Market access through bound tariffs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal
2010-01-01
WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...
Market Access through Bound Tariffs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal
WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...
Shepotylo, Oleksandr; Tarr, David G.
2012-01-01
After 18 years of negotiations, Russia has joined the World Trade Organization. This paper assesses how the tariff structure of the Russian Federation will change as a result of the phased implementation of its World Trade Organization commitments between 2012 and 2020 and how it has changed as a result of its agreement to participate in a Customs Union with Kazakhstan and Belarus. The an...
Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.
. This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with heterogeneous firms subject to high and low tariffs. We examine the welfare effects of applying three different tariff reduction formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula......WTO negotiations rely on tariff reduction formulas. It has been argued that formula approaches are of increasing importance in trade talks, because of the large number of countries involved, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (e.g. tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates....... No single formula dominates for all conditions. The ranking of the three tools depends on the degree of product differentiation in the industry, and the achieved reduction in the average tariff....
Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...
Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.
2006-01-01
a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small......This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark...... existing reforms are locally optimal, provide geometric illustrations and compare welfare effectiveness of reforms using numerical examples. Moreover, being a general concept, we apply it to the issue of market access and examine its implications. Overall, the paper's contribution lies in presenting...
Tariffs Formation on oil transportation
Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu. V.; Grivtsova, I. S.; Dmitrieva, N. V.
2016-09-01
Oil transportation via trunk pipelines is an important part of the oil industry's activity. The main instrument of tariff regulation is the method of tariffs formation. Three methods of tariffs formation such as the method of economically justified costs (the Cost plus method), the method of economically justified return on investment capital (the RAB method), and the method of tariffs indexation were considered.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
NICOLAS; LORIS
2009-01-01
When it comes to carbon tariffs, China shouldn’t buy what the United States is selling The current cap-and-trade debate is generating a lot of noise in the United States. Much of that noise is coming from the halls of Congress, where phone lines are ringing off the hook from citizens expressing their
Import & Export Tariff Changes in 2007
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
@@ Since January 1st, 2007, the Program for Implementation of Tariffs in 2007 has become effective. The Customs Tariff Commission of the State Council has made many modifications on the implementation of import and export tariffs as following:
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mats Lundahl
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.
EFFECT OF TARIFF ESCALATION ON GHANAIAN COCOA EXPORTS: AN EMPIRICAL PERSPECTIVE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Abdul Aziz
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This study analyses the effects of tariff escalation on Ghanaian cocoa exports in four importing markets: USA, EU, Japan and Malaysia. The study estimates nominal and effective protection coefficients in these markets based on ad-valorem equivalent of applied and bound specific tariffs. Results revealed that, effective protection exists in the Japanese and Malaysian cocoa industries at different stages of processing on both bound and applied tariffs. In contrast, the USA and the EU do not effectively protect their cocoa industries, thus, no tariff escalation on applied tariffs against cocoa imports from Ghana. This study concludes that from a static effect, higher tariffs do have a negative consequence on Ghanaian cocoa exports in these importing countries. From a dynamic perspective however, the relationship between tariff structures in these importing countries and Ghanaian cocoa exports is somewhat ambiguous and each situation has to be viewed on their own merit. A complete elimination of tariffs as a form of trade barrier on Ghanaian cocoa exports does not necessarily imply that Ghana could easily increase its exports of value added cocoa.
Welfare Effects of Tariff Peak Conversion: The Case of Monopolistic Competition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schröder, Philipp; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager
WTO negotiations have introduced formula approaches to reduce protection and improve market access. It has been argued that formula approaches are needed even more in current and future negotiations to secure success due to the large number of countries involved in the negotiations, the wider dis...... tariffs are analyzed. It is established that reduction in the trade restriction using three formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula leads to non-trivial impacts on the welfare....... dispersion in initial tariffs (tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates. This paper presents a general equilibrium model with monopolistic competition to examine the welfare effects of different formulas in a process of improving market access. Products with initially high and low...
China Cut Tariffs on Refined Oil
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2011-01-01
China has cut import tariffs on gasoline, diesel, aviation kerosene, and fuel oil significantly since July 1 this year. According to the information released by the Ministry of Finance, the rate of import tariffs on motor gasoline and aviation gasoline was reduced from 5% to 1%; the rates of import tariffs on aviation kerosene and light diesel were reduced from 9% and 6% to 0 separately; the rate of import tariffs on 5＂-7＂ fuel oil was reduced from 6% to 1%.
14 CFR 221.94 - Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs.
2010-01-01
... applicable to the balance of the system, such matter, insofar as it applies over the balance of the system... changes and new matter in tariffs. 221.94 Section 221.94 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... With Department § 221.94 Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs....
Industry faced with a new tariff system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poyatos, M.
1986-10-01
EDF has been offering a new tariff to its industrial customers since December 1982. Most of them have chosen it, taking best advantage of opportunities given them to minimize their expenses by adjusting their means of operation to the new tariff structure. This paper explains the overall outcome and illustrates, by means of examples, customer behavior.
Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis
2006-01-01
paper examines whether the country that implements such a reform ends up opening up its markets to international trade, i.e. whether its market access improves. It is shown that this is not necessarily so. We also show that, comparing to the reform of only tariffs, the tariff-tax reform is a less......Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....
Tariffication Strategy in Telecommunication Business
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gustav Cepciansky
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The tariff policy of a telecommunication operator has a strategic importance on achieving of optimal revenues and a fundamental impact on its position in the competition with another operators on the liberalised telecommunication market. The payment for a connection through a telecommunication network is determined by a rate for one call unit, by the duration of the call unit and their count during a call. An operator derives the rate and the duration of the call unit from a detailed analysis of large databases that contain statistical data on counts and duration of particular calls depending on the call type. Only the operator knows these data files and it keeps them confidential. It will be shown in the paper how it is possible to come to an estimation of revenues from telecommunication traffic only knowing a pair of basic parameters. The first considerations handling with this topic can be found in [1], [2],[3].
14 CFR 221.212 - Special tariff permission.
2010-01-01
...) When a filer submits an electronic tariff or an amendment to an electronic tariff for which authority... in the Government Filing File and the Filing Advice Status File, and shall be referenced in such a... notice. (b) When a filer submits an electronic tariff or an amendment to the electronic tariff for...
46 CFR 520.5 - Standard tariff terminology.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard tariff terminology. 520.5 Section 520.5... AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.5 Standard tariff terminology. (a) Approved codes. The Standard Terminology Appendix.... They are intended to provide a standard terminology baseline for tariffs to facilitate...
Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde;
2015-01-01
This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...
Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager
2006-01-01
This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier...... on the number of firms, firm profits, tariff revenue and consumer welfare. We show that both types of trade barriers reduce (increase) the number of exporting (pure domestic) firms. However, the sum of available home and foreign varieties may actually increase for small tariffs. Firm profits fall for both...... the tariff and the fixed export barrier. Tariff revenue falls for an increase in fixed exporting costs whereas we have a Laffer curve effect for the tariff. Finally, we establish that welfare falls with fixed export costs and large tariffs but increases for small tariffs, i.e. there exist a welfare...
Tariffs Ranking in Mixed Oligopoly with Revenue Constraint
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonard F. S. Wang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Utilizing linear mixed oligopoly model, this paper explores the magnitude of the maximum-revenue tariff, optimum-welfare tariff, and revenue-constrained optimal tariff that is especially designed for the consideration of the bureaucratic inefficiency. In particular, the tariff ranking issue is examined under both cases of Cournot competition and domestic public leadership. We found that, under Cournot competition, the optimum-welfare tariff is the highest and it is followed by the revenue-constrained optimal tariff while the maximum-revenue tariff is the lowest. But, under Stackelberg public leadership, if the domestic private firms are fewer than the foreign firms, the maximum-revenue tariff becomes the highest and the optimum-welfare exceeds the revenue-constrained optimal tariff.
The Tariff Analysis Project: A database and analysis platform forelectricity tariffs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coughlin, K.; White, R.; Bolduc, C.; Fisher, D.; Rosenquist, G.
2006-05-12
Much of the work done in energy research involves ananalysis of the costs and benefits of energy-saving technologies andother measures from the perspective of the consumer. The economic valuein particular depends on the price of energy (electricity, gas or otherfuel), which varies significantly both for different types of consumers,and for different regions of the country. Ideally, to provide accurateinformation about the economic value of energy savings, prices should becomputed directly from real tariffs as defined by utility companies. Alarge number of utility tariffs are now available freely over the web,but the complexity and diversity of tariff structures presents aconsiderable barrier to using them in practice. The goal of the TariffAnalysis Project (TAP) is to collect andarchive a statistically completesample of real utility tariffs, and build a set of database and web toolsthat make this information relatively easy to use in cost-benefitanalysis. This report presentsa detailed picture of the current TAPdatabase structure and web interface. While TAP has been designed tohandle tariffs for any kind of utility service, the focus here is onelectric utilities withinthe United States. Electricity tariffs can bevery complicated, so the database structures that have been built toaccommodate them are quite flexible and can be easily generalized toother commodities.
Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (2015) - Revision 1
US International Trade Commission — This dataset is the 2015 Harmonized Tariff Schedule Revision 1 effective July 1, 2015. It provides the applicable tariff rates and statistical categories for all...
Import tariffs enforcement with low administrative capacity
Tonin, Mirco
2010-01-01
Import tariff receipts represent an important share of government revenues in many developing countries and there has recently been a surge in empirical studies showing how evasion in this field is a pervasive phenomenon. In the case of import tariffs, the tax base is the product of quantity and unit value, both of which have to be reported and need to be assessed by the custom authority during an audit. I show that when the fiscal authority has an imperfect detection technology, there is an ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2007-01-15
Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential
Study on Theory and Methods of Telecommunication Tariff
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The pricing of telecommunication services is quite important aswell as complicated. This paper strengthens the research of theories and implementation of telecommunication tariff in China. It is helpful for the government authorities and enterprises to unify and standardize the regulatory methods, to guide the deciding of the structure and level of telecommunication tariff by implementing scientific theories, to further develop and optimize the tariff system. This paper conducts a systematic, in-depth and creative research on some of the most popular and most difficult problems in the area of telecommunication tariff research, such as the regulation of telecommunication tariff, the theories of telecommunication tariff, the systematic pricing theory, the interconnection charge, the model cost evaluation theory, the long-run incremental cost theory, and the international telecommunication tariff. After studying the foreign methods on telecommunication tariff regulation, basing on the current situation of China's tariff regulation, the scope and methods for China's telecommunication tariff regulation are suggested. Aimed at the weakness of pricing theory for enterprises to set up telecommunication tariffs, an overall frame work of telecommunication tariff theories is proposed. The systematic pricing theory and model cost evaluation theory of telecommunication services are put forward from a brand new perspective. A front topic, the LRIC theory, is probed. In addition, the pricing practices of network interconnection charge and international telecommunication tariff, which are currently very attractive to the theorists, are discussed. Basing on these studies, this paper improves the structure of telecommunication tariff theory. It provides the Chinese government authorities with practical methods and helpful supports to regulate the telecommunication tariffs; in the mean time, it also provides the enterprises with scientific pricing theories and methods to set up
76 FR 43206 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)
2011-07-20
... public reviewing the tariff by including some descriptive information on the Title page of the tariff... nondominant carriers to research their previously filed tariff revisions to include different transmittal... by revising paragraphs (b) and (e) to read as follows: Sec. 61.14 Method of filing...
