Recent advances in boundary element methods
Manolis, GD
2009-01-01
Addresses the needs of the computational mechanics research community in terms of information on boundary integral equation-based methods and techniques applied to a variety of fields. This book collects both original and review articles on contemporary Boundary Element Methods (BEM) as well as on the Mesh Reduction Methods (MRM).
Boundary element method for modelling creep behaviour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zarina Masood; Shah Nor Basri; Abdel Majid Hamouda; Prithvi Raj Arora
2002-01-01
A two dimensional initial strain direct boundary element method is proposed to numerically model the creep behaviour. The boundary of the body is discretized into quadratic element and the domain into quadratic quadrilaterals. The variables are also assumed to have a quadratic variation over the elements. The boundary integral equation is solved for each boundary node and assembled into a matrix. This matrix is solved by Gauss elimination with partial pivoting to obtain the variables on the boundary and in the interior. Due to the time-dependent nature of creep, the solution has to be derived over increments of time. Automatic time incrementation technique and backward Euler method for updating the variables are implemented to assure stability and accuracy of results. A flowchart of the solution strategy is also presented. (Author)
Introducing the Boundary Element Method with MATLAB
Ang, Keng-Cheng
2008-01-01
The boundary element method provides an excellent platform for learning and teaching a computational method for solving problems in physical and engineering science. However, it is often left out in many undergraduate courses as its implementation is deemed to be difficult. This is partly due to the perception that coding the method requires…
Boundary element method for internal axisymmetric flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gokhman Alexander
1999-01-01
Full Text Available We present an accurate fast method for the computation of potential internal axisymmetric flow based on the boundary element technique. We prove that the computed velocity field asymptotically satisfies reasonable boundary conditions at infinity for various types of inlet/exit. Computation of internal axisymmetric potential flow is an essential ingredient in the three-dimensional problem of computation of velocity fields in turbomachines. We include the results of a practical application of the method to the computation of flow in turbomachines of Kaplan and Francis types.
Boundary element methods for electrical engineers
POLJAK, D
2005-01-01
In the last couple of decades the Boundary Element Method (BEM) has become a well-established technique that is widely used for solving various problems in electrical engineering and electromagnetics. Although there are many excellent research papers published in the relevant literature that describe various BEM applications in electrical engineering and electromagnetics, there has been a lack of suitable textbooks and monographs on the subject. This book presents BEM in a simple fashion in order to help the beginner to understand the very basic principles of the method. It initially derives B
Microlocal methods in the analysis of the boundary element method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Michael
1993-01-01
The application of the boundary element method in numerical analysis is based upon the use of boundary integral operators stemming from multiple layer potentials. The regularity properties of these operators are vital in the development of boundary integral equations and error estimates. We show...
Mixed Element Formulation for the Finite Element-Boundary Integral Method
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Meese, J; Kempel, L. C; Schneider, S. W
2006-01-01
A mixed element approach using right hexahedral elements and right prism elements for the finite element-boundary integral method is presented and discussed for the study of planar cavity-backed antennas...
(Environmental and geophysical modeling, fracture mechanics, and boundary element methods)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gray, L.J.
1990-11-09
Technical discussions at the various sites visited centered on application of boundary integral methods for environmental modeling, seismic analysis, and computational fracture mechanics in composite and smart'' materials. The traveler also attended the International Association for Boundary Element Methods Conference at Rome, Italy. While many aspects of boundary element theory and applications were discussed in the papers, the dominant topic was the analysis and application of hypersingular equations. This has been the focus of recent work by the author, and thus the conference was highly relevant to research at ORNL.
Development of polygon elements based on the scaled boundary finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiong, Irene; Song Chongmin
2010-01-01
We aim to extend the scaled boundary finite element method to construct conforming polygon elements. The development of the polygonal finite element is highly anticipated in computational mechanics as greater flexibility and accuracy can be achieved using these elements. The scaled boundary polygonal finite element will enable new developments in mesh generation, better accuracy from a higher order approximation and better transition elements in finite element meshes. Polygon elements of arbitrary number of edges and order have been developed successfully. The edges of an element are discretised with line elements. The displacement solution of the scaled boundary finite element method is used in the development of shape functions. They are shown to be smooth and continuous within the element, and satisfy compatibility and completeness requirements. Furthermore, eigenvalue decomposition has been used to depict element modes and outcomes indicate the ability of the scaled boundary polygonal element to express rigid body and constant strain modes. Numerical tests are presented; the patch test is passed and constant strain modes verified. Accuracy and convergence of the method are also presented and the performance of the scaled boundary polygonal finite element is verified on Cook's swept panel problem. Results show that the scaled boundary polygonal finite element method outperforms a traditional mesh and accuracy and convergence are achieved from fewer nodes. The proposed method is also shown to be truly flexible, and applies to arbitrary n-gons formed of irregular and non-convex polygons.
The complex variable boundary element method: Applications in determining approximative boundaries
Hromadka, T.V.
1984-01-01
The complex variable boundary element method (CVBEM) is used to determine approximation functions for boundary value problems of the Laplace equation such as occurs in potential theory. By determining an approximative boundary upon which the CVBEM approximator matches the desired constant (level curves) boundary conditions, the CVBEM is found to provide the exact solution throughout the interior of the transformed problem domain. Thus, the acceptability of the CVBEM approximation is determined by the closeness-of-fit of the approximative boundary to the study problem boundary. ?? 1984.
Three-dimensional wake field analysis by boundary element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyata, K.
1987-01-01
A computer code HERTPIA was developed for the calculation of electromagnetic wake fields excited by charged particles travelling through arbitrarily shaped accelerating cavities. This code solves transient wave problems for a Hertz vector. The numerical analysis is based on the boundary element method. This program is validated by comparing its results with analytical solutions in a pill-box cavity
Parallel Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method for crustal dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quevedo, Leonardo; Morra, Gabriele; Mueller, R Dietmar
2010-01-01
Crustal faults and sharp material transitions in the crust are usually represented as triangulated surfaces in structural geological models. The complex range of volumes separating such surfaces is typically three-dimensionally meshed in order to solve equations that describe crustal deformation with the finite-difference (FD) or finite-element (FEM) methods. We show here how the Boundary Element Method, combined with the Multipole approach, can revolutionise the calculation of stress and strain, solving the problem of computational scalability from reservoir to basin scales. The Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method (Fast BEM) tackles the difficulty of handling the intricate volume meshes and high resolution of crustal data that has put classical Finite 3D approaches in a performance crisis. The two main performance enhancements of this method: the reduction of required mesh elements from cubic to quadratic with linear size and linear-logarithmic runtime; achieve a reduction of memory and runtime requirements allowing the treatment of a new scale of geodynamic models. This approach was recently tested and applied in a series of papers by [1, 2, 3] for regional and global geodynamics, using KD trees for fast identification of near and far-field interacting elements, and MPI parallelised code on distributed memory architectures, and is now in active development for crustal dynamics. As the method is based on a free-surface, it allows easy data transfer to geological visualisation tools where only changes in boundaries and material properties are required as input parameters. In addition, easy volume mesh sampling of physical quantities enables direct integration with existing FD/FEM code.
Simulation of galvanic corrosion using boundary element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaifol Samsu; Muhamad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamaruddin; Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Mohd Saari Ripin; Rusni Rejab; Mohd Shariff Sattar
2011-01-01
Boundary element method (BEM) is a numerical technique that used for modeling infinite domain as is the case for galvanic corrosion analysis. The use of boundary element analysis system (BEASY) has allowed cathodic protection (CP) interference to be assessed in terms of the normal current density, which is directly proportional to the corrosion rate. This paper was present the analysis of the galvanic corrosion between Aluminium and Carbon Steel in natural sea water. The result of experimental was validated with computer simulation like BEASY program. Finally, it can conclude that the BEASY software is a very helpful tool for future planning before installing any structure, where it gives the possible CP interference on any nearby unprotected metallic structure. (Author)
8th International Conference on Boundary Element Methods
Brebbia, C
1986-01-01
The International Conference on Boundary Element Methods in Engineering was started in 1978 with the following objectives: i) To act as a focus for BE research at a time when the technique wasjust emerging as a powerful tool for engineering analysis. ii) To attract new as weIl as established researchers on Boundary Elements, in order to maintain its vitality and originality. iii) To try to relate the Boundary Element Method to other engineering techniques in an effort to help unify the field of engineering analysis, rather than to contribute to its fragmentation. These objectives were achieved during the last 7 conferences and this meeting - the eighth - has continued to be as innovative and dynamic as any ofthe previous conferences. Another important aim ofthe conference is to encourage the participation of researchers from as many different countries as possible and in this regard it is a policy of the organizers to hold the conference in different locations. It is easy to forget when working on scientific ...
Hybrid finite difference/finite element immersed boundary method.
E Griffith, Boyce; Luo, Xiaoyu
2017-12-01
The immersed boundary method is an approach to fluid-structure interaction that uses a Lagrangian description of the structural deformations, stresses, and forces along with an Eulerian description of the momentum, viscosity, and incompressibility of the fluid-structure system. The original immersed boundary methods described immersed elastic structures using systems of flexible fibers, and even now, most immersed boundary methods still require Lagrangian meshes that are finer than the Eulerian grid. This work introduces a coupling scheme for the immersed boundary method to link the Lagrangian and Eulerian variables that facilitates independent spatial discretizations for the structure and background grid. This approach uses a finite element discretization of the structure while retaining a finite difference scheme for the Eulerian variables. We apply this method to benchmark problems involving elastic, rigid, and actively contracting structures, including an idealized model of the left ventricle of the heart. Our tests include cases in which, for a fixed Eulerian grid spacing, coarser Lagrangian structural meshes yield discretization errors that are as much as several orders of magnitude smaller than errors obtained using finer structural meshes. The Lagrangian-Eulerian coupling approach developed in this work enables the effective use of these coarse structural meshes with the immersed boundary method. This work also contrasts two different weak forms of the equations, one of which is demonstrated to be more effective for the coarse structural discretizations facilitated by our coupling approach. © 2017 The Authors International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A Novel Mesh Quality Improvement Method for Boundary Elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hou-lin Liu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In order to improve the boundary mesh quality while maintaining the essential characteristics of discrete surfaces, a new approach combining optimization-based smoothing and topology optimization is developed. The smoothing objective function is modified, in which two functions denoting boundary and interior quality, respectively, and a weight coefficient controlling boundary quality are taken into account. In addition, the existing smoothing algorithm can improve the mesh quality only by repositioning vertices of the interior mesh. Without destroying boundary conformity, bad elements with all their vertices on the boundary cannot be eliminated. Then, topology optimization is employed, and those elements are converted into other types of elements whose quality can be improved by smoothing. The practical application shows that the worst elements can be eliminated and, with the increase of weight coefficient, the average quality of boundary mesh can also be improved. Results obtained with the combined approach are compared with some common approach. It is clearly shown that it performs better than the existing approach.
Novel TMS coils designed using an inverse boundary element method
Cobos Sánchez, Clemente; María Guerrero Rodriguez, Jose; Quirós Olozábal, Ángel; Blanco-Navarro, David
2017-01-01
In this work, a new method to design TMS coils is presented. It is based on the inclusion of the concept of stream function of a quasi-static electric current into a boundary element method. The proposed TMS coil design approach is a powerful technique to produce stimulators of arbitrary shape, and remarkably versatile as it permits the prototyping of many different performance requirements and constraints. To illustrate the power of this approach, it has been used for the design of TMS coils wound on rectangular flat, spherical and hemispherical surfaces, subjected to different constraints, such as minimum stored magnetic energy or power dissipation. The performances of such coils have been additionally described; and the torque experienced by each stimulator in the presence of a main magnetic static field have theoretically found in order to study the prospect of using them to perform TMS and fMRI concurrently. The obtained results show that described method is an efficient tool for the design of TMS stimulators, which can be applied to a wide range of coil geometries and performance requirements.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Eren, Hakan
2000-01-01
.... The objective of this study is, by using Boundary Element Method, to examine different shapes of reinforcement elements under unit traction and unit displacement boundary conditions in transversal...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, Luis Carlos Martins
1998-06-01
New Petrov-Galerkin formulations on the finite element methods for convection-diffusion problems with boundary layers are presented. Such formulations are based on a consistent new theory on discontinuous finite element methods. Existence and uniqueness of solutions for these problems in the new finite element spaces are demonstrated. Some numerical experiments shows how the new formulation operate and also their efficacy. (author)
Use of the iterative solution method for coupled finite element and boundary element modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koteras, J.R.
1993-07-01
Tunnels buried deep within the earth constitute an important class geomechanics problems. Two numerical techniques used for the analysis of geomechanics problems, the finite element method and the boundary element method, have complementary characteristics for applications to problems of this type. The usefulness of combining these two methods for use as a geomechanics analysis tool has been recognized for some time, and a number of coupling techniques have been proposed. However, not all of them lend themselves to efficient computational implementations for large-scale problems. This report examines a coupling technique that can form the basis for an efficient analysis tool for large scale geomechanics problems through the use of an iterative equation solver
Jang, Hae-Won; Ih, Jeong-Guon
2012-04-01
The time domain boundary element method (BEM) is associated with numerical instability that typically stems from the time marching scheme. In this work, a formulation of time domain BEM is derived to deal with all types of boundary conditions adopting a multi-input, multi-output, infinite impulse response structure. The fitted frequency domain impedance data are converted into a time domain expression as a form of an infinite impulse response filter, which can also invoke a modeling error. In the calculation, the response at each time step is projected onto the wave vector space of natural radiation modes, which can be obtained from the eigensolutions of the single iterative matrix. To stabilize the computation, unstable oscillatory modes are nullified, and the same decay rate is used for two nonoscillatory modes. As a test example, a transient sound field within a partially lined, parallelepiped box is used, within which a point source is excited by an octave band impulse. In comparison with the results of the inverse Fourier transform of a frequency domain BEM, the average of relative difference norm in the stabilized time response is found to be 4.4%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Majchrzak
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The dual reciprocity boundary element method is applied for numerical modelling of solidification process. This variant of the BEM is connected with the transformation of the domain integral to the boundary integrals. In the paper the details of the dual reciprocity boundary element method are presented and the usefulness of this approach to solidification process modelling is demonstrated. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.
Temperature and stress distribution in pressure vessel by the boundary element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alujevic, A.; Apostolovic, D.
1990-01-01
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of boundary element method for the solution of temperatures and thermal stresses in the body of reactor pressure vessel of the NPP Krsko . In addition to the theory of boundary elements for thermo-elastic continua (2D, 3D) results are given of a numerically evaluated meridional cross-section. (author)
The boundary element method : errors and gridding for problems with hot spots
Kakuba, G.
2011-01-01
Adaptive gridding methods are of fundamental importance both for industry and academia. As one of the computing methods, the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is used to simulate problems whose fundamental solutions are available. The method is usually characterised as constant elements BEM or linear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, C. Y.
1997-01-01
A geometrical inverse heat conduction problem is solved for the infrared scanning cavity detection by the boundary element method using minimal energy technique. By minimizing the kinetic energy of temperature field, boundary element equations are converted to the quadratic programming problem. A hypothetical inner boundary is defined such that the actual cavity is located interior to the domain. Temperatures at hypothetical inner boundary are determined to meet the constraints of measurement error of surface temperature obtained by infrared scanning, and then boundary element analysis is performed for the position of an unknown boundary (cavity). Cavity detection algorithm is provided, and the effects of minimal energy technique on the inverse solution method are investigated by means of numerical analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yoon, Gil Ho; Park, Y.K.; Kim, Y.Y.
2007-01-01
A new topology optimization scheme, called the element stacking method, is developed to better handle design optimization involving material-dependent boundary conditions and selection of elements of different types. If these problems are solved by existing standard approaches, complicated finite...... element models or topology optimization reformulation may be necessary. The key idea of the proposed method is to stack multiple elements on the same discretization pixel and select a single or no element. In this method, stacked elements on the same pixel have the same coordinates but may have...... independent degrees of freedom. Some test problems are considered to check the effectiveness of the proposed stacking method....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller
2008-01-01
It is well known that the Boundary Element Method (BEM) in its standard version cannot readily handle situations where the calculation point is very close to a surface. These problems are found: i) when two boundary surfaces are very close together, such as in narrow gaps and thin bodies, and ii)...
Fast multipole acceleration of the MEG/EEG boundary element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kybic, Jan; Clerc, Maureen; Faugeras, Olivier; Keriven, Renaud; Papadopoulo, Theo
2005-01-01
The accurate solution of the forward electrostatic problem is an essential first step before solving the inverse problem of magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG/EEG). The symmetric Galerkin boundary element method is accurate but cannot be used for very large problems because of its computational complexity and memory requirements. We describe a fast multipole-based acceleration for the symmetric boundary element method (BEM). It creates a hierarchical structure of the elements and approximates far interactions using spherical harmonics expansions. The accelerated method is shown to be as accurate as the direct method, yet for large problems it is both faster and more economical in terms of memory consumption
Electrostatic field in inhomogeneous dielectric media. I. Indirect boundary element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goel, N.S.; Gang, F.; Ko, Z.
1995-01-01
A computationally fast method is presented for calculating electrostatic field in arbitrary inhomogeneous dielectric media with open boundary condition. The method involves dividing the whole space into cubical cells and then finding effective dielectric parameters for interfacial cells consisting of several dielectrics. The electrostatic problem is then solved using either the indirect boundary element method described in this paper or the so-called volume element method described in the companion paper. Both methods are tested for accuracy by comparing the numerically calculated electrostatic fields against those analytically obtained for a dielectric sphere and dielectric ellipsoid in a uniform field and for a dielectric sphere in a point charge field
An introductory study of the convergence of the direct boundary element method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juhl, Peter Møller
1997-01-01
of an axisymmetric boundary element formulation is studied using linear, quadratic or superparametric elements. It is demonstrated that the rate of convergence of these formulations is reduced for calculations involving bodies with edges (geometric singularities). Two methods for improving the rate of convergence...
E-coil: an inverse boundary element method for a quasi-static problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, Clemente Cobos; Garcia, Salvador Gonzalez; Power, Henry
2010-01-01
Boundary element methods represent a valuable approach for designing gradient coils; these methods are based on meshing the current carrying surface into an array of boundary elements. The temporally varying magnetic fields produced by gradient coils induce electric currents in conducting tissues and so the exposure of human subjects to these magnetic fields has become a safety concern, especially with the increase in the strength of the field gradients used in magnetic resonance imaging. Here we present a boundary element method for the design of coils that minimize the electric field induced in prescribed conducting systems. This work also details some numerical examples of the application of this coil design method. The reduction of the electric field induced in a prescribed region inside the coils is also evaluated.
E-coil: an inverse boundary element method for a quasi-static problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez, Clemente Cobos; Garcia, Salvador Gonzalez [Depto. Electromagnetismo y F. de la Materia Facultad de Ciencias University of Granada Avda. Fuentenueva E-18071 (Spain); Power, Henry, E-mail: ccobos@ugr.e [School of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
2010-06-07
Boundary element methods represent a valuable approach for designing gradient coils; these methods are based on meshing the current carrying surface into an array of boundary elements. The temporally varying magnetic fields produced by gradient coils induce electric currents in conducting tissues and so the exposure of human subjects to these magnetic fields has become a safety concern, especially with the increase in the strength of the field gradients used in magnetic resonance imaging. Here we present a boundary element method for the design of coils that minimize the electric field induced in prescribed conducting systems. This work also details some numerical examples of the application of this coil design method. The reduction of the electric field induced in a prescribed region inside the coils is also evaluated.
Implementation aspects of the Boundary Element Method including viscous and thermal losses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller
2014-01-01
The implementation of viscous and thermal losses using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is based on the Kirchhoff’s dispersion relation and has been tested in previous work using analytical test cases and comparison with measurements. Numerical methods that can simulate sound fields in fluids...
Fundamental solutions and dual boundary element methods for fracture in plane Cosserat elasticity.
Atroshchenko, Elena; Bordas, Stéphane P A
2015-07-08
In this paper, both singular and hypersingular fundamental solutions of plane Cosserat elasticity are derived and given in a ready-to-use form. The hypersingular fundamental solutions allow to formulate the analogue of Somigliana stress identity, which can be used to obtain the stress and couple-stress fields inside the domain from the boundary values of the displacements, microrotation and stress and couple-stress tractions. Using these newly derived fundamental solutions, the boundary integral equations of both types are formulated and solved by the boundary element method. Simultaneous use of both types of equations (approach known as the dual boundary element method (BEM)) allows problems where parts of the boundary are overlapping, such as crack problems, to be treated and to do this for general geometry and loading conditions. The high accuracy of the boundary element method for both types of equations is demonstrated for a number of benchmark problems, including a Griffith crack problem and a plate with an edge crack. The detailed comparison of the BEM results and the analytical solution for a Griffith crack and an edge crack is given, particularly in terms of stress and couple-stress intensity factors, as well as the crack opening displacements and microrotations on the crack faces and the angular distributions of stresses and couple-stresses around the crack tip.
Multidimensional phase change problems by the dual-reciprocity boundary-element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jo, J.C.; Shin, W.K.; Choi, C.Y.
1999-01-01
Transient heat transfer problems with phase changes (Stefan problems) occur in many engineering situations, including potential core melting and solidification during pressurized-water-reactor severe accidents, ablation of thermal shields, melting and solidification of alloys, and many others. This article addresses the numerical analysis of nonlinear transient heat transfer with melting or solidification. An effective and simple procedure is presented for the simulation of the motion of the boundary and the transient temperature field during the phase change process. To accomplish this purpose, an iterative implicit solution algorithm has been developed by employing the dual-reciprocity boundary-element method. The dual-reciprocity boundary-element approach provided in this article is much simpler than the usual boundary-element method in applying a reciprocity principle and an available technique for dealing with the domain integral of the boundary element formulation simultaneously. In this article, attention is focused on two-dimensional melting (ablation)/solidification problems for simplicity. The accuracy and effectiveness of the present analysis method have been illustrated through comparisons of the calculation results of some examples of one-phase ablation/solidification problems with their known semianalytical or numerical solutions where available
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, H; Ryue, J; Thompson, D J; Müller, A D
2016-01-01
Recently, complex shaped aluminium panels have been adopted in many structures to make them lighter and stronger. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of these complex panels has been of interest for many years but conventional finite element and boundary element methods are not efficient to predict their performance at higher frequencies. Where the cross-sectional properties of the panels are constant in one direction, wavenumber domain numerical analysis can be applied and this becomes more suitable for panels with complex cross-sectional geometries. In this paper, a coupled wavenumber domain finite element and boundary element method is applied to predict the sound radiation from and sound transmission through a double-layered aluminium extruded panel, having a typical shape used in railway carriages. The predicted results are compared with measured ones carried out on a finite length panel and good agreement is found. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Murat Ünal
2002-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, a two-dimensional software was developed by using the boundary element method, in order to model and solve the rock mechanics problems encountered in surface and underground excavations. Stability of rock wedges formed at the roof of underground excavations were investigated in detail by using this software. The behaviour of the symmetric wedge on different joint stiffnesses was studied using a modified boundary element software. Then the results obtained were discussed and compared with the analytical solution, considering the surface tractions, shear stresses (developed along the discontinuity, wedge displacements and strains (along the wedge height.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samira Hosseini
Full Text Available Abstract One of the main drawbacks of Element Free Galerkin (EFG method is its dependence on moving least square shape functions which don’t satisfy the Kronecker Delta property, so in this method it’s not possible to apply Dirichlet boundary conditions directly. The aim of the present paper is to discuss different aspects of three widely used methods of applying Dirichlet boundary conditions in EFG method, called Lagrange multipliers, penalty method, and coupling with finite element method. Numerical simulations are presented to compare the results of these methods form the perspective of accuracy, convergence and computational expense. These methods have been implemented in an object oriented programing environment, called INSANE, and the results are presented and compared with the analytical solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi, Won; Yu, Yeong Chul; Jeong, Eui Seob; Lee, Chang Ho
1995-01-01
It is very important to evaluate the bonding residual thermal stress in dissimilar materials such as LSI package. In this study, the bonding residual thermal stress was calculated using the boundary element method, varing with the sub-element, geometry of specimen and adhesive thickness. The present results reveal a stress singularity at the edge of the interface, therefore the bonding strength of metal/resin interface can be estimated by taking into account it.
Stress Wave Propagation in Soils Modelled by the Boundary Element Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, K. M.
This thesis deals with different aspects of the boundary element method (BEM) applied to stress wave propagation problems in soils. Among other things BEM formulations for coupled FEM and BEM, moving loads, direct BEM and indirect BEM are presented. For all the formulations both analytical...
Kuijpers, A.H.W.M.; Verbeek, G.; Verheij, J.W.
1997-01-01
Effective use of the Fourier series boundary element method (FBEM) for everyday applications is hindered by the significant numerical problems that have to be overcome for its implementation. In the FBEM formulation for acoustics, some integrals over the angle of revolution arise, which need to be
The boundary element method applied to 3D magneto-electro-elastic dynamic problems
Igumnov, L. A.; Markov, I. P.; Kuznetsov, Iu A.
2017-11-01
Due to the coupling properties, the magneto-electro-elastic materials possess a wide number of applications. They exhibit general anisotropic behaviour. Three-dimensional transient analyses of magneto-electro-elastic solids can hardly be found in the literature. 3D direct boundary element formulation based on the weakly-singular boundary integral equations in Laplace domain is presented in this work for solving dynamic linear magneto-electro-elastic problems. Integral expressions of the three-dimensional fundamental solutions are employed. Spatial discretization is based on a collocation method with mixed boundary elements. Convolution quadrature method is used as a numerical inverse Laplace transform scheme to obtain time domain solutions. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the capability of the proposed approach to treat highly dynamic problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itagaki, Masafumi; Sahashi, Naoki.
1996-01-01
The multiple reciprocity method (MRM) in conjunction with the boundary element method has been employed to solve one-group eigenvalue problems described by the three-dimensional (3-D) neutron diffusion equation. The domain integral related to the fission source is transformed into a series of boundary-only integrals, with the aid of the higher order fundamental solutions based on the spherical and the modified spherical Bessel functions. Since each degree of the higher order fundamental solutions in the 3-D cases has a singularity of order (1/r), the above series of boundary integrals requires additional terms which do not appear in the 2-D MRM formulation. The critical eigenvalue itself can be also described using only boundary integrals. Test calculations show that Wielandt's spectral shift technique guarantees rapid and stable convergence of 3-D MRM computations. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU FuPing; WANG AnLing; WANG AnXuan; CAO YueZu; CHEN Qiang; YANG ChangChun
2009-01-01
According to the electric potential of oblique multi-needle electrodes (OMNE) in biological tissue, the discrete equations based on the indetermination linear current density were established by the boundary element integral equations (BEIE). The non-uniform distribution of the current flowing from multi-needle electrodes to conductive biological tissues was imaged by solving a set of linear equa-tions. Then, the electric field and potential generated by OMNE in biological tissues at any point may be determined through the boundary element method (BEM). The time of program running and stability of computing method are examined by an example. It demonstrates that the algorithm possesses a quick speed and the steady computed results. It means that this method has an important referenced significance for computing the field and the potential generated by OMNE in bio-tissue, which is a fast, effective and accurate computing method.
Second-order wave diffraction by a circular cylinder using scaled boundary finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, H; Tao, L
2010-01-01
The scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) has achieved remarkable success in structural mechanics and fluid mechanics, combing the advantage of both FEM and BEM. Most of the previous works focus on linear problems, in which superposition principle is applicable. However, many physical problems in the real world are nonlinear and are described by nonlinear equations, challenging the application of the existing SBFEM model. A popular idea to solve a nonlinear problem is decomposing the nonlinear equation to a number of linear equations, and then solves them individually. In this paper, second-order wave diffraction by a circular cylinder is solved by SBFEM. By splitting the forcing term into two parts, the physical problem is described as two second-order boundary-value problems with different asymptotic behaviour at infinity. Expressing the velocity potentials as a series of depth-eigenfunctions, both of the 3D boundary-value problems are decomposed to a number of 2D boundary-value sub-problems, which are solved semi-analytically by SBFEM. Only the cylinder boundary is discretised with 1D curved finite-elements on the circumference of the cylinder, while the radial differential equation is solved completely analytically. The method can be extended to solve more complex wave-structure interaction problems resulting in direct engineering applications.
The Boundary Element Method Applied to the Two Dimensional Stefan Moving Boundary Problem
1991-03-15
Unc), - ( UGt )t - (UG,,),,] - (UG), If we integrate this equation with respect to r from 0 to t - c and with respect to and ij on the region 11(r...and others. "Moving Boundary Problems in Phase Change Mod- els," SIGNUM Newsletter, 20: 8-12 (1985). 21. Stefan, J. "Ober einige Probleme der Theorie ...ier Wirmelcitung," S.-B. \\Vein. Akad. Mat. Natur., 98: 173-484 (1889). 22.-. "flber (lie Theorie der Eisbildung insbesondere fiber die lisbildung im
Free surface simulation of a two-layer fluid by boundary element method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weoncheol Koo
2010-09-01
Full Text Available A two-layer fluid with free surface is simulated in the time domain by a two-dimensional potential-based Numerical Wave Tank (NWT. The developed NWT is based on the boundary element method and a leap-frog time integration scheme. A whole domain scheme including interaction terms between two layers is applied to solve the boundary integral equation. The time histories of surface elevations on both fluid layers in the respective wave modes are verified with analytic results. The amplitude ratios of upper to lower elevation for various density ratios and water depths are also compared.
Azis, Moh. Ivan; Kasbawati; Haddade, Amiruddin; Astuti Thamrin, Sri
2018-03-01
A boundary element method (BEM) is obtained for solving a boundary value problem of homogeneous anisotropic media governed by diffusion-convection equation. The application of the BEM is shown for two particular pollutant transport problems of Tello river and Unhas lake in Makassar Indonesia. For the two particular problems a variety of the coefficients of diffusion and the velocity components are taken. The results show that the solutions vary as the parameters change. And this suggests that one has to be careful in measuring or determining the values of the parameters.
International Symposium on Boundary Element Methods : Advances in Solid and Fluid Mechanics
Tseng, Kadin
1990-01-01
The Boundary Element Method (BEM) has become established as an effective tool for the solutions of problems in engineering science. The salient features of the BEM have been well documented in the open literature and therefore will not be elaborated here. The BEM research has progressed rapidly, especially in the past decade and continues to evolve worldwide. This Symposium was organized to provide an international forum for presentation of current research in BEM for linear and nonlinear problems in solid and fluid mechanics and related areas. To this end, papers on the following topics were included: rotary wing aerodynamics, unsteady aerodynamics, design and optimization, elasticity, elasto dynamics and elastoplasticity, fracture mechanics, acoustics, diffusion and wave motion, thermal analysis, mathematical aspects and boundary/finite element coupled methods. A special session was devoted to parallel/vector supercomputing with emphasis on mas sive parallelism. This Symposium was sponsored by United ...
Near shore seismic movements induced by seaquakes using the boundary element method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Manuel Carbajal-Romero; Norberto Flores-Guzmán; J.Efraín Rodríguez-Sánchez; Andriy Kryvko
2017-01-01
This study quantifies seismic amplifications in near-shore arising from seaquakes.Within the Boundary Element Method,boundary elements are used to irradiate waves and force densities obtained for each element.Huygens Principle is implemented since the diffracted waves are constructed at the boundary from which they are radiated,which is equivalent to Somigliana's theorem.Application of boundary conditions leads to a system of integral equations of the Fredholm type of second kind and zero order.Several numerical configurations are analyzed:The first is used to verify the present formulation with ideal sea floor configurations to estimate seismic amplifications.With the formulation verified,simple slope configurations are studied to estimate spectra of seismic motions.It is found that P-waves can produce seismic amplifications from 1.2 to 3.9 times the amplitude of the incident wave.SV-waves can generate seismic amplifications up to 4.5 times the incident wave.Another relevant finding is that the highest amplifications are at the shore compared to the ones at the sea floor.
Boundary element methods applied to two-dimensional neutron diffusion problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itagaki, Masafumi
1985-01-01
The Boundary element method (BEM) has been applied to two-dimensional neutron diffusion problems. The boundary integral equation and its discretized form have been derived. Some numerical techniques have been developed, which can be applied to critical and fixed-source problems including multi-region ones. Two types of test programs have been developed according to whether the 'zero-determinant search' or the 'source iteration' technique is adopted for criticality search. Both programs require only the fluxes and currents on boundaries as the unknown variables. The former allows a reduction in computing time and memory in comparison with the finite element method (FEM). The latter is not always efficient in terms of computing time due to the domain integral related to the inhomogeneous source term; however, this domain integral can be replaced by the equivalent boundary integral for a region with a non-multiplying medium or with a uniform source, resulting in a significant reduction in computing time. The BEM, as well as the FEM, is well suited for solving irregular geometrical problems for which the finite difference method (FDM) is unsuited. The BEM also solves problems with infinite domains, which cannot be solved by the ordinary FEM and FDM. Some simple test calculations are made to compare the BEM with the FEM and FDM, and discussions are made concerning the relative merits of the BEM and problems requiring future solution. (author)
OpenBEM - An open source Boundary Element Method software in Acoustics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller
2010-01-01
OpenBEM is a collection of open source programs for solving the Helmholtz Equation using the Boundary Element Method. The collection is written in Matlab by the authors and contains codes for dealing with exterior and interior problems in two or three dimensions as well as implementation of axi...... with examples of its use. Previous research results where OpenBEM was employed will be mentioned....
Seismic response of three-dimensional rockfill dams using the Indirect Boundary Element Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez-Sesma, Francisco J; Arellano-Guzman, Mauricio; Perez-Gavilan, Juan J; Suarez, Martha; Marengo-Mogollon, Humberto; Chaillat, Stephanie; Jaramillo, Juan Diego; Gomez, Juan; Iturraran-Viveros, Ursula; Rodriguez-Castellanos, Alejandro
2010-01-01
The Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) is used to compute the seismic response of a three-dimensional rockfill dam model. The IBEM is based on a single layer integral representation of elastic fields in terms of the full-space Green function, or fundamental solution of the equations of dynamic elasticity, and the associated force densities along the boundaries. The method has been applied to simulate the ground motion in several configurations of surface geology. Moreover, the IBEM has been used as benchmark to test other procedures. We compute the seismic response of a three-dimensional rockfill dam model placed within a canyon that constitutes an irregularity on the surface of an elastic half-space. The rockfill is also assumed elastic with hysteretic damping to account for energy dissipation. Various types of incident waves are considered to analyze the physical characteristics of the response: symmetries, amplifications, impulse response and the like. Computations are performed in the frequency domain and lead to time response using Fourier analysis. In the present implementation a symmetrical model is used to test symmetries. The boundaries of each region are discretized into boundary elements whose size depends on the shortest wavelength, typically, six boundary segments per wavelength. Usually, the seismic response of rockfill dams is simulated using either finite elements (FEM) or finite differences (FDM). In most applications, commercial tools that combine features of these methods are used to assess the seismic response of the system for a given motion at the base of model. However, in order to consider realistic excitation of seismic waves with different incidence angles and azimuth we explore the IBEM.
Computational Acoustics of Noise Propagation in Fluids - Finite and Boundary Element Methods
Marburg, Steffen
2008-01-01
Among numerical methods applied in acoustics, the Finite Element Method (FEM) is normally favored for interior problems whereas the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is quite popular for exterior ones. That is why this valuable reference provides a complete survey of methods for computational acoustics, namely FEM and BEM. It demonstrates that both methods can be effectively used in the complementary cases. The chapters by well-known authors are evenly balanced: 10 chapters on FEM and 10 on BEM. An initial conceptual chapter describes the derivation of the wave equation and supplies a unified approach to FEM and BEM for the harmonic case. A categorization of the remaining chapters and a personal outlook complete this introduction. In what follows, both FEM and BEM are discussed in the context of very different problems. Firstly, this comprises numerical issues, e.g. convergence, multi-frequency solutions and highly efficient methods; and secondly, solutions techniques for the particular difficulties that arise wi...
Seismic response of three-dimensional topographies using a time-domain boundary element method
Janod, François; Coutant, Olivier
2000-08-01
We present a time-domain implementation for a boundary element method (BEM) to compute the diffraction of seismic waves by 3-D topographies overlying a homogeneous half-space. This implementation is chosen to overcome the memory limitations arising when solving the boundary conditions with a frequency-domain approach. This formulation is flexible because it allows one to make an adaptive use of the Green's function time translation properties: the boundary conditions solving scheme can be chosen as a trade-off between memory and cpu requirements. We explore here an explicit method of solution that requires little memory but a high cpu cost in order to run on a workstation computer. We obtain good results with four points per minimum wavelength discretization for various topographies and plane wave excitations. This implementation can be used for two different aims: the time-domain approach allows an easier implementation of the BEM in hybrid methods (e.g. coupling with finite differences), and it also allows one to run simple BEM models with reasonable computer requirements. In order to keep reasonable computation times, we do not introduce any interface and we only consider homogeneous models. Results are shown for different configurations: an explosion near a flat free surface, a plane wave vertically incident on a Gaussian hill and on a hemispherical cavity, and an explosion point below the surface of a Gaussian hill. Comparison is made with other numerical methods, such as finite difference methods (FDMs) and spectral elements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saitoh, Ayumu; Matsui, Nobuyuki; Itoh, Taku; Kamitani, Atsushi; Nakamura, Hiroaki
2011-01-01
A new method has been proposed for implementing essential boundary conditions to the Element-Free Galerkin Method (EFGM) without using the Lagrange multiplier. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed method has been investigated for a nonlinear Poisson problem. The results of computations show that, as interpolation functions become closer to delta functions, the accuracy of the solution is improved on the boundary. In addition, the accuracy of the proposed method is higher than that of the conventional EFGM. Therefore, it might be concluded that the proposed method is useful for solving the nonlinear Poisson problem. (author)
Boundary element and speckle photography method for solving elasto-plastic problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadjikov, L.; Kavardjikov, V.; Valeva, V.
1985-01-01
The stress-strain state of metal specimens in the vicinity of a stress concentrator (circular hole) is investigated in case of a quasistatic loading. The displacements are evaluated numerically by the Boundary Element Method (BEM) and they are estimated experimentally by speckle photography. The experimentally and theoretically obtained results are compared and considered. A unified method for a simultaneous employment of both techniques is suggested. The experimental and theoretical techniques complement each other which results in an enhanced capability of the method proposed. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simmons, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.simmons@nottingham.ac.uk; Cools, Kristof; Sewell, Phillip
2016-11-01
Time domain electromagnetic simulation tools have the ability to model transient, wide-band applications, and non-linear problems. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Transmission Line Modeling (TLM) method are both well established numerical techniques for simulating time-varying electromagnetic fields. The former surface based method can accurately describe outwardly radiating fields from piecewise uniform objects and efficiently deals with large domains filled with homogeneous media. The latter volume based method can describe inhomogeneous and non-linear media and has been proven to be unconditionally stable. Furthermore, the Unstructured TLM (UTLM) enables modelling of geometrically complex objects by using triangular meshes which removes staircasing and unnecessary extensions of the simulation domain. The hybridization of BEM and UTLM which is described in this paper is named the Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method. It incorporates the advantages of both methods. The theory and derivation of the 2D BEUT method is described in this paper, along with any relevant implementation details. The method is corroborated by studying its correctness and efficiency compared to the traditional UTLM method when applied to complex problems such as the transmission through a system of Luneburg lenses and the modelling of antenna radomes for use in wireless communications. - Graphical abstract:.
Dynamic-stiffness matrix of embedded and pile foundations by indirect boundary-element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, J.P.; Darbre, G.R.
1984-01-01
The boundary-integral equation method is well suited for the calculation of the dynamic-stiffness matrix of foundations embedded in a layered visco-elastic halfspace (or a transmitting boundary of arbitrary shape), which represents an unbounded domain. It also allows pile groups to be analyzed, taking pile-soil-pile interaction into account. The discretization of this boundary-element method is restricted to the structure-soil interface. All trial functions satisfy exactly the field equations and the radiation condition at infinity. In the indirect boundary-element method distributed source loads of initially unknown intensities act on a source line located in the excavated part of the soil and are determined such that the prescribed boundary conditions on the structure-soil interface are satisfied in an average sense. In the two-dimensional case the variables are expanded in a Fourier integral in the wave number domain, while in three dimensions, Fourier series in the circumferential direction and bessel functions of the wave number domain, while in three dimensions, Fourier series in the circumferential direction and Bessel functions of the wave number in the radial direction are selected. Accurate results arise with a small number of parameters of the loads acting on a source line which should coincide with the structure-soil interface. In a parametric study the dynamic-stiffness matrices of rectangular foundations of various aspect ratios embedded in a halfplane and in a layer built-in at its base are calculated. For the halfplane, the spring coefficients for the translational directions hardly depend on the embedment, while the corresponding damping coefficients increase for larger embedments, this tendency being more pronounced in the horizontal direction. (orig.)
A Galleria Boundary Element Method for two-dimensional nonlinear magnetostatics
Brovont, Aaron D.
The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is a numerical technique for solving partial differential equations that is used broadly among the engineering disciplines. The main advantage of this method is that one needs only to mesh the boundary of a solution domain. A key drawback is the myriad of integrals that must be evaluated to populate the full system matrix. To this day these integrals have been evaluated using numerical quadrature. In this research, a Galerkin formulation of the BEM is derived and implemented to solve two-dimensional magnetostatic problems with a focus on accurate, rapid computation. To this end, exact, closed-form solutions have been derived for all the integrals comprising the system matrix as well as those required to compute fields in post-processing; the need for numerical integration has been eliminated. It is shown that calculation of the system matrix elements using analytical solutions is 15-20 times faster than with numerical integration of similar accuracy. Furthermore, through the example analysis of a c-core inductor, it is demonstrated that the present BEM formulation is a competitive alternative to the Finite Element Method (FEM) for linear magnetostatic analysis. Finally, the BEM formulation is extended to analyze nonlinear magnetostatic problems via the Dual Reciprocity Method (DRBEM). It is shown that a coarse, meshless analysis using the DRBEM is able to achieve RMS error of 3-6% compared to a commercial FEM package in lightly saturated conditions.
A comparison of inverse boundary element method and near-field acoustical holography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schuhmacher, Andreas; Hald, Jørgen; Saemann, E.-U.
1999-01-01
An inverse boundary element method (IBEM) is used to estimate the surface velocity of a rolling tyre from measurements of the near-field pressure. Subsequently, the sound pressure is calculated over a finite plane surface next to the tyre from the reconstructed velocity field on the tyre surface........ In order to verify the reconstruction process, part of the measurement data is used together with Near-Field Acoustical Holography (NAH). Estimated distributions of sound pressure and particle velocity over a plane surface obtained from the two methods are compared....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, X.; Chen, Y.M.
1989-01-01
The boundary element method (BEM) is developed from the boundary integral equation method and the discretization techniques. Compared with other numerical method, BEM has been shown to be a versatile and efficient method for a wide variety of engineering problems, including the wave propagation in elastic media. The first formulation and solution of the transient elastodynamic problem by combining BEM and Laplace transform is due to Cruse. Further improvement was achieved by introducing Durbin's method instead of Papoulis method of numerical Laplace inverse transform. However, a great deal of computer time is still needed for the inverse transformation. The alternative integral transform approach is BEM combining with Fourier transform. The numerical Fourier inverse transformation is also computer time consuming, even if the fast Fourier transform is used. In the present paper, the authors use BEM combining with Fourier transform and Fourier eigen transform (FET). The new approach is very attractive in saving on computer time. This paper illustrates the application of FET to BEM of 2-dimensional transient elastodynamic problem. The example of a half plane subjected to a discontinuous boundary load is solved on ELXSI 6400 computer. The CPU time is less than one minute. If Laplace or Fourier transform is adopted, the CPU time will be more than 10 minutes
KIN SP: A boundary element method based code for single pile kinematic bending in layered soil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Stacul
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In high seismicity areas, it is important to consider kinematic effects to properly design pile foundations. Kinematic effects are due to the interaction between pile and soil deformations induced by seismic waves. One of the effect is the arise of significant strains in weak soils that induce bending moments on piles. These moments can be significant in presence of a high stiffness contrast in a soil deposit. The single pile kinematic interaction problem is generally solved with beam on dynamic Winkler foundation approaches (BDWF or using continuous models. In this work, a new boundary element method (BEM based computer code (KIN SP is presented where the kinematic analysis is preceded by a free-field response analysis. The analysis results of this method, in terms of bending moments at the pile-head and at the interface of a two-layered soil, are influenced by many factors including the soil–pile interface discretization. A parametric study is presented with the aim to suggest the minimum number of boundary elements to guarantee the accuracy of a BEM solution, for typical pile–soil relative stiffness values as a function of the pile diameter, the location of the interface of a two-layered soil and of the stiffness contrast. KIN SP results have been compared with simplified solutions in literature and with those obtained using a quasi-three-dimensional (3D finite element code.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jo, Jong Chull; Shin, Won Ky [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
This paper presents an effective and simple procedure for the simulation of the motion of the solid-liquid interfacial boundary and the transient temperature field during phase change process. To accomplish this purpose, an iterative implicit solution algorithm has been developed by employing the dual reciprocity boundary element method. The dual reciprocity boundary element approach provided in this paper is much simpler than the usual boundary element method applying a reciprocity principle and an available technique for dealing with domain integral of boundary element formulation simultaneously. The effectiveness of the present analysis method have been illustrated through comparisons of the calculation results of an example with its semi-analytical or other numerical solutions where available. 22 refs., 3 figs. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jo, Jong Chull; Shin, Won Ky
1997-01-01
This paper presents an effective and simple procedure for the simulation of the motion of the solid-liquid interfacial boundary and the transient temperature field during phase change process. To accomplish this purpose, an iterative implicit solution algorithm has been developed by employing the dual reciprocity boundary element method. The dual reciprocity boundary element approach provided in this paper is much simpler than the usual boundary element method applying a reciprocity principle and an available technique for dealing with domain integral of boundary element formulation simultaneously. The effectiveness of the present analysis method have been illustrated through comparisons of the calculation results of an example with its semi-analytical or other numerical solutions where available
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jo, Jong Chull; Shin, Won Ky [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
This paper presents an effective and simple procedure for the simulation of the motion of the solid-liquid interfacial boundary and the transient temperature field during phase change process. To accomplish this purpose, an iterative implicit solution algorithm has been developed by employing the dual reciprocity boundary element method. The dual reciprocity boundary element approach provided in this paper is much simpler than the usual boundary element method applying a reciprocity principle and an available technique for dealing with domain integral of boundary element formulation simultaneously. The effectiveness of the present analysis method have been illustrated through comparisons of the calculation results of an example with its semi-analytical or other numerical solutions where available. 22 refs., 3 figs. (Author)
Interpretation of horizontal well performance in complicated systems by the boundary element method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jongkittinarukorn, K.; Tiab, D. [Oklahoma Univ., School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering (United States); Escobar, F. H. [Surcolombiana Univ., Dept. of Petroleum Engineering (Colombia)
1998-12-31
A solution obtained by using the boundary element method to simulate pressure behaviour of horizontal wells in complicated reservoir-wellbore configurations is presented. Three different types of well bore and reservoir models were studied, i.e. a snake-shaped horizontal wellbore intersecting a two-layer reservoir with cross flow, a horizontal well in a three-layer reservoir with cross flow, and a vertical well intersecting a two-layer reservoir without cross flow. In each case, special attention was paid to the influence of wellbore inclination angle, the distance from the wellbore to the different boundaries and the permeability ratio. Performance of each of these types of wells are discussed. 9 refs., 18 figs.
A multi-region boundary element method for multigroup neutron diffusion calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozgener, H.A.; Ozgener, B.
2001-01-01
For the analysis of a two-dimensional nuclear system consisting of a number of homogeneous regions (termed cells), first the cell matrices which depend solely on the material composition and geometrical dimension of the cell (hence on the cell type) are constructed using a boundary element formulation based on the multigroup boundary integral equation. For a particular nuclear system, the cell matrices are utilized in the assembly of the global system matrix in block-banded form using the newly introduced concept of virtual side. For criticality calculations, the classical fission source iteration is employed and linear system solutions are by the block Gaussian-elimination algorithm. The numerical applications show the validity of the proposed formulation both through comparison with analytical solutions and assessment of benchmark problem results against alternative methods
Resistive wall impedance of the LHC beam screen without slots calculated by boundary element method
Tsutsui, H
2002-01-01
In order to calculate the resistive wall impedance of the LHC beam screen without slots, the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is used. The result at 1 GHz is Re(ZL/L) = 6.689×10−3 Ω/m, Re(Zx/L) = 1.251 Ω/m2, Re(Zy/L) = 1.776 Ω/m2, andRe(2Z0,2 cos/kL) = −0.525 Ω/m2, assuming σ = 5.8 × 109 /Ωm.
