWR, using the FUMO integrated model, for highlight accident evolution taking into account these interactions. The architecture of this integrated code is presented highlighting the importance of an integrated approach to the safety analysis in innovative reactors. (author)
Systems Approaches: A Global and Historical Perspective on Integrative Medicine
2012-01-01
The globalization of healing systems is a dance of cultural awareness and cultural dominance that has arisen throughout history. With the development of greater communication and interest in whole-systems approaches to healing, the opportunity for the development of a global perspective on healing has emerged with new life force. The birth of integrative holistic healing systems in the West, such as naturopathic, homeopathic, anthroposophic, integral and functional medicine, and others, echoes the ocean of wisdom present in traditional healing systems, such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda. In working to integrate the lessons from these systems, we see the inextricable link between man and the natural world, we work to understand the root cause of disease, we focus on the whole person to return balance, and we use empiric observation in large populations over time to grasp the interrelationships inherent in the whole-systems view of illness and wellness. PMID:24278794
Integrated Transport Planning Framework Involving Combined Utility Regret Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Yang; Monzon, Andres; Di Ciommo, Floridea
2014-01-01
Sustainable transport planning requires an integrated approach involving strategic planning, impact analysis, and multicriteria evaluation. This study aimed at relaxing the utility-based decision-making assumption by newly embedding anticipated-regret and combined utility regret decision mechanisms...... in a framework for integrated transport planning. The framework consisted of a two-round Delphi survey, integrated land use and transport model for Madrid, and multicriteria analysis. Results show that (a) the regret-based ranking has a similar mean but larger variance than the utility-based ranking does, (b......) the least-regret scenario forms a compromise between the desired and the expected scenarios, (c) the least-regret scenario can lead to higher user benefits in the short term and lower user benefits in the long term, (d) the utility-based, the regret-based, and the combined utility- and regret...
RISK MANAGEMENT: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO RISK MANAGEMENT AND ASSESSMENT
Szabo Alina
2012-01-01
Purpose: The objective of this paper is to offer an overview over risk management cycle by focusing on prioritization and treatment, in order to ensure an integrated approach to risk management and assessment, and establish the â€˜top 8-12â€™ risks report within the organization. The interface with Internal Audit is ensured by the implementation of the scoring method to prioritize risks collected from previous generated risk report. Methodology/approach: Using evidence from other research in ...
Flexible Web services integration: a novel personalised social approach
Metrouh, Abdelmalek; Mokhati, Farid
2018-05-01
Dynamic composition or integration remains one of the key objectives of Web services technology. This paper aims to propose an innovative approach of dynamic Web services composition based on functional and non-functional attributes and individual preferences. In this approach, social networks of Web services are used to maintain interactions between Web services in order to select and compose Web services that are more tightly related to user's preferences. We use the concept of Web services community in a social network of Web services to reduce considerably their search space. These communities are created by the direct involvement of Web services providers.
A manufacturable process integration approach for graphene devices
Vaziri, Sam; Lupina, Grzegorz; Paussa, Alan; Smith, Anderson D.; Henkel, Christoph; Lippert, Gunther; Dabrowski, Jarek; Mehr, Wolfgang; Östling, Mikael; Lemme, Max C.
2013-06-01
In this work, we propose an integration approach for double gate graphene field effect transistors. The approach includes a number of process steps that are key for future integration of graphene in microelectronics: bottom gates with ultra-thin (2 nm) high-quality thermally grown SiO2 dielectrics, shallow trench isolation between devices and atomic layer deposited Al2O3 top gate dielectrics. The complete process flow is demonstrated with fully functional GFET transistors and can be extended to wafer scale processing. We assess, through simulation, the effects of the quantum capacitance and band bending in the silicon substrate on the effective electric fields in the top and bottom gate oxide. The proposed process technology is suitable for other graphene-based devices such as graphene-based hot electron transistors and photodetectors.
Unified path integral approach to theories of diffusion-influenced reactions
Prüstel, Thorsten; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin
2017-08-01
Building on mathematical similarities between quantum mechanics and theories of diffusion-influenced reactions, we develop a general approach for computational modeling of diffusion-influenced reactions that is capable of capturing not only the classical Smoluchowski picture but also alternative theories, as is here exemplified by a volume reactivity model. In particular, we prove the path decomposition expansion of various Green's functions describing the irreversible and reversible reaction of an isolated pair of molecules. To this end, we exploit a connection between boundary value and interaction potential problems with δ - and δ'-function perturbation. We employ a known path-integral-based summation of a perturbation series to derive a number of exact identities relating propagators and survival probabilities satisfying different boundary conditions in a unified and systematic manner. Furthermore, we show how the path decomposition expansion represents the propagator as a product of three factors in the Laplace domain that correspond to quantities figuring prominently in stochastic spatially resolved simulation algorithms. This analysis will thus be useful for the interpretation of current and the design of future algorithms. Finally, we discuss the relation between the general approach and the theory of Brownian functionals and calculate the mean residence time for the case of irreversible and reversible reactions.
The integrated approach to teaching programming in secondary school
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martynyuk A.A.
2018-02-01
Full Text Available the article considers an integrated approach to teaching programming with the use of technologies of computer modeling and 3D-graphics, allowing to improve the quality of education. It is shown that this method will allow you to systematize knowledge, improve the level of motivation through the inclusion of relevant technologies, to develop skills of project activities, to strengthen interdisciplinary connections, and promotes professional and personal self-determination of students of secondary school.
Graph-based sequence annotation using a data integration approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pesch Robert
2008-06-01
Full Text Available The automated annotation of data from high throughput sequencing and genomics experiments is a significant challenge for bioinformatics. Most current approaches rely on sequential pipelines of gene finding and gene function prediction methods that annotate a gene with information from different reference data sources. Each function prediction method contributes evidence supporting a functional assignment. Such approaches generally ignore the links between the information in the reference datasets. These links, however, are valuable for assessing the plausibility of a function assignment and can be used to evaluate the confidence in a prediction. We are working towards a novel annotation system that uses the network of information supporting the function assignment to enrich the annotation process for use by expert curators and predicting the function of previously unannotated genes. In this paper we describe our success in the first stages of this development. We present the data integration steps that are needed to create the core database of integrated reference databases (UniProt, PFAM, PDB, GO and the pathway database Ara- Cyc which has been established in the ONDEX data integration system. We also present a comparison between different methods for integration of GO terms as part of the function assignment pipeline and discuss the consequences of this analysis for improving the accuracy of gene function annotation.
Workplace mental health: developing an integrated intervention approach
2014-01-01
Background Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. Discussion To realise the greatest population mental health benefits, workplace mental health intervention needs to comprehensively 1) protect mental health by reducing work–related risk factors for mental health problems; 2) promote mental health by developing the positive aspects of work as well as worker strengths and positive capacities; and 3) address mental health problems among working people regardless of cause. We outline the evidence supporting such an integrated intervention approach and consider the research agenda and policy developments needed to move towards this goal, and propose the notion of integrated workplace mental health literacy. Summary An integrated approach to workplace mental health combines the strengths of medicine, public health, and psychology, and has the potential to optimise both the prevention and management of mental health problems in the workplace. PMID:24884425
[Integrative approach in the psychotherapy of borderline personality disorder].
Kuritárné Szabó, Ildikó
2012-01-01
In the last 20 years six psychotherapy methods have been developed specifically for borderline personality disorder. Solid RCT evidences suggests the efficacy of all the methods. Roughly equivalent improvement was obtained from the different types of psychotherapies. Today we have reached a new phase of the borderline "psychotherapy boom", the integrative approach. According to the integrative treatment advocates we should not choose among these effective treatments but we can incorporate in the therapy all the components that work. The integrative approach uses general factors common to all effective therapies, combined with specific treatment techniques taken from different therapies in order to treat the given patient's psychopathology. These common factors are: coherent framework; attention to strategies for building strong positive alliance and maintaining patient motivation; creating a safe and structured therapeutic environment; clear treatment frame; transparency of the goals and roles; focus upon presenting problems; higher level therapeutic activity; here-and-now focus; and facilitating self-reflection. Treatment focuses on change while maintaining a validating and supportive stance. General strategies can be supplemented by more specific techniques such as cognitive-behavioral interventions for reducing maladaptive behavior, training for developing emotion regulation skills and interpersonal skills coming from dialectical behavior therapy. Methods drawn from psychodynamic approaches can be used for the modification of underlying interpersonal cognitive-emotional schemas.
A Hydro-Economic Approach to Representing Water Resources Impacts in Integrated Assessment Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirshen, Paul H.; Strzepek, Kenneth, M.
2004-01-14
Grant Number DE-FG02-98ER62665 Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Abstract Many Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) divide the world into a small number of highly aggregated regions. Non-OECD countries are aggregated geographically into continental and multiple-continental regions or economically by development level. Current research suggests that these large scale aggregations cannot accurately represent potential water resources-related climate change impacts. In addition, IAMs do not explicitly model the flow regulation impacts of reservoir and ground water systems, the economics of water supply, or the demand for water in economic activities. Using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) model of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) as a case study, this research implemented a set of methodologies to provide accurate representation of water resource climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models. There were also detailed examinations of key issues related to aggregated modeling including: modeling water consumption versus water withdrawals; ground and surface water interactions; development of reservoir cost curves; modeling of surface areas of aggregated reservoirs for estimating evaporation losses; and evaluating the importance of spatial scale in river basin modeling. The major findings include: - Continental or national or even large scale river basin aggregation of water supplies and demands do not accurately capture the impacts of climate change in the water and agricultural sector in IAMs. - Fortunately, there now exist gridden approaches (0.5 X 0.5 degrees) to model streamflows in a global analysis. The gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with national boundaries. This combined with GIS tools, high speed computers, and the growing availability of socio-economic gridded data bases allows assignment of
Radosevic, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Wijsman, A.J.T.M.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Lain, M.
2004-01-01
Advanced architectural developments require an integrated approach to design where simulation tools available today deal. only with a small subset of the overall problem. The aim of this study is to enable run time exchange of necessary data at suitable frequency between different simulation
An integrated approach for integrated intelligent instrumentation and control system (I3CS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, C.H.; Kim, J.T.; Kwon, K.C.
1997-01-01
Nuclear power plants to guarantee the safety of public should be designed to reduce the operator intervention resulting in operating human errors, identify the process states in transients, and aid to make a decision of their tasks and guide operator actions. For the sake of this purpose, MMIS(MAN-Machine Interface System) in NPPs should be the integrated top-down approach tightly focused on the function-based task analysis including an advanced digital technology, an operator support function, and so on. The advanced I and C research team in KAERI has embarked on developing an Integrated Intelligent Instrumentation and Control System (I 3 CS) for Korea's next generation nuclear power plants. I 3 CS bases the integrated top-down approach on the function-based task analysis, modern digital technology, standardization and simplification, availability and reliability, and protection of investment. (author). 4 refs, 6 figs
An integrated approach for integrated intelligent instrumentation and control system (I{sup 3}CS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jung, C H; Kim, J T; Kwon, K C [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Yusong, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-07-01
Nuclear power plants to guarantee the safety of public should be designed to reduce the operator intervention resulting in operating human errors, identify the process states in transients, and aid to make a decision of their tasks and guide operator actions. For the sake of this purpose, MMIS(MAN-Machine Interface System) in NPPs should be the integrated top-down approach tightly focused on the function-based task analysis including an advanced digital technology, an operator support function, and so on. The advanced I and C research team in KAERI has embarked on developing an Integrated Intelligent Instrumentation and Control System (I{sup 3}CS) for Korea`s next generation nuclear power plants. I{sup 3}CS bases the integrated top-down approach on the function-based task analysis, modern digital technology, standardization and simplification, availability and reliability, and protection of investment. (author). 4 refs, 6 figs.
Study of pollutant transport in surface boundary layer by generalized integral transform technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerrero, Jesus S.P.; Heilbron Filho, Paulo F.L.; Pimentel, Luiz C.G.; Cataldi, Marcio
2001-01-01
A theoretical study was developed to obtain solutions of the atmospheric diffusion equation for various point source, considering radioactive decay and axial diffusion, under neutral atmospheric conditions. It was used an algebraic turbulence model available in the literature, based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, for the representation of the turbulent transport in the vertical direction, in the longitudinal directions was considered a constant mass eddy diffusivity . The bi-dimensional transient partial differential equation, representative of the physical phenomena, was transformed into a coupled one-dimensional transient equation system by applying the Generalized Integral Transform Technique. The coupled system was solved numerically using a subroutine based in the lines method. In order to evaluate the computational algorithm were analyzed some representative physical situations. (author)
Time-Dependent Heat Conduction Problems Solved by an Integral-Equation Approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oberaigner, E.R.; Leindl, M.; Antretter, T.
2010-01-01
Full text: A classical task of mathematical physics is the formulation and solution of a time dependent thermoelastic problem. In this work we develop an algorithm for solving the time-dependent heat conduction equation c p ρ∂ t T-kT, ii =0 in an analytical, exact fashion for a two-component domain. By the Green's function approach the formal solution of the problem is obtained. As an intermediate result an integral-equation for the temperature history at the domain interface is formulated which can be solved analytically. This method is applied to a classical engineering problem, i.e. to a special case of a Stefan-Problem. The Green's function approach in conjunction with the integral-equation method is very useful in cases were strong discontinuities or jumps occur. The initial conditions and the system parameters of the investigated problem give rise to two jumps in the temperature field. Purely numerical solutions are obtained by using the FEM (finite element method) and the FDM (finite difference method) and compared with the analytical approach. At the domain boundary the analytical solution and the FEM-solution are in good agreement, but the FDM results show a signicant smearing effect. (author)
Thin-film superconducting rings in the critical state: the mixed boundary value approach
Brambilla, Roberto; Grilli, Francesco
2015-02-01
In this paper, we describe the critical state of a thin superconducting ring (and of a perfectly conducting ring as a limiting case) as a mixed boundary value problem. The disc is characterized by a three-part boundary division of the positive real axis, so this work is an extension of the procedure used in a previous work of ours for describing superconducting discs and strips, which are characterized by a two-part boundary division of the real axis. Here, we present the mathematical tools to solve this kind of problems—the Erdélyi-Kober operators—in a frame that can be immediately used. Contrary to the two-part problems considered in our previous work, three-part problems do not generally have analytical solutions and the numerical work takes on a significant heaviness. Nevertheless, this work is remunerated by three clear advantages: firstly, all the cases are afforded in the same way, without the necessity of any brilliant invention or ability; secondly, in the case of superconducting rings, the penetration of the magnetic field in the internal/external rims is a result of the method itself and does not have to be imposed, as it is commonly done with other methods presented in the literature; thirdly, the method can be extended to investigate even more complex cases (four-part problems). In this paper, we consider the cases of rings in uniform field and with transport current, with or without flux trapping in the hole and the case without net current, corresponding to a cut ring (washer), as used in some SQUID applications.
Mechanical Integrity of Canisters Using a Fracture Mechanics Approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koyama, Tomofumi; Guoxiang Zhang; Lanru Jing [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Land and Water Resources Engineering
2006-07-15
This report presents the methods and results of a research project about numerical modeling of mechanical integrity of cast-iron canisters for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden, using combined boundary element (BEM) and finite element (FEM) methods. The objectives of the project are: 1) to investigate the possibility of initiation and growth of fractures in the cast-iron canisters under the mechanical loading conditions defined in the premises of canister design by Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB); 2) to investigate the maximum bearing capacity of the cast iron canisters under uniformly distributed and gradually increasing boundary pressure until plastic failure. Achievement of the two objectives may provide some quantitative evidence for the mechanical integrity and overall safety of the cast-iron canisters that are needed for the final safety assessment of the geological repository of the radioactive waste repository in Sweden. The geometrical dimension, distribution and magnitudes of loads and Material properties of the canisters and possible fractures were provided by the latest investigations of SKB. The results of the BEM simulations, using the commercial code BEASY, indicate that under the currently defined loading conditions the possibility of initiation of new fractures or growth of existing fractures (defects) are very small, due to the reasons that: 1) the canisters are under mainly compressive stresses; 2) the induced tensile stress regions are too small in both dimension and magnitude to create new fractures or to induce growth of existing fractures, besides the fact that the toughness of the fractures in the cast iron canisters are much higher that the stress intensity factors in the fracture tips. The results of the FEM simulation show a approximately 75 MPa maximum pressure beyond which plastic collapse of the cast-iron canisters may occur, using an elastoplastic Material model. This figure is smaller compared
A pseudospectra-based approach to non-normal stability of embedded boundary methods
Rapaka, Narsimha; Samtaney, Ravi
2017-11-01
We present non-normal linear stability of embedded boundary (EB) methods employing pseudospectra and resolvent norms. Stability of the discrete linear wave equation is characterized in terms of the normalized distance of the EB to the nearest ghost node (α) in one and two dimensions. An important objective is that the CFL condition based on the Cartesian grid spacing remains unaffected by the EB. We consider various discretization methods including both central and upwind-biased schemes. Stability is guaranteed when α Funds under Award No. URF/1/1394-01.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Janssen, Hans; Blocken, Bert; Roels, Staf
2007-01-01
While the numerical simulation of moisture transfer inside building components is currently undergoing standardisation, the modelling of the atmospheric boundary conditions has received far less attention. This article analyses the modelling of the wind-driven-rain load on building facades...... though: the full variability with the perpendicular wind speed and horizontal rain intensity should be preserved, where feasible, for improved estimations of the moisture transfer in building components. In the concluding section, it is moreover shown that the dependence of the surface moisture transfer...
How can design approaches be integrated into entrepreneurship education?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Færgemann, Helle Meibom; Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Robinson, Sarah
reflection about the intention and how the elements fit with the entrepreneurship field. The proposed process model presented (Fig 3) primarily has potential to strengthen the awareness of the need to alternate between divergence and convergence many times through an entrepreneurial process. Apart from......Questions we care about: When educating students through entrepreneurship we are interested in how can design approaches and processes be integrated into Entrepreneurship Education and what effect does this have on entrepreneurial learning? Approach: This is a conceptual paper which draws on data...... from a classic entrepreneurship course (mix of for- and through-approach) as well as a classic design course. Furthermore data from the iterative development of an entrepreneurship course with substantial design elements is a key data source. Overall, products and processes in the course have been...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werby, M.F.; Broadhead, M.K.; Strayer, M.R.; Bottcher, C.
1992-01-01
The Helmholtz-Poincarf Wave Equation (H-PWE) arises in many areas of classical wave scattering theory. In particular it can be found for the cases of acoustical scattering from submerged bounded objects and electromagnetic scattering from objects. The extended boundary integral equations (EBIE) method is derived from considering both the exterior and interior solutions of the H-PWECs. This coupled set of expressions has the advantage of not only offering a prescription for obtaining a solution for the exterior scattering problem, but it also obviates the problem of irregular values corresponding to fictitious interior eigenvalues. Once the coupled equations are derived, they can be obtained in matrix form by expanding all relevant terms in partial wave expansions, including a bi-orthogonal expansion of the Green's function. However some freedom in the choice of the surface expansion is available since the unknown surface quantities may be expanded in a variety of ways so long as closure is obtained. Out of many possible choices, we develop an optimal method to obtain such expansions which is based on the optimum eigenfunctions related to the surface of the object. In effect, we convert part of the problem (that associated with the Fredholms integral equation of the first kind) an eigenvalue problem of a related Hermitian operator. The methodology will be explained in detail and examples will be presented
Barnett, Alex H.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Mahoney, J. Matthew
2015-09-01
We apply boundary integral equations for the first time to the two-dimensional scattering of time-harmonic waves from a smooth obstacle embedded in a continuously-graded unbounded medium. In the case we solve, the square of the wavenumber (refractive index) varies linearly in one coordinate, i.e. (Δ + E +x2) u (x1 ,x2) = 0 where E is a constant; this models quantum particles of fixed energy in a uniform gravitational field, and has broader applications to stratified media in acoustics, optics and seismology. We evaluate the fundamental solution efficiently with exponential accuracy via numerical saddle-point integration, using the truncated trapezoid rule with typically 102 nodes, with an effort that is independent of the frequency parameter E. By combining with a high-order Nyström quadrature, we are able to solve the scattering from obstacles 50 wavelengths across to 11 digits of accuracy in under a minute on a desktop or laptop.