China Cancelled Export Tariff for Nine Kinds of Raw Materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2013-01-01
<正>In the recently promulgated "Tariff Execution Plan for 2013", among new tariffs implemented since January 1, 2013, tariffs of nine kinds of raw material products including bauxite, coke,yellow phosphorus, fluorite, magnesium, manganese, silicon metal, silicon carbide and zinc exported by China will be lifted.
Individual Mobile Communication Services and Tariffs
H. Chen (Hong)
2008-01-01
textabstractIndividual services and tariffs existed briefly in the beginning of telecommunications history 150 years ago but faded away over time. Service provisioning evolved into the current supplier-centric situation which has many limitations and disadvantages. This thesis re-embraces the user-c
Reducing Tariffs According to WTO Accession Rules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis
2012-01-01
When Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007 it was granted an accession period up to 2014. During this period tariffs would have to fall according to the accession agreement. This paper evaluates this 2007–2014 trade liberalization by building an applied general equilibrium model...
IMPROVING MARKET ACCESS: THE ROLE OF AUCTIONS IN CONVERTING TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS INTO SINGLE TARIFFS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Joerin
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This paper analyses the conversion of TRQs into single tariffs under perfect and imperfect competition. Based on experiences from Switzerland, auctions allow the determination of the equivalent tariffs. Results from auctions of TRQs of dried meat products under perfect competition show that the observed auction prices would lead to tariffs which are below the equivalent tariffs. Hence, if the ‘new tariffs’ would be determined through auctions, market access would be improved, but also farm prices would lower. However, under imperfect competition, based on Bhagwati’s theorem of the non-equivalence of tariffs and quotas, market access could be improved by converting TRQs into single tariffs even if farm prices are held constant. In order to ensure that auctions are competitive and collusion among bidders is prevented, the ‘variable supply’ auction format which re¬sists collusion needs to be adopted in the event of high buyer’s concentration. Despite the various benefits of auctions, quota holders’ persisting rent-seeking behaviour hinders that auctions are mainstreamed in allocating TRQs.
Tariffs In Apparel And Footwear: A Gender Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uros Andrejevic
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The theory of tariffs is very different from the reality of tariffs. Most of the literature on protectionism is too theoretical and, more importantly, too aggregate. In practice, tariffs greatly differ among products and affect consumers differently based on their income and gender. In this paper we use a gender approach to study US tariffs on selected apparel and footwear products. The scope of this study is to examine whether gender plays a role in evaluating the cost of tariffs on consumers and to suggest policies to end a possible discriminatory conduct.
Optimal tariff design under consumer self-selection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raesaenen, M.; Ruusunen, J.; Haemaelaeinen, R.
1995-12-31
This report considers the design of electricity tariffs which guides an individual consumer to select the tariff designed for his consumption pattern. In the model the utility maximizes the weighted sum of individual consumers` benefits of electricity consumption subject to the utility`s revenue requirement constraints. The consumers` free choice of tariffs is ensured with the so-called self-selection constraints. The relationship between the consumers` optimal choice of tariffs and the weights in the aggregated consumers` benefit function is analyzed. If such weights exist, they will guarantee both the consumers` optimal choice of tariffs and the efficient consumption patterns. Also the welfare effects are analyzed by using demand parameters estimated from a Finnish dynamic pricing experiment. The results indicate that it is possible to design an efficient tariff menu with the welfare losses caused by the self-selection constraints being small compared with the costs created when some consumers choose tariffs other than assigned for them. (author)
New Policy for Power Tariff Reform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guan Yongsheng; Jin Wen
2007-01-01
@@ The "Opinions on Deepening Power Institutional Reform in the 11th Five-Year Period" (referred to as "Opinions" below for short) finally unveiled and appeared clearly in the vision of the public on April 6th, 2007. Being the core of the power institutional reform, the "route map" of power tariff reform in the 11th Five-Year Plan period has also been clearly oriented. However, on the whole, the power tariff reform is no drastic as one imagines. With this doubt, the Journalist discussed this issue with Mr. Huang Shaozhong, deputy director of the Department of Price & Financial Supervision under the State Electricity Regulatory Commission, also a member of the Working Group of Power Institutional Reform.
Tariff based value of wind energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Vilkko, M.; Antila, H.; Lautala, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)
1995-12-31
In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)
7 CFR 735.107 - Warehouse charges and tariffs.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehouse charges and tariffs. 735.107 Section 735.107... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.107 Warehouse charges and tariffs. (a) A warehouse operator must not make any unreasonable...
Intergenerational welfare effects of a tariff under monopolistic competition
Bettendorf, LJH; Heijdra, BJ
2001-01-01
A dynamic overlapping-generations model of a semi-small open economy with monopolistic competition in the goods market is constructed. A tariff increase reduces real output and employment and improves the terms of trade, both in the impact period and in the new steady state. The tariff shock has sig
Intergenerational welfare effects of a tariff under monopolistic competition
L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)
2003-01-01
textabstractA dynamic overlapping-generations model of a semi-small open economy with monopolistic competition in the goods market is constructed. A tariff increase reduces real output and employment and improves the terms of trade, both in the impact period and in the new steady state. The tariff s
A Comparison Between Chinese and Foreign Power Tariffs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Ying
2007-01-01
@@ With deepened reform of power system and marketization, power tariff has more and more become a topic of discussion, and furthermore, that the power tariff in China is high or low, reasonable or unreasonable is a top hot spot of the society.
Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.
2011-06-01
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.
INCIDENTAL PROTECTION: AN EXAMINATION OF THE MORRILL TARIFF
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jane Flaherty
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Historians refer to the Morrill Tariff as the first statement of the nascent Republican party’s protectionist agenda, yet an analysis of the measure reveals that this enduring icon of historiography needs modification. Implemented as a direct response to the fiscal crisis created by the Buchanan administration, the Morrill Tariff represents a bipartisan effort to augment federal revenue for a depleted Treasury. Both President James Buchanan and many of his Democratic colleagues in Congress urged revising the Tariff of 1857 to arrest the growth of the federal deficit. However, the bitter rhetoric that accompanied the secession crisis has obscured the true nature of this short-lived, but important, revenue measure. An examination of the Morrill Tariff and the circumstances surrounding its passage demonstrate that it re-established the rates from the free trade Tariff of 1846 while providing incidental protection for select industries, a practice accepted, even advocated, by the Democratic party for over a decade.
The Theory of Political Tariff Protection for Agricultural Sector in Developing Countries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaser Feizabadi
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze tariff protection policies in the agricultural sector of developing countries. The agricultural tariff structure in developing countries is characterized by: i high average tariffs, ii the existence of tariff escalation, iii dispersion of nominal tariffs across tariff lines, and iv a wide gap between average nominal tariffs and import-weighted average tariffs. Consequently, some features can be extracted that are consistent with the observed patterns of tariff protection in developing countries: i escalation of nominal tariff rates with the degree of processing, ii higher average tariffs in the agricultural sector compared to agriculture in developed countries, and iii higher non-agricultural than agricultural tariff protection. Here the Theory of Political Tariff Protection for Agricultural Sector in developing countries is described. This theory allows us to identify two sets of products. Agricultural products for which tariffs are higher than their political fitted values, therefore, tariff cuts should occur in a long period of time and for which tariffs are higher than their political fitted values therefore tariff reductions would not be politically costly.
ECONOMIC-POLITICAL DETERMINANTS OF IMPORT TARIFF UNIFICATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.A. Afontsev
2005-09-01
Full Text Available The economic-political determinants of the Russian import tariff reform in 2000 − 2001 years, leading up to partial unification of the import customs duties, are considered a With this purpose the model of tariff policy definition which considers the aspiration of the government to minimize the losses of tariff incomes caused by incorrect declaring of the goods by importers is constructed in the work. It is revealed, that reception of tariff incomes was the main motive at the development of tariff policy; the following on a degree of importance were the motives connected with increase of citizens well-being and attraction of support from business lobbies. As a whole, the government has established lower rates of the tariff for the goods with higher probability of incorrect declaring, and higher rates - for the goods which otherwise could be used as a "screen" for incorrectly declared goods. At the same time significant opportunities for the further unification of import duties which can serve as perspective strategy of tariff policy during a transition period after Russian connection to WTO are kept.
Non-tariff Protectionism in EU Countries and Ukraine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melnyk Tetyana M.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The article assesses positions of the European Union as an integration association in international trade, studies the system of non-tariff regulation in EU countries and identifies key problems of harmonisation of the Ukrainian legislation to the European one in the sphere of non-tariff regulation of international trade. In order to assess scales of application of non-tariff measures in foreign trade, the article analyses the index of coverage and frequency of use of non-tariff restrictions, dynamics of initiated non-tariff measures and trade structure of their distribution, and also detects reasons of application of non-tariff restrictions. The article characterises the system of technical regulation of EU and assesses main steps of Ukraine on the way of bringing the domestic standards in correspondence with the European ones as a necessary condition for increase of export of domestic products and increase of its competitiveness. The prospect of further scientific studies in this direction lies in forecasting influence of non-tariff restrictions upon volumes of import and export flows in foreign trade.
Feed-in tariff outlook in Malaysia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chua, Shing Chyi; Oh, Tick Hui [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Goh, Wei Wei [Foundation Studies and Extension Education, Multimedia University, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)
2011-01-15
This paper aims to present the feed-in tariff (FiT) outlook in Malaysia, which is in the process of being enacted through a Renewable Energy (RE) Policy by the Government of Malaysia (GoM). A brief in policies leading towards the RE policy and the potential of each RE sources under FiT mechanism have been discussed. The successful utilisation of RE source in electricity generation and the FiT implementation globally are positive indicators to implement FiT in Malaysia. Potentials of FiT on biomass, biogas and solid waste energy are currently very promising in Malaysia, but it is solar energy which is predicted to be the main RE of the future, surpassing all other REs. (author)
Tariff discrimination on Brazil's soluble coffee: an economic analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marislei Nishijima
2010-06-01
Full Text Available This article evaluates the impacts of the imposition of tariffs on the Brazilian soluble coffee mainly by European countries as of the 1990s. More particularly, it verifies whether the imposition of discriminatory trade tariffs by the European Union and of non-discriminatory ones by some Eastern European countries reflects on the international demand for this commodity. For this purpose, dynamic models of global demand for Brazilian soluble coffee were estimated for the 1995-2003 period using data from the International Coffee Organization. Findings suggest that existing tariffs significantly account for the reduction of Brazilian share of soluble in the world market.