The boundary element method for the solution of the multidimensional inverse heat conduction problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lagier, Guy-Laurent
1999-01-01
This work focuses on the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP), which consists in the determination of boundary conditions from a given set of internal temperature measurements. This problem is difficult to solve due to its ill-posedness and high sensitivity to measurement error. As a consequence, numerical regularization procedures are required to solve this problem. However, most of these methods depend on the dimension and the nature, stationary or transient, of the problem. Furthermore, these methods introduce parameters, called hyper-parameters, which have to be chosen optimally, but can not be determined a priori. So, a new general method is proposed for solving the IHCP. This method is based on a Boundary Element Method formulation, and the use of the Singular Values Decomposition as a regularization procedure. Thanks to this method, it's possible to identify and eliminate the directions of the solution where the measurement error plays the major role. This algorithm is first validated on two-dimensional stationary and one-dimensional transient problems. Some criteria are presented in order to choose the hyper-parameters. Then, the methodology is applied to two-dimensional and three-dimensional, theoretical or experimental, problems. The results are compared with those obtained by a standard method and show the accuracy of the method, its generality, and the validity of the proposed criteria. (author) [fr
Linear and nonlinear dynamic analysis by boundary element method. Ph.D. Thesis, 1986 Final Report
Ahmad, Shahid
1991-01-01
An advanced implementation of the direct boundary element method (BEM) applicable to free-vibration, periodic (steady-state) vibration and linear and nonlinear transient dynamic problems involving two and three-dimensional isotropic solids of arbitrary shape is presented. Interior, exterior, and half-space problems can all be solved by the present formulation. For the free-vibration analysis, a new real variable BEM formulation is presented which solves the free-vibration problem in the form of algebraic equations (formed from the static kernels) and needs only surface discretization. In the area of time-domain transient analysis, the BEM is well suited because it gives an implicit formulation. Although the integral formulations are elegant, because of the complexity of the formulation it has never been implemented in exact form. In the present work, linear and nonlinear time domain transient analysis for three-dimensional solids has been implemented in a general and complete manner. The formulation and implementation of the nonlinear, transient, dynamic analysis presented here is the first ever in the field of boundary element analysis. Almost all the existing formulation of BEM in dynamics use the constant variation of the variables in space and time which is very unrealistic for engineering problems and, in some cases, it leads to unacceptably inaccurate results. In the present work, linear and quadratic isoparametric boundary elements are used for discretization of geometry and functional variations in space. In addition, higher order variations in time are used. These methods of analysis are applicable to piecewise-homogeneous materials, such that not only problems of the layered media and the soil-structure interaction can be analyzed but also a large problem can be solved by the usual sub-structuring technique. The analyses have been incorporated in a versatile, general-purpose computer program. Some numerical problems are solved and, through comparisons
A simple finite element method for boundary value problems with a Riemann–Liouville derivative
Jin, Bangti; Lazarov, Raytcho; Lu, Xiliang; Zhou, Zhi
2016-01-01
© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We consider a boundary value problem involving a Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of order α∈(3/2,2) on the unit interval (0,1). The standard Galerkin finite element approximation converges slowly due to the presence of singularity term xα-^{1} in the solution representation. In this work, we develop a simple technique, by transforming it into a second-order two-point boundary value problem with nonlocal low order terms, whose solution can reconstruct directly the solution to the original problem. The stability of the variational formulation, and the optimal regularity pickup of the solution are analyzed. A novel Galerkin finite element method with piecewise linear or quadratic finite elements is developed, and ^{L2}(D) error estimates are provided. The approach is then applied to the corresponding fractional Sturm-Liouville problem, and error estimates of the eigenvalue approximations are given. Extensive numerical results fully confirm our theoretical study.
A simple finite element method for boundary value problems with a Riemann–Liouville derivative
Jin, Bangti
2016-02-01
© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We consider a boundary value problem involving a Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of order α∈(3/2,2) on the unit interval (0,1). The standard Galerkin finite element approximation converges slowly due to the presence of singularity term xα-^{1} in the solution representation. In this work, we develop a simple technique, by transforming it into a second-order two-point boundary value problem with nonlocal low order terms, whose solution can reconstruct directly the solution to the original problem. The stability of the variational formulation, and the optimal regularity pickup of the solution are analyzed. A novel Galerkin finite element method with piecewise linear or quadratic finite elements is developed, and ^{L2}(D) error estimates are provided. The approach is then applied to the corresponding fractional Sturm-Liouville problem, and error estimates of the eigenvalue approximations are given. Extensive numerical results fully confirm our theoretical study.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriquez, Vicente Cutanda; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Juhl, Peter Møller
2008-01-01
is of particular importance to achieve a sound field that reaches both microphones with the same level and that is sufficiently uniform at the microphone positions, in order to reduce the effect of misalignment. An existing sound source has been modeled using the Boundary Element Method, and the simulations have......The project Euromet-792 aims to investigate and improve methods for secondary free-field calibration of microphones. In this framework, the comparison method is being studied at DFM in relation to the more usual substitution method of microphone calibration. The design of the sound source...... been used to modify the source and make it suitable for this kind of calibration. It has been found that a central plug, already present in the device, can be re-shaped in such a way that makes the sound field on the microphone positions more uniform, even at rather high frequencies. Measurements have...
Natural convection in a composite fluid-porous cavity by the boundary element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jecl, R.; Skerget, L.
2005-01-01
The main purpose of this work is to present the use of the boundary element method (BEM) for analyzing the convective fluid flow and heat transfer in composite fluid-porous media domain when the fluid is compressible. In our case the flow is modeled by utilizing the Brinkman extended Darcy momentum equation (Brinkman model) which is commonly used when it is important to satisfy the no-slip boundary condition and when one wishes to compare flows in porous medium with those in pure fluids. The Brinkman equation reduce to the classical Navier Stokes equation for clear fluid when the permeability tends to infinity (porosity is equal to unity), i.e. when the solid matrix in the porous medium disappears and, when the permeability is finite the equation is valid for porous medium. Therefore it is possible to handle porous medium free fluid interface problems by changing the properties of the medium in the computational domain appropriately. Our goal is to widen the applicability of the computational model based on the boundary domain integral method (BDIM) which is an extension of the classical BEM. The governing equations are transformed by using the velocity-vorticity variables formulation and therefore the computation scheme is partitioned into kinematic and kinetic part. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igumnov Leonid
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The report presents the development of the time-boundary element methodology and a description of the related software based on a stepped method of numerical inversion of the integral Laplace transform in combination with a family of Runge-Kutta methods for analyzing 3-D mixed initial boundary-value problems of the dynamics of inhomogeneous elastic and poro-elastic bodies. The results of the numerical investigation are presented. The investigation methodology is based on direct-approach boundary integral equations of 3-D isotropic linear theories of elasticity and poroelasticity in Laplace transforms. Poroelastic media are described using Biot models with four and five base functions. With the help of the boundary-element method, solutions in time are obtained, using the stepped method of numerically inverting Laplace transform on the nodes of Runge-Kutta methods. The boundary-element method is used in combination with the collocation method, local element-by-element approximation based on the matched interpolation model. The results of analyzing wave problems of the effect of a non-stationary force on elastic and poroelastic finite bodies, a poroelastic half-space (also with a fictitious boundary and a layered half-space weakened by a cavity, and a half-space with a trench are presented. Excitation of a slow wave in a poroelastic medium is studied, using the stepped BEM-scheme on the nodes of Runge-Kutta methods.
Stability analysis of shallow tunnels subjected to eccentric loads by a boundary element method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehdi Panji
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, stress behavior of shallow tunnels under simultaneous non-uniform surface traction and symmetric gravity loading was studied using a direct boundary element method (BEM. The existing full-plane elastostatic fundamental solutions to displacement and stress fields were used and implemented in a developed algorithm. The cross-section of the tunnel was considered in circular, square, and horseshoe shapes and the lateral coefficient of the domain was assumed as unit quantity. Double-node procedure of the BEM was applied at the corners to improve the model including sudden traction changes. The results showed that the method used was a powerful tool for modeling underground openings under various external as well as internal loads. Eccentric loads significantly influenced the stress pattern of the surrounding tunnel. The achievements can be practically used in completing and modifying regulations for stability investigation of shallow tunnels.
Simpson, R. N.; Liu, Z.; Vázquez, R.; Evans, J. A.
2018-06-01
We outline the construction of compatible B-splines on 3D surfaces that satisfy the continuity requirements for electromagnetic scattering analysis with the boundary element method (method of moments). Our approach makes use of Non-Uniform Rational B-splines to represent model geometry and compatible B-splines to approximate the surface current, and adopts the isogeometric concept in which the basis for analysis is taken directly from CAD (geometry) data. The approach allows for high-order approximations and crucially provides a direct link with CAD data structures that allows for efficient design workflows. After outlining the construction of div- and curl-conforming B-splines defined over 3D surfaces we describe their use with the electric and magnetic field integral equations using a Galerkin formulation. We use Bézier extraction to accelerate the computation of NURBS and B-spline terms and employ H-matrices to provide accelerated computations and memory reduction for the dense matrices that result from the boundary integral discretization. The method is verified using the well known Mie scattering problem posed over a perfectly electrically conducting sphere and the classic NASA almond problem. Finally, we demonstrate the ability of the approach to handle models with complex geometry directly from CAD without mesh generation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Esteban Flores-Mendez
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This work is focused on studying interface waves for three canonical models, that is, interfaces formed by vacuum-solid, solid-solid, and liquid-solid. These interfaces excited by dynamic loads cause the emergence of Rayleigh's, Stoneley's, and Scholte's waves, respectively. To perform the study, the indirect boundary element method is used, which has proved to be a powerful tool for numerical modeling of problems in elastodynamics. In essence, the method expresses the diffracted wave field of stresses, pressures, and displacements by a boundary integral, also known as single-layer representation, whose shape can be regarded as a Fredholm's integral representation of second kind and zero order. This representation can be considered as an exemplification of Huygens' principle, which is equivalent to Somigliana's representation theorem. Results in frequency domain for the three types of interfaces are presented; then, using the fourier discrete transform, we derive the results in time domain, where the emergence of interface waves is highlighted.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akalin-Acar, Zeynep; Gencer, Nevzat G
2004-01-01
The forward problem of electromagnetic source imaging has two components: a numerical model to solve the related integral equations and a model of the head geometry. This study is on the boundary element method (BEM) implementation for numerical solutions and realistic head modelling. The use of second-order (quadratic) isoparametric elements and the recursive integration technique increase the accuracy in the solutions. Two new formulations are developed for the calculation of the transfer matrices to obtain the potential and magnetic field patterns using realistic head models. The formulations incorporate the use of the isolated problem approach for increased accuracy in solutions. If a personal computer is used for computations, each transfer matrix is calculated in 2.2 h. After this pre-computation period, solutions for arbitrary source configurations can be obtained in milliseconds for a realistic head model. A hybrid algorithm that uses snakes, morphological operations, region growing and thresholding is used for segmentation. The scalp, skull, grey matter, white matter and eyes are segmented from the multimodal magnetic resonance images and meshes for the corresponding surfaces are created. A mesh generation algorithm is developed for modelling the intersecting tissue compartments, such as eyes. To obtain more accurate results quadratic elements are used in the realistic meshes. The resultant BEM implementation provides more accurate forward problem solutions and more efficient calculations. Thus it can be the firm basis of the future inverse problem solutions
Sound Radiation from a Loudspeaker Cabinet using the Boundary Element Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernandez Grande, Efren
had been reported, based on subjective testing. This study aims to detect the reported problem. The radiation from the cabinet is calculated using the Boundary Element Method. The analysis examines both the frequency domain and the time domain characteristics (in other words, the steady state response......, in some cases becoming clearly audible. The aim of this study is to provide a tool that can evaluate the contribution from the cabinet to the overall sound radiated by a loudspeaker. The specific case of a B&O Beolab 9 early prototype has been investigated. An influence by the cabinet of this prototype...... and the impulse response) of the loudspeaker and the cabinet. A significant influence of the cabinet has been detected, which becomes especially apparent in the time domain, during the sound decay process....
PARALLEL ALGORITHM FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL STOKES FLOW SIMULATION USING BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD
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D. G. Pribytok
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Parallel computing technique for modeling three-dimensional viscous flow (Stokes flow using direct boundary element method is presented. The problem is solved in three phases: sampling and construction of system of linear algebraic equations (SLAE, its decision and finding the velocity of liquid at predetermined points. For construction of the system and finding the velocity, the parallel algorithms using graphics CUDA cards programming technology have been developed and implemented. To solve the system of linear algebraic equations the implemented software libraries are used. A comparison of time consumption for three main algorithms on the example of calculation of viscous fluid motion in three-dimensional cavity is performed.
Rayleigh-wave scattering by shallow cracks using the indirect boundary element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ávila-Carrera, R; Rodríguez-Castellanos, A; Ortiz-Alemán, C; Sánchez-Sesma, F J
2009-01-01
The scattering and diffraction of Rayleigh waves by shallow cracks using the indirect boundary element method (IBEM) are investigated. The detection of cracks is of interest because their presence may compromise structural elements, put technological devices at risk or represent economical potential in reservoir engineering. Shallow cracks may give rise to scattered body and surface waves. These waves are sensitive to the crack's geometry, size and orientation. Under certain conditions, amplitude spectra clearly show conspicuous resonances that are associated with trapped waves. Several applications based on the scattering of surface waves (e.g. Rayleigh and Stoneley waves), such as non-destructive testing or oil well exploration, have shown that the scattered fields may provide useful information to detect cracks and other heterogeneities. The subject is not new and several analytical and numerical techniques have been applied for the last 50 years to understand the basis of multiple scattering phenomena. In this work, we use the IBEM to calculate the scattered fields produced by single or multiple cracks near a free surface. This method is based upon an integral representation of the scattered displacement fields, which is derived from Somigliana's identity. Results are given in both frequency and time domains. The analyses of the displacement field using synthetic seismograms and snapshots reveal some important effects from various configurations of cracks. The study of these simple cases may provide an archetype to geoscientists and engineers to understand the fundamental aspects of multiple scattering and diffraction by cracks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Gonzalez
Full Text Available Abstract The analysis of cracked brittle mechanical components considering linear elastic fracture mechanics is usually reduced to the evaluation of stress intensity factors (SIFs. The SIF calculation can be carried out experimentally, theoretically or numerically. Each methodology has its own advantages but the use of numerical methods has become very popular. Several schemes for numerical SIF calculations have been developed, the J-integral method being one of the most widely used because of its energy-like formulation. Additionally, some variations of the J-integral method, such as displacement-based methods, are also becoming popular due to their simplicity. In this work, a simple displacement-based scheme is proposed to calculate SIFs, and its performance is compared with contour integrals. These schemes are all implemented with the Boundary Element Method (BEM in order to exploit its advantages in crack growth modelling. Some simple examples are solved with the BEM and the calculated SIF values are compared against available solutions, showing good agreement between the different schemes.
Contreras Zazueta, M. A.; Perton, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Sánchez-Alvaro, E.
2013-12-01
The seismic hazard assessment of extended developments, such as a dam, a bridge or a pipeline, needs the strong ground motion simulation taking into account the effects of surface geology. In many cases the incoming wave field can be obtained from attenuation relations or simulations for layered media using Discrete Wave Number (DWN). Sometimes there is a need to include in simulations the seismic source as well. A number of methods to solve these problems have been developed. Among them the Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods (FEM and FDM) are generally preferred because of the facility of use. Nevertheless, the analysis of realistic dynamic loading induced by earthquakes requires a thinner mesh of the entire domain to consider high frequencies. Consequently this may imply a high computational cost. The Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) can also be employed. Here it is used to study the response of a site to historical seismic activity. This method is particularly suited to model wave propagation through wide areas as it requires only the meshing of boundaries. Moreover, it is well suited to represent finely the diffraction that can occur on a fault. However, the IBEM has been applied mainly to simple geometrical configurations. In this communication significant refinements of the formulation are presented. Using IBEM we can simulate wave propagation in complex geometrical configurations such as a stratified medium crossed by thin faults or having a complex topography. Two main developments are here described; one integrates the DWN method inside the IBEM in order to represent the Green's functions of stratified media with relatively low computational cost but assuming unbounded parallel flat layers, and the other is the extension of IBEM to deal with multi-regions in contact which allows more versatility with a higher computational cost compared to the first one but still minor to an equivalent FEM formulation. The two approaches are fully
Computation of Aerodynamic Noise Radiated from Ducted Tail Rotor Using Boundary Element Method
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Yunpeng Ma
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A detailed aerodynamic performance of a ducted tail rotor in hover has been numerically studied using CFD technique. The general governing equations of turbulent flow around ducted tail rotor are given and directly solved by using finite volume discretization and Runge-Kutta time integration. The calculations of the lift characteristics of the ducted tail rotor can be obtained. In order to predict the aerodynamic noise, a hybrid method combining computational aeroacoustic with boundary element method (BEM has been proposed. The computational steps include the following: firstly, the unsteady flow around rotor is calculated using the CFD method to get the noise source information; secondly, the radiate sound pressure is calculated using the acoustic analogy Curle equation in the frequency domain; lastly, the scattering effect of the duct wall on the propagation of the sound wave is presented using an acoustic thin-body BEM. The aerodynamic results and the calculated sound pressure levels are compared with the known technique for validation. The sound pressure directivity and scattering effect are shown to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the method.
An assessment of the DORT method on simple scatterers using boundary element modelling.
Gélat, P; Ter Haar, G; Saffari, N
2015-05-07
The ability to focus through ribs overcomes an important limitation of a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) system for the treatment of liver tumours. Whilst it is important to generate high enough acoustic pressures at the treatment location for tissue lesioning, it is also paramount to ensure that the resulting ultrasonic dose on the ribs remains below a specified threshold, since ribs both strongly absorb and reflect ultrasound. The DORT (décomposition de l'opérateur de retournement temporel) method has the ability to focus on and through scatterers immersed in an acoustic medium selectively without requiring prior knowledge of their location or geometry. The method requires a multi-element transducer and is implemented via a singular value decomposition of the measured matrix of inter-element transfer functions. The efficacy of a method of focusing through scatterers is often assessed by comparing the specific absorption rate (SAR) at the surface of the scatterer, and at the focal region. The SAR can be obtained from a knowledge of the acoustic pressure magnitude and the acoustic properties of the medium and scatterer. It is well known that measuring acoustic pressures with a calibrated hydrophone at or near a hard surface presents experimental challenges, potentially resulting in increased measurement uncertainties. Hence, the DORT method is usually assessed experimentally by measuring the SAR at locations on the surface of the scatterer after the latter has been removed from the acoustic medium. This is also likely to generate uncertainties in the acoustic pressure measurement. There is therefore a strong case for assessing the efficacy of the DORT method through a validated theoretical model. The boundary element method (BEM) applied to exterior acoustic scattering problems is well-suited for such an assessment. In this study, BEM was used to implement the DORT method theoretically on locally reacting spherical scatterers, and to assess its focusing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaifol Samsu; Muhamad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin
2011-01-01
Boundary element method (BEM) is a numerical technique that used for modeling infinite domain as is the case for galvanic corrosion analysis. This paper presents the application of boundary element method for galvanic corrosion analysis between two different metallic materials. Aluminium (Al), and zinc (Zn) alloys were used separately coupled with the Carbon Steel (CS) in natural seawater. The measured conductivity of sea water is 30,800 μS/ cm at ambient temperature. Computer software system based on boundary element likes BEASY and ABAQUS can be used to accurately model and simulate the galvanic corrosion. However, the BEM based BEASY program will be used reasonably for predicting the galvanic current density distribution of coupled Al-CS and Zn-CS in this study. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Yongxing; Lee, Minhwan; Lee, Wonyoung; Barnett, David M; Pinsky, Peter M; Prinz, Friedrich B
2008-01-01
Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is a special design of non-contact atomic force microscopy used for detecting electrostatic interactions between the probe tip and the sample. Its resolution is limited by the finite probe size and the long-range characteristics of electrostatic forces. Therefore, quantitative analysis is crucial to understanding the relationship between the actual local surface potential distribution and the quantities obtained from EFM measurements. To study EFM measurements on bimetallic samples with surface potential inhomogeneities as a special case, we have simulated such measurements using the boundary element method and calculated the force component and force gradient component that would be measured by amplitude modulation (AM) EFM and frequency modulation (FM) EFM, respectively. Such analyses have been performed for inhomogeneities of various shapes and sizes, for different tip-sample separations and tip geometries, for different applied voltages, and for different media (e.g., vacuum or water) in which the experiment is performed. For a sample with a surface potential discontinuity, the FM-EFM resolution expression agrees with the literature; however, the simulation for AM-EFM suggests the existence of an optimal tip radius of curvature in terms of resolution. On the other hand, for samples with strip- and disk-shaped surface potential inhomogeneities, we have obtained quantitative expressions for the detectability size requirements as a function of experimental conditions for both AM- and FM-EFMs, which suggest that a larger tip radius of curvature is moderately favored for detecting the presence of such inhomogeneities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itagaki, Masafumi; Sahashi, Naoki.
1997-01-01
The multiple reciprocity boundary element method has been applied to three-dimensional two-group neutron diffusion problems. A matrix-type boundary integral equation has been derived to solve the first and the second group neutron diffusion equations simultaneously. The matrix-type fundamental solutions used here satisfy the equation which has a point source term and is adjoint to the neutron diffusion equations. A multiple reciprocity method has been employed to transform the matrix-type domain integral related to the fission source into an equivalent boundary one. The higher order fundamental solutions required for this formulation are composed of a series of two types of analytic functions. The eigenvalue itself is also calculated using only boundary integrals. Three-dimensional test calculations indicate that the present method provides stable and accurate solutions for criticality problems. (author)
A Hamiltonian-based derivation of Scaled Boundary Finite Element Method for elasticity problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Zhiqiang; Lin Gao; Wang Yi; Liu Jun
2010-01-01
The Scaled Boundary Finite Method (SBFEM) is a semi-analytical solution approach for solving partial differential equation. For problem in elasticity, the governing equations can be obtained by mechanically based formulation, Scaled-boundary-transformation-based formulation and principle of virtual work. The governing equations are described in the frame of Lagrange system and the unknowns are displacements. But in the solution procedure, the auxiliary variables are introduced and the equations are solved in the state space. Based on the observation that the duality system to solve elastic problem proposed by W.X. Zhong is similar to the above solution approach, the discretization of the SBFEM and the duality system are combined to derive the governing equations in the Hamilton system by introducing the dual variables in this paper. The Precise Integration Method (PIM) used in Duality system is also an efficient method for the solution of the governing equations of SBFEM in displacement and boundary stiffness matrix especially for the case which results some numerical difficulties in the usually uses the eigenvalue method. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the PIM for solution of boundary static stiffness.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yokoi, T [Building Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Sanchez-Sesma, F [Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Institute de Ingenieria
1997-05-27
Formulation is introduced for discretizing a boundary integral equation into an indirect boundary element method for the solution of 3-dimensional topographic problems. Yokoi and Takenaka propose an analytical solution-capable reference solution (solution for the half space elastic body with flat free surface) to problems of topographic response to seismic motion in a 2-dimensional in-plane field. That is to say, they propose a boundary integral equation capable of effectively suppressing the non-physical waves that emerge in the result of computation in the wake of the truncation of the discretized ground surface making use of the wave field in a semi-infinite elastic body with flat free surface. They apply the proposed boundary integral equation discretized into the indirect boundary element method to solve some examples, and succeed in proving its validity. In this report, the equation is expanded to deal with 3-dimensional topographic problems. A problem of a P-wave vertically landing on a flat and free surface is solved by the conventional boundary integral equation and the proposed boundary integral equation, and the solutions are compared with each other. It is found that the new method, different from the conventional one, can delete non-physical waves from the analytical result. 4 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiba, Gou; Tsuji, Masashi; Shimazu, Yoichiro
2001-01-01
A hierarchical domain decomposition boundary element method (HDD-BEM) that was developed to solve a two-dimensional neutron diffusion equation has been modified to deal with three-dimensional problems. In the HDD-BEM, the domain is decomposed into homogeneous regions. The boundary conditions on the common inner boundaries between decomposed regions and the neutron multiplication factor are initially assumed. With these assumptions, the neutron diffusion equations defined in decomposed homogeneous regions can be solved respectively by applying the boundary element method. This part corresponds to the 'lower level' calculations. At the 'higher level' calculations, the assumed values, the inner boundary conditions and the neutron multiplication factor, are modified so as to satisfy the continuity conditions for the neutron flux and the neutron currents on the inner boundaries. These procedures of the lower and higher levels are executed alternately and iteratively until the continuity conditions are satisfied within a convergence tolerance. With the hierarchical domain decomposition, it is possible to deal with problems composing a large number of regions, something that has been difficult with the conventional BEM. In this paper, it is showed that a three-dimensional problem even with 722 regions can be solved with a fine accuracy and an acceptable computation time. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tongchun Li
2015-01-01
element is proposed to solve the safety factor of local discontinuous rock mass. Slope system is divided into several continuous bodies and local discontinuous interface boundaries. Each block is treated as a partition of the system and contacted by discontinuous joints. The displacements of blocks are chosen as basic variables and the rigid displacements in the centroid of blocks are chosen as motion variables. The contact forces on interface boundaries and the rigid displacements to the centroid of each body are chosen as mixed variables and solved iteratively using the interface boundary equations. Flexibility matrix is formed through PFE according to the contact states of nodal pairs and spring flexibility is used to reflect the influence of weak structural plane so that nonlinear iteration is only limited to the possible contact region. With cohesion and friction coefficient reduced gradually, the states of all nodal pairs at the open or slip state for the first time are regarded as failure criterion, which can decrease the effect of subjectivity in determining safety factor. Examples are used to verify the validity of the proposed method.
Noise source localization on tyres using an inverse boundary element method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schuhmacher, Andreas; Saemann, E-U; Hald, J
1998-01-01
A dominating part of tyre noise is radiated from a region close to the tyre/road contact patch, where it is very difficult to measure both the tyre vibration and the acoustic near field. The approach taken in the present paper is to model the tyre and road surfaces with a Boundary Element Model...... (BEM), with unknown node vibration data on the tyre surface. The BEM model is used to calculate a set of transfer functions from the node vibrations to the sound pressure at a set of microphone positions around the tyre. By approximate inversion of the matrix of transfer functions, the surface...... from tyre noise measurements will be presented at the conference....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavel A. Akimov
2017-12-01
Full Text Available As is well known, the formulation of a multipoint boundary problem involves three main components: a description of the domain occupied by the structure and the corresponding subdomains; description of the conditions inside the domain and inside the corresponding subdomains, the description of the conditions on the boundary of the domain, conditions on the boundaries between subdomains. This paper is a continuation of another work published earlier, in which the formulation and general principles of the approximation of the multipoint boundary problem of a static analysis of deep beam on the basis of the joint application of the finite element method and the discrete-continual finite element method were considered. It should be noted that the approximation within the fragments of a domain that have regular physical-geometric parameters along one of the directions is expedient to be carried out on the basis of the discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM, and for the approximation of all other fragments it is necessary to use the standard finite element method (FEM. In the present publication, the formulas for the computing of displacements partial derivatives of displacements, strains and stresses within the finite element model (both within the finite element and the corresponding nodal values (with the use of averaging are presented. Boundary conditions between subdomains (respectively, discrete models and discrete-continual models and typical conditions such as “hinged support”, “free edge”, “perfect contact” (twelve basic (basic variants are available are under consideration as well. Governing formulas for computing of elements of the corresponding matrices of coefficients and vectors of the right-hand sides are given for each variant. All formulas are fully adapted for algorithmic implementation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itagaki, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Hirose, Hideyuki
1993-01-01
A procedure is presented for the determination of geometric buckling for regular polygons. A new computation technique, the multiple reciprocity boundary element method (MRBEM), has been applied to solve the one-group neutron diffusion equation. The main difficulty in applying the ordinary boundary element method (BEM) to neutron diffusion problems has been the need to compute a domain integral, resulting from the fission source. The MRBEM has been developed for transforming this type of domain integral into an equivalent boundary integral. The basic idea of the MRBEM is to apply repeatedly the reciprocity theorem (Green's second formula) using a sequence of higher order fundamental solutions. The MRBEM requires discretization of the boundary only rather than of the domain. This advantage is useful for extensive survey analyses of buckling for complex geometries. The results of survey analyses have indicated that the general form of geometric buckling is B g 2 = (a n /R c ) 2 , where R c represents the radius of the circumscribed circle of the regular polygon under consideration. The geometric constant A n depends on the type of regular polygon and takes the value of π for a square and 2.405 for a circle, an extreme case that has an infinite number of sides. Values of a n for a triangle, pentagon, hexagon, and octagon have been calculated as 4.190, 2.281, 2.675, and 2.547, respectively
Yang, Jubiao; Yu, Feimi; Krane, Michael; Zhang, Lucy T
2018-01-01
In this work, a non-reflective boundary condition, the Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) technique, is adapted and implemented in a fluid-structure interaction numerical framework to demonstrate that proper boundary conditions are not only necessary to capture correct wave propagations in a flow field, but also its interacted solid behavior and responses. While most research on the topics of the non-reflective boundary conditions are focused on fluids, little effort has been done in a fluid-structure interaction setting. In this study, the effectiveness of the PML is closely examined in both pure fluid and fluid-structure interaction settings upon incorporating the PML algorithm in a fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction framework, the Immersed Finite Element Method. The performance of the PML boundary condition is evaluated and compared to reference solutions with a variety of benchmark test cases including known and expected solutions of aeroacoustic wave propagation as well as vortex shedding and advection. The application of the PML in numerical simulations of fluid-structure interaction is then investigated to demonstrate the efficacy and necessity of such boundary treatment in order to capture the correct solid deformation and flow field without the requirement of a significantly large computational domain.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Washizu, Masao; Tanabe, Yoshio.
1986-01-01
In a system handling the electromagnetic waves of large power such as the cavity resonator for a high energy accelerator and the high frequency heater for a nuclear fusion apparatus, the margin in the thermal and mechanical design of a wave guide system cannot be taken large, accordingly, the detailed analysis of electromagnetic waves is required. When the analysis in a general form is carried out, boundary element method may be a useful method of solution. This time, the authors carried out the formulation of steady electromagnetic wave problems by boundary element method, and it was shown that the formulation was able to be carried out under the physically clear boundary condition also in this case, and especially in the case of a perfect conductor system, a very simple form was obtained. In this paper, first, the techniques of formulation in a general case, and next, as a special case, the formulation for a perfect conductor system are described. Taking the analysis of the cavity resonators of cylindrical and rectangular parallelepiped forms as examples, the comparison with the analytical solution was carried out. (Kako, I.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador
2009-01-01
Secondary calibration of microphones in free field is performed by placing the microphone under calibration in an anechoic chamber with a sound source, and exposing it to a controlled sound field. A calibrated microphone is also measured as a reference. While the two measurements are usually made...... apart to avoid acoustic interaction. As a part of the project Euromet-792, aiming to investigate and improve methods for secondary free-field calibration of microphones, a sound source suitable for simultaneous secondary free-field calibration has been designed using the Boundary Element Method...... of the Danish Fundamental Metrology Institute (DFM). The design and verification of the source are presented in this communication....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Namestnik, B; Skerget, L; Beadar, D [tehniska fakulteta, Maribor (Yugoslavia)
1989-07-01
The paper presents numerical method for evaluating heat transfer on two-dimensional ribbed surfaces. Governing elliptic partial differential equation is transformed to boundary integral equation, and solved by the boundary element method. Efficiency of fins is calculated from boundary heat flux balance. Several test cases have shown usefulness of the presented method. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Kai-Jiang; Pan, Xiao-Min; Li, Ren-Xian; Sheng, Xin-Qing
2017-01-01
In optical trapping applications, the optical force should be investigated within a wide range of parameter space in terms of beam configuration to reach the desirable performance. A simple but reliable way of conducting the related investigation is to evaluate optical forces corresponding to all possible beam configurations. Although the optical force exerted on arbitrarily shaped particles can be well predicted by boundary element method (BEM), such investigation is time costing because it involves many repetitions of expensive computation, where the forces are calculated from the equivalent surface currents. An algorithm is proposed to alleviate the difficulty by exploiting our previously developed skeletonization framework. The proposed algorithm succeeds in reducing the number of repetitions. Since the number of skeleton beams is always much less than that of beams in question, the computation can be very efficient. The proposed algorithm is accurate because the skeletonization is accuracy controllable. - Highlights: • A fast and accurate algorithm is proposed in terms of boundary element method to reduce the number of repetitions of computing the optical forces from the equivalent currents. • The algorithm is accuracy controllable because the accuracy of the associated rank-revealing process is well-controlled. • The accelerate rate can reach over one thousand because the number of skeleton beams can be very small. • The algorithm can be applied to other methods, e.g., FE-BI.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, Luis Carlos Martins
1998-06-15
New Petrov-Galerkin formulations on the finite element methods for convection-diffusion problems with boundary layers are presented. Such formulations are based on a consistent new theory on discontinuous finite element methods. Existence and uniqueness of solutions for these problems in the new finite element spaces are demonstrated. Some numerical experiments shows how the new formulation operate and also their efficacy. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lyakhovich Leonid
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to formulation and general principles of approximation of multipoint boundary problem of static analysis of deep beam with the use of combined application of finite element method (FEM discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM. The field of application of DCFEM comprises structures with regular physical and geometrical parameters in some dimension (“basic” dimension. DCFEM presupposes finite element approximation for non-basic dimension while in the basic dimension problem remains continual. DCFEM is based on analytical solutions of resulting multipoint boundary problems for systems of ordinary differential equations with piecewise-constant coefficients.
Hamanaka, Ryo; Yamaoka, Satoshi; Anh, Tuan Nguyen; Tominaga, Jun-Ya; Koga, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Noriaki
2017-11-01
Although many attempts have been made to simulate orthodontic tooth movement using the finite element method, most were limited to analyses of the initial displacement in the periodontal ligament and were insufficient to evaluate the effect of orthodontic appliances on long-term tooth movement. Numeric simulation of long-term tooth movement was performed in some studies; however, neither the play between the brackets and archwire nor the interproximal contact forces were considered. The objectives of this study were to simulate long-term orthodontic tooth movement with the edgewise appliance by incorporating those contact conditions into the finite element model and to determine the force system when the space is closed with sliding mechanics. We constructed a 3-dimensional model of maxillary dentition with 0.022-in brackets and 0.019 × 0.025-in archwire. Forces of 100 cN simulating sliding mechanics were applied. The simulation was accomplished on the assumption that bone remodeling correlates with the initial tooth displacement. This method could successfully represent the changes in the moment-to-force ratio: the tooth movement pattern during space closure. We developed a novel method that could simulate the long-term orthodontic tooth movement and accurately determine the force system in the course of time by incorporating contact boundary conditions into finite element analysis. It was also suggested that friction is progressively increased during space closure in sliding mechanics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozgener, B.
1998-01-01
A boundary integral equation (BIE) is developed for the application of the boundary element method to the multigroup neutron diffusion equations. The developed BIE contains no explicit scattering term; the scattering effects are taken into account by redefining the unknowns. Boundary elements of the linear and constant variety are utilised for validation of the developed boundary integral formulation
Li, Qiang; Popov, Valentin L.
2018-03-01
Recently proposed formulation of the boundary element method for adhesive contacts has been generalized for contacts of power-law graded materials with and without adhesion. Proceeding from the fundamental solution for single force acting on the surface of an elastic half space, first the influence matrix is obtained for a rectangular grid. The inverse problem for the calculation of required stress in the contact area from a known surface displacement is solved using the conjugate-gradient technique. For the transformation between the stresses and displacements, the Fast Fourier Transformation is used. For the adhesive contact of graded material, the detachment criterion based on the energy balance is proposed. The method is validated by comparison with known exact analytical solutions as well as by proving the independence of the mesh size and the grid orientation.
Heumann, Holger; Rapetti, Francesca
2017-04-01
Existing finite element implementations for the computation of free-boundary axisymmetric plasma equilibria approximate the unknown poloidal flux function by standard lowest order continuous finite elements with discontinuous gradients. As a consequence, the location of critical points of the poloidal flux, that are of paramount importance in tokamak engineering, is constrained to nodes of the mesh leading to undesired jumps in transient problems. Moreover, recent numerical results for the self-consistent coupling of equilibrium with resistive diffusion and transport suggest the necessity of higher regularity when approximating the flux map. In this work we propose a mortar element method that employs two overlapping meshes. One mesh with Cartesian quadrilaterals covers the vacuum chamber domain accessible by the plasma and one mesh with triangles discretizes the region outside. The two meshes overlap in a narrow region. This approach gives the flexibility to achieve easily and at low cost higher order regularity for the approximation of the flux function in the domain covered by the plasma, while preserving accurate meshing of the geometric details outside this region. The continuity of the numerical solution in the region of overlap is weakly enforced by a mortar-like mapping.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Juhl, Peter Møller
2008-01-01
The project Euromet-792 aims to investigate and improve methods for secondary free-field calibration of microphones. In this framework, the comparison method is being studied at DFM in relation to the more usual substitution method of microphone calibration. The design of the sound source is of p...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Chen; Lu Hong; Hua Ning; Tang Xue-Zheng; Tang Fa-Kuan; Shou Guo-Fa; Xia Ling; Ma Ping
2013-01-01
A cardiac vector model is presented and verified, and then the forward problem for cardiac magnetic fields and electric potential are discussed based on this model and the realistic human torso volume conductor model, including lungs. A torso—cardiac vector model is used for a 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) and magneto-cardiogram (MCG) simulation study by using the boundary element method (BEM). Also, we obtain the MCG wave picture using a compound four-channel HT c ·SQUID system in a magnetically shielded room. By comparing the simulated results and experimental results, we verify the cardiac vector model and then do a preliminary study of the forward problem of MCG and ECG. Therefore, the results show that the vector model is reasonable in cardiac electrophysiology. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, I.T.; Ting, K.
1987-01-01
Dynamic response of liquid storage tanks considering the hydrodynamic interactions due to earthquake ground motion has been extensively studied. Several finite element procedures, such as Balendra et. al. (1982) and Haroun (1983), have been devoted to investigate the dynamic interaction between the deformable wall of the tank and the liquid. Further, if the geometry of the storage tank can not be described by axi-symmetric case, the tank wall and the fluid domain must be discretized by three dimensional finite elements to investigate the fluid-structure-interactions. Thus, the need of large computer memory and expense of vast computer time usually make this analysis impractical. To demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the solution technique developed herein, the dynamic behavior of ground-supported, deformed, cylindrical tank with incompressible fluid conducted by Haroun (1983) are analyzed. Good correlations of hydrodynamic pressure distribution between the computed results with the referenced solutions are noted. The fluid compressibility significantly affects the hydrodynamic pressures of the liquid-tank-interactions and the work which is done on this discussion is still little attention. Thus, the influences of the compressibility of the liquid on the reponse of the liquid storage due to ground motion are then drawn. By the way, the complex-valued frequency response functions for hydrodynamic forces of Haroun's problem are also displayed. (orig./GL)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alleon, G. [EADS-CCR, 31 - Blagnac (France); Carpentieri, B.; Du, I.S.; Giraud, L.; Langou, J.; Martin, E. [Cerfacs, 31 - Toulouse (France)
2003-07-01
The boundary element method has become a popular tool for the solution of Maxwell's equations in electromagnetism. It discretizes only the surface of the radiating object and gives rise to linear systems that are smaller in size compared to those arising from finite element or finite difference discretizations. However, these systems are prohibitively demanding in terms of memory for direct methods and challenging to solve by iterative methods. In this paper we address the iterative solution via preconditioned Krylov methods of electromagnetic scattering problems expressed in an integral formulation, with main focus on the design of the pre-conditioner. We consider an approximate inverse method based on the Frobenius-norm minimization with a pattern prescribed in advance. The pre-conditioner is constructed from a sparse approximation of the dense coefficient matrix, and the patterns both for the pre-conditioner and for the coefficient matrix are computed a priori using geometric information from the mesh. We describe the implementation of the approximate inverse in an out-of-core parallel code that uses multipole techniques for the matrix-vector products, and show results on the numerical scalability of our method on systems of size up to one million unknowns. We propose an embedded iterative scheme based on the GMRES method and combined with multipole techniques, aimed at improving the robustness of the approximate inverse for large problems. We prove by numerical experiments that the proposed scheme enables the solution of very large and difficult problems efficiently at reduced computational and memory cost. Finally we perform a preliminary study on a spectral two-level pre-conditioner to enhance the robustness of our method. This numerical technique exploits spectral information of the preconditioned systems to build a low rank-update of the pre-conditioner. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alleon, G.; Carpentieri, B.; Du, I.S.; Giraud, L.; Langou, J.; Martin, E.
2003-01-01
The boundary element method has become a popular tool for the solution of Maxwell's equations in electromagnetism. It discretizes only the surface of the radiating object and gives rise to linear systems that are smaller in size compared to those arising from finite element or finite difference discretizations. However, these systems are prohibitively demanding in terms of memory for direct methods and challenging to solve by iterative methods. In this paper we address the iterative solution via preconditioned Krylov methods of electromagnetic scattering problems expressed in an integral formulation, with main focus on the design of the pre-conditioner. We consider an approximate inverse method based on the Frobenius-norm minimization with a pattern prescribed in advance. The pre-conditioner is constructed from a sparse approximation of the dense coefficient matrix, and the patterns both for the pre-conditioner and for the coefficient matrix are computed a priori using geometric information from the mesh. We describe the implementation of the approximate inverse in an out-of-core parallel code that uses multipole techniques for the matrix-vector products, and show results on the numerical scalability of our method on systems of size up to one million unknowns. We propose an embedded iterative scheme based on the GMRES method and combined with multipole techniques, aimed at improving the robustness of the approximate inverse for large problems. We prove by numerical experiments that the proposed scheme enables the solution of very large and difficult problems efficiently at reduced computational and memory cost. Finally we perform a preliminary study on a spectral two-level pre-conditioner to enhance the robustness of our method. This numerical technique exploits spectral information of the preconditioned systems to build a low rank-update of the pre-conditioner. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wan-You Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A novel hybrid method, which simultaneously possesses the efficiency of Fourier spectral method (FSM and the applicability of the finite element method (FEM, is presented for the vibration analysis of structures with elastic boundary conditions. The FSM, as one type of analytical approaches with excellent convergence and accuracy, is mainly limited to problems with relatively regular geometry. The purpose of the current study is to extend the FSM to problems with irregular geometry via the FEM and attempt to take full advantage of the FSM and the conventional FEM for structural vibration problems. The computational domain of general shape is divided into several subdomains firstly, some of which are represented by the FSM while the rest by the FEM. Then, fictitious springs are introduced for connecting these subdomains. Sufficient details are given to describe the development of such a hybrid method. Numerical examples of a one-dimensional Euler-Bernoulli beam and a two-dimensional rectangular plate show that the present method has good accuracy and efficiency. Further, one irregular-shaped plate which consists of one rectangular plate and one semi-circular plate also demonstrates the capability of the present method applied to irregular structures.
Implementation of a boundary element method to solve for the near field effects of an array of WECs
Oskamp, J. A.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.
2010-12-01
When Wave Energy Converters (WECs) are installed, they affect the shoreline wave climate by removing some of the wave energy which would have reached the shore. Before large WEC projects are launched, it is important to understand the potential coastal impacts of these installations. The high cost associated with ocean scale testing invites the use of hydrodynamic models to play a major role in estimating these effects. In this study, a wave structure interaction program (WAMIT) is used to model an array of WECs. The program predicts the wave field throughout the array using a boundary element method to solve the potential flow fluid problem, taking into account the incident waves, the power dissipated, and the way each WEC moves and interacts with the others. This model is appropriate for a small domain near the WEC array in order to resolve the details in the interactions, but not extending to the coastline (where the far-field effects must be assessed). To propagate these effects to the coastline, the waves leaving this small domain will be used as boundary conditions for a larger model domain which will assess the shoreline effects caused by the array. The immediate work is concerned with setting up the WAMIT model for a small array of point absorbers. A 1:33 scale lab test is planned and will provide data to validate the WAMIT model on this small domain before it is nested with the larger domain to estimate shoreline effects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarler, B [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)
1987-07-01
The basic principles of the boundary element method numerical treatment of the radial flow heat diffusion equation are presented. The algorithm copes the time dependent Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, temperature dependent material properties and regions from different materials in thermal contact. It is verified on the several analytically obtained test cases. The developed method is used for the modelling of unsteady radial heat flow in pressurized water reactor fuel rod. (author)
Sun, Qiang; Wu, Guo Xiong
2013-03-01
A mathematical model and a numerical solution procedure are developed to simulate flow field through a 3D permeable vessel with multibranches embedded in a solid tumour. The model is based on Poisseuille's law for the description of the flow through the vessels, Darcy's law for the fluid field inside the tumour interstitium, and Starling's law for the flux transmitted across the vascular walls. The solution procedure is based on a coupled method, in which the finite difference method is used for the flow in the vessels and the boundary element method is used for the flow in the tumour. When vessels meet each other at a junction, the pressure continuity and mass conservation are imposed at the junction. Three typical representative structures within the tumour vasculature, symmetrical dichotomous branching, asymmetrical bifurcation with uneven radius of daughter vessels and trifurcation, are investigated in detail as case studies. These results have demonstrated the features of tumour flow environment by the pressure distributions and flow velocity field. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Legan, M. A.; Blinov, V. A.; Larichkin, A. Yu; Novoselov, A. N.
2017-10-01
Experimental study of hydraulic fracturing of thick-walled cylinders with a central circular hole was carried out using the machine that creates a high oil pressure. Experiments on the compression fracture of the solid cylinders by diameter and rectangular parallelepipeds perpendicular to the ends were carried out with a multipurpose test machine Zwick / Roell Z100. Samples were made of GF-177 material based on cement. Ultimate stresses in the material under study were determined for three types of stress state: under compression, with a pure shear on the surface of the hole under frecking conditions and under a compound stress state under conditions of diametral compression of a solid cylinder. The value of the critical stress intensity factor of GF-177 material was obtained. The modeling of the fracturing process taking into account the inhomogeneity of the stress state near the hole was carried out using the boundary elements method (in the variant of the fictitious load method) and the gradient fracture criterion. Calculation results of the ultimate pressure were compared with values obtained analytically on the basis of the Lame solution and with experimental data.
Dodig, H.
2017-11-01
This contribution presents the boundary integral formulation for numerical computation of time-harmonic radar cross section for 3D targets. Method relies on hybrid edge element BEM/FEM to compute near field edge element coefficients that are associated with near electric and magnetic fields at the boundary of the computational domain. Special boundary integral formulation is presented that computes radar cross section directly from these edge element coefficients. Consequently, there is no need for near-to-far field transformation (NTFFT) which is common step in RCS computations. By the end of the paper it is demonstrated that the formulation yields accurate results for canonical models such as spheres, cubes, cones and pyramids. Method has demonstrated accuracy even in the case of dielectrically coated PEC sphere at interior resonance frequency which is common problem for computational electromagnetic codes.
Design of a Double Anode Magnetron Injection Gun for Q-band Gyro-TWT Using Boundary Element Method
Li, Zhiliang; Feng, Jinjun; Liu, Bentian
2018-04-01
This paper presents a novel design code for double anode magnetron injection guns (MIGs) in gyro-devices based on boundary element method (BEM). The physical and mathematical models were constructed, and then the code using BEM for MIG's calculation was developed. Using the code, a double anode MIG for a Q-band gyrotron traveling-wave tube (gyro-TWT) amplifier operating in the circular TE01 mode at the fundamental cyclotron harmonic was designed. In order to verify the reliability of this code, velocity spread and guiding center radius of the MIG simulated by the BEM code were compared with these from the commonly used EGUN code, showing a reasonable agreement. Then, a Q-band gyro-TWT was fabricated and tested. The testing results show that the device has achieved an average power of 5kW and peak power ≥ 150 kW at a 3% duty cycle within bandwidth of 2 GHz, and maximum output peak power of 220 kW, with a corresponding saturated gain of 50.9 dB and efficiency of 39.8%. This paper demonstrates that the BEM code can be used as an effective approach for analysis of electron optics system in gyro-devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rocchi-Tavares, Miriam
1992-01-01
The objective of this research thesis is to model the sustentation (or aerodynamic levitation) of a drop by a fluid flowing through a porous plate. More precisely, the author developed a general calculation tool to solve the Stokes problem by using the boundary element method. The author reports the calculation of stresses at the surface of a solid body moving in an infinite medium, in order to validate the calculation tool before its extension to more complex problems. Then, the model is developed to describe the deformation of a fluid mass moving in another fluid. The surrounding environment is either infinite or limited by a plane wall which can be impervious or crossed by an ambient fluid. Then, the author addresses the study of the evolution of the surface of a drop moving in an infinite medium, analyses the behaviour of a fluid mass at the vicinity of a plane, infinite and impervious wall. The last part addresses the sustentation of a deformable fluid body above a porous plane wall crossed by another fluid [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salinas, F S; Lancaster, J L; Fox, P T [Research Imaging Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States)
2009-06-21
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivers highly localized brain stimulations via non-invasive externally applied magnetic fields. This non-invasive, painless technique provides researchers and clinicians with a unique tool capable of stimulating both the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, a complete analysis of the macroscopic electric fields produced by TMS has not yet been performed. In this paper, we addressed the importance of the secondary E-field created by surface charge accumulation during TMS using the boundary element method (BEM). 3D models were developed using simple head geometries in order to test the model and compare it with measured values. The effects of tissue geometry, size and conductivity were also investigated. Finally, a realistically shaped head model was used to assess the effect of multiple surfaces on the total E-field. Secondary E-fields have the greatest impact at areas in close proximity to each tissue layer. Throughout the head, the secondary E-field magnitudes typically range from 20% to 35% of the primary E-field's magnitude. The direction of the secondary E-field was generally in opposition to the primary E-field; however, for some locations, this was not the case (i.e. going from high to low conductivity tissues). These findings show that realistically shaped head geometries are important for accurate modeling of the total E-field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salinas, F S; Lancaster, J L; Fox, P T
2009-01-01
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivers highly localized brain stimulations via non-invasive externally applied magnetic fields. This non-invasive, painless technique provides researchers and clinicians with a unique tool capable of stimulating both the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, a complete analysis of the macroscopic electric fields produced by TMS has not yet been performed. In this paper, we addressed the importance of the secondary E-field created by surface charge accumulation during TMS using the boundary element method (BEM). 3D models were developed using simple head geometries in order to test the model and compare it with measured values. The effects of tissue geometry, size and conductivity were also investigated. Finally, a realistically shaped head model was used to assess the effect of multiple surfaces on the total E-field. Secondary E-fields have the greatest impact at areas in close proximity to each tissue layer. Throughout the head, the secondary E-field magnitudes typically range from 20% to 35% of the primary E-field's magnitude. The direction of the secondary E-field was generally in opposition to the primary E-field; however, for some locations, this was not the case (i.e. going from high to low conductivity tissues). These findings show that realistically shaped head geometries are important for accurate modeling of the total E-field.