When do letter features migrate? A boundary condition for feature-integration theory.
Butler, B E; Mewhort, D J; Browse, R A
1991-01-01
Feature-integration theory postulates that a lapse of attention will allow letter features to change position and to recombine as illusory conjunctions (Treisman & Paterson, 1984). To study such errors, we used a set of uppercase letters known to yield illusory conjunctions in each of three tasks. The first, a bar-probe task, showed whole-character mislocations but not errors based on feature migration and recombination. The second, a two-alternative forced-choice detection task, allowed subjects to focus on the presence or absence of subletter features and showed illusory conjunctions based on feature migration and recombination. The third was also a two-alternative forced-choice detection task, but we manipulated the subjects' knowledge of the shape of the stimuli: In the case-certain condition, the stimuli were always in uppercase, but in the case-uncertain condition, the stimuli could appear in either upper- or lowercase. Subjects in the case-certain condition produced illusory conjunctions based on feature recombination, whereas subjects in the case-uncertain condition did not. The results suggest that when subjects can view the stimuli as feature groups, letter features regroup as illusory conjunctions; when subjects encode the stimuli as letters, whole items may be mislocated, but subletter features are not. Thus, illusory conjunctions reflect the subject's processing strategy, rather than the architecture of the visual system.
Feng, Zhi-Gang; Michaelides, Efstathios; Mao, Shaolin
2011-11-01
The simulation of particulate flows for industrial applications often requires the use of a two-fluid model (TFM), where the solid particles are considered as a separate continuous phase. One of the underlining uncertainties in the use of aTFM in multiphase computations comes from the boundary condition of the solid phase. The no-slip condition at a solid boundary is not a valid assumption for the solid phase. Instead, several researchers advocate a slip condition as a more appropriate boundary condition. However, the question on the selection of an exact slip length or a slip velocity coefficient is still unanswered. In the present work we propose a multilevel simulation approach to compute the slip length that is applicable to a TFM. We investigate the motion of a number of particles near a vertical solid wall, while the particles are in fluidization using a direct numerical simulation (DNS); the positions and velocities of the particles are being tracked and analyzed at each time step. It is found that the time- and vertical-space averaged values of the particle velocities converge, yielding velocity profiles that can be used to deduce the particle slip length close to a solid wall. This work was supported by a grant from the DOE-NETL (DE-NT0008064) and by a grant from NSF (HRD-0932339).
RISK MANAGEMENT: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO RISK MANAGEMENT AND ASSESSMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szabo Alina
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this paper is to offer an overview over risk management cycle by focusing on prioritization and treatment, in order to ensure an integrated approach to risk management and assessment, and establish the â€˜top 8-12â€™ risks report within the organization. The interface with Internal Audit is ensured by the implementation of the scoring method to prioritize risks collected from previous generated risk report. Methodology/approach: Using evidence from other research in the area and the professional expertise, this article outlines an integrated approach to risk assessment and risk management reporting processes, by separating the risk in two main categories: strategic and operational risks. The focus is on risk prioritization and scoring; the final output will comprise a mix of strategic and operational (â€˜top 8-12â€™ risks, which should be used to establish the annual Internal Audit plan. Originality/value: By using an integrated approach to risk assessment and risk management will eliminate the need for a separate Internal Audit risk assessment over prevailing risks. It will reduce the level of risk assessment overlap by different functions (Tax, Treasury, Information System over the same risk categories as a single methodology, is used and will align timings of risk assessment exercises. The risk prioritization by usage of risk and control scoring criteria highlights the combination between financial and non-financial impact criteria allowing risks that do not naturally lend themselves to a financial amount to be also assessed consistently. It is emphasized the usage of score method to prioritize the risks included in the annual audit plan in order to increase accuracy and timelines.
Integrating cell biology and proteomic approaches in plants.
Takáč, Tomáš; Šamajová, Olga; Šamaj, Jozef
2017-10-03
Significant improvements of protein extraction, separation, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics nurtured advancements of proteomics during the past years. The usefulness of proteomics in the investigation of biological problems can be enhanced by integration with other experimental methods from cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology and other omics approaches including transcriptomics and metabolomics. This review aims to summarize current trends integrating cell biology and proteomics in plant science. Cell biology approaches are most frequently used in proteomic studies investigating subcellular and developmental proteomes, however, they were also employed in proteomic studies exploring abiotic and biotic stress responses, vesicular transport, cytoskeleton and protein posttranslational modifications. They are used either for detailed cellular or ultrastructural characterization of the object subjected to proteomic study, validation of proteomic results or to expand proteomic data. In this respect, a broad spectrum of methods is employed to support proteomic studies including ultrastructural electron microscopy studies, histochemical staining, immunochemical localization, in vivo imaging of fluorescently tagged proteins and visualization of protein-protein interactions. Thus, cell biological observations on fixed or living cell compartments, cells, tissues and organs are feasible, and in some cases fundamental for the validation and complementation of proteomic data. Validation of proteomic data by independent experimental methods requires development of new complementary approaches. Benefits of cell biology methods and techniques are not sufficiently highlighted in current proteomic studies. This encouraged us to review most popular cell biology methods used in proteomic studies and to evaluate their relevance and potential for proteomic data validation and enrichment of purely proteomic analyses. We also provide examples of
Auditory-Verbal Music Play Therapy: An Integrated Approach (AVMPT).
Mohammad Esmaeilzadeh, Sahar; Sharifi, Shahla; Tayarani Niknezhad, Hamid
2013-09-01
Hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with one or more parts of the ear or ears and causes children to have a delay in the language-learning process. Hearing loss affects children's lives and their development. Several approaches have been developed over recent decades to help hearing-impaired children develop language skills. Auditory-verbal therapy (AVT) is one such approach. Recently, researchers have found that music and play have a considerable effect on the communication skills of children, leading to the development of music therapy (MT) and play therapy (PT). There have been several studies which focus on the impact of music on hearing-impaired children. The aim of this article is to review studies conducted in AVT, MT, and PT and their efficacy in hearing-impaired children. Furthermore, the authors aim to introduce an integrated approach of AVT, MT, and PT which facilitates language and communication skills in hearing-impaired children. In this article we review studies of AVT, MT, and PT and their impact on hearing-impaired children. To achieve this goal, we searched databases and journals including Elsevier, Chor Teach, and Military Psychology, for example. We also used reliable websites such as American Choral Directors Association and Joint Committee on Infant Hearing websites. The websites were reviewed and key words in this article used to find appropriate references. Those articles which are related to ours in content were selected. VT, MT, and PT enhance children's communication and language skills from an early age. Each method has a meaningful impact on hearing loss, so by integrating them we have a comprehensive method in order to facilitate communication and language learning. To achieve this goal, the article offers methods and techniques to perform AVT and MT integrated with PT leading to an approach which offers all advantages of these three types of therapy.
Towards an integrated, multiple constraint approach. Assessing the regional carbon balance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruijt, B.; Dolman, A.J.; Lloyd, J.; Ehleringer, J.; Raupach, M.; Finnigan, J.
2001-01-01
Full carbon accounting for regions as a whole, considering all fluxes and transports, is ultimately the only real hope if we are to manage global CO2 emissions. Many methods exist to estimate parts of the carbon budget, but none is yet available to measure carbon fluxes directly at regional scales. Atmospheric Boundary-Layer budgeting methods do have this potential. In the winter of 2000, an international workshop was held in Gubbio, Italy, to discuss ways to advance from the pilot experiments that have been carried out on these methods. First, the meeting helped to advance the methodology and clarify its objectives, requirements and merits. But more importantly, the outcome of the meeting was that atmospheric budget methods should be part of an integrative approach, in which data and model results of very different kinds and from very different scales all provide constraints for estimating the net carbon exchange of a region. Several international projects are now operating to achieve this goal
A novel approach for quantifying the zero-plane displacement of rough-wall boundary layers
Ferreira, Manuel; Rodriguez-Lopez, Eduardo; Ganapathisubramani, Bharath; Aerodynamics; Flight Mechanics Team
2017-11-01
Indirect methods of wall shear stress (WSS) estimation are frequently used to characterise rough wall boundary-layer flows. The zero-plane displacement, hypothesised to be the vertical location where it acts, is often treated as a fitting parameter. However, it would be preferrable to measure both these quantities directly, especially for surfaces with large roughness elements where established scaling and similarity laws may not hold. In this talk we present a novel floating element balance that is able to measure not only the WSS but also the wall normal location at which it acts. While allowing compensation for mild static pressure gradients by means of a first-order analytical model. Its architecture is based on a parallel-shift linkage and it's fitted with custom built force transducers and a data acquisition system especially designed to achieve high Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNR). The smooth-wall boundary-layer flow is used as benchmark to assess the accuracy of this balance. The values of skin friction coefficient show an agreement with hot-wire anemometry to within 2 % at a local Reynolds number Reθ = 4 ×103 up to 104. A rough surface of regularly distributed large elements is used to investigate the ability to infer the zero-plane displacement.
Amiri Delouei, A.; Nazari, M.; Kayhani, M. H.; Kang, S. K.; Succi, S.
2016-04-01
In the current study, a direct-forcing immersed boundary-non-Newtonian lattice Boltzmann method (IB-NLBM) is developed to investigate the sedimentation and interaction of particles in shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. In the proposed IB-NLBM, the non-linear mechanics of non-Newtonian particulate flows is detected by combination of the most desirable features of immersed boundary and lattice Boltzmann methods. The noticeable roles of non-Newtonian behavior on particle motion, settling velocity and generalized Reynolds number are investigated by simulating benchmark problem of one-particle sedimentation under the same generalized Archimedes number. The effects of extra force due to added accelerated mass are analyzed on the particle motion which have a significant impact on shear-thinning fluids. For the first time, the phenomena of interaction among the particles, such as Drafting, Kissing, and Tumbling in non-Newtonian fluids are investigated by simulation of two-particle sedimentation and twelve-particle sedimentation. The results show that increasing the shear-thickening behavior of fluid leads to a significant increase in the kissing time. Moreover, the transverse position of particles for shear-thinning fluids during the tumbling interval is different from Newtonian and the shear-thickening fluids. The present non-Newtonian particulate study can be applied in several industrial and scientific applications, like the non-Newtonian sedimentation behavior of particles in food industrial and biological fluids.
Belt, Carol L.; Fuelberg, Henry E.
1984-01-01
The feasibility of using satellite derived thermal data to generate realistic synoptic scale winds within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is examined. Diagnostic modified Ekman wind equations from the Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) Boundary Layer Model are used to compute winds at seven levels within the PBL transition layer (50 m to 1600 m AGL). Satellite derived winds based on 62 predawn TIROS-N soundings are compared to similarly derived wind fields based on 39 AVE-SESAME II rawinsonde (RAOB) soundings taken 2 h later. Actual wind fields are also used as a basis for comparison. Qualitative and statistical comparisons show that the Ekman winds from both sources are in very close agreement, with an average vector correlation coefficient of 0.815. Best results are obtained at 300 m AGL. Satellite winds tend to be slightly weaker than their RAOB counterparts and exhibit a greater degree of cross-isobaric flow. The modified Ekman winds show a significant improvement over geostrophic values at levels nearest the surface.
Mahomed, Safia; Behrens, Kevin; Slabbert, Melodie; Sanne, Ian
2016-04-01
With biobank research on the increase and the history of exploitation in Africa, it has become necessary to manage the transfer of human tissues across national boundaries. There are many accepted templates of Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) that currently exist internationally. However, these templates do not address the specific concerns of South Africa and even of Africa as a continent. This article will examine three significantly important ethico-legal concepts that were deliberated and carefully adapted by a South African Institution to suit the transfer of Human Biological Materials (HBMs) and associated data for biobank research, namely: informed consent; benefit sharing arrangements; and ownership together with intellectual property rights in human tissues. The discussion includes an analysis of current practice; the ethico-legal challenges in the South African/African context; the decisions made with regard to how the related ethico-legal challenges were addressed in the MTA; and justifications for implementing these decisions. The processes considered could be of benefit to other developing world countries who consider it necessary to manage the transfer of HBMs across national boundaries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A path integral approach to the Hodgkin-Huxley model
Baravalle, Roman; Rosso, Osvaldo A.; Montani, Fernando
2017-11-01
To understand how single neurons process sensory information, it is necessary to develop suitable stochastic models to describe the response variability of the recorded spike trains. Spikes in a given neuron are produced by the synergistic action of sodium and potassium of the voltage-dependent channels that open or close the gates. Hodgkin and Huxley (HH) equations describe the ionic mechanisms underlying the initiation and propagation of action potentials, through a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that approximate the electrical characteristics of the excitable cell. Path integral provides an adequate approach to compute quantities such as transition probabilities, and any stochastic system can be expressed in terms of this methodology. We use the technique of path integrals to determine the analytical solution driven by a non-Gaussian colored noise when considering the HH equations as a stochastic system. The different neuronal dynamics are investigated by estimating the path integral solutions driven by a non-Gaussian colored noise q. More specifically we take into account the correlational structures of the complex neuronal signals not just by estimating the transition probability associated to the Gaussian approach of the stochastic HH equations, but instead considering much more subtle processes accounting for the non-Gaussian noise that could be induced by the surrounding neural network and by feedforward correlations. This allows us to investigate the underlying dynamics of the neural system when different scenarios of noise correlations are considered.
Optimal Integration of Intermittent Renewables: A System LCOE Stochastic Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlo Lucheroni
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We propose a system level approach to value the impact on costs of the integration of intermittent renewable generation in a power system, based on expected breakeven cost and breakeven cost risk. To do this, we carefully reconsider the definition of Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE when extended to non-dispatchable generation, by examining extra costs and gains originated by the costly management of random power injections. We are thus lead to define a ‘system LCOE’ as a system dependent LCOE that takes properly into account intermittent generation. In order to include breakeven cost risk we further extend this deterministic approach to a stochastic setting, by introducing a ‘stochastic system LCOE’. This extension allows us to discuss the optimal integration of intermittent renewables from a broad, system level point of view. This paper thus aims to provide power producers and policy makers with a new methodological scheme, still based on the LCOE but which updates this valuation technique to current energy system configurations characterized by a large share of non-dispatchable production. Quantifying and optimizing the impact of intermittent renewables integration on power system costs, risk and CO 2 emissions, the proposed methodology can be used as powerful tool of analysis for assessing environmental and energy policies.
An integrated approach to evaluate food antioxidant capacity.
Sun, T; Tanumihardjo, S A
2007-11-01
Many methods are available for determining food antioxidant capacity, which is an important topic in food and nutrition research and marketing. However, the results and inferences from different methods may vary substantially because each complex chemical reaction generates unique values. To get a complete and dynamic picture of the ranking of food antioxidant capacity, relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI), a hypothetical concept, is created from the perspective of statistics by integrating the antioxidant capacity values generated from different in vitro methods. RACI is the mean value of standard scores transformed from the initial data generated with different methods for each food item. By comparing the antioxidant capacity of 20 commonly consumed vegetables in the U.S. market that were measured with 7 chemical methods, we demonstrated that the RACI correlated strongly with each method. The significant correlation of RACI with an independent data set further confirmed that RACI is a valid tool to assess food antioxidant capacity. The key advantage of this integrated approach is that RACI is in a numerical scale with no units and has consistent agreement with chemical methods. Although it is a relative index and may not represent a specific antioxidant property of different food items, RACI provides a reasonably accurate rank of antioxidant capacity among foods. Therefore, it can be used as an integrated approach to evaluate food antioxidant capacity.
Sun, Daner; Looi, Chee-Kit
2018-01-01
This paper explores the crossover between formal learning and learning in informal spaces supported by mobile technology, and proposes design principles for educators to carry out a science curriculum, namely Boundary Activity-based Science Curriculum (BAbSC). The conceptualization of the boundary object, and the principles of boundary activity as…
Studying integrated health care systems with a structurationist approach
Demers, Louis; Arseneault, Stéphane; Couturier, Yves
2010-01-01
Introduction To implement an integrated health care system is not an easy task and to ensure its sustainability is yet more difficult. Aim Discuss how a structurationist approach can shed light on the stakes of these processes and guide the managers of such endeavours. Theory and method Structuration theory [1] has been used by numerous authors to cast new light on complex organizational phenomena. One of the central tenets of this theory is that social systems, such as integrated health care systems, are recurrent social practices across time-space and are characterized by structural properties which simultaneously constrain and enable the constitutive social actors who reproduce and transform the system through their practices. We will illustrate our theoretical standpoint with empirical material gathered during the study of an integrated health care system for the frail elderly in Quebec, Canada. This system has been implemented in 1997 and is still working well in 2010. Results and conclusion To implement an integrated health care system that is both effective and sustainable, its managers must shrewdly allow for the existing system and progressively introduce changes in the way managers and practitioners at work in the system view their role and act on a daily basis.
A boundary PDE feedback control approach for the stabilization of mortgage price dynamics
Rigatos, G.; Siano, P.; Sarno, D.
2017-11-01
Several transactions taking place in financial markets are dependent on the pricing of mortgages (loans for the purchase of residences, land or farms). In this article, a method for stabilization of mortgage price dynamics is developed. It is considered that mortgage prices follow a PDE model which is equivalent to a multi-asset Black-Scholes PDE. Actually it is a diffusion process evolving in a 2D assets space, where the first asset is the house price and the second asset is the interest rate. By applying semi-discretization and a finite differences scheme this multi-asset PDE is transformed into a state-space model consisting of ordinary nonlinear differential equations. For the local subsystems, into which the mortgage PDE is decomposed, it becomes possible to apply boundary-based feedback control. The controller design proceeds by showing that the state-space model of the mortgage price PDE stands for a differentially flat system. Next, for each subsystem which is related to a nonlinear ODE, a virtual control input is computed, that can invert the subsystem's dynamics and can eliminate the subsystem's tracking error. From the last row of the state-space description, the control input (boundary condition) that is actually applied to the multi-factor mortgage price PDE system is found. This control input contains recursively all virtual control inputs which were computed for the individual ODE subsystems associated with the previous rows of the state-space equation. Thus, by tracing the rows of the state-space model backwards, at each iteration of the control algorithm, one can finally obtain the control input that should be applied to the mortgage price PDE system so as to assure that all its state variables will converge to the desirable setpoints. By showing the feasibility of such a control method it is also proven that through selected modification of the PDE boundary conditions the price of the mortgage can be made to converge and stabilize at specific
Integrating availability and maintenance objectives in plant design. EDF approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degrave, Claude; Martin-Onraet, Michel
1995-01-01
Energy self sufficiency is a major strategic necessity for France. Regarding the fossil fuels power, competitiveness of nuclear energy is a key goal for Electricite de France. Accordingly, for future nuclear power plants to remain competitive, it is necessary to maintain the kWh production costs of the future units at a level close to those of the latest units under construction (N4 series), while raising the safety level. EDF therefore decided to implement an analytical and systematic process for study of the new projects to optimize the design by integration of the maintenance (durations, costs), availability and radiation exposure goals from the related operating experience. This approach, CIDEM (French acronym for Design Integrating Availability, operating Experience and Maintenance) aims at a single goal: to minimize the kWh production cost incorporating investment, operation and fuel costs, allowing for the operating experience from French and foreign units. The implementation of the CIDEM process constitutes for EDF a new approach to the study of the new Nuclear Power Plant projects. The competitivity of nuclear energy greatly depends on the success of such an approach. The studies conducted in the availability field have already highlighted a number of critical points and have made it possible to define the corresponding goal allocations and to establish a first series of structuring specifications for the project. (J.P.N.)
Ray-based approach to integrated 3D visual communication
Naemura, Takeshi; Harashima, Hiroshi
2001-02-01
For a high sense of reality in the next-generation communications, it is very important to realize three-dimensional (3D) spatial media, instead of existing 2D image media. In order to comprehensively deal with a variety of 3D visual data formats, the authors first introduce the concept of "Integrated 3D Visual Communication," which reflects the necessity of developing a neutral representation method independent of input/output systems. Then, the following discussions are concentrated on the ray-based approach to this concept, in which any visual sensation is considered to be derived from a set of light rays. This approach is a simple and straightforward to the problem of how to represent 3D space, which is an issue shared by various fields including 3D image communications, computer graphics, and virtual reality. This paper mainly presents the several developments in this approach, including some efficient methods of representing ray data, a real-time video-based rendering system, an interactive rendering system based on the integral photography, a concept of virtual object surface for the compression of tremendous amount of data, and a light ray capturing system using a telecentric lens. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.