Urban Water Tariffs in Spain: What Needs to Be Done?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel A. García-Rubio
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Recently, in the context of the Integrated Water Resources Management, demand policies are playing a more important role as opposed to traditional supply policies based on the construction of large hydraulic infrastructures. In this new context, water tariffs have become an important tool in achieving economic efficiency, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This paper reviews the situation of urban water tariffs in Spain, a country subject to high water stress. It analyzes the capacity of urban water tariffs to recover service costs and to promote efficiency, sustainability, affordability, and equity. Although it has made significant progress in recent years, the Spanish urban water tariff system still faces many challenges. Many of these challenges would be better addressed by a national independent regulatory body.
Tariff-based analysis of commercial building electricityprices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Rosenquist, Greg J.; VanBuskirk, Robert D.; McMahon, James E.
2008-03-28
This paper presents the results of a survey and analysis ofelectricity tariffs and marginal electricity prices for commercialbuildings. The tariff data come from a survey of 90 utilities and 250tariffs for non-residential customers collected in 2004 as part of theTariff Analysis Project at LBNL. The goals of this analysis are toprovide useful summary data on the marginal electricity prices commercialcustomers actually see, and insight into the factors that are mostimportant in determining prices under different circumstances. We providea new, empirically-based definition of several marginal prices: theeffective marginal price and energy-only anddemand-only prices, andderive a simple formula that expresses the dependence of the effectivemarginal price on the marginal load factor. The latter is a variable thatcan be used to characterize the load impacts of a particular end-use orefficiency measure. We calculate all these prices for eleven regionswithin the continental U.S.
Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evans, Meredydd
2007-04-01
For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.
Tariff-Mediated Network Effects Versus Strategic Disounting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zucchini, Leon; Claussen, Jörg; Trüg, Moritz
2013-01-01
. Alternatively, research on strategic discounting suggests that small operators use on-net discounts to advertise with low on-net prices. We test the relative strength of these effects using data on tariff setting in German mobile telecommunications between 2001 and 2009. We find that large operators are more......Mobile telecommunication operators routinely charge subscribers lower prices for calls on their own network than for calls to other networks (on-net discounts). Studies on tariff-mediated network effects suggest this is due to large operators using on-net discounts to damage smaller rivals...... likely to offer tariffs with on-net discounts but there is no consistently significant difference in the magnitude of discounts. Our results suggest that tariff-mediated network effects are the main cause of on-net discounts....
Urban Water Tariffs in Spain: What Needs to Be Done?
Miguel A. García-Rubio; Alberto Ruiz-Villaverde; Francisco González-Gómez
2015-01-01
Recently, in the context of the Integrated Water Resources Management, demand policies are playing a more important role as opposed to traditional supply policies based on the construction of large hydraulic infrastructures. In this new context, water tariffs have become an important tool in achieving economic efficiency, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This paper reviews the situation of urban water tariffs in Spain, a country subject to high water stress. It analyzes the ca...
Farther Export Tariff Laid on Some RE Metallic Products
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
@@ To further regulate the export of high-energy-consumption and high-pollution products and resources products, promote the import of energy products, resource products and key components and facilitate the trade balance, and approved by the 9th Meeting of Tariff Regulations Commission of the State Council, China would adjust the import and export tariff rate of some commodities since June 1st, 2007.
Bound entanglement and entanglement bounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sauer, Simeon [Physikalisch-Astronomische Fakultaet, Friedrich-Schiller-Univesitaet Jena (Germany)]|[Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Melo, Fernando de; Mintert, Florian; Buchleitner, Andreas [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Str.38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-012 (Korea); Hiesmayr, Beatrix [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)
2008-07-01
We investigate the separability of Bell-diagonal states of two qutrits. By using lower bounds to algebraically estimate concurrence, we find convex regions of bound entangled states. Some of these regions exactly coincide with the obtained results when employing optimal entanglement witnesses, what shows that the lower bound can serve as a precise detector of entanglement. Some hitherto unknown regions of bound entangled states were discovered with this approach, and delimited efficiently.
Policy of Tariff Protection in the Light of WTO Accession
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MSc. Burim Gashi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Tariff rates are crucial instrument of trade policy. This paper covers several important issues related to the reforms of this area. First part of the paper explains the key features of tariffs as protection instrument: different policy takers and opposite economic interests; benefits and adverse effects; alternative measures of protection; dependence of tariff policy on the development priorities and the welfare effects, etc. This document explains main World Trade Organization requirements concerning protection policy such as primary role of tariffs, restricted set of non-tariff instruments, limited scope of safeguard measures, comparison on the legal development in the field until now, and an indication of further legislation changes necessary in the period of adjustment. It also gives main elements of the customs-reform strategy: choice and concentration of goals and priorities; criteria for preparation of the alternative scenarios; solving convergence problems; defining conditionality for alternative solutions and interdependence of relevant externalities. The goal of the paper is to give recommendation for trade policy reform in our country necessarily to become member of World Trade Organization.
Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Courchene, T.J.; Allan, J.R. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Inst. of Intergovernmental Relations
2008-03-15
Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujita, K. Sydny
2011-06-23
Consumers regularly forgo purchases of high efficiency appliances that appear to be cost effective at a reasonable rate of return. While some argue that this is a true revelation of preferences for appliance features, this 'efficiency gap' can be largely explained by a combination of market and behavioral failures that reduce consumers ability to evaluate the relative value of appliances and skew preferences toward initial cost savings, undervaluing future reductions in operating costs. These failures and barriers include externalities of energy use, imperfect competition between manufacturers, asymmetric information, bounded rationality, split incentives, and transaction costs (Golove 1996). Recognizing the social benefit of energy conservation, several major methods are used by policymakers to ensure that efficient appliances are purchased: minimum efficiency standards, Energy Star labeling, and rebates and tax credits. There is no single market for energy services; there are hundreds of uses, thousands of intermediaries, and millions of users, and likewise, no single appropriate government intervention (Golove 1996). Complementary approaches must be implemented, considering policy and institutional limitations. In this paper, I first lay out the rationale for government intervention by addressing the market and behavioral failures and barriers that arise in the context of residential energy efficiency. I then consider the ways in which some of these failures and barriers are addressed through major federal programs and state and utility level programs that leverage them, as well as identifying barriers that are not addressed by currently implemented programs. Heterogeneity of consumers, lack of financing options, and split incentives of landlords and tenants contribute significantly to the under-adoption of efficient appliances. To quantify the size of the market most affected by these barriers, I estimate the number of appliances, and in particular
What Is the Impact After the Change of Copper Custom Tariff
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
<正>The Commission of Customs Tariff of the State Council issued"The notice from the Commis- sion of Customs Tariff of the State Council of the proposals on the implementation of customs tariff in 2008"numbered 25(2007)of the Commission,which was approved by the State Council and will take effort from Jan 1,2008.
22 CFR 91.3 - Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives.
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission... CONTROLS § 91.3 Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives. Consular officers shall render all proper assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives abroad to aid them in...
18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.
2010-04-01
... Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. (a) General rule. Filings of tariff publications and... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. 341.1 Section 341.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...
18 CFR 154.4 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.
2010-04-01
... TARIFFS General Provisions and Conditions § 154.4 Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. (a... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. 154.4 Section 154.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...
19 CFR 132.15 - Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate quota.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY QUOTAS Administration of Quotas § 132.15 Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate quota. (a) Requirement. In order to claim the in-quota tariff rate of duty on...
18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.
2010-04-01
... AND TARIFFS Other Filing Requirements § 35.28 Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff. (a... concerns regarding unnecessarymarket inefficiencies. (c) Non-discriminatory open access transmission... the open access pro forma tariff contained in Order No. 888, FERC Stats. & Regs. ¶ 31,036 (Final...
18 CFR 35.10 - Form and style of rate schedules, tariffs and service agreements.
2010-04-01
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form and style of rate schedules, tariffs and service agreements. 35.10 Section 35.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Application § 35.10 Form and style of rate schedules, tariffs...
Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob
2011-01-01
An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid...... used to carry out case studies to illustrate the proposed EV charging schedule algorithm....
Real versus tariff liberalization: a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schröder, Philipp
2004-01-01
A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent ta...
Feed-in Tariffs: Good Practices and Design Considerations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2016-01-02
In recent years, feed-in tariff (FIT) activity has focused primarily on revisions to current policies, underscoring the need for stable and predictable, yet flexible, policy environments. This policy brief provides a primer on key FIT design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific FIT policy design.
Impact of Russian Log Export Tariffs on China
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Based on the introduction of the Sino-Russian timber trade and the history about timber export in Russia,the paper gives the reasons for the adjustment in Russian timber export and its influence on timber import in China.Finally countermeasures against Russian adjustment in timber export tariffs are proposed.
19 CFR 10.100 - Entry, examination, and tariff status.
2010-04-01
...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions United States Government Importations § 10.100 Entry, examination, and tariff status. Except as otherwise..., importations made by or for the account of any agency or office of the United States Government are subject...
47 CFR 69.3 - Filing of access service tariffs.
2010-10-01
... telephone companies involved in a merger or acquisition. (1) Notwithstanding the requirements of § 69.3(e)(9... resulting from the merger or acquisition of telephone properties are to be made effective on the next annual access tariff filing effective date following consummation of the merger or acquisition transaction,...
Coordinated Tax-Tariff Reforms, Informality, and Welfare Distribution
Ligthart, J.E.; van der Meijden, G.C.
2010-01-01
The paper studies the revenue, efficiency, and distributional implications of a simple strategy of offsetting tariff reductions with increases in destination-based consumption taxes so as to leave consumer prices unchanged. We employ a dynamic micro-founded macroeconomic model of a small open develo
A Study of Methods of Telecommunication Tariff Decision
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
An in-depth exploration has been made of telecommunication tariffand its decision support system. It is the first attempt to conduct such a study by the integrated use of econometrics, system emulation and system dynamics. A practically-demanded cost model of the telecommunication tariff decision is proposed. The system has been verified with real data.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
With the cutoff and limitation of tariff and traditional non-tariff Barriers to Trade by GATT/WTO, Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) has gradually replaced tariff and general non-tariff Barriers to Trade and become an important measurement in new trade protectionism. This article analyzes the replacement of TBT on tariff barrier for exporting countries, as well as the trading pattern of TBT in its maturing period through the discussion of macro strategies of surpassing TBT; meanwhile it also probes into the examination and supervision policies of governmental functional departments.