Salinas, F. S.; Lancaster, J. L.; Fox, P. T.
2009-06-01
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivers highly localized brain stimulations via non-invasive externally applied magnetic fields. This non-invasive, painless technique provides researchers and clinicians with a unique tool capable of stimulating both the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, a complete analysis of the macroscopic electric fields produced by TMS has not yet been performed. In this paper, we addressed the importance of the secondary E-field created by surface charge accumulation during TMS using the boundary element method (BEM). 3D models were developed using simple head geometries in order to test the model and compare it with measured values. The effects of tissue geometry, size and conductivity were also investigated. Finally, a realistically shaped head model was used to assess the effect of multiple surfaces on the total E-field. Secondary E-fields have the greatest impact at areas in close proximity to each tissue layer. Throughout the head, the secondary E-field magnitudes typically range from 20% to 35% of the primary E-field's magnitude. The direction of the secondary E-field was generally in opposition to the primary E-field; however, for some locations, this was not the case (i.e. going from high to low conductivity tissues). These findings show that realistically shaped head geometries are important for accurate modeling of the total E-field.
Watanabe, M
2003-01-01
Elemental segregation to two types of boundaries in a low-alloy steel were studied by X-ray mapping using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). To quantify the acquired X-ray maps, the zeta-factor method was applied, and then the compositional maps and the thickness map were obtained. Based on these quantified maps, further information about the analytical sensitivity of solute-element detection and the spatial resolution of segregation analysis were extracted. Furthermore, maps of the number of excess atoms on the boundary were also calculated from the compositional and thickness maps. It was concluded that Cr, Ni and Mo are co-segregated on the prior-austenite grain boundary and only Ni was segregated on the lath boundary. (orig.)
Sirenko, Kostyantyn; Liu, Meilin; Bagci, Hakan
2013-01-01
A scheme that discretizes exact absorbing boundary conditions (EACs) to incorporate them into a time-domain discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (TD-DG-FEM) is described. The proposed TD-DG-FEM with EACs is used for accurately characterizing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabrício Ribeiro Bueno
Full Text Available Here, the Dual Reciprocity Boundary Element Method is used to solve the 3D Pennes Bioheat Equation, which together with a Genetic Algorithm, produces an inverse model capable of obtaining the location and the size of a tumour, having as data input the temperature distribution measured on the skin surface. Given that the objective function, which is solved inversely, involves the DRBEM (Dual Reciprocity Boundary Element Method the Genetic Algorithm in its usual form becomes slower, in such a way that it was necessary to develop functions based the solution history in order that the process becomes quicker and more accurate. Results for 8 examples are presented including cases with convection and radiation boundary conditions. Cases involving noise in the readings of the equipment are also considered. This technique is intended to assist health workers in the diagnosis of tumours.
Tsiveriotis, K.; Brown, R. A.
1993-01-01
A new method is presented for the solution of free-boundary problems using Lagrangian finite element approximations defined on locally refined grids. The formulation allows for direct transition from coarse to fine grids without introducing non-conforming basis functions. The calculation of elemental stiffness matrices and residual vectors are unaffected by changes in the refinement level, which are accounted for in the loading of elemental data to the global stiffness matrix and residual vector. This technique for local mesh refinement is combined with recently developed mapping methods and Newton's method to form an efficient algorithm for the solution of free-boundary problems, as demonstrated here by sample calculations of cellular interfacial microstructure during directional solidification of a binary alloy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuuki, R.; Ejima, K.
1991-01-01
In this study, three-dimensional boundary element elastostatic analysis is carried out on various surface crack problems. The present BEM uses a Mindlin's solution as well as a Kelvin's solution as a fundamental solution. So we can obtain accurate solutions for a surface crack just before or after a penetration. The obtained solutions for various shapes of surface cracks are stored as the data base, based on the influence function method. We develop the surface crack extension analysis system using the stress intensity factor data base and also the fatigue crack growth law. Our system seems to be useful especially for the analysis of the surface crack just before or after the penetration and also under the residual stresses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmid, G.; Willms, G.; Huh, Y.; Gibhardt, M.
1988-12-01
SSI 2D/3D is a computer programm to calculate dynamic stiffness matrices for soil-structure-interaction problems in frequency domain. It is applicable to two- or three-dimensional situations. The present report is a detailed manual for the use of the computer code written in FORTRAN 77. In addition it gives a survey of the possibilities of the Boundary Element Method applied to dynamic problems in infinite domains. (orig.) [de
Sirenko, Kostyantyn
2013-01-01
A scheme that discretizes exact absorbing boundary conditions (EACs) to incorporate them into a time-domain discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (TD-DG-FEM) is described. The proposed TD-DG-FEM with EACs is used for accurately characterizing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on two-dimensional waveguides. Numerical results demonstrate the proposed method\\'s superiority over the TD-DG-FEM that employs approximate boundary conditions and perfectly matched layers. Additionally, it is shown that the proposed method can produce the solution with ten-eleven digit accuracy when high-order spatial basis functions are used to discretize the Maxwell equations as well as the EACs. © 1963-2012 IEEE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
St John, C.M.; Sanjeevan, K.
1991-12-01
The HEFF Code combines a simple boundary-element method of stress analysis with the closed form solutions for constant or exponentially decaying heat sources in an infinite elastic body to obtain an approximate method for analysis of underground excavations in a rock mass with heat generation. This manual describes the theoretical basis for the code, the code structure, model preparation, and step taken to assure that the code correctly performs its intended functions. The material contained within the report addresses the Software Quality Assurance Requirements for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. 13 refs., 26 figs., 14 tabs
Using reciprocity in Boundary Element Calculations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente
2010-01-01
The concept of reciprocity is widely used in both theoretical and experimental work. In Boundary Element calculations reciprocity is sometimes employed in the solution of computationally expensive scattering problems, which sometimes can be more efficiently dealt with when formulated...... as the reciprocal radiation problem. The present paper concerns the situation of having a point source (which is reciprocal to a point receiver) at or near a discretized boundary element surface. The accuracy of the original and the reciprocal problem is compared in a test case for which an analytical solution...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shao Yan-Lin
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents some of the efforts by the authors towards numerical prediction of springing of ships. A time-domain Higher Order Boundary Element Method (HOBEM based on cubic shape function is first presented to solve a complete second-order problem in terms of wave steepness and ship motions in a consistent manner. In order to avoid high order derivatives on the body surfaces, e.g. mj-terms, a new formulation of the Boundary Value Problem in a body-fixed coordinate system has been proposed instead of traditional formulation in inertial coordinate system. The local steady flow effects on the unsteady waves are taken into account. Double-body flow is used as the basis flow which is an appropriate approximation for ships with moderate forward speed. This numerical model was used to estimate the complete second order wave excitation of springing of a displacement ship at constant forward speeds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, J.P.; Darbre, G.R.
1985-01-01
The computational procedure of the so-called truncated indirect boundary-element method is derived. The latter, which is non-local in space and time, represents a rigorous generally applicable procedure for taking into account a layered halfspace in a non-linear soil-structure interaction analysis. As an example, the non-linear soil-structure interaction analysis of a structure embedded in a halfspace with partial uplift of the basement and separation of the side wall is investigated. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuji, Masashi; Chiba, Gou
2000-01-01
A hierarchical domain decomposition boundary element method (HDD-BEM) for solving the multiregion neutron diffusion equation (NDE) has been fully parallelized, both for numerical computations and for data communications, to accomplish a high parallel efficiency on distributed memory message passing parallel computers. Data exchanges between node processors that are repeated during iteration processes of HDD-BEM are implemented, without any intervention of the host processor that was used to supervise parallel processing in the conventional parallelized HDD-BEM (P-HDD-BEM). Thus, the parallel processing can be executed with only cooperative operations of node processors. The communication overhead was even the dominant time consuming part in the conventional P-HDD-BEM, and the parallelization efficiency decreased steeply with the increase of the number of processors. With the parallel data communication, the efficiency is affected only by the number of boundary elements assigned to decomposed subregions, and the communication overhead can be drastically reduced. This feature can be particularly advantageous in the analysis of three-dimensional problems where a large number of processors are required. The proposed P-HDD-BEM offers a promising solution to the deterioration problem of parallel efficiency and opens a new path to parallel computations of NDEs on distributed memory message passing parallel computers. (author)
9th International Conference on Boundary Elements
Wendland, W; Kuhn, G
1987-01-01
This book contains the edited versions of most of the papers presented at the 9th International Conference on Boundary Elements held at the University of Stuttgart, Germany from August 31st to September 4th, 1987, which was organized in co-operation with the Computational Mechanics Institute and GAMM (Society for Applied Mathematics and Mechanics). This Conference, as the previous ones, aimed to review the latest developments in technique and theory and point out new advanced future trends. The emphasis of the meeting was on the engineering advances versus mathematical formulations, in an effort to consolidate the basis of many new applications. Recently engineers have proposed different techniques to solve non-linear and time dependent problems and many of these formulations needed a better mathematical understanding. Furthermore, new approximate formulations have been proposed for boundary elements which appeared to work in engineering practice, but did not have a proper theoretical background. The Conferen...
Inverse boundary element calculations based on structural modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juhl, Peter Møller
2007-01-01
The inverse problem of calculating the flexural velocity of a radiating structure of a general shape from measurements in the field is often solved by combining a Boundary Element Method with the Singular Value Decomposition and a regularization technique. In their standard form these methods sol...
Finite element and boundary element applications in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueta, Tsuyoshi
2003-01-01
Although this book is one of the Oxford Texts in Applied and Engineering Mathematics, we may think of it as a physics book. It explains how to solve the problem of quantum mechanics using the finite element method (FEM) and the boundary element method (BEM). Many examples analysing actual problems are also shown. As for the ratio of the number of pages of FEM and BEM, the former occupies about 80%. This is, however, reasonable reflecting the flexibility of FEM. Although many explanations of FEM and BEM exist, most are written using special mathematical expressions and numerical computation fields. However, this book is written in the 'language of physicists' throughout. I think that it is very readable and easy to understand for physicists. In the derivation of FEM and the argument on calculation accuracy, the action integral and a variation principle are used consistently. In the numerical computation of matrices, such as simultaneous equations and eigen value problems, a description of important points is also fully given. Moreover, the practical problems which become important in the electron device design field and the condensed matter physics field are dealt with as example computations, so that this book is very practical and applicable. It is characteristic and interesting that FEM is applied to solve the Schroedinger and Poisson equations consistently, and to the solution of the Ginzburg--Landau equation in superconductivity. BEM is applied to treat electric field enhancements due to surface plasmon excitations at metallic surfaces. A number of references are cited at the end of all the chapters, and this is very helpful. The description of quantum mechanics is also made appropriately and the actual application of quantum mechanics in condensed matter physics can also be surveyed. In the appendices, the mathematical foundation, such as numerical quadrature formulae and Green's functions, is conveniently described. I recommend this book to those who need to
Programming the finite element method
Smith, I M; Margetts, L
2013-01-01
Many students, engineers, scientists and researchers have benefited from the practical, programming-oriented style of the previous editions of Programming the Finite Element Method, learning how to develop computer programs to solve specific engineering problems using the finite element method. This new fifth edition offers timely revisions that include programs and subroutine libraries fully updated to Fortran 2003, which are freely available online, and provides updated material on advances in parallel computing, thermal stress analysis, plasticity return algorithms, convection boundary c
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olschewski, J.; Stein, E.; Wagner, W.; Wetjen, D.
1981-01-01
This paper is a first step in the development of thermodynamically consistent material equations for inelastic materials, such as polycrystalline rock salt. In this context it is of particular importance to reduce the number and the structure of the internal variables, in order to allow for a fit with available experimental data. As an example this is demonstrated in detail in the case of the so-called dislocation model. As physical non-linearities and in addition also geometrical non-linearities lead to an inhomogeneous deformation - and stress state even in the case of simple samples, boundary value problems have to be studied, in order to test the material equations. For this purpose the finite element method has been used. (orig./HP) [de
Oomori, H; Imura, S; Gesso, H
1992-04-01
To develop stem design achieving primary fixation of stems and effective load transfer to the femur, we studied stress analysis of stems in cementless total hip arthroplasty by two-dimensional finite element method using boundary friction layer in stem-bone interface. The results of analyses of stem-bone interface stresses and von Mises stresses at the cortical bones indicated that ideal stem design features would be as follows: 1) Sufficient length, with the distal end extending beyond the isthmus region. 2) Maximum possible width, to contact the cortical bones in the isthmus region. 3) No collars but a lateral shoulder at the proximal portion. 4) A distal tip, to contact the cortical bones at the distal portion.
Ichihashi, K; Imura, S; Oomori, H; Gesso, H
1994-11-01
We compared the biomechanical characteristics of bipolar and unipolar hemiarthroplasty on the proximal migration of the outer head by determining the von Mises stress distribution and acetabular (outer head) displacement with clinical assessment of hemiarthroplasty in 75 patients. This analysis used the two-dimensional finite element method, which incorporated boundary friction layers on both the inner and outer bearings of the prosthesis. Acetabular reaming increased stress within the pelvic bone and migration of the outer head. A combination of the acetabular reaming and bone transplantation increased the stress within the pelvic bone and grafted bone, and caused outer head migration. These findings were supported by clinical results. Although the bipolar endoprosthesis was biomechanically superior to the unipolar endoprosthesis, migration of the outer head still occurred. The bipolar endoprosthesis appeared to be indicated in cases of a femoral neck fracture or of avascular necrosis in the femoral head, but its use in cases of osteoarthritis in the hip required caution.
Lubricated immersed boundary method in two dimensions
Fai, Thomas G.; Rycroft, Chris H.
2018-03-01
Many biological examples of fluid-structure interaction, including the transit of red blood cells through the narrow slits in the spleen and the intracellular trafficking of vesicles into dendritic spines, involve the near-contact of elastic structures separated by thin layers of fluid. Motivated by such problems, we introduce an immersed boundary method that uses elements of lubrication theory to resolve thin fluid layers between immersed boundaries. We demonstrate 2nd-order accurate convergence for simple two-dimensional flows with known exact solutions to showcase the increased accuracy of this method compared to the standard immersed boundary method. Motivated by the phenomenon of wall-induced migration, we apply the lubricated immersed boundary method to simulate an elastic vesicle near a wall in shear flow. We also simulate the dynamics of a vesicle traveling through a narrow channel and observe the ability of the lubricated method to capture the vesicle motion on relatively coarse fluid grids.
The Boundary Function Method. Fundamentals
Kot, V. A.
2017-03-01
The boundary function method is proposed for solving applied problems of mathematical physics in the region defined by a partial differential equation of the general form involving constant or variable coefficients with a Dirichlet, Neumann, or Robin boundary condition. In this method, the desired function is defined by a power polynomial, and a boundary function represented in the form of the desired function or its derivative at one of the boundary points is introduced. Different sequences of boundary equations have been set up with the use of differential operators. Systems of linear algebraic equations constructed on the basis of these sequences allow one to determine the coefficients of a power polynomial. Constitutive equations have been derived for initial boundary-value problems of all the main types. With these equations, an initial boundary-value problem is transformed into the Cauchy problem for the boundary function. The determination of the boundary function by its derivative with respect to the time coordinate completes the solution of the problem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Byeong Hae
1992-02-01
This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yong Cheng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The hydroelastic behaviour of a pontoon-type VLFS subjected to unsteady external loads in wave condition is investigated in the context of the time-domain modal expansion theory, in which the boundary element method (BEM based on time domain Kelvin sources is used for hydrodynamic forces and the finite element method (FEM is adopted for solving the deflections of the VLFS. In this analysis, the interpolation-tabulation scheme is applied to assess rapidly and accurately the free-surface Green function in finite water depth, and the boundary integral equation of a quarter VLFS model is further established taking advantage of symmetry of flow field and structure. The VLFS is modelled as an equivalent solid plate based on the Mindlin plate theory. The coupled plate-water model is performed to determine the wave-induced responses and transient behaviour under external loads such as a huge mass impact onto the structure and moving loads of an airplane, respectively. These results are verified with existing numerical results and experimental test. Then, the developed numerical tools are used in the study of the combined action taking into account of the mass drop/airplane landing as well as forward or reverse incident wave action. The deflections of the runway, the time history of vertical positions and the trajectory of the airplane are also presented through a systematic time-domain simulation, which illustrates the usefulness of the presently developed numerical solutions.
Chanthawara, Krittidej; Kaennakham, Sayan; Toutip, Wattana
2016-02-01
The methodology of Dual Reciprocity Boundary Element Method (DRBEM) is applied to the convection-diffusion problems and investigating its performance is our first objective of the work. Seven types of Radial Basis Functions (RBF); Linear, Thin-plate Spline, Cubic, Compactly Supported, Inverse Multiquadric, Quadratic, and that proposed by [12], were closely investigated in order to numerically compare their effectiveness drawbacks etc. and this is taken as our second objective. A sufficient number of simulations were performed covering as many aspects as possible. Varidated against both exacts and other numerical works, the final results imply strongly that the Thin-Plate Spline and Linear type of RBF are superior to others in terms of both solutions' quality and CPU-time spent while the Inverse Multiquadric seems to poorly yield the results. It is also found that DRBEM can perform relatively well at moderate level of convective force and as anticipated becomes unstable when the problem becomes more convective-dominated, as normally found in all classical mesh-dependence methods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masuda, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Ashidate, I. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-12-31
In a high-speed boat of a type using hydrofoils, lifting force increases in proportion to square of its length, while displacement is proportional to the third power. Therefore, an idea has come up that speed of a large boat may be increased by combining the hydrofoils with a submerged body. In other words, the idea is to levitate a ship by using composite support consisting of buoyancy of the submerged body and lifting force caused by the hydrofoils. Insufficiency of the lifting force may be complemented by the buoyancy of the submerged body which increases in an equivalent rate as that in the displacement. However, combining a submerged body with hydrofoils render a problem that lifting force for hydrofoils decreases because of interactions among the submerged body, hydrofoils, and free surface. Therefore, assuming a model of a submerged body with a length of 85 m cruising at 40 kt, analysis was given on decrease in lifting force for hydrofoils due to interactions between the submerged and lifting body and free surface by using the boundary element method. As a result, it was verified that the lifting force for the hydrofoils decreases as a result of creation of a flow that decreases effective angle of attach of the hydrofoils. It was also made clear that making the submerging depth greater reduces the decrease in the lifting force. 9 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.
Boundary element simulation of petroleum reservoirs with hydraulically fractured wells
Pecher, Radek
The boundary element method is applied to solve the linear pressure-diffusion equation of fluid-flow in porous media. The governing parabolic partial differential equation is transformed into the Laplace space to obtain the elliptic modified-Helmholtz equation including the homogeneous initial condition. The free- space Green's functions, satisfying this equation for anisotropic media in two and three dimensions, are combined with the generalized form of the Green's second identity. The resulting boundary integral equation is solved by following the collocation technique and applying the given time-dependent boundary conditions of the Dirichlet or Neumann type. The boundary integrals are approximated by the Gaussian quadrature along each element of the discretized domain boundary. Heterogeneous regions are represented by the sectionally-homogeneous zones of different rock and fluid properties. The final values of the interior pressure and velocity fields and of their time-derivatives are found by numerically inverting the solutions from the Laplace space by using the Stehfest's algorithm. The main extension of the mostly standard BEM-procedure is achieved in the modelling of the production and injection wells represented by internal sources and sinks. They are treated as part of the boundary by means of special single-node and both-sided elements, corresponding to the line and plane sources respectively. The wellbore skin and storage effects are considered for the line and cylindrical sources. Hydraulically fractured wells of infinite conductivity are handled directly according to the specified constraint type, out of the four alternatives. Fractures of finite conductivity are simulated by coupling the finite element model of their 1D-interior with the boundary element model of their 2D- exterior. Variable fracture width, fractures crossing zone boundaries, ``networking'' of fractures, fracture-tip singularity handling, or the 3D-description are additional advanced
Finite element analysis of three dimensional crack growth by the use of a boundary element sub model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lucht, Tore
2009-01-01
A new automated method to model non-planar three dimensional crack growth is proposed which combines the advantages of both the boundary element method and the finite element method. The proposed method links the two methods by a submodelling strategy in which the solution of a global finite...... element model containing an approximation of the crack is interpolated to a much smaller boundary element model containing a fine discretization of the real crack. The method is validated through several numerical comparisons and by comparison to crack growth measured in a test specimen for an engineering...
Essential Boundary Conditions with Straight C1 Finite Elements in Curved Domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferraro, N.M.; Jardin, S.C.; Luo, X.
2010-01-01
The implementation of essential boundary conditions in C1 finite element analysis requires proper treatment of both the boundary conditions on second-order differentials of the solution and the curvature of the domain boundary. A method for the imposition of essential boundary conditions using straight elements (where the elements are not deformed to approximate a curved domain) is described. It is shown that pre-multiplication of the matrix equation by the local rotation matrix at each boundary node is not the optimal transformation. The uniquely optimal transformation is found, which does not take the form of a similarity transformation due to the non-orthogonality of the transformation to curved coordinates.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Kazakov
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The paper discusses a nonlinear parabolic equation describing the process of heat conduction for the case of the power dependence of the heat conductivity factor on temperature. Besides heat distribution in space, it describes filtration of a polytropic gas in a porous medium, whereupon, in the English-language literature, this equation is generally referred to as the porous medium equation. A distinctive feature of this equation is the degeneration of its parabolic type when the required function becomes zero, whereupon the equation acquires some properties typical of first-order equations. Particularly, in some cases, it proves possible to substantiate theorems of the existence and uniqueness of heat-wave (filtration-wave type solutions for it. This paper proves a theorem of the existence and uniqueness of the solution to the problem of the motion of a heat wave with a specified front in the instance of two independent variables. At that, since the front has the form of a closed plane curve, a transition t o the polar coordinate system is performed. The solution is constructed in the form of a series, a constructible recurrent procedure for calculating its coefficients being proposed. The series convergence is proved by the majorant method. A boundary-element-based computation algorithm in the form of a computer program has been developed and implemented to solve the problem under study. Test examples are considered, the calculations made by a program designed by the authors being compared with the truncated series. A good agreement of the obtained results has been established.
Periodic Boundary Conditions in the ALEGRA Finite Element Code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aidun, John B.; Robinson, Allen C.; Weatherby, Joe R.
1999-01-01
This document describes the implementation of periodic boundary conditions in the ALEGRA finite element code. ALEGRA is an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian multi-physics code with both explicit and implicit numerical algorithms. The periodic boundary implementation requires a consistent set of boundary input sets which are used to describe virtual periodic regions. The implementation is noninvasive to the majority of the ALEGRA coding and is based on the distributed memory parallel framework in ALEGRA. The technique involves extending the ghost element concept for interprocessor boundary communications in ALEGRA to additionally support on- and off-processor periodic boundary communications. The user interface, algorithmic details and sample computations are given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Kang, Heung Seok; Song, Kee Nam
2006-01-01
Characterization tests (load vs. displacement curve) are conducted for the springs of Zirconium alloy spacer grids for an advanced LWR fuel assembly. Twofold testing is employed: strap-based and assembly-based tests. The assembly-based test satisfies the in situ boundary conditions of the spring within the grid assembly. The aim of the characterization test via the aforementioned two methods is to establish an appropriate assembly-based test method that fulfills the actual boundary conditions. A characterization test under the spacer grid assembly boundary condition is also conducted to investigate the actual behavior of the spring in the core. The stiffness of the characteristic curve is smaller than that of the strap-wised boundary condition. This phenomenon may cause the strap slit condition. A spacer grid consists of horizontal and vertical straps. The strap slit positions are differentiated from each other. They affords examination of the variation of the external load distribution in the grid spring. Localized regions of high stress and their values are analyzed, as they may be affected by the spring shape. Through a comparison of the results of the test and FE analysis, it is concluded that the present assembly-based analysis model and procedure are reasonably well conducted and can be used for spring characterization in the core. Guidelines for improving the mechanical integrity of the spring are also discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarler, B; Alujevic, A [Univerza B. Kardelja, Institut ' Jozef Stefan' , Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)
1988-07-01
The basic principles of self-adaptive algorithm for treatment of transient nonlinear nonhomogeneous radial heat flow, based on direct Boundary Element method formulation, are presented. The indicators of discretization error are developed, together with binary-tree strategy for manipulation with time domain mesh, assuring automatic optimisation of calculation procedure with respect to predetermined error. The developed method is particularly suitable for use in a spectrum of extremely nonlinear cases, occurring in thermal analyses of reactor components.(author)
Advances in boundary elements. Vol. 1-3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brebbia, C.A.; Connor, J.J.
1989-01-01
This book contains some of the edited papers presented at the 11th Boundary Element Conference, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, during August 1989. The papers are arranged in three different books comprising the following topics: Vol. 1: Computations and Fundamentals - comprises sections on fundamentals, adaptive techniques, error and convergence, numerical methods and computational aspects. (283 p.). Vol. 2: Field and fluid flow solutions - includes the following topics: potential problems, thermal studies, electrical and electromagnetic problems, wave propagation, acoustics and fluid flow. (484 p.). Vol. 3: Stress analysis - deals with advances in linear problems, nonlinear problems, fracture mechanics, contact mechanics, optimization, geomechanics, plates and shells, vibrations and industrial applications. (450 p). (orig./HP)
A finite element method for neutron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ackroyd, R.T.
1983-01-01
A completely boundary-free maximum principle for the first-order Boltzmann equation is derived from the completely boundary-free maximum principle for the mixed-parity Boltzmann equation. When continuity is imposed on the trial function for directions crossing interfaces the completely boundary-free principle for the first-order Boltzmann equation reduces to a maximum principle previously established directly from first principles and indirectly by the Euler-Lagrange method. Present finite element methods for the first-order Boltzmann equation are based on a weighted-residual method which permits the use of discontinuous trial functions. The new principle for the first-order equation can be used as a basis for finite-element methods with the same freedom from boundary conditions as those based on the weighted-residual method. The extremum principle as the parent of the variationally-derived weighted-residual equations ensures their good behaviour. (author)
Heat conduction in a plate-type fuel element with time-dependent boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faya, A.J.G.; Maiorino, J.R.
1981-01-01
A method for the solution of boundary-value problems with variable boundary conditions is applied to solve a heat conduction problem in a plate-type fuel element with time dependent film coefficient. The numerical results show the feasibility of the method in the solution of this class of problems. (Author) [pt
Boundary methods for mode estimation
Pierson, William E., Jr.; Ulug, Batuhan; Ahalt, Stanley C.
1999-08-01
This paper investigates the use of Boundary Methods (BMs), a collection of tools used for distribution analysis, as a method for estimating the number of modes associated with a given data set. Model order information of this type is required by several pattern recognition applications. The BM technique provides a novel approach to this parameter estimation problem and is comparable in terms of both accuracy and computations to other popular mode estimation techniques currently found in the literature and automatic target recognition applications. This paper explains the methodology used in the BM approach to mode estimation. Also, this paper quickly reviews other common mode estimation techniques and describes the empirical investigation used to explore the relationship of the BM technique to other mode estimation techniques. Specifically, the accuracy and computational efficiency of the BM technique are compared quantitatively to the a mixture of Gaussian (MOG) approach and a k-means approach to model order estimation. The stopping criteria of the MOG and k-means techniques is the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.H.R. Ghoreishy
2008-02-01
Full Text Available This research work is devoted to the footprint analysis of a steel-belted radial tyre (185/65R14 under vertical static load using finite element method. Two models have been developed in which in the first model the tread patterns were replaced by simple ribs while the second model was consisted of details of the tread blocks. Linear elastic and hyper elastic (Arruda-Boyce material models were selected to describe the mechanical behavior of the reinforcing and rubbery parts, respectively. The above two finite element models of the tyre were analyzed under inflation pressure and vertical static loads. The second model (with detailed tread patterns was analyzed with and without friction effect between tread and contact surfaces. In every stage of the analysis, the results were compared with the experimental data to confirm the accuracy and applicability of the model. Results showed that neglecting the tread pattern design not only reduces the computational cost and effort but also the differences between computed deformations do not show significant changes. However, more complicated variables such as shape and area of the footprint zone and contact pressure are affected considerably by the finite element model selected for the tread blocks. In addition, inclusion of friction even in static state changes these variables significantly.
A coupled boundary element-finite difference solution of the elliptic modified mild slope equation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naserizadeh, R.; Bingham, Harry B.; Noorzad, A.
2011-01-01
The modified mild slope equation of [5] is solved using a combination of the boundary element method (BEM) and the finite difference method (FDM). The exterior domain of constant depth and infinite horizontal extent is solved by a BEM using linear or quadratic elements. The interior domain...
The finite element method in electromagnetics
Jin, Jianming
2014-01-01
A new edition of the leading textbook on the finite element method, incorporating major advancements and further applications in the field of electromagnetics The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful simulation technique used to solve boundary-value problems in a variety of engineering circumstances. It has been widely used for analysis of electromagnetic fields in antennas, radar scattering, RF and microwave engineering, high-speed/high-frequency circuits, wireless communication, electromagnetic compatibility, photonics, remote sensing, biomedical engineering, and space exploration. The
Local defect correction for boundary integral equation methods
Kakuba, G.; Anthonissen, M.J.H.
2014-01-01
The aim in this paper is to develop a new local defect correction approach to gridding for problems with localised regions of high activity in the boundary element method. The technique of local defect correction has been studied for other methods as finite difference methods and finite volume
Local defect correction for boundary integral equation methods
Kakuba, G.; Anthonissen, M.J.H.
2013-01-01
This paper presents a new approach to gridding for problems with localised regions of high activity. The technique of local defect correction has been studied for other methods as ¿nite difference methods and ¿nite volume methods. In this paper we develop the technique for the boundary element
A finite element conjugate gradient FFT method for scattering
Collins, Jeffery D.; Ross, Dan; Jin, J.-M.; Chatterjee, A.; Volakis, John L.
1991-01-01
Validated results are presented for the new 3D body of revolution finite element boundary integral code. A Fourier series expansion of the vector electric and mangnetic fields is employed to reduce the dimensionality of the system, and the exact boundary condition is employed to terminate the finite element mesh. The mesh termination boundary is chosen such that is leads to convolutional boundary operatores of low O(n) memory demand. Improvements of this code are discussed along with the proposed formulation for a full 3D implementation of the finite element boundary integral method in conjunction with a conjugate gradiant fast Fourier transformation (CGFFT) solution.
Improved design of special boundary elements for T-shaped reinforced concrete walls
Ji, Xiaodong; Liu, Dan; Qian, Jiaru
2017-01-01
This study examines the design provisions of the Chinese GB 50011-2010 code for seismic design of buildings for the special boundary elements of T-shaped reinforced concrete walls and proposes an improved design method. Comparison of the design provisions of the GB 50011-2010 code and those of the American code ACI 318-14 indicates a possible deficiency in the T-shaped wall design provisions in GB 50011-2010. A case study of a typical T-shaped wall designed in accordance with GB 50011-2010 also indicates the insufficient extent of the boundary element at the non-flange end and overly conservative design of the flange end boundary element. Improved designs for special boundary elements of T-shaped walls are developed using a displacement-based method. The proposed design formulas produce a longer boundary element at the non-flange end and a shorter boundary element at the flange end, relative to those of the GB 50011-2010 provisions. Extensive numerical analysis indicates that T-shaped walls designed using the proposed formulas develop inelastic drift of 0.01 for both cases of the flange in compression and in tension.
Element-by-element parallel spectral-element methods for 3-D teleseismic wave modeling
Liu, Shaolin
2017-09-28
The development of an efficient algorithm for teleseismic wave field modeling is valuable for calculating the gradients of the misfit function (termed misfit gradients) or Fréchet derivatives when the teleseismic waveform is used for adjoint tomography. Here, we introduce an element-by-element parallel spectral-element method (EBE-SEM) for the efficient modeling of teleseismic wave field propagation in a reduced geology model. Under the plane-wave assumption, the frequency-wavenumber (FK) technique is implemented to compute the boundary wave field used to construct the boundary condition of the teleseismic wave incidence. To reduce the memory required for the storage of the boundary wave field for the incidence boundary condition, a strategy is introduced to efficiently store the boundary wave field on the model boundary. The perfectly matched layers absorbing boundary condition (PML ABC) is formulated using the EBE-SEM to absorb the scattered wave field from the model interior. The misfit gradient can easily be constructed in each time step during the calculation of the adjoint wave field. Three synthetic examples demonstrate the validity of the EBE-SEM for use in teleseismic wave field modeling and the misfit gradient calculation.
Stability estimates for hp spectral element methods for general ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We establish basic stability estimates for a non-conforming ℎ- spectral element method which allows for simultaneous mesh refinement and variable polynomial degree. The spectral element functions are non-conforming if the boundary conditions are Dirichlet. For problems with mixed boundary conditions they are ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, C. Y.; Park, C. T.; Kim, T. H.; Han, K. N.; Choe, S. H.
1995-01-01
A geometrical inverse heat conduction problem is solved for the development of Infrared Computerized-Axial-Tomography (IR CAT) Scan by using a boundary element method in conjunction with regularization procedure. In this problem, an overspecified temperature condition by infrared scanning is provided on the surface, and is used together with other conditions to solve the position of an unknown boundary (cavity). An auxiliary problem is introduced in the solution of this problem. By defining a hypothetical inner boundary for the auxiliary problem domain, the cavity is located interior to the domain and its position is determined by solving a potential problem. Boundary element method with regularization procedure is used to solve this problem, and the effects of regularization on the inverse solution method are investigated by means of numerical analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Chang Yong
1999-01-01
This paper presents a study of the Dual Reciprocity Boundary Element Method (DRBEM) for the laminar heat convection problem in a concentric annulus with constant heat flux boundary condition. DRBEM is one of the most successful technique used to transform the domain integrals arising from the nonhomogeneous term of the poisson equation into equivalent boundary only integrals. This recently developed and highly efficient numerical method is tested for the solution accuracy of the fluid flow and heat transfer study in a concentric annulus. Since their exact solutions are available, DRBEM solutions are verified with different number of boundary element discretization and internal points. The results obtained in this study are discussed with the relative error percentage of velocity and temperature solutions, and potential applicability of the method for the more complicated heat convection problems with arbitrary duct geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khambampati, Anil Kumar; Kim, Sin; Lee, Bo An; Kim, Kyung Youn
2012-01-01
This paper is about locating the boundary of a moving cavity within a homogeneous background from the voltage measurements recorded on the outer boundary. An inverse boundary problem of a moving cavity is formulated by considering a two-phase vapor–liquid flow in a pipe. The conductivity of the flow components (vapor and liquid) is assumed to be constant and known a priori while the location and shape of the inclusion (vapor) are the unknowns to be estimated. The forward problem is solved using the boundary element method (BEM) with the integral equations solved analytically. A special situation is considered such that the cavity changes its location and shape during the time taken to acquire a full set of independent measurement data. The boundary of a cavity is assumed to be elliptic and is parameterized with Fourier series. The inverse problem is treated as a state estimation problem with the Fourier coefficients that represent the center and radii of the cavity as the unknowns to be estimated. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used as an inverse algorithm to estimate the time varying Fourier coefficients. Numerical experiments are shown to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Through the results, it can be noticed that the proposed BEM with EKF method is successful in estimating the boundary of a moving cavity. (paper)
Green's function and boundary elements of multifield materials
Qin, Qing-Hua
2007-01-01
Green's Function and Boundary Elements of Multifield Materials contains a comprehensive treatment of multifield materials under coupled thermal, magnetic, electric, and mechanical loads. Its easy-to-understand text clarifies some of the most advanced techniques for deriving Green's function and the related boundary element formulation of magnetoelectroelastic materials: Radon transform, potential function approach, Fourier transform. Our hope in preparing this book is to attract interested readers and researchers to a new field that continues to provide fascinating and technologically important challenges. You will benefit from the authors' thorough coverage of general principles for each topic, followed by detailed mathematical derivation and worked examples as well as tables and figures where appropriate. In-depth explanations of the concept of Green's function Coupled thermo-magneto-electro-elastic analysis Detailed mathematical derivation for Green's functions.
Lattice Boltzmann methods for moving boundary flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inamuro, Takaji
2012-01-01
The lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) for moving boundary flows are presented. The LBM for two-phase fluid flows with the same density and the LBM combined with the immersed boundary method are described. In addition, the LBM on a moving multi-block grid is explained. Three numerical examples (a droplet moving in a constricted tube, the lift generation of a flapping wing and the sedimentation of an elliptical cylinder) are shown in order to demonstrate the applicability of the LBMs to moving boundary problems. (invited review)
Lattice Boltzmann methods for moving boundary flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inamuro, Takaji, E-mail: inamuro@kuaero.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and Advanced Research Institute of Fluid Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)
2012-04-01
The lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) for moving boundary flows are presented. The LBM for two-phase fluid flows with the same density and the LBM combined with the immersed boundary method are described. In addition, the LBM on a moving multi-block grid is explained. Three numerical examples (a droplet moving in a constricted tube, the lift generation of a flapping wing and the sedimentation of an elliptical cylinder) are shown in order to demonstrate the applicability of the LBMs to moving boundary problems. (invited review)
Partridge, P; Boundary Elements in Fluid Dynamics
1992-01-01
This book Boundary Elements in Fluid Dynamics is the second volume of the two volume proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Modelling of Seas and Coastal Regions and Boundary Elements and Fluid Dynamics, held in Southampton, U.K., in April 1992. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is now fully established as an ac curate and successful technique for solving engineering problems in a wide range of fields. The success of the method is due to its advantages in data reduction, as only the boundary of the region is modelled. Thus moving boundaries may be more easily handled, which is not the case if domain methods are used. In addition, the method is easily able to model regions to extending to infinity. Fluid mechanics is traditionally one of the most challenging areas of engi neering, the simulation of fluid motion, particularly in three dimensions, is always a serious test for any numerical method, and is an area in which BEM analysis may be used taking full advantage of its special character...
Boundary element analysis of earthquake induced hydrodynamic pressures in a water reservoir
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jablonski, A.M.
1988-11-01
The seismic analysis of concrete gravity and arch dams is affected by the hydrodynamic pressures in the water reservoir. Boundary element method (BEM) formulations are derived for the hydrodynamic pressures arising in a gravity dam-reservoir-foundation system, treating both 2- and 3-dimensional cases. The formulations are based on the respective mathematical models which are governed by two- and three-dimensional Helmholtz equations with appropriate boundary conditions. For infinite reservoirs, loss of energy due to pressure waves moving away toward infinity strongly influence response. Since it is not possible to discretize an infinite extent, the radiation damping due to outgoing waves is accounted for by incorporating special boundary conditions at the far end, and in a similar manner the loss of energy due to absorption of waves by a flexible bottom of reservoir and banks can be accounted for by a special condition along the boundaries. Numerical results are obtained and compared with available classical solutions and convergence of numerical results with the size and number of boundary elements is studied. It is concluded that the direct boundary element method is an effective tool for the evaluation of the hydrodynamic pressures in finite and infinite dam-reservoir-foundation systems subjected to harmonic-type motion, and can easily be extended to any type of random motion with fast Fourier transform techniques. 82 refs., 65 figs., 25 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bizjak, D; Alujevic, A [Institut ' Jozef Stefan' , Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)
1988-07-01
The Complex Variable Boundary Element Method is a numerical method for solving two-dimensional problems of Laplace or Poisson type. It is based on the theory of analytic functions. This paper resumes the basic facts about the method. Application of the method to the stationary incompressible irrotational flow is carried out after that. At the end, a sample problem of flow through an abrupt area change channel is shown. (author)
Experimental validation of a boundary element solver for exterior acoustic radiation problems
Visser, Rene; Nilsson, A.; Boden, H.
2003-01-01
The relation between harmonic structural vibrations and the corresponding acoustic radiation is given by the Helmholtz integral equation (HIE). To solve this integral equation a new solver (BEMSYS) based on the boundary element method (BEM) has been implemented. This numerical tool can be used for
Sound source reconstruction using inverse boundary element calculations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schuhmacher, Andreas; Hald, Jørgen; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo
2003-01-01
Whereas standard boundary element calculations focus on the forward problem of computing the radiated acoustic field from a vibrating structure, the aim in this work is to reverse the process, i.e., to determine vibration from acoustic field data. This inverse problem is brought on a form suited ...... it is demonstrated that the L-curve criterion is robust with respect to the errors in a real measurement situation. In particular, it is shown that the L-curve criterion is superior to the more conventional generalized cross-validation (GCV) approach for the present tire noise studies....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cai, Hongzhu; Hu, Xiangyun; Xiong, Bin
2017-01-01
method which is unconditionally stable. We solve the diffusion equation for the electric field with a total field formulation. The finite element system of equation is solved using the direct method. The solutions of electric field, at different time, can be obtained using the effective time stepping...... method with trivial computation cost once the matrix is factorized. We try to keep the same time step size for a fixed number of steps using an adaptive time step doubling (ATSD) method. The finite element modeling domain is also truncated using a semi-adaptive method. We proposed a new boundary...... condition based on approximating the total field on the modeling boundary using the primary field corresponding to a layered background model. We validate our algorithm using several synthetic model studies....
Brebbia, C. A.; Futagami, T.; Tanaka, M.
The boundary-element method (BEM) in computational fluid and solid mechanics is examined in reviews and reports of theoretical studies and practical applications. Topics presented include the fundamental mathematical principles of BEMs, potential problems, EM-field problems, heat transfer, potential-wave problems, fluid flow, elasticity problems, fracture mechanics, plates and shells, inelastic problems, geomechanics, dynamics, industrial applications of BEMs, optimization methods based on the BEM, numerical techniques, and coupling.
An enriched finite element model with q-refinement for radiative boundary layers in glass cooling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohamed, M. Shadi [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Seaid, Mohammed; Trevelyan, Jon [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Laghrouche, Omar [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)
2014-02-01
Radiative cooling in glass manufacturing is simulated using the partition of unity finite element method. The governing equations consist of a semi-linear transient heat equation for the temperature field and a stationary simplified P{sub 1} approximation for the radiation in non-grey semitransparent media. To integrate the coupled equations in time we consider a linearly implicit scheme in the finite element framework. A class of hyperbolic enrichment functions is proposed to resolve boundary layers near the enclosure walls. Using an industrial electromagnetic spectrum, the proposed method shows an immense reduction in the number of degrees of freedom required to achieve a certain accuracy compared to the conventional h-version finite element method. Furthermore the method shows a stable behaviour in treating the boundary layers which is shown by studying the solution close to the domain boundaries. The time integration choice is essential to implement a q-refinement procedure introduced in the current study. The enrichment is refined with respect to the steepness of the solution gradient near the domain boundary in the first few time steps and is shown to lead to a further significant reduction on top of what is already achieved with the enrichment. The performance of the proposed method is analysed for glass annealing in two enclosures where the simplified P{sub 1} approximation solution with the partition of unity method, the conventional finite element method and the finite difference method are compared to each other and to the full radiative heat transfer as well as the canonical Rosseland model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Young, G.A. Jr.; Najafabadi, R.; Strohmayer, W.; Baldrey, D.G.; Hamm, B.; Harris, J.; Sticht, J.; Wimmer, E.
2003-01-01
Atomistic modeling methods were employed to investigate the effects of impurity elements on the metallurgy, irradiation embrittlement, and environmentally assisted cracking of nickel-base alloys exposed to nuclear environments. Calculations were performed via ab initio atomistic modeling methods to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the results. A Griffith-type fracture criterion was used to quantitatively assess the effect of elements or element pairs on the grain boundary cohesive strength. In order of most embrittling to most strengthening, the elements are ranked as: He, Li, S, H, C, Zr, P, Fe, Mn, Nb, Cr, and B. Helium is strongly embrittling (-2.04 eV/atom lowering of the Griffith energy), phosphorus has little effect on the grain boundary (0.1 eV/atom), and boron offers appreciable strengthening (1.03 eV/atom increase in the Griffith energy). Calculations for pairs of elements (H-Li, H-B, H-C, H-P, and H-S) show little interaction on the grain boundary cohesive energy, so that for the conditions studied, linear superposition of elemental effects is a good approximation. These calculations help explain metallurgical effects (e.g. why boron can strengthen grain boundaries), irradiation embrittlement (e.g. how boron transmutation results in grain boundary embrittlement), as well as how grain boundary impurity elements can affect environmentally assisted cracking (i.e. low temperature crack propagation and stress corrosion cracking) of nickel-base alloys
Coupled Boundary and Finite Element Analysis of Vibration from Railway Tunnels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Lars; Jones, C.J.C.
2006-01-01
The analysis of vibration from railway tunnels is of growing interest as new and higher-speed railways are built under the ground to address the transport problems of growing modern urban areas around cities. Such analysis can be carried out using numerical methods but models and therefore comput...... body vibration (about 4 to 80 Hz). A coupled finite element and boundary element scheme is applied in both two and three dimensions. Two tunnel designs are considered: a cut-and-cover tunnel for a double track and a single-track tunnel dug with the New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM)....
Rahimi Dalkhani, Amin; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Mahdavi Basir, Hadi
2018-04-01
Wave propagation modeling as a vital tool in seismology can be done via several different numerical methods among them are finite-difference, finite-element, and spectral-element methods (FDM, FEM and SEM). Some advanced applications in seismic exploration benefit the frequency domain modeling. Regarding flexibility in complex geological models and dealing with the free surface boundary condition, we studied the frequency domain acoustic wave equation using FEM and SEM. The results demonstrated that the frequency domain FEM and SEM have a good accuracy and numerical efficiency with the second order interpolation polynomials. Furthermore, we developed the second order Clayton and Engquist absorbing boundary condition (CE-ABC2) and compared it with the perfectly matched layer (PML) for the frequency domain FEM and SEM. In spite of PML method, CE-ABC2 does not add any additional computational cost to the modeling except assembling boundary matrices. As a result, considering CE-ABC2 is more efficient than PML for the frequency domain acoustic wave propagation modeling especially when computational cost is high and high-level absorbing performance is unnecessary.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yichao Gao
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The dam-reservoir system is divided into the near field modeled by the finite element method, and the far field modeled by the excellent high-order doubly asymptotic open boundary (DAOB. Direct and partitioned coupled methods are developed for the analysis of dam-reservoir system. In the direct coupled method, a symmetric monolithic governing equation is formulated by incorporating the DAOB with the finite element equation and solved using the standard time-integration methods. In contrast, the near-field finite element equation and the far-field DAOB condition are separately solved in the partitioned coupled methodm, and coupling is achieved by applying the interaction force on the truncated boundary. To improve its numerical stability and accuracy, an iteration strategy is employed to obtain the solution of each step. Both coupled methods are implemented on the open-source finite element code OpenSees. Numerical examples are employed to demonstrate the performance of these two proposed methods.