Sustainable solid waste management: An integrated approach for Asian countries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shekdar, Ashok V.
2009-01-01
Solid waste management (SWM) has been an integral part of every human society. The approaches for SWM should be compatible with the nature of a given society, and, in this regard, Asian countries are no exception. In keeping with global trends, the systems are being oriented to concentrate on sustainability issues; mainly through the incorporation of 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle) technologies. However, degree and nature of improvements toward sustainability are varying and depend on the economic status of a country. High-income countries like Japan and South Korea can afford to spend more to incorporate 3R technologies. Most of the latest efforts focus on 'Zero Waste' and/or 'Zero Landfilling' which is certainly expensive for weaker economies such as those of India or Indonesia. There is a need to pragmatically assess the expectations of SWM systems in Asian countries. Hence, in this paper, we analyze the situation in different Asian countries, and explore future trends. We conceptually evaluate issues surrounding the sustainability of SWM. We propose a multi-pronged integrated approach for improvement that achieves sustainable SWM in the context of national policy and legal frameworks, institutional arrangement, appropriate technology, operational and financial management, and public awareness and participation. In keeping with this approach, a generic action plan has been proposed that could be tailored to suit a situation in a particular country. Our proposed concept and action plan framework would be useful across a variety of country-specific scenarios
Ortho-perio integrated approach in periodontally compromised patients
Ramachandra, C. S.; Shetty, Pradeep Chandra; Rege, Sanyukta; Shah, Chitrang
2011-01-01
It is an undisputed fact that sound and strong periodontal health is a must in patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Does this mean that we are going to deny orthodontic treatment for those adults whose number is rising, more often secondary to periodontal deterioration and pathological migration of teeth resulting in aesthetic and functional problems? Need of the hour is to have an integrated approach where in periodontal treatment precedes orthodontic treatment to restore periodontal health. Orthodontic treatment should be performed under strict plaque control measures to place the teeth in a structurally balanced and functionally efficient position. Aim of this article is to familiarize the practicing clinicians both in the field of orthodontics and periodontics with current thoughts and successful clinical techniques used in the field of periodontology to regenerate lost periodontal structures. Furthermore, it aims to integrate such techniques into the orthodontic treatment of patients with severe bone loss. PMID:22368371
HOLISTIC VISION: INTEGRATIVE APPROACH IN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING SERVICES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ade Hidayat
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract: The philosophical issues in Guidance and Counseling especially in epistemological discourse have made paradigmatic friction that pointed by some issues from therapeutic-clinical to comprehensive way with preventive development prespective approach. It was also caused by the wider friction where quantum physic has remove classic Newtonian one, then the influence has generally removed another disciplines, where Guidance and Counseling in one of them. Through the comprehensive paradigm, Guidance dan Counseling need to take prepare the expert in order to capable to develop integrated and comprehensive thinking awareness. It means the Guidance and Counseling holistic vision is urged. Through the holistic vision, all of the competency of student is noticed integrally, such as intellectual, emotional, social, physical, artistic, creativity, ecological awareness, and spiritual competencies.Keywords: Ecoliteracy, Holictic Vision, Guidance and Counseling of Comprehensive.
CSR Integration into the Financial Economy: A Conceptual Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgiana - Loredana FRECEA
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility is a complex concept and its design integrates economic, social and environmental issues, pointing out the operational effects on a voluntary basis. It is considered a strategic point in the actual evolution of the economy, due to the financial market dynamism, being identified a critical correlation between financial crises and corporate social responsibility. The main purpose of this paper is to synthesize, through a literature review, the multiple dimensions of CSR, with a special emphasis on the theoretical approach. In order to provide a coherent overview on the banking CSR, it will be proposed a division of the CSR theories according to: (1 the ethical approach, (2 the stakeholders approach, and (3 the corporate governance approach. The major aim of this paper is to fill a gap in the theoretical approach of the CSR for the banking system, due to the necessity to unify the CSR reporting elements in order to find a balance between the bank’s organizational structure and their legitimacy to operate on the financial market.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabir, O; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Nukman, Y; Tuan Ya, T M Y S
2013-01-01
This paper describes an innovative method for computing fluid solid interaction using Immersed boundary methods with two stage pressure-velocity corrections. The algorithm calculates the interactions between incompressible viscous flows and a solid shape in three-dimensional domain. The fractional step method is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations in finite difference schemes. Most of IBMs are concern about exchange of the momentum between the Eulerian variables (fluid) and the Lagrangian nodes (solid). To address that concern, a new algorithm to correct the pressure and the velocity using Simplified Marker and Cell method is added. This scheme is applied on staggered grid to simulate the flow past a circular cylinder and study the effect of the new stage on calculations cost. To evaluate the accuracy of the computations the results are compared with the previous software results. The paper confirms the capacity of new algorithm for accurate and robust simulation of Fluid Solid Interaction with respect to pressure field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suresh Goyal
1997-01-01
Full Text Available The pervasive shock response spectrum (SRS and damage boundary methods for evaluating product fragility and designing external cushioning for shock protection are described in detail with references to the best available literature. Underlying assumptions are carefully reviewed and the central message of the SRS is highlighted, particularly as it relates to standardized drop testing. Shortcomings of these methods are discussed, and the results are extended to apply to more general systems. Finally some general packaging and shock-mounting strategies are discussed in the context of protecting a fragile disk drive in a notebook computer, although the conclusions apply to other products as well. For example, exterior only cushioning (with low restitution to reduce subsequent impacts will provide a slenderer form factor than the next best strategy: interior cushioning with a “dead” hard outer shell.
Dodig, H.
2017-11-01
This contribution presents the boundary integral formulation for numerical computation of time-harmonic radar cross section for 3D targets. Method relies on hybrid edge element BEM/FEM to compute near field edge element coefficients that are associated with near electric and magnetic fields at the boundary of the computational domain. Special boundary integral formulation is presented that computes radar cross section directly from these edge element coefficients. Consequently, there is no need for near-to-far field transformation (NTFFT) which is common step in RCS computations. By the end of the paper it is demonstrated that the formulation yields accurate results for canonical models such as spheres, cubes, cones and pyramids. Method has demonstrated accuracy even in the case of dielectrically coated PEC sphere at interior resonance frequency which is common problem for computational electromagnetic codes.
The disposition of nuclear waste: an integrated international approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waltar, A.E.
2001-01-01
This paper proposes the establishment of a new, globally integrated approach for dealing with spent nuclear fuel (SNF), high-level waste, and plutonium supplies. The end product is envisioned to be a new global agency (tentatively called the International Nuclear Waste Authority, or INWA), which would have the authority to establish and enforce all nuclear waste disposal standards and subsequently execute all financial arrangements appropriate for obtaining full-scale global implementation. We suggest the IAEA as the logical existing organization to facilitate generating the structure for the INWA. (author)
The state-level approach: moving beyond integrated safeguards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tape, James W.
2008-01-01
The concept of a State-Level Approach (SLA) for international safeguards planning, implementation, and evaluation was contained in the Conceptual Framework for Integrated Safeguards (IS) agreed in 2002. This paper describes briefly the key elements of the SLA, including State-level factors and high-level safeguards objectives, and considers different cases in which application of the SLA methodology could address safeguards for 'suspect' States, 'good' States, and Nuclear Weapons States hosting fuel cycle centers. The continued use and further development of the SLA to customize safeguards for each State, including for States already under IS, is seen as central to effective and efficient safeguards for an expanding nuclear world.
Integrated approach to yoga therapy and autism spectrum disorders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shantha Radhakrishna
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A specially designed Integrated Approach to Yoga Therapy module was applied to Autism Spectrum Disorders over a period of two academic years. Despite low numbers (six in each arm, consistency and magnitude of effects make the findings significant. Parental participation, allowing firm guidance to be given to each child, resulted in significant improvements in imitation and other skills, and in behavior at home and family relationships. We hypothesize that guided imitation of therapist body positions stimulated mirror neuron activation, resulting in improved sense of self.
The Need for Integrated Approaches in Metabolic Engineering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lechner, Anna; Brunk, Elizabeth; Keasling, Jay D.
2016-08-15
This review highlights state-of-the-art procedures for heterologous small-molecule biosynthesis, the associated bottlenecks, and new strategies that have the potential to accelerate future accomplishments in metabolic engineering. We emphasize that a combination of different approaches over multiple time and size scales must b e considered for successful pathway engineering in a heterologous host. We have classified these optimization procedures based on the "system" that is being manipulated: transcriptome, translatome, proteome, or reactome. By bridging multiple disciplines, including molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, and computational sciences, we can create an integral framework for the discovery and implementation of novel biosynthetic production routes.
Integrated care: wellness-oriented peer approaches: a key ingredient for integrated care.
Swarbrick, Margaret A
2013-08-01
People with lived experience of mental illness have become leaders of an influential movement to help the mental health system embrace the notion of whole health and wellness in the areas of advocacy, policy, and care delivery. Wellness-oriented peer approaches delivered by peer-support whole-health specialists and wellness coaches can play an important role in integrated care models. This column examines the wellness definitions and peer models and some specific benefits and tensions between the peer-oriented wellness approach and the medical model. These models can work in unison to improve health and wellness among people with mental and substance use disorders.
A Systems Approach to Refine Disease Taxonomy by Integrating Phenotypic and Molecular Networks
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Xuezhong Zhou
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The International Classification of Diseases (ICD relies on clinical features and lags behind the current understanding of the molecular specificity of disease pathobiology, necessitating approaches that incorporate growing biomedical data for classifying diseases to meet the needs of precision medicine. Our analysis revealed that the heterogeneous molecular diversity of disease chapters and the blurred boundary between disease categories in ICD should be further investigated. Here, we propose a new classification of diseases (NCD by developing an algorithm that predicts the additional categories of a disease by integrating multiple networks consisting of disease phenotypes and their molecular profiles. With statistical validations from phenotype-genotype associations and interactome networks, we demonstrate that NCD improves disease specificity owing to its overlapping categories and polyhierarchical structure. Furthermore, NCD captures the molecular diversity of diseases and defines clearer boundaries in terms of both phenotypic similarity and molecular associations, establishing a rational strategy to reform disease taxonomy. Keywords: Disease taxonomy, Network medicine, Disease phenotypes, Molecular profiles, Precision medicine
Advanced multiresponse process optimisation an intelligent and integrated approach
Šibalija, Tatjana V
2016-01-01
This book presents an intelligent, integrated, problem-independent method for multiresponse process optimization. In contrast to traditional approaches, the idea of this method is to provide a unique model for the optimization of various processes, without imposition of assumptions relating to the type of process, the type and number of process parameters and responses, or interdependences among them. The presented method for experimental design of processes with multiple correlated responses is composed of three modules: an expert system that selects the experimental plan based on the orthogonal arrays; the factor effects approach, which performs processing of experimental data based on Taguchi’s quality loss function and multivariate statistical methods; and process modeling and optimization based on artificial neural networks and metaheuristic optimization algorithms. The implementation is demonstrated using four case studies relating to high-tech industries and advanced, non-conventional processes.
Integrated Approaches for the Study of Real Mineral Flotation Systems
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Andrea Gerson
2013-01-01
Full Text Available It is more common than not, for mineral processing studies to proceed via the examination of model flotation systems with the resulting data often lacking statistical verification. The resultant concentrates and tails may then be subjected to a restricted range of analyses, for diagnosis of the flotation behavior variations observed, that themselves bias the outcomes. For instance surface analysis may be undertaken without reference to solution speciation, or liberation may be studied but surface speciation may not be taken into account. We propose an integrated approach whereby firstly the flotation data are vigorously scrutinized and the mineralogy, liberation, surface and solution speciation are examined in parallel to establish a chemical over view of the system. It is proposed that to make progress in the understanding of flotation systems, in terms of the minerals chemistry, that a multi-dimensional analytical approach is utilized and that the focus shifts towards the analysis of real ores and industrial flotation systems.
Struggling against suicide: the need for an integrative approach.
De Leo, Diego
2002-01-01
Transcultural comparisons would be beneficial for both our understanding of suicide phenomena and the setting up of preventative strategies. Changes in attitude throughout history, gender and age differences, socio-economic factors, influence of race and ethnicity, and the impact of religion are among the aspects mentioned in this article. All of them can actually have a considerable effect on suicide rates, and all of them should be taken into account when interpreting suicide trends and designing antisuicide strategies. In fact, both risk and protective factors may vary remarkably in different cultures. The need for an integrative approach is evident today more than ever, and this fact calls for more concerted and coordinated, multidisciplinary approaches to suicide prevention.
An integrative approach to research of deforestation under concession management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hepner, G.F.; Walker, R.T.
1991-01-01
A methodological approach integrating questionnaire research of tropical foresters with analyses of the actual patterns of concession logging and land use activities portrayed on various types of satellite imagery is discussed. The imagery analysis is necessary to: document the location place and magnitude of forest utilization and change in concession areas; confirm that responses vis-a-vis deforestation in the questionnaire correspond to observable behaviors as evidenced by the actual patterns of logging activities; and document the postharvest land utilization and conversion to other land uses. It is argued that this approach will link the process and pattern of logging activities to reveal the main factors leading to deforestation under the concession system of management. 20 refs
An integrated modeling approach to age invariant face recognition
Alvi, Fahad Bashir; Pears, Russel
2015-03-01
This Research study proposes a novel method for face recognition based on Anthropometric features that make use of an integrated approach comprising of a global and personalized models. The system is aimed to at situations where lighting, illumination, and pose variations cause problems in face recognition. A Personalized model covers the individual aging patterns while a Global model captures general aging patterns in the database. We introduced a de-aging factor that de-ages each individual in the database test and training sets. We used the k nearest neighbor approach for building a personalized model and global model. Regression analysis was applied to build the models. During the test phase, we resort to voting on different features. We used FG-Net database for checking the results of our technique and achieved 65 percent Rank 1 identification rate.
Sapkota, Brahmananda; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Shishkov, Boris
Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has been widely recognized as an approach for flexible integration of enterprise applications across organisational boundaries based on service abstractions and Internet standards. Enterprise collaboration and application integration is driven by business
Auditory-Verbal Music Play Therapy: An Integrated Approach (AVMPT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sahar Mohammad Esmaeilzadeh
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with one or more parts of the ear or ears and causes children to have a delay in the language-learning process. Hearing loss affects children's lives and their development. Several approaches have been developed over recent decades to help hearing-impaired children develop language skills. Auditory-verbal therapy (AVT is one such approach. Recently, researchers have found that music and play have a considerable effect on the communication skills of children, leading to the development of music therapy (MT and play therapy (PT. There have been several studies which focus on the impact of music on hearing-impaired children. The aim of this article is to review studies conducted in AVT, MT, and PT and their efficacy in hearing-impaired children. Furthermore, the authors aim to introduce an integrated approach of AVT, MT, and PT which facilitates language and communication skills in hearing-impaired children. Materials and Methods: In this article we review studies of AVT, MT, and PT and their impact on hearing-impaired children. To achieve this goal, we searched databases and journals including Elsevier, Chor Teach, and Military Psychology, for example. We also used reliable websites such as American Choral Directors Association and Joint Committee on Infant Hearing websites. The websites were reviewed and key words in this article used to find appropriate references. Those articles which are related to ours in content were selected. Results: Recent technologies have brought about great advancement in the field of hearing disorders. Now these impairments can be detected at birth, and in the majority of cases, hearing impaired children can develop fluent spoken language through audition. According to researches on the relationship between hearing impaired children’s communication and language skills and different approaches of therapy, it is known that learning through listening and
An integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach to heavy ion collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petersen, Hannah
2009-04-22
In this thesis the first fully integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach to relativistic heavy ion reactions has been developed. After a short introduction that motivates the study of heavy ion reactions as the tool to get insights about the QCD phase diagram, the most important theoretical approaches to describe the system are reviewed. The hadron-string transport approach that this work is based on is the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) approach. Predictions for the charged particle multiplicities at LHC energies are made. The next step is the development of a new framework to calculate the baryon number density in a transport approach. Time evolutions of the net baryon number and the quark density have been calculated at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies. Studies of phase diagram trajectories using hydrodynamics are performed. The hybrid approach that has been developed as the main part of this thesis is based on the UrQMD transport approach with an intermediate hydrodynamical evolution for the hot and dense stage of the collision. The full (3+1) dimensional ideal relativistic one fluid dynamics evolution is solved using the SHASTA algorithm. Three different equations of state have been used, namely a hadron gas equation of state without a QGP phase transition, a chiral EoS and a bag model EoS including a strong first order phase transition. For the freeze-out transition from hydrodynamics to the cascade calculation two different set-ups are employed. The parameter dependences of the model are investigated and the time evolution of different quantities is explored. The hybrid model calculation is able to reproduce the experimentally measured integrated as well as transverse momentum dependent v{sub 2} values for charged particles. The multiplicity and mean transverse mass excitation function is calculated for pions, protons and kaons in the energy range from E{sub lab}=2-160 A GeV. The HBT correlation of the negatively charged pion source
An integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach to heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petersen, Hannah
2009-01-01
In this thesis the first fully integrated Boltzmann+hydrodynamics approach to relativistic heavy ion reactions has been developed. After a short introduction that motivates the study of heavy ion reactions as the tool to get insights about the QCD phase diagram, the most important theoretical approaches to describe the system are reviewed. The hadron-string transport approach that this work is based on is the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) approach. Predictions for the charged particle multiplicities at LHC energies are made. The next step is the development of a new framework to calculate the baryon number density in a transport approach. Time evolutions of the net baryon number and the quark density have been calculated at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies. Studies of phase diagram trajectories using hydrodynamics are performed. The hybrid approach that has been developed as the main part of this thesis is based on the UrQMD transport approach with an intermediate hydrodynamical evolution for the hot and dense stage of the collision. The full (3+1) dimensional ideal relativistic one fluid dynamics evolution is solved using the SHASTA algorithm. Three different equations of state have been used, namely a hadron gas equation of state without a QGP phase transition, a chiral EoS and a bag model EoS including a strong first order phase transition. For the freeze-out transition from hydrodynamics to the cascade calculation two different set-ups are employed. The parameter dependences of the model are investigated and the time evolution of different quantities is explored. The hybrid model calculation is able to reproduce the experimentally measured integrated as well as transverse momentum dependent v 2 values for charged particles. The multiplicity and mean transverse mass excitation function is calculated for pions, protons and kaons in the energy range from E lab =2-160 A GeV. The HBT correlation of the negatively charged pion source created in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doikou, Anastasia
2010-01-01
We examine the symmetry breaking of superalgebras due to the presence of appropriate integrable boundary conditions. We investigate the boundary breaking symmetry associated with both reflection algebras and twisted super-Yangians. We extract the generators of the resulting boundary symmetry as well as we provide explicit expressions of the associated Casimir operators.
Moiseiwitsch, B L
2005-01-01
Two distinct but related approaches hold the solutions to many mathematical problems--the forms of expression known as differential and integral equations. The method employed by the integral equation approach specifically includes the boundary conditions, which confers a valuable advantage. In addition, the integral equation approach leads naturally to the solution of the problem--under suitable conditions--in the form of an infinite series.Geared toward upper-level undergraduate students, this text focuses chiefly upon linear integral equations. It begins with a straightforward account, acco
The transformative potential of an integrative approach to pregnancy.