Tariff regulation models of the electric sector; Modelos de regulacao tarifaria do setor eletrico
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pires, Jose Claudio Linhares; Piccinini, Mauricio Serrao
2003-07-01
This article discusses the tariff regulation models adopted in the electricity utility sector, with a focus on the innovations introduced as a result of the liberalization of the sector that began in the 1980s. The principal tariff criteria are discussed: tariffs determined by the both the rate of return regulation and by marginal cost, and price-caps. Instruments complementary to tariffs are also examined. The main aim of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the tariff rules adopted in the electricity sector. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan
Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade costs. This paper introduces, apart from real variable (i.e. iceberg) and fixed export costs, two partially redistributed tariffs into a Melitz (2003) model. We present comparable results for welfare effects and changes...... in industry structure by analyzing the different liberalization channels for an equal effect on openness. The welfare ranking is sensitive to the degree of efficiency in tariff redistribution, e.g. the share of tariff revenues wasted on rent-seeking activities. Ad valorem tariff cuts switch from the least...... to the most preferred mode of liberalization as the fraction of tariffs wasted moves from zero to unity. Apart from a situation with no tariff redistribution, reductions in iceberg trade costs are preferred to reductions in real fixed trade costs which again are preferred to cuts in unit tariffs....
Sun, L.; Bogdanski, B.; Stennes, B.; Kooten, van G.C.
2010-01-01
Although there has been considerable analysis on the effects of trade measures on forest product markets, these have tended to focus on tariffs. There is growing concern about the impact of non-tariff trade measures on the global forest product sector. The objective of this study is to fill a gap an
Tariff system with the wrong incentives; Tariefsysteem met verkeerde prikkels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aalbers, R.F.T.; Bressers, D.L.F.; Dijkgraaf, E.; Hoogendoorn, P.J.; De Klerk, S.C. [Research Centre for Economic Policy OCFEB, Rotterdam (Netherlands)
1999-03-26
In the first months of 1999 a bill to amend the Electricity Law 1998 is under discussion in the Dutch parliament. The amendment concerns the proposal for a new tariff structure for the transportation of electricity, the so-called cascade system. In a former issue of this magazine the advantages and disadvantages of the cascade system, compared to the so-called level playing field system, were discussed. However, a well-founded choice between the two systems can not be made without insight into the quantitative effects. In this report it is discussed to what extent the systems lead to different electricity transportation tariffs. In the cascade system costs are calculated for three types of consumers: high voltage, medium voltage and low voltage consumers. In a level playing field system the rule is that who causes the costs, pays the costs. 30 refs.
Power Tariff Reform and Energy Constraint in China
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
Power tariff reform and power restructuring should be coordinately advanced. In the period of the power tariff reform, attention should be fully given to possible demand growth, investment characteristics and environment pressure when taking transitional measures. In the stage, focal point of the reform is to establish a rational system of sales price to power network. Moreover, it is necessary to raise the electricity price for household consumption. The highly-centralized system of state-owned power enterprises is the root-cause of some basic problems in the power industry. The system would cause a great power overproduction, squeeze out private and foreign investment and constrain efficiency improvement. Effective energy strategy and planning are a crux of dealing with crises of energy security. China needs a state-class energy administration body and should make massive research on energy economics.
No way around green tariffs; Oekotarife sind nicht mehr wegzudenken
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Briese, Dirk [trend:research GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)
2011-05-15
Just like green electricity, meanwhile a classic, so too now does newcomer ''green gas'' offer energy suppliers with an appropriate marketing mix far-reaching opportunities for improving their corporate image, securing customer loyalty and increasing turnover. However the only beneficiaries of this trend to date have been green-only suppliers which specialise in this market. Although most traditional suppliers have now added green tariffs to their product portfolio, this has given them little commercial success, since eco-minded consumers often consider green-only suppliers to be more credible. A recent study shows that the market volume of green electricity and green gas tariffs will grow markedly over the next five years. Energy suppliers should therefore turn their attention to the question of how they can best exploit this potential.
District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff
Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars
2014-12-01
The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.
Optimal decisions of countries with carbon tax and carbon tariff
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yumei Hou
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Purpose: Reducing carbon emission has been the core problem of controlling global warming and climate deterioration recently. This paper focuses on the optimal carbon taxation policy levied by countries and the impact on firms’ optimal production decisions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a two-stage game theory model to analyze the impact of carbon tariff and tax. Numerical simulation is used to supplement the theoretical analysis. Findings: Results derived from the paper indicate that the demand in an unstable market is significantly affected by environmental damage level. Carbon tariff is a policy-oriented tax while the carbon tax is a market-oriented one. Comprehensive carbon taxation policy benefit developed countries and basic policy is more suitable for developing countries. Research limitations/implications: In this research, we do not consider random demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suited the reality. Originality/value: This work provides a different perspective in analyzing the impact of carbon tax and tariff. It is the first study to consider two consuming market and the strategic game between two countries. Different international status of countries considered in the paper is also a unique point.
Double Dividend from Tariff Differentiation of Reforestation Fund
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudarsono Soedomo
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Distortionary levy applied uniformly to all diameter classes of logs from logging natural forest can lead to inefficiencies; certain diameter should be left in the field because it is not economical to be used. Win-win or Pareto improving solution can be achieved if the government is more flexible. Social welfare is higher because of the waste that can be utilized to create employment, production and additional benefits for employers, as well as revenue for the state. Even if the levy rates are forced to zero for small-diameter timber, governments is actually not harmed at all because from the beginning the government does not get any revenue from small timber that is left in the field as waste. In scarcity situations of timber from natural forests, it is desirable if the government is considering differentiating charges in order to reduce or possibly eliminate the volume of waste generated by the levy. In general, tariff differentiation done in the form of higher tariffs for higher diameter logs. If possible, the lowest diameter limit of logs is forced down to its technical limits. That is, the processing tool that will determine how the minimum diameter logs can be processed profitably.Keywords: tariff differentiation, efficiency, timber utilization, government revenue, win-win solutionDOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.163
Tariff Impact on the Domestic Price of Vegetable Oil in Iran and the Associated Issues
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
omid gilanpour
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This study uses vector error correction model to examine the effects of oilseeds, crude oil and vegetable oil tariffs on vegetable oil consumer price. Monthly data sets for the years 2004-2013 and VAR and VECM models were applied for this study. Research findings indicates only a long term equilibrium relation between the study variables .The effect of vegetable oil tariffs on consumer and producer price index are 0.4 and 0.07, respectively. Furthermore, one percent increase in the oil seeds and crude oil tariff, will increase consumer prices by 2.35, 0.19percent. The huge gap between the impacts of the two tariffs –e.g. oilseeds and crude oil tariffs- on consumer price shows that oil industries work with low efficiency. This practically doubles the impact of tariff on consumers. Accordingly, structural reform in the oil industry can develop oil production and prevent additional burden upon the consumer price.
Technical Barriers, Licenses and Tariffs as Means of Limiting Market Access
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager
2006-01-01
Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market access of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. We find that, if protection focuses predominantly on the number of foreign firms...... accessing the domestic market, a technical barrier (an import license) may dominate a tariff (tariff and a tech- nical barrier) in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. However, if protection pays su±cient focus on limiting the total import volume, then tariffs...... are the preferred means of protection. Within the model, reductions in technical barriers and tariffs, the removal of licensing schemes, and a harmonization of stan- dards are all welfare-improving policies....
Technical barriers, import licenses and tariffs as means of limiting market access
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp
2003-01-01
Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market entry of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. It is established that -- contrary to what one would expect -- a technical barrier...... to trade can dominate a tariff in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. This case occurs for high levels of protection. Furthermore, an import license with full redistribution of revenues dominates both the technical barrier and the tariff for all levels...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ballester Pla, Coralio
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the difficulties involved in providing a correct definition of what a rational (or irrational agent is. In this paper we describe two frameworks that employ different approaches for analyzing bounded rationality. The first is a spatial segregation set-up that encompasses two optimization methodologies: backward induction and forward induction. The main result is that, even under the same state of knowledge, rational and non-rational agents may match their actions. The second framework elaborates on the relationship between irrationality and informational restrictions. We use the beauty contest (Nagel, 1995 as a device to explain this relationship.
La observación del comportamiento de los agentes económicos tanto en el laboratorio como en la vida real justifica que la racionalidad acotada sea un supuesto aceptado en numerosos modelos socio-económicos. El objetivo de este artículo es ilustrar las dificultades que conlleva una correcta definición de qué es un agente racional (irracional. En este artículo se describen dos marcos que emplean diferentes metodologías para analizar la racionalidad acotada. El primero es un modelo de segregación espacial donde se contrastan dos metodologías de optimización: inducción hacia atrás y hacia adelante. El resultado principal es que, incluso con el mismo nivel de conocimiento, tanto agentes racionales como irracionales podrían coincidir en sus acciones. El segundo marco trabaja sobre la relación entre irracionalidad y restricción de información. Se utiliza el juego llamado “beauty contest” (Nagel 1995 como mecanismo para explicar dicha relación.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sha Yiqiang
2008-01-01
@@ Power tariff reform has made many important and many importan and substantial progresses in respect of marketization The benchmark tariff is a revolutionary progress made in China's power tariff reform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verhagen, L.
1988-12-01
Within the framework of the project 'Tariff systems and price forming of electric power', a spread-sheet program has been developed to calculate the costs of the electric power supply. The name of this program, written in Symphony 2.0 (English), is Tariff Basic Calculation (TBC). Based on the production data of the public power supply this program calculates the costs of the supply and derivative National Basic Tariffs elements. The program fits in with the Chronological Simulation Model (CSM) of the Energy Study Centre of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN. All necessary data can be calculated with CSM. 8 figs.
The economy-wide impact of multilateral NAMA tariff reductions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Baltzer, Kenneth; Babula, Ronald
The Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) negotiations were a key area in the Doha development round, which was suspended indefinitely in July 2006. In this paper, we model and estimate the economic effects on the world and Danish economies of some of the more important proposals that will likely...... tariff reductions with flexibility would generate modest increases in Danish trade and produce a slight improvement in the trade balance. They would also shift Danish trade patterns from EU and EFTA markets towards other world markets. The removal of the developing country flexibility rule would increase...
Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Couture, Toby D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Cory, Karlynn S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2011-06-01
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent policy used globally to reduce development risks, cut financing costs, and grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control. Using case studies and market-focused analysis, this report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines strengths and weaknesses of three cost-containment tools: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report provides useful insights on containing costs for policymakers and regulators in the United States and other areas where FIT policies are in development.
78 FR 8434 - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program
2013-02-06
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 6 RIN 0551-AA82 Dairy Tariff-Rate Import... rulemaking. SUMMARY: Request for public comment on the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program..., Agricultural Marketing Specialist, Sugar and Dairy Branch, Import Programs and Export Reporting...
Aluminum Production Cost Drops to 375 Yuan/Tonne After On-Grid Power Tariff Cut
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2016-01-01
Following the cut of coal-fired on-grid power tariff in April 2015,in 2016 the coal-fired ongrid power tariff experienced another cut.The average nationwide cut was about0.03yuan/k Wh,the reduced amount will be used to lower general industrial and commercial electricity sales price by the same
49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges)....
76 FR 61472 - Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar
2011-10-04
... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar AGENCY... the fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported refined sugar... imports of refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C....
76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar
2011-10-03
... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY... increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078 metric tons raw... MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined sugar) described...
Schemes for aggregating preferential tariffs in agriculture,export volume effects and African LDCs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Wusheng
Trade-weighted aggregated tariffs (TWPT) are often used in analyzing the issues of erosion of non-reciprocal preferences. This paper argues that commonly used TWPTs under-estimate the true protection on imports originated from preference-receiving countries, including LDCs. When used in numerical...... simulations of preference erosion and expansion scenarios, the TWPTs tend to incorrectly downplay preference erosion effect of MFN tariff cuts, and understate the export promotion effect of expanding preferences. In light of these claims, an alternative aggregation scheme is developed to calculate aggregated...... preferential tariffs imposed by a number of developed countries on African LDCs. These are shown to be higher than the TWPTs aggregated from the same disaggregated tariff data set. Numerical simulations conducted with the two sets of aggregated tariffs confirm the two claims and suggest that TWPTs may lead...
Supporting Effective Feed-in Tariff Development in Malaysia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-04-01
Since 2011, Malaysia's overarching policy framework for clean energy development, the New Energy Policy, has led to significant deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Building on the New Energy Policy, Malaysia mandated adoption of a renewable energy feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism under the 2011 Renewable Energy Act. In 2013, Malaysia's Sustainable Energy Development Authority partnered with the Clean Energy Solutions Center and the Clean Energy Regulators Initiative (CERI), via the Ask an Expert service, to implement FiT policies and expand renewable energy development. Through collaboration between the government of Malaysia and the Clean Energy Solutions Center, concrete policy action was supported and implemented, building a strong framework to expand and catalyze clean energy development.
WTO UpholdsU.S.Tariffs on Tires from China
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lesley Cui
2011-01-01
The World Trade Organization on September 5released the ruling of its Appellate Body,upholding President Obama's decision to impose three-year punitive tariffs on Chinese passenger and light truck tires.The Obama administration in September 2009placed a 35 percent safeguard duty on tires for cars and light trucks that Chinese manufacturers exported to the US,after the United Steelworkers (USW) complained that surging imports hurt home producers.Chinese tire imports were shown to have surged to record levels in the five years prior to the filing of the petition,causing significant market disruption.According to the USW,Chinese tire imports by volume grew 215％from 2004 until 2008,reaching a volume of 46 million tires.
2010-09-20
... investigation and opportunity to present written views on proposed recommendations. SUMMARY: Following receipt... of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) relating to certain utilitarian articles... filing written views relating to the Commission's proposed recommendations. November 29,...
Researches on the Model of Telecommunication Service with Variable Input Tariff Rates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The paper sets up and studies the model of the telecommunication queue servicing system with variable input tariff rates, which can relieve the crowding system traffic flows during the busy hour to enhance the utilizing rate of the telecom's resources.
Open Access Transmission Tariff: Effective December 18, 1998 (Revised June 16, 1999).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
1999-06-16
Bonneville will provide Network Integration Transmission Service pursuant to the terms and conditions contained in this Tariff and Service Agreement. The service that Bonneville will provide under this Tariff allows a Transmission Customer to integrate, economically dispatch and regulate its current and planned Network Resources to serve its Network Load. Network Integration Transmission Service also may be used by the Transmission Customer to deliver nonfirm energy purchases to its Network Load without additional charge. To the extent that the transmission path for moving power from a Network Resource to a Network Load includes the Eastern and Southern Interties, the terms and conditions for service over such intertie facilities are provided under Part 2 of this Tariff. Also, transmission service for third-party sales which are not designated as Network Load will be provided under Bonneville's Point-to-Point Transmission Service (Part 2 of this Tariff).
Implications of WTO Tariff Reductions for EU and US Dairy Policy
Pajic, Mirjana; Blandford, David; Bailey, Kenneth W.
2009-01-01
The objective of this study is to measure the impact of proposed Doha Round tariff reductions on the global dairy industry and dairy policy. We examine how proposed tariff reductions affect global trade and prices, and the implications for the European Union and the United States. Since international market conditions can vary, we examine the implications of liberalization under two sets of market conditions. The first corresponds to the year 2004 in which there was a global surplus of dairy ...
Sweder van Wijnbergen
1987-01-01
Using a standard complete specialization model of a small open economy within a rigorous intertemporal optimization framework with contract- based wage rigidity, we show that permanent tariffs may lead to a current account deterioration and a fall in employment, contradicting most of the literature of macro-economic effects of import tariffs. I show that this will always be the case if the economy is small enough. The crucial factor in this complete reversal of standard results is the impact ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zinaman, O. R.; Darghouth, N. R.
2015-02-01
While an export tariff is only one element of a larger regulatory framework for distributed generation, we choose to focus on tariff design because of the significant impact this program design component has on the various flows of value among power sector stakeholders. In that context, this paper is organized into a series of steps that can be taken during the design of a DGPV export tariff design. To that end this paper outlines a holistic, high-level approach to the complex undertaking of DGPV tariff design, the crux of which is an iterative cost-benefit analysis process. We propose a multi-step progression that aims to promote transparent, focused, and informed dialogue on CBA study methodologies and assumptions. When studies are completed, the long-run marginal avoided cost of the DGPV program should be compared against the costs imposed on utilities and non-participating customers, recognizing that these can be defined differently depending on program objectives. The results of this comparison can then be weighed against other program objectives to formulate tariff options. Potential changes to tariff structures can be iteratively fed back into established analytical tools to inform further discussions.
The electric tariff in the residential sector; Tarificacion electrica en el sector residencial
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)
1997-12-31
The main objective of this paper is to make an historical revision and analyze the current condition of the electric tariffs in the Mexican residential sector and ask ourselves if the equalization of tariffs generates the possibility that the entire population has access to the electricity service. The document is divided into three parts. The first one presents the history and the tendencies of the tariffs in the domestic sector in Mexico since 1973 until 1996 and the current tariff structure. The second one describes the characteristics of the residential users and mention is made of how the increment of the electric tariffs would affect the various population sectors. The last part of this paper presents some tariff criteria, that take into account energy conservation measures [Espanol] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es hacer una revision historica y analizar la situacion actual de las tarifas electricas en el sector residencial mexicano y preguntarnos si la igualdad de tarifas genera la posibilidad de que toda la poblacion tenga acceso al servicio electrico. El documento se divide en tres partes. La primera presenta la historia y tendencias de las tarifas del sector domestico en Mexico desde 1973 hasta 1996 y la estructura tarifaria actual. La segunda describe las caracteristicas de los usuarios residenciales y se menciona como afectaria el incremento de las tarifas electricas a los distintos sectores de la poblacion. La ultima parte de este trabajo presenta algunos criterios de tarificacion, que toman en cuenta medidas de ahorro de energia
European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gilberto Sarfati
1998-05-01
Full Text Available This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers. The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU level measures such as new standards, environment and anti-dumping rules, as well as Community expenditures in the different funds constitute new NTBs. Moreover, external competitors have to face other NTBs, such as VERs (Voluntary export restrictions, biased rules on public procurement, ecolabeling, and limitations on ownership, among other barriers. In this essay I demonstrate that the EU and the European national states run an active, unofficial industrial policy that distort the internal and external competition. The paper concludes that the EU industrial policy is not harmonized with the Single Market.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2007-01-15
The transient electricity regulated tariff was implemented by the law of the 7 december 2006 relative to the energy sector. It offers an adapted response to the enterprises confronted with the electricity prices increase. The document details this regulated tariff, provides the corresponding order of the 3 january 2007 and an interpretative note on the implementation of the transient regulated tariff. (A.L.B.)
Functions of bounded variation
Lind, Martin
2006-01-01
The paper begins with a short survey of monotone functions. The functions of bounded variation are introduced and some basic properties of these functions are given. Finally the jump function of a function of bounded variation is defined.
Felker, Susan B.
2005-01-01
Robert Cobb Jr., of Greensboro, N.C., a 1986-89 participant in the Virginia Tech Upward Bound program, was recently named Virginia's TRIO Achiever for 2004. Federal TRIO programs include Upward Bound and Educational Talent Search.
Non-Tariff Barriers and Factors that influence The Indonesian Cocoa Export to Europe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raditya Anggoro
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study are: first, to analyse the competitiveness of Indonesian cocoa in the European Unio market; second, to analyse the competitiveness and the factors that influence the Indonesian cocoa exports to the EU market; third, to calculate the non-tariff barriers imposed by the European Union market for Indonesian cocoa. Methods used are the RCA index and gravity models. The differences between actual and potential trade flows are indicated as non-tariff barriers. Results of the calculation RCA is showed that all destinations of a cocoa export have a high competitiveness (RCA> 1 but tend to decrease. Results of the estimate gravity models show the factors influencing the Indonesian cocoa exports are the real per capita GDP of Indonesia and the destination country, CPI of destination countries, the economic distance, exchange rates, and tariff. The result of non-tariff barriers indicated that the Netherlands is the state which has the largest non-tariff barriers among the most other EU countriesDOI: 10.15408/sjie.v5i1.3131
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simona Vasilica OPREA
2016-01-01
Full Text Available High volume of data is gathered via sensors and recorded by smart meters. These data are processed at the electricity consumer and grid operators' side by big data analytics. Electricity consumption optimization offers multiple advantages for both consumers and grid operators. At the electricity customer level, by optimizing electricity consumption savings are significant, but the main benefits will come from indirect aspects such as avoiding onerous grid investments, higher volume of renewable energy sources' integration, less polluted environment etc. In order to optimize electricity consumption, advanced tariff systems are essential due to the financial incentive they provide for electricity consumers' behaviour change. In this paper several advanced tariff systems are described in details. These systems are applied in England, Spain, Italy, France, Norway and Germany. These systems are compared from characteristics, advantages/disadvantages point of view. Then, different tariff systems applied in Romania are presented. Romanian tariff systems have been designed for various electricity consumers' types. Different tariff systems applied by grid operators or electricity suppliers will be included in the database model that is part of an informatics system for electricity consumption optimization.