Numerical Methods for Free Boundary Problems
1991-01-01
About 80 participants from 16 countries attended the Conference on Numerical Methods for Free Boundary Problems, held at the University of Jyviiskylii, Finland, July 23-27, 1990. The main purpose of this conference was to provide up-to-date information on important directions of research in the field of free boundary problems and their numerical solutions. The contributions contained in this volume cover the lectures given in the conference. The invited lectures were given by H.W. Alt, V. Barbu, K-H. Hoffmann, H. Mittelmann and V. Rivkind. In his lecture H.W. Alt considered a mathematical model and existence theory for non-isothermal phase separations in binary systems. The lecture of V. Barbu was on the approximate solvability of the inverse one phase Stefan problem. K-H. Hoff mann gave an up-to-date survey of several directions in free boundary problems and listed several applications, but the material of his lecture is not included in this proceedings. H.D. Mittelmann handled the stability of thermo capi...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Fonna
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Evaluation of rebar/reinforcing-steel corrosion for the 2004 tsunami-affected reinforced concrete (RC buildings in Aceh was conducted using half-cell potential mapping technique. However, the results only show qualitative meaning as corrosion risk rather than the corrosion itself, such as the size and location of corrosion. In this study, boundary element inverse analysis was proposed to be performed to detect rebar corrosion of the 2004 tsunami-affected structure in Aceh, using several electrical potential measurement data on the concrete surface. One RC structure in Peukan Bada, an area heavily damaged by the tsunami, was selected for the study. In 2004 the structure was submerged more than 5 m by the tsunami. Boundary element inverse analysis was developed by combining the boundary element method (BEM and particle swarm optimization (PSO. The corrosion was detected by evaluating measured and calculated electrical potential data. The measured and calculated electrical potential on the concrete surface was obtained by using a half-cell potential meter and by performing BEM, respectively. The solution candidates were evaluated by employing PSO. Simulation results show that boundary element inverse analysis successfully detected the size and location of corrosion for the case study. Compared with the actual corrosion, the error of simulation result was less than 5%. Hence, it shows that boundary element inverse analysis is very promising for further development to detect rebar corrosion. Keywords: Inverse analysis, Boundary element method, PSO, Corrosion, Reinforced concrete
Finite elements methods in mechanics
Eslami, M Reza
2014-01-01
This book covers all basic areas of mechanical engineering, such as fluid mechanics, heat conduction, beams, and elasticity with detailed derivations for the mass, stiffness, and force matrices. It is especially designed to give physical feeling to the reader for finite element approximation by the introduction of finite elements to the elevation of elastic membrane. A detailed treatment of computer methods with numerical examples are provided. In the fluid mechanics chapter, the conventional and vorticity transport formulations for viscous incompressible fluid flow with discussion on the method of solution are presented. The variational and Galerkin formulations of the heat conduction, beams, and elasticity problems are also discussed in detail. Three computer codes are provided to solve the elastic membrane problem. One of them solves the Poisson’s equation. The second computer program handles the two dimensional elasticity problems, and the third one presents the three dimensional transient heat conducti...
Analysis of Piezoelectric Solids using Finite Element Method
Aslam, Mohammed; Nagarajan, Praveen; Remanan, Mini
2018-03-01
Piezoelectric materials are extensively used in smart structures as sensors and actuators. In this paper, static analysis of three piezoelectric solids is done using general-purpose finite element software, Abaqus. The simulation results from Abaqus are compared with the results obtained using numerical methods like Boundary Element Method (BEM) and meshless point collocation method (PCM). The BEM and PCM are cumbersome for complex shape and complicated boundary conditions. This paper shows that the software Abaqus can be used to solve the governing equations of piezoelectric solids in a much simpler and faster way than the BEM and PCM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koteras, J.R.
1996-01-01
The prediction of stresses and displacements around tunnels buried deep within the earth is an important class of geomechanics problems. The material behavior immediately surrounding the tunnel is typically nonlinear. The surrounding mass, even if it is nonlinear, can usually be characterized by a simple linear elastic model. The finite element method is best suited for modeling nonlinear materials of limited volume, while the boundary element method is well suited for modeling large volumes of linear elastic material. A computational scheme that couples the finite element and boundary element methods would seem particularly useful for geomechanics problems. A variety of coupling schemes have been proposed, but they rely on direct solution methods. Direct solution techniques have large storage requirements that become cumbersome for large-scale three-dimensional problems. An alternative to direct solution methods is iterative solution techniques. A scheme has been developed for coupling the finite element and boundary element methods that uses an iterative solution method. This report shows that this coupling scheme is valid for problems where nonlinear material behavior occurs in the finite element region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muto, K.; Motosaka, M.; Kamata, M.; Masuda, K.; Urao, K.; Mameda, T.
1985-01-01
In order to investigate the 3-dimensional earthquake response characteristics of an embedded structure with consideration for soil-structure interaction, the authors have developed an analytical method using 3-dimensional hybrid model of boundary elements (BEM) and finite elements (FEM) and have conducted a dynamic analysis of an actual nuclear reactor building. This paper describes a comparative study between two different embedment depths in soil as elastic half-space. As the results, it was found that the earthquake response intensity decreases with the increase of the embedment depth and that this method was confirmed to be effective for investigating the 3-D response characteristics of embedded structures such as deflection pattern of each floor level, floor response spectra in high frequency range. (orig.)
Peridynamic Multiscale Finite Element Methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bond, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Littlewood, David John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moore, Stan Gerald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-12-01
The problem of computing quantum-accurate design-scale solutions to mechanics problems is rich with applications and serves as the background to modern multiscale science research. The prob- lem can be broken into component problems comprised of communicating across adjacent scales, which when strung together create a pipeline for information to travel from quantum scales to design scales. Traditionally, this involves connections between a) quantum electronic structure calculations and molecular dynamics and between b) molecular dynamics and local partial differ- ential equation models at the design scale. The second step, b), is particularly challenging since the appropriate scales of molecular dynamic and local partial differential equation models do not overlap. The peridynamic model for continuum mechanics provides an advantage in this endeavor, as the basic equations of peridynamics are valid at a wide range of scales limiting from the classical partial differential equation models valid at the design scale to the scale of molecular dynamics. In this work we focus on the development of multiscale finite element methods for the peridynamic model, in an effort to create a mathematically consistent channel for microscale information to travel from the upper limits of the molecular dynamics scale to the design scale. In particular, we first develop a Nonlocal Multiscale Finite Element Method which solves the peridynamic model at multiple scales to include microscale information at the coarse-scale. We then consider a method that solves a fine-scale peridynamic model to build element-support basis functions for a coarse- scale local partial differential equation model, called the Mixed Locality Multiscale Finite Element Method. Given decades of research and development into finite element codes for the local partial differential equation models of continuum mechanics there is a strong desire to couple local and nonlocal models to leverage the speed and state of the
Adaptive finite element method for shape optimization
Morin, Pedro; Nochetto, Ricardo H.; Pauletti, Miguel S.; Verani, Marco
2012-01-01
We examine shape optimization problems in the context of inexact sequential quadratic programming. Inexactness is a consequence of using adaptive finite element methods (AFEM) to approximate the state and adjoint equations (via the dual weighted residual method), update the boundary, and compute the geometric functional. We present a novel algorithm that equidistributes the errors due to shape optimization and discretization, thereby leading to coarse resolution in the early stages and fine resolution upon convergence, and thus optimizing the computational effort. We discuss the ability of the algorithm to detect whether or not geometric singularities such as corners are genuine to the problem or simply due to lack of resolution - a new paradigm in adaptivity. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2012.
Adaptive finite element method for shape optimization
Morin, Pedro
2012-01-16
We examine shape optimization problems in the context of inexact sequential quadratic programming. Inexactness is a consequence of using adaptive finite element methods (AFEM) to approximate the state and adjoint equations (via the dual weighted residual method), update the boundary, and compute the geometric functional. We present a novel algorithm that equidistributes the errors due to shape optimization and discretization, thereby leading to coarse resolution in the early stages and fine resolution upon convergence, and thus optimizing the computational effort. We discuss the ability of the algorithm to detect whether or not geometric singularities such as corners are genuine to the problem or simply due to lack of resolution - a new paradigm in adaptivity. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2012.
Korolkov, Victor P; Nasyrov, Ruslan K; Shimansky, Ruslan V
2006-01-01
Enhancing the diffraction efficiency of continuous-relief diffractive optical elements fabricated by direct laser writing is discussed. A new method of zone-boundary optimization is proposed to correct exposure data only in narrow areas along the boundaries of diffractive zones. The optimization decreases the loss of diffraction efficiency related to convolution of a desired phase profile with a writing-beam intensity distribution. A simplified stepped transition function that describes optimized exposure data near zone boundaries can be made universal for a wide range of zone periods. The approach permits a similar increase in the diffraction efficiency as an individual-pixel optimization but with fewer computation efforts. Computer simulations demonstrated that the zone-boundary optimization for a 6 microm period grating increases the efficiency by 7% and 14.5% for 0.6 microm and 1.65 microm writing-spot diameters, respectively. The diffraction efficiency of as much as 65%-90% for 4-10 microm zone periods was obtained experimentally with this method.
Integral Method of Boundary Characteristics: Neumann Condition
Kot, V. A.
2018-05-01
A new algorithm, based on systems of identical equalities with integral and differential boundary characteristics, is proposed for solving boundary-value problems on the heat conduction in bodies canonical in shape at a Neumann boundary condition. Results of a numerical analysis of the accuracy of solving heat-conduction problems with variable boundary conditions with the use of this algorithm are presented. The solutions obtained with it can be considered as exact because their errors comprise hundredths and ten-thousandths of a persent for a wide range of change in the parameters of a problem.
A finite element method for neutron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ackroyd, R.T.
1978-01-01
A variational treatment of the finite element method for neutron transport is given based on a version of the even-parity Boltzmann equation which does not assume that the differential scattering cross-section has a spherical harmonic expansion. The theory of minimum and maximum principles is based on the Cauchy-Schwartz equality and the properties of a leakage operator G and a removal operator C. For systems with extraneous sources, two maximum and one minimum principles are given in boundary free form, to ease finite element computations. The global error of an approximate variational solution is given, the relationship of one the maximum principles to the method of least squares is shown, and the way in which approximate solutions converge locally to the exact solution is established. A method for constructing local error bounds is given, based on the connection between the variational method and the method of the hypercircle. The source iteration technique and a maximum principle for a system with extraneous sources suggests a functional for a variational principle for a self-sustaining system. The principle gives, as a consequence of the properties of G and C, an upper bound to the lowest eigenvalue. A related functional can be used to determine both upper and lower bounds for the lowest eigenvalue from an inspection of any approximate solution for the lowest eigenfunction. The basis for the finite element is presented in a general form so that two modes of exploitation can be undertaken readily. The model can be in phase space, with positional and directional co-ordinates defining points of the model, or it can be restricted to the positional co-ordinates and an expansion in orthogonal functions used for the directional co-ordinates. Suitable sets of functions are spherical harmonics and Walsh functions. The latter set is appropriate if a discrete direction representation of the angular flux is required. (author)
Finite cover method with mortar elements for elastoplasticity problems
Kurumatani, M.; Terada, K.
2005-06-01
Finite cover method (FCM) is extended to elastoplasticity problems. The FCM, which was originally developed under the name of manifold method, has recently been recognized as one of the generalized versions of finite element methods (FEM). Since the mesh for the FCM can be regular and squared regardless of the geometry of structures to be analyzed, structural analysts are released from a burdensome task of generating meshes conforming to physical boundaries. Numerical experiments are carried out to assess the performance of the FCM with such discretization in elastoplasticity problems. Particularly to achieve this accurately, the so-called mortar elements are introduced to impose displacement boundary conditions on the essential boundaries, and displacement compatibility conditions on material interfaces of two-phase materials or on joint surfaces between mutually incompatible meshes. The validity of the mortar approximation is also demonstrated in the elastic-plastic FCM.
Seismic wave propagation in non-homogeneous elastic media by boundary elements
Manolis, George D; Rangelov, Tsviatko V; Wuttke, Frank
2017-01-01
This book focuses on the mathematical potential and computational efficiency of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) for modeling seismic wave propagation in either continuous or discrete inhomogeneous elastic/viscoelastic, isotropic/anisotropic media containing multiple cavities, cracks, inclusions and surface topography. BEM models may take into account the entire seismic wave path from the seismic source through the geological deposits all the way up to the local site under consideration. The general presentation of the theoretical basis of elastodynamics for inhomogeneous and heterogeneous continua in the first part is followed by the analytical derivation of fundamental solutions and Green's functions for the governing field equations by the usage of Fourier and Radon transforms. The numerical implementation of the BEM is for antiplane in the second part as well as for plane strain boundary value problems in the third part. Verification studies and parametric analysis appear throughout the book, as do both ...
Direct displacement-based design of special composite RC shear walls with steel boundary elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Kazemi
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Special composite RC shear wall (CRCSW with steel boundary elements is a kind of lateral force resisting structural system which is used in earthquake-prone regions. Due to their high ductility and energy dissipation, CRCSWs have been widely used in recent years by structural engineers. However, there are few studies in the literature on the seismic design of such walls. Although there are many studies in the literature on the Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD of RC structures, however, no study can be found on DDBD of CRCSWs. Therefore, the aim of present study is to evaluate the ability of DDBD method for designing CRCSWs. In this study, four special composite reinforced concrete shear walls with steel boundary elements of 4, 8, 12 and 16 story numbers were designed using the DDBD method for target drift of 2%. The seismic behavior of the four CRCSWs was studied using nonlinear time-history dynamic analyses. Dynamic analyses were performed for the mentioned walls using 7 selected earthquake records. The seismic design parameters considered in this study includes: lateral displacement profile, inelastic dynamic inter-story drift demand, failure pattern and the composite RC shear walls overstrength factor. For each shear wall, the overall overstrength factor was calculated by dividing the ultimate dynamic base shear demand (Vu by the base shear demand (Vd as per the Direct Displacement Based-Design (DDBD method. The results show that the DDBD method can be used to design CRCSWs safely in seismic regions with predicted behavior.
Boundary integral methods for unsaturated flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez, M.J.; McTigue, D.F.
1990-01-01
Many large simulations may be required to assess the performance of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the nations first high level nuclear waste repository. A boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is described for numerical analysis of quasilinear steady unsaturated flow in homogeneous material. The applicability of the exponential model for the dependence of hydraulic conductivity on pressure head is discussed briefly. This constitutive assumption is at the heart of the quasilinear transformation. Materials which display a wide distribution in pore-size are described reasonably well by the exponential. For materials with a narrow range in pore-size, the exponential is suitable over more limited ranges in pressure head. The numerical implementation of the BIEM is used to investigate the infiltration from a strip source to a water table. The net infiltration of moisture into a finite-depth layer is well-described by results for a semi-infinite layer if αD > 4, where α is the sorptive number and D is the depth to the water table. the distribution of moisture exhibits a similar dependence on αD. 11 refs., 4 figs.,
Mathematical aspects of finite element methods for incompressible viscous flows
Gunzburger, M. D.
1986-01-01
Mathematical aspects of finite element methods are surveyed for incompressible viscous flows, concentrating on the steady primitive variable formulation. The discretization of a weak formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are addressed, then the stability condition is considered, the satisfaction of which insures the stability of the approximation. Specific choices of finite element spaces for the velocity and pressure are then discussed. Finally, the connection between different weak formulations and a variety of boundary conditions is explored.
Possibilities of Particle Finite Element Methods in Industrial Forming Processes
Oliver, J.; Cante, J. C.; Weyler, R.; Hernandez, J.
2007-04-01
The work investigates the possibilities offered by the particle finite element method (PFEM) in the simulation of forming problems involving large deformations, multiple contacts, and new boundaries generation. The description of the most distinguishing aspects of the PFEM, and its application to simulation of representative forming processes, illustrate the proposed methodology.
Nonconforming h-p spectral element methods for elliptic problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In [6,7,13,14] h-p spectral element methods for solving elliptic boundary value problems on polygonal ... Let M denote the number of corner layers and W denote the number of degrees of .... β is given by Theorem 2.2 of [3] which can be stated.
A multigrid solution method for mixed hybrid finite elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmid, W. [Universitaet Augsburg (Germany)
1996-12-31
We consider the multigrid solution of linear equations arising within the discretization of elliptic second order boundary value problems of the form by mixed hybrid finite elements. Using the equivalence of mixed hybrid finite elements and non-conforming nodal finite elements, we construct a multigrid scheme for the corresponding non-conforming finite elements, and, by this equivalence, for the mixed hybrid finite elements, following guidelines from Arbogast/Chen. For a rectangular triangulation of the computational domain, this non-conforming schemes are the so-called nodal finite elements. We explicitly construct prolongation and restriction operators for this type of non-conforming finite elements. We discuss the use of plain multigrid and the multilevel-preconditioned cg-method and compare their efficiency in numerical tests.
Straight velocity boundaries in the lattice Boltzmann method
Latt, Jonas; Chopard, Bastien; Malaspinas, Orestis; Deville, Michel; Michler, Andreas
2008-05-01
Various ways of implementing boundary conditions for the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations by a lattice Boltzmann method are discussed. Five commonly adopted approaches are reviewed, analyzed, and compared, including local and nonlocal methods. The discussion is restricted to velocity Dirichlet boundary conditions, and to straight on-lattice boundaries which are aligned with the horizontal and vertical lattice directions. The boundary conditions are first inspected analytically by applying systematically the results of a multiscale analysis to boundary nodes. This procedure makes it possible to compare boundary conditions on an equal footing, although they were originally derived from very different principles. It is concluded that all five boundary conditions exhibit second-order accuracy, consistent with the accuracy of the lattice Boltzmann method. The five methods are then compared numerically for accuracy and stability through benchmarks of two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows. None of the methods is found to be throughout superior to the others. Instead, the choice of a best boundary condition depends on the flow geometry, and on the desired trade-off between accuracy and stability. From the findings of the benchmarks, the boundary conditions can be classified into two major groups. The first group comprehends boundary conditions that preserve the information streaming from the bulk into boundary nodes and complete the missing information through closure relations. Boundary conditions in this group are found to be exceptionally accurate at low Reynolds number. Boundary conditions of the second group replace all variables on boundary nodes by new values. They exhibit generally much better numerical stability and are therefore dedicated for use in high Reynolds number flows.
Generalized multiscale finite element method. Symmetric interior penalty coupling
Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Galvis, Juan; Lazarov, Raytcho D.; Moon, M.; Sarkis, Marcus V.
2013-01-01
Motivated by applications to numerical simulations of flows in highly heterogeneous porous media, we develop multiscale finite element methods for second order elliptic equations. We discuss a multiscale model reduction technique in the framework of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. We propose two different finite element spaces on the coarse mesh. The first space is based on a local eigenvalue problem that uses an interior weighted L2-norm and a boundary weighted L2-norm for computing the "mass" matrix. The second choice is based on generation of a snapshot space and subsequent selection of a subspace of a reduced dimension. The approximation with these multiscale spaces is based on the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method framework. We investigate the stability and derive error estimates for the methods and further experimentally study their performance on a representative number of numerical examples. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Generalized multiscale finite element method. Symmetric interior penalty coupling
Efendiev, Yalchin R.
2013-12-01
Motivated by applications to numerical simulations of flows in highly heterogeneous porous media, we develop multiscale finite element methods for second order elliptic equations. We discuss a multiscale model reduction technique in the framework of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. We propose two different finite element spaces on the coarse mesh. The first space is based on a local eigenvalue problem that uses an interior weighted L2-norm and a boundary weighted L2-norm for computing the "mass" matrix. The second choice is based on generation of a snapshot space and subsequent selection of a subspace of a reduced dimension. The approximation with these multiscale spaces is based on the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method framework. We investigate the stability and derive error estimates for the methods and further experimentally study their performance on a representative number of numerical examples. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
A simple boundary element formulation for shape optimization of 2D continuous structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luciano Mendes Bezerra; Jarbas de Carvalho Santos Junior; Arlindo Pires Lopes; Andre Luiz; Souza, A.C.
2005-01-01
For the design of nuclear equipment like pressure vessels, steam generators, and pipelines, among others, it is very important to optimize the shape of the structural systems to withstand prescribed loads such as internal pressures and prescribed or limiting referential values such as stress or strain. In the literature, shape optimization of frame structural systems is commonly found but the same is not true for continuous structural systems. In this work, the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is applied to simple problems of shape optimization of 2D continuous structural systems. The proposed formulation is based on the BEM and on deterministic optimization methods of zero and first order such as Powell's, Conjugate Gradient, and BFGS methods. Optimal characterization for the geometric configuration of 2D structure is obtained with the minimization of an objective function. Such function is written in terms of referential values (such as loads, stresses, strains or deformations) prescribed at few points inside or at the boundary of the structure. The use of the BEM for shape optimization of continuous structures is attractive compared to other methods that discretized the whole continuous. Several numerical examples of the application of the proposed formulation to simple engineering problems are presented. (authors)
Development of CAD implementing the algorithm of boundary elements’ numerical analytical method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yulia V. Korniyenko
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Up to recent days the algorithms for numerical-analytical boundary elements method had been implemented with programs written in MATLAB environment language. Each program had a local character, i.e. used to solve a particular problem: calculation of beam, frame, arch, etc. Constructing matrices in these programs was carried out “manually” therefore being time-consuming. The research was purposed onto a reasoned choice of programming language for new CAD development, allows to implement algorithm of numerical analytical boundary elements method and to create visualization tools for initial objects and calculation results. Research conducted shows that among wide variety of programming languages the most efficient one for CAD development, employing the numerical analytical boundary elements method algorithm, is the Java language. This language provides tools not only for development of calculating CAD part, but also to build the graphic interface for geometrical models construction and calculated results interpretation.
Discrete elements method of neutron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathews, K.A.
1988-01-01
In this paper a new neutron transport method, called discrete elements (L N ) is derived and compared to discrete ordinates methods, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is based on discretizing the Boltzmann equation over a set of elements of angle. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost-effective than discrete ordinates, in terms of accuracy versus execution time and storage, for the cases tested. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, the L N method is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution
Automation of finite element methods
Korelc, Jože
2016-01-01
New finite elements are needed as well in research as in industry environments for the development of virtual prediction techniques. The design and implementation of novel finite elements for specific purposes is a tedious and time consuming task, especially for nonlinear formulations. The automation of this process can help to speed up this process considerably since the generation of the final computer code can be accelerated by order of several magnitudes. This book provides the reader with the required knowledge needed to employ modern automatic tools like AceGen within solid mechanics in a successful way. It covers the range from the theoretical background, algorithmic treatments to many different applications. The book is written for advanced students in the engineering field and for researchers in educational and industrial environments.
Domain decomposition methods for mortar finite elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Widlund, O.
1996-12-31
In the last few years, domain decomposition methods, previously developed and tested for standard finite element methods and elliptic problems, have been extended and modified to work for mortar and other nonconforming finite element methods. A survey will be given of work carried out jointly with Yves Achdou, Mario Casarin, Maksymilian Dryja and Yvon Maday. Results on the p- and h-p-version finite elements will also be discussed.
A boundary element model for diffraction of water waves on varying water depth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poulin, Sanne
1997-12-31
In this thesis a boundary element model for calculating diffraction of water waves on varying water depth is presented. The varying water depth is approximated with a perturbed constant depth in the mild-slope wave equation. By doing this, the domain integral which is a result of the varying depth is no longer a function of the unknown wave potential but only a function of position and the constant depth wave potential. The number of unknowns is the resulting system of equations is thus reduced significantly. The integration procedures in the model are tested very thoroughly and it is found that a combination of analytical integration in the singular region and standard numerical integration outside works very well. The gradient of the wave potential is evaluated successfully using a hypersingular integral equation. Deviations from the analytical solution are only found on the boundary or very close to, but these deviations have no significant influence on the accuracy of the solution. The domain integral is evaluated using the dual reciprocity method. The results are compared with a direct integration of the integral, and the accuracy is quite satisfactory. The problem with irregular frequencies is taken care of by the CBIEM (or CHIEF-method) together with a singular value decomposition technique. This method is simple to implement and works very well. The model is verified using Homma`s island as a test case. The test cases are limited to shallow water since the analytical solution is only valid in this region. Several depth ratios are examined, and it is found that the accuracy of the model increases with increasing wave period and decreasing depth ratio. Short waves, e.g. wind generated waves, can allow depth variations up to approximately 2 before the error exceeds 10%, while long waves can allow larger depth ratios. It is concluded that the perturbation idea is highly usable. A study of (partially) absorbing boundary conditions is also conducted. (EG)
Structural modeling techniques by finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Yeong Jin; Kim, Geung Hwan; Ju, Gwan Jeong
1991-01-01
This book includes introduction table of contents chapter 1 finite element idealization introduction summary of the finite element method equilibrium and compatibility in the finite element solution degrees of freedom symmetry and anti symmetry modeling guidelines local analysis example references chapter 2 static analysis structural geometry finite element models analysis procedure modeling guidelines references chapter 3 dynamic analysis models for dynamic analysis dynamic analysis procedures modeling guidelines and modeling guidelines.
A system boundary identification method for life cycle assessment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Tao; Zhang, Hongchao; Liu, Zhichao
2014-01-01
, technical, geographical and temporal dimensions are presented to limit the boundaries of LCA. An algorithm is developed to identify an appropriate boundary by searching the process tree and evaluating the environmental impact contribution of each process while it is added into the studied system...... as processes are added. The two threshold rules and identification methods presented can be used to identify system boundary of LCA. The case study demonstrated that the methodology presented in this paper is an effective tool for the boundary identification....
A time-domain finite element boundary integral approach for elastic wave scattering
Shi, F.; Lowe, M. J. S.; Skelton, E. A.; Craster, R. V.
2018-04-01
The response of complex scatterers, such as rough or branched cracks, to incident elastic waves is required in many areas of industrial importance such as those in non-destructive evaluation and related fields; we develop an approach to generate accurate and rapid simulations. To achieve this we develop, in the time domain, an implementation to efficiently couple the finite element (FE) method within a small local region, and the boundary integral (BI) globally. The FE explicit scheme is run in a local box to compute the surface displacement of the scatterer, by giving forcing signals to excitation nodes, which can lie on the scatterer itself. The required input forces on the excitation nodes are obtained with a reformulated FE equation, according to the incident displacement field. The surface displacements computed by the local FE are then projected, through time-domain BI formulae, to calculate the scattering signals with different modes. This new method yields huge improvements in the efficiency of FE simulations for scattering from complex scatterers. We present results using different shapes and boundary conditions, all simulated using this approach in both 2D and 3D, and then compare with full FE models and theoretical solutions to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this numerical approach.
An approximate moving boundary method for American option pricing
Chockalingam, A.; Muthuraman, K.
2015-01-01
We present a method to solve the free-boundary problem that arises in the pricing of classical American options. Such free-boundary problems arise when one attempts to solve optimal-stopping problems set in continuous time. American option pricing is one of the most popular optimal-stopping problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Attrep, M. Jr.; Orth, C.J.; Quintana, L.R.
1994-01-01
The discovery of the iridium anomaly at the 65-Ma Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction boundary initiated numerous investigations, including the search for the coupling of these extinctions with other astronomical events. One hypothesis is that these periodic extinctions are coupled to terrestrial impacts from cyclic swarms of comets or asteroids. The studies have focused on elucidating the conditions and causes of extinction of life at these geological boundaries using elemental abundance patterns. The authors use instrumental neutron activation methods to determine whole-rock abundances for about 40 trace and common elements in thousands of samples. The platinum group elements (iridium, gold, platinum, and osmium) and nickel are measured by radiochemical activation analysis. The authors can measure iridium at levels down to 1 picogram/gram level
Modified Differential Transform Method for Two Singular Boundary Values Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yinwei Lin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the two singular boundary values problems of second order. Two singular points are both boundary values points of the differential equation. The numerical solutions are developed by modified differential transform method (DTM for expanded point. Linear and nonlinear models are solved by this method to get more reliable and efficient numerical results. It can also solve ordinary differential equations where the traditional one fails. Besides, we give the convergence of this new method.
Formulation of natural convection around repository for dual reciprocity boundary element solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vrankar, L.; Sarler, B.
1998-01-01
The disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in deep geological formations is of pronounced technological importance for nuclear safety. The understanding of related fluid flow, heat and mass transport in geological systems is of great interest. This article prepares necessary physical, mathematical and numerical fundamentals for computational modeling of related phenomena. The porous media is described by the simple Darcy law and momentum-energy coupling is due to Boussinesq approximation. The Dual Reciprocity of Boundary Element Method (DRBEM) is used for solving coupled mass, momentum and energy equations in two-dimensions for the steady buoyancy induced convection problem in an semi-infinite porous media. It is structured by weighting with the fundamental solution of the Laplace equation. The inverse multi quadrics are used in the DRBEM transformation. The solution is obtained in an iterative way.(author)
Initial value methods for boundary value problems
Meyer, Gunter H
1973-01-01
In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat
APPLICATION OF BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR THERMOELASTICITY PROBLEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vorona Yu.V.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Boundary Integral Equation Method is used for solving analytically the problems of coupled thermoelastic spherical wave propagation. The resulting mathematical expressions coincide with the solutions obtained in a conventional manner.
Method of lightening radiation darkened optical elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reich, F.R.; Schwankoff, A.R.
1980-01-01
A method of lightening a radiation-darkened optical element in which visible optical energy or electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the range of from about 2000 to about 20,000 angstroms is directed into the radiation-darkened optical element; the method may be used to lighten radiation-darkened optical element in-situ during the use of the optical element to transmit data by electronically separating the optical energy from the optical output by frequency filtering, data cooling, or interlacing the optic energy between data intervals
System and method for free-boundary surface extraction
Algarni, Marei
2017-10-26
A method of extracting surfaces in three-dimensional data includes receiving as inputs three-dimensional data and a seed point p located on a surface to be extracted. The method further includes propagating a front outwardly from the seed point p and extracting a plurality of ridge curves based on the propagated front. A surface boundary is detected based on a comparison of distances between adjacent ridge curves and the desired surface is extracted based on the detected surface boundary.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahn, Song Yop
1985-01-01
A method employing infinite elements is described for the magnetic field computations of the magnetic circuits with permanent magnet. The system stiffness matrix is derived by a variational approach, while the interfacial boundary conditions between the finite element regions and the infinite element regions are dealt with using collocation method. The proposed method is applied to a simple linear problems, and the numerical results are compared with those of the standard finite element method and the analytic solutions. It is observed that the proposed method gives more accurate results than those of the standard finite element method under the same computing efforts. (Author)
In this study, gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg0) and related species (including inorganic reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (PHg)) were measured at Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), Washington State, in the marine boundary layer (MBL) during 2001-2002. Air of...
Fuel elements handling device and method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jabsen, F.S.
1976-01-01
This invention relates to nuclear equipment and more particularly to methods and apparatus for the non-destructive inspection, manipulation, disassembly and assembly of reactor fuel elements and the like. (author)
Advanced finite element method in structural engineering
Long, Yu-Qiu; Long, Zhi-Fei
2009-01-01
This book systematically introduces the research work on the Finite Element Method completed over the past 25 years. Original theoretical achievements and their applications in the fields of structural engineering and computational mechanics are discussed.
Review on Finite Element Method * ERHUNMWUN, ID ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ADOWIE PERE
ABSTRACT: In this work, we have discussed what Finite Element Method (FEM) is, its historical development, advantages and ... residual procedures, are examples of the direct approach ... The paper centred on the "stiffness and deflection of ...
PIXE - a new method for elemental analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johansson, S.A.E.
1983-01-01
With elemental analysis we mean the determination of which chemical elements are present in a sample and of their concentration. This is an old and important problem in chemistry. The earliest methods were purely chemical and many such methods are still used. However, various methods based on physical principles have gradually become more and more important. One such method is neutron activation. When the sample is bombarded with neutrons it becomes radioactive and the various radioactive isotopes produced can be identified by the radiation they emit. From the measured intensity of the radiation one can calculate how much of a certain element that is present in the sample. Another possibility is to study the light emitted when the sample is excited in various ways. A spectroscopic investigation of the light can identify the chemical elements and allows also a determination of their concentration in the sample. In the same way, if a sample can be brought to emit X-rays, this radiation is also characteristic for the elements present and can be used to determine the elemental concentration. One such X-ray method which has been developed recently is PIXE. The name is an acronym for Particle Induced X-ray Emission and indicates the principle of the method. Particles in this context means heavy, charged particles such as protons and a-particles of rather high energy. Hence, in PIXE-analysis the sample is irradiated in the beam of an accelerator and the emitted X-rays are studied. (author)
Boundary element analysis of stress singularity in dissimilar metals by friction welding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, N. Y.; Park, C. H.
2012-01-01
Friction welded dissimilar metals are widely applied in automobiles, rolling stocks, machine tools, and various engineering fields. Dissimilar metals have several advantages over homogeneous metals, including high strength, material property, fatigue endurance, impact absorption, high reliability, and vibration reduction. Due to the increased use of these metals, understanding their behavior under stress conditions is necessary, especially the analysis of stress singularity on the interface of friction-welded dissimilar metals. To establish a strength evaluation method and a fracture criterion, it is necessary to analyze stress singularity on the interface of dissimilar metals with welded flashes by friction welding under various loads and temperature conditions. In this paper, a method analyzing stress singularity for the specimens with and without flashes set in friction welded dissimilar metals is introduced using the boundary element method. The stress singularity index (λ) and the stress singularity factor (Γ) at the interface edge are computed from the stress analysis results. The shape and flash thickness, interface length, residual stress, and load are considered in the computation. Based on these results, the variations of interface length (c) and the ratio of flash thickness (t2 t1) greatly influence the stress singularity factors at the interface edge of friction welded dissimilar metals. The stress singularity factors will be a useful fracture parameter that considers stress singularity on the interface of dissimilar metals
Finite element method - theory and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baset, S.
1992-01-01
This paper summarizes the mathematical basis of the finite element method. Attention is drawn to the natural development of the method from an engineering analysis tool into a general numerical analysis tool. A particular application to the stress analysis of rubber materials is presented. Special advantages and issues associated with the method are mentioned. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs
A Finite Element Removal Method for 3D Topology Optimization
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M. Akif Kütük
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Topology optimization provides great convenience to designers during the designing stage in many industrial applications. With this method, designers can obtain a rough model of any part at the beginning of a designing stage by defining loading and boundary conditions. At the same time the optimization can be used for the modification of a product which is being used. Lengthy solution time is a disadvantage of this method. Therefore, the method cannot be widespread. In order to eliminate this disadvantage, an element removal algorithm has been developed for topology optimization. In this study, the element removal algorithm is applied on 3-dimensional parts, and the results are compared with the ones available in the related literature. In addition, the effects of the method on solution times are investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saitoh, Ayumu; Kamitani, Atsushi; Takayama, Teruou; Nakamura, Hiroaki
2016-01-01
The extended boundary-node method (X-BNM) with the hierarchical-matrix (H-matrix) method has been developed and its performance has been investigated numerically. The results of computations show that the solver speed of the X-BNM with the H-matrix method is much faster than that of the standard X-BNM for the case where the number of boundary nodes exceeds a certain limit. Furthermore, the accuracy of the X-BNM with the H-matrix method is almost equal to that of the standard X-BNM. From these results, it is found that the H-matrix method is useful as the acceleration technique of the X-BNM. (author)
Wake Instabilities Behind Discrete Roughness Elements in High Speed Boundary Layers
Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Norris, Andrew; Edwards, Jack
2013-01-01
Computations are performed to study the flow past an isolated, spanwise symmetric roughness element in zero pressure gradient boundary layers at Mach 3.5 and 5.9, with an emphasis on roughness heights of less than 55 percent of the local boundary layer thickness. The Mach 5.9 cases include flow conditions that are relevant to both ground facility experiments and high altitude flight ("cold wall" case). Regardless of the Mach number, the mean flow distortion due to the roughness element is characterized by long-lived streamwise streaks in the roughness wake, which can support instability modes that did not exist in the absence of the roughness element. The higher Mach number cases reveal a variety of instability mode shapes with velocity fluctuations concentrated in different localized regions of high base flow shear. The high shear regions vary from the top of a mushroom shaped structure characterizing the centerline streak to regions that are concentrated on the sides of the mushroom. Unlike the Mach 3.5 case with nearly same values of scaled roughness height k/delta and roughness height Reynolds number Re(sub kk), the odd wake modes in both Mach 5.9 cases are significantly more unstable than the even modes of instability. Additional computations for a Mach 3.5 boundary layer indicate that the presence of a roughness element can also enhance the amplification of first mode instabilities incident from upstream. Interactions between multiple roughness elements aligned along the flow direction are also explored.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El Shawish, Samir, E-mail: Samir.ElShawish@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cizelj, Leon [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simonovski, Igor [European Commission, DG-JRC, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)
2013-08-15
Highlights: ► We estimate the performance of cohesive elements for modeling grain boundaries. ► We compare the computed stresses in ABAQUS finite element solver. ► Tests are performed in analytical and realistic models of polycrystals. ► Most severe issue is found within the plastic grain response. ► Other identified issues are related to topological constraints in modeling space. -- Abstract: We propose and demonstrate several tests to estimate the performance of the cohesive elements in ABAQUS for modeling grain boundaries in complex spatial structures such as polycrystalline aggregates. The performance of the cohesive elements is checked by comparing the computed stresses with the theoretically predicted values for a homogeneous material under uniaxial tensile loading. Statistical analyses are performed under different loading conditions for two elasto-plastic models of the grains: isotropic elasticity with isotropic hardening plasticity and anisotropic elasticity with crystal plasticity. Tests are conducted on an analytical finite element model generated from Voronoi tessellation as well as on a realistic finite element model of a stainless steel wire. The results of the analyses highlight several issues related to the computation of normal and shear stresses. The most severe issue is found within the plastic grain response where the computed normal stresses on a particularly oriented cohesive elements are significantly underestimated. Other issues are found to be related to topological constraints in the modeling space and result in the increased scatter of the computed stresses.
Short climatology of the atmospheric boundary layer using acoustic methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schubert, J.F.
1975-06-01
A climatology of the boundary layer of the atmosphere at the Savannah River Laboratory is being compiled using acoustic methods. The atmospheric phenomenon as depicted on the facsimile recorder is classified and then placed into one of sixteen categories. After classification, the height of the boundary layer is measured. From this information, frequency tables of boundary layer height and category are created and then analyzed for the percentage of time that each category was detected by the acoustic sounder. The sounder also accurately depicts the diurnal cycle of the boundary layer and, depending on the sensitivity of the system, shows microstructure that is normally unavailable using other methods of profiling. The acoustic sounder provides a means for continuous, real time measurements of the time rate of change of the depth of the boundary layer. This continuous record of the boundary layer with its convective cells, gravity waves, inversions, and frontal system passages permits the synoptic and complex climatology of the local area to be compiled. (U.S.)
On the trial functions in nested element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altiparmakov, D.V.
1985-01-01
The R-function method is applied to the multidimensional steady-state neutron diffusion equation. Using a variational principle the nested element approximation is formulated. Trial functions taking into account the geometrical shape of material regions are constructed. The influence of both the surrounding regions and the corner singularities at the external boundary is incorporated into the approximate solution. Benchmark calculations show that such an approximation can yield satisfactory results. Moreover, in the case of complex geometry, the presented approach would result in a significant reduction of the number of unknowns compared to other methods
Li, Ping
2014-07-01
This paper presents an algorithm hybridizing discontinuous Galerkin time domain (DGTD) method and time domain boundary integral (BI) algorithm for 3-D open region electromagnetic scattering analysis. The computational domain of DGTD is rigorously truncated by analytically evaluating the incoming numerical flux from the outside of the truncation boundary through BI method based on the Huygens\\' principle. The advantages of the proposed method are that it allows the truncation boundary to be conformal to arbitrary (convex/ concave) scattering objects, well-separated scatters can be truncated by their local meshes without losing the physics (such as coupling/multiple scattering) of the problem, thus reducing the total mesh elements. Furthermore, low frequency waves can be efficiently absorbed, and the field outside the truncation domain can be conveniently calculated using the same BI formulation. Numerical examples are benchmarked to demonstrate the accuracy and versatility of the proposed method.
Investigation of rare elements by electrochemical methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zarinskij, V.A.
1988-01-01
The use of electrochemical methods for the study of complexing, separation of rare element mixtures, their preparation in lower oxidation states, and also for the development of highly sensitive methods of the element determination, is considered in the review. Voltammetric methods of Pt, Au, Re determination are considered, as well as Re preparation in oxidation states +5, +3 by electrolytic methods. The possibility to use electrodialysis methods for purification of insoluble compounds of rare earths (RE) from impurities, and for separation of Re and Mo with simultaneous purification of Re from K and other elements is shown. The application of high-frequency conductometry to analytic chemistry and to the study of Th, In, RE complexing and kinetics of the reactions is considered
Discrete elements method of neutral particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathews, K.A.
1983-01-01
A new discrete elements (L/sub N/) transport method is derived and compared to the discrete ordinates S/sub N/ method, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is more accurate than discrete ordinates and strongly ameliorates ray effects for the practical problems studied. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost effective, in terms of execution time with comparable storage to attain the same accuracy, for a one-dimensional test case using linear characteristic spatial quadrature. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, L/sub N/ is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution than S/sub N/, using step characteristic spatial quadrature. An analysis of the interaction of angular and spatial quadrature in xy-geometry indicates the desirability of using linear characteristic spatial quadrature with the L/sub N/ method
Analysis and Modeling of Boundary Layer Separation Method (BLSM).
Pethő, Dóra; Horváth, Géza; Liszi, János; Tóth, Imre; Paor, Dávid
2010-09-01
Nowadays rules of environmental protection strictly regulate pollution material emission into environment. To keep the environmental protection laws recycling is one of the useful methods of waste material treatment. We have developed a new method for the treatment of industrial waste water and named it boundary layer separation method (BLSM). We apply the phenomena that ions can be enriched in the boundary layer of the electrically charged electrode surface compared to the bulk liquid phase. The main point of the method is that the boundary layer at correctly chosen movement velocity can be taken out of the waste water without being damaged, and the ion-enriched boundary layer can be recycled. Electrosorption is a surface phenomenon. It can be used with high efficiency in case of large electrochemically active surface of electrodes. During our research work two high surface area nickel electrodes have been prepared. The value of electrochemically active surface area of electrodes has been estimated. The existence of diffusion part of the double layer has been experimentally approved. The electrical double layer capacity has been determined. Ion transport by boundary layer separation has been introduced. Finally we have tried to estimate the relative significance of physical adsorption and electrosorption.
Finite element methods a practical guide
Whiteley, Jonathan
2017-01-01
This book presents practical applications of the finite element method to general differential equations. The underlying strategy of deriving the finite element solution is introduced using linear ordinary differential equations, thus allowing the basic concepts of the finite element solution to be introduced without being obscured by the additional mathematical detail required when applying this technique to partial differential equations. The author generalizes the presented approach to partial differential equations which include nonlinearities. The book also includes variations of the finite element method such as different classes of meshes and basic functions. Practical application of the theory is emphasised, with development of all concepts leading ultimately to a description of their computational implementation illustrated using Matlab functions. The target audience primarily comprises applied researchers and practitioners in engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
Brehm, Christoph; Barad, Michael F.; Kiris, Cetin C.
2016-01-01
An immersed boundary method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equation and the additional infrastructure that is needed to solve moving boundary problems and fully coupled fluid-structure interaction is described. All the methods described in this paper were implemented in NASA's LAVA solver framework. The underlying immersed boundary method is based on the locally stabilized immersed boundary method that was previously introduced by the authors. In the present paper this method is extended to account for all aspects that are involved for fluid structure interaction simulations, such as fast geometry queries and stencil computations, the treatment of freshly cleared cells, and the coupling of the computational fluid dynamics solver with a linear structural finite element method. The current approach is validated for moving boundary problems with prescribed body motion and fully coupled fluid structure interaction problems in 2D and 3D. As part of the validation procedure, results from the second AIAA aeroelastic prediction workshop are also presented. The current paper is regarded as a proof of concept study, while more advanced methods for fluid structure interaction are currently being investigated, such as geometric and material nonlinearities, and advanced coupling approaches.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenqing Wang
2018-05-01
Full Text Available A high-order finite difference method was used to simulate the hypersonic flow field over a blunt cone with different height roughness elements. The unsteady flow field induced by pulse disturbances was analyzed and compared with that under continuous disturbances. The temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of disturbances in the boundary layer were investigated and the propagation of different disturbance modes in the boundary layer was researched through the fast Fourier transform (FFT method. The effect of the roughness element on the receptivity characteristic of the hypersonic boundary layer under pulse entropy disturbances was explored. The results showed that the different mode disturbances near roughness in the boundary layer were enlarged in the upstream half of the roughness element and suppressed in the downstream half. However, the effect of roughness weakened gradually as the disturbance frequency increased in the boundary layer. A phenomenon of mode competition in the downstream region of the roughness element exited. As the disturbances propagated downstream, the fundamental mode gradually became the dominant mode. A certain promotion effect on the mode competition was induced by the roughness element and the effect was enhanced with the increase in the roughness element height.
Determination of stable shapes of a thin liquid metal layer using a boundary integral method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hinaje, M [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Vinsard, G [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Dufour, S [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)
2006-03-21
This paper deals with a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field. Experimentally, we have noticed that even if the system (inductor+liquid metal) is axisymmetric, when an ac magnetic field is applied the symmetry is broken. The observed deformations of the liquid metal are in three dimensions. Therefore, our aim is to investigate this deformation using a numerical method as boundary element method in three dimensions.
Determination of stable shapes of a thin liquid metal layer using a boundary integral method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinaje, M; Vinsard, G; Dufour, S
2006-01-01
This paper deals with a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field. Experimentally, we have noticed that even if the system (inductor+liquid metal) is axisymmetric, when an ac magnetic field is applied the symmetry is broken. The observed deformations of the liquid metal are in three dimensions. Therefore, our aim is to investigate this deformation using a numerical method as boundary element method in three dimensions
Spectral/hp element methods for CFD
Karniadakis, George Em
1999-01-01
Traditionally spectral methods in fluid dynamics were used in direct and large eddy simulations of turbulent flow in simply connected computational domains. The methods are now being applied to more complex geometries, and the spectral/hp element method, which incorporates both multi-domain spectral methods and high-order finite element methods, has been particularly successful. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to these methods. Written by leaders in the field, the book begins with a full explanation of fundamental concepts and implementation issues. It then illustrates how these methods can be applied to advection-diffusion and to incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Drawing on both published and unpublished material, the book is an important resource for experienced researchers and for those new to the field.
New mixed finite-element methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franca, L.P.
1987-01-01
New finite-element methods are proposed for mixed variational formulations. The methods are constructed by adding to the classical Galerkin method various least-squares like terms. The additional terms involve integrals over element interiors, and include mesh-parameter dependent coefficients. The methods are designed to enhance stability. Consistency is achieved in the sense that exact solutions identically satisfy the variational equations.Applied to several problems, simple finite-element interpolations are rendered convergent, including convenient equal-order interpolations generally unstable within the Galerkin approach. The methods are subdivided into two classes according to the manner in which stability is attained: (1) circumventing Babuska-Brezzi condition methods; (2) satisfying Babuska-Brezzi condition methods. Convergence is established for each class of methods. Applications of the first class of methods to Stokes flow and compressible linear elasticity are presented. The second class of methods is applied to the Poisson, Timoshenko beam and incompressible elasticity problems. Numerical results demonstrate the good stability and accuracy of the methods, and confirm the error estimates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishida, Hitoshi; Meshii, Toshiyuki
2010-01-01
This study proposes an element size selection method named the 'Impact-Meshing (IM) method' for a finite element waves propagation analysis model, which is characterized by (1) determination of element division of the model with strain energy in the whole model, (2) static analysis (dynamic analysis in a single time step) with boundary conditions which gives a maximum change of displacement in the time increment and inertial (impact) force caused by the displacement change. In this paper, an example of application of the IM method to 3D ultrasonic wave propagation problem in an elastic solid is described. These examples showed an analysis result with a model determined by the IM method was convergence and calculation time for determination of element subdivision was reduced to about 1/6 by the IM Method which did not need determination of element subdivision by a dynamic transient analysis with 100 time steps. (author)
The finite element response matrix method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakata, H.; Martin, W.R.