Eidem, Haley R; McGary, Kriston L; Capra, John A; Abbot, Patrick; Rokas, Antonis
2017-09-01
Complex traits typically involve diverse biological pathways and are shaped by numerous genetic and environmental factors. Pregnancy-associated traits and pathologies are further complicated by extensive communication across multiple tissues in two individuals, interactions between two genomes-maternal and fetal-that obscure causal variants and lead to genetic conflict, and rapid evolution of pregnancy-associated traits across mammals and in the human lineage. Given the multi-faceted complexity of human pregnancy, integrative approaches that synthesize diverse data types and analyses harbor tremendous promise to identify the genetic architecture and environmental influences underlying pregnancy-associated traits and pathologies. We review current research that addresses the extreme complexities of traits and pathologies associated with human pregnancy. We find that successful efforts to address the many complexities of pregnancy-associated traits and pathologies often harness the power of many and diverse types of data, including genome-wide association studies, evolutionary analyses, multi-tissue transcriptomic profiles, and environmental conditions. We propose that understanding of pregnancy and its pathologies will be accelerated by computational platforms that provide easy access to integrated data and analyses. By simplifying the integration of diverse data, such platforms will provide a comprehensive synthesis that transcends many of the inherent challenges present in studies of pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Integrative biology approach identifies cytokine targeting strategies for psoriasis.
Perera, Gayathri K; Ainali, Chrysanthi; Semenova, Ekaterina; Hundhausen, Christian; Barinaga, Guillermo; Kassen, Deepika; Williams, Andrew E; Mirza, Muddassar M; Balazs, Mercedesz; Wang, Xiaoting; Rodriguez, Robert Sanchez; Alendar, Andrej; Barker, Jonathan; Tsoka, Sophia; Ouyang, Wenjun; Nestle, Frank O
2014-02-12
Cytokines are critical checkpoints of inflammation. The treatment of human autoimmune disease has been revolutionized by targeting inflammatory cytokines as key drivers of disease pathogenesis. Despite this, there exist numerous pitfalls when translating preclinical data into the clinic. We developed an integrative biology approach combining human disease transcriptome data sets with clinically relevant in vivo models in an attempt to bridge this translational gap. We chose interleukin-22 (IL-22) as a model cytokine because of its potentially important proinflammatory role in epithelial tissues. Injection of IL-22 into normal human skin grafts produced marked inflammatory skin changes resembling human psoriasis. Injection of anti-IL-22 monoclonal antibody in a human xenotransplant model of psoriasis, developed specifically to test potential therapeutic candidates, efficiently blocked skin inflammation. Bioinformatic analysis integrating both the IL-22 and anti-IL-22 cytokine transcriptomes and mapping them onto a psoriasis disease gene coexpression network identified key cytokine-dependent hub genes. Using knockout mice and small-molecule blockade, we show that one of these hub genes, the so far unexplored serine/threonine kinase PIM1, is a critical checkpoint for human skin inflammation and potential future therapeutic target in psoriasis. Using in silico integration of human data sets and biological models, we were able to identify a new target in the treatment of psoriasis.
The meaning of integrated care: a systems approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lars Edgren
2008-10-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Organizations can be regarded as systems. The traditional model of systems views them as machines. This seems to be insufficient when it comes to understanding and organizing complex tasks. To better understand integrated care we should approach organizations as constantly changing living organisms, where many agents are interconnected in so-called Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS. Theory and discussion: The term “complex” emphasizes that the necessary competence to perform a task is not owned by any one part, but comes as a result of co-operation within the system. “Adaptive” means that system change occurs through successive adaptations. A CAS consists of several subsystems called agents, which act in dependence of one another. Examples would be the ant-hill, the human immune defence, the financial market and the surgical operating theatre team. Studying a CAS, the focus is on the interaction and communication between agents. Although these thoughts are not new, the CAS-approach has not yet been widely applied to the management of integrated care. This helps the management to understand why the traditional top down way of managing, following the machine model thinking, may meet with problems in interdependent organizations with complex tasks. Conclusion: When we perceive health and social services as CASs we should gain more insight into the processes that go on within and between organizations and how top management, for example within a hospital, in fact executes its steering function.
Integrated approach to assess ecosystem health in harbor areas.
Bebianno, M J; Pereira, C G; Rey, F; Cravo, A; Duarte, D; D'Errico, G; Regoli, F
2015-05-01
Harbors are critical environments with strategic economic importance but with potential environmental impact: health assessment criteria are a key issue. An ecosystem health status approach was carried out in Portimão harbor as a case-study. Priority and specific chemical levels in sediments along with their bioavailability in mussels, bioassays and a wide array of biomarkers were integrated in a biomarker index (IBR index) and the overall data in a weight of evidence (WOE) model. Metals, PAHs, PCBs and HCB were not particularly high compared with sediment guidelines and standards for dredging. Bioavailability was evident for Cd, Cu and Zn. Biomarkers proved more sensitive namely changes of antioxidant responses, metallothioneins and vittellogenin-like proteins. IBR index indicated that site 4 was the most impacted area. Assessment of the health status by WOE approach highlighted the importance of integrating sediment chemistry, bioaccumulation, biomarkers and bioassays and revealed that despite some disturbance in the harbor area, there was also an impact of urban effluents from upstream. Environmental quality assessment in harbors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
An integrative approach to inferring biologically meaningful gene modules
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Kai
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to construct biologically meaningful gene networks and modules is critical for contemporary systems biology. Though recent studies have demonstrated the power of using gene modules to shed light on the functioning of complex biological systems, most modules in these networks have shown little association with meaningful biological function. We have devised a method which directly incorporates gene ontology (GO annotation in construction of gene modules in order to gain better functional association. Results We have devised a method, Semantic Similarity-Integrated approach for Modularization (SSIM that integrates various gene-gene pairwise similarity values, including information obtained from gene expression, protein-protein interactions and GO annotations, in the construction of modules using affinity propagation clustering. We demonstrated the performance of the proposed method using data from two complex biological responses: 1. the osmotic shock response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and 2. the prion-induced pathogenic mouse model. In comparison with two previously reported algorithms, modules identified by SSIM showed significantly stronger association with biological functions. Conclusions The incorporation of semantic similarity based on GO annotation with gene expression and protein-protein interaction data can greatly enhance the functional relevance of inferred gene modules. In addition, the SSIM approach can also reveal the hierarchical structure of gene modules to gain a broader functional view of the biological system. Hence, the proposed method can facilitate comprehensive and in-depth analysis of high throughput experimental data at the gene network level.
Integrated variable projection approach (IVAPA) for parallel magnetic resonance imaging.
Zhang, Qiao; Sheng, Jinhua
2012-10-01
Parallel magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) is a fast method which requires algorithms for the reconstructing image from a small number of measured k-space lines. The accurate estimation of the coil sensitivity functions is still a challenging problem in parallel imaging. The joint estimation of the coil sensitivity functions and the desired image has recently been proposed to improve the situation by iteratively optimizing both the coil sensitivity functions and the image reconstruction. It regards both the coil sensitivities and the desired images as unknowns to be solved for jointly. In this paper, we propose an integrated variable projection approach (IVAPA) for pMRI, which integrates two individual processing steps (coil sensitivity estimation and image reconstruction) into a single processing step to improve the accuracy of the coil sensitivity estimation using the variable projection approach. The method is demonstrated to be able to give an optimal solution with considerably reduced artifacts for high reduction factors and a low number of auto-calibration signal (ACS) lines, and our implementation has a fast convergence rate. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated using a set of in vivo experiment data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jay Krishna Thakur
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate new approaches using methods based on statistics and geo-statistics for spatio-temporal optimization of groundwater monitoring networks. The formulated and integrated methods were tested with the groundwater quality data set of Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany. Spatially, the monitoring network was optimized using geo-statistical methods. Temporal optimization of the monitoring network was carried out using Sen’s method (1968. For geostatistical network optimization, a geostatistical spatio-temporal algorithm was used to identify redundant wells in 2- and 2.5-D Quaternary and Tertiary aquifers. Influences of interpolation block width, dimension, contaminant association, groundwater flow direction and aquifer homogeneity on statistical and geostatistical methods for monitoring network optimization were analysed. The integrated approach shows 37% and 28% redundancies in the monitoring network in Quaternary aquifer and Tertiary aquifer respectively. The geostatistical method also recommends 41 and 22 new monitoring wells in the Quaternary and Tertiary aquifers respectively. In temporal optimization, an overall optimized sampling interval was recommended in terms of lower quartile (238 days, median quartile (317 days and upper quartile (401 days in the research area of Bitterfeld/Wolfen. Demonstrated methods for improving groundwater monitoring network can be used in real monitoring network optimization with due consideration given to influencing factors.
An Integrated Approach for RNA-seq Data Normalization.
Yang, Shengping; Mercante, Donald E; Zhang, Kun; Fang, Zhide
2016-01-01
DNA copy number alteration is common in many cancers. Studies have shown that insertion or deletion of DNA sequences can directly alter gene expression, and significant correlation exists between DNA copy number and gene expression. Data normalization is a critical step in the analysis of gene expression generated by RNA-seq technology. Successful normalization reduces/removes unwanted nonbiological variations in the data, while keeping meaningful information intact. However, as far as we know, no attempt has been made to adjust for the variation due to DNA copy number changes in RNA-seq data normalization. In this article, we propose an integrated approach for RNA-seq data normalization. Comparisons show that the proposed normalization can improve power for downstream differentially expressed gene detection and generate more biologically meaningful results in gene profiling. In addition, our findings show that due to the effects of copy number changes, some housekeeping genes are not always suitable internal controls for studying gene expression. Using information from DNA copy number, integrated approach is successful in reducing noises due to both biological and nonbiological causes in RNA-seq data, thus increasing the accuracy of gene profiling.
Integrated System Health Management: Foundational Concepts, Approach, and Implementation.
Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John; Walker, Mark; Venkatesh, Meera; Kapadia, Ravi; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Smith, Harvey
2009-01-01
Implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive to an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. We present concepts, procedures, and a specific approach as a foundation for implementing a credible ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. The intent is also to make possible implementation of on-board ISHM capability, in contrast to a remote capability. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems (rocket engine test facilities). The paper will address the following topics: 1. ISHM Model of a system 2. Detection of anomaly indicators. 3. Determination and confirmation of anomalies. 4. Diagnostic of causes and determination of effects. 5. Consistency checking cycle. 6. Management of health information 7. User Interfaces 8. Example implementation ISHM has been defined from many perspectives. We define it as a capability that might be achieved by various approaches. We describe a specific approach that has been matured throughout many years of development, and pilot implementations. ISHM is a capability that is achieved by integrating data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) that might be distributed throughout the system elements (which inherently implies capability to manage DIaK associated with distributed sub-systems). DIaK must be available to any element of a system at the right time and in accordance with a meaningful context. ISHM Functional Capability Level (FCL) is measured by how well a system performs the following
Analysis of boundary layer control by heat transfer strips using an asymptotic approach to the PSE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brooker, A.M.H.; Severin, J. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Technische Thermodynamik; Herwig, H. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Technische Thermodynamik
2002-05-01
The effect of heating strips on the stability of boundary layer flow over a flat plate is investigated. Heating strips alter the flow stability through the temperature dependence of the fluid properties. A stability study is carried out using the parabolized stability equations (PSE) that calculates the effects of temperature dependent fluid properties in terms of asymptotic expansions based on the total heat input. The leading order influence is obtained as a general result and, for the particular Prandtl number taken, is independent of any special set of property laws. In a fluid for which the intrinsic viscosity increases with temperature and the density decreases with temperature (such as air) the results show that the optimal location for a heating strip to stabilise the flow is upstream of the neutral point. The optimal location moves further upstream as the total heat input level is increased. For a given heat input widening the heating strip further stabilises the flow. Finally, the potential of the asymptotic method as a tool for further analysis of the flow is discussed. (orig.)
Estimating amplitude ratios in boundary layer stability theory: a comparison between two approaches
Govindarajan, Rama; Narasimha, R.
2001-07-01
We first demonstrate that, if the contributions of higher-order mean flow are ignored, the parabolized stability equations (Bertolotti et al. 1992) and the ‘full’ non-parallel equation of Govindarajan & Narasimha (1995, hereafter GN95) are both equivalent to order R[minus sign]1 in the local Reynolds number R to Gaster's (1974) equation for the stability of spatially developing boundary layers. It is therefore of some concern that a detailed comparison between Gaster (1974) and GN95 reveals a small difference in the computed amplitude ratios. Although this difference is not significant in practical terms in Blasius flow, it is traced here to the approximation, in Gaster's method, of neglecting the change in eigenfunction shape due to flow non-parallelism. This approximation is not justified in the critical and the wall layers, where the neglected term is respectively O(R[minus sign]2/3) and O(R[minus sign]1) compared to the largest term. The excellent agreement of GN95 with exact numerical simulations, on the other hand, suggests that the effect of change in eigenfunction is accurately taken into account in that paper.
An integrated approach using high time-resolved tools to study the origin of aerosols
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Gilio, A.; Gennaro, G. de; Dambruoso, P.; Ventrella, G.
2015-01-01
Long-range transport of natural and/or anthropogenic particles can contribute significantly to PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and some European cities often fail to comply with PM daily limit values due to the additional impact of particles from remote sources. For this reason, reliable methodologies to identify long-range transport (LRT) events would be useful to better understand air pollution phenomena and support proper decision-making. This study explores the potential of an integrated and high time-resolved monitoring approach for the identification and characterization of local, regional and long-range transport events of high PM. In particular, the goal of this work was also the identification of time-limited event. For this purpose, a high time-resolved monitoring campaign was carried out at an urban background site in Bari (southern Italy) for about 20 days (1st–20th October 2011). The integration of collected data as the hourly measurements of inorganic ions in PM 2.5 and their gas precursors and of the natural radioactivity, in addition to the analyses of aerosol maps and hourly back trajectories (BT), provided useful information for the identification and chemical characterization of local sources and trans-boundary intrusions. Non-sea salt (nss) sulfate levels were found to increase when air masses came from northeastern Europe and higher dispersive conditions of the atmosphere were detected. Instead, higher nitrate and lower nss-sulfate concentrations were registered in correspondence with air mass stagnation and attributed to local traffic source. In some cases, combinations of local and trans-boundary sources were observed. Finally, statistical investigations such as the principal component analysis (PCA) applied on hourly ion concentrations and the cluster analyses, the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and the Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) models computed on hourly back-trajectories enabled to complete a cognitive framework
An integrated approach using high time-resolved tools to study the origin of aerosols
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Gilio, A. [Chemistry Department, University of Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); ARPA PUGLIA, Corso Trieste, 27, 70126 Bari (Italy); Gennaro, G. de, E-mail: gianluigi.degennaro@uniba.it [Chemistry Department, University of Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); ARPA PUGLIA, Corso Trieste, 27, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dambruoso, P. [Chemistry Department, University of Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); ARPA PUGLIA, Corso Trieste, 27, 70126 Bari (Italy); Ventrella, G. [Chemistry Department, University of Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)
2015-10-15
Long-range transport of natural and/or anthropogenic particles can contribute significantly to PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and some European cities often fail to comply with PM daily limit values due to the additional impact of particles from remote sources. For this reason, reliable methodologies to identify long-range transport (LRT) events would be useful to better understand air pollution phenomena and support proper decision-making. This study explores the potential of an integrated and high time-resolved monitoring approach for the identification and characterization of local, regional and long-range transport events of high PM. In particular, the goal of this work was also the identification of time-limited event. For this purpose, a high time-resolved monitoring campaign was carried out at an urban background site in Bari (southern Italy) for about 20 days (1st–20th October 2011). The integration of collected data as the hourly measurements of inorganic ions in PM{sub 2.5} and their gas precursors and of the natural radioactivity, in addition to the analyses of aerosol maps and hourly back trajectories (BT), provided useful information for the identification and chemical characterization of local sources and trans-boundary intrusions. Non-sea salt (nss) sulfate levels were found to increase when air masses came from northeastern Europe and higher dispersive conditions of the atmosphere were detected. Instead, higher nitrate and lower nss-sulfate concentrations were registered in correspondence with air mass stagnation and attributed to local traffic source. In some cases, combinations of local and trans-boundary sources were observed. Finally, statistical investigations such as the principal component analysis (PCA) applied on hourly ion concentrations and the cluster analyses, the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and the Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) models computed on hourly back-trajectories enabled to complete a cognitive
Challenges and opportunities for integrating lake ecosystem modelling approaches
Mooij, Wolf M.; Trolle, Dennis; Jeppesen, Erik; Arhonditsis, George; Belolipetsky, Pavel V.; Chitamwebwa, Deonatus B.R.; Degermendzhy, Andrey G.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Domis, Lisette N. De Senerpont; Downing, Andrea S.; Elliott, J. Alex; Ruberto, Carlos Ruberto; Gaedke, Ursula; Genova, Svetlana N.; Gulati, Ramesh D.; Hakanson, Lars; Hamilton, David P.; Hipsey, Matthew R.; Hoen, Jochem 't; Hulsmann, Stephan; Los, F. Hans; Makler-Pick, Vardit; Petzoldt, Thomas; Prokopkin, Igor G.; Rinke, Karsten; Schep, Sebastiaan A.; Tominaga, Koji; Van Dam, Anne A.; Van Nes, Egbert H.; Wells, Scott A.; Janse, Jan H.
2010-01-01
A large number and wide variety of lake ecosystem models have been developed and published during the past four decades. We identify two challenges for making further progress in this field. One such challenge is to avoid developing more models largely following the concept of others ('reinventing the wheel'). The other challenge is to avoid focusing on only one type of model, while ignoring new and diverse approaches that have become available ('having tunnel vision'). In this paper, we aim at improving the awareness of existing models and knowledge of concurrent approaches in lake ecosystem modelling, without covering all possible model tools and avenues. First, we present a broad variety of modelling approaches. To illustrate these approaches, we give brief descriptions of rather arbitrarily selected sets of specific models. We deal with static models (steady state and regression models), complex dynamic models (CAEDYM, CE-QUAL-W2, Delft 3D-ECO, LakeMab, LakeWeb, MyLake, PCLake, PROTECH, SALMO), structurally dynamic models and minimal dynamic models. We also discuss a group of approaches that could all be classified as individual based: super-individual models (Piscator, Charisma), physiologically structured models, stage-structured models and trait-based models. We briefly mention genetic algorithms, neural networks, Kalman filters and fuzzy logic. Thereafter, we zoom in, as an in-depth example, on the multi-decadal development and application of the lake ecosystem model PCLake and related models (PCLake Metamodel, Lake Shira Model, IPH-TRIM3D-PCLake). In the discussion, we argue that while the historical development of each approach and model is understandable given its 'leading principle', there are many opportunities for combining approaches. We take the point of view that a single 'right' approach does not exist and should not be strived for. Instead, multiple modelling approaches, applied concurrently to a given problem, can help develop an integrative
An integrative approach to cultural competence in the psychiatric curriculum.
Fung, Kenneth; Andermann, Lisa; Zaretsky, Ari; Lo, Hung-Tat
2008-01-01
As it is increasingly recognized that cultural competence is an essential quality for any practicing psychiatrist, postgraduate psychiatry training programs need to incorporate cultural competence training into their curricula. This article documents the unique approach to resident cultural competence training being developed in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto, which has the largest residency training program in North America and is situated in an ethnically diverse city and country. The authors conducted a systematic review of cultural competence by searching databases including PubMed, PsycINFO, PsycArticles, CINAHL, Social Science Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts; by searching government and professional association publications; and through on-site visits to local cross-cultural training programs. Based on the results of the review, a resident survey, and a staff retreat, the authors developed a deliberate "integrative" approach with a mindful, balanced emphasis on both generic and specific cultural competencies. Learning objectives were derived from integrating the seven core competencies of a physician as defined by the Canadian Medical Education Directions for Specialists (CanMEDS) roles framework with the tripartite model of attitudes, knowledge, and skills. The learning objectives and teaching program were further integrated across different psychiatric subspecialties and across the successive years of residency. Another unique strategy used to foster curricular and institutional change was the program's emphasis on evaluation, making use of insights from modern educational theories such as formative feedback and blueprinting. Course evaluations of the core curriculum from the first group of residents were positive. The authors propose that these changes to the curriculum may lead to enhanced cultural competence and clinical effectiveness in health care.
Downward continuation of airborne gravity data by means of the change of boundary approach
Mansi, A. H.; Capponi, M.; Sampietro, D.