Chen, S.
2016-01-01
In many jurisdictions, international traders can apply to customs authorities for an advance ruling for tariff classification before they import or export their goods. The advance ruling system for tariff classification is expected to grant more legal certainty to international traders because they
King, Nicola C.; Aves, Stephen J.
2012-01-01
Following the publication of the higher education white paper increasing entry tariff and widening participation have become even more important issues for universities. This report examines the relationship between entry tariff and undergraduate achievement in Biosciences at the University of Exeter. We show that, whilst there is a significant…
2011-08-02
..., 2012. The second, third, fourth, and fifth tranches will be reserved for organic sugar and other... Office of the Secretary Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups...
2011-04-15
... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 15, 2011. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...
2010-07-06
... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ)...
75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar
2010-03-25
... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round...
2012-04-26
... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...
Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-03-19
This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Cheng, Lin
2016-01-01
This paper presents an optimal reconfiguration-based dynamic tariff (DT) method for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles. In the proposed DT concept, feeder reconfiguration (FR) is employed through mixed integer programm......This paper presents an optimal reconfiguration-based dynamic tariff (DT) method for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles. In the proposed DT concept, feeder reconfiguration (FR) is employed through mixed integer...... manner through the DT framework. Three case studies were conducted to validate the optimal reconfiguration-based DT method for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks....
The tariff for fire and theft car insurance: analysis with a Cox model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruno Scarpa
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the problem of identification of a tariff for a Fire & Theft Car policy for Insurance Companies. Usually companies obtain this tariff by empirical estimate of the pure rate by evaluating the impact of some personalization variables. In this paper we propose the usage of a semi-parametric Cox model, where the response variable is not the waiting time until an event, but the degree of damage because of theft or fire of a car. The proposed model allows to easily tackle typical problems in data available to the companies, like the presence of franchises, which are treated as censored data.
Schemes for aggregating preferential tariffs in agriculture,export volume effects and African LDCs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Wusheng
Trade-weighted aggregated tariffs (TWPT) are often used in analyzing the issues of erosion of non-reciprocal preferences. This paper argues that commonly used TWPTs under-estimate the true protection on imports originated from preference-receiving countries, including LDCs. When used in numerical...... simulations of preference erosion and expansion scenarios, the TWPTs tend to incorrectly downplay preference erosion effect of MFN tariff cuts, and understate the export promotion effect of expanding preferences. In light of these claims, an alternative aggregation scheme is developed to calculate aggregated...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wallisch, D.
1988-03-01
The tariff system of the power industry has become a much-discussed issue. In most cases people complain that a customer handling in an economically efficient way is punished by too high prices or lacking economic incentives. Numerous reformatory suggestions contain the requirement that the calculation of the prices must be carried out in correspondence with the power really used. The Public Utility of the City of Bocholt executed a field test to find out to which degree a tariff system based on the maximum power used to calculate the prices can change the effective load course for the individual customer and for a group of customers.
Bounding species distribution models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas J. STOHLGREN, Catherine S. JARNEVICH, Wayne E. ESAIAS,Jeffrey T. MORISETTE
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART and maximum entropy (Maxent models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5: 642–647, 2011].
de Rham, Claudia; Tolley, Andrew J; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2016-01-01
Recently, aLIGO has announced the first direct detections of gravitational waves, a direct manifestation of the propagating degrees of freedom of gravity. The detected signals GW150914 and GW151226 have been used to examine the basic properties of these gravitational degrees of freedom, particularly setting an upper bound on their mass. It is timely to review what the mass of these gravitational degrees of freedom means from the theoretical point of view, particularly taking into account the recent developments in constructing consistent massive gravity theories. Apart from the GW150914 mass bound, a few other observational bounds have been established from the effects of the Yukawa potential, modified dispersion relation and fifth force that are all induced when the fundamental gravitational degrees of freedom are massive. We review these different mass bounds and examine how they stand in the wake of recent theoretical developments and how they compare to the bound from GW150914.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan
2014-01-01
Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade barriers. This paper introduces, apart from the customary real trade costs (i.e. iceberg and fixed export costs), two revenue generating trade barriers (i.e. an ad valorem tariff and a trade license) into a standard...
Day-ahead tariffs for the alleviation of distribution grid congestion from electric vehicles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob;
2012-01-01
An economically efficient day-ahead tariff (DT) is proposed with the purpose of preventing the distribution grid congestion resulting from electric vehicle (EV) charging scheduled on a dayahead basis. The DT concept developed herein is derived from the locational marginal price (LMP), in particular...
Environmental, economic, and social impacts of feed-in tariffs : A Portuguese perspective 2000–2010
Behrens, P.A.; Rodrigues, J.D.F.; Bras, T.; Silva, C.
2016-01-01
Over the past two decades, many countries have used aggressive policies such as feed-in tariffs and power purchase agreements to promote renewable energy. These policies have been very successful in several countries, initiating large changes in the structure of energy sectors, and conferring large
Real Time Emulation of Dynamic Tariff for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Theis Bo; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun
2016-01-01
This paper presents the real time evaluation of the dynamic tariff (DT) method for alleviating congestion in a distribution networks with high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs). The DT method is implemented in a real time digital testing platform that emulates a real distribution...
2013-03-21
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that on April 16, 2013,...
2010-01-05
... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jean-Rene Broussard, Tariff Classification and Marking Branch, Regulations... contain a wick. Item 4 is a blue and white colored solid wax molded hexagon that measures approximately 1...\\'' in height and 2\\3/ 4\\'' wide. The block is blue and white colored and does not have a hole...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Makasheva Svetlana
2016-01-01
Full Text Available State of the art in the tariff type selection in the retail and the wholesale electricity market for construction or reconstruction facilities located at Far East are considered. As a management solution the electricity tariff’s selection for enterprises at stage of construction or reconstruction is accented.
General Agreement on Tariff and Trade Negotiations: A Computer-Based Simulation.
Manrique, Gabriel G.
This paper recommends the use of a computer simulation about trade and tariff negotiations to reinforce and apply principles learned in undergraduate international trade courses and to provide students with an opportunity to use the advanced features of Symphony, a computer spreadsheet. This simulation is a game in which both the class and…
On the Effectiveness of Feed-in Tariffs in the Development of Photovoltaic Solar
E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); T. van Dorp (Tom); E. Maasland (Emiel)
2014-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Growing concern for climate change and rising scarcity of fossil fuels prompted governments to stimulate the development of renewables. This paper empirically tests whether feed-in tariff (FIT) policies have been effective in the development of photovoltaic solar (PV),
The Impact of Dynamic Electricity Tariff on Long-run Incremental Cost
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ding, Yi; Li, Yang; Pineda, Salvador;
2012-01-01
. LRIC evaluation is usually conducted on the basis that demand is passive and uncontrollable. The impact of demand flexibility on LRIC has not been comprehensively studied. In this paper, the effect of dynamic electricity tariff and flexible demand on LRIC and network investment decisions is deeply...... analyzed and discussed. A modified test system (RBTS) illustrates the proposed method....
19 CFR 10.703 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment. 10.703 Section 10.703 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... authorized electronic data interchange system....
19 CFR 10.763 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. 10.763 Section 10.763 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... the method specified for equivalent reporting via an authorized electronic data interchange system....
19 CFR 10.410 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. 10.410 Section 10.410 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... by the method specified for equivalent reporting via electronic interchange. (b)...
19 CFR 10.803 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. 10.803 Section 10.803 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... the method specified for equivalent reporting via an authorized electronic data interchange system....
19 CFR 10.583 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. 10.583 Section 10.583 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... an authorized electronic data interchange system. (c) Corrected claim. If, after making the...
19 CFR 10.510 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. 10.510 Section 10.510 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... method specified for equivalent reporting via an authorized electronic data interchange system. For...
2012-08-01
...-2546-000; ER02-2546-001] CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market- Based Rate... above-referenced proceeding of CED Rock Springs, Inc.'s tariff revision filing, noting that such...
2010-10-01
... estimates. (i) A study containing a projection of costs for a representative 12 month period; and (ii... previously offered, the Chief, Tariff and Pricing Analysis Branch must be provided two sets of working...
Bounding species distribution models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Thomas J. STOHLGREN; Catherine S. JARNEVICH; Wayne E. ESAIAS; Jeffrey T. MORISETTE
2011-01-01
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern.Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development,yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations.We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches:classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models,and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations,bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors,to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States.Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding,and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models,like those presented here,should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5):642-647,2011].
Hoyer, Paul
2016-01-01
Even a first approximation of bound states requires contributions of all powers in the coupling. This means that the concept of "lowest order bound state" needs to be defined. In these lectures I discuss the "Born" (no loop, lowest order in $\\hbar$) approximation. Born level states are bound by gauge fields which satisfy the classical field equations. As a check of the method, Positronium states of any momentum are determined as eigenstates of the QED Hamiltonian, quantized at equal time. Analogously, states bound by a strong external field $A^\\mu(\\xv)$ are found as eigenstates of the Dirac Hamiltonian. Their Fock states have dynamically created $e^+e^-$ pairs, whose distribution is determined by the Dirac wave function. The linear potential of $D=1+1$ dimensions confines electrons but repels positrons. As a result, the mass spectrum is continuous and the wave functions have features of both bound states and plane waves. The classical solutions of Gauss' law are explored for hadrons in QCD. A non-vanishing bo...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zielinskaya M. V.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available One of the measures of indirect state support for domestic agricultural producer is a tariff policy, which is a key factor determining the national trade regimes and the conditions of admission of foreign products to domestic sales. The study agricultural imports in the Krasnodar region in the article are encouraged to use the weighted and substantiated by the specificity of the current state of the domestic economy tariff quotas and duties on imports of agricultural products
Information, Utility & Bounded Rationality
Ortega, Pedro A
2011-01-01
Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we employ an axiomatic framework for bounded rational decision-making based on a thermodynamic interpretation of resource costs as information costs. This leads to a variational "free utility" principle akin to thermodynamical free energy that trades off utility and information costs. We show that bounded optimal control solutions can be derived from this variational principle, which leads in general to stochastic policies. Furthermore, we show that risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) control schemes fall out naturally from this framework if the environment is considered as a bounded rational and perfectly rational opponent, respectively. When resource costs are ignored, the maximum expected utility principle is recovered.