1983-02-01
A new technique is developed with an alternative formulation of the response matrix method implemented with the finite element scheme. Two types of response matrices are generated from the Galerkin solution to the weak form of the diffusion equation subject to an arbitrary current and source. The piecewise polynomials are defined in two levels, the first for the local (assembly) calculations and the second for the global (core) response matrix calculations. This finite element response matrix technique was tested in two 2-dimensional test problems, 2D-IAEA benchmark problem and Biblis benchmark problem, with satisfatory results. The computational time, whereas the current code is not extensively optimized, is of the same order of the well estabilished coarse mesh codes. Furthermore, the application of the finite element technique in an alternative formulation of response matrix method permits the method to easily incorporate additional capabilities such as treatment of spatially dependent cross-sections, arbitrary geometrical configurations, and high heterogeneous assemblies. (Author) [pt
Time reversal method with stabilizing boundary conditions for Photoacoustic tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chervova, Olga; Oksanen, Lauri
2016-01-01
We study an inverse initial source problem that models photoacoustic tomography measurements with array detectors, and introduce a method that can be viewed as a modification of the so called back and forth nudging method. We show that the method converges at an exponential rate under a natural visibility condition, with data given only on a part of the boundary of the domain of wave propagation. In this paper we consider the case of noiseless measurements. (paper)
A general mixed boundary model reduction method for component mode synthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voormeeren, S N; Van der Valk, P L C; Rixen, D J
2010-01-01
A classic issue in component mode synthesis (CMS) methods is the choice for fixed or free boundary conditions at the interface degrees of freedom (DoF) and the associated vibration modes in the components reduction base. In this paper, a novel mixed boundary CMS method called the 'Mixed Craig-Bampton' method is proposed. The method is derived by dividing the substructure DoF into a set of internal DoF, free interface DoF and fixed interface DoF. To this end a simple but effective scheme is introduced that, for every pair of interface DoF, selects a free or fixed boundary condition for each DoF individually. Based on this selection a reduction basis is computed consisting of vibration modes, static constraint modes and static residual flexibility modes. In order to assemble the reduced substructures a novel mixed assembly procedure is developed. It is shown that this approach leads to relatively sparse reduced matrices, whereas other mixed boundary methods often lead to full matrices. As such, the Mixed Craig-Bampton method forms a natural generalization of the classic Craig-Bampton and more recent Dual Craig-Bampton methods. Finally, the method is applied to a finite element test model. Analysis reveals that the proposed method has comparable or better accuracy and superior versatility with respect to the existing methods.
Immersed Boundary-Lattice Boltzmann Method Using Two Relaxation Times
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kosuke Hayashi
2012-06-01
Full Text Available An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM using a two-relaxation time model (TRT is proposed. The collision operator in the lattice Boltzmann equation is modeled using two relaxation times. One of them is used to set the fluid viscosity and the other is for numerical stability and accuracy. A direct-forcing method is utilized for treatment of immersed boundary. A multi-direct forcing method is also implemented to precisely satisfy the boundary conditions at the immersed boundary. Circular Couette flows between a stationary cylinder and a rotating cylinder are simulated for validation of the proposed method. The method is also validated through simulations of circular and spherical falling particles. Effects of the functional forms of the direct-forcing term and the smoothed-delta function, which interpolates the fluid velocity to the immersed boundary and distributes the forcing term to fixed Eulerian grid points, are also examined. As a result, the following conclusions are obtained: (1 the proposed method does not cause non-physical velocity distribution in circular Couette flows even at high relaxation times, whereas the single-relaxation time (SRT model causes a large non-physical velocity distortion at a high relaxation time, (2 the multi-direct forcing reduces the errors in the velocity profile of a circular Couette flow at a high relaxation time, (3 the two-point delta function is better than the four-point delta function at low relaxation times, but worse at high relaxation times, (4 the functional form of the direct-forcing term does not affect predictions, and (5 circular and spherical particles falling in liquids are well predicted by using the proposed method both for two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases.
Rahmouni, Lyes; Adrian, Simon B.; Cools, Kristof; Andriulli, Francesco P.
2018-01-01
In this paper, we present a new discretization strategy for the boundary element formulation of the Electroencephalography (EEG) forward problem. Boundary integral formulations, classically solved with the Boundary Element Method (BEM), are widely used in high resolution EEG imaging because of their recognized advantages, in several real case scenarios, in terms of numerical stability and effectiveness when compared with other differential equation based techniques. Unfortunately, however, it is widely reported in literature that the accuracy of standard BEM schemes for the forward EEG problem is often limited, especially when the current source density is dipolar and its location approaches one of the brain boundary surfaces. This is a particularly limiting problem given that during an high-resolution EEG imaging procedure, several EEG forward problem solutions are required, for which the source currents are near or on top of a boundary surface. This work will first present an analysis of standardly and classically discretized EEG forward problem operators, reporting on a theoretical issue of some of the formulations that have been used so far in the community. We report on the fact that several standardly used discretizations of these formulations are consistent only with an L2-framework, requiring the expansion term to be a square integrable function (i.e., in a Petrov-Galerkin scheme with expansion and testing functions). Instead, those techniques are not consistent when a more appropriate mapping in terms of fractional-order Sobolev spaces is considered. Such a mapping allows the expansion function term to be a less regular function, thus sensibly reducing the need for mesh refinements and low-precisions handling strategies that are currently required. These more favorable mappings, however, require a different and conforming discretization, which must be suitably adapted to them. In order to appropriately fulfill this requirement, we adopt a mixed
Bakker, Mark
2010-08-01
A new analytic solution approach is presented for the modeling of steady flow to pumping wells near rivers in strip aquifers; all boundaries of the river and strip aquifer may be curved. The river penetrates the aquifer only partially and has a leaky stream bed. The water level in the river may vary spatially. Flow in the aquifer below the river is semi-confined while flow in the aquifer adjacent to the river is confined or unconfined and may be subject to areal recharge. Analytic solutions are obtained through superposition of analytic elements and Fourier series. Boundary conditions are specified at collocation points along the boundaries. The number of collocation points is larger than the number of coefficients in the Fourier series and a solution is obtained in the least squares sense. The solution is analytic while boundary conditions are met approximately. Very accurate solutions are obtained when enough terms are used in the series. Several examples are presented for domains with straight and curved boundaries, including a well pumping near a meandering river with a varying water level. The area of the river bottom where water infiltrates into the aquifer is delineated and the fraction of river water in the well water is computed for several cases.
Conference on Boundary and Interior Layers : Computational and Asymptotic Methods
2015-01-01
This volume offers contributions reflecting a selection of the lectures presented at the international conference BAIL 2014, which was held from 15th to 19th September 2014 at the Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. These are devoted to the theoretical and/or numerical analysis of problems involving boundary and interior layers and methods for solving these problems numerically. The authors are both mathematicians (pure and applied) and engineers, and bring together a large number of interesting ideas. The wide variety of topics treated in the contributions provides an excellent overview of current research into the theory and numerical solution of problems involving boundary and interior layers. .
Multisymplectic Structure－Preserving in Simple Finite Element Method in High Dimensional Case
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BAIYong-Qiang; LIUZhen; PEIMing; ZHENGZhu-Jun
2003-01-01
In this paper, we study a finite element scheme of some semi-linear elliptic boundary value problems in high-dhnensjonal space. With uniform mesh, we find that, the numerical scheme derived from finite element method can keep a preserved multisymplectic structure.
Multisymplectic Structure-Preserving in Simple Finite Element Method in High Dimensional Case
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BAI Yong-Qiang; LIU Zhen; PEI Ming; ZHENG Zhu-Jun
2003-01-01
In this paper, we study a finite element scheme of some semi-linear elliptic boundary value problems inhigh-dimensional space. With uniform mesh, we find that, the numerical scheme derived from finite element method cankeep a preserved multisymplectic structure.
Loading method of core constituting elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasai, Shigeo
1976-01-01
Purpose: To provide a remote-controlled replacing method for core constituting elements in a liquid-metal cooling fast breeder, wherein particularly, the core constituting elements are prevented from being loaded on the core position other than as designated. Constitution: The method comprises a first step which determines a position of a suitable neutron shielding body in order to measure a reference level of complete insertion of the core constituting elements, a second step which inserts a gripper for a fuel exchanger, a third step which decides stroke dimensions of the complete insertion, and a fourth step which discriminates the core constituting elements to begin handling of fuel rods. The method further comprises a fifth step which determines a loading position of fuel rod, and a sixth step which inserts and loads fuel rods into the core. The method still further comprises a seventh step which compares and judges the dimension of loading stroke and the dimension of complete inserting stroke so that when coincided, loading is completed, and when not coincided, loading is not completed and then the cycle of the fourth step is repeated. (Kawakami, Y.)
Image segmentation with a finite element method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bourdin, Blaise
1999-01-01
regularization results, make possible to imagine a finite element resolution method.In a first time, the Mumford-Shah functional is introduced and some existing results are quoted. Then, a discrete formulation for the Mumford-Shah problem is proposed and its $\\Gamma$-convergence is proved. Finally, some...
Finite element methods for incompressible flow problems
John, Volker
2016-01-01
This book explores finite element methods for incompressible flow problems: Stokes equations, stationary Navier-Stokes equations, and time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. It focuses on numerical analysis, but also discusses the practical use of these methods and includes numerical illustrations. It also provides a comprehensive overview of analytical results for turbulence models. The proofs are presented step by step, allowing readers to more easily understand the analytical techniques.
Steam generator tube rupture simulation using extended finite element method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohanty, Subhasish, E-mail: smohanty@anl.gov; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken
2016-08-15
Highlights: • Extended finite element method used for modeling the steam generator tube rupture. • Crack propagation is modeled in an arbitrary solution dependent path. • The FE model is used for estimating the rupture pressure of steam generator tubes. • Crack coalescence modeling is also demonstrated. • The method can be used for crack modeling of tubes under severe accident condition. - Abstract: A steam generator (SG) is an important component of any pressurized water reactor. Steam generator tubes represent a primary pressure boundary whose integrity is vital to the safe operation of the reactor. SG tubes may rupture due to propagation of a crack created by mechanisms such as stress corrosion cracking, fatigue, etc. It is thus important to estimate the rupture pressures of cracked tubes for structural integrity evaluation of SGs. The objective of the present paper is to demonstrate the use of extended finite element method capability of commercially available ABAQUS software, to model SG tubes with preexisting flaws and to estimate their rupture pressures. For the purpose, elastic–plastic finite element models were developed for different SG tubes made from Alloy 600 material. The simulation results were compared with experimental results available from the steam generator tube integrity program (SGTIP) sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A reasonable correlation was found between extended finite element model results and experimental results.
Steam generator tube rupture simulation using extended finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohanty, Subhasish; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Extended finite element method used for modeling the steam generator tube rupture. • Crack propagation is modeled in an arbitrary solution dependent path. • The FE model is used for estimating the rupture pressure of steam generator tubes. • Crack coalescence modeling is also demonstrated. • The method can be used for crack modeling of tubes under severe accident condition. - Abstract: A steam generator (SG) is an important component of any pressurized water reactor. Steam generator tubes represent a primary pressure boundary whose integrity is vital to the safe operation of the reactor. SG tubes may rupture due to propagation of a crack created by mechanisms such as stress corrosion cracking, fatigue, etc. It is thus important to estimate the rupture pressures of cracked tubes for structural integrity evaluation of SGs. The objective of the present paper is to demonstrate the use of extended finite element method capability of commercially available ABAQUS software, to model SG tubes with preexisting flaws and to estimate their rupture pressures. For the purpose, elastic–plastic finite element models were developed for different SG tubes made from Alloy 600 material. The simulation results were compared with experimental results available from the steam generator tube integrity program (SGTIP) sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A reasonable correlation was found between extended finite element model results and experimental results.
Crack Propagation by Finite Element Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luiz Carlos H. Ricardo
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Crack propagation simulation began with the development of the finite element method; the analyses were conducted to obtain a basic understanding of the crack growth. Today structural and materials engineers develop structures and materials properties using this technique. The aim of this paper is to verify the effect of different crack propagation rates in determination of crack opening and closing stress of an ASTM specimen under a standard suspension spectrum loading from FDandE SAE Keyhole Specimen Test Load Histories by finite element analysis. To understand the crack propagation processes under variable amplitude loading, retardation effects are observed
A Novel Polygonal Finite Element Method: Virtual Node Method
Tang, X. H.; Zheng, C.; Zhang, J. H.
2010-05-01
Polygonal finite element method (PFEM), which can construct shape functions on polygonal elements, provides greater flexibility in mesh generation. However, the non-polynomial form of traditional PFEM, such as Wachspress method and Mean Value method, leads to inexact numerical integration. Since the integration technique for non-polynomial functions is immature. To overcome this shortcoming, a great number of integration points have to be used to obtain sufficiently exact results, which increases computational cost. In this paper, a novel polygonal finite element method is proposed and called as virtual node method (VNM). The features of present method can be list as: (1) It is a PFEM with polynomial form. Thereby, Hammer integral and Gauss integral can be naturally used to obtain exact numerical integration; (2) Shape functions of VNM satisfy all the requirements of finite element method. To test the performance of VNM, intensive numerical tests are carried out. It found that, in standard patch test, VNM can achieve significantly better results than Wachspress method and Mean Value method. Moreover, it is observed that VNM can achieve better results than triangular 3-node elements in the accuracy test.
A non-reflecting boundary for use in a finite element beam model of a railway track
Yang, Jiannan; Thompson, David J.
2015-02-01
Some beam-like structures such as a railway track are effectively infinite in nature. Analytical solutions exist for simple structures but numerical methods like the finite element (FE) method are often employed to study more complicated problems. However, when the FE method is used for structures of infinite extent it is essential to introduce artificial boundaries to limit the area of computation. Here, a non-reflecting boundary is developed using a damped tapered tip for application in a finite element model representing an infinite supported beam. The FE model of the tapered tip is validated against an analytical model based on Bessel functions. The reflection characteristics of the FE tapered tip are quantified using a wave/FE superposition method. It is shown that the damped tapered tip is much more effective than its constant counterpart and achieves reduction of the model size. The damped tapered tip is applied to a simple FE railway track model and good agreement is found when its point mobility is compared with an analytical infinite track model.
Study on boundary search method for DFM mesh generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Ri
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The boundary mesh of the casting model was determined by direct calculation on the triangular facets extracted from the STL file of the 3D model. Then the inner and outer grids of the model were identified by the algorithm in which we named Inner Seed Grid Method. Finally, a program to automatically generate a 3D FDM mesh was compiled. In the paper, a method named Triangle Contraction Search Method (TCSM was put forward to ensure not losing the boundary grids; while an algorithm to search inner seed grids to identify inner/outer grids of the casting model was also brought forward. Our algorithm was simple, clear and easy to construct program. Three examples for the casting mesh generation testified the validity of the program.
Finite Element Methods and Their Applications
Chen, Zhangxin
2005-01-01
This book serves as a text for one- or two-semester courses for upper-level undergraduates and beginning graduate students and as a professional reference for people who want to solve partial differential equations (PDEs) using finite element methods. The author has attempted to introduce every concept in the simplest possible setting and maintain a level of treatment that is as rigorous as possible without being unnecessarily abstract. Quite a lot of attention is given to discontinuous finite elements, characteristic finite elements, and to the applications in fluid and solid mechanics including applications to porous media flow, and applications to semiconductor modeling. An extensive set of exercises and references in each chapter are provided.
Finite Element Method in Machining Processes
Markopoulos, Angelos P
2013-01-01
Finite Element Method in Machining Processes provides a concise study on the way the Finite Element Method (FEM) is used in the case of manufacturing processes, primarily in machining. The basics of this kind of modeling are detailed to create a reference that will provide guidelines for those who start to study this method now, but also for scientists already involved in FEM and want to expand their research. A discussion on FEM, formulations and techniques currently in use is followed up by machining case studies. Orthogonal cutting, oblique cutting, 3D simulations for turning and milling, grinding, and state-of-the-art topics such as high speed machining and micromachining are explained with relevant examples. This is all supported by a literature review and a reference list for further study. As FEM is a key method for researchers in the manufacturing and especially in the machining sector, Finite Element Method in Machining Processes is a key reference for students studying manufacturing processes but al...
An adaptive finite element method for steady and transient problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benner, R.E. Jr.; Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E.
1987-01-01
Distributing integral error uniformly over variable subdomains, or finite elements, is an attractive criterion by which to subdivide a domain for the Galerkin/finite element method when localized steep gradients and high curvatures are to be resolved. Examples are fluid interfaces, shock fronts and other internal layers, as well as fluid mechanical and other boundary layers, e.g. thin-film states at solid walls. The uniform distribution criterion is developed into an adaptive technique for one-dimensional problems. Nodal positions can be updated simultaneously with nodal values during Newton iteration, but it is usually better to adopt nearly optimal nodal positions during Newton iteration upon nodal values. Three illustrative problems are solved: steady convection with diffusion, gradient theory of fluid wetting on a solid surface and Buckley-Leverett theory of two phase Darcy flow in porous media
Mixed Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods and Applications
Chung, Eric T.
2015-03-03
In this paper, we present a mixed generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) for solving flow in heterogeneous media. Our approach constructs multiscale basis functions following a GMsFEM framework and couples these basis functions using a mixed finite element method, which allows us to obtain a mass conservative velocity field. To construct multiscale basis functions for each coarse edge, we design a snapshot space that consists of fine-scale velocity fields supported in a union of two coarse regions that share the common interface. The snapshot vectors have zero Neumann boundary conditions on the outer boundaries, and we prescribe their values on the common interface. We describe several spectral decompositions in the snapshot space motivated by the analysis. In the paper, we also study oversampling approaches that enhance the accuracy of mixed GMsFEM. A main idea of oversampling techniques is to introduce a small dimensional snapshot space. We present numerical results for two-phase flow and transport, without updating basis functions in time. Our numerical results show that one can achieve good accuracy with a few basis functions per coarse edge if one selects appropriate offline spaces. © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Yang, Xiang I. A.; Meneveau, Charles
2016-01-01
The technique by Lund et al. to generate turbulent inflow for simulations of developing boundary layers over smooth flat plates is extended to the case of surfaces with roughness elements. In the Lund et al. method, turbulent velocities on a sampling plane are rescaled and recycled back to the inlet as inflow boundary condition. To rescale mean and fluctuating velocities, appropriate length scales need be identified and for smooth surfaces, the viscous scale lν = ν/uτ (where ν is the kinematic viscosity and uτ is the friction velocity) is employed for the inner layer. Different from smooth surfaces, in rough wall boundary layers the length scale of the inner layer, i.e. the roughness sub-layer scale ld, must be determined by the geometric details of the surface roughness elements and the flow around them. In the proposed approach, it is determined by diagnosing dispersive stresses that quantify the spatial inhomogeneity caused by the roughness elements in the flow. The scale ld is used for rescaling in the inner layer, and the boundary layer thickness δ is used in the outer region. Both parts are then combined for recycling using a blending function. Unlike the blending function proposed by Lund et al. which transitions from the inner layer to the outer layer at approximately 0.2δ, here the location of blending is shifted upwards to enable simulations of very rough surfaces in which the roughness length may exceed the height of 0.2δ assumed in the traditional method. The extended rescaling-recycling method is tested in large eddy simulation of flow over surfaces with various types of roughness element shapes.
Effective beam method for element concentrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tolhurst, Thomas; Barbi, Mauricio; Tokaryk, Tim
2015-01-01
A method to evaluate chemical element concentrations in samples by generating an effective polychromatic beam using as initial input real monochromatic beam data is presented. There is a great diversity of research being conducted at synchrotron facilities around the world and a diverse set of beamlines to accommodate this research. Time is a precious commodity at synchrotron facilities; therefore, methods that can maximize the time spent collecting data are of value. At the same time the incident radiation spectrum, necessary for some research, may not be known on a given beamline. A preliminary presentation of a method applicable to X-ray fluorescence spectrocopic analyses that overcomes the lack of information about the incident beam spectrum that addresses both of these concerns is given here. The method is equally applicable for other X-ray sources so long as local conditions are considered. It relies on replacing the polychromatic spectrum in a standard fundamental parameters analysis with a set of effective monochromatic photon beams. A beam is associated with each element and can be described by an analytical function allowing extension to elements not included in the necessary calibration measurement(s)
Modeling of Airfoil Trailing Edge Flap with Immersed Boundary Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2011-01-01
The present work considers incompressible flow over a 2D airfoil with a deformable trailing edge. The aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil with a trailing edge flap is numerically investigated using computational fluid dynamics. A novel hybrid immersed boundary (IB) technique is applied...... to simulate the moving part of the trailing edge. Over the main fixed part of the airfoil the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are solved using a standard body-fitted finite volume technique whereas the moving trailing edge flap is simulated with the immersed boundary method on a curvilinear mesh. The obtained...... results show that the hybrid approach is an efficient and accurate method for solving turbulent flows past airfoils with a trailing edge flap and flow control using trailing edge flap is an efficient way to regulate the aerodynamic loading on airfoils....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Lars; Nielsen, Søren R. K.
2003-01-01
The paper deals with the boundary element method formulation of the steady-state wave propagation through elastic media due to a source moving with constant velocity. The Greens' function for the three-dimensional full-space is formulated in a local frame of reference following the source...... is approximated, but the error which is introduced in this way is insignificant. Numerical examples are given for a moving rectangular load on an elastic half-space. The result from a boundary element code based on the derived Green's function are compared with a semi-analytic solution....
Thompson, T. B.; Meade, B. J.
2015-12-01
The Himalayas are the tallest mountains on Earth with ten peaks exceeding 8000 meters, including Mt. Everest. The geometrically complex fault system at the Himalayan Range Front produces both great relief and great earthquakes, like the recent Mw=7.8 Nepal rupture. Here, we develop geometrically accurate elastic boundary element models of the fault system at the Himalayan Range Front including the Main Central Thrust, South Tibetan Detachment, Main Frontal Thrust, Main Boundary Thrust, the basal detachment, and surface topography. Using these models, we constrain the tectonic driving forces and frictional fault strength required to explain Quaternary fault slip rate estimates. These models provide a characterization of the heterogeneity of internal stress in the region surrounding the 2015 Nepal earthquake.
Crack Propagation by Finite Element Method
H. Ricardo, Luiz Carlos
2017-01-01
Crack propagation simulation began with the development of the finite element method; the analyses were conducted to obtain a basic understanding of the crack growth. Today structural and materials engineers develop structures and materials properties using this technique. The aim of this paper is to verify the effect of different crack propagation rates in determination of crack opening and closing stress of an ASTM specimen under a standard suspension spectrum loading from FD&E SAE Keyh...
Boundary element analysis of the directional sensitivity of the concentric EMG electrode.
Henneberg, K A; Plonsey, R
1993-07-01
Assessment of the motor unit architecture based on concentric electrode motor unit potentials requires a thorough understanding of the recording characteristics of the concentric EMG electrode. Previous simulation studies have attempted to include the effect of EMG electrodes on the recorded waveforms by uniformly averaging the tissue potential at the coordinates of one- or two-dimensional electrode models. By employing the boundary element method, this paper improves earlier models of the concentric EMG electrode by including an accurate geometric representation of the electrode, as well as the mutual electrical influence between the electrode surfaces. A three-dimensional sensitivity function is defined from which information about the preferential direction of sensitivity, blind spots, phase changes, rate of attenuation, and range of pick-up radius can be derived. The study focuses on the intrinsic features linked to the geometry of the electrode. The results show that the cannula perturbs the potential distribution significantly. The core and the cannula electrodes measure potentials of the same order of magnitude in all of the pick-up range, except adjacent to the central wire, where the latter dominates the sensitivity function. The preferential directions of sensitivity are determined by the amount of geometric offset between the individual sensitivity functions of the core and the cannula. The sensitivity function also reveals a complicated pattern of phase changes in the pick-up range. Potentials from fibers located behind the tip or along the cannula are recorded with reversed polarity compared to those located in front of the tip. Rotation of the electrode about its axis was found to alter the duration, the peak-to-peak amplitude, and the rise time of waveforms recorded from a moving dipole.
The finite element response Matrix method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakata, H.; Martin, W.R.
1983-01-01
A new method for global reactor core calculations is described. This method is based on a unique formulation of the response matrix method, implemented with a higher order finite element method. The unique aspects of this approach are twofold. First, there are two levels to the overall calculational scheme: the local or assembly level and the global or core level. Second, the response matrix scheme, which is formulated at both levels, consists of two separate response matrices rather than one response matrix as is generally the case. These separate response matrices are seen to be quite beneficial for the criticality eigenvalue calculation, because they are independent of k /SUB eff/. The response matrices are generated from a Galerkin finite element solution to the weak form of the diffusion equation, subject to an arbitrary incoming current and an arbitrary distributed source. Calculational results are reported for two test problems, the two-dimensional International Atomic Energy Agency benchmark problem and a two-dimensional pressurized water reactor test problem (Biblis reactor), and they compare well with standard coarse mesh methods with respect to accuracy and efficiency. Moreover, the accuracy (and capability) is comparable to fine mesh for a fraction of the computational cost. Extension of the method to treat heterogeneous assemblies and spatial depletion effects is discussed
Introduction to finite and spectral element methods using Matlab
Pozrikidis, Constantine
2014-01-01
The Finite Element Method in One Dimension. Further Applications in One Dimension. High-Order and Spectral Elements in One Dimension. The Finite Element Method in Two Dimensions. Quadratic and Spectral Elements in Two Dimensions. Applications in Mechanics. Viscous Flow. Finite and Spectral Element Methods in Three Dimensions. Appendices. References. Index.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Xiaobing [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
1996-12-31
A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.
Chebyshev Finite Difference Method for Fractional Boundary Value Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boundary
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical method for fractional differential equations using Chebyshev finite difference method. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. Numerical results show that this method is of high accuracy and is more convenient and efficient for solving boundary value problems involving fractional ordinary differential equations. AMS Subject Classification: 34A08 Keywords and Phrases: Chebyshev polynomials, Gauss-Lobatto points, fractional differential equation, finite difference 1. Introduction The idea of a derivative which interpolates between the familiar integer order derivatives was introduced many years ago and has gained increasing importance only in recent years due to the development of mathematical models of a certain situations in engineering, materials science, control theory, polymer modelling etc. For example see [20, 22, 25, 26]. Most fractional order differential equations describing real life situations, in general do not have exact analytical solutions. Several numerical and approximate analytical methods for ordinary differential equation Received: December 2014; Accepted: March 2015 57 Journal of Mathematical Extension Vol. 9, No. 3, (2015, 57-71 ISSN: 1735-8299 URL: http://www.ijmex.com Chebyshev Finite Difference Method for Fractional Boundary Value Problems H. Azizi Taft Branch, Islamic Azad University Abstract. This paper presents a numerical method for fractional differential equations using Chebyshev finite difference method. The fractional derivative
The blade element momentum (BEM) method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre
2017-01-01
The current chapter presents the blade element momentum (BEM) method. The BEM method for a steady uniform inflow is presented in a first section. Some of the ad-hoc corrections that are usually added to the algorithm are discussed in a second section. An exception is made to the tip-loss correction...... which is introduced early in the algorithm formulation for practical reasons. The ad-hoc corrections presented are: the tip-loss correction, the high-thrust correction (momentum breakdown) and the correction for wake rotation. The formulation of an unsteady BEM code is given in a third section...
Mathematical theory of finite and boundary element methods
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Schatz, Alfred H; Thomée, Vidar; Wendland, W. L
1990-01-01
... ; V. Thomee ; W. L. Wendland. - Basel ; Boston Berlin : Birkhiiuser, 1990 (DMV-Seminar ; Bd. 15) ISBN 978-3-7643-2211-3 ISBN 978-3-0348-7630-8 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-0348-7630-8 NE: Schatz, A...
Multiscale molecular dynamics using the matched interface and boundary method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geng Weihua; Wei, G.W.
2011-01-01
The Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation is an established multiscale model for electrostatic analysis of biomolecules and other dielectric systems. PB based molecular dynamics (MD) approach has a potential to tackle large biological systems. Obstacles that hinder the current development of PB based MD methods are concerns in accuracy, stability, efficiency and reliability. The presence of complex solvent-solute interface, geometric singularities and charge singularities leads to challenges in the numerical solution of the PB equation and electrostatic force evaluation in PB based MD methods. Recently, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method has been utilized to develop the first second order accurate PB solver that is numerically stable in dealing with discontinuous dielectric coefficients, complex geometric singularities and singular source charges. The present work develops the PB based MD approach using the MIB method. New formulation of electrostatic forces is derived to allow the use of sharp molecular surfaces. Accurate reaction field forces are obtained by directly differentiating the electrostatic potential. Dielectric boundary forces are evaluated at the solvent-solute interface using an accurate Cartesian-grid surface integration method. The electrostatic forces located at reentrant surfaces are appropriately assigned to related atoms. Extensive numerical tests are carried out to validate the accuracy and stability of the present electrostatic force calculation. The new PB based MD method is implemented in conjunction with the AMBER package. MIB based MD simulations of biomolecules are demonstrated via a few example systems.
Well test imaging - a new method for determination of boundaries from well test data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slevinsky, B.A.
1997-08-01
A new method has been developed for analysis of well test data, which allows the direct calculation of the location of arbitrary reservoir boundaries which are detected during a well test. The method is based on elements of ray tracing and information theory, and is centered on the calculation of an instantaneous {open_quote}angle of view{close_quote} of the reservoir boundaries. In the absence of other information, the relative reservoir shape and boundary distances are retrievable in the form of a Diagnostic Image. If other reservoir information, such as 3-D seismic, is available; the full shape and orientation of arbitrary (non-straight line or circular arc) boundaries can be determined in the form of a Reservoir Image. The well test imaging method can be used to greatly enhance the information available from well tests and other geological data, and provides a method to integrate data from multiple disciplines to improve reservoir characterization. This paper covers the derivation of the analytical technique of well test imaging and shows examples of application of the technique to a number of reservoirs.
Apparatus and method for assembling fuel elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arya, S.P.
1978-01-01
A nuclear fuel element assembling method and apparatus is preferably operable under programmed control unit to receive fuel rods from storage, arrange them into axially aligned stacks of closely monitored length, and transfer the stacks of fuel rods to a loading device for insertion into longitudinal passages in the fuel elements. In order to handle large numbers of one or more classifications of fuel rods or other cylindrical parts, the assembling apparatus includes at least two feed troughs each formed by a pair of screw members with a movable table having a plurality of stacking troughs for alignment with the feed troughs and with a conveyor for delivering the stacks to the loading device, the fuel rods being moved along the stacking troughs upon a fluid cushion. 23 claims, 6 figures
Method of detecting a fuel element failure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, P.
1975-01-01
A method is described for detecting a fuel element failure in a liquid-sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor consisting of equilibrating a sample of the coolant with a molten salt consisting of a mixture of barium iodide and strontium iodide (or other iodides) whereby a large fraction of any radioactive iodine present in the liquid sodium coolant exchanges with the iodine present in the salt; separating the molten salt and sodium; if necessary, equilibrating the molten salt with nonradioactive sodium and separating the molten salt and sodium; and monitoring the molten salt for the presence of iodine, the presence of iodine indicating that the cladding of a fuel element has failed. (U.S.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yokoi, T [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College
1996-05-01
As a method of computation of wave fields in irregularly stratified media by use of the indirect boundary element method, an induction formula was proposed in a previous report, utilizing the reference solution representing the wave field in corresponding horizontally stratified media. This algorithm applies to other types of vibration source. In computation of a wave field with the focus in presence on the ground or in the ground, the algorithm is incorporated into the computation as a vector including the reference solution as a variable. There exists no need to modify the algorithm. Once the reference solution is obtained, the wave field in the irregularly stratified media is automatically constructed by the proposed algorithm. The wave field to be the reference solution to a point source in the horizontally stratified media, is determined when the solution is obtained of the frequency/wavenumber domain by use of the reflection/transmission matrix of Kennet (1983) and converted into the solution of the spatial domain by use of the discrete wavenumber representation of Bouchon and Aki (1977). 8 refs., 2 figs.
Generalized multiscale finite element methods: Oversampling strategies
Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Galvis, Juan; Li, Guanglian; Presho, Michael
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose oversampling strategies in the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) framework. The GMsFEM, which has been recently introduced in Efendiev et al. (2013b) [Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods, J. Comput. Phys., vol. 251, pp. 116-135, 2013], allows solving multiscale parameter-dependent problems at a reduced computational cost by constructing a reduced-order representation of the solution on a coarse grid. The main idea of the method consists of (1) the construction of snapshot space, (2) the construction of the offline space, and (3) construction of the online space (the latter for parameter-dependent problems). In Efendiev et al. (2013b) [Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods, J. Comput. Phys., vol. 251, pp. 116-135, 2013], it was shown that the GMsFEM provides a flexible tool to solve multiscale problems with a complex input space by generating appropriate snapshot, offline, and online spaces. In this paper, we develop oversampling techniques to be used in this context (see Hou and Wu (1997) where oversampling is introduced for multiscale finite element methods). It is known (see Hou and Wu (1997)) that the oversampling can improve the accuracy of multiscale methods. In particular, the oversampling technique uses larger regions (larger than the target coarse block) in constructing local basis functions. Our motivation stems from the analysis presented in this paper, which shows that when using oversampling techniques in the construction of the snapshot space and offline space, GMsFEM will converge independent of small scales and high contrast under certain assumptions. We consider the use of a multiple eigenvalue problems to improve the convergence and discuss their relation to single spectral problems that use oversampled regions. The oversampling procedures proposed in this paper differ from those in Hou and Wu (1997). In particular, the oversampling domains are partially used in constructing local
Large deformation frictional contact analysis with immersed boundary method
Navarro-Jiménez, José Manuel; Tur, Manuel; Albelda, José; Ródenas, Juan José
2018-01-01
This paper proposes a method of solving 3D large deformation frictional contact problems with the Cartesian Grid Finite Element Method. A stabilized augmented Lagrangian contact formulation is developed using a smooth stress field as stabilizing term, calculated by Zienckiewicz and Zhu Superconvergent Patch Recovery. The parametric definition of the CAD surfaces (usually NURBS) is considered in the definition of the contact kinematics in order to obtain an enhanced measure of the contact gap. The numerical examples show the performance of the method.
A two-dimensional embedded-boundary method for convection problems with moving boundaries
Y.J. Hassen (Yunus); B. Koren (Barry)
2010-01-01
htmlabstractIn this work, a two-dimensional embedded-boundary algorithm for convection problems is presented. A moving body of arbitrary boundary shape is immersed in a Cartesian finite-volume grid, which is fixed in space. The boundary surface is reconstructed in such a way that only certain fluxes
A multilevel correction adaptive finite element method for Kohn-Sham equation
Hu, Guanghui; Xie, Hehu; Xu, Fei
2018-02-01
In this paper, an adaptive finite element method is proposed for solving Kohn-Sham equation with the multilevel correction technique. In the method, the Kohn-Sham equation is solved on a fixed and appropriately coarse mesh with the finite element method in which the finite element space is kept improving by solving the derived boundary value problems on a series of adaptively and successively refined meshes. A main feature of the method is that solving large scale Kohn-Sham system is avoided effectively, and solving the derived boundary value problems can be handled efficiently by classical methods such as the multigrid method. Hence, the significant acceleration can be obtained on solving Kohn-Sham equation with the proposed multilevel correction technique. The performance of the method is examined by a variety of numerical experiments.
Johnson, Kyle; Thurow, Brian; Kim, Taehoon; Blois, Gianluca; Christensen, Kenneth
2016-11-01
Three-dimensional, three-component (3D-3C) measurements were made using a plenoptic camera on the flow around a roughness element immersed in a turbulent boundary layer. A refractive index matched approach allowed whole-field optical access from a single camera to a measurement volume that includes transparent solid geometries. In particular, this experiment measures the flow over a single hemispherical roughness element made of acrylic and immersed in a working fluid consisting of Sodium Iodide solution. Our results demonstrate that plenoptic particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a viable technique to obtaining statistically-significant volumetric velocity measurements even in a complex separated flow. The boundary layer to roughness height-ratio of the flow was 4.97 and the Reynolds number (based on roughness height) was 4.57×103. Our measurements reveal key flow features such as spiraling legs of the shear layer, a recirculation region, and shed arch vortices. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis was applied to the instantaneous velocity and vorticity data to extract these features. Supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. 1235726.
Adaptive finite element methods for differential equations
Bangerth, Wolfgang
2003-01-01
These Lecture Notes discuss concepts of `self-adaptivity' in the numerical solution of differential equations, with emphasis on Galerkin finite element methods. The key issues are a posteriori error estimation and it automatic mesh adaptation. Besides the traditional approach of energy-norm error control, a new duality-based technique, the Dual Weighted Residual method for goal-oriented error estimation, is discussed in detail. This method aims at economical computation of arbitrary quantities of physical interest by properly adapting the computational mesh. This is typically required in the design cycles of technical applications. For example, the drag coefficient of a body immersed in a viscous flow is computed, then it is minimized by varying certain control parameters, and finally the stability of the resulting flow is investigated by solving an eigenvalue problem. `Goal-oriented' adaptivity is designed to achieve these tasks with minimal cost. At the end of each chapter some exercises are posed in order ...
Methods for assessing NPP containment pressure boundary integrity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naus, D.J.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Graves, H.L.
2004-01-01
Research is being conducted to address aging of the containment pressure boundary in light-water reactor plants. Objectives of this research are to (1) understand the significant factors relating to corrosion occurrence, efficacy of inspection, and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and of liners of concrete containments; (2) provide the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) reviewers a means of establishing current structural capacity margins or estimating future residual structural capacity margins for steel containments and concrete containments as limited by liner integrity; and (3) provide recommendations, as appropriate, on information to be requested of licensees for guidance that could be utilized by USNRC reviewers in assessing the seriousness of reported incidences of containment degradation. Activities include development of a degradation assessment methodology; reviews of techniques and methods for inspection and repair of containment metallic pressure boundaries; evaluation of candidate techniques for inspection of inaccessible regions of containment metallic pressure boundaries; establishment of a methodology for reliability-based condition assessments of steel containments and liners; and fragility assessments of steel containments with localized corrosion
A finite element method for calculating the 3-dimensional magnetic fields of cyclotron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Xiaofeng
1986-01-01
A series of formula of the finite element method (scalar potential) for calculating the three-dimensional magnetic field of the main magnet of a sector focused cyclotron, and the realization method of the periodic boundary conditions in the code are given
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steibler, P.
2000-07-01
The unsteady, turbulent flow is to be calculated in a complex geometry. For this purpose a stabilized finite element formulation in which the same functions for velocity and pressure are used is developed. Thus the process remains independent of the type of elements. This simplifies the application. Above all, it is easier to deal with the boundary conditions. The independency from the elements is also achieved by the extended uzawa-algorithm which uses quadratic functions for velocity and an element-constant pressure. This method is also programmed. In order to produce the unstructured grids, an algorithm is implemented which produces meshes consisting of triangular and tetrahedral elements with flow-dependent adaptation. With standard geometries both calculation methods are compared with results. Finally the flow in a draft tube of a Kaplan turbine is calculated and compared with results from model tests. (orig.) [German] Die instationaere, turbulente Stroemung in einer komplexen Geometrie soll berechnet werden. Dazu wird eine Stabilisierte Finite Element Formulierung entwickelt, bei der die gleichen Ansatzfunktionen fuer Geschwindigkeiten und Druck verwendet werden. Das Verfahren wird damit unabhaengig von der Form der Elemente. Dies vereinfacht die Anwendung. Vor allem wird der Umgang mit den Randbedingungen erleichert. Die Elementunabhaengigkeit erreicht man auch mit dem erweiterten Uzawa-Algorithmus, welcher quadratische Ansatzfunktionen fuer die Geschwindigkeiten und elementweisen konstanten Druck verwendet. Dieses Verfahren wird ebenso implementiert. Zur Erstellung der unstrukturierten Gitter wird ein Algorithmus erzeugt, der Netze aus Dreiecks- und Tetraederelementen erstellt, welche stroemungsabhaengige Groessen besitzen koennen. Anhand einiger Standardgeometrien werden die beiden Berechnungsmethoden mit Ergebnissen aus der Literatur verglichen. Als praxisrelevantes Beispiel wird abschliessend die Stroemung in einem Saugrohr einer Kaplanturbine berechnet
SAFE-3D, Stress Analysis of 3-D Composite Structure by Finite Elements Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornell, D.C.; Jadhav, K.; Crowell, J.S.
1969-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: SAFE-3D is a finite-element program for the three-dimensional elastic analysis of heterogeneous composite structures. The program uses the following types of finite elements - (1) tetrahedral elements to represent the continuum, (2) triangular plane stress membrane elements to represent inner liner or outer case, and (3) uniaxial tension-compression elements to represent internal reinforcement. The structure can be of arbitrary geometry and have any distribution of material properties, temperatures, surface loadings, and boundary conditions. 2 - Method of solution: The finite-element variational method is used. Equilibrium equations are solved by the alternating component iterative method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 5000 nodes; 16000 elements. The program cannot be applied to incompressible solids and is not recommended for Poisson's ratio in the range of nu between 0.495 and 0.5
Sirenko, Kostyantyn
2013-07-01
Exact absorbing and periodic boundary conditions allow to truncate grating problems\\' infinite physical domains without introducing any errors. This work presents exact absorbing boundary conditions for 3D diffraction gratings and describes their discretization within a high-order time-domain discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (TD-DG-FEM). The error introduced by the boundary condition discretization matches that of the TD-DG-FEM; this results in an optimal solver in terms of accuracy and computation time. Numerical results demonstrate the superiority of this solver over TD-DG-FEM with perfectly matched layers (PML)-based domain truncation. © 2013 IEEE.
Final Report of the Project "From the finite element method to the virtual element method"
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manzini, Gianmarco [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gyrya, Vitaliy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-12-20
The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a powerful numerical tool that is being used in a large number of engineering applications. The FEM is constructed on triangular/tetrahedral and quadrilateral/hexahedral meshes. Extending the FEM to general polygonal/polyhedral meshes in straightforward way turns out to be extremely difficult and leads to very complex and computationally expensive schemes. The reason for this failure is that the construction of the basis functions on elements with a very general shape is a non-trivial and complex task. In this project we developed a new family of numerical methods, dubbed the Virtual Element Method (VEM) for the numerical approximation of partial differential equations (PDE) of elliptic type suitable to polygonal and polyhedral unstructured meshes. We successfully formulated, implemented and tested these methods and studied both theoretically and numerically their stability, robustness and accuracy for diffusion problems, convection-reaction-diffusion problems, the Stokes equations and the biharmonic equations.
An efficient strongly coupled immersed boundary method for deforming bodies
Goza, Andres; Colonius, Tim
2016-11-01
Immersed boundary methods treat the fluid and immersed solid with separate domains. As a result, a nonlinear interface constraint must be satisfied when these methods are applied to flow-structure interaction problems. This typically results in a large nonlinear system of equations that is difficult to solve efficiently. Often, this system is solved with a block Gauss-Seidel procedure, which is easy to implement but can require many iterations to converge for small solid-to-fluid mass ratios. Alternatively, a Newton-Raphson procedure can be used to solve the nonlinear system. This typically leads to convergence in a small number of iterations for arbitrary mass ratios, but involves the use of large Jacobian matrices. We present an immersed boundary formulation that, like the Newton-Raphson approach, uses a linearization of the system to perform iterations. It therefore inherits the same favorable convergence behavior. However, we avoid large Jacobian matrices by using a block LU factorization of the linearized system. We derive our method for general deforming surfaces and perform verification on 2D test problems of flow past beams. These test problems involve large amplitude flapping and a wide range of mass ratios. This work was partially supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Randomized Oversampling for Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods
Calo, Victor M.
2016-03-23
In this paper, we develop efficient multiscale methods for flows in heterogeneous media. We use the generalized multiscale finite element (GMsFEM) framework. GMsFEM approximates the solution space locally using a few multiscale basis functions. This approximation selects an appropriate snapshot space and a local spectral decomposition, e.g., the use of oversampled regions, in order to achieve an efficient model reduction. However, the successful construction of snapshot spaces may be costly if too many local problems need to be solved in order to obtain these spaces. We use a moderate quantity of local solutions (or snapshot vectors) with random boundary conditions on oversampled regions with zero forcing to deliver an efficient methodology. Motivated by the randomized algorithm presented in [P. G. Martinsson, V. Rokhlin, and M. Tygert, A Randomized Algorithm for the approximation of Matrices, YALEU/DCS/TR-1361, Yale University, 2006], we consider a snapshot space which consists of harmonic extensions of random boundary conditions defined in a domain larger than the target region. Furthermore, we perform an eigenvalue decomposition in this small space. We study the application of randomized sampling for GMsFEM in conjunction with adaptivity, where local multiscale spaces are adaptively enriched. Convergence analysis is provided. We present representative numerical results to validate the method proposed.
Collins, Jeffery D.; Volakis, John L.; Jin, Jian-Ming
1990-01-01
A new technique is presented for computing the scattering by 2-D structures of arbitrary composition. The proposed solution approach combines the usual finite element method with the boundary-integral equation to formulate a discrete system. This is subsequently solved via the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm. A particular characteristic of the method is the use of rectangular boundaries to enclose the scatterer. Several of the resulting boundary integrals are therefore convolutions and may be evaluated via the fast Fourier transform (FFT) in the implementation of the CG algorithm. The solution approach offers the principal advantage of having O(N) memory demand and employs a 1-D FFT versus a 2-D FFT as required with a traditional implementation of the CGFFT algorithm. The speed of the proposed solution method is compared with that of the traditional CGFFT algorithm, and results for rectangular bodies are given and shown to be in excellent agreement with the moment method.
An immersed boundary method for modeling a dirty geometry data
Onishi, Keiji; Tsubokura, Makoto
2017-11-01
We present a robust, fast, and low preparation cost immersed boundary method (IBM) for simulating an incompressible high Re flow around highly complex geometries. The method is achieved by the dispersion of the momentum by the axial linear projection and the approximate domain assumption satisfying the mass conservation around the wall including cells. This methodology has been verified against an analytical theory and wind tunnel experiment data. Next, we simulate the problem of flow around a rotating object and demonstrate the ability of this methodology to the moving geometry problem. This methodology provides the possibility as a method for obtaining a quick solution at a next large scale supercomputer. This research was supported by MEXT as ``Priority Issue on Post-K computer'' (Development of innovative design and production processes) and used computational resources of the K computer provided by the RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science.
Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hossan, Mohammad Robiul; Dillon, Robert; Dutta, Prashanta
2014-01-01
Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface–immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices
A Finite Element Method for Simulation of Compressible Cavitating Flows
Shams, Ehsan; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yu; Sahni, Onkar; Shephard, Mark; Oberai, Assad
2016-11-01
This work focuses on a novel approach for finite element simulations of multi-phase flows which involve evolving interface with phase change. Modeling problems, such as cavitation, requires addressing multiple challenges, including compressibility of the vapor phase, interface physics caused by mass, momentum and energy fluxes. We have developed a mathematically consistent and robust computational approach to address these problems. We use stabilized finite element methods on unstructured meshes to solve for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation is used to handle the interface motions. Our method uses a mesh adaptation strategy to preserve the quality of the volumetric mesh, while the interface mesh moves along with the interface. The interface jump conditions are accurately represented using a discontinuous Galerkin method on the conservation laws. Condensation and evaporation rates at the interface are thermodynamically modeled to determine the interface velocity. We will present initial results on bubble cavitation the behavior of an attached cavitation zone in a separated boundary layer. We acknowledge the support from Army Research Office (ARO) under ARO Grant W911NF-14-1-0301.
New formulation of the discrete element method
Rojek, Jerzy; Zubelewicz, Aleksander; Madan, Nikhil; Nosewicz, Szymon
2018-01-01
A new original formulation of the discrete element method based on the soft contact approach is presented in this work. The standard DEM has heen enhanced by the introduction of the additional (global) deformation mode caused by the stresses in the particles induced by the contact forces. Uniform stresses and strains are assumed for each particle. The stresses are calculated from the contact forces. The strains are obtained using an inverse constitutive relationship. The strains allow us to obtain deformed particle shapes. The deformed shapes (ellipses) are taken into account in contact detection and evaluation of the contact forces. A simple example of a uniaxial compression of a rectangular specimen, discreti.zed with equal sized particles is simulated to verify the DDEM algorithm. The numerical example shows that a particle deformation changes the particle interaction and the distribution of forces in the discrete element assembly. A quantitative study of micro-macro elastic properties proves the enhanced capabilities of the DDEM as compared to standard DEM.
Method of manufacturing nuclear fuel elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishida, Masao; Oguma, Masaomi.
1980-01-01
Purpose: To effectively prevent the bending of nuclear fuel elements in the reactor by grinding the end faces of pellets due to their mutual sliding. Method: In the manufacturing process of nuclear fuel elements, a plurality of pellets whose sides have been polished are fed one by one by way of a feeding mechanism through the central aperture in an electric motor into movable arms and retained horizontally with the central axis by being held on the side. Then, the pellet held by one of the arms is urged to another pellet held by the other of the arms by way of a pressing mechanism and the mating end faces of both of the pellets are polished by mutual sliding. Thereafter, the grinding dusts resulted are eliminated by drawing pressurized air and then the pellets are enforced into a cladding tube. Thus, the pellets are charged into the cladding tube with both polished end faces being contacted to each other, whereby the axial force is uniformly transmitted within the end faces to prevent the bending of the cladding tube. (Kawakami, Y.)
A finite element modeling method for predicting long term corrosion rates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, J.W.; Chan, S.