2018-03-01
Within the modelling of gravity data, a common practice is the upward/downward continuation of the signal, i.e. the process of continuing the gravitational signal in the vertical direction away or closer to the sources, respectively. The gravity field, being a potential field, satisfies the Laplace's equation outside the masses and this means that it allows to unambiguously perform this analytical continuation only in a source-free domain. The analytical continuation problem has been solved both in the space and spectral domains by exploiting different algorithms. As well known, the downward continuation operator, differently from the upward one, is an unstable operator, due to its spectral characteristics similar to those of a high-pass filter, and several regularization methods have been proposed in order to stabilize it. In this work, an iterative procedure to downward/upward continue the gravity field observations, acquired at different altitudes, is proposed. This methodology is based on the change of boundary principle and it has been expressively thought for aerogravimetric observations for geophysical exploration purposes. Within this field of application, usually several simplifications can be applied, basically due to the specific characteristics of the airborne surveys which are usually flown at almost constant altitude as close as possible to the terrain. For instance, these characteristics, as shown in the present work, allow to perform the downward continuation without the need of any regularization. The goodness of the proposed methodology has been evaluated by means of a numerical test on real data, acquired in the South of Australia. The test shows that it is possible to move the aerogravimetric data, acquired along tracks with a maximum height difference of about 250 m, with accuracies of the order of 10^{-3} mGal.
An approach for extracting the vein and heart boundaries from raw NM images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitrovski, Cvetko D.; Kostov, Mitko B.
2003-01-01
In this paper we present our approach on prE.processing chest region dynamical NM images which enables anatomical data extraction of the vena cava and the heart. The aim of the method is developing sophisticated diagnostic software that could automatically offer the optimal positions and the shapes of the regions of interest needed for the heart studies. (Author)
Chen, Zheng; Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.
2009-01-01
This study adopted a person-environment fit approach to examine whether greater congruence between employees' preferences for segmenting their work domain from their family domain (i.e., keeping work matters at work) and what their employers' work environment allowed would be associated with lower work-to-family conflict and higher work-to-family…
Tropical forest carbon assessment: integrating satellite and airborne mapping approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asner, Gregory P
2009-01-01
Large-scale carbon mapping is needed to support the UNFCCC program to reduce deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). Managers of forested land can potentially increase their carbon credits via detailed monitoring of forest cover, loss and gain (hectares), and periodic estimates of changes in forest carbon density (tons ha -1 ). Satellites provide an opportunity to monitor changes in forest carbon caused by deforestation and degradation, but only after initial carbon densities have been assessed. New airborne approaches, especially light detection and ranging (LiDAR), provide a means to estimate forest carbon density over large areas, which greatly assists in the development of practical baselines. Here I present an integrated satellite-airborne mapping approach that supports high-resolution carbon stock assessment and monitoring in tropical forest regions. The approach yields a spatially resolved, regional state-of-the-forest carbon baseline, followed by high-resolution monitoring of forest cover and disturbance to estimate carbon emissions. Rapid advances and decreasing costs in the satellite and airborne mapping sectors are already making high-resolution carbon stock and emissions assessments viable anywhere in the world.
An integrated approach to determine phenomenological equations in metallic systems
Ghamarian, Iman
It is highly desirable to be able to make predictions of properties in metallic materials based upon the composition of the material and the microstructure. Unfortunately, the complexity of real, multi-component, multi-phase engineering alloys makes the provision of constituent-based (i.e., composition or microstructure) phenomenological equations extremely difficult. Due to these difficulties, qualitative predictions are frequently used to study the influence of microstructure or composition on the properties. Neural networks were used as a tool to get a quantitative model from a database. However, the developed model is not a phenomenological model. In this study, a new method based upon the integration of three separate modeling approaches, specifically artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, and monte carlo was proposed. These three methods, when coupled in the manner described in this study, allows for the extraction of phenomenological equations with a concurrent analysis of uncertainty. This approach has been applied to a multi-component, multi-phase microstructure exhibiting phases with varying spatial and morphological distributions. Specifically, this approach has been applied to derive a phenomenological equation for the prediction of yield strength in alpha+beta processed Ti-6-4. The equation is consistent with not only the current dataset but also, where available, the limited information regarding certain parameters such as intrinsic yield strength of pure hexagonal close-packed alpha titanium.
Finding Practical Approaches to Integrated Water Resources Management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Butterworth
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM has often been interpreted and implemented in a way that is only really suited to countries with the most developed water infrastructures and management capacities. While sympathetic to many of the criticisms levelled at the IWRM concept and recognising the often disappointing levels of adoption, this paper and the series of papers it introduces identify some alternative ways forward in a developmental context that place more emphasis on the practical in-finding solutions to water scarcity. A range of lighter, more pragmatic and context-adapted approaches, strategies and entry points are illustrated with examples from projects and initiatives in mainly 'developing' countries. The authors argue that a more service-orientated (WASH, irrigation and ecosystem services, locally rooted and balanced approach to IWRM that better matches contexts and capacities should build on such strategies, in addition to the necessary but long-term policy reforms and river basin institution-building at higher levels. Examples in this set of papers not only show that the 'lighter', more opportunistic and incremental approach has potential as well as limitations but also await wider piloting and adoption.
Contingent approach to Internet-based supply network integration
Ho, Jessica; Boughton, Nick; Kehoe, Dennis; Michaelides, Zenon
2001-10-01
The Internet is playing an increasingly important role in enhancing the operations of supply networks as many organizations begin to recognize the benefits of Internet- enabled supply arrangements. However, the developments and applications to-date do not extend significantly beyond the dyadic model, whereas the real advantages are to be made with the external and network models to support a coordinated and collaborative based approach. The DOMAIN research group at the University of Liverpool is currently defining new Internet- enabled approaches to enable greater collaboration across supply chains. Different e-business models and tools are focusing on different applications. Using inappropriate e- business models, tools or techniques will bring negative results instead of benefits to all the tiers in the supply network. Thus there are a number of issues to be considered before addressing Internet based supply network integration, in particular an understanding of supply chain management, the emergent business models and evaluating the effects of deploying e-business to the supply network or a particular tier. It is important to utilize a contingent approach to selecting the right e-business model to meet the specific supply chain requirements. This paper addresses the issues and provides a case study on the indirect materials supply networks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, M.G.; Kim, D.; Matlock, D.K.; Wagoner, R.H.
2010-01-01
Research highlights: → Robust microstructure-based FE mesh generation technique was developed. → Local deformation behavior near phase boundaries could be quantitatively understood. → Macroscopic failure could be connected to microscopic deformation behavior of multi-phase steel. - Abstract: A qualitative analysis was carried out on the formability of dual-phase (DP) steels by introducing a realistic microstructure-based finite element approach. The present microstructure-based model was constructed using a mesh generation process with a boundary-smoothing algorithm after proper image processing. The developed model was applied to hole-expansion formability tests for DP steel sheets having different volume fractions and morphological features. On the basis of the microstructural inhomogeneity observed in the scanning electron micrographs of the DP steel sheets, it was inferred that the localized plastic deformation in the ferritic phase might be closely related to the macroscopic formability of DP steel. The experimentally observed difference between the hole-expansion formability of two different microstructures was reasonably explained by using the present finite element model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jelena Ačanski
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Several recent studies have detected and described complexes of cryptic and sibling species in the genus Merodon (Diptera, Syrphidae. One representative of these complexes is the Merodon avidus complex that contains four sibling species, which have proven difficult to distinguish using traditional morphological characters. In the present study, we use two geometric morphometric approaches, as well as molecular characters of the 5’-end of the mtDNA COI gene, to delimit sibling taxa. Analyses based on these data were used to strengthen species boundaries within the complex, and to validate the status of a previously-recognized cryptic taxon from Lesvos Island (Greece, here described as Merodon megavidus Vujić & Radenković sp. nov. Geometric morphometric results of both wing and surstylus shape confirm the present classification for three sibling species－M. avidus (Rossi, 1790, M. moenium Wiedemann in Meigen, 1822 and M. ibericus Vujić, 2015－and, importantly, clearly discriminate the newly-described taxon Merodon megavidus sp. nov. In addition to our geometric morphometric results, supporting characters were obtained from molecular analyses of mtDNA COI sequences, which clearly differentiated M. megavidus sp. nov. from the other members of the M. avidus complex. Molecular analyses revealed that the earliest divergence of M. ibericus occurred around 800 ky BP, while the most recent separation happened between M. avidus and M. moenium around 87 ky BP.
Davarzani, Hossein; Smits, Kathleen; Tolene, Ryan M; Illangasekare, Tissa
2014-01-01
In an effort to develop methods based on integrating the subsurface to the atmospheric boundary layer to estimate evaporation, we developed a model based on the coupling of Navier-Stokes free flow and Darcy flow in porous medium. The model was tested using experimental data to study the effect of wind speed on evaporation. The model consists of the coupled equations of mass conservation for two-phase flow in porous medium with single-phase flow in the free-flow domain under nonisothermal, nonequilibrium phase change conditions. In this model, the evaporation rate and soil surface temperature and relative humidity at the interface come directly from the integrated model output. To experimentally validate numerical results, we developed a unique test system consisting of a wind tunnel interfaced with a soil tank instrumented with a network of sensors to measure soil-water variables. Results demonstrated that, by using this coupling approach, it is possible to predict the different stages of the drying process with good accuracy. Increasing the wind speed increases the first stage evaporation rate and decreases the transition time between two evaporative stages (soil water flow to vapor diffusion controlled) at low velocity values; then, at high wind speeds the evaporation rate becomes less dependent on the wind speed. On the contrary, the impact of wind speed on second stage evaporation (diffusion-dominant stage) is not significant. We found that the thermal and solute dispersion in free-flow systems has a significant influence on drying processes from porous media and should be taken into account.
Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshall, Rachael E.; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking
Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marshall, Rachael E., E-mail: rmarsh01@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Farahbakhsh, Khosrow, E-mail: khosrowf@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)
2013-04-15
Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.
The Earth is a complex system comprised of many interacting spatial and temporal scales. Understanding, predicting, and managing for these dynamics requires a trans-disciplinary integrated approach. Although there have been calls for this integration, a general approach is needed. We developed a Tra...
Bradbury, Leslie U.
2014-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to review the literature published during the last 20 years that investigates the impact of approaches that describe themselves as integrating science and language arts on student learning and/or attitude at the elementary level. The majority of papers report that integrated approaches led to greater student…
An integrated MCDM approach to green supplier selection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morteza Yazdani
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Supplier selection management has been considered as an important subject for industrial organizations. In order to remain on the market, to gain profitability and to retain competitive advantage, business units need to establish an integrated and structured supplier selection system. In addition, environmental protection problems have been big solicitudes for organizations to consider green approach in supplier selection problem. However, finding proper suppliers involves several variables and it is critically a complex process. In this paper, the main attention is focused on finding the right supplier based on fuzzy multi criteria decision making (MCDM process. The weights of criteria are calculated by analytical hierarchical process (AHP and the final ranking is achieved by fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS. TOPSIS advantage among the other similar methods is to obtain the best solution close to ideal solution. The paper attempts to express better understanding by an example of an automobile manufacturing supply chain.
Modeling fabrication of nuclear components: An integrative approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hench, K.W.
1996-08-01
Reduction of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the general downsizing of the nuclear weapons complex has presented challenges for Los Alamos. One is to design an optimized fabrication facility to manufacture nuclear weapon primary components in an environment of intense regulation and shrinking budgets. This dissertation presents an integrative two-stage approach to modeling the casting operation for fabrication of nuclear weapon primary components. The first stage optimizes personnel radiation exposure for the casting operation layout by modeling the operation as a facility layout problem formulated as a quadratic assignment problem. The solution procedure uses an evolutionary heuristic technique. The best solutions to the layout problem are used as input to the second stage - a simulation model that assesses the impact of competing layouts on operational performance. The focus of the simulation model is to determine the layout that minimizes personnel radiation exposures and nuclear material movement, and maximizes the utilization of capacity for finished units.
Path integral approach to electron scattering in classical electromagnetic potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Chuang; Feng Feng; Li Ying-Jun
2016-01-01
As is known to all, the electron scattering in classical electromagnetic potential is one of the most widespread applications of quantum theory. Nevertheless, many discussions about electron scattering are based upon single-particle Schrodinger equation or Dirac equation in quantum mechanics rather than the method of quantum field theory. In this paper, by using the path integral approach of quantum field theory, we perturbatively evaluate the scattering amplitude up to the second order for the electron scattering by the classical electromagnetic potential. The results we derive are convenient to apply to all sorts of potential forms. Furthermore, by means of the obtained results, we give explicit calculations for the one-dimensional electric potential. (paper)
Infectious diseases in oyster aquaculture require a new integrated approach.
Pernet, Fabrice; Lupo, Coralie; Bacher, Cédric; Whittington, Richard J
2016-03-05
Emerging diseases pose a recurrent threat to bivalve aquaculture. Recently, massive mortality events in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas associated with the detection of a microvariant of the ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1µVar) have been reported in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Although the spread of disease is often viewed as a governance failure, we suggest that the development of protective measures for bivalve farming is presently held back by the lack of key scientific knowledge. In this paper, we explore the case for an integrated approach to study the management of bivalve disease, using OsHV-1 as a case study. Reconsidering the key issues by incorporating multidisciplinary science could provide a holistic understanding of OsHV-1 and increase the benefit of research to policymakers. © 2016 The Author(s).
CLARM: An integrative approach for functional modules discovery
Salem, Saeed M.; Alroobi, Rami; Banitaan, Shadi; Seridi, Loqmane; Brewer, James E.; Aljarah, Ibrahim
2011-01-01
Functional module discovery aims to find well-connected subnetworks which can serve as candidate protein complexes. Advances in High-throughput proteomic technologies have enabled the collection of large amount of interaction data as well as gene expression data. We propose, CLARM, a clustering algorithm that integrates gene expression profiles and protein protein interaction network for biological modules discovery. The main premise is that by enriching the interaction network by adding interactions between genes which are highly co-expressed over a wide range of biological and environmental conditions, we can improve the quality of the discovered modules. Protein protein interactions, known protein complexes, and gene expression profiles for diverse environmental conditions from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used for evaluate the biological significance of the reported modules. Our experiments show that the CLARM approach is competitive to wellestablished module discovery methods. Copyright © 2011 ACM.
Strategic Technology Investment Analysis: An Integrated System Approach
Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.
2010-01-01
Complex technology investment decisions within NASA are increasingly difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Due to a restricted science budget environment and numerous required technology developments, the investment decisions need to take into account not only the functional impact on the program goals, but also development uncertainties and cost variations along with maintaining a healthy workforce. This paper describes an approach for optimizing and qualifying technology investment portfolios from the perspective of an integrated system model. The methodology encompasses multi-attribute decision theory elements and sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of the degree of robustness of the recommended portfolio provides the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy nontechnical constraints. The methodology is presented in the context of assessing capability development portfolios for NASA technology programs.
Engineering systems reliability, safety, and maintenance an integrated approach
Dhillon, B S
2017-01-01
Today, engineering systems are an important element of the world economy and each year billions of dollars are spent to develop, manufacture, operate, and maintain various types of engineering systems around the globe. Many of these systems are highly sophisticated and contain millions of parts. For example, a Boeing jumbo 747 is made up of approximately 4.5 million parts including fasteners. Needless to say, reliability, safety, and maintenance of systems such as this have become more important than ever before. Global competition and other factors are forcing manufacturers to produce highly reliable, safe, and maintainable engineering products. Therefore, there is a definite need for the reliability, safety, and maintenance professionals to work closely during design and other phases. Engineering Systems Reliability, Safety, and Maintenance: An Integrated Approach eliminates the need to consult many different and diverse sources in the hunt for the information required to design better engineering syste...
An integrated approach to route selection in slurry pipeline design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Betinol, Roy G.; Altmann, Nara [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)
2009-12-19
The pressure to get engineering projects done and constructed as fast as possible in order to take advantage of the high prices in metals and petrochemicals has been driving companies to skip the conceptual phase and go straight into basic engineering with cost estimates in the level of 15% accuracy. By-passing early engineering and demanding higher cost estimating accuracy is a contradiction. In most cases, savings made on capital investment is much higher had money been spent in conceptual studies which allow for the optimal solution to be found. This paper reviews one of the key aspects in conceptual engineering of slurry pipeline designs: route selection. This activity is often overlooked, causing capital cost and operating difficulties to rise unnecessarily. This paper describes and gives example on how an integrated client/engineering company's approach to route selection can produce significant savings in pipeline construction and operating costs. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB; Carmack, Jon [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB
2010-01-01
Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unal, Cetin; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Carmack, Jon
2010-01-01
Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R and D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.
A novel virtual hub approach for multisource downstream service integration
Previtali, Mattia; Cuca, Branka; Barazzetti, Luigi
2016-08-01
A large development of downstream services is expected to be stimulated starting from earth observations (EO) datasets acquired by Copernicus satellites. An important challenge connected with the availability of downstream services is the possibility for their integration in order to create innovative applications with added values for users of different categories level. At the moment, the world of geo-information (GI) is extremely heterogeneous in terms of standards and formats used, thus preventing a facilitated access and integration of downstream services. Indeed, different users and data providers have also different requirements in terms of communication protocols and technology advancement. In recent years, many important programs and initiatives have tried to address this issue even on trans-regional and international level (e.g. INSPIRE Directive, GEOSS, Eye on Earth and SEIS). However, a lack of interoperability between systems and services still exists. In order to facilitate the interaction between different downstream services, a new architectural approach (developed within the European project ENERGIC OD) is proposed in this paper. The brokering-oriented architecture introduces a new mediation layer (the Virtual Hub) which works as an intermediary to bridge the gaps linked to interoperability issues. This intermediation layer de-couples the server and the client allowing a facilitated access to multiple downstream services and also Open Data provided by national and local SDIs. In particular, in this paper an application is presented integrating four services on the topic of agriculture: (i) the service given by Space4Agri (providing services based on MODIS and Landsat data); (ii) Gicarus Lab (providing sample services based on Landsat datasets) and (iii) FRESHMON (providing sample services for water quality) and services from a several regional SDIs.
An integrated approach for multi-level sample size determination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, M.S.; Teichmann, T.; Sanborn, J.B.
1997-01-01
Inspection procedures involving the sampling of items in a population often require steps of increasingly sensitive measurements, with correspondingly smaller sample sizes; these are referred to as multilevel sampling schemes. In the case of nuclear safeguards inspections verifying that there has been no diversion of Special Nuclear Material (SNM), these procedures have been examined often and increasingly complex algorithms have been developed to implement them. The aim in this paper is to provide an integrated approach, and, in so doing, to describe a systematic, consistent method that proceeds logically from level to level with increasing accuracy. The authors emphasize that the methods discussed are generally consistent with those presented in the references mentioned, and yield comparable results when the error models are the same. However, because of its systematic, integrated approach the proposed method elucidates the conceptual understanding of what goes on, and, in many cases, simplifies the calculations. In nuclear safeguards inspections, an important aspect of verifying nuclear items to detect any possible diversion of nuclear fissile materials is the sampling of such items at various levels of sensitivity. The first step usually is sampling by ''attributes'' involving measurements of relatively low accuracy, followed by further levels of sampling involving greater accuracy. This process is discussed in some detail in the references given; also, the nomenclature is described. Here, the authors outline a coordinated step-by-step procedure for achieving such multilevel sampling, and they develop the relationships between the accuracy of measurement and the sample size required at each stage, i.e., at the various levels. The logic of the underlying procedures is carefully elucidated; the calculations involved and their implications, are clearly described, and the process is put in a form that allows systematic generalization
Trends in scenario development methodologies and integration in NUMO's approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebashi, Takeshi; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Kawamura, Hideki; Gaus, Irina; Vomvoris, Stratis; Martin, Andrew J.; Smith, Paul
2011-01-01
The development of scenarios for quantitative or qualitative analysis is a key element of the assessment of the safety of geological disposal systems. As an outcome of an international workshop attended by European and the Japanese implementers, a number of features common to current methodologies could be identified, as well as trends in their evolution over time. In the late nineties, scenario development was often described as a bottom-up process, whereby scenarios were said to be developed in essence from FEP databases. Nowadays, it is recognised that, in practice, the approaches actually adopted are better described as top-down or 'hybrid', taking as their starting point an integrated (top-down) understanding of the system under consideration including uncertainties in initial state, sometimes assisted by the development of 'storyboards'. A bottom-up element remains (hence the term 'hybrid') to the extent that FEP databases or FEP catalogues (including interactions) are still used, but the focus is generally on completeness checking, which occurs parallel to the main assessment process. Recent advances focus on the consistent treatment of uncertainties throughout the safety assessment and on the integration of operational safety and long term safety. (author)
Family welfare programme calls for an integrated approach.