Bounded Computational Capacity Equilibrium
Hernandez, Penelope
2010-01-01
We study repeated games played by players with bounded computational power, where, in contrast to Abreu and Rubisntein (1988), the memory is costly. We prove a folk theorem: the limit set of equilibrium payoffs in mixed strategies, as the cost of memory goes to 0, includes the set of feasible and individually rational payoffs. This result stands in sharp contrast to Abreu and Rubisntein (1988), who proved that when memory is free, the set of equilibrium payoffs in repeated games played by players with bounded computational power is a strict subset of the set of feasible and individually rational payoffs. Our result emphasizes the role of memory cost and of mixing when players have bounded computational power.
Real-Time Tariffs for Electric Vehicles in Wind Power based Power Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Silva, Marco
2013-01-01
The use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) will change significantly the planning and management of power systems in a near future. This paper proposes a real-time tariff strategy for the charge process of the EVs. The main objective is to evaluate the influence of real-time tariffs in the EVs owners......’ behaviour and also the impact in load diagram. The paper proposes the energy price variation according to the relation between wind generation and power consumption. The proposed strategy was tested in two different days in the Danish power system. January 31st and August 13th 2013 were selected because...... of the high quantities of wind generation. The main goal is to evaluate the changes in the EVs charging diagram with the energy price preventing wind curtailment....
Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cory, K.; Couture, T.; Kreycik, C.
2009-03-01
Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies are implemented in more than 40 countries around the world and are cited as the primary reason for the success of the German and Spanish renewable energy markets. As a result of that success, FIT policy proposals are starting to gain traction in several U.S. states and municipalities. Experience from Europe is also beginning to demonstrate that properly designed FITs may be more cost-effective than renewable portfolio standards (RPS), which make use of competitive solicitations. This article explores the design and operation of feed-in tariff policies, including a FIT policy definition, payment-structure options, and payment differentiation. The article also touches on the potential interactions between FIT policies and RPS policies at the state level.
Congestion management of distribution networks with day-ahead dynamic grid tariffs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei
In order to reduce CO2 emissions and alleviate the global warming issue, many countries are setting goals to increase the percentage of renewable energy in the total energy consumption. In this process, a large number of distributed energy resources (DER), distributed generation (DG), electric...... vehicles (EV) and heat pumps (HP), will be largely deployed in electrical distribution networks. Congestion management will be important in the future active distribution networks. In the IDE4L project, work package 5 is dedicated to develop different kinds of congestion management methods. Demand response...... (DR) is one of the important methods. In this report, as one task of work package 5, the day-ahead dynamic tariff (DADT) method for congestion management in distribution networks is presented. The dynamic tariff (DT) can motivate the flexible demands (EV and HP) to shift their energy consumption...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hempling, S.; Elefant, C.; Cory, K.; Porter, K.
2010-01-01
State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, terms, and conditions. The use of feed-in tariffs simplifies the purchase process, provides revenue certainty to generators, and reduces the cost of financing generating projects. However, some argue that federal law--including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the Federal Power Act of 1935 (FPA)--constrain state-level feed-in tariffs. This report seeks to reduce the legal uncertainties for states contemplating feed-in tariffs by explaining the constraints imposed by federal statutes. It describes the federal constraints, identifies transaction categories that are free of those constraints, and offers ways for state and federal policymakers to interpret or modify existing law to remove or reduce these constraints. This report proposes ways to revise these federal statutes. It creates a broad working definition of a state-level feed-in tariff. Given this definition, this report concludes there are paths to non-preempted, state-level feed-in tariffs under current federal law.
Studying the Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers on the Export of the Main Agricultural Products of Iran
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Ardakani
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: As trade agreements decrease tariffs throughout the world, other barriers to trade emerge. These Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs can be just as troublesome as tariffs for exporting countries. NTBs include any of a number of hindrances that restrict the ability of companies to export. NTBs may now have a greater impact on trade than tariffs. Approach: In contrast with previous research, we used a gravity model to estimate the trade effect of non-tariff barriers imposed by importer countries on pistachios, raisins and shrimp exported by Iran. Results: NTBs had a negative impact on pistachio and shrimp exports and their effect was greater than that of tariffs; raisin exports were unaffected by NTBs. Conclusion/Recommendations: The export and the world demand for agricultural products increasing focusing on quality, packaging, labeling and standards of products. Policy makers in countries that export agricultural products, such as Iran, must consider these characteristics when designing their programs. Therefore, if Iran builds up-to-date production systems, it will increase its exports of agricultural products.
Carlson, C E; Lebed, R F; Carlson, Carl E.; Carone, Christopher D.; Lebed, Richard F.
2001-01-01
Jurco, Moller, Schraml, Schupp, and Wess have shown how to construct noncommutative SU(N) gauge theories from a consistency relation. Within this framework, we present the Feynman rules for noncommutative QCD and compute explicitly the most dangerous Lorentz-violating operator generated through radiative corrections. We find that interesting effects appear at the one-loop level, in contrast to conventional noncommutative U(N) gauge theories, leading to a stringent bound. Our results are consistent with others appearing recently in the literature that suggest collider limits are not competitive with low-energy tests of Lorentz violation for bounding the scale of spacetime noncommutativity.
On a Strategy to Develop Robust and Simple Tariffs from Motor Vehicle Insurance Data
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Andreas Christmann
2005-01-01
The goals of this paper are twofold: we describe common features in data sets from motor vehicle insurance companies and we investigate a general strategy which exploits the knowledge of such features. The results of the strategy are a basis to develop insurance tariffs. We use a nonparametric approach based on a combination of kernel logistic regression and ε-support vector regression which both have good robustness properties. The strategy is applied to a data set from motor vehicle insurance companies.
Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff
Ho Wai Shin; Haslenda Hashim
2012-01-01
Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT) for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE) to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear ...
19 CFR 10.421 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.421 Section 10.421 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., 5807.10.2010, 5807.10.2020, 5807.90.05, 5807.90.2010, 5807.90.2020, 5808.10.40, 5808.10.70,...
Indirect Load Control for Energy Storage Systems Using Incentive Pricing under Time-of-Use Tariff
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mu-Gu Jeong
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Indirect load control (ILC is a method by which the customer determines load reduction of electricity by using a price signal. One of the ILCs is a time-of-use (TOU tariff, which is the most commonly used time-varying retail pricing. Under the TOU tariff, the customer can reduce the energy cost through an energy storage system (ESS. However, because this tariff is fixed for several months, the ESS operation does not truly reflect the wholesale market price, which could widely fluctuate. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an incentive pricing method in which the load-serving entity (LSE gives the incentive pricing signal to the customers with ESSs. Because the ESS charging schedule is determined by the customer through ILC, a bilevel optimization problem that includes the customer optimization problem is utilized to determine the incentive pricing signal. Further, the bilevel optimization problem is reformulated into a one-level problem to be solved by an interior point method. In the proposed incentive scheme: (1 the social welfare increases and (2 the increased social welfare can be equitably divided between the LSE and the customer; and (3 the proposed incentive scheme leads the customer to voluntarily follow the pricing signal.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Mourrain, Bernard; Tsigaridas, Elias
2010-01-01
of variables. One application is to the bitsize of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of an integer matrix, which also yields a new proof that the problem is polynomial. We also compare against recent lower bounds on the absolute value of the root coordinates by Brownawell and Yap [5], obtained under...
Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José
2013-01-01
This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.
On Entropy Bounds and Holography
Halyo, Edi
2009-01-01
We show that the holographic entropy bound for gravitational systems and the Bekenstein entropy bound for nongravitational systems are holographically related. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we find that the Bekenstein bound on the boundary is obtained from the holographic bound in the bulk by minimizing the boundary energy with respect the AdS radius or the cosmological constant. This relation may also ameliorate some problems associated with the Bekenstein bound.
Bounded Satisfiability for PCTL
Bertrand, Nathalie; Schewe, Sven
2012-01-01
While model checking PCTL for Markov chains is decidable in polynomial-time, the decidability of PCTL satisfiability, as well as its finite model property, are long standing open problems. While general satisfiability is an intriguing challenge from a purely theoretical point of view, we argue that general solutions would not be of interest to practitioners: such solutions could be too big to be implementable or even infinite. Inspired by bounded synthesis techniques, we turn to the more applied problem of seeking models of a bounded size: we restrict our search to implementable -- and therefore reasonably simple -- models. We propose a procedure to decide whether or not a given PCTL formula has an implementable model by reducing it to an SMT problem. We have implemented our techniques and found that they can be applied to the practical problem of sanity checking -- a procedure that allows a system designer to check whether their formula has an unexpectedly small model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Porto, L.G.C.
1991-05-01
An investigation about the season custom tariffs in Brazil, and the research to achieve the electric parameters involved in its utilization is shown, analyzing the change of the conventional custom tariff for the blue and green season custom tariffs. This analysis made in a agro-industry where manioc flour is produced, located in Garca, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A comparison between the blue and green custom tariff was accomplished in order to the better advantage in the system introduction, considering the use schedule and electric parameters involved. (author). 26 refs, 31 figs, 41 tabs, 3 apps
BOUNDING PYRAMIDS AND BOUNDING CONES FOR TRIANGULAR BEZIER SURFACES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian-song Deng; Fa-lai Chen; Li-li Wang
2000-01-01
This paper describes practical approaches on how to construct bounding pyramids and bounding cones for triangular Bézier surfaces. Examples are provided to illustrate the process of construction and comparison is made between various surface bounding volumes. Furthermore, as a starting point for the construction,we provide a way to compute hodographs of triangular Bézier surfaces and improve the algorithm for computing the bounding cone of a set of vectors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernard C. Beaudreau
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Jude Wanniski (1978 argued that the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Bill was a key factor in the Stock Market Crash of October 1929 and the Great Depression. The specter of higher tariffs and lower foreign trade, he argued, depressed share prices, leading ultimately to the Stock Market Crash. Bernard Beaudreau (1996, 2005, on the other hand, made the reverse argument, namely that the specter of higher tariffs from November 1928 to October 1929 fueled the Stock Market Boom as investors anticipated higher revenues and profits from the anticipated increase in sales and revenues. The Stock Market Crash, he argued, came on the heels of the defeat of the Thomas Recommittal Plan which foretold of lower, not higher as Wanniski contended, tariffs on manufactures. Using Event Study data from January 14, 1929 to October 29, 1929, this paper attempts to discriminate between these two hypotheses. The results show that “good” tariff bill news as reported in the New York Times contributed to stock price appreciation, and vice-versa, supporting the latter theory.