1984-01-01
For the analyses of galvanic corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion, which have been identified as possible corrosion processes for nuclear waste isolation, a finite element method has been developed for the prediction of corrosion rates. The method uses a finite element mesh to model the corrosive environment and the polarization curves of metals are assigned as the boundary conditions to calculate the corrosion cell current distribution. A subroutine is used to calculate the chemical change with time in the crevice or the pit environments. In this paper, the finite element method is described along with experimental confirmation
Altman, Michael D.; Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; White, Jacob K.; Tidor, Bruce
2009-01-01
We present a boundary-element method (BEM) implementation for accurately solving problems in biomolecular electrostatics using the linearized Poisson–Boltzmann equation. Motivating this implementation is the desire to create a solver capable of precisely describing the geometries and topologies prevalent in continuum models of biological molecules. This implementation is enabled by the synthesis of four technologies developed or implemented specifically for this work. First, molecular and accessible surfaces used to describe dielectric and ion-exclusion boundaries were discretized with curved boundary elements that faithfully reproduce molecular geometries. Second, we avoided explicitly forming the dense BEM matrices and instead solved the linear systems with a preconditioned iterative method (GMRES), using a matrix compression algorithm (FFTSVD) to accelerate matrix-vector multiplication. Third, robust numerical integration methods were employed to accurately evaluate singular and near-singular integrals over the curved boundary elements. Finally, we present a general boundary-integral approach capable of modeling an arbitrary number of embedded homogeneous dielectric regions with differing dielectric constants, possible salt treatment, and point charges. A comparison of the presented BEM implementation and standard finite-difference techniques demonstrates that for certain classes of electrostatic calculations, such as determining absolute electrostatic solvation and rigid-binding free energies, the improved convergence properties of the BEM approach can have a significant impact on computed energetics. We also demonstrate that the improved accuracy offered by the curved-element BEM is important when more sophisticated techniques, such as non-rigid-binding models, are used to compute the relative electrostatic effects of molecular modifications. In addition, we show that electrostatic calculations requiring multiple solves using the same molecular geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nahed S. Hussein
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical boundary integral scheme is proposed for the solution to the system of eld equations of plane. The stresses are prescribed on one-half of the circle, while the displacements are given. The considered problem with mixed boundary conditions in the circle is replaced by two problems with homogeneous boundary conditions, one of each type, having a common solution. The equations are reduced to a system of boundary integral equations, which is then discretized in the usual way, and the problem at this stage is reduced to the solution to a rectangular linear system of algebraic equations. The unknowns in this system of equations are the boundary values of four harmonic functions which define the full elastic solution and the unknown boundary values of stresses or displacements on proper parts of the boundary. On the basis of the obtained results, it is inferred that a stress component has a singularity at each of the two separation points, thought to be of logarithmic type. The results are discussed and boundary plots are given. We have also calculated the unknown functions in the bulk directly from the given boundary conditions using the boundary collocation method. The obtained results in the bulk are discussed and three-dimensional plots are given. A tentative form for the singular solution is proposed and the corresponding singular stresses and displacements are plotted in the bulk. The form of the singular tangential stress is seen to be compatible with the boundary values obtained earlier. The efficiency of the used numerical schemes is discussed.
Adaptive Finite Element Methods for Elliptic Problems with Discontinuous Coefficients
Bonito, Andrea; DeVore, Ronald A.; Nochetto, Ricardo H.
2013-01-01
Elliptic PDEs with discontinuous diffusion coefficients occur in application domains such as diffusions through porous media, electromagnetic field propagation on heterogeneous media, and diffusion processes on rough surfaces. The standard approach to numerically treating such problems using finite element methods is to assume that the discontinuities lie on the boundaries of the cells in the initial triangulation. However, this does not match applications where discontinuities occur on curves, surfaces, or manifolds, and could even be unknown beforehand. One of the obstacles to treating such discontinuity problems is that the usual perturbation theory for elliptic PDEs assumes bounds for the distortion of the coefficients in the L∞ norm and this in turn requires that the discontinuities are matched exactly when the coefficients are approximated. We present a new approach based on distortion of the coefficients in an Lq norm with q < ∞ which therefore does not require the exact matching of the discontinuities. We then use this new distortion theory to formulate new adaptive finite element methods (AFEMs) for such discontinuity problems. We show that such AFEMs are optimal in the sense of distortion versus number of computations, and report insightful numerical results supporting our analysis. © 2013 Societ y for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Heat Conduction Analysis Using Semi Analytical Finite Element Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wargadipura, A. H. S.
1997-01-01
Heat conduction problems are very often found in science and engineering fields. It is of accrual importance to determine quantitative descriptions of this important physical phenomena. This paper discusses the development and application of a numerical formulation and computation that can be used to analyze heat conduction problems. The mathematical equation which governs the physical behaviour of heat conduction is in the form of second order partial differential equations. The numerical resolution used in this paper is performed using the finite element method and Fourier series, which is known as semi-analytical finite element methods. The numerical solution results in simultaneous algebraic equations which is solved using the Gauss elimination methodology. The computer implementation is carried out using FORTRAN language. In the final part of the paper, a heat conduction problem in a rectangular plate domain with isothermal boundary conditions in its edge is solved to show the application of the computer program developed and also a comparison with analytical solution is discussed to assess the accuracy of the numerical solution obtained
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier A. Dottori
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A method for modeling outflow boundary conditions in the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM based on the maximization of the local entropy is presented. The maximization procedure is constrained by macroscopic values and downstream components. The method is applied to fully developed boundary conditions of the Navier-Stokes equations in rectangular channels. Comparisons are made with other alternative methods. In addition, the new downstream-conditioned entropy is studied and it was found that there is a correlation with the velocity gradient during the flow development.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neki, I.; Tada, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-12-31
This paper reports a method to develop a new finite element by source (FES) for a two-dimensional plane problem and a three-dimensional solid problem as a method to analyze ship body structures. The paper describes development of a plate bending element by using a similar method, and the fundamental principle thereof. The present method can prepare a finite element of an arbitrary shape by simply providing a contact point only on a boundary. It can also derive good calculation accuracy with less number of contact points and elements. These facts are shown by examples of analyses on a square plate, a triangle plate and a semi-circular plate. Particularly, since a plate bending problem has a large order of differential calculus in a governing equation, this method being a semi-analytical method derives a result with very good accuracy even with less number of contact points. A hypothetical boundary method or a hypothetical electric charge method presents not a very high accuracy even if a large number of contact points are provided. This is because the method hypothesizes only a bending moment vertical to the boundary, but does not consider a source of the moment relative to the boundary. In contrast, the present method hypothesizes both of bending and twisting as the sources, hence its accuracy is better than with the above two methods. 5 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neki, I; Tada, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1997-12-31
This paper reports a method to develop a new finite element by source (FES) for a two-dimensional plane problem and a three-dimensional solid problem as a method to analyze ship body structures. The paper describes development of a plate bending element by using a similar method, and the fundamental principle thereof. The present method can prepare a finite element of an arbitrary shape by simply providing a contact point only on a boundary. It can also derive good calculation accuracy with less number of contact points and elements. These facts are shown by examples of analyses on a square plate, a triangle plate and a semi-circular plate. Particularly, since a plate bending problem has a large order of differential calculus in a governing equation, this method being a semi-analytical method derives a result with very good accuracy even with less number of contact points. A hypothetical boundary method or a hypothetical electric charge method presents not a very high accuracy even if a large number of contact points are provided. This is because the method hypothesizes only a bending moment vertical to the boundary, but does not consider a source of the moment relative to the boundary. In contrast, the present method hypothesizes both of bending and twisting as the sources, hence its accuracy is better than with the above two methods. 5 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.
Five-point Element Scheme of Finite Analytic Method for Unsteady Groundwater Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiang Bo; Mi Xiao; Ji Changming; Luo Qingsong
2007-01-01
In order to improve the finite analytic method's adaptability for irregular unit, by using coordinates rotation technique this paper establishes a five-point element scheme of finite analytic method. It not only solves unsteady groundwater flow equation but also gives the boundary condition. This method can be used to calculate the three typical questions of groundwater. By compared with predecessor's computed result, the result of this method is more satisfactory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karlsson, L.; Norden, H.
1988-01-01
The distribution of elements and the precipitation behaviour at grain boundaries have been studied in boron containing AISI 316L and ''Mo-free AISI 316L'' type austenitic stainless steels. A combination of microanalytical techniques was used to study the boundary regions after cooling at 0.29-530 0 C/s from 800, 1075 or 1250 0 C. Tetragonal M/sub 2/B, M/sub 5/B/sub 3/ and M/sub 3/B/sub 2/, all rich in Fe, Cr and Mo, precipitated in the ''high B'' (40 ppm) AISI 316L steel whereas orthorhombic M/sub 2/B, rich in Cr and Fe was found in the ''Mo-free steel'' with 23 ppm B. In the ''high B steel'' a thin (<2nm), continuous layer, containing B, Cr, Mo and Fe and having a stoichiometry of typically M/sub 9/B, formed at boundaries after cooling at intermediate cooling rates. For both types of steels a boundary zone was found, after all heat treatments, with a composition differing significantly from the bulk composition. The differences were most marked after cooling at intermediate cooling rates. In both types of steel boundary depletion of Cr and enrichment of B and C occurred. It was found that non-equilibrium grain boundary segregation of boron can affect the precipitation behaviour by making the boundary composition enter a new phase field ''Non-equilibrium phases'' might also form. The synergistic effect of B and Mo on the boundary composition and precipitation behaviour, and the observed indications of C non-equilibrium segregation are discussed
Nuclear analytical methods for platinum group elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-04-01
Platinum group elements (PGE) are of special interest for analytical research due to their economic importance like chemical peculiarities as catalysts, medical applications as anticancer drugs, and possible environmental detrimental impact as exhaust from automobile catalyzers. Natural levels of PGE are so low in concentration that most of the current analytical techniques approach their limit of detection capacity. In addition, Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt analyses still constitute a challenge in accuracy and precision of quantification in natural matrices. Nuclear analytical techniques, such as neutron activation analysis, X ray fluorescence, or proton-induced X ray emission (PIXE), which are generally considered as reference methods for many analytical problems, are useful as well. However, due to methodological restrictions, they can, in most cases, only be applied after pre-concentration and under special irradiation conditions. This report was prepared following a coordinated research project and a consultants meeting addressing the subject from different viewpoints. The experts involved suggested to discuss the issue according to the (1) application, hence, the concentration levels encountered, and (2) method applied for analysis. Each of the different fields of application needs special consideration for sample preparation, PGE pre-concentration, and determination. Additionally, each analytical method requires special attention regarding the sensitivity and sample type. Quality assurance/quality control aspects are considered towards the end of the report. It is intended to provide the reader of this publication with state-of-the-art information on the various aspects of PGE analysis and to advise which technique might be most suitable for a particular analytical problem related to platinum group elements. In particular, many case studies described in detail from the authors' laboratory experience might help to decide which way to go. As in many cases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Corato, M., E-mail: marco.decorato@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Slot, J.J.M., E-mail: j.j.m.slot@tue.nl [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hütter, M., E-mail: m.huetter@tue.nl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); D' Avino, G., E-mail: gadavino@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Maffettone, P.L., E-mail: pierluca.maffettone@unina.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Hulsen, M.A., E-mail: m.a.hulsen@tue.nl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2016-07-01
In this paper, we present a finite element implementation of fluctuating hydrodynamics with a moving boundary fitted mesh for treating the suspended particles. The thermal fluctuations are incorporated into the continuum equations using the Landau and Lifshitz approach [1]. The proposed implementation fulfills the fluctuation–dissipation theorem exactly at the discrete level. Since we restrict the equations to the creeping flow case, this takes the form of a relation between the diffusion coefficient matrix and friction matrix both at the particle and nodal level of the finite elements. Brownian motion of arbitrarily shaped particles in complex confinements can be considered within the present formulation. A multi-step time integration scheme is developed to correctly capture the drift term required in the stochastic differential equation (SDE) describing the evolution of the positions of the particles. The proposed approach is validated by simulating the Brownian motion of a sphere between two parallel plates and the motion of a spherical particle in a cylindrical cavity. The time integration algorithm and the fluctuating hydrodynamics implementation are then applied to study the diffusion and the equilibrium probability distribution of a confined circle under an external harmonic potential.
Conference on Boundary and Interior Layers : Computational and Asymptotic Methods
Stynes, Martin; Zhang, Zhimin
2017-01-01
This volume collects papers associated with lectures that were presented at the BAIL 2016 conference, which was held from 14 to 19 August 2016 at Beijing Computational Science Research Center and Tsinghua University in Beijing, China. It showcases the variety and quality of current research into numerical and asymptotic methods for theoretical and practical problems whose solutions involve layer phenomena. The BAIL (Boundary And Interior Layers) conferences, held usually in even-numbered years, bring together mathematicians and engineers/physicists whose research involves layer phenomena, with the aim of promoting interaction between these often-separate disciplines. These layers appear as solutions of singularly perturbed differential equations of various types, and are common in physical problems, most notably in fluid dynamics. This book is of interest for current researchers from mathematics, engineering and physics whose work involves the accurate app roximation of solutions of singularly perturbed diffe...
A Nash-Hörmander iteration and boundary elements for the Molodensky problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Costea, Adrian; Gimperlein, Heiko; Stephan, Ernst P.
2014-01-01
evaluation of the Hessian of the gravitational potential on the surface, using a representation in terms of a hypersingular integral.Aboundary element method is used to solve the exterior problem. Numerical results compare the error between the approximation and the exact solution in a model problem....
Application of finite-element-methods in food processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Risum, Jørgen
2004-01-01
Presentation of the possible use of finite-element-methods in food processing. Examples from diffusion studies are given.......Presentation of the possible use of finite-element-methods in food processing. Examples from diffusion studies are given....
Method of measuring distance between fuel element
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urata, Megumu.
1991-01-01
The distance between fuel elements contained in a pool is measured in a contactless manner even for a narrow distance less than 1 mm. That is, the equipment for measuring the distance between spent fuel elements of a spent fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor comprises a optical fiber scope, a lens, an industrial TV camera and a monitor TV. The top end of the optical fiber scope is inserted between fuel elements to be measured. The state thereof is displayed on the TV screen to measure the distance between the fuel elements. The measured results are compared with a previously formed calibration curve to determine the value between the fuel elements. Then, the distance between the fuel elements can be determined in the pool of a power plant without dismantling the fuel assembly, to investigate the state of the bending and estimate the fuel working life. (I.S.)
Hybrid Finite Element and Volume Integral Methods for Scattering Using Parametric Geometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Volakis, John L.; Sertel, Kubilay; Jørgensen, Erik
2004-01-01
n this paper we address several topics relating to the development and implementation of volume integral and hybrid finite element methods for electromagnetic modeling. Comparisons of volume integral equation formulations with the finite element-boundary integral method are given in terms of accu...... of vanishing divergence within the element but non-zero curl. In addition, a new domain decomposition is introduced for solving array problems involving several million degrees of freedom. Three orders of magnitude CPU reduction is demonstrated for such applications....
Influence of precipitating light elements on stable stratification below the core/mantle boundary
O'Rourke, J. G.; Stevenson, D. J.
2017-12-01
Stable stratification below the core/mantle boundary is often invoked to explain anomalously low seismic velocities in this region. Diffusion of light elements like oxygen or, more slowly, silicon could create a stabilizing chemical gradient in the outermost core. Heat flow less than that conducted along the adiabatic gradient may also produce thermal stratification. However, reconciling either origin with the apparent longevity (>3.45 billion years) of Earth's magnetic field remains difficult. Sub-isentropic heat flow would not drive a dynamo by thermal convection before the nucleation of the inner core, which likely occurred less than one billion years ago and did not instantly change the heat flow. Moreover, an oxygen-enriched layer below the core/mantle boundary—the source of thermal buoyancy—could establish double-diffusive convection where motion in the bulk fluid is suppressed below a slowly advancing interface. Here we present new models that explain both stable stratification and a long-lived dynamo by considering ongoing precipitation of magnesium oxide and/or silicon dioxide from the core. Lithophile elements may partition into iron alloys under extreme pressure and temperature during Earth's formation, especially after giant impacts. Modest core/mantle heat flow then drives compositional convection—regardless of thermal conductivity—since their solubility is strongly temperature-dependent. Our models begin with bulk abundances for the mantle and core determined by the redox conditions during accretion. We then track equilibration between the core and a primordial basal magma ocean followed by downward diffusion of light elements. Precipitation begins at a depth that is most sensitive to temperature and oxygen abundance and then creates feedbacks with the radial thermal and chemical profiles. Successful models feature a stable layer with low seismic velocity (which mandates multi-component evolution since a single light element typically
Min, J. B.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Bakhle, M. A.; Coroneos, R. M.; Stefko, G. L.; Provenza, A. J.; Duffy, K. P.
2018-01-01
Accurate prediction of the blade vibration stress is required to determine overall durability of fan blade design under Boundary Layer Ingestion (BLI) distorted flow environments. Traditional single blade modeling technique is incapable of representing accurate modeling for the entire rotor blade system subject to complex dynamic loading behaviors and vibrations in distorted flow conditions. A particular objective of our work was to develop a high-fidelity full-rotor aeromechanics analysis capability for a system subjected to a distorted inlet flow by applying cyclic symmetry finite element modeling methodology. This reduction modeling method allows computationally very efficient analysis using a small periodic section of the full rotor blade system. Experimental testing by the use of the 8-foot by 6-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel Test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center was also carried out for the system designated as the Boundary Layer Ingesting Inlet/Distortion-Tolerant Fan (BLI2DTF) technology development. The results obtained from the present numerical modeling technique were evaluated with those of the wind tunnel experimental test, toward establishing a computationally efficient aeromechanics analysis modeling tool facilitating for analyses of the full rotor blade systems subjected to a distorted inlet flow conditions. Fairly good correlations were achieved hence our computational modeling techniques were fully demonstrated. The analysis result showed that the safety margin requirement set in the BLI2DTF fan blade design provided a sufficient margin with respect to the operating speed range.
An Adaptive Pseudospectral Method for Fractional Order Boundary Value Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Maleki
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An adaptive pseudospectral method is presented for solving a class of multiterm fractional boundary value problems (FBVP which involve Caputo-type fractional derivatives. The multiterm FBVP is first converted into a singular Volterra integrodifferential equation (SVIDE. By dividing the interval of the problem to subintervals, the unknown function is approximated using a piecewise interpolation polynomial with unknown coefficients which is based on shifted Legendre-Gauss (ShLG collocation points. Then the problem is reduced to a system of algebraic equations, thus greatly simplifying the problem. Further, some additional conditions are considered to maintain the continuity of the approximate solution and its derivatives at the interface of subintervals. In order to convert the singular integrals of SVIDE into nonsingular ones, integration by parts is utilized. In the method developed in this paper, the accuracy can be improved either by increasing the number of subintervals or by increasing the degree of the polynomial on each subinterval. Using several examples including Bagley-Torvik equation the proposed method is shown to be efficient and accurate.
hp Spectral element methods for three dimensional elliptic problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
elliptic boundary value problems on non-smooth domains in R3. For Dirichlet problems, ... of variable degree bounded by W. Let N denote the number of layers in the geomet- ric mesh ... We prove a stability theorem for mixed problems when the spectral element functions vanish ..... Applying Theorem 3.1,. ∫ r l. |Mu|2dx −.
Simultaneous heat and moisture transfer in porous elements: transfer function method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, H.A. de.
1985-01-01
The presence of moisture in a porous element may strongly affect the transfer of heat through this element due to the processes which occur associated with the phase changes at the boundary surfaces and internally in the wall body. In addition, the structural properties of the element may also be meaningfully affected. The formulation of mathematical models for the simultaneous heat and mass transfer in porous elements results in a pair of nonlinear coupled equations for the temperature and moisture content distributions, in the material. It is supposed, in this work, that the actual variation of the properties of the porous medium is small in the range of variables which describe the specific problem to be analyzed. This enables us to work with linearized equations, making possible the use of linear solution methods. In this context, the present work deals with a linear procedure for the solution of simultaneous heat and moisture transfer problems in porous elements, sujected to arbitrary boundary conditions. This results in a linear relation between the heat and mass flux densities through the boundary surfaces of the elements and their associated potentials. It is shown that the model is consistent in asymptotical limiting cases; the model is then used for analyzing the drying process of a porous element, subjected to ambient actual conditions. (Author) [pt
Boundary integral equation methods and numerical solutions thin plates on an elastic foundation
Constanda, Christian; Hamill, William
2016-01-01
This book presents and explains a general, efficient, and elegant method for solving the Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary value problems for the extensional deformation of a thin plate on an elastic foundation. The solutions of these problems are obtained both analytically—by means of direct and indirect boundary integral equation methods (BIEMs)—and numerically, through the application of a boundary element technique. The text discusses the methodology for constructing a BIEM, deriving all the attending mathematical properties with full rigor. The model investigated in the book can serve as a template for the study of any linear elliptic two-dimensional problem with constant coefficients. The representation of the solution in terms of single-layer and double-layer potentials is pivotal in the development of a BIEM, which, in turn, forms the basis for the second part of the book, where approximate solutions are computed with a high degree of accuracy. The book is intended for graduate students and r...
Over, D J; Conaway, C A; Katz, D J; Goodfellow, W D; Gregoire, D C
1997-08-01
The Frasnian-Famennian boundary is recognized as the culmination of a global mass extinction in the Late Devonian. In western New York State the boundary is a distinct horizon within a pyritic black shale bed of the upper Hanover Shale defined by the first occurrence of Palmatolepis triangularis in the absence of Frasnian conodonts. The boundary is characterized by a minor disconformity marked by a lag concentration of conodonts. Iridium at the boundary is 0.11-0.24 ng/g, two to five times background levels of <0.05 ng/g; other Ir enrichments of 0.38 ng/g and 0.49 ng/g occur within 50 cm of the conodont-constrained boundary. Numerous Ir enrichments in the boundary interval suggest extraterrestrial accretion and platinum group element (PGE) concentration at disconformities, or mobilization and concentration in organic-rich/pyritic-rich laminations from cosmic or terrestrial sources. PGE ratios of Pt/Pd and Ku/Ir at the boundary horizon approximate chondritic ratios and are suggestive of an unaltered extraterrestrial source. These values do not conclusively establish a single extraterrestrial impact as the ultimate cause of the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction, especially given the presence of similar Ir enrichments elsewhere in the section and the absence at the boundary of microtektites and shocked mineral grains.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Li
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An extended finite element method (XFEM for the forward model of 3D optical molecular imaging is developed with simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SPN. In XFEM scheme of SPN equations, the signed distance function is employed to accurately represent the internal tissue boundary, and then it is used to construct the enriched basis function of the finite element scheme. Therefore, the finite element calculation can be carried out without the time-consuming internal boundary mesh generation. Moreover, the required overly fine mesh conforming to the complex tissue boundary which leads to excess time cost can be avoided. XFEM conveniences its application to tissues with complex internal structure and improves the computational efficiency. Phantom and digital mouse experiments were carried out to validate the efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with standard finite element method and classical Monte Carlo (MC method, the validation results show the merits and potential of the XFEM for optical imaging.
Ghannam, Khaled
The atmospheric boundary-layer is the lowest 500-2000 m of the Earth's atmosphere where much of human life and ecosystem services reside. This layer responds to land surface (e.g. buoyancy and roughness elements) and slowly evolving free tropospheric (e.g. temperature and humidity lapse rates) conditions that arguably mediate and modulate biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Such response often results in spatially- and temporally-rich turbulence scales that continue to be the subject of inquiry given their significance to a plethora of applications in environmental sciences and engineering. The work here addresses key aspects of boundary layer turbulence with a focus on the role of roughness elements (vegetation canopies) and buoyancy (surface heating) in modifying the well-studied picture of shear-dominated wall-bounded turbulence. A combination of laboratory channel experiments, field experiments, and numerical simulations are used to explore three distinct aspects of boundary layer turbulence. These are: • The concept of ergodicity in turbulence statistics within canopies: It has been long-recognized that homogeneous and stationary turbulence is ergodic, but less is known about the effects of inhomogeneity introduced by the presence of canopies on the turbulence statistics. A high resolution (temporal and spatial) flume experiment is used here to test the convergence of the time statistics of turbulent scalar concentrations to their ensemble (spatio-temporal) counterpart. The findings indicate that within-canopy scalar statistics have a tendency to be ergodic, mostly in shallow layers (close to canopy top) where the sweeping flow events appear to randomize the statistics. Deeper layers within the canopy are dominated by low-dimensional (quasi-deterministic) von Karman vortices that tend to break ergodicity. • Scaling laws of turbulent velocity spectra and structure functions in near-surface atmospheric turbulence: the existence of a logarithmic scaling in the
An immersed-boundary method for conjugate heat transfer analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Jeong Chul; Lee, Joon Sik [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Joon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-05-15
An immersed-boundary method is proposed for the analysis of conjugate problems of convective heat transfer in conducting solids. In- side the solid body, momentum forcing is applied to set the velocity to zero. A thermal conductivity ratio and a heat capacity ratio, between the solid body and the fluid, are introduced so that the energy equation is reduced to the heat diffusion equation. At the solid fluid interface, an effective conductivity is introduced to satisfy the heat flux continuity. The effective thermal conductivity is obtained by considering the heat balance at the interface or by using a harmonic mean formulation. The method is first validated against the analytic solution to the heat transfer problem in a fully developed laminar channel flow with conducting solid walls. Then it is applied to a laminar channel flow with a heated, block-shaped obstacle to show its validity for geometry with sharp edges. Finally the validation for a curvilinear solid body is accomplished with a laminar flow through arrayed cylinders.
Generalized multiscale finite element methods (GMsFEM)
Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Galvis, Juan; Hou, Thomasyizhao
2013-01-01
In this paper, we propose a general approach called Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) for performing multiscale simulations for problems without scale separation over a complex input space. As in multiscale finite element methods (MsFEMs), the main idea of the proposed approach is to construct a small dimensional local solution space that can be used to generate an efficient and accurate approximation to the multiscale solution with a potentially high dimensional input parameter space. In the proposed approach, we present a general procedure to construct the offline space that is used for a systematic enrichment of the coarse solution space in the online stage. The enrichment in the online stage is performed based on a spectral decomposition of the offline space. In the online stage, for any input parameter, a multiscale space is constructed to solve the global problem on a coarse grid. The online space is constructed via a spectral decomposition of the offline space and by choosing the eigenvectors corresponding to the largest eigenvalues. The computational saving is due to the fact that the construction of the online multiscale space for any input parameter is fast and this space can be re-used for solving the forward problem with any forcing and boundary condition. Compared with the other approaches where global snapshots are used, the local approach that we present in this paper allows us to eliminate unnecessary degrees of freedom on a coarse-grid level. We present various examples in the paper and some numerical results to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Generalized multiscale finite element methods (GMsFEM)
Efendiev, Yalchin R.
2013-10-01
In this paper, we propose a general approach called Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) for performing multiscale simulations for problems without scale separation over a complex input space. As in multiscale finite element methods (MsFEMs), the main idea of the proposed approach is to construct a small dimensional local solution space that can be used to generate an efficient and accurate approximation to the multiscale solution with a potentially high dimensional input parameter space. In the proposed approach, we present a general procedure to construct the offline space that is used for a systematic enrichment of the coarse solution space in the online stage. The enrichment in the online stage is performed based on a spectral decomposition of the offline space. In the online stage, for any input parameter, a multiscale space is constructed to solve the global problem on a coarse grid. The online space is constructed via a spectral decomposition of the offline space and by choosing the eigenvectors corresponding to the largest eigenvalues. The computational saving is due to the fact that the construction of the online multiscale space for any input parameter is fast and this space can be re-used for solving the forward problem with any forcing and boundary condition. Compared with the other approaches where global snapshots are used, the local approach that we present in this paper allows us to eliminate unnecessary degrees of freedom on a coarse-grid level. We present various examples in the paper and some numerical results to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller
2013-01-01
are solved using extended boundary conditions that account for: i) negligible temperature fluctuations at the boundary, and ii) normal and tangential matching of the boundary’s particle velocity. The proposed model does not require constructing a special mesh for the viscous and thermal boundary layers...
Allison, Stuart A; Xin, Yao
2005-08-15
A boundary element (BE) procedure is developed to numerically calculate the electrophoretic mobility of highly charged, rigid model macroions in the thin double layer regime based on the continuum primitive model. The procedure is based on that of O'Brien (R.W. O'Brien, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 92 (1983) 204). The advantage of the present procedure over existing BE methodologies that are applicable to rigid model macroions in general (S. Allison, Macromolecules 29 (1996) 7391) is that computationally time consuming integrations over a large number of volume elements that surround the model particle are completely avoided. The procedure is tested by comparing the mobilities derived from it with independent theory of the mobility of spheres of radius a in a salt solution with Debye-Huckel screening parameter, kappa. The procedure is shown to yield accurate mobilities provided (kappa)a exceeds approximately 50. The methodology is most relevant to model macroions of mean linear dimension, L, with 1000>(kappa)L>100 and reduced absolute zeta potential (q|zeta|/k(B)T) greater than 1.0. The procedure is then applied to the compact form of high molecular weight, duplex DNA that is formed in the presence of the trivalent counterion, spermidine, under low salt conditions. For T4 DNA (166,000 base pairs), the compact form is modeled as a sphere (diameter=600 nm) and as a toroid (largest linear dimension=600 nm). In order to reconcile experimental and model mobilities, approximately 95% of the DNA phosphates must be neutralized by bound counterions. This interpretation, based on electrokinetics, is consistent with independent studies.
The finite element method in engineering, 2nd edition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, S.S.
1986-01-01
This work provides a systematic introduction to the various aspects of the finite element method as applied to engineering problems. Contents include: introduction to finite element method; solution of finite element equations; solid and structural mechanics; static analysis; dynamic analysis; heat transfer; fluid mechanics and additional applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuan Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents two-level iteration penalty finite element methods to approximate the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with friction boundary conditions. The basic idea is to solve the Navier-Stokes type variational inequality problem on a coarse mesh with mesh size H in combining with solving a Stokes, Oseen, or linearized Navier-Stokes type variational inequality problem for Stokes, Oseen, or Newton iteration on a fine mesh with mesh size h. The error estimate obtained in this paper shows that if H, h, and ε can be chosen appropriately, then these two-level iteration penalty methods are of the same convergence orders as the usual one-level iteration penalty method.
Analysis of a discrete element method and coupling with a compressible fluid flow method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monasse, L.
2011-01-01
This work aims at the numerical simulation of compressible fluid/deformable structure interactions. In particular, we have developed a partitioned coupling algorithm between a Finite Volume method for the compressible fluid and a Discrete Element method capable of taking into account fractures in the solid. A survey of existing fictitious domain methods and partitioned algorithms has led to choose an Embedded Boundary method and an explicit coupling scheme. We first showed that the Discrete Element method used for the solid yielded the correct macroscopic behaviour and that the symplectic time-integration scheme ensured the preservation of energy. We then developed an explicit coupling algorithm between a compressible inviscid fluid and an un-deformable solid. Mass, momentum and energy conservation and consistency properties were proved for the coupling scheme. The algorithm was then extended to the coupling with a deformable solid, in the form of a semi implicit scheme. Finally, we applied this method to unsteady inviscid flows around moving structures: comparisons with existing numerical and experimental results demonstrate the excellent accuracy of our method. (author) [fr
Segregation of solute elements at grain boundaries in an ultrafine grained Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sha, Gang; Yao, Lan; Liao, Xiaozhou; Ringer, Simon P.; Chao Duan, Zhi; Langdon, Terence G.
2011-01-01
The solute segregation at grain boundaries (GBs) of an ultrafine grained (UFG) Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 200 o C was characterised using three-dimensional atom probe. Mg and Cu segregate strongly to the grain boundaries. In contrast, Zn does not always show clear segregation and may even show depletion near the grain boundaries. Trace element Si selectively segregates at some GBs. An increase in the number of ECAP passes leads to a decrease in the grain size but an increase in solute segregation at the boundaries. The significant segregation of alloying elements at the boundaries of ultrafine-grained alloys implies that less solutes will be available in the matrix for precipitation with a decrease in the average grain size. -- Research Highlights: → Atom probe tomography has been employed successfully to reveal unique segregation of solutes at ultrafine grained material. → Mg and Cu elements segregated strongly at the grain boundary of an ultrafine grained Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy processed by 4-pass and 8-pass ECAP at 200 o C. Zn frequently depleted at GBs with a Zn depletion region of 7-15 nm in width on one or both sides of the GBs. Only a small fraction (3/13) of GBs were observed with a low level of Zn segregation where the combined Mg and Cu excess is over 3.1 atom/nm 2 . Si appeared selectively segregated at some of the GBs. → The increase in number of ECAP passes from 4 to 8 correlated with the increase in mean level segregation of Mg and Cu for both solute excess and peak concentration. → The change of plane normal of a grain boundary within 30 o only leads to a slight change in the solute segregation level.
Method for inspecting nuclear reactor fuel elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jabsen, F.S.
1979-01-01
A technique for disassembling a nuclear reactor fuel element without destroying the individual fuel pins and other structural components from which the element is assembled is described. A traveling bridge and trolley span a water-filled spent fuel storage pool and support a strongback. The strongback is under water and provides a working surface on which the spent fuel element is placed for inspection and for the manipulation that is associated with disassembly and assembly. To remove, in a non-destructive manner, the grids that hold the fuel pins in the proper relative positions within the element, bars are inserted through apertures in the grids with the aid of special tools. These bars are rotated to flex the adjacent grid walls and, in this way relax the physical engagement between protruding portions of the grid walls and the associated fuel pins. With the grid structure so flexed to relax the physical grip on the individual fuel pins, these pins can be withdrawn for inspection or replacement as necessary without imposing a need to destroy fuel element components
Boundary integral method for torsion of composite shafts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, S.I.; Mohr, J.A.
1987-01-01
The Saint-Venant torsion problem for homogeneous shafts with simply or multiply-connected regions has received a great deal of attention in the past. However, because of the mathematical difficulties inherent in the problem, very few problems of torsion of shafts with composite cross sections have been solved analytically. Muskhelishvili (1963) studied the torsion problem for shafts with cross sections having several solid inclusions surrounded by an elastic material. The problem of a circular shaft reinforced by a non-concentric round inclusion, a rectangular shaft composed of two rectangular parts made of different materials were solved. In this paper, a boundary integral equation method, which can be used to solve problems more complex than those considered by Katsikadelis et. al., is developed. Square shaft with two dissimilar rectangular parts, square shaft with a square inclusion are solved and the results compared with those given in the reference cited above. Finally, a square shaft composed of two rectangular parts with circular inclusion is solved. (orig./GL)
A multiscale mortar multipoint flux mixed finite element method
Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Xue, Guangri; Yotov, Ivan
2012-01-01
In this paper, we develop a multiscale mortar multipoint flux mixed finite element method for second order elliptic problems. The equations in the coarse elements (or subdomains) are discretized on a fine grid scale by a multipoint flux mixed finite
Zhang, Shuhai; Oskay, Caglar
2015-04-01
This manuscript presents the formulation and implementation of the variational multiscale enrichment (VME) method for the analysis of elasto-viscoplastic problems. VME is a global-local approach that allows accurate fine scale representation at small subdomains, where important physical phenomena are likely to occur. The response within far-fields is idealized using a coarse scale representation. The fine scale representation not only approximates the coarse grid residual, but also accounts for the material heterogeneity. A one-parameter family of mixed boundary conditions that range from Dirichlet to Neumann is employed to study the effect of the choice of the boundary conditions at the fine scale on accuracy. The inelastic material behavior is modeled using Perzyna type viscoplasticity coupled with flow stress evolution idealized by the Johnson-Cook model. Numerical verifications are performed to assess the performance of the proposed approach against the direct finite element simulations. The results of verification studies demonstrate that VME with proper boundary conditions accurately model the inelastic response accounting for material heterogeneity.
Lundquist, Katherine Ann
Mesoscale models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are increasingly used for high resolution simulations, particularly in complex terrain, but errors associated with terrain-following coordinates degrade the accuracy of the solution. Use of an alternative Cartesian gridding technique, known as an immersed boundary method (IBM), alleviates coordinate transformation errors and eliminates restrictions on terrain slope which currently limit mesoscale models to slowly varying terrain. In this dissertation, an immersed boundary method is developed for use in numerical weather prediction. Use of the method facilitates explicit resolution of complex terrain, even urban terrain, in the WRF mesoscale model. First, the errors that arise in the WRF model when complex terrain is present are presented. This is accomplished using a scalar advection test case, and comparing the numerical solution to the analytical solution. Results are presented for different orders of advection schemes, grid resolutions and aspect ratios, as well as various degrees of terrain slope. For comparison, results from the same simulation are presented using the IBM. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional immersed boundary methods are then described, along with details that are specific to the implementation of IBM in the WRF code. Our IBM is capable of imposing both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Additionally, a method for coupling atmospheric physics parameterizations at the immersed boundary is presented, making IB methods much more functional in the context of numerical weather prediction models. The two-dimensional IB method is verified through comparisons of solutions for gentle terrain slopes when using IBM and terrain-following grids. The canonical case of flow over a Witch of Agnesi hill provides validation of the basic no-slip and zero gradient boundary conditions. Specified diurnal heating in a valley, producing anabatic winds, is used to validate the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lundquist, K A [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2010-05-12
Mesoscale models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are increasingly used for high resolution simulations, particularly in complex terrain, but errors associated with terrain-following coordinates degrade the accuracy of the solution. Use of an alternative Cartesian gridding technique, known as an immersed boundary method (IBM), alleviates coordinate transformation errors and eliminates restrictions on terrain slope which currently limit mesoscale models to slowly varying terrain. In this dissertation, an immersed boundary method is developed for use in numerical weather prediction. Use of the method facilitates explicit resolution of complex terrain, even urban terrain, in the WRF mesoscale model. First, the errors that arise in the WRF model when complex terrain is present are presented. This is accomplished using a scalar advection test case, and comparing the numerical solution to the analytical solution. Results are presented for different orders of advection schemes, grid resolutions and aspect ratios, as well as various degrees of terrain slope. For comparison, results from the same simulation are presented using the IBM. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional immersed boundary methods are then described, along with details that are specific to the implementation of IBM in the WRF code. Our IBM is capable of imposing both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Additionally, a method for coupling atmospheric physics parameterizations at the immersed boundary is presented, making IB methods much more functional in the context of numerical weather prediction models. The two-dimensional IB method is verified through comparisons of solutions for gentle terrain slopes when using IBM and terrain-following grids. The canonical case of flow over a Witch of Agnesi hill provides validation of the basic no-slip and zero gradient boundary conditions. Specified diurnal heating in a valley, producing anabatic winds, is used to validate the
A finite-volume method for convection problems with embedded moving boundaries
Y.J. Hassen (Yunus); B. Koren (Barry)
2009-01-01
htmlabstractAn accurate method, using a novel immersed-boundary approach, is presented for numerically solving linear, scalar convection problems. Moving interior boundary conditions are embedded in the fixed-grid fluxes in the direct neighborhood of the moving boundaries. Tailor-made limiters are
Extended finite element method and its application in heterogeneous materials with inclusions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du Chengbin; Jiang Shouyan; Ying Zongquan
2010-01-01
To simplify the technology of finite element mesh generation for particle reinforced material, enrichment techniques is used to account for the material interfaces in the framework of extended finite element method (XFEM). The geometry of material distribution is described by level set function, which allows one to model the internal boundaries of the microstructure without the adaptation of the mesh. The enrichment function is used to improve the shape function of classical finite element method (FEM) for the nodes supporting the elements cut by the interface. The key issue of XFEM including constructing displacement pattern, establishment of the governing equation and scheme of numerical integration is also presented. It is not necessarily matching the internal features of the inclusions using XFEM, so the generation of finite element mesh can be performed easily. Finally, a plate with multi-circular inclusions under uniaxial tension is simulated by XFEM and FEM, respectively. The results show that XFEM is highly effective and efficient.
A finite difference method for free boundary problems
Fornberg, Bengt
2010-04-01
Fornberg and Meyer-Spasche proposed some time ago a simple strategy to correct finite difference schemes in the presence of a free boundary that cuts across a Cartesian grid. We show here how this procedure can be combined with a minimax-based optimization procedure to rapidly solve a wide range of elliptic-type free boundary value problems. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Subsonic flow past three-dimensional localised heating elements in boundary layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aljohani, A F [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk (Saudi Arabia); Gajjar, J S B, E-mail: j.gajjar@manchester.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)
2017-12-15
The problem of subsonic flow past three-dimensional micro-electro-mechanical-type (MEMS-type) heating elements placed on a flat surface, where the MEMS devices have hump-shaped surfaces, is investigated using the triple-deck theory. The compressible Navier–Stokes equations supplemented by the energy equation are considered in the limit when the Reynolds number is large. The dimensions of the MEMS devices considered are such that the flow perturbations are governed by the three-dimensional subsonic triple-deck equations formulated with the aid of method of matched expansions. The linear analysis of these equations is presented and our results provide an insight into how the MEMS heating elements may be used to positively control the local flow properties. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchibori, Akihiro; Ohshima, Hiroyuki
2008-01-01
A numerical analysis method for melting/solidification phenomena has been developed to evaluate a feasibility of several candidate techniques in the nuclear fuel cycle. Our method is based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) which has been used for moving boundary problems. Key technique of the X-FEM is to incorporate signed distance function into finite element interpolation to represent a discontinuous gradient of the temperature at a moving solid-liquid interface. Construction of the finite element equation, the technique of quadrature and the method to solve the equation are reported here. The numerical solutions of the one-dimensional Stefan problem, solidification in a two-dimensional square corner and melting of pure gallium are compared to the exact solutions or to the experimental data. Through these analyses, validity of the newly developed numerical analysis method has been demonstrated. (author)
Yamaguchi, Tohru F; Okamoto, Yoshiwo
2018-01-01
Abdominal fat accumulation is considered an essential indicator of human health. Electrical impedance tomography has considerable potential for abdominal fat imaging because of the low specific conductivity of human body fat. In this paper, we propose a robust reconstruction method for high-fidelity conductivity imaging by abstraction of the abdominal cross section using a relatively small number of parameters. Toward this end, we assume homogeneous conductivity in the abdominal subcutaneous fat area and characterize its geometrical shape by parameters defined as the ratio of the distance from the center to boundary of subcutaneous fat to the distance from the center to outer boundary in 64 equiangular directions. To estimate the shape parameters, the sensitivity of the noninvasively measured voltages with respect to the shape parameters is formulated for numerical optimization. Numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. A 3-dimensional finite element method is used to construct a computer model of the human abdomen. The inverse problems of shape parameters and conductivities are solved concurrently by iterative forward and inverse calculations. As a result, conductivity images are reconstructed with a small systemic error of less than 1% for the estimation of the subcutaneous fat area. A novel method is devised for estimating the boundary of the abdominal subcutaneous fat. The fidelity of the overall reconstructed image to the reference image is significantly improved. The results demonstrate the possibility of realization of an abdominal fat scanner as a low-cost, radiation-free medical device. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulich, N.V.; Nemtsev, V.A.
1986-01-01
The analytical solution to the problem on the stationary temperature field in an infinite structural element of rectangular profile characteristic of the conjugation points of a vessel and a tube sheet of a heat exchanger (or of a finned surface) at the third-kind boundary conditions has been obtained by the methods of the complex variable function theory. With the help of the obtained analytical dependences the calculations of the given element of the design and the comparison with the known data have been conducted. The proposed analytical solution can be effectively used in calculations of temperature fields in finned surfaces and structural elements of the power equipment of the considered profile and the method is applied for solution of the like problems
Numerical solution of multi group-Two dimensional- Adjoint equation with finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poursalehi, N.; Khalafi, H.; Shahriari, M.; Minoochehr
2008-01-01
Adjoint equation is used for perturbation theory in nuclear reactor design. For numerical solution of adjoint equation, usually two methods are applied. These are Finite Element and Finite Difference procedures. Usually Finite Element Procedure is chosen for solving of adjoint equation, because it is more use able in variety of geometries. In this article, Galerkin Finite Element method is discussed. This method is applied for numerical solving multi group, multi region and two dimensional (X, Y) adjoint equation. Typical reactor geometry is partitioned with triangular meshes and boundary condition for adjoint flux is considered zero. Finally, for a case of defined parameters, Finite Element Code was applied and results were compared with Citation Code
Jin, Qiyun; Thompson, David J.; Lurcock, Daniel E. J.; Toward, Martin G. R.; Ntotsios, Evangelos
2018-05-01
A numerical model is presented for the ground-borne vibration produced by trains running in tunnels. The model makes use of the assumption that the geometry and material properties are invariant in the axial direction. It is based on the so-called two-and-a-half dimensional (2.5D) coupled Finite Element and Boundary Element methodology, in which a two-dimensional cross-section is discretised into finite elements and boundary elements and the third dimension is represented by a Fourier transform over wavenumbers. The model is applied to a particular case of a metro line built with a cast-iron tunnel lining. An equivalent continuous model of the tunnel is developed to allow it to be readily implemented in the 2.5D framework. The tunnel structure and the track are modelled using solid and beam finite elements while the ground is modelled using boundary elements. The 2.5D track-tunnel-ground model is coupled with a train consisting of several vehicles, which are represented by multi-body models. The response caused by the passage of a train is calculated as the sum of the dynamic component, excited by the combined rail and wheel roughness, and the quasi-static component, induced by the constant moving axle loads. Field measurements have been carried out to provide experimental validation of the model. These include measurements of the vibration of the rail, the tunnel invert and the tunnel wall. In addition, simultaneous measurements were made on the ground surface above the tunnel. Rail roughness and track characterisation measurements were also made. The prediction results are compared with measured vibration obtained during train passages, with good agreement.
Survey of the status of finite element methods for partial differential equations
Temam, Roger
1986-01-01
The finite element methods (FEM) have proved to be a powerful technique for the solution of boundary value problems associated with partial differential equations of either elliptic, parabolic, or hyperbolic type. They also have a good potential for utilization on parallel computers particularly in relation to the concept of domain decomposition. This report is intended as an introduction to the FEM for the nonspecialist. It contains a survey which is totally nonexhaustive, and it also contains as an illustration, a report on some new results concerning two specific applications, namely a free boundary fluid-structure interaction problem and the Euler equations for inviscid flows.
The finite element method its basis and fundamentals
Zienkiewicz, Olek C; Zhu, JZ
2013-01-01
The Finite Element Method: Its Basis and Fundamentals offers a complete introduction to the basis of the finite element method, covering fundamental theory and worked examples in the detail required for readers to apply the knowledge to their own engineering problems and understand more advanced applications. This edition sees a significant rearrangement of the book's content to enable clearer development of the finite element method, with major new chapters and sections added to cover: Weak forms Variational forms Multi-dimensional field prob
Mechanics of a crushable pebble assembly using discrete element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Annabattula, R.K.; Gan, Y.; Zhao, S.; Kamlah, M.
2012-01-01
The influence of crushing of individual pebbles on the overall strength of a pebble assembly is investigated using discrete element method. An assembly comprising of 5000 spherical pebbles is assigned with random critical failure energies with a Weibull distribution in accordance with the experimental observation. Then, the pebble assembly is subjected to uni-axial compression (ε 33 =1.5%) with periodic boundary conditions. The crushable pebble assembly shows a significant difference in stress–strain response in comparison to a non-crushable pebble assembly. The analysis shows that a ideal plasticity like behaviour (constant stress with increase in strain) is the characteristic of a crushable pebble assembly with sudden damage. The damage accumulation law plays a critical role in determining the critical stress while the critical number of completely failed pebbles at the onset of critical stress is independent of such a damage law. Furthermore, a loosely packed pebble assembly shows a higher crush resistance while the critical stress is insensitive to the packing factor (η) of the assembly.
An Element Free Galerkin method for an elastoplastic coupled to damage analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sendi Zohra
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, a Meshless approach for nonlinear solid mechanics is developed based on the Element Free Galerkin method. Furthermore, Meshless is combined with an elastoplastic model coupled to ductile damage. The efficiency of the proposed methodology is evaluated through various numerical examples. Besides these, two-dimensional tensile tests under several boundary conditions were studied and solved by a Dynamic-Explicit resolution scheme. Finally, the results obtained from the numerical simulations are analyzed and critically compared with Finite Element Method results.
A simple finite element method for linear hyperbolic problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mu, Lin; Ye, Xiu
2017-01-01
Here, we introduce a simple finite element method for solving first order hyperbolic equations with easy implementation and analysis. Our new method, with a symmetric, positive definite system, is designed to use discontinuous approximations on finite element partitions consisting of arbitrary shape of polygons/polyhedra. Error estimate is established. Extensive numerical examples are tested that demonstrate the robustness and flexibility of the method.
Spectral element method for wave propagation on irregular domains
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Yan Hui Geng
2018-03-14
Mar 14, 2018 ... Abstract. A spectral element approximation of acoustic propagation problems combined with a new mapping method on irregular domains is proposed. Following this method, the Gauss–Lobatto–Chebyshev nodes in the standard space are applied to the spectral element method (SEM). The nodes in the ...
Different Element Methods in Engineering Practice | Onah | Nigerian ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Presented is the most common element methods used for analysis in engineering. The methods are discussed in an overall and general manner so that engineers and scientists who are increasingly, called upon to use element methods to support and check their analyses and/or designs can appreciate the essential ...
Spectral element method for wave propagation on irregular domains
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A spectral element approximation of acoustic propagation problems combined with a new mapping method on irregular domains is proposed. Following this method, the Gauss–Lobatto–Chebyshev nodes in the standard space are applied to the spectral element method (SEM). The nodes in the physical space are ...