Singh, P N
3 phases can be identified in India's family planning program in the 4 decades since the country achieved its independence: a stage designed to improve the infrastructure of family planning; a phase of integration of different health and family welfare services; and an attempt of community involvement and universal coverage. At this time there is a widespread infrastructure and a growing awareness of family planning services. The birthrate has declined from 41.2/1000 in the 1960s to 33.3/1000 in the 1980s; the mortality rate declined from 27.4 to 14.2. The current facilities of family welfare services are inadequate, particularly in rural areas. The present provision of auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMS) at the rate of 1/5000 can cover effectively only 1/3 of eligible couples. Further, in rural areas, communication and motivational efforts are lacking as well as easy availability of personnel and medical supplies. Finally, about 40% of the rural population lives below the poverty line and have not reached the economic threshold which is essential for adoption of the small family norm. The primary issue is to deal with the problem of social development. The emphasis needs to be on an integrated and package approach to economic progress and social transformation coupled with the family planning program. The best way to bring about the needed socioeconomic change is to provide educational and gainful employment opportunities.
An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Kumaresan
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, pH and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.
An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumaresan, K.; Balan, R.; Sridhar, A.; Aravind, J.; Kanmani, P.
2016-01-01
Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, p H and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Neustupa, Jiří
2010-01-01
Roč. 198, č. 1 (2010), 331-348 ISSN 0003-9527 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0012 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equations * inhomogeneous boundary data Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.277, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00205-010-0297-7
An integrated approach for facilities planning by ELECTRE method
Elbishari, E. M. Y.; Hazza, M. H. F. Al; Adesta, E. Y. T.; Rahman, Nur Salihah Binti Abdul
2018-01-01
Facility planning is concerned with the design, layout, and accommodation of people, machines and activities of a system. Most of the researchers try to investigate the production area layout and the related facilities. However, few of them try to investigate the relationship between the production space and its relationship with service departments. The aim of this research to is to integrate different approaches in order to evaluate, analyse and select the best facilities planning method that able to explain the relationship between the production area and other supporting departments and its effect on human efforts. To achieve the objective of this research two different approaches have been integrated: Apple’s layout procedure as one of the effective tools in planning factories, ELECTRE method as one of the Multi Criteria Decision Making methods (MCDM) to minimize the risk of getting poor facilities planning. Dalia industries have been selected as a case study to implement our integration the factory have been divided two main different area: the whole facility (layout A), and the manufacturing area (layout B). This article will be concerned with the manufacturing area layout (Layout B). After analysing the data gathered, the manufacturing area was divided into 10 activities. There are five factors that the alternative were compared upon which are: Inter department satisfactory level, total distance travelled for workers, total distance travelled for the product, total time travelled for the workers, and total time travelled for the product. Three different layout alternatives have been developed in addition to the original layouts. Apple’s layout procedure was used to study and evaluate the different alternatives layouts, the study and evaluation of the layouts was done by calculating scores for each of the factors. After obtaining the scores from evaluating the layouts, ELECTRE method was used to compare the proposed alternatives with each other and with
Project INTEGRATE - a common methodological approach to understand integrated health care in Europe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucinda Cash-Gibson
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Background: The use of case studies in health services research has proven to be an excellent methodology for gaining in-depth understanding of the organisation and delivery of health care. This is particularly relevant when looking at the complexity of integrated healthcare programmes, where multifaceted interactions occur at the different levels of care and often without a clear link between the interventions (new and/or existing and their impact on outcomes (in terms of patients health, both patient and professional satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. Still, integrated care is seen as a core strategy in the sustainability of health and care provision in most societies in Europe and beyond. More specifically, at present, there is neither clear evidence on transferable factors of integrated care success nor a method for determining how to establish these specific success factors. The drawback of case methodology in this case, however, is that the in-depth results or lessons generated are usually highly context-specific and thus brings the challenge of transferability of findings to other settings, as different health care systems and different indications are often not comparable. Project INTEGRATE, a European Commission-funded project, has been designed to overcome these problems; it looks into four chronic conditions in different European settings, under a common methodology framework (taking a mixed-methods approach to try to overcome the issue of context specificity and limited transferability. The common methodological framework described in this paper seeks to bring together the different case study findings in a way that key lessons may be derived and transferred between countries, contexts and patient-groups, where integrated care is delivered in order to provide insight into generalisability and build on existing evidence in this field.Methodology: To compare the different integrated care experiences, a mixed-methods approach has
Integrated Management System as constituent of balanced development approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasternak, J.
2005-01-01
Globalization of the economy makes RAFAKO S.A. react promptly and efficiently to what goes on in the surrounding world. The way this company is organized and managed constitutes the fundamental condition for success and it is this subject that the authors have concentrated on. The restructuring process of the company started in 1998. A business management structure was established and individual fields of activity, as profit or cost centers for budgeting and reporting, were separated. Employment rationalization was started, labour valuation system, its effectiveness and a new payment policy were implemented. In accordance with the stipulation resulting from standard PN-EN ISO 9000:2001, process-like approach to management was assumed. This paper presents the process based approach to management and elements of project management at RAFAKO S.A. The experiences in project management, originating from the history of this company, facilitated considerably the first stages of process management implementation. A brief description of budget planning technique and elements of cost account, as well as how the budget and account are interpreted in the Integrated Management System were presented. (author)
Distortion-Free Watermarking Approach for Relational Database Integrity Checking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lancine Camara
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, internet is becoming a suitable way of accessing the databases. Such data are exposed to various types of attack with the aim to confuse the ownership proofing or the content protection. In this paper, we propose a new approach based on fragile zero watermarking for the authentication of numeric relational data. Contrary to some previous databases watermarking techniques which cause some distortions in the original database and may not preserve the data usability constraints, our approach simply seeks to generate the watermark from the original database. First, the adopted method partitions the database relation into independent square matrix groups. Then, group-based watermarks are securely generated and registered in a trusted third party. The integrity verification is performed by computing the determinant and the diagonal’s minor for each group. As a result, tampering can be localized up to attribute group level. Theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique is resilient against tuples insertion, tuples deletion, and attributes values modification attacks. Furthermore, comparison with recent related effort shows that our scheme performs better in detecting multifaceted attacks.
Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach.
Senior, Alistair M; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J
2016-01-01
Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments.
Data integration, systems approach and multilevel description of complex biosystems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernández-Lemus, Enrique
2013-01-01
Recent years have witnessed the development of new quantitative approaches and theoretical tenets in the biological sciences. The advent of high throughput experiments in genomics, proteomics and electrophysiology (to cite just a few examples) have provided the researchers with unprecedented amounts of data to be analyzed. Large datasets, however can not provide the means to achieve a complete understanding of the underlying biological phenomena, unless they are supplied with a solid theoretical framework and with proper analytical tools. It is now widely accepted that by using and extending some of the paradigmatic principles of what has been called complex systems theory, some degree of advance in this direction can be attained. We will be presenting ways in which by using data integration techniques (linear, non-linear, combinatorial, graphical), multidimensional-multilevel descriptions (multifractal modeling, dimensionality reduction, computational learning), as well as an approach based in systems theory (interaction maps, probabilistic graphical models, non-equilibrium physics) have allowed us to better understand some problems in the interface of Statistical Physics and Computational Biology
Karet KB and jamu: an integrated approach to condom marketing.
Piet, D L; Hendrata, L
1974-01-01
The development of an out-of-clinic method for marketing condoms in Indonesia is described. A jamu company (jamu referes to any herbal medicant, many of which are related to sexual activity, whose use is firmly integrated into the Indonesian way of life) was contracted by the private, non-profit Prosperous Indonesia Foundation (YIS) to distribute condoms as a jamu item. The condoms are donated to YIS by the U.S. Agency for International Development, and are retailed at 20 rupees for a package of 3, with a profit of 4 rupees for the retailer. Mobile promotional/sales units are the most effective means for selling the devices. The approach appeals to the cultural and sexual character of the people. The media is used extensively to promote condoms and family planning. Although it is too early to assess the impact of the program, it is anticipated that this novel approach will spread the use of condoms to all areas of Indonesia.
Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Juwarkar, A.A.; Jambhulkar, H.P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)
2008-07-15
Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), at 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.
Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka
Garcin, M.; Desprats, J. F.; Fontaine, M.; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C. H. E. R.; de Silva, U.; Poisson, B.
2008-06-01
The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka. The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka. This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks. The coastal
Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Garcin
2008-06-01
Full Text Available The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed. Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka.
The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka.
This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation
Social network approaches to leadership: an integrative conceptual review.
Carter, Dorothy R; DeChurch, Leslie A; Braun, Michael T; Contractor, Noshir S
2015-05-01
Contemporary definitions of leadership advance a view of the phenomenon as relational, situated in specific social contexts, involving patterned emergent processes, and encompassing both formal and informal influence. Paralleling these views is a growing interest in leveraging social network approaches to study leadership. Social network approaches provide a set of theories and methods with which to articulate and investigate, with greater precision and rigor, the wide variety of relational perspectives implied by contemporary leadership theories. Our goal is to advance this domain through an integrative conceptual review. We begin by answering the question of why-Why adopt a network approach to study leadership? Then, we offer a framework for organizing prior research. Our review reveals 3 areas of research, which we term: (a) leadership in networks, (b) leadership as networks, and (c) leadership in and as networks. By clarifying the conceptual underpinnings, key findings, and themes within each area, this review serves as a foundation for future inquiry that capitalizes on, and programmatically builds upon, the insights of prior work. Our final contribution is to advance an agenda for future research that harnesses the confluent ideas at the intersection of leadership in and as networks. Leadership in and as networks represents a paradigm shift in leadership research-from an emphasis on the static traits and behaviors of formal leaders whose actions are contingent upon situational constraints, toward an emphasis on the complex and patterned relational processes that interact with the embedding social context to jointly constitute leadership emergence and effectiveness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Yang, Xiang; Sadique, Jasim; Mittal, Rajat; Meneveau, Charles
2014-11-01
A new wall model for Large-Eddy-Simulations is proposed. It is based on an integral boundary layer method that assumes a functional form for the local mean velocity profile. The method, iWMLES, evaluates required unsteady and advective terms in the vertically integrated boundary layer equations analytically. The assumed profile contains a viscous or roughness sublayer, and a logarithmic layer with an additional linear term accounting for inertial and pressure gradient effects. The iWMLES method is tested in the context of a finite difference LES code. Test cases include developing turbulent boundary layers on a smooth flat plate at various Reynolds numbers, over flat plates with unresolved roughness, and a sample application to boundary layer flow over a plate that includes resolved roughness elements. The elements are truncated cones acting as idealized barnacle-like roughness elements that often occur in biofouling of marine surfaces. Comparisons with data show that iWMLES provides accurate predictions of near-wall velocity profiles in LES while, similarly to equilibrium wall models, its cost remains independent of Reynolds number and is thus significantly lower compared to standard zonal or hybrid wall models. This work is funded by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0582 (Dr. R. Joslin, program manager).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo Arrubia
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Formal equality constitutes a paramount vindication in order to achieve the state acknowledgment of LGBTI people. However, it can be observed that there is a factual platform of inequality beyond juridical norms, whereby stigma is constructed so as to impede the effective enjoyment of social rights such as education and health, among others. In this sense, the Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity illustrate the expectations of compliance with this group’s rights. Therefore, it can be noticed that these principles have attained major fulfilment throughout cases and official papers, which have emerged in different countries over last year. Then, the material analysed in this essay reflects that the stigma against sexual diversity is constructed in the immediate scope of daily life. This demands that the respect towards LGBTI people’s rights shall begin from the closest levels of domestic laws based on public policies designed with a human rights approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Ehrlich
2008-12-01
be identified as pure liquid water clouds. All three methods were applied to measurements above a cloud field observed during ASTAR 2007. The comparison with independent in situ microphysical measurements shows the ability of the three approaches to identify the ice phase in Arctic boundary-layer clouds.
A new, integrated, approach to mineralization-based CCS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hunwick, R.J. [Integrated Carbon Sequestration Pty Ltd., Lindfield, NSW (Australia)
2009-11-15
Mineralization is an attractive concept for carbon capture and storage as it can avoid some of the potential public acceptance problems of geosequestering pressurised CO{sub 2}. But there are major cost and energy penalty concerns. A new integrated approach to mineralisation, avoiding the intermediate step of CO{sub 2} extraction and promising considerable benefits, is outlined here. The ICS process integrates two operation in the first, an ammonia-rich aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate is used to scrub carbon dioxide from flue gases to form a solution enriched in carbon dioxide. In the second, pretreated serpentinite or other suitable ultramafic rock is blended directly into this rich solution prior to the mixture being held under controlled conditions in a purpose-built reactor. The silicate minerals react with ammonium carbonate to form magnesium carbonate and silica, thereby directly removing frrm solution the carbon dioxide that was absorbed in the flue gas scrubbers as insoluble precipitates. The capture solution is regenerated for its recycle to the flue gas scrubbers. Trials at Lucas Hights have demonstrated the direct conversion of silicates to magnesite, and work continues to establish optimum conditions for this reaction to allow a continuous pilot plant to be designed. Their thermodynamic modeling has confirmed the energy efficiency of the process. Pre-feasibility studies into retrofitting ICS to major existing coal-fired power stations to capture at least 90% of their carbon dioxide emissions suggest a total cost of US$50 to capture and store each tonne of the gas permanently. Since the tonnage of rock required for this mineralisation process is six times the tonnage of coal to be fired in the host power station logic dictates that any new power station should be nearer the rock deposit than the coal field that furnishes its fuel. 2 figs.
Using graph approach for managing connectivity in integrative landscape modelling
Rabotin, Michael; Fabre, Jean-Christophe; Libres, Aline; Lagacherie, Philippe; Crevoisier, David; Moussa, Roger
2013-04-01
In cultivated landscapes, a lot of landscape elements such as field boundaries, ditches or banks strongly impact water flows, mass and energy fluxes. At the watershed scale, these impacts are strongly conditionned by the connectivity of these landscape elements. An accurate representation of these elements and of their complex spatial arrangements is therefore of great importance for modelling and predicting these impacts.We developped in the framework of the OpenFLUID platform (Software Environment for Modelling Fluxes in Landscapes) a digital landscape representation that takes into account the spatial variabilities and connectivities of diverse landscape elements through the application of the graph theory concepts. The proposed landscape representation consider spatial units connected together to represent the flux exchanges or any other information exchanges. Each spatial unit of the landscape is represented as a node of a graph and relations between units as graph connections. The connections are of two types - parent-child connection and up/downstream connection - which allows OpenFLUID to handle hierarchical graphs. Connections can also carry informations and graph evolution during simulation is possible (connections or elements modifications). This graph approach allows a better genericity on landscape representation, a management of complex connections and facilitate development of new landscape representation algorithms. Graph management is fully operational in OpenFLUID for developers or modelers ; and several graph tools are available such as graph traversal algorithms or graph displays. Graph representation can be managed i) manually by the user (for example in simple catchments) through XML-based files in easily editable and readable format or ii) by using methods of the OpenFLUID-landr library which is an OpenFLUID library relying on common open-source spatial libraries (ogr vector, geos topologic vector and gdal raster libraries). Open
Inspector training for VIFM equipment - An integrated approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Truong, Q.S. Bob; Keeffe, R.; Ellacott, T.; Desson, K.; Herber, N.
2001-01-01
Full text: The VXI Integrated Fuel Monitor (VIFM) was developed by the Canadian Safeguards Support Program (CSSP) as a generic radiation monitor for safeguards applications. The VIFM equipment features a modular design, where a single cabinet can house several instruments such as bundle counters, core discharge monitors, Yes/No monitors, and other devices. VIFM can also be used in a stand-alone, transportable mode, with a detector connected to a single VIFM module linked to a laptop computer. VIFM equipment is currently in use at CANDU nuclear generating stations in several countries. Because each facility may have a different combination of detectors, the training program has been designed to reflect the modular nature of VIFM. Introductory material is generic and applies to any facility. More advanced material is carefully compartmentalized to allow IAEA Inspectors to concentrate their efforts in areas that concern them. Advanced material is available in a just-in-time reference format that simplifies rapid access to detailed information. A number of training resources have been developed, including multimedia and video material on CD-ROMs. This material has been designed to operate on a laptop computer, allowing inspectors to review and refresh their knowledge at any time - for example, during inspection trips. Although each of these resources is useful in its own right, the CSSP is developing an integrated approach to inspector training that combines all of these elements in a new way calculated to produce better training results than in the past. This new training approach features a two-day workshop preceded by a period of CD-ROM-based self-paced study. After the workshop, participants are able to make use of printed and CD-ROM-based reference materials for just-in-time 'refreshers'. Each step in this integrated approach to training will be described in the presentation. Briefly, the steps are as follows. A multimedia computer-based training package is made
Biomass gasification systems for residential application: An integrated simulation approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prando, Dario; Patuzzi, Francesco; Pernigotto, Giovanni; Gasparella, Andrea; Baratieri, Marco
2014-01-01
The energy policy of the European member States is promoting high-efficiency cogeneration systems by means of the European directive 2012/27/EU. Particular facilitations have been implemented for the small-scale and micro-cogeneration units. Furthermore, the directive 2010/31/EU promotes the improvement of energy performance of buildings and use of energy from renewable sources for the building sector. In this scenario, systems based on gasification are considered a promising technological solution when dealing with biomass and small scale systems. In this paper, an integrated approach has been implemented to assess the energy performance of combined heat and power (CHP) systems based on biomass gasification and installed in residential blocks. The space-heating loads of the considered building configurations have been simulated by means of EnergyPlus. The heat load for domestic hot water demand has been calculated according to the average daily profiles suggested by the Italian and European technical standards. The efficiency of the whole CHP system has been evaluated supplementing the simulation of the gasification stage with the energy balance of the cogeneration set (i.e., internal combustion engine) and implementing the developed routines in the Matlab-Simulink environment. The developed model has been used to evaluate the primary energy saving (PES) of the CHP system compared to a reference case of separate production of heat and power. Economic analyses are performed either with or without subsidizations for the generated electricity. The results highlight the capability of the integrated approach to estimate both energy and economic performances of CHP systems applied to the residential context. Furthermore, the importance of the generated heat valorisation and the proper system sizing have been discussed. - Highlights: • CHP system based on biomass gasification to meet household energy demand is studied. • Influence of CHP size and operation time on
A Triangular Approach to Integrate Research, Education and Practice in Higher Engineering Education
Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Jaako, Juha; Hiltunen, Jukka
2017-01-01
Separate approaches in engineering education, research and practice are not very useful when preparing students for working life; instead, integration of education, research and industrial practices is needed. A triangular approach (TA) as a method to accomplish this integration and as a method to provide students with integrated expertise is…
Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Gubbels, Jessica S; De Vries, Nanne K.; Seidell, Jaap C; Kremers, Stef P J; Jansen, Maria W J
2012-01-01
Experts stress the need to bring the childhood obesity epidemic under control by means of an integrated approach. The implementation of such an approach requires the development of integrated enabling policies on public health by local governments. A prerequisite for developing such integrated
Huang, W.; Jiang, J.; Zha, Z.; Zhang, H.; Wang, C.; Zhang, J.