Peculiarities of non-tariff restrictions adjustment in foreign trade between the U.S. and EU
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bohdan Tustanivskyy
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the theoretical evaluation of the non-tariff trading conditions essence, determination of their place and importance in the trade between the U.S. and the EU, the assessment of possible effects due to its reduction or complete freezing. The paper takes into consideration the subject-matter and importance of non-tariff methods of foreign trade regulation, finds their place and distinguishes their specific use in the foreign trade relations between the U.S. and the EU. Accordingly, the trading terms between the above-mentioned trading partners are found to be mostly liberal, and major restrictions have non-tariff character. The estimation of the rationality of the existing non-tariff trade barriers is given, and the possible effects after their adjustment, shown up in the GDP growth, imports and exports volume, population higher incomes and wages, are evaluated. The importance of the non-tariff restrictions adjustment in the context of prospects for the transatlantic free trade area creation is emphasized.
Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll
2015-09-15
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff.
Critical SQG in bounded domains
Constantin, Peter; Ignatova, Mihaela
2016-01-01
We consider the critical dissipative SQG equation in bounded domains, with the square root of the Dirichlet Laplacian dissipation. We prove global a priori interior $C^{\\alpha}$ and Lipschitz bounds for large data.
Steinberg, Peter
2008-06-01
Who is the blog written by? Peter Steinberg is a nuclear physicist at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, US. He is acting project manager of the PHOBOS experiment, which used Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to search for unusual events produced during collisions between gold nuclei. He is also involved with the PHENIX experiment, which seeks to discover a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma. In addition to his own blog Entropy Bound, Steinberg is currently blogging on a website that was set up last year to publicize the involvement of US scientists with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.
Maldacena, Juan; Stanford, Douglas
2015-01-01
We conjecture a sharp bound on the rate of growth of chaos in thermal quantum systems with a large number of degrees of freedom. Chaos can be diagnosed using an out-of-time-order correlation function closely related to the commutator of operators separated in time. We conjecture that the influence of chaos on this correlator can develop no faster than exponentially, with Lyapunov exponent $\\lambda_L \\le 2 \\pi k_B T/\\hbar$. We give a precise mathematical argument, based on plausible physical assumptions, establishing this conjecture.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franke, Susan [Westsaechsische Hochschule Zwickau (Germany)
2010-07-01
The contribution under consideration reports on the mechanism of price formation on the German power supply market. From the standpoint of progressive liberalization of this market in particular possibilities for the design of dynamic tariff models are discussed. Theoretical foundations form the design of incentive systems linked to the economic model of price formation. Existing concepts are discussed, and a concept for implementing in the project Low Energy Living is outlined. Thus, an incentive shall be supplied for consumers in order to break their previous habits and to help that the utilities can smooth out their load profile. Power customers benefit from this form of significant energy savings.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chengjianbing; Lvjianming; Chengpeng Jiang
2010-01-01
@@ With the cutoff and limitation of tariff and traditional nontariff Barriers to Trade by GATT/WTO,the changes of income level and customers' preference in importing countries might bring more requirements for product quality,safety and environmental protection,under the rule of sustainable protection.When looking into the cases of Rapex Circular of EU and CPSC Recall of USA,we can find that TBT on Textile and Apparel has increasingly been leading into a heated issue of discussion among international trade policies.
Hatta, Tatsuo
2009-01-01
This paper discusses how an electric transmission company in a pass-through area should settle the cost of a pass-through with the neighboring transmission companies under the point-of-connection tariff system. First, the paper shows that if the cost of the pass-through is settled based on the principle that determines the (metered) power transmission fares for ordinary customers (i.e. injectors and withdrawers) of the transmission companies, the fare receipts of the pass-through transmission...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
1992-01-01
they obtain a quadratic bound. These bounds are shown to be tight. Specializing the case of strict and additive functions to functionals of a form that would correspond to iterative programs they show that a linear bound is tight. This is related to several analyses studied in the literature (including...
Error bounds for set inclusions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG; Xiyin(郑喜印)
2003-01-01
A variant of Robinson-Ursescu Theorem is given in normed spaces. Several error bound theorems for convex inclusions are proved and in particular a positive answer to Li and Singer's conjecture is given under weaker assumption than the assumption required in their conjecture. Perturbation error bounds are also studied. As applications, we study error bounds for convex inequality systems.
Multifunctions of bounded variation
Vinter, R. B.
2016-02-01
Consider control systems described by a differential equation with a control term or, more generally, by a differential inclusion with velocity set F (t , x). Certain properties of state trajectories can be derived when it is assumed that F (t , x) is merely measurable w.r.t. the time variable t. But sometimes a refined analysis requires the imposition of stronger hypotheses regarding the time dependence. Stronger forms of necessary conditions for minimizing state trajectories can be derived, for example, when F (t , x) is Lipschitz continuous w.r.t. time. It has recently become apparent that significant addition properties of state trajectories can still be derived, when the Lipschitz continuity hypothesis is replaced by the weaker requirement that F (t , x) has bounded variation w.r.t. time. This paper introduces a new concept of multifunctions F (t , x) that have bounded variation w.r.t. time near a given state trajectory, of special relevance to control. We provide an application to sensitivity analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fugimoto, Sergio Kinya
2010-07-01
Currently, the electric energy sector is preparing for the third round of the distributors tariff revisions. Since the regulatory environment is more consolidated in terms of required revenue, the agents are turning their attention to the necessary adjustment and correction of the tariff structure. In fact, ANEEL (regulatory agency) set topics for R and D projects considered strategic for the development of national energy sector, among them, the Tariff Structure Project. Recently, the regulatory agency also announced public hearings dealing with the costs allocation, price signals and tariffs for low-voltage consumers. In line with this debate, the thesis finds to analyze the methodology for calculating tariffs, systematizing knowledge dispersed in various references. For this, it discusses the major aspects of peak pricing theory, including American, British and French approaches, and researches the connection between the logic built into the costs allocation by hour and the criteria for electricity distribution system planning. Aiming to reflect the costs of each customer type, indicating a better utilization of the distribution system, are proposed improvements and innovation whose highlights are: shifting the idea that expansion costs should be only allocated in peak time of the system, setting the periods after calculating the costs, changing how to derive the reference charges by average aggregation of the costs and applying the methodology on altered load curves. Finally, this thesis seeks to prove that the current methodology, although designed by the time in which the electricity sector was aggregated, can be adapted according to the proposed improvements and innovations, and thus applied to the current environment in which electric energy businesses and tariffs are separated in generation, transmission, and distribution and retail areas. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brochard, B. [Maire de Cannes, 06 (France); Durieux, B. [Inspection General des Finances, 75 - Paris (France); Chevalier, J.M
2006-03-15
The presentation covered the recommendations and the major conclusions of the commission. The commission proposes a new method of tariffs fixing, asks a better answer to consumers expectations by the implementing of commercial offers, proposes more stable and open tariffs fixing rules and recommends an increase of the prices of 5,8%. (A.L.B.)
2010-10-01
... to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission Special Docket No... on the date the intended rate would have become effective and ending on the day before the...
International LTE Tariff Trends and Enlightenments%国际LTE的资费趋势与启示
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张丽贤; 李继兵; 王刚刚
2013-01-01
Based on the summarization of international LTE tariff trends and characteristics, it explores the reasons of the tariff innovation, gains enlightenments and provides a valuable reference for domestic operators who are going to carry out LTE business in the very near future.%在跟踪总结国际LTE资费特征的基础上，深入探讨了LTE资费变革的深层次原因与对国内运营商的启示，为国内运营商未来开展LTE业务提供了有益借鉴。
The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade.
Lupien, John R
2002-07-01
International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made.
The effect of the water tariff structures on the water consumption in Mallorcan hotels
Deyà-Tortella, Bartolomé; Garcia, Celso; Nilsson, William; Tirado, Dolores
2016-08-01
Tourism increases water demand, especially in coastal areas and on islands, and can also cause water shortages during the dry season and the degradation of the water supply. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of water price structures on hotel water consumption on the island of Mallorca (Spain). All tourist municipalities on the island use different pricing structures, such as flat or block rates, and different tariffs. This exogenous variation is used to evaluate the effect of prices on water consumption for a sample of 134 hotels. The discontinuity of the water tariff structure and the fixed rate, which depends on the number of hotel beds, generate endogeneity problems. We propose an econometric model, an instrumental variable quantile regression for within artificial blocks transformed data, to solve both problems. The coefficients corresponding to the price variables are not found to be significantly different from zero. The sign of the effect is negative, but the magnitude is negligible: a 1% increase in all prices would reduce consumption by an average of only 0.024%. This result is probably due to the small share of water costs with respect to the total hotel operational costs (around 4%). Our regression model concludes that the introduction of water-saving initiatives constitutes an effective way to reduce consumption.
新一轮电价改革破题%New Power Tariff Reform Break the Silence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘树杰
2004-01-01
·2003年是我国新一轮电价改革的起点.·我国电价分布"东高西低"有其合理性.但分类电价中商业电价定价最高,属于价格歧视.·评价我国电价水平高低,一定要看投资回报率,并重视成本监管与成本完善. ·电价决策权的配置,横向过于分散,纵向过于集中. ·参与电价决策的相关主体中,居民消费者力量太弱,但在电价上并不吃亏;而作为"非居民消费者"的发电公司力量也太弱.·即使不搞电力市场化,我国的电价体制和电力监管体制也需要改革.·电价改革方向--非自然垄断环节的市场化与自然垄断环节的监管现代化.·当前急需研究解决的问题:一是电网公司投资回收过低如何解决?二是大用户"直购"后,搁浅成本与普遍服务责任如何负担?三是"公平负担系统成本"与"抑制高耗电产业迅猛发展"如何协调?%· In 2003 a new round of power tariff reform was initiated.· Though power tariff differentiated high in east and low in west is reasonable, the commercial tariff being the highest in tariff category is discriminating.· The evaluation of power tariff level shall be based on the rate of return of investment and also on supervision and perfection of cost.·The disposition of power tariff decision right is too dispersed transversally and too concentrated longitudinally.· Among the participants in power tariff decision-making, residential consumers are on weak side but favorable on tariff level, Being non-residential consumers, the generation companies are also too weak.· Even without power market, power tariff system and regulation shall be reformed.· The orientation of power tariff reform tends to be market-driven for unnatural monopoly sector and regulatory modernization of natural monopoly sector.·Some problems to be urgently solved in the new round of power tariff reform include: the rate of return on investment is too low for power grid corporations; after large
Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.
2012-01-01
and Rosenberg's theorem), are also hard for dynamic range searching in the group model. This theorem allows us to reuse decades of research on range reporting lower bounds to immediately obtain a range of new group model lower bounds. Amongst others, this includes an