Heyland, Mark; Trepczynski, Adam; Duda, Georg N; Zehn, Manfred; Schaser, Klaus-Dieter; Märdian, Sven
2015-12-01
Selection of boundary constraints may influence amount and distribution of loads. The purpose of this study is to analyze the potential of inertia relief and follower load to maintain the effects of musculoskeletal loads even under large deflections in patient specific finite element models of intact or fractured bone compared to empiric boundary constraints which have been shown to lead to physiological displacements and surface strains. The goal is to elucidate the use of boundary conditions in strain analyses of bones. Finite element models of the intact femur and a model of clinically relevant fracture stabilization by locking plate fixation were analyzed with normal walking loading conditions for different boundary conditions, specifically re-balanced loading, inertia relief and follower load. Peak principal cortex surface strains for different boundary conditions are consistent (maximum deviation 13.7%) except for inertia relief without force balancing (maximum deviation 108.4%). Influence of follower load on displacements increases with higher deflection in fracture model (from 3% to 7% for force balanced model). For load balanced models, follower load had only minor influence, though the effect increases strongly with higher deflection. Conventional constraints of fixed nodes in space should be carefully reconsidered because their type and position are challenging to justify and for their potential to introduce relevant non-physiological reaction forces. Inertia relief provides an alternative method which yields physiological strain results. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A finite element solution method for quadrics parallel computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zucchini, A.
1996-08-01
A distributed preconditioned conjugate gradient method for finite element analysis has been developed and implemented on a parallel SIMD Quadrics computer. The main characteristic of the method is that it does not require any actual assembling of all element equations in a global system. The physical domain of the problem is partitioned in cells of n p finite elements and each cell element is assigned to a different node of an n p -processors machine. Element stiffness matrices are stored in the data memory of the assigned processing node and the solution process is completely executed in parallel at element level. Inter-element and therefore inter-processor communications are required once per iteration to perform local sums of vector quantities between neighbouring elements. A prototype implementation has been tested on an 8-nodes Quadrics machine in a simple 2D benchmark problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramiere, I.
2006-09-01
This work is dedicated to the introduction of two original fictitious domain methods for the resolution of elliptic problems (mainly convection-diffusion problems) with general and eventually mixed boundary conditions: Dirichlet, Robin or Neumann. The originality lies in the approximation of the immersed boundary by an approximate interface derived from the fictitious domain Cartesian mesh, which is generally not boundary-fitted to the physical domain. The same generic numerical scheme is used to impose the embedded boundary conditions. Hence, these methods require neither a surface mesh of the immersed boundary nor the local modification of the numerical scheme. We study two modelling of the immersed boundary. In the first one, called spread interface, the approximate immersed boundary is the union of the cells crossed by the physical immersed boundary. In the second one, called thin interface, the approximate immersed boundary lies on sides of mesh cells. Additional algebraic transmission conditions linking both flux and solution jumps through the thin approximate interface are introduced. The fictitious problem to solve as well as the treatment of the embedded boundary conditions are detailed for the two methods. A Q1 finite element scheme is implemented for the numerical validation of the spread interface approach while a new cell-centered finite volume scheme is derived for the thin interface approach with immersed jumps. Each method is then combined to multilevel local mesh refinement algorithms (with solution or flux residual) to increase the precision of the solution in the vicinity of the immersed interface. A convergence analysis of a Q1 finite element method with non-boundary fitted meshes is also presented. This study proves the convergence rates of the present methods. Among the various industrial applications, the simulation on a model of heat exchanger in french nuclear power plants enables us to appreciate the performances of the fictitious domain
Transuranium element recovering method for spent nuclear fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todokoro, Akio; Kihara, Yoshiyuki; Okada, Hisashi
1998-01-01
Spent fuels are dissolved in nitric acid, the obtained dissolution liquid is oxidized by electrolysis, and nitric acid of transuranium elements are precipitated together with nitric acid of uranium elements from the dissolution solution and recovered. Namely, the transuranium elements are oxidized to an atomic value level at which nitric acid can be precipitated by an oxidizing catalyst, and cooled to precipitate nitric acid of transuranium elements together with nitric acid of transuranium elements, accordingly, it is not necessary to use a solvent which has been used so far upon recovering transuranium elements. Since no solvent waste is generated, a recovery method taking the circumstance into consideration can be provided. Further, nitric acid of uranium elements and nitric acid of transuranium elements precipitated and recovered together are dissolved in nitric acid again, cooled and only uranium elements are precipitated selectively, and recovered by filtration. The amount of wastes can be reduced to thereby enabling to mitigate control for processing. (N.H.)
A Summary of the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) Method
Wang, Xiao-Yen J.
2015-01-01
The space-time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method for solving conservation laws is examined for its development motivation and design requirements. The characteristics of the resulting scheme are discussed. The discretization of the Euler equations is presented to show readers how to construct a scheme based on the CESE method. The differences and similarities between the CESE method and other traditional methods are discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the method are also addressed.
Shooting method for solution of boundary-layer flows with massive blowing
Liu, T.-M.; Nachtsheim, P. R.
1973-01-01
A modified, bidirectional shooting method is presented for solving boundary-layer equations under conditions of massive blowing. Unlike the conventional shooting method, which is unstable when the blowing rate increases, the proposed method avoids the unstable direction and is capable of solving complex boundary-layer problems involving mass and energy balance on the surface.
Application of He's variational iteration method to the fifth-order boundary value problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, S
2008-01-01
Variational iteration method is introduced to solve the fifth-order boundary value problems. This method provides an efficient approach to solve this type of problems without discretization and the computation of the Adomian polynomials. Numerical results demonstrate that this method is a promising and powerful tool for solving the fifth-order boundary value problems
Research of flaw assessment methods for beryllium reflector elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shibata, Akira; Ito, Masayasu; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Tanimoto, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Ohara, Hiroshi; Kodama, Mitsuhiro
2012-02-01
Reflector elements made from metal beryllium is widely used as neutron reflectors to increase neutron flux in test reactors. When beryllium reflector elements are irradiated by neutron, bending of reflector elements caused by swelling occurs, and beryllium reflector elements must be replaced in several years. In this report, literature search and investigation for non-destructive inspection of Beryllium and experiments for Preliminary inspection to establish post irradiation examination method for research of characteristics of metal beryllium under neutron irradiation were reported. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carrington, David Bradley [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Monayem, A. K. M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mazumder, H. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heinrich, Juan C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-03-05
A three-dimensional finite element method for the numerical simulations of fluid flow in domains containing moving rigid objects or boundaries is developed. The method falls into the general category of Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian methods; it is based on a fixed mesh that is locally adapted in the immediate vicinity of the moving interfaces and reverts to its original shape once the moving interfaces go past the elements. The moving interfaces are defined by separate sets of marker points so that the global mesh is independent of interface movement and the possibility of mesh entanglement is eliminated. The results is a fully robust formulation capable of calculating on domains of complex geometry with moving boundaries or devises that can also have a complex geometry without danger of the mesh becoming unsuitable due to its continuous deformation thus eliminating the need for repeated re-meshing and interpolation. Moreover, the boundary conditions on the interfaces are imposed exactly. This work is intended to support the internal combustion engines simulator KIVA developed at Los Alamos National Laboratories. The model's capabilities are illustrated through application to incompressible flows in different geometrical settings that show the robustness and flexibility of the technique to perform simulations involving moving boundaries in a three-dimensional domain.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiqiang Shen
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Deformation of partially composite beams under distributed loading and free vibrations of partially composite beams under various boundary conditions are examined in this paper. The weak-form quadrature element method, which is characterized by direct evaluation of the integrals involved in the variational description of a problem, is used. One quadrature element is normally sufficient for a partially composite beam regardless of the magnitude of the shear connection stiffness. The number of integration points in a quadrature element is adjustable in accordance with convergence requirement. Results are compared with those of various finite element formulations. It is shown that the weak form quadrature element solution for partially composite beams is free of slip locking, and high computational accuracy is achieved with smaller number of degrees of freedom. Besides, it is found that longitudinal inertia of motion cannot be simply neglected in assessment of dynamic behavior of partially composite beams.
Use of the finite element displacement method to solve solid-fluid interaction vibration problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, S.J.; Hsu, K.H.
1978-01-01
It is shown through comparison to experimental, theoretical, and other finite element formulations that the finite element displacement method can solve accurately and economically a certain class of solid-fluid eigenvalue problems. The problems considered are small displacements in the absence of viscous damping and are 2-D and 3-D in nature. In this study the advantages of the finite element method (in particular the displacement formulation) is apparent in that a large structure consisting of the cylinders, support flanges, fluid, and other experimental boundaries could be modeled to yield good correlation to experimental data. The ability to handle large problems with standard structural programs is the key advantage of the displacement fluid method. The greatest obstacle is the inability of the analyst to inhibit those rotational degrees of freedom that are unnecessary to his fluid-structure vibration problem. With judicious use of element formulation, boundary conditions and modeling, the displacement finite element method can be successfully used to predict solid-fluid response to vibration and seismic loading
A finite difference method for free boundary problems
Fornberg, Bengt
2010-01-01
Fornberg and Meyer-Spasche proposed some time ago a simple strategy to correct finite difference schemes in the presence of a free boundary that cuts across a Cartesian grid. We show here how this procedure can be combined with a minimax
Ooi, E H; Ang, W T; Ng, E Y K
2009-08-01
A three-dimensional boundary element model of the human eye is developed to investigate the thermal effects of eye tumor on the ocular temperature distribution. The human eye is modeled as comprising several regions which have different thermal properties. The tumor is one of these regions. The thermal effects of the tumor are simulated by taking it to have a very high metabolic heat generation and blood perfusion rate. Inside the tumor, the steady state temperature is governed by the Pennes bioheat equation. Elsewhere, in normal tissues of the eye, the temperature satisfies the Laplace's equation. To compute the temperature on the corneal surface, the surface boundary of each region is divided into triangular elements.
Calculation of two-dimensional thermal transients by the finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fontoura Rodrigues, J.L.A. da; Barcellos, C.S. de
1981-01-01
The linear heat conduction through anisotropic and/or heterogeneous matter, in either two-dimensional fields with any kind of geometry or three-dimensional fields with axial symmetry is analysed. It only accepts time-independent boundary conditions and it is possible to have internal heat generation. The solution is obtained by modal analysis employing the finite element method under Galerkin formulation. (Author) [pt
The application of finite element method for mhd viscous flow over a porous stretching sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahmood, R.; Sajid, M.
2007-01-01
This work is concerned with the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) viscous flow due to a porous stretching sheet. The similarity solution of the problem is obtained using finite element method. The physical quantities of interest like the fluid velocity and skin friction coefficient is obtained and discussed under the influence of suction parameter and Hartman number. It is evident from the results that MHD can be used to control the boundary layer thickness. (author)
An h-p Taylor-Galerkin finite element method for compressible Euler equations
Demkowicz, L.; Oden, J. T.; Rachowicz, W.; Hardy, O.
1991-01-01
An extension of the familiar Taylor-Galerkin method to arbitrary h-p spatial approximations is proposed. Boundary conditions are analyzed, and a linear stability result for arbitrary meshes is given, showing the unconditional stability for the parameter of implicitness alpha not less than 0.5. The wedge and blunt body problems are solved with both linear, quadratic, and cubic elements and h-adaptivity, showing the feasibility of higher orders of approximation for problems with shocks.
Local deformation method for measuring element tension in space deployable structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Belov Sergey
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The article describes the local deformation method to determine the tension of cord and thin membrane elements in space deployable structure as antenna reflector. Possible measuring instrument model, analytical and numerical solutions and experimental results are presented. The boundary effects on measurement results of metallic mesh reflector surface tension are estimated. The study case depicting non-uniform reflector surface tension is considered.
The Galerkin Finite Element Method for A Multi-term Time-Fractional Diffusion equation
Jin, Bangti; Lazarov, Raytcho; Liu, Yikan; Zhou, Zhi
2014-01-01
We consider the initial/boundary value problem for a diffusion equation involving multiple time-fractional derivatives on a bounded convex polyhedral domain. We analyze a space semidiscrete scheme based on the standard Galerkin finite element method using continuous piecewise linear functions. Nearly optimal error estimates for both cases of initial data and inhomogeneous term are derived, which cover both smooth and nonsmooth data. Further we develop a fully discrete scheme based on a finite...
Method of interior boundaries in a mixed problem of acoustic scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. A. Krutitskii
1999-01-01
Full Text Available The mixed problem for the Helmholtz equation in the exterior of several bodies (obstacles is studied in 2 and 3 dimensions. The Dirichlet boundary condition is given on some obstacles and the impedance boundary condition is specified on the rest. The problem is investigated by a special modification of the boundary integral equation method. This modification can be called ‘Method of interior boundaries’, because additional boundaries are introduced inside scattering bodies, where impedance boundary condition is given. The solution of the problem is obtained in the form of potentials on the whole boundary. The density in the potentials satisfies the uniquely solvable Fredholm equation of the second kind and can be computed by standard codes. In fact our method holds for any positive wave numbers. The Neumann, Dirichlet, impedance problems and mixed Dirichlet–Neumann problem are particular cases of our problem.
Explicitly represented polygon wall boundary model for the explicit MPS method
Mitsume, Naoto; Yoshimura, Shinobu; Murotani, Kohei; Yamada, Tomonori
2015-05-01
This study presents an accurate and robust boundary model, the explicitly represented polygon (ERP) wall boundary model, to treat arbitrarily shaped wall boundaries in the explicit moving particle simulation (E-MPS) method, which is a mesh-free particle method for strong form partial differential equations. The ERP model expresses wall boundaries as polygons, which are explicitly represented without using the distance function. These are derived so that for viscous fluids, and with less computational cost, they satisfy the Neumann boundary condition for the pressure and the slip/no-slip condition on the wall surface. The proposed model is verified and validated by comparing computed results with the theoretical solution, results obtained by other models, and experimental results. Two simulations with complex boundary movements are conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the E-MPS method to the ERP model.
Smith, Emily M; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Dekker, Job
2016-01-07
Three-dimensional genome structure plays an important role in gene regulation. Globally, chromosomes are organized into active and inactive compartments while, at the gene level, looping interactions connect promoters to regulatory elements. Topologically associating domains (TADs), typically several hundred kilobases in size, form an intermediate level of organization. Major questions include how TADs are formed and how they are related to looping interactions between genes and regulatory elements. Here we performed a focused 5C analysis of a 2.8 Mb chromosome 7 region surrounding CFTR in a panel of cell types. We find that the same TAD boundaries are present in all cell types, indicating that TADs represent a universal chromosome architecture. Furthermore, we find that these TAD boundaries are present irrespective of the expression and looping of genes located between them. In contrast, looping interactions between promoters and regulatory elements are cell-type specific and occur mostly within TADs. This is exemplified by the CFTR promoter that in different cell types interacts with distinct sets of distal cell-type-specific regulatory elements that are all located within the same TAD. Finally, we find that long-range associations between loci located in different TADs are also detected, but these display much lower interaction frequencies than looping interactions within TADs. Interestingly, interactions between TADs are also highly cell-type-specific and often involve loci clustered around TAD boundaries. These data point to key roles of invariant TAD boundaries in constraining as well as mediating cell-type-specific long-range interactions and gene regulation. Copyright © 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Convergence analysis of spectral element method for electromechanical devices
Curti, M.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.A.
2017-01-01
This paper concerns the comparison of the performance of the Spectral Element Method (SEM) and the Finite Element Method (FEM) for a magnetostatic problem. The convergence of the vector magnetic potential, the magnetic flux density, and the total stored energy in the system is compared with the
Convergence analysis of spectral element method for magnetic devices
Curti, M.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.A.
2018-01-01
This paper concerns the comparison of the performance of the Spectral Element Method (SEM) and the Finite Element Method (FEM) for modeling a magnetostatic problem. The convergence of the vector magnetic potential, the magnetic flux density, and the total stored energy in the system is compared with
Galerkin finite element methods for wave problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
basis functions (called G1FEM here) and quadratic basis functions (called G2FEM) ... mulation of Brookes & Hughes (1982) that implicitly incorporates numerical ..... functions and (c) SUPG method in the (kh − ω t)-plane for explicit Euler.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudielka, G.
2001-07-01
Frasassi Cave have always been lower in d18O and higher in d13C compared to Soreq Cave. This indicates lower temperatures and a higher portion of C4 type vegetation in the Frasassi area compared to Israel. The agreement of the two records demonstrates that calcite deposits in caves are ideal recorders to global climatic changes. Investigation of the Jurassic/Cretaceous Boundary in Central Italy, the Jurassic/Cretaceous (J-K) boundary has not been satisfactory defined yet. Among others, various boundary definitions have been proposed at the Bosso River Gorge in the Marche region of Northern Italy: by calcareous nanofossils (at 329 m), calpionellids (at 334.1 m) and magnetostratigraphy (at 318 m). A large impact structure near Morokweng in South Africa was recently radiometrically dated to 144.7±1.9 Ma, which is indistinguishable from the stratigraphic age of the J-K boundary (144.2±2.6 Ma). A possible link between the impact event and the J-K boundary might be manifested in form of stratigraphic and geochemical features across the boundary, such as sudden stable-isotope shifts and spheroidal element anomalies. A set of 110 samples spanning about 40 m across the boundary was investigated for stable isotope ratios, and trace element content was determined in the corresponding decarbonated samples. d13C and d18O hardly vary but show a significant decrease at 333.5 m, which is close to the boundary-definition based upon calpionellids (at 334.1 m). Trace element abundances of Fe, Co, Ni, and Cr show remarkable enrichments very close to the boundary as defined by calcareous nanofossils (at 329 m). Another minor anomaly is noticeable at 333.5 m for Ir and Cr. Thus, the present data might be interpreted to hint - not to confirm - the presence of an impactoclastic layer at the Bosso River Gorge. (author)
A general mixed boundary model reduction method for component mode synthesis
Voormeeren, S.N.; Van der Valk, P.L.C.; Rixen, D.J.
2010-01-01
A classic issue in component mode synthesis (CMS) methods is the choice for fixed or free boundary conditions at the interface degrees of freedom (DoF) and the associated vibration modes in the components reduction base. In this paper, a novel mixed boundary CMS method called the “Mixed
Application of Monte Carlo method to solving boundary value problem of differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuo Yinghong; Wang Jianguo
2012-01-01
This paper introduces the foundation of the Monte Carlo method and the way how to generate the random numbers. Based on the basic thought of the Monte Carlo method and finite differential method, the stochastic model for solving the boundary value problem of differential equations is built. To investigate the application of the Monte Carlo method to solving the boundary value problem of differential equations, the model is used to solve Laplace's equations with the first boundary condition and the unsteady heat transfer equation with initial values and boundary conditions. The results show that the boundary value problem of differential equations can be effectively solved with the Monte Carlo method, and the differential equations with initial condition can also be calculated by using a stochastic probability model which is based on the time-domain finite differential equations. Both the simulation results and theoretical analyses show that the errors of numerical results are lowered as the number of simulation particles is increased. (authors)
A ghost-cell immersed boundary method for flow in complex geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tseng, Y.-H.; Ferziger, Joel H.
2003-01-01
An efficient ghost-cell immersed boundary method (GCIBM) for simulating turbulent flows in complex geometries is presented. A boundary condition is enforced through a ghost cell method. The reconstruction procedure allows systematic development of numerical schemes for treating the immersed boundary while preserving the overall second-order accuracy of the base solver. Both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions can be treated. The current ghost cell treatment is both suitable for staggered and non-staggered Cartesian grids. The accuracy of the current method is validated using flow past a circular cylinder and large eddy simulation of turbulent flow over a wavy surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental data and boundary-fitted grid results. The method is further extended to an existing ocean model (MITGCM) to simulate geophysical flow over a three-dimensional bump. The method is easily implemented as evidenced by our use of several existing codes
Immersed boundary-simplified lattice Boltzmann method for incompressible viscous flows
Chen, Z.; Shu, C.; Tan, D.
2018-05-01
An immersed boundary-simplified lattice Boltzmann method is developed in this paper for simulations of two-dimensional incompressible viscous flows with immersed objects. Assisted by the fractional step technique, the problem is resolved in a predictor-corrector scheme. The predictor step solves the flow field without considering immersed objects, and the corrector step imposes the effect of immersed boundaries on the velocity field. Different from the previous immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method which adopts the standard lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) as the flow solver in the predictor step, a recently developed simplified lattice Boltzmann method (SLBM) is applied in the present method to evaluate intermediate flow variables. Compared to the standard LBM, SLBM requires lower virtual memories, facilitates the implementation of physical boundary conditions, and shows better numerical stability. The boundary condition-enforced immersed boundary method, which accurately ensures no-slip boundary conditions, is implemented as the boundary solver in the corrector step. Four typical numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the stability, the flexibility, and the accuracy of the present method.
Dynamic relaxation method in analysis of reinforced concrete bent elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Szcześniak
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a method for the analysis of nonlinear behaviour of reinforced concrete bent elements subjected to short-term static load. The considerations in the range of modelling of deformation processes of reinforced concrete element were carried out. The method of structure effort analysis was developed using the finite difference method. The Dynamic Relaxation Method, which — after introduction of critical damping — allows for description of the static behaviour of a structural element, was used to solve the system of nonlinear equilibrium equations. In order to increase the method effectiveness in the range of the post-critical analysis, the Arc Length Parameter on the equilibrium path was introduced into the computational procedure.[b]Keywords[/b]: reinforced concrete elements, physical nonlinearity, geometrical nonlinearity, dynamic relaxation method, arc-length method
Finite element method for solving neutron transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferguson, J.M.; Greenbaum, A.
1984-01-01
A finite element method is introduced for solving the neutron transport equations. Our method falls into the category of Petrov-Galerkin solution, since the trial space differs from the test space. The close relationship between this method and the discrete ordinate method is discussed, and the methods are compared for simple test problems
Kawai, T.
Among the topics discussed are the application of FEM to nonlinear free surface flow, Navier-Stokes shallow water wave equations, incompressible viscous flows and weather prediction, the mathematical analysis and characteristics of FEM, penalty function FEM, convective, viscous, and high Reynolds number FEM analyses, the solution of time-dependent, three-dimensional and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, turbulent boundary layer flow, FEM modeling of environmental problems over complex terrain, and FEM's application to thermal convection problems and to the flow of polymeric materials in injection molding processes. Also covered are FEMs for compressible flows, including boundary layer flows and transonic flows, hybrid element approaches for wave hydrodynamic loadings, FEM acoustic field analyses, and FEM treatment of free surface flow, shallow water flow, seepage flow, and sediment transport. Boundary element methods and FEM computational technique topics are also discussed. For individual items see A84-25834 to A84-25896
A Method for Extracting Road Boundary Information from Crowdsourcing Vehicle GPS Trajectories.
Yang, Wei; Ai, Tinghua; Lu, Wei
2018-04-19
Crowdsourcing trajectory data is an important approach for accessing and updating road information. In this paper, we present a novel approach for extracting road boundary information from crowdsourcing vehicle traces based on Delaunay triangulation (DT). First, an optimization and interpolation method is proposed to filter abnormal trace segments from raw global positioning system (GPS) traces and interpolate the optimization segments adaptively to ensure there are enough tracking points. Second, constructing the DT and the Voronoi diagram within interpolated tracking lines to calculate road boundary descriptors using the area of Voronoi cell and the length of triangle edge. Then, the road boundary detection model is established integrating the boundary descriptors and trajectory movement features (e.g., direction) by DT. Third, using the boundary detection model to detect road boundary from the DT constructed by trajectory lines, and a regional growing method based on seed polygons is proposed to extract the road boundary. Experiments were conducted using the GPS traces of taxis in Beijing, China, and the results show that the proposed method is suitable for extracting the road boundary from low-frequency GPS traces, multi-type road structures, and different time intervals. Compared with two existing methods, the automatically extracted boundary information was proved to be of higher quality.
A Method for Extracting Road Boundary Information from Crowdsourcing Vehicle GPS Trajectories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Yang
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Crowdsourcing trajectory data is an important approach for accessing and updating road information. In this paper, we present a novel approach for extracting road boundary information from crowdsourcing vehicle traces based on Delaunay triangulation (DT. First, an optimization and interpolation method is proposed to filter abnormal trace segments from raw global positioning system (GPS traces and interpolate the optimization segments adaptively to ensure there are enough tracking points. Second, constructing the DT and the Voronoi diagram within interpolated tracking lines to calculate road boundary descriptors using the area of Voronoi cell and the length of triangle edge. Then, the road boundary detection model is established integrating the boundary descriptors and trajectory movement features (e.g., direction by DT. Third, using the boundary detection model to detect road boundary from the DT constructed by trajectory lines, and a regional growing method based on seed polygons is proposed to extract the road boundary. Experiments were conducted using the GPS traces of taxis in Beijing, China, and the results show that the proposed method is suitable for extracting the road boundary from low-frequency GPS traces, multi-type road structures, and different time intervals. Compared with two existing methods, the automatically extracted boundary information was proved to be of higher quality.
Hydrothermal analysis in engineering using control volume finite element method
Sheikholeslami, Mohsen
2015-01-01
Control volume finite element methods (CVFEM) bridge the gap between finite difference and finite element methods, using the advantages of both methods for simulation of multi-physics problems in complex geometries. In Hydrothermal Analysis in Engineering Using Control Volume Finite Element Method, CVFEM is covered in detail and applied to key areas of thermal engineering. Examples, exercises, and extensive references are used to show the use of the technique to model key engineering problems such as heat transfer in nanofluids (to enhance performance and compactness of energy systems),
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yong [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Yi, Hong-Liang, E-mail: yihongliang@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Tan, He-Ping, E-mail: tanheping@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)
2013-05-15
This paper develops a numerical solution to the radiative heat transfer problem coupled with conduction in an absorbing, emitting and isotropically scattering medium with the irregular geometries using the natural element method (NEM). The walls of the enclosures, having temperature and mixed boundary conditions, are considered to be opaque, diffuse as well as gray. The NEM as a meshless method is a new numerical scheme in the field of computational mechanics. Different from most of other meshless methods such as element-free Galerkin method or those based on radial basis functions, the shape functions used in NEM are constructed by the natural neighbor interpolations, which are strictly interpolant and the essential boundary conditions can be imposed directly. The natural element solutions in dealing with the coupled heat transfer problem for the mixed boundary conditions have been validated by comparison with those from Monte Carlo method (MCM) generated by the authors. For the validation of the NEM solution to radiative heat transfer in the semicircular medium with an inner circle, the results by NEM have been compared with those reported in the literatures. For pure radiative transfer, the upwind scheme is employed to overcome the oscillatory behavior of the solutions in some conditions. The steady state and transient heat transfer problem combined with radiation and conduction in the semicircular enclosure with an inner circle are studied. Effects of various parameters such as the extinction coefficient, the scattering albedo, the conduction–radiation parameter and the boundary emissivity are analyzed on the radiative and conductive heat fluxes and transient temperature distributions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kılıç, Emre; Eibert, Thomas F.
2015-01-01
An approach combining boundary integral and finite element methods is introduced for the solution of three-dimensional inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problems. Based on the equivalence principle, unknown equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on a closed surface are utilized to decompose the inverse medium problem into two parts: a linear radiation problem and a nonlinear cavity problem. The first problem is formulated by a boundary integral equation, the computational burden of which is reduced by employing the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Reconstructed Cauchy data on the surface allows the utilization of the Lorentz reciprocity and the Poynting's theorems. Exploiting these theorems, the noise level and an initial guess are estimated for the cavity problem. Moreover, it is possible to determine whether the material is lossy or not. In the second problem, the estimated surface currents form inhomogeneous boundary conditions of the cavity problem. The cavity problem is formulated by the finite element technique and solved iteratively by the Gauss–Newton method to reconstruct the properties of the object. Regularization for both the first and the second problems is achieved by a Krylov subspace method. The proposed method is tested against both synthetic and experimental data and promising reconstruction results are obtained
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kılıç, Emre, E-mail: emre.kilic@tum.de; Eibert, Thomas F.
2015-05-01
An approach combining boundary integral and finite element methods is introduced for the solution of three-dimensional inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problems. Based on the equivalence principle, unknown equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on a closed surface are utilized to decompose the inverse medium problem into two parts: a linear radiation problem and a nonlinear cavity problem. The first problem is formulated by a boundary integral equation, the computational burden of which is reduced by employing the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Reconstructed Cauchy data on the surface allows the utilization of the Lorentz reciprocity and the Poynting's theorems. Exploiting these theorems, the noise level and an initial guess are estimated for the cavity problem. Moreover, it is possible to determine whether the material is lossy or not. In the second problem, the estimated surface currents form inhomogeneous boundary conditions of the cavity problem. The cavity problem is formulated by the finite element technique and solved iteratively by the Gauss–Newton method to reconstruct the properties of the object. Regularization for both the first and the second problems is achieved by a Krylov subspace method. The proposed method is tested against both synthetic and experimental data and promising reconstruction results are obtained.
Coupling of smooth particle hydrodynamics with the finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Attaway, S.W.; Heinstein, M.W.; Swegle, J.W.
1994-01-01
A gridless technique called smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) has been coupled with the transient dynamics finite element code ppercase[pronto]. In this paper, a new weighted residual derivation for the SPH method will be presented, and the methods used to embed SPH within ppercase[pronto] will be outlined. Example SPH ppercase[pronto] calculations will also be presented. One major difficulty associated with the Lagrangian finite element method is modeling materials with no shear strength; for example, gases, fluids and explosive biproducts. Typically, these materials can be modeled for only a short time with a Lagrangian finite element code. Large distortions cause tangling of the mesh, which will eventually lead to numerical difficulties, such as negative element area or ''bow tie'' elements. Remeshing will allow the problem to continue for a short while, but the large distortions can prevent a complete analysis. SPH is a gridless Lagrangian technique. Requiring no mesh, SPH has the potential to model material fracture, large shear flows and penetration. SPH computes the strain rate and the stress divergence based on the nearest neighbors of a particle, which are determined using an efficient particle-sorting technique. Embedding the SPH method within ppercase[pronto] allows part of the problem to be modeled with quadrilateral finite elements, while other parts are modeled with the gridless SPH method. SPH elements are coupled to the quadrilateral elements through a contact-like algorithm. ((orig.))
Two-dimensional isostatic meshes in the finite element method
Martínez Marín, Rubén; Samartín, Avelino
2002-01-01
In a Finite Element (FE) analysis of elastic solids several items are usually considered, namely, type and shape of the elements, number of nodes per element, node positions, FE mesh, total number of degrees of freedom (dot) among others. In this paper a method to improve a given FE mesh used for a particular analysis is described. For the improvement criterion different objective functions have been chosen (Total potential energy and Average quadratic error) and the number of nodes and dof's...
A Boundary Element Solution to the Problem of Interacting AC Fields in Parallel Conductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Einar M. Rønquist
1984-04-01
Full Text Available The ac fields in electrically insulated conductors will interact through the surrounding electromagnetic fields. The pertinent field equations reduce to the Helmholtz equation inside each conductor (interior problem, and to the Laplace equation outside the conductors (exterior problem. These equations are transformed to integral equations, with the magnetic vector potential and its normal derivative on the boundaries as unknowns. The integral equations are then approximated by sets of algebraic equations. The interior problem involves only unknowns on the boundary of each conductor, while the exterior problem couples unknowns from several conductors. The interior and the exterior problem are coupled through the field continuity conditions. The full set of equations is solved by standard Gaussian elimination. We also show how the total current and the dissipated power within each conductor can be expressed as boundary integrals. Finally, computational results for a sample problem are compared with a finite difference solution.
Element Free Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid-Flow Problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Hho Jhung; Kwon, Young Kwon
2007-01-01
The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has been developed for application to thermal-fluid problems. Most of the those studies considered a regular shape of lattice or mesh like square and cubic grids. In order to apply the LBM to more practical cases, it is necessary to be able to solve complex or irregular shapes of problem domains. Some techniques were based on the finite element method. Generally, the finite element method is very powerful for solving two or three-dimensional complex or irregular shapes of domains using the iso-parametric element formulation which is based on a mathematical mapping from a regular shape of element in an imaginary domain to a more general and irregular shape of element in the physical domain. In addition, the element free technique is also quite useful to analyze a complex shape of domain because there is no need to divide a domain by a compatible finite element mesh. This paper presents a new finite element and element free formulations for the lattice Boltzmann equation using the general weighted residual technique. Then, a series of validation examples are presented
Element Free Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid-Flow Problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Hho Jhung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young Kwon [US Naval Postgraduate School, New York (United States)
2007-10-15
The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has been developed for application to thermal-fluid problems. Most of the those studies considered a regular shape of lattice or mesh like square and cubic grids. In order to apply the LBM to more practical cases, it is necessary to be able to solve complex or irregular shapes of problem domains. Some techniques were based on the finite element method. Generally, the finite element method is very powerful for solving two or three-dimensional complex or irregular shapes of domains using the iso-parametric element formulation which is based on a mathematical mapping from a regular shape of element in an imaginary domain to a more general and irregular shape of element in the physical domain. In addition, the element free technique is also quite useful to analyze a complex shape of domain because there is no need to divide a domain by a compatible finite element mesh. This paper presents a new finite element and element free formulations for the lattice Boltzmann equation using the general weighted residual technique. Then, a series of validation examples are presented.
Azarnavid, Babak; Parand, Kourosh; Abbasbandy, Saeid
2018-06-01
This article discusses an iterative reproducing kernel method with respect to its effectiveness and capability of solving a fourth-order boundary value problem with nonlinear boundary conditions modeling beams on elastic foundations. Since there is no method of obtaining reproducing kernel which satisfies nonlinear boundary conditions, the standard reproducing kernel methods cannot be used directly to solve boundary value problems with nonlinear boundary conditions as there is no knowledge about the existence and uniqueness of the solution. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to construct an iterative method by the use of a combination of reproducing kernel Hilbert space method and a shooting-like technique to solve the mentioned problems. Error estimation for reproducing kernel Hilbert space methods for nonlinear boundary value problems have yet to be discussed in the literature. In this paper, we present error estimation for the reproducing kernel method to solve nonlinear boundary value problems probably for the first time. Some numerical results are given out to demonstrate the applicability of the method.
Finite element formulation for a digital image correlation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Yaofeng; Pang, John H. L.; Wong, Chee Khuen; Su Fei
2005-01-01
A finite element formulation for a digital image correlation method is presented that will determine directly the complete, two-dimensional displacement field during the image correlation process on digital images. The entire interested image area is discretized into finite elements that are involved in the common image correlation process by use of our algorithms. This image correlation method with finite element formulation has an advantage over subset-based image correlation methods because it satisfies the requirements of displacement continuity and derivative continuity among elements on images. Numerical studies and a real experiment are used to verify the proposed formulation. Results have shown that the image correlation with the finite element formulation is computationally efficient, accurate, and robust
Hejranfar, Kazem; Parseh, Kaveh
2017-09-01
The preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions based on the artificial compressibility (AC) method are implemented at artificial boundaries for the solution of two- and three-dimensional incompressible viscous flows in the generalized curvilinear coordinates. The compatibility equations and the corresponding characteristic variables (or the Riemann invariants) are mathematically derived and then applied as suitable boundary conditions in a high-order accurate incompressible flow solver. The spatial discretization of the resulting system of equations is carried out by the fourth-order compact finite-difference (FD) scheme. In the preconditioning applied here, the value of AC parameter in the flow field and also at the far-field boundary is automatically calculated based on the local flow conditions to enhance the robustness and performance of the solution algorithm. The code is fully parallelized using the Concurrency Runtime standard and Parallel Patterns Library (PPL) and its performance on a multi-core CPU is analyzed. The incompressible viscous flows around a 2-D circular cylinder, a 2-D NACA0012 airfoil and also a 3-D wavy cylinder are simulated and the accuracy and performance of the preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions applied at the far-field boundaries are evaluated in comparison to the simplified boundary conditions and the non-preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions. It is indicated that the preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions considerably improve the convergence rate of the solution of incompressible flows compared to the other boundary conditions and the computational costs are significantly decreased.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, R.A.
1975-06-01
The design evaluation of toroidal field coils on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Poloidal Diverter Experiment (PDX) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been performed by structural analysis with the finite element method. The technique employed has been simplified with supplementary computer programs that are used to generate the input data for the finite element computer program. Significant automation has been provided by computer codes in three areas of data input. These are the definition of coil geometry by a mesh of node points, the definition of finite elements via the node points and the definition of the node point force/displacement boundary conditions. The computer programs by name that have been used to perform the above functions are PDXNODE, ELEMENT and PDXFORC. The geometric finite element modeling options for toroidal field coils provided by PDXNODE include one-fourth or one-half symmetric sections of circular coils, oval shaped coils or dee-shaped coils with or without a beveled wedging surface. The program ELEMENT which defines the finite elements for input to the finite element computer code can provide considerable time and labor savings when defining the model of coils of non-uniform cross-section or when defining the model of coils whose material properties are different in the R and THETA directions due to the laminations of alternate epoxy and copper windings. The modeling features provided by the program ELEMENT have been used to analyze the PLT and the TFTR toroidal field coils with integral support structures. The computer program named PDXFORC is described. It computes the node point forces in a model of a toroidal field coil from the vector crossproduct of the coil current and the magnetic field. The model can be of one-half or one-fourth symmetry to be consistent with the node model defined by PDXNODE, and the magnetic field is computed from toroidal or poloidal coils
A Method of Assembling Wall or Floor Elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2002-01-01
The invention relates to a method of constructing, at the site of use, a building wall (1) or a building floor (1) using a plurality of prefabricated concrete or lightweight concrete plate-shaped wall of floor elements (10), in particular cast elements, which have a front side and a rear side...
A Note on Symplectic, Multisymplectic Scheme in Finite Element Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Han-Ying; JI Xiao-Mei; LI Yu-Qi; WU Ke
2001-01-01
We find that with uniform mesh, the numerical schemes derived from finite element method can keep a preserved symplectic structure in one-dimensional case and a preserved multisymplectic structure in two-dimensional case respectively. These results are in fact the intrinsic reason why the numerical experiments show that such finite element algorithms are accurate in practice.``
THE PRACTICAL ANALYSIS OF FINITE ELEMENTS METHOD ERRORS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalia Bakhova
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract. The most important in the practical plan questions of reliable estimations of finite elementsmethod errors are considered. Definition rules of necessary calculations accuracy are developed. Methodsand ways of the calculations allowing receiving at economical expenditures of computing work the best finalresults are offered.Keywords: error, given the accuracy, finite element method, lagrangian and hermitian elements.
Calculation of two-dimensional thermal transients by the method of finite elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fontoura Rodrigues, J.L.A. da.
1980-08-01
The unsteady linear heat conduction analysis throught anisotropic and/or heterogeneous matter, in either two-dimensional fields with any kind of geometry or three-dimensional fields with axial symmetry is presented. The boundary conditions and the internal heat generation are supposed time - independent. The solution is obtained by modal analysis employing the finite element method under Galerkin formulation. Optionally, it can be used with a reduced resolution method called Stoker Economizing Method wich allows a decrease on the program processing costs. (Author) [pt
Application of the finite element method to the neutron transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, W.R.
1976-01-01
This paper examines the theoretical and practical application of the finite element method to the neutron transport equation. It is shown that in principle the system of equations obtained by application of the finite element method can be solved with certain physical restrictions concerning the criticality of the medium. The convergence of this approximate solution to the exact solution with mesh refinement is examined, and a non-optical estimate of the convergence rate is obtained analytically. It is noted that the numerical results indicate a faster convergence rate and several approaches to obtain this result analytically are outlined. The practical application of the finite element method involved the development of a computer code capable of solving the neutron transport equation in 1-D plane geometry. Vacuum, reflecting, or specified incoming boundary conditions may be analyzed, and all are treated as natural boundary conditions. The time-dependent transport equation is also examined and it is shown that the application of the finite element method in conjunction with the Crank-Nicholson time discretization method results in a system of algebraic equations which is readily solved. Numerical results are given for several critical slab eigenvalue problems, including anisotropic scattering, and the results compare extremely well with benchmark results. It is seen that the finite element code is more efficient than a standard discrete ordinates code for certain problems. A problem with severe heterogeneities is considered and it is shown that the use of discontinuous spatial and angular elements results in a marked improvement in the results. Finally, time-dependent problems are examined and it is seen that the phenomenon of angular mode separation makes the numerical treatment of the transport equation in slab geometry a considerable challenge, with the result that the angular mesh has a dominant effect on obtaining acceptable solutions
Hybrid immersed boundary method for airfoils with a trailing-edge flap
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Behrens, Tim; Shen, Wen Zhong
2013-01-01
In this paper, a hybrid immersed boundary technique has been developed for simulating turbulent flows past airfoils with moving trailing-edge flaps. Over the main fixed part of the airfoil, the equations are solved using a standard body-fitted finite volume technique, whereas the moving trailing......-edge flap is simulated using the immersed boundary method on a curvilinear mesh. An existing in-house-developed flow solver is employed to solve the incompressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations together with the k-ω turbulence model. To achieve consistent wall boundary conditions at the immersed...... boundaries the k-ωturbulence model is modified and adapted to the local conditions associated with the immersed boundary method. The obtained results show that the hybrid approach is an efficient and accurate method for solving turbulent flows past airfoils with a trailing-edge flap and that flow control...
Trace element patterns at a non-marine cretaceous-tertiary boundary
Gilmore, J.S.; Knight, J.D.; Orth, C.J.; Pillmore, C.L.; Tschudy, R.H.
1984-01-01
At the fossil-pollen-defined Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton Basin of New Mexico and Colorado, an iridium abundance anomaly and excess scandium, titanium, and chromium are associated with a thin ash or dust fallout bed (now kaolinitic clay) that was preserved in freshwater coal swamps. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.
Paxton, Bill; Schwab, Josiah; Bauer, Evan B.; Bildsten, Lars; Blinnikov, Sergei; Duffell, Paul; Farmer, R.; Goldberg, Jared A.; Marchant, Pablo; Sorokina, Elena; Thoul, Anne; Townsend, Richard H. D.; Timmes, F. X.
2017-01-01
We update the capabilities of the software instrument Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) and enhance its ease of use and availability. Our new approach to locating convective boundaries is consistent with the physics of convection, and yields reliable values of the convective core mass during both hydrogen and helium burning phases. Stars with $M
A boundary integral method for two-dimensional (non)-Newtonian drops in slow viscous flow
Toose, E.M.; Geurts, B.J.; Kuerten, J.G.M.
1995-01-01
A boundary integral method for the simulation of the time-dependent deformation of Newtonian or non-Newtonian drops suspended in a Newtonian fluid is developed. The boundary integral formulation for Stokes flow is used and the non-Newtonian stress is treated as a source term which yields an extra
Thorpe method applied to planetary boundary layer data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez-Nieto, P.L.; Cano, J.L.; Tijera, M.; Cano, D.
2008-01-01
Turbulence affects the dynamics of atmospheric processes by enhancing the transport of mass, heat, humidity and pollutants. The global objective for our work is to analyze some direct turbulent descriptors which reflect the mixing processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In this paper we present results related to the Thorpe displacements d Τ , the maximum Thorpe displacement (d Τ ) max and the Thorpe scale L Τ , the Ozmidov scale and their time evolution in the ABL during a day cycle. A tethered balloon was used to obtain vertical profiles of the atmospheric physical magnitudes up to 1000 m. We discuss the vertical and horizontal variability and how different descriptors are related to atmospheric mixing.
A New Spectral Local Linearization Method for Nonlinear Boundary Layer Flow Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Motsa
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a simple and efficient method for solving highly nonlinear systems of boundary layer flow problems with exponentially decaying profiles. The algorithm of the proposed method is based on an innovative idea of linearizing and decoupling the governing systems of equations and reducing them into a sequence of subsystems of differential equations which are solved using spectral collocation methods. The applicability of the proposed method, hereinafter referred to as the spectral local linearization method (SLLM, is tested on some well-known boundary layer flow equations. The numerical results presented in this investigation indicate that the proposed method, despite being easy to develop and numerically implement, is very robust in that it converges rapidly to yield accurate results and is more efficient in solving very large systems of nonlinear boundary value problems of the similarity variable boundary layer type. The accuracy and numerical stability of the SLLM can further be improved by using successive overrelaxation techniques.
Node-based finite element method for large-scale adaptive fluid analysis in parallel environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toshimitsu, Fujisawa [Tokyo Univ., Collaborative Research Center of Frontier Simulation Software for Industrial Science, Institute of Industrial Science (Japan); Genki, Yagawa [Tokyo Univ., Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science (Japan)
2003-07-01
In this paper, a FEM-based (finite element method) mesh free method with a probabilistic node generation technique is presented. In the proposed method, all computational procedures, from the mesh generation to the solution of a system of equations, can be performed fluently in parallel in terms of nodes. Local finite element mesh is generated robustly around each node, even for harsh boundary shapes such as cracks. The algorithm and the data structure of finite element calculation are based on nodes, and parallel computing is realized by dividing a system of equations by the row of the global coefficient matrix. In addition, the node-based finite element method is accompanied by a probabilistic node generation technique, which generates good-natured points for nodes of finite element mesh. Furthermore, the probabilistic node generation technique can be performed in parallel environments. As a numerical example of the proposed method, we perform a compressible flow simulation containing strong shocks. Numerical simulations with frequent mesh refinement, which are required for such kind of analysis, can effectively be performed on parallel processors by using the proposed method. (authors)
Node-based finite element method for large-scale adaptive fluid analysis in parallel environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toshimitsu, Fujisawa; Genki, Yagawa
2003-01-01
In this paper, a FEM-based (finite element method) mesh free method with a probabilistic node generation technique is presented. In the proposed method, all computational procedures, from the mesh generation to the solution of a system of equations, can be performed fluently in parallel in terms of nodes. Local finite element mesh is generated robustly around each node, even for harsh boundary shapes such as cracks. The algorithm and the data structure of finite element calculation are based on nodes, and parallel computing is realized by dividing a system of equations by the row of the global coefficient matrix. In addition, the node-based finite element method is accompanied by a probabilistic node generation technique, which generates good-natured points for nodes of finite element mesh. Furthermore, the probabilistic node generation technique can be performed in parallel environments. As a numerical example of the proposed method, we perform a compressible flow simulation containing strong shocks. Numerical simulations with frequent mesh refinement, which are required for such kind of analysis, can effectively be performed on parallel processors by using the proposed method. (authors)
van der Stelt, A.A.; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Quak, W.; Akkerman, Remko; Huetink, Han; Menary, G
2011-01-01
In this paper, the material flow around the pin during friction stir welding (FSW) is simulated using a 2D plane strain model. A pin rotates without translation in a disc with elasto-viscoplastic material properties and the outer boundary of the disc is clamped. Two numerical methods are used to
Comparison of different precondtioners for nonsymmtric finite volume element methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishev, I.D.
1996-12-31
We consider a few different preconditioners for the linear systems arising from the discretization of 3-D convection-diffusion problems with the finite volume element method. Their theoretical and computational convergence rates are compared and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Taku; Saitoh, Ayumu; Kamitani, Atsushi; Nakamura, Hiroaki
2011-01-01
For the purpose of speed-up of the three-dimensional eXtended Boundary-Node Method (X-BNM), an efficient algorithm for evaluating influence coefficients has been developed. The algorithm can be easily implemented into the X-BNM without using any integration cells. By applying the resulting X-BNM to the Laplace problem, the performance of the algorithm is numerically investigated. The numerical experiments show that, by using the algorithm, computational costs for evaluating influence coefficients in the X-BNM are reduced considerably. Especially for a large-sized problem, the algorithm is efficiently performed, and the computational costs of the X-BNM are close to those of the Boundary-Element Method (BEM). In addition, for the problem, the X-BNM shows almost the same accuracy as that of the BEM. (author)
Review of Tomographic Imaging using Finite Element Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohd Fua’ad RAHMAT
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Many types of techniques for process tomography were proposed and developed during the past 20 years. This paper review the techniques and the current state of knowledge and experience on the subject, aimed at highlighting the problems associated with the non finite element methods, such as the ill posed, ill conditioned which relates to the accuracy and sensitivity of measurements. In this paper, considerations for choice of sensors and its applications were outlined and descriptions of non finite element tomography systems were presented. The finite element method tomography system as obtained from recent works, suitable for process control and measurement were also presented.
Seo, Jung Hee; Mittal, Rajat
2011-08-10
A method for reducing the spurious pressure oscillations observed when simulating moving boundary flow problems with sharp-interface immersed boundary methods (IBMs) is proposed. By first identifying the primary cause of these oscillations to be the violation of the geometric conservation law near the immersed boundary, we adopt a cut-cell based approach to strictly enforce geometric conservation. In order to limit the complexity associated with the cut-cell method, the cut-cell based discretization is limited only to the pressure Poisson and velocity correction equations in the fractional-step method and the small-cell problem tackled by introducing a virtual cell-merging technique. The method is shown to retain all the desirable properties of the original finite-difference based IBM while at the same time, reducing pressure oscillations for moving boundaries by roughly an order of magnitude.