2014-04-01
Geospatial data resources are the foundation of the construction of geo portal which is designed to provide online geoinformation services for the government, enterprise and public. It is vital to keep geospatial data fresh, accurate and comprehensive in order to satisfy the requirements of application and development of geographic location, route navigation, geo search and so on. One of the major problems we are facing is data acquisition. For us, integrating multi-sources geospatial data is the mainly means of data acquisition. This paper introduced a practice integration approach of multi-source geospatial data with different data model, structure and format, which provided the construction of National Geospatial Information Service Platform of China (NGISP) with effective technical supports. NGISP is the China's official geo portal which provides online geoinformation services based on internet, e-government network and classified network. Within the NGISP architecture, there are three kinds of nodes: national, provincial and municipal. Therefore, the geospatial data is from these nodes and the different datasets are heterogeneous. According to the results of analysis of the heterogeneous datasets, the first thing we do is to define the basic principles of data fusion, including following aspects: 1. location precision; 2.geometric representation; 3. up-to-date state; 4. attribute values; and 5. spatial relationship. Then the technical procedure is researched and the method that used to process different categories of features such as road, railway, boundary, river, settlement and building is proposed based on the principles. A case study in Jiangsu province demonstrated the applicability of the principle, procedure and method of multi-source geospatial data integration.
Approaches to cancer assessment in EPA's Integrated Risk Information System.
Gehlhaus, Martin W; Gift, Jeffrey S; Hogan, Karen A; Kopylev, Leonid; Schlosser, Paul M; Kadry, Abdel-Razak
2011-07-15
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Program develops assessments of health effects that may result from chronic exposure to chemicals in the environment. The IRIS database contains more than 540 assessments. When supported by available data, IRIS assessments provide quantitative analyses of carcinogenic effects. Since publication of EPA's 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, IRIS cancer assessments have implemented new approaches recommended in these guidelines and expanded the use of complex scientific methods to perform quantitative dose-response assessments. Two case studies of the application of the mode of action framework from the 2005 Cancer Guidelines are presented in this paper. The first is a case study of 1,2,3-trichloropropane, as an example of a chemical with a mutagenic mode of carcinogenic action thus warranting the application of age-dependent adjustment factors for early-life exposure; the second is a case study of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, as an example of a chemical with a carcinogenic action consistent with a nonlinear extrapolation approach. The use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to quantify interindividual variability and account for human parameter uncertainty as part of a quantitative cancer assessment is illustrated using a case study involving probabilistic PBPK modeling for dichloromethane. We also discuss statistical issues in assessing trends and model fit for tumor dose-response data, analysis of the combined risk from multiple types of tumors, and application of life-table methods for using human data to derive cancer risk estimates. These issues reflect the complexity and challenges faced in assessing the carcinogenic risks from exposure to environmental chemicals, and provide a view of the current trends in IRIS carcinogenicity risk assessment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Towards an integrated approach to health and medicine in Africa.
Batisai, Kezia
2016-12-01
This article frames the intersections of medicine and humanities as intrinsic to understanding the practice of health care in Africa. Central to this manuscript, which draws on empirical findings on the interplay between HIV and AIDS and alternative medicine in Zimbabwe is the realisation that very limited research has been undertaken to examine 'HIV/AIDS patient behaviour' with respect to choice of therapy on the continent [Bene, M. & Darkoh, M. B. K. (2014). The Constraints of Antiretroviral Uptake in Rural Areas: The Case of Thamaga and Surrounding Villages, Botswana. Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 11(1), 167-177. doi: 10.1080/17290376.2014.972057 ; Chavunduka, G. (1998). Professionalisation of Traditional Medicine in Zimbabwe, Harare, Jongwe Printers; O'Brien, S. & Broom, A. (2014). HIV in (and out of) the Clinic: Biomedicine, Traditional Medicine and Spiritual Healing in Harare. Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 11(1), 94-104. doi: 10.1080/17290376.2014.938102 ]. As such, a social approach to health-seeking behaviour questions how decisions about alternative therapies including herbal remedies, traditional healing and faith healing are made. The paper unpacks the realities around how people living with HIV and AIDS - who span different age groups and profess various religious backgrounds, faced with an insurmountable health challenge against a background of limited resources and no cure for the virus - often experience shifts in health-seeking behaviour. Grappling with seemingly simple questions about 'when, where and how to seek medical attention', the paper provides pointers to therapy choices and health-seeking behaviour; and it serves as a route into deeper and intense healthcare practice explorations. In conclusion, the paper proposes that medicine and the humanities should engage seriously with those social aspects of HIV and AIDS which call for an integrated approach to healthcare practice in Africa. If combined, medicine and the humanities
Approaches to cancer assessment in EPA's Integrated Risk Information System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gehlhaus, Martin W.; Gift, Jeffrey S.; Hogan, Karen A.; Kopylev, Leonid; Schlosser, Paul M.; Kadry, Abdel-Razak
2011-01-01
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Program develops assessments of health effects that may result from chronic exposure to chemicals in the environment. The IRIS database contains more than 540 assessments. When supported by available data, IRIS assessments provide quantitative analyses of carcinogenic effects. Since publication of EPA's 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, IRIS cancer assessments have implemented new approaches recommended in these guidelines and expanded the use of complex scientific methods to perform quantitative dose-response assessments. Two case studies of the application of the mode of action framework from the 2005 Cancer Guidelines are presented in this paper. The first is a case study of 1,2,3-trichloropropane, as an example of a chemical with a mutagenic mode of carcinogenic action thus warranting the application of age-dependent adjustment factors for early-life exposure; the second is a case study of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, as an example of a chemical with a carcinogenic action consistent with a nonlinear extrapolation approach. The use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to quantify interindividual variability and account for human parameter uncertainty as part of a quantitative cancer assessment is illustrated using a case study involving probabilistic PBPK modeling for dichloromethane. We also discuss statistical issues in assessing trends and model fit for tumor dose-response data, analysis of the combined risk from multiple types of tumors, and application of life-table methods for using human data to derive cancer risk estimates. These issues reflect the complexity and challenges faced in assessing the carcinogenic risks from exposure to environmental chemicals, and provide a view of the current trends in IRIS carcinogenicity risk assessment.
Integrated approach in the treatment of metabolic syndrome
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The Goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the integrated approach for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MS aiming to correct all of its components versus standard therapy using clinical outcomes (BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid levels, assessment of psychological status (Beck Depression Inventory, and quality of life (SF-36. Methods: A total of 60 patients with MS were included in the study. The study group (30 subjects mean age 41.0±11 years, women - 23 (76.7%, men - 7 (23.3% received the complex therapy of MS - pharmacotherapy of obesity (orlistat and insulin resistance (metformin, lipid-lowering therapy (statins or fibrates, antihypertensive therapy. Control group (30 patients mean age 43.4±9.5 years, women - 26 (86.7%, men - 4 (13.3% was treated with statins or fibrates and received antihypertensive therapy when needed. At the inclusion in the study and after 6 months of therapy all patients underwent clinical and laboratory investigation, assessment of depression and quality of life. Results: We found a more significant reduction of all clinical outcomes (body weight, blood pressure, improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, a significant decrease in the prevalence and severity of the depression, and an improvement in the quality of life in patients of study group compared with standard therapy. Conclusion: Complex treatment of the MS, including pharmacotherapy of obesity (orlistat, Xenical and insulin resistance (metformin, Glucophage is characterized by a greater clinical efficacy compared with standard therapy.
Climate change and local pollution effects. An integrated approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aaheim, H.A.; Kristin, A.; Seip, H.M.
1999-01-01
Few studies on measures for mitigation of damage caused by man-made emissions to the environment have tried to consider all major effects. We illustrate the importance of an integrated approach by estimating costs and benefits of a proposed energy saving program for Hungary, originally designed to reduce CO 2 emissions. The dominant benefit of implementing the program is likely to be reduced health damage from local pollutants. Also reduced costs of material damage and to a lesser extent vegetation damage contribute to make the net benefit considerable. Compared to the reduction in these local and regional effects, the benefits from reducing greenhouse gases are likely to be minor. Since local effects in general occur much earlier after measures have been implemented than effects of increased emissions of greenhouse gases, inclusion of local effects makes evaluation of climate policy less dependent on the choice of discount rate. In our opinion, similar results are likely for many measures originally designed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases particularly in some areas in developing countries with high local pollution levels. Main uncertainties in the analysis, e.g. in the relationships between damage and pollution level, are discussed. 72 refs
Evolutionary algorithms approach for integrated bioenergy supply chains optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayoub, Nasser; Elmoshi, Elsayed; Seki, Hiroya; Naka, Yuji
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose an optimization model and solution approach for designing and evaluating integrated system of bioenergy production supply chains, SC, at the local level. Designing SC that simultaneously utilize a set of bio-resources together is a complicated task, considered here. The complication arises from the different nature and sources of bio-resources used in bioenergy production i.e., wet, dry or agriculture, industrial etc. Moreover, the different concerns that decision makers should take into account, to overcome the tradeoff anxieties of the socialists and investors, i.e., social, environmental and economical factors, was considered through the options of multi-criteria optimization. A first part of this research was introduced in earlier research work explaining the general Bioenergy Decision System gBEDS [Ayoub N, Martins R, Wang K, Seki H, Naka Y. Two levels decision system for efficient planning and implementation of bioenergy production. Energy Convers Manage 2007;48:709-23]. In this paper, brief introduction and emphasize on gBEDS are given; the optimization model is presented and followed by a case study on designing a supply chain of nine bio-resources at Iida city in the middle part of Japan.
Reclamation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juwarkar, A.S.; Thawale, P.R.; Mowade, S.; Shrivastava, S.; Deshbhratar, P.B.; Juwarkar, A.
1994-01-01
Laboratory and field studies were carried out to restore the fertility and productivity of coal mine spoil using primary clarifier sludge from paper mill effluent treatment plant and use of specialised culture of biofertilizers and mycorrhizal fungi. Plants namely Tectona grandis, Delbergia sissoo, Gmelina arporea, Emblica officinalis and Cassia seamea were grown. Sludge amendment enhanced the survival rate of plants to 80% compared to 20% in unamended spoil. Plants grown on unamended spoil showed stunted growth. Growth of plants increased by 188-484% when sludge was applied at the rate of 100 tonnes per hectare. At 100 tones per hectare sludge amendment, biofertilizer and mycorrhizae treatment there were 83.7 nodules in shishum as against only 4.6 nodules in case of spoil alone. Further root length was 276% and 281% more respectively in case of shishum and teak. Inoculation of plant saplings with respective biofertilizers and mycorrhizae further increased the plant growth by 144-198%. At Durgapur coal mine, 56,000 saplings of Tectona grandis, Gmelina arporea, Delbergia sissoo, Emblica officinalis, Azadirachta indica, Acacia ariculiformis, Prosopis etc were successfully planted on spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. 10 refs., 5 tabs
Photonic integrated circuits : a new approach to laser technology
Piramidowicz, R.; Stopinski, S.T.; Lawniczuk, K.; Welikow, K.; Szczepanski, P.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Smit, M.K.
2012-01-01
In this work a brief review on photonic integrated circuits (PICs) is presented with a specific focus on integrated lasers and amplifiers. The work presents the history of development of the integration technology in photonics and its comparison to microelectronics. The major part of the review is
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
GIULIO PAVIA
2004-03-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a definition of the lower boundary stratotype of the Tithonian Stage in the Upper Jurassic succession of Monte Inici, Western Sicily. The upper member of the Rosso Ammonitico Fm. is 27 m thick and shows a typical nodular-calcareous lithofacies; its lower beds have been sampled for biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic purposes. Though the succession is affected by high stratigraphic condensation, the resulting hiatuses have been shown to be below biochronological resolution and thus do not hinder any biostratigraphic definition. The biostratigraphic analysis has been based on the rich ammonite assemblages in which the common genus Hybonoticeras is the index-key for characterizing the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian boundary. Four ammonite biozones have been identified; the basal Tithonian one is defined by the assemblage of Hybonoticeras gr. hybonotum and Haploceras staszycii. The recorded calcareous nannofossil bioevents allow recognition of the V. stradneri and C. mexicana Zones, whose boundary is located a little below the identified Tithonian lower boundary. The paleomagnetic record shows normal polarity in the S. darwini/V. albertinum Zone and mainly reverse polarity in the H. beckeri and H. hybonotum Zones, with three minor normal polarity intervals; the lower boundary of the Tithonian falls in the oldest of these intervals. The integrated multidisciplinary stratigraphic information gathered from the Contrada Fornazzo section defines the lower boundary of the H. hybonotum Zone at the base of Bed 110, and supplies elements of chrono-correlation sufficient to regard this section as a possible G.S.S.P. of the Tithonian Stage.
2015-12-02
layer , the non-reflecting boundary condition suggested by Poinsot and Lele is adopted.38 On the flat – plate surface, the no-penetration (v = 0) and the no...Introduction Shock-wave boundary layer interactions (SBLIs) occur in most supersonic flight applications and have been the subject of many studies...generator plate is emulated to create an oblique shock that impinges on the boundary layer causing separation. This is similar to the experimental
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alimadadi, Hossein; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos; Somers, Marcel A. J.
2013-01-01
grain boundaries. A peculiar arrangement of Σ3 boundaries forming five-fold junctions is observed. The resulting microstructure meets the requirements for grain boundary engineering. Twinning induced effects on the crystallographic orientation of grains result in one major texture component being a ⟨210......⟩ fiber axis and additional minor orientations originating from first and second generation twins of ⟨210⟩, i.e., ⟨542⟩ and ⟨20 2 1⟩....
Harrison, M.; Cocco, M.
2017-12-01
EPOS (European Plate Observing System) has been designed with the vision of creating a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. In accordance with this scientific vision, the EPOS mission is to integrate the diverse and advanced European Research Infrastructures for solid Earth science relying on new e-science opportunities to monitor and unravel the dynamic and complex Earth System. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. To accomplish its mission, EPOS is engaging different stakeholders, to allow the Earth sciences to open new horizons in our understanding of the planet. EPOS also aims at contributing to prepare society for geo-hazards and to responsibly manage the exploitation of geo-resources. Through integration of data, models and facilities, EPOS will allow the Earth science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and human welfare. The research infrastructures (RIs) that EPOS is coordinating include: i) distributed geophysical observing systems (seismological and geodetic networks); ii) local observatories (including geomagnetic, near-fault and volcano observatories); iii) analytical and experimental laboratories; iv) integrated satellite data and geological information services; v) new services for natural and anthropogenic hazards; vi) access to geo-energy test beds. Here we present the activities planned for the implementation phase focusing on the TCS, the ICS and on their interoperability. We will discuss the data, data-products, software and services (DDSS) presently under
A generic, time-resolved, integrated digital image correlation, identification approach
Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Neggers, J.; Blaysat, Benoît; Hild, François; Geers, M.G.D.; Jin, H.; Sciammarella, C.; Yoshida, S.; Lamberti, L.
2015-01-01
A generic one-step Integrated Digital Image Correlation (I-DIC) inverse parameter identification approach is introduced that enables direct identification of constitutive model parameters by intimately integrating a Finite Elements Method (FEM) with Digital Image Correlation (DIC), directly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valyaev, A.N.; Kiselev, V.P.; Gerasimenko, N.N.; Dzhamanbalin, K.K.
2003-01-01
The present paper is devoted to description of basic works carrying out within framework of the International project 'Ecological monitoring of Russia and Kazakhstan boundary regions'. In 2002 the works were conducted by three directions: preparation of necessary boundary areas' electronic maps; overview of existing information sources (Kostanai and Chelyabinsk cities are as an example); implementation of ecological information data bases structures on boundary areas. The geographic information system MapInfo was selected in the capacity of geo-information system. The implementation information-simulating complex is planing as open developing system. In the framework of the complex the combined operation of a set of different-scale special-purpose information, simulating and geo-information systems have been provided
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yilang Shen
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Line simplification is an important component of map generalization. In recent years, algorithms for line simplification have been widely researched, and most of them are based on vector data. However, with the increasing development of computer vision, analysing and processing information from unstructured image data is both meaningful and challenging. Therefore, in this paper, we present a new line simplification approach based on image processing (BIP, which is specifically designed for raster data. First, the key corner points on a multi-scale image feature are detected and treated as candidate points. Then, to capture the essence of the shape within a given boundary using the fewest possible segments, the minimum-perimeter polygon (MPP is calculated and the points of the MPP are defined as the approximate feature points. Finally, the points after simplification are selected from the candidate points by comparing the distances between the candidate points and the approximate feature points. An empirical example was used to test the applicability of the proposed method. The results showed that (1 when the key corner points are detected based on a multi-scale image feature, the local features of the line can be extracted and retained and the positional accuracy of the proposed method can be maintained well; and (2 by defining the visibility constraint of geographical features, this method is especially suitable for simplifying water areas as it is aligned with people’s visual habits.
Integrating physical and financial approaches to manage environmental financial risk
Characklis, Gregory; Meyer, Eliot; Foster, Benjamin
2017-04-01
Physical and/or engineered solutions have long been used to manage risks associated with adverse environmental events. Examples include reservoirs as a tool for mitigating drought-related supply risk, levees for managing flood risk and dredging of inland waterways to ensure navigability during low flow periods. These measures can reduce many types of risk (e.g., loss of life), but are often employed as a means of protecting against financial losses. When the focus is on managing environmental financial risk, physical solutions can be effective, but also costly. In many cases, non-physical tools can provide a less expensive means of managing financial risk, with these often taking the form of financial instruments such as hedging contracts, contingency funds or insurance. Some of these instruments, such as flood insurance, are widely available, but historically many environmental financial risks have been managed primarily (or solely) via physical solutions without much consideration of alternatives, thereby opening opportunities for innovation in developing financial solutions. Recent research has demonstrated that financial instruments can play a significant role in managing drought-related financial risk in sectors as diverse as water utilities, energy generation and inland navigation. Nonetheless, this work has largely considered the use of these instruments within systems in which physical solutions are already in place (but failing to achieve desired performance). The next step in the evolution of managing environmental financial risk involves developing methods for designing risk management strategies that do not assume an established physical system. Here the goal is to identify the relative role that physical solutions and financial instruments should play as they are integrated into a comprehensive risk management strategy. This is not a straightforward challenge as one approach reduces the risk of financial losses and the other redistributes those losses
Towards an integrated approach to health and medicine in Africa
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kezia Batisai
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This article frames the intersections of medicine and humanities as intrinsic to understanding the practice of health care in Africa. Central to this manuscript, which draws on empirical findings on the interplay between HIV and AIDS and alternative medicine in Zimbabwe is the realisation that very limited research has been undertaken to examine ‘HIV/AIDS patient behaviour’ with respect to choice of therapy on the continent [Bene, M. & Darkoh, M. B. K. (2014. The Constraints of Antiretroviral Uptake in Rural Areas: The Case of Thamaga and Surrounding Villages, Botswana. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 11(1, 167–177. doi:10.1080/17290376.2014.972057; Chavunduka, G. (1998. Professionalisation of Traditional Medicine in Zimbabwe, Harare, Jongwe Printers; O’Brien, S. & Broom, A. (2014. HIV in (and out of the Clinic: Biomedicine, Traditional Medicine and Spiritual Healing in Harare. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 11(1, 94–104. doi:10.1080/17290376.2014.938102]. As such, a social approach to health-seeking behaviour questions how decisions about alternative therapies including herbal remedies, traditional healing and faith healing are made. The paper unpacks the realities around how people living with HIV and AIDS – who span different age groups and profess various religious backgrounds, faced with an insurmountable health challenge against a background of limited resources and no cure for the virus – often experience shifts in health-seeking behaviour. Grappling with seemingly simple questions about ‘when, where and how to seek medical attention’, the paper provides pointers to therapy choices and health-seeking behaviour; and it serves as a route into deeper and intense healthcare practice explorations. In conclusion, the paper proposes that medicine and the humanities should engage seriously with those social aspects of HIV and AIDS which call for an integrated approach to healthcare practice in
Mediterranean Storms: An Integrated Approach of Risk Management
Karageorgou, H.; Riza, E.; Linos, A.; Papanikolaou, D.
2010-09-01
Disaster by UN definition is "a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society, involving widespread human, material, economic, or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using only its own resources". Mediterranean storms induce flash floods caused by excessive amounts of rainfall within a short lasting period of time. The intensity and duration of precipitation, region geomorphology, urbanization and different governmental emergency management structures trigger different consequences between Mediterranean countries. The integrated approach in management of storm risk represents a holistic perspective including interactions between government, science and technology institutions, developing agencies, private sector, NGOs and public. Local authorities and national government are responsible for the design, preparation and decision on storm risk management policies and strategies considering scientific risk identifying, assessing and understanding. Efficient governance management requires satisfied response to early warning systems, functionality of the affected systems upon which society depends and appropriate focus on variable interest, beliefs, values and ideologies between social groups. Also an appropriate balancing of benefits and costs in an efficient and equitable manner is important for the governance risk management. Natural sciences in corporation with the engineering science have developed effective early prediction, warning and monitoring systems on storm and flood risk. The health sciences use prediction systems for health related hazards and consequences and the social sciences research estimates the human resilience during disasters and the factors which affect and determine the human behavior. Also social sciences survey the response of public to early warning messages, the appropriate communicative methods to distributing messages and mechanisms to improve public
Rationale for an integrated approach to genetic epidemiology.
Laberge, Claude M; Knoppers, Bartha Maria
1992-10-01
Genetic knowledge is now in the public domain and its interpretation by the media and the citizens brings the issues into the public forum of discussion for the necessary ethical, legal and socio-cultural evaluation of its application. Science is being perceived by some as dangerous and as requiring international regulation. Others feel that genetic knowledge will be the breakthrough that will permit medical progress and individual autonomy with regards to personal health and lifestyle choices. The mapping of the human genome has already yielded valuable information on an increasing number of diseases and their variants. Prevailing popular and journalistic archetypes ("imaginaires") used in the media are perceived by the producers as slowing down the possible application of genetic knowledge. The answers to these dilemmas are not readily apparent nor are they prescribed by classical philosophy of medicine. Since genetic knowledge eventually resides with the individual who carries the genes of disease and/or susceptibility, a logical approach to integration of this knowledge at a societal level would seem to reside with individual education and decision-making. The politics of the ensuing social debate could transform the current social contract since an individual's interests need to be balanced against those of his or her immediate family in the sharing of information. The ethical foundations of such a contract requires the genetic education of "Everyone" as a matter of urgent priority. Genetic education should not serve ideological power struggles between the medical establishment and the ethical-legal alliance. Instead, it should ensure the transfer of knowledge to physicians, to patients, to users, to planners, to social science and humanities researchers and to politicians, so that they may make "informed" and free decisions....
PHWR Fuel - an integrated approach in Indian context
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jayaraj, R.N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad (India)
2008-07-01
The nuclear power programme in India is based on a three-stage approach in which the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) forms the backbone of the first stage. Over the years, apart from gaining expertise in design, construction and operation of PHWRs, innovative fuel designs and manufacturing technologies have also been evolved. Presently, thirteen PHWR 220 units and two PHWR 540 units are in operation. Three more PHWR 220 units are in the advanced stage of construction. In addition, the PHWR power generation programme envisages construction of eight more PHWR 700 units. Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) at Hyderabad, established in early 70s, is the only manufacturer of fuel and reactor core structurals for all the PHWRs in India. Since inception, the thrust has been on indigenous development of technology in the areas of production processes, equipment manufacture and quality assurance programmes. Commensurate with the PHWR programme, NFC has expanded its production capacities and has fabricated more than 380,000 fuel bundles since inception. Towards optimization of uranium resources and implementation of 'closed fuel cycle' concept, large quantities of reprocessed uranium fuel bundles have been manufactured and introduced in the initial cores of PHWRs. In recent times, NFC introduced several modifications in the production processes like vapour ammonia precipitation for UO{sub 2} powder production, advanced resistance welding controls and improved versions of welding machines, which all have facilitated in improving the quality and productivity of the fuel. Superior quality control systems like spectrophotometric determination of SSA of UO{sub 2} powders, machine vision systems for pellet inspection, thermography for evaluating weld integrity, etc. has channelised NDT techniques into fuel production lines. The paper summarizes various improvements carried out in the design and manufacture of PHWR fuel. New concepts evolved in high burn-up fuels and
PHWR Fuel - an integrated approach in Indian context
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayaraj, R.N.
2008-01-01
The nuclear power programme in India is based on a three-stage approach in which the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) forms the backbone of the first stage. Over the years, apart from gaining expertise in design, construction and operation of PHWRs, innovative fuel designs and manufacturing technologies have also been evolved. Presently, thirteen PHWR 220 units and two PHWR 540 units are in operation. Three more PHWR 220 units are in the advanced stage of construction. In addition, the PHWR power generation programme envisages construction of eight more PHWR 700 units. Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) at Hyderabad, established in early 70s, is the only manufacturer of fuel and reactor core structurals for all the PHWRs in India. Since inception, the thrust has been on indigenous development of technology in the areas of production processes, equipment manufacture and quality assurance programmes. Commensurate with the PHWR programme, NFC has expanded its production capacities and has fabricated more than 380,000 fuel bundles since inception. Towards optimization of uranium resources and implementation of 'closed fuel cycle' concept, large quantities of reprocessed uranium fuel bundles have been manufactured and introduced in the initial cores of PHWRs. In recent times, NFC introduced several modifications in the production processes like vapour ammonia precipitation for UO 2 powder production, advanced resistance welding controls and improved versions of welding machines, which all have facilitated in improving the quality and productivity of the fuel. Superior quality control systems like spectrophotometric determination of SSA of UO 2 powders, machine vision systems for pellet inspection, thermography for evaluating weld integrity, etc. has channelised NDT techniques into fuel production lines. The paper summarizes various improvements carried out in the design and manufacture of PHWR fuel. New concepts evolved in high burn-up fuels and development of state
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Majchrzak
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The dual reciprocity boundary element method is applied for numerical modelling of solidification process. This variant of the BEM is connected with the transformation of the domain integral to the boundary integrals. In the paper the details of the dual reciprocity boundary element method are presented and the usefulness of this approach to solidification process modelling is demonstrated. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.
Financial Integration and Financial Crisis: Croatia Approaching the EMU
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dražen Derado
2009-09-01
Full Text Available The breakdown of command economies has significantly increased growth potentials all over Europe and opened up prospects for economic development. Encouraged by that, the EU embarked on the process of deeper economic integration. Its main aspects – economic liberalization and monetary integration – coincided with the worldwide globalization of trade and capital flows. As a laggard country in the process of economic integration, Croatia is in a particularly difficult position – besides soaring trade deficit, it is highly indebted and strongly dependant upon foreign capital. Appreciating theoretical inferences and empirical evidence on monetary integration, while taking reference to the realized level of international financial integration and external vulnerability, the aim of the paper is to find out if Croatia fulfils the criteria for successful monetary integration.
Integrated approach to hazardous and radioactive waste remediation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hyde, R.A.; Reece, W.J.
1994-01-01
The US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development is supporting the demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of waste retrieval technologies. An integration of leading-edge technologies with commercially available baseline technologies will form a comprehensive system for effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the complex of DOE nuclear facilities. This paper discusses the complexity of systems integration, addressing organizational and engineering aspects of integration as well as the impact of human operators, and the importance of using integrated systems in remediating buried hazardous and radioactive waste
New Approaches to Aluminum Integral Foam Production with Casting Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmet Güner
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Integral foam has been used in the production of polymer materials for a long time. Metal integral foam casting systems are obtained by transferring and adapting polymer injection technology. Metal integral foam produced by casting has a solid skin at the surface and a foam core. Producing near-net shape reduces production expenses. Insurance companies nowadays want the automotive industry to use metallic foam parts because of their higher impact energy absorption properties. In this paper, manufacturing processes of aluminum integral foam with casting methods will be discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosato, Antonio; Sibilio, Sergio; Scorpio, Michelangelo
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A building-integrated micro-cogeneration system was dynamically simulated. • Simulation data were analyzed from both environmental and economic point of views. • The proposed system was compared with a conventional supply system. • The proposed system reduces the environmental impact under heat-led operation. • The proposed system reduces the operating costs whatever the control logic is. - Abstract: This work examines the performance of a residential building-integrated micro-cogeneration system during the winter by means of a whole building simulation software. The cogeneration unit was coupled with a multi-family house composed of three floors, compliant with the transmittance values of both walls and windows suggested by the Italian Law; a stratified combined tank for both heating purposes and domestic hot water production was also used for storing heat. Simulations were performed considering the transient nature of the building and occupant driven loads as well as the part-load characteristics of the cogeneration unit. This system was described in detail and analyzed from an energy point of view in the companion paper. In this paper the simulation results were evaluated in terms of both carbon dioxide equivalent emissions and operating costs; detailed analyses were performed in order to estimate the influence of the most significant boundary conditions on both environmental and economic performance of the proposed system: in particular, three volumes of the hot water storage, four climatic zones corresponding to four Italian cities, two electric demand profiles, as well as two control strategies micro-cogeneration unit were considered. The assessment of environmental impact was performed by using the standard emission factors approach, neglecting the effects of local pollutants. The operating costs due to both natural gas and electric energy consumption were evaluated in detail, whereas both the capital and maintenance costs were
An integrated approach using high time-resolved tools to study the origin of aerosols.
Di Gilio, A; de Gennaro, G; Dambruoso, P; Ventrella, G
2015-10-15
Long-range transport of natural and/or anthropogenic particles can contribute significantly to PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and some European cities often fail to comply with PM daily limit values due to the additional impact of particles from remote sources. For this reason, reliable methodologies to identify long-range transport (LRT) events would be useful to better understand air pollution phenomena and support proper decision-making. This study explores the potential of an integrated and high time-resolved monitoring approach for the identification and characterization of local, regional and long-range transport events of high PM. In particular, the goal of this work was also the identification of time-limited event. For this purpose, a high time-resolved monitoring campaign was carried out at an urban background site in Bari (southern Italy) for about 20 days (1st-20th October 2011). The integration of collected data as the hourly measurements of inorganic ions in PM2.5 and their gas precursors and of the natural radioactivity, in addition to the analyses of aerosol maps and hourly back trajectories (BT), provided useful information for the identification and chemical characterization of local sources and trans-boundary intrusions. Non-sea salt (nss) sulfate levels were found to increase when air masses came from northeastern Europe and higher dispersive conditions of the atmosphere were detected. Instead, higher nitrate and lower nss-sulfate concentrations were registered in correspondence with air mass stagnation and attributed to local traffic source. In some cases, combinations of local and trans-boundary sources were observed. Finally, statistical investigations such as the principal component analysis (PCA) applied on hourly ion concentrations and the cluster analyses, the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and the Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) models computed on hourly back-trajectories enabled to complete a cognitive framework
Integrated assessment of the global warming problem. A decision-analytical approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Lenthe, J.; Hendrickx, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.
1995-01-01
The project on the title subject aims at developing a policy-oriented methodology for the integrated assessment of the global warming problem. Decision analysis in general and influence diagrams in particular appear to constitute an appropriate integrated assessment methodology. The influence-diagram approach is illustrated at a preliminary integrated modeling of the global warming problem. In next stages of the research, attention will be shifted from the methodology of integrated assessment to the contents of integrated models. 4 figs., 5 refs
Mark D. Nelson; W. Keith Moser
2007-01-01
The USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program conducts strategic inventories of our Nation's forest resources. There is increasing need to assess effects of forest disturbance from catastrophic events, often within geographic extents not typically addressed by strategic forest inventories. One such event occurred within the Boundary...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mello, Kelen Berra de
2005-02-01
In this work is shown the solution of the advection-diffusion equation to simulate a pollutant dispersion in the Planetary Boundary Layer. The solution is obtained through of the GILTT (Generalized Integral Laplace Transform Technique) analytic method and of the numerical inversion Gauss Quadrature. The validity of the solution is proved using concentration obtained from the model with concentration obtained for Copenhagen experiment. In this comparison was utilized potential and logarithmic wind profile and eddy diffusivity derived by Degrazia et al (1997) [17] and (2002) [19]. The best results was using the potential wind profile and the eddy diffusivity derived by Degrazia et al (1997). The vertical velocity influence is shown in the plume behavior of the pollutant concentration. Moreover, the vertical and longitudinal velocity provided by Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was stood in the model to simulate the turbulent boundary layer more realistic, the result was satisfactory when compared with contained in the literature. (author)
Using the integrated rural mobility and access (IRMA) approach in prospering rural South Africa
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Chakwizira, J
2008-11-01
Full Text Available settlements implications of current rural development approaches are outlined. The potential and impact of the integrated rural mobility and access approach (IRMA) in unlocking socio-economic and spatial livelihood opportunities are discussed. In this regard...
Introduction: Integration as a three-way process approach?
Garcés-Mascareñas, B.; Penninx, R.; Garcés-Mascareñas, B.; Penninx, R.
2016-01-01
This chapter introduces the topic of this volume, which is the recent departure from viewing integration as a strictly two-way process (between migrants and the receiving society) to acknowledge the potential role that countries of origin might play in support of the integration process. It traces
A stochastic-programming approach to integrated asset and liability ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This increase in complexity has provided an impetus for the investigation into integrated asset- and liability-management frameworks that could realistically address dynamic portfolio allocation in a risk-controlled way. In this paper the authors propose a multi-stage dynamic stochastic-programming model for the integrated ...
Marsilio, Marta; Torbica, Aleksandra; Villa, Stefano
The current literature on the enabling conditions of multidisciplinary teams focuses on the singular dimensions of the organizations (i.e., human resources, clinical pathways, objects) without shedding light on to the way in which these organizational factors interact and mutually influence one another. Drawing on a system perspective of organizations, the authors analyze the organizational patterns that promote and support multidisciplinary teams and how they interrelate and interact to enforce the organization work system. The authors develop a modified sociotechnical system (STS) model to understand how the two dimensions of technical (devices/tools, layout/organization of space, core process standardization) and social (organizational structure, management of human resources and operations) can facilitate the implementation of multidisciplinary teams in health care. The study conducts an empirical analysis based on a sample of hospital adopters of transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the revised STS model. The modified STS model applied to the case studies improves our understanding of the critical implementation factors of a multidisciplinary approach and the importance of coordinating radical changes in the technical and the social subsystems of health care organizations. The analysis informs that the multidisciplinary effort is not a sequential process and that the interplay between the two subsystems needs to be managed efficaciously as an integrated organizational whole to deliver the goals set. Hospital managers must place equal focus on the closely interrelated technical and social dimensions by investing in (a) shared layouts and spaces that cross the boundaries of the specialized health care units, (b) standardization of the core processes through the implementation of local clinical pathways, (c) structured knowledge management mechanisms, (d) the creation of clinical directorates, and (e) the design of a planning and budgeting system that
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Amin, M.F.; Kanayama, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)
2009-02-15
As hydrogen leaks into a partially open space with a ceiling wall, a boundary layer of hydrogen can be constructed under that wall due to the impingement on the wall and the buoyancy force. The resulting boundary layer can be divided into two regions, namely the stagnation-point region and the far region. When the geometry of the source of the hydrogen leak is circular, such as a pinhole or an o-ring, the behavior of leakage flow will be axisymmetric due to the resulting radial jet. In contrast, when the geometry of the source of the hydrogen leak is planar, such as a crack, the behavior of leakage flow will be planar due to the resulting planar jet. Previously, we studied the planar case in the context of both the stagnation-point flow region [El-Amin MF, Kanayama H. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to a ceiling wall at impinging region of a hydrogen leakage. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(21): 6393-00] and the far region [El-Amin MF, Inoue M, Kanayama H. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to a ceiling wall of a hydrogen leakage: far region. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(24):7642-7]. This paper is concerned with both the stagnation-point flow region and the far region of the axisymmetric concentration boundary layer adjacent to a ceiling wall. Flow in the stagnation-point region is treated as Hiemenz flow, while it is treated as Blasius flow in the far region. The current results are compared with the planar cases [El-Amin MF, Kanayama H. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to a ceiling wall at impinging region of a hydrogen leakage. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(21): 6393-00; El-Amin MF, Inoue M, Kanayama H. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to a ceiling wall of a hydrogen leakage: far region. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(24):7642-7] for both stagnation-point flow and far regions. Both momentum and concentration boundary layer
A system and approach for total pipeline integrity management
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Porter, Todd; Neidhardt, Dietmar [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Gonzalez, Oscar [Tuboscope Mexico S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)
2005-07-01
Pipeline rehabilitation and maintenance decisions are made using a wide variety of data, criteria, and expertise. The goal is to arrive at an optimal plan that considers risk and best return on Repair and Maintenance (R and M) expenditures for aging pipeline systems in both regulated and non-regulated environments. In order to achieve these goals, historical, operations, and assessment data is gathered, aligned and integrated as part of a baseline assessment. Integrity threats are identified based on operations and industry experience, and combined with potential consequences to public safety, the environment, and business to clearly delineate high risk exposure segments in the system. Integrity assessments are conducted in a prioritized manner, using the most appropriate technology and methods to address the threats. These include In Line Inspection technologies: MFL, Deformation, UT, INS (combinations thereof), Direct Assessment for EC and SCC threats, Hydro testing, and other indirect methods. From these results, decisions are made and R and M plans developed. To arrive at an optimal R and M plan, proper use of existing data, new integrity assessment data, and decision risk models is required. This paper presentation will detail the tactical aspect of an effective integrity management platform. Experience in decision support, operations priorities and execution of a rehabilitation plan using LinaView Pro{sup TM} integrity management system with risk-based integrity tools and maintenance planning will be presented. A process overview, results, and benefits will be given using these examples from operating oil and gas transmission pipelines. (author)
A Neo-Rawlsian Approach to Residential Integration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin J. Brown
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Over the past 40 years, the United States has engaged in various policies to integrate otherwise segregated black and white households within a shared space. However, little work has been done to fully articulate a moral argument for residential integration among black and white households. This paper offers what I refer to as the normative argument, which possesses two morally-impelled arguments for residential integration. Since the ethical appeal to integrate is often couched in the language of justice, I begin with a framework—based upon the work of the late philosopher John Rawls—for considering the moral aspects of residential integration. However, I go on to point out intractable problems related to the Rawlsian framework that would fail to flesh out all ethical considerations of the normative argument. From here, I provide a revised, or neo-Rawlsian, framework for understanding residential integration which addresses the aforementioned problems. This exercise is both important and necessary for the future of residential mixing, as better understanding the moral and ethical attributes of this discussion is, perhaps, the best means to lubricate the fundamental shift from 'spatial' to 'social' integration.
The mercury burden of the Czech population: An integrated approach.
Puklová, Vladimíra; Krsková, Andrea; Cerná, Milena; Cejchanová, Mája; Rehůrková, Irena; Ruprich, Jirí; Kratzer, Karel; Kubínová, Růzena; Zimová, Magdaléna
2010-07-01
In this paper an integrated approach in assessment of the population exposure from various sources of total mercury (THg) oral intake in the Czech Republic is presented. The information on total mercury levels in diet, drinking water, surface urban soil and body fluids and tissues stem from the Czech national Environmental Health Monitoring System (EHMS) operated since 1994. The THg concentration was determined by the special atomic absorption spectrophotometer AMA 254. The data on THg content in food from the sales network were collected in 12 cities. The estimated average dietary intake representing more than 95% of weight of usual diet composition ranged 1-2% of the JECFA/FAO WHO provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) value for total mercury (5 microg/kg b.w./week). Data on drinking water quality stem from the nationwide monitoring database. The content of THg in drinking water is generally low; only 0.2% of the Czech population supplied with drinking water from the distribution networks (total of 92% of the population) has a mercury intake from drinking water higher than 1% PTWI and not exceeding 5% PTWI. The estimation of potential mercury intake by unintentional consumption of soil in small children was based on THg content in surface soil of a total of 324 nursery schools in 24 cities and towns. Median value was 0.16 mg/kg. Human biomonitoring was performed in 9 Czech cities. In 2007, the mercury median values in blood of adults (N=412) were 0.85 and 0.89 microg/l in males and in females, respectively; urine median value in adults was 1.10 microg/g creatinine. In 2008, the blood median value in children (N=324) amounted to 0.35 microg/l; urine median value is 0.16 microg/g creatinine. In children's hair the median THg value was 0.18 microg/g. The correlation between fish consumption and blood THg levels was observed in both adults and children. Also the biomonitoring outputs did not reveal a substantial burden of the population. Copyright 2010 Elsevier