Spectral/ hp element methods: Recent developments, applications, and perspectives
Xu, Hui; Cantwell, Chris D.; Monteserin, Carlos; Eskilsson, Claes; Engsig-Karup, Allan P.; Sherwin, Spencer J.
2018-02-01
The spectral/ hp element method combines the geometric flexibility of the classical h-type finite element technique with the desirable numerical properties of spectral methods, employing high-degree piecewise polynomial basis functions on coarse finite element-type meshes. The spatial approximation is based upon orthogonal polynomials, such as Legendre or Chebychev polynomials, modified to accommodate a C 0 - continuous expansion. Computationally and theoretically, by increasing the polynomial order p, high-precision solutions and fast convergence can be obtained and, in particular, under certain regularity assumptions an exponential reduction in approximation error between numerical and exact solutions can be achieved. This method has now been applied in many simulation studies of both fundamental and practical engineering flows. This paper briefly describes the formulation of the spectral/ hp element method and provides an overview of its application to computational fluid dynamics. In particular, it focuses on the use of the spectral/ hp element method in transitional flows and ocean engineering. Finally, some of the major challenges to be overcome in order to use the spectral/ hp element method in more complex science and engineering applications are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tao Ganqiang; Yu Qing; Xiao Xiao
2011-01-01
Viscous and incompressible fluid flow is important for numerous engineering mechanics problems. Because of high non linear and incompressibility for Navier-Stokes equation, it is very difficult to solve Navier-Stokes equation by numerical method. According to its characters of Navier-Stokes equation, quartic derivation controlling equation of the two dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is set up firstly. The method solves the problem for dealing with vorticity boundary and automatically meets incompressibility condition. Then Finite Element equation for Navier-Stokes equation is proposed by using quadratic quadrilateral unit with 8 nodes in which the unit function is quadratic and non linear.-Based on it, the Finite Element program of quadratic quadrilateral unit with 8 nodes is developed. Lastly, numerical experiment proves the accuracy and dependability of the method and also shows the method has good application prospect in computational fluid mechanics. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, K.J.
1982-01-01
The albedo boundary conditions are incorporated into the finite element method using bicubic Hermite element functions in order to reduce the computer memory and computation time in two-group diffusion calculations by excluding the reflector regions in computation space. The basis functions at the core-reflector interfaces are newly established to satisfy the albedo boundary conditions, and then the ''weak'' form of two-group diffusion equations is discretized using the principle of the weighted residual method in combination with the Galerkin approximation. The discretized two-group diffusion equation is then solved by the Gaussian elimination method with the scaled column pivoting algorithm in one-dimensional problem and Gauss-Seidel method in two-dimensional problem. Prior to the application of the method to two-group diffusion problems, the same method is applied to the one-speed neutron transport equation in a bare slab reactor with the vacuum boundary condition to confirm its usefulness in the diffusion calculations. To investigate the applicability of our diffusion method, several numerical calculations are performed: two-dimensional IAEA benchmark problem and two-dimensional ZION problem. The results are compared with the available results from the conventional finite difference and other finite element methods. If the albedo values are appropriately adjusted, our results of the two-dimensional IAEA benchmark problem are agreed within 0.002% of ksub(eff) with the fine mesh PDQ results. Comparing with CITATION results, one-eighth of core memory and one-fifteenth of computing time are required to obtain the same accuracy even though no acceleration technique is used in the present case. Also, it is found that the results are comparable with the other finite element results. However, no significant saving is obtained in computation time comparing with the other finite element results, where the reflector regions are explicity included. This mainly comes from
Wang, P.; Becker, A. A.; Jones, I. A.; Glover, A. T.; Benford, S. D.; Vloeberghs, M.
2009-08-01
A virtual-reality real-time simulation of surgical operations that incorporates the inclusion of a hard tumour is presented. The software is based on Boundary Element (BE) technique. A review of the BE formulation for real-time analysis of two-domain deformable objects, using the pre-solution technique, is presented. The two-domain BE software is incorporated into a surgical simulation system called VIRS to simulate the initiation of a cut on the surface of the soft tissue and extending the cut deeper until the tumour is reached.
Electronic and elemental properties of the Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 surface and grain boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haight, Richard; Shao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Wei; Mitzi, David B.
2014-01-01
X-ray and femtosecond UV photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry and photoluminescence imaging were used to investigate the electronic and elemental properties of the CZTS,Se surface and its oxides. Oxide removal reveals a very Cu poor and Zn rich surface relative to bulk composition. O and Na are observed at the surface and throughout the bulk. Upward bending of the valence bands indicates the presence of negative charge in the surface region and the Fermi level is found near the band gap center. The presence of point defects and the impact of these findings on grain boundary properties will be described
Electronic and elemental properties of the Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 surface and grain boundaries
Haight, Richard; Shao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Wei; Mitzi, David B.
2014-01-01
X-ray and femtosecond UV photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry and photoluminescence imaging were used to investigate the electronic and elemental properties of the CZTS,Se surface and its oxides. Oxide removal reveals a very Cu poor and Zn rich surface relative to bulk composition. O and Na are observed at the surface and throughout the bulk. Upward bending of the valence bands indicates the presence of negative charge in the surface region and the Fermi level is found near the band gap center. The presence of point defects and the impact of these findings on grain boundary properties will be described.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, P; Becker, A A; Jones, I A; Glover, A T; Benford, S D; Vloeberghs, M
2009-01-01
A virtual-reality real-time simulation of surgical operations that incorporates the inclusion of a hard tumour is presented. The software is based on Boundary Element (BE) technique. A review of the BE formulation for real-time analysis of two-domain deformable objects, using the pre-solution technique, is presented. The two-domain BE software is incorporated into a surgical simulation system called VIRS to simulate the initiation of a cut on the surface of the soft tissue and extending the cut deeper until the tumour is reached.
Analysis of concrete beams using applied element method
Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen
2018-03-01
The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a displacement based method of structural analysis. Some of its features are similar to that of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, the structure is analysed by dividing it into several elements similar to FEM. But, in AEM, elements are connected by springs instead of nodes as in the case of FEM. In this paper, background to AEM is discussed and necessary equations are derived. For illustrating the application of AEM, it has been used to analyse plain concrete beam of fixed support condition. The analysis is limited to the analysis of 2-dimensional structures. It was found that the number of springs has no much influence on the results. AEM could predict deflection and reactions with reasonable degree of accuracy.
Linear finite element method for one-dimensional diffusion problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandao, Michele A.; Dominguez, Dany S.; Iglesias, Susana M., E-mail: micheleabrandao@gmail.com, E-mail: dany@labbi.uesc.br, E-mail: smiglesias@uesc.br [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (LCC/DCET/UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas. Laboratorio de Computacao Cientifica
2011-07-01
We describe in this paper the fundamentals of Linear Finite Element Method (LFEM) applied to one-speed diffusion problems in slab geometry. We present the mathematical formulation to solve eigenvalue and fixed source problems. First, we discretized a calculus domain using a finite set of elements. At this point, we obtain the spatial balance equations for zero order and first order spatial moments inside each element. Then, we introduce the linear auxiliary equations to approximate neutron flux and current inside the element and architect a numerical scheme to obtain the solution. We offer numerical results for fixed source typical model problems to illustrate the method's accuracy for coarse-mesh calculations in homogeneous and heterogeneous domains. Also, we compare the accuracy and computational performance of LFEM formulation with conventional Finite Difference Method (FDM). (author)
The Matrix Element Method at Next-to-Leading Order
Campbell, John M.; Giele, Walter T.; Williams, Ciaran
2012-01-01
This paper presents an extension of the matrix element method to next-to-leading order in perturbation theory. To accomplish this we have developed a method to calculate next-to-leading order weights on an event-by-event basis. This allows for the definition of next-to-leading order likelihoods in exactly the same fashion as at leading order, thus extending the matrix element method to next-to-leading order. A welcome by-product of the method is the straightforward and efficient generation of...
An efficient implicit direct forcing immersed boundary method for incompressible flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai, S-G; Ouahsine, A; Smaoui, H; Favier, J; Hoarau, Y
2015-01-01
A novel efficient implicit direct forcing immersed boundary method for incompressible flows with complex boundaries is presented. In the previous work [1], the calculation is performed on the Cartesian grid regardless of the immersed object, with a fictitious force evaluated on the Lagrangian points to mimic the presence of the physical boundaries. However the explicit direct forcing method [1] fails to accurately impose the non-slip boundary condition on the immersed interface. In the present work, the calculation is based on the implicit treatment of the artificial force while in an effective way of system iteration. The accuracy is also improved by solving the Navier-Stokes equation with the rotational incremental pressure- correction projection method of Guermond and Shen [2]. Numerical simulations performed with the proposed method are in good agreement with those in the literature
Robust boundary detection of left ventricles on ultrasound images using ASM-level set method.
Zhang, Yaonan; Gao, Yuan; Li, Hong; Teng, Yueyang; Kang, Yan
2015-01-01
Level set method has been widely used in medical image analysis, but it has difficulties when being used in the segmentation of left ventricular (LV) boundaries on echocardiography images because the boundaries are not very distinguish, and the signal-to-noise ratio of echocardiography images is not very high. In this paper, we introduce the Active Shape Model (ASM) into the traditional level set method to enforce shape constraints. It improves the accuracy of boundary detection and makes the evolution more efficient. The experiments conducted on the real cardiac ultrasound image sequences show a positive and promising result.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aarao, J; Bradshaw-Hajek, B H; Miklavcic, S J; Ward, D A, E-mail: Stan.Miklavcic@unisa.edu.a [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)
2010-05-07
Standard analytical solutions to elliptic boundary value problems on asymmetric domains are rarely, if ever, obtainable. In this paper, we propose a solution technique wherein we embed the original domain into one with simple boundaries where the classical eigenfunction solution approach can be used. The solution in the larger domain, when restricted to the original domain, is then the solution of the original boundary value problem. We call this the extended-domain-eigenfunction method. To illustrate the method's strength and scope, we apply it to Laplace's equation on an annular-like domain.
Development of micro tensile testing method in an FIB system for evaluating grain boundary strength
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, Katsuhiko; Fukuya, Koji
2010-01-01
A micro tensile testing method for evaluating grain boundary strength was developed. Specimens of 2 x 2 x 10μm having one grain boundary were made by focused ion beam (FIB) micro-processing and tensioned in an FIB system in situ. The load was measured from the deflection of the silicon cantilever. The method was applied to aged and unaged Fe-Mn-P alloy specimens with different level of grain boundary phosphorus segregation. The load at intergranular fracture decreased with increasing phosphorus segregation. (author)
Error analysis of semidiscrete finite element methods for inhomogeneous time-fractional diffusion
Jin, B.; Lazarov, R.; Pasciak, J.; Zhou, Z.
2014-01-01
© 2014 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved. We consider the initial-boundary value problem for an inhomogeneous time-fractional diffusion equation with a homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition, a vanishing initial data and a nonsmooth right-hand side in a bounded convex polyhedral domain. We analyse two semidiscrete schemes based on the standard Galerkin and lumped mass finite element methods. Almost optimal error estimates are obtained for right-hand side data f (x, t) ε L∞ (0, T; Hq(ω)), ≤1≥ 1, for both semidiscrete schemes. For the lumped mass method, the optimal L2(ω)-norm error estimate requires symmetric meshes. Finally, twodimensional numerical experiments are presented to verify our theoretical results.
Error analysis of semidiscrete finite element methods for inhomogeneous time-fractional diffusion
Jin, B.
2014-05-30
© 2014 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved. We consider the initial-boundary value problem for an inhomogeneous time-fractional diffusion equation with a homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition, a vanishing initial data and a nonsmooth right-hand side in a bounded convex polyhedral domain. We analyse two semidiscrete schemes based on the standard Galerkin and lumped mass finite element methods. Almost optimal error estimates are obtained for right-hand side data f (x, t) ε L∞ (0, T; Hq(ω)), ≤1≥ 1, for both semidiscrete schemes. For the lumped mass method, the optimal L2(ω)-norm error estimate requires symmetric meshes. Finally, twodimensional numerical experiments are presented to verify our theoretical results.
Error Estimates for a Semidiscrete Finite Element Method for Fractional Order Parabolic Equations
Jin, Bangti
2013-01-01
We consider the initial boundary value problem for a homogeneous time-fractional diffusion equation with an initial condition ν(x) and a homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition in a bounded convex polygonal domain Ω. We study two semidiscrete approximation schemes, i.e., the Galerkin finite element method (FEM) and lumped mass Galerkin FEM, using piecewise linear functions. We establish almost optimal with respect to the data regularity error estimates, including the cases of smooth and nonsmooth initial data, i.e., ν ∈ H2(Ω) ∩ H0 1(Ω) and ν ∈ L2(Ω). For the lumped mass method, the optimal L2-norm error estimate is valid only under an additional assumption on the mesh, which in two dimensions is known to be satisfied for symmetric meshes. Finally, we present some numerical results that give insight into the reliability of the theoretical study. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Numerical experiment on finite element method for matching data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokuda, Shinji; Kumakura, Toshimasa; Yoshimura, Koichi.
1993-03-01
Numerical experiments are presented on the finite element method by Pletzer-Dewar for matching data of an ordinary differential equation with regular singular points by using model equation. Matching data play an important role in nonideal MHD stability analysis of a magnetically confined plasma. In the Pletzer-Dewar method, the Frobenius series for the 'big solution', the fundamental solution which is not square-integrable at the regular singular point, is prescribed. The experiments include studies of the convergence rate of the matching data obtained by the finite element method and of the effect on the results of computation by truncating the Frobenius series at finite terms. It is shown from the present study that the finite element method is an effective method for obtaining the matching data with high accuracy. (author)
Precise magnetostatic field using the finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nascimento, Francisco Rogerio Teixeira do
2013-01-01
The main objective of this work is to simulate electromagnetic fields using the Finite Element Method. Even in the easiest case of electrostatic and magnetostatic numerical simulation some problems appear when the nodal finite element is used. It is difficult to model vector fields with scalar functions mainly in non-homogeneous materials. With the aim to solve these problems two types of techniques are tried: the adaptive remeshing using nodal elements and the edge finite element that ensure the continuity of tangential components. Some numerical analysis of simple electromagnetic problems with homogeneous and non-homogeneous materials are performed using first, the adaptive remeshing based in various error indicators and second, the numerical solution of waveguides using edge finite element. (author)
Li, Xiaofan; Nie, Qing
2009-01-01
Many applications in materials involve surface diffusion of elastically stressed solids. Study of singularity formation and long-time behavior of such solid surfaces requires accurate simulations in both space and time. Here we present a high-order boundary integral method for an elastically stressed solid with axi-symmetry due to surface diffusions. In this method, the boundary integrals for isotropic elasticity in axi-symmetric geometry are approximated through modified alternating quadratu...
Schmitz, Birger; Andersson, Per; Dahl, Jeremy
1988-01-01
Microbial activity and redox-controlled precipitation have been of major importance in the process of metal accumulation in the strongly Ir-enriched Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clay, the Fish Clay, at Stevns Klint in Denmark. Two important findings support this view: 1) Kerogen, recovered by leaching the Fish Clay in HCl and HF, shows an Ir concentration of 1100 ppb; this represents about 50% of the Ir present in the bulk sample Fish Clay. Strong organometallic complexes is the most probable carrier phase for this fraction of Ir. Kerogen separated from the K-T boundary clay at Caravaca, Spain, similarly exhibits enhanced Ir concentrations. 2) Sulfur isotope analyses of metal-rich pyrite spherules, which occur in extreme abundance (about 10% by weight) in the basal Fish Clay, give a δ 34S value of -32%.. This very low value shows that sulfide formation by anaerobic bacteria was intensive in the Fish Clay during early diagenesis. Since the pyrite spherules are major carriers of elements such as Ni, Co, As, Sb and Zn, microbial activity may have played an important role for concentrating these elements. In the Fish Clay large amounts of rare earth elements have precipitated from sea water on fish scales. Analyses reveal that, compared with sea water, the Fish Clay is only about four times less enriched in sea-water derived lanthanides than in Ir. This shows that a sea-water origin is plausible for elements that are strongly enriched in the clay, but whose origin cannot be accounted for by a lithogenic precursor.
SOLUTION OF TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION PROBLEM BY THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Süleyman TAŞGETİREN
1995-01-01
Full Text Available Determination of temperature distribution is generally the first step in the design of machine elements subjected to ubnormal temperatures in their service life and for selection of materials. During this heat transfer analysis, the boundary and enviromental conditions must be modeled realistically and the geometry must be well represented. A variety of materials deviating from simple constant property isotropic material to composit materials having different properties according to direction of reinforcements are to be analysed. Then, the finite element method finds a large application area due to its use of same notation in heat transfer analysis and mechanical analysis of elements. In this study, the general formulation of two dimensional transient heat conduction is developed and a sample solution is given for arectangular bar subjected to convection baundary condition.
Zhenying, Xu; Jiandong, Zhu; Qi, Zhang; Yamba, Philip
2018-06-01
Metallographic microscopy shows that the vast majority of metal materials are composed of many small grains; the grain size of a metal is important for determining the tensile strength, toughness, plasticity, and other mechanical properties. In order to quantitatively evaluate grain size in metals, grain boundaries must be identified in metallographic images. Based on the phenomenon of grain boundary blurring or disconnection in metallographic images, this study develops an algorithm based on regional separation for automatically extracting grain boundaries by an improved mean shift method. Experimental observation shows that the grain boundaries obtained by the proposed algorithm are highly complete and accurate. This research has practical value because the proposed algorithm is suitable for grain boundary extraction from most metallographic images.
Modified Mixed Lagrangian-Eulerian Method Based on Numerical Framework of MT3DMS on Cauchy Boundary.
Suk, Heejun
2016-07-01
MT3DMS, a modular three-dimensional multispecies transport model, has long been a popular model in the groundwater field for simulating solute transport in the saturated zone. However, the method of characteristics (MOC), modified MOC (MMOC), and hybrid MOC (HMOC) included in MT3DMS did not treat Cauchy boundary conditions in a straightforward or rigorous manner, from a mathematical point of view. The MOC, MMOC, and HMOC regard the Cauchy boundary as a source condition. For the source, MOC, MMOC, and HMOC calculate the Lagrangian concentration by setting it equal to the cell concentration at an old time level. However, the above calculation is an approximate method because it does not involve backward tracking in MMOC and HMOC or allow performing forward tracking at the source cell in MOC. To circumvent this problem, a new scheme is proposed that avoids direct calculation of the Lagrangian concentration on the Cauchy boundary. The proposed method combines the numerical formulations of two different schemes, the finite element method (FEM) and the Eulerian-Lagrangian method (ELM), into one global matrix equation. This study demonstrates the limitation of all MT3DMS schemes, including MOC, MMOC, HMOC, and a third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) scheme under Cauchy boundary conditions. By contrast, the proposed method always shows good agreement with the exact solution, regardless of the flow conditions. Finally, the successful application of the proposed method sheds light on the possible flexibility and capability of the MT3DMS to deal with the mass transport problems of all flow regimes. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.
Error Analysis of a Finite Element Method for the Space-Fractional Parabolic Equation
Jin, Bangti; Lazarov, Raytcho; Pasciak, Joseph; Zhou, Zhi
2014-01-01
© 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics We consider an initial boundary value problem for a one-dimensional fractional-order parabolic equation with a space fractional derivative of Riemann-Liouville type and order α ∈ (1, 2). We study a spatial semidiscrete scheme using the standard Galerkin finite element method with piecewise linear finite elements, as well as fully discrete schemes based on the backward Euler method and the Crank-Nicolson method. Error estimates in the L2(D)- and Hα/2 (D)-norm are derived for the semidiscrete scheme and in the L2(D)-norm for the fully discrete schemes. These estimates cover both smooth and nonsmooth initial data and are expressed directly in terms of the smoothness of the initial data. Extensive numerical results are presented to illustrate the theoretical results.
Complex finite element sensitivity method for creep analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez-Farias, Armando; Montoya, Arturo; Millwater, Harry
2015-01-01
The complex finite element method (ZFEM) has been extended to perform sensitivity analysis for mechanical and structural systems undergoing creep deformation. ZFEM uses a complex finite element formulation to provide shape, material, and loading derivatives of the system response, providing an insight into the essential factors which control the behavior of the system as a function of time. A complex variable-based quadrilateral user element (UEL) subroutine implementing the power law creep constitutive formulation was incorporated within the Abaqus commercial finite element software. The results of the complex finite element computations were verified by comparing them to the reference solution for the steady-state creep problem of a thick-walled cylinder in the power law creep range. A practical application of the ZFEM implementation to creep deformation analysis is the calculation of the skeletal point of a notched bar test from a single ZFEM run. In contrast, the standard finite element procedure requires multiple runs. The value of the skeletal point is that it identifies the location where the stress state is accurate, regardless of the certainty of the creep material properties. - Highlights: • A novel finite element sensitivity method (ZFEM) for creep was introduced. • ZFEM has the capability to calculate accurate partial derivatives. • ZFEM can be used for identification of the skeletal point of creep structures. • ZFEM can be easily implemented in a commercial software, e.g. Abaqus. • ZFEM results were shown to be in excellent agreement with analytical solutions
Ground Radiometric Method as a Tool for Determining the Surface Boundary of a Buried Bauxitic Karst
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamal Kareem Ali
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Forty two ground radiometric measurements along nine traverses within a rectangular network area were taken across a bauxitic karst within the Ubaid Formation (Lower Jurassic in the Western Desert of Iraq. A 4-Channel Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GAD-6 with sodium iodide NaI (Tl crystal (GSP-4S was used in the field to measure the total radioactivity of the surface soil. Soil samples collected from the surface at each measurement point and core samples collected from a test well penetrating the karst were analyzed by Gamma ray spectrometer. The main objective of this study was to detect the hidden bauxitic karst and determine its surface boundary. The radioactivity on the surface of the karst was ranging between 60 and 80 count per second (c/s, while the background radioactivity of the Ubaid Formation, which hosts the karst, was ranging between 100 and150 c/s. Chemical weathering, especially dissolution and leaching moved uranium (238U and thorium(232Th from the overburden downward. Accordingly, these elements have been adsorbed on the surface of clay minerals and bauxite buried at a depth of about 5m causing enrichment with radioactivity. The leached overburden lack radioelements, so its radioactivity was less than background radioactivity level. The gamma ray spectroanalysis showed that the radioactivity of 238U and 232Th in the overburden was 0.5 and 3 Bq/Kg, whereas, in the bauxite and flint clay bed, it was 240 and 160 Bq/Kg respectively. Based on the radioactivity anomaly contrast on the surface, an isorad map was plotted and the karst diameter which represents low anomaly was determined to be ranging from 150 to 200m. The current study demonstrates that the ground radiometric method is quite useful for detecting the bauxitic karst and inferring its surface boundaries.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akimov Pavel
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The distinctive paper is devoted to the two-dimensional semi-analytical solution of boundary problems of analysis of shear walls with the use of discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM. This approach allows obtaining the exact analytical solution in one direction (so-called “basic” direction, also decrease the size of the problem to one-dimensional common finite element analysis. The resulting multipoint boundary problem for the first-order system of ordinary differential equations with piecewise constant coefficients is solved analytically. The proposed method is rather efficient for evaluation of the boundary effect (such as the stress field near the concentrated force. DCFEM also has a completely computer-oriented algorithm, computational stability, optimal conditionality of resultant system and it is applicable for the various loads at an arbitrary point or a region of the wall.
Method of removing crud deposited on fuel element clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokota, Tokunobu; Yashima, Akira; Tajima, Jun-ichiro.
1982-01-01
Purpose: To enable easy elimination of claddings deposited on the surface of fuel element. Method: An operator manipulates a pole from above a platform, engages the longitudinal flange of the cover to the opening at the upper end of a channel box and starts up a suction pump. The suction amount of the pump is set such that water flow becomes within the channel box at greater flow rate than the operational flow rate in the channel box of the fuel element clusters during reactor operation. This enables to remove crud deposited on the surface of individual fuel elements with ease and rapidly without detaching the channel box. (Moriyama, K.)
Scalable fast multipole methods for vortex element methods
Hu, Qi; Gumerov, Nail A.; Yokota, Rio; Barba, Lorena A.; Duraiswami, Ramani
2012-01-01
work for a scalar heterogeneous FMM algorithm, we develop a new FMM-based vortex method capable of simulating general flows including turbulence on heterogeneous architectures, which distributes the work between multi-core CPUs and GPUs to best utilize
Finite element and discontinuous Galerkin methods for transient wave equations
Cohen, Gary
2017-01-01
This monograph presents numerical methods for solving transient wave equations (i.e. in time domain). More precisely, it provides an overview of continuous and discontinuous finite element methods for these equations, including their implementation in physical models, an extensive description of 2D and 3D elements with different shapes, such as prisms or pyramids, an analysis of the accuracy of the methods and the study of the Maxwell’s system and the important problem of its spurious free approximations. After recalling the classical models, i.e. acoustics, linear elastodynamics and electromagnetism and their variational formulations, the authors present a wide variety of finite elements of different shapes useful for the numerical resolution of wave equations. Then, they focus on the construction of efficient continuous and discontinuous Galerkin methods and study their accuracy by plane wave techniques and a priori error estimates. A chapter is devoted to the Maxwell’s system and the important problem ...
Kot, V. A.
2017-11-01
The modern state of approximate integral methods used in applications, where the processes of heat conduction and heat and mass transfer are of first importance, is considered. Integral methods have found a wide utility in different fields of knowledge: problems of heat conduction with different heat-exchange conditions, simulation of thermal protection, Stefantype problems, microwave heating of a substance, problems on a boundary layer, simulation of a fluid flow in a channel, thermal explosion, laser and plasma treatment of materials, simulation of the formation and melting of ice, inverse heat problems, temperature and thermal definition of nanoparticles and nanoliquids, and others. Moreover, polynomial solutions are of interest because the determination of a temperature (concentration) field is an intermediate stage in the mathematical description of any other process. The following main methods were investigated on the basis of the error norms: the Tsoi and Postol’nik methods, the method of integral relations, the Gudman integral method of heat balance, the improved Volkov integral method, the matched integral method, the modified Hristov method, the Mayer integral method, the Kudinov method of additional boundary conditions, the Fedorov boundary method, the method of weighted temperature function, the integral method of boundary characteristics. It was established that the two last-mentioned methods are characterized by high convergence and frequently give solutions whose accuracy is not worse that the accuracy of numerical solutions.
Navier-Stokes equations by the finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Portella, P.E.
1984-01-01
A computer program to solve the Navier-Stokes equations by using the Finite Element Method is implemented. The solutions variables investigated are stream-function/vorticity in the steady case and velocity/pressure in the steady state and transient cases. For steady state flow the equations are solved simultaneously by the Newton-Raphson method. For the time dependent formulation, a fractional step method is employed to discretize in time and artificial viscosity is used to preclude spurious oscilations in the solution. The element used is the three node triangle. Some numerical examples are presented and comparisons are made with applications already existent. (Author) [pt
Nucleon matrix elements using the variational method in lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dragos, J.; Kamleh, W.; Leinweber, D.B.; Zanotti, J.M.; Rakow, P.E.L.; Young, R.D.; Adelaide Univ., SA
2016-06-01
The extraction of hadron matrix elements in lattice QCD using the standard two- and threepoint correlator functions demands careful attention to systematic uncertainties. One of the most commonly studied sources of systematic error is contamination from excited states. We apply the variational method to calculate the axial vector current g_A, the scalar current g_S and the quark momentum fraction left angle x right angle of the nucleon and we compare the results to the more commonly used summation and two-exponential fit methods. The results demonstrate that the variational approach offers a more efficient and robust method for the determination of nucleon matrix elements.
Method for fuel element leak detection in pressurized water reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunze, U.
1983-01-01
The method is aimed at detecting fuel element leaks during reactor operation. It is based on neutron flux measurements at many points in the core, using at least two detectors at a time. The detectors must be arranged in the direction of the coolant flow. Values obtained from periodic measurements are compared with threshold values. The location of fuel element leaks is determined from those values exceeding the threshold of individual detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, M.G.; Kim, D.; Matlock, D.K.; Wagoner, R.H.
2010-01-01
Research highlights: → Robust microstructure-based FE mesh generation technique was developed. → Local deformation behavior near phase boundaries could be quantitatively understood. → Macroscopic failure could be connected to microscopic deformation behavior of multi-phase steel. - Abstract: A qualitative analysis was carried out on the formability of dual-phase (DP) steels by introducing a realistic microstructure-based finite element approach. The present microstructure-based model was constructed using a mesh generation process with a boundary-smoothing algorithm after proper image processing. The developed model was applied to hole-expansion formability tests for DP steel sheets having different volume fractions and morphological features. On the basis of the microstructural inhomogeneity observed in the scanning electron micrographs of the DP steel sheets, it was inferred that the localized plastic deformation in the ferritic phase might be closely related to the macroscopic formability of DP steel. The experimentally observed difference between the hole-expansion formability of two different microstructures was reasonably explained by using the present finite element model.
An element-free Galerkin (EFG) method for generalized Fisher equations (GFE)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi Ting-Yu; Ge Hong-Xia; Cheng Rong-Jun
2013-01-01
A generalized Fisher equation (GFE) relates the time derivative of the average of the intrinsic rate of growth to its variance. The exact mathematical result of the GFE has been widely used in population dynamics and genetics, where it originated. Many researchers have studied the numerical solutions of the GFE, up to now. In this paper, we introduce an element-free Galerkin (EFG) method based on the moving least-square approximation to approximate positive solutions of the GFE from population dynamics. Compared with other numerical methods, the EFG method for the GFE needs only scattered nodes instead of meshing the domain of the problem. The Galerkin weak form is used to obtain the discrete equations, and the essential boundary conditions are enforced by the penalty method. In comparison with the traditional method, numerical solutions show that the new method has higher accuracy and better convergence. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method
Nonlinear nonstationary analysis with the finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaz, L.E.
1981-01-01
In this paper, after some introductory remarks on numerical methods for the integration of initial value problems, the applicability of the finite element method for transient diffusion analysis as well as dynamic and inelastic analysis is discussed, and some examples are presented. (RW) [de
The future of the finite element method in geotechnics
Brinkgreve, R.B.J.
2012-01-01
In this presentation a vision is given on tlie fiiture of the finite element method (FEM) for geotechnical engineering and design. In the past 20 years the FEM has proven to be a powerful method for estimating deformation, stability and groundwater flow in geoteclmical stmctures. Much has been
Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for hyperbolic differential equations
van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; van der Ven, H.; Boelens, O.J.; Boelens, O.J.; Toro, E.F.
2002-01-01
In this paper a suryey is given of the important steps in the development of discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for hyperbolic partial differential equations. Special attention is paid to the application of the discontinuous Galerkin method to the solution of the Euler equations of gas
Instrumental methods for analysis of some elements in flour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zagrodzki, P.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Malec, P.; Krosniak, M.; Knap, W.
1993-10-01
For ten various brands of flour contents of chosen (heavy) elements were determined by means of ICP, GF-AAS, PIXE and ASV/CSV methods. General performance of participating laboratories as well as pros and cons of different analytical methods were compared and discussed. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs, 7 tabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaogan Ye
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Low noise axial piston pumps become the rapid increasing demand in modern hydraulic fluid power systems. This paper proposes a systematic approach to simulate the vibroacoustic characteristics of an axial piston pump using a hybrid lumped parameters/finite element/boundary element (LP/FE/BE model, and large amount of experimental work was performed to validate the model. The LP model was developed to calculate the excitation forces and was validated by a comparison of outlet flow ripples. The FE model was developed to calculate the vibration of the pump, in which the modeling of main friction pairs using different spring elements was presented in detail, and the FE model was validated using experimental modal analysis and measured vibrations. The BE model was used to calculate the noise emitted from the pump, and a measurement of sound pressure level at representative field points in a hemianechoic chamber was conducted to validate the BE model. Comparisons between the simulated and measured results show that the developed LP/FE/BE model is effective in capturing the vibroacoustic characteristics of the pump. The presented approach can be extended to other types of fluid power components and contributes to the development of quieter fluid power systems.
A General 2D Meshless Interpolating Boundary Node Method Based on the Parameter Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongyin Yang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The presented study proposed an improved interpolating boundary node method (IIBNM for 2D potential problems. The improved interpolating moving least-square (IIMLS method was applied to construct the shape functions, of which the delta function properties and boundary conditions were directly implemented. In addition, any weight function used in the moving least-square (MLS method was also applicable in the IIMLS method. Boundary cells were required in the computation of the boundary integrals, and additional discretization error was not avoided if traditional cells were used to approximate the geometry. The present study applied the parametric cells created in the parameter space to preserve the exact geometry, and the geometry was maintained due to the number of cells. Only the number of nodes on the boundary was required as additional information for boundary node construction. Most importantly, the IIMLS method can be applied in the parameter space to construct shape functions without the requirement of additional computations for the curve length.
Aborode, Fatai Adigun; Raab, Andrea; Foster, Simon; Lombi, Enzo; Maher, William; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Joerg
2015-07-01
Three month old Thunbergia alata were exposed for 13 days to 10 μM selenite to determine the biotransformation of selenite in their roots. Selenium in formic acid extracts (80 ± 3%) was present as selenopeptides with Se-S bonds and selenium-PC complexes (selenocysteinyl-2-3-dihydroxypropionyl-glutathione, seleno-phytochelatin2, seleno-di-glutathione). An analytical method using HPLC-ICPMS to detect and quantify elemental selenium in roots of T. alata plants using sodium sulfite to quantitatively transform elemental selenium to selenosulfate was also developed. Elemental selenium was determined as 18 ± 4% of the total selenium in the roots which was equivalent to the selenium not extracted using formic acid extraction. The results are in an agreement with the XAS measurements of the exposed roots which showed no occurrence of selenite or selenate but a mixture of selenocysteine and elemental selenium.
Scalable fast multipole methods for vortex element methods
Hu, Qi
2012-11-01
We use a particle-based method to simulate incompressible flows, where the Fast Multipole Method (FMM) is used to accelerate the calculation of particle interactions. The most time-consuming kernelsâ\\'the Biot-Savart equation and stretching term of the vorticity equationâ\\'are mathematically reformulated so that only two Laplace scalar potentials are used instead of six, while automatically ensuring divergence-free far-field computation. Based on this formulation, and on our previous work for a scalar heterogeneous FMM algorithm, we develop a new FMM-based vortex method capable of simulating general flows including turbulence on heterogeneous architectures, which distributes the work between multi-core CPUs and GPUs to best utilize the hardware resources and achieve excellent scalability. The algorithm also uses new data structures which can dynamically manage inter-node communication and load balance efficiently but with only a small parallel construction overhead. This algorithm can scale to large-sized clusters showing both strong and weak scalability. Careful error and timing trade-off analysis are also performed for the cutoff functions induced by the vortex particle method. Our implementation can perform one time step of the velocity+stretching for one billion particles on 32 nodes in 55.9 seconds, which yields 49.12 Tflop/s. © 2012 IEEE.
Simulation of Thermal Flow Problems via a Hybrid Immersed Boundary-Lattice Boltzmann Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Wu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A hybrid immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM is presented in this work to simulate the thermal flow problems. In current approach, the flow field is resolved by using our recently developed boundary condition-enforced IB-LBM (Wu and Shu, (2009. The nonslip boundary condition on the solid boundary is enforced in simulation. At the same time, to capture the temperature development, the conventional energy equation is resolved. To model the effect of immersed boundary on temperature field, the heat source term is introduced. Different from previous studies, the heat source term is set as unknown rather than predetermined. Inspired by the idea in (Wu and Shu, (2009, the unknown is calculated in such a way that the temperature at the boundary interpolated from the corrected temperature field accurately satisfies the thermal boundary condition. In addition, based on the resolved temperature correction, an efficient way to compute the local and average Nusselt numbers is also proposed in this work. As compared with traditional implementation, no approximation for temperature gradients is required. To validate the present method, the numerical simulations of forced convection are carried out. The obtained results show good agreement with data in the literature.
A boundary-fitted staggered difference method for incompressible flow using Riemann geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koshizuka, Seiichi; Kondo, Shunsuke; Oka, Yoshiaki.
1990-01-01
A boundary-fitted staggered difference method (BFSDM) is investigated for incompressible flow in nuclear plants. BFSDM employs control cells for scalars, staggered location of velocity components, and integrated formulation of div=0. Governing equations are written as coordinate-free forms using Riemann geometry. Flow velocity is represented with contravariant physical components in the present method. Connection terms emerge as source terms in the coordinate-free governing equations. These terms are studied from the viewpoints of physical meaning, numerical stability, and conservative property. Some flows on a round or slant boundary are solved using boundary-fitted curvilinear (BFC) grids and rectangular grids to compare the present method and the rectangular-type (R-type) staggered difference method (SDM). Supercomputing of the present method, including vector processing, is also discussed compared with the R-type method. (author)
Spectral element method for elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, Linlin; Zhou, Yuanguo; Wang, Jia-Min; Zhuang, Mingwei [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, and Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: liuna@xmu.edu.cn [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, and Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu, Qing Huo, E-mail: qhliu@duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708 (United States)
2016-12-15
Numerical techniques in time domain are widespread in seismic and acoustic modeling. In some applications, however, frequency-domain techniques can be advantageous over the time-domain approach when narrow band results are desired, especially if multiple sources can be handled more conveniently in the frequency domain. Moreover, the medium attenuation effects can be more accurately and conveniently modeled in the frequency domain. In this paper, we present a spectral-element method (SEM) in frequency domain to simulate elastic and acoustic waves in anisotropic, heterogeneous, and lossy media. The SEM is based upon the finite-element framework and has exponential convergence because of the use of GLL basis functions. The anisotropic perfectly matched layer is employed to truncate the boundary for unbounded problems. Compared with the conventional finite-element method, the number of unknowns in the SEM is significantly reduced, and higher order accuracy is obtained due to its spectral accuracy. To account for the acoustic-solid interaction, the domain decomposition method (DDM) based upon the discontinuous Galerkin spectral-element method is proposed. Numerical experiments show the proposed method can be an efficient alternative for accurate calculation of elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Václav URUBA
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Separation of the turbulent boundary layer (BL on a flat plate under adverse pressure gradient was studied experimentally using Time-Resolved PIV technique. The results of spatio-temporal analysis of flow-field in the separation zone are presented. For this purpose, the POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and its extension BOD (Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition techniques are applied as well as dynamical approach based on POPs (Principal Oscillation Patterns method. The study contributes to understanding physical mechanisms of a boundary layer separation process. The acquired information could be used to improve strategies of a boundary layer separation control.
On Round-off Error for Adaptive Finite Element Methods
Alvarez-Aramberri, J.
2012-06-02
Round-off error analysis has been historically studied by analyzing the condition number of the associated matrix. By controlling the size of the condition number, it is possible to guarantee a prescribed round-off error tolerance. However, the opposite is not true, since it is possible to have a system of linear equations with an arbitrarily large condition number that still delivers a small round-off error. In this paper, we perform a round-off error analysis in context of 1D and 2D hp-adaptive Finite Element simulations for the case of Poisson equation. We conclude that boundary conditions play a fundamental role on the round-off error analysis, specially for the so-called ‘radical meshes’. Moreover, we illustrate the importance of the right-hand side when analyzing the round-off error, which is independent of the condition number of the matrix.
On Round-off Error for Adaptive Finite Element Methods
Alvarez-Aramberri, J.; Pardo, David; Paszynski, Maciej; Collier, Nathan; Dalcin, Lisandro; Calo, Victor M.
2012-01-01
Round-off error analysis has been historically studied by analyzing the condition number of the associated matrix. By controlling the size of the condition number, it is possible to guarantee a prescribed round-off error tolerance. However, the opposite is not true, since it is possible to have a system of linear equations with an arbitrarily large condition number that still delivers a small round-off error. In this paper, we perform a round-off error analysis in context of 1D and 2D hp-adaptive Finite Element simulations for the case of Poisson equation. We conclude that boundary conditions play a fundamental role on the round-off error analysis, specially for the so-called ‘radical meshes’. Moreover, we illustrate the importance of the right-hand side when analyzing the round-off error, which is independent of the condition number of the matrix.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G Boroni
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM has shown great potential in fluid simulations, but performance issues and difficulties to manage complex boundary conditions have hindered a wider application. The upcoming of Graphic Processing Units (GPU Computing offered a possible solution for the performance issue, and methods like the Immersed Boundary (IB algorithm proved to be a flexible solution to boundaries. Unfortunately, the implicit IB algorithm makes the LBM implementation in GPU a non-trivial task. This work presents a fully parallel GPU implementation of LBM in combination with IB. The fluid-boundary interaction is implemented via GPU kernels, using execution configurations and data structures specifically designed to accelerate each code execution. Simulations were validated against experimental and analytical data showing good agreement and improving the computational time. Substantial reductions of calculation rates were achieved, lowering down the required time to execute the same model in a CPU to about two magnitude orders.
A method to characterize the roughness of 2-D line features: recrystallization boundaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sun, Jun; Zhang, Yubin; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm
2017-01-01
A method is presented, which allows quantification of the roughness of nonplanar boundaries of objects for which the neutral plane is not known. The method provides quantitative descriptions of both the local and global characteristics. How the method can be used to estimate the sizes of rough fe...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loewe, Konrad
2016-10-18
The first part of the thesis investigates the diffusion of rare-earth (RE) elements in commercial sintered Nd-Fe-B based permanent magnets. A strong temperature dependence of the diffusion distance and resulting change in magnetic properties were found. A maximum increase in coercivity of ∼+350 kA/m using a Dy diffusion source occurred at the optimum annealing temperature of 900 C. After annealing for 6 h at this temperature, a Dy diffusion distance of about 4 mm has been observed with a scanning Hall probe. Consequently, the maximum thickness of grain boundary diffusion processed magnets with homogeneous properties is also only a few mm. The microstructural changes in the magnets after diffusion were investigated by electron microscopy coupled with electron probe microanalysis. It was found that the diffusion of Dy into sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets occurs along the grain boundary phases, which is in accordance with previous studies. A partial melting of the Nd-Fe-B grains during the annealing process lead to the formation of so - called (Nd,Dy)-Fe-B shells at the outer part of the grains. These shells are μm thick at the immediate surface of the magnet and become thinner with increasing diffusion distance towards the center of the bulk. With scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with electron probe analysis a Dy content of about 1 at.% was found in a shell located about 1.5 mm away from the surface of the magnet. The evaluation of diffusion speeds of Dy and other RE (Tb, Ce, Gd) in Nd-Fe-B magnets showed that Tb diffuses significantly faster than Dy, and Ce slightly slower than Dy, which is attributed to differences in the respective phase diagrams. The addition of Gd to the grain boundaries has an adverse effect on coercivity. Exemplary of the heavy rare earth element Tb, the nano - scale elemental distribution around the grain boundaries after the diffusion process was visualized with high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy
A Testable Design Method for Memories by Boundary Scan Technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiao Guo-Hui
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a design for test the embedded flash in an object System-on-a-chip (SoC. The feature of the Flash TAP (Test Access Port complies with the IEEE std.1149.1, and it can select different scan chains and other control registers for other test. By the trade-off between the test time and the circuit area, an IST (In System Test circuit is designed in the SoC. Experiment results on the embedded memory have shown that the proposed method costs small testing timing by the use of IST.
A finite element method for SSI time history calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ni, X.; Gantenbein, F.; Petit, M.
1989-01-01
The method which is proposed is based on a finite element modelization for the soil and the structure and a time history calculation. It has been developed for plane and axisymmetric geometries. The principle of this method is presented, then applications are given, first to a linear calculation for which results will be compared to those obtained by standard methods. Then results for a non linear behavior are described
A stochastic method for computing hadronic matrix elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexandrou, Constantia [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computational-based Science and Technology Research Center; Dinter, Simon; Drach, Vincent [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Jansen, Karl [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Renner, Dru B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration
2013-02-15
We present a stochastic method for the calculation of baryon three-point functions that is more versatile compared to the typically used sequential method. We analyze the scaling of the error of the stochastically evaluated three-point function with the lattice volume and find a favorable signal-to-noise ratio suggesting that our stochastic method can be used efficiently at large volumes to compute hadronic matrix elements.
Thermohydraulic analysis in pipelines using the finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, L.E.; Idelsohn, S.R.
1984-01-01
The Finite Element Method (FEM) is employed for the numerical solution of fluid flow problems with combined heat transfer mechanisms. Boussinesq approximations are used for the solution of the governing equations. The application of the FEM leads to a set of simultaneous nonlinear equations. The development of the method, for the solution of bidimensional and axisymmetric problems, is presented. Examples of fluid flow in pipes, including natural and forced convection, are solved with the proposed method and discussed in the paper. (Author) [pt
A finite element method for SSI time history calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ni, X.M.; Gantenbein, F.; Petit, M.
1989-01-01
The method which is proposed is based on a finite element modelisation for the soil and the structure and a time history calculation. It has been developed for plane and axisymmetric geometries. The principle of this method will be presented, then applications will be given, first to a linear calculation for which results will be compared to those obtained by standard methods. Then results for a non linear behavior will be described
Nuclear analytical methods for trace element studies in calcified tissues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaudhry, M.A.; Chaudhry, M.N.
2001-01-01
Full text: Various nuclear analytical methods have been developed and applied to determine the elemental composition of calcified tissues (teeth and bones). Fluorine was determined by prompt gamma activation analysis through the 19 F(p,ag) 16 O reaction. Carbon was measured by activation analysis with He-3 ions, and the technique of Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was applied to simultaneously determine Ca, P, and trace elements in well-documented teeth. Dental hard tissues, enamel, dentine, cement, and their junctions, as well as different parts of the same tissue, were examined separately. Furthermore, using a Proton Microprobe, we measured the surface distribution of F and other elements on and around carious lesions on the enamel. The depth profiles of F, and other elements, were also measured right up to the amelodentin junction
Matlab and C programming for Trefftz finite element methods
Qin, Qing-Hua
2008-01-01
Although the Trefftz finite element method (FEM) has become a powerful computational tool in the analysis of plane elasticity, thin and thick plate bending, Poisson's equation, heat conduction, and piezoelectric materials, there are few books that offer a comprehensive computer programming treatment of the subject. Collecting results scattered in the literature, MATLAB® and C Programming for Trefftz Finite Element Methods provides the detailed MATLAB® and C programming processes in applications of the Trefftz FEM to potential and elastic problems. The book begins with an introduction to th
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kowsary, F.; Pooladvand, K.; Pourshaghaghy, A.
2007-01-01
In this paper, an appropriate distribution of the heating elements' strengths in a radiation furnace is estimated using inverse methods so that a pre-specified temperature and heat flux distribution is attained on the design surface. Minimization of the sum of the squares of the error function is performed using the variable metric method (VMM), and the results are compared with those obtained by the conjugate gradient method (CGM) established previously in the literature. It is shown via test cases and a well-founded validation procedure that the VMM, when using a 'regularized' estimator, is more accurate and is able to reach at a higher quality final solution as compared to the CGM. The test cases used in this study were two-dimensional furnaces filled with an absorbing, emitting, and scattering gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yankui Sun
2016-03-01
Full Text Available With the introduction of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, much larger image datasets are routinely acquired compared to what was possible using the previous generation of time-domain OCT. Thus, there is a critical need for the development of three-dimensional (3D segmentation methods for processing these data. We present here a novel 3D automatic segmentation method for retinal OCT volume data. Briefly, to segment a boundary surface, two OCT volume datasets are obtained by using a 3D smoothing filter and a 3D differential filter. Their linear combination is then calculated to generate new volume data with an enhanced boundary surface, where pixel intensity, boundary position information, and intensity changes on both sides of the boundary surface are used simultaneously. Next, preliminary discrete boundary points are detected from the A-Scans of the volume data. Finally, surface smoothness constraints and a dynamic threshold are applied to obtain a smoothed boundary surface by correcting a small number of error points. Our method can extract retinal layer boundary surfaces sequentially with a decreasing search region of volume data. We performed automatic segmentation on eight human OCT volume datasets acquired from a commercial Spectralis OCT system, where each volume of datasets contains 97 OCT B-Scan images with a resolution of 496×512 (each B-Scan comprising 512 A-Scans containing 496 pixels; experimental results show that this method can accurately segment seven layer boundary surfaces in normal as well as some abnormal eyes.
Immersed boundary method combined with a high order compact scheme on half-staggered meshes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Księżyk, M; Tyliszczak, A
2014-01-01
This paper presents the results of computations of incompressible flows performed with a high-order compact scheme and the immersed boundary method. The solution algorithm is based on the projection method implemented using the half-staggered grid arrangement in which the velocity components are stored in the same locations while the pressure nodes are shifted half a cell size. The time discretization is performed using the predictor-corrector method in which the forcing terms used in the immersed boundary method acts in both steps. The solution algorithm is verified based on 2D flow problems (flow in a lid-driven skewed cavity, flow over a backward facing step) and turns out to be very accurate on computational meshes comparable with ones used in the classical approaches, i.e. not based on the immersed boundary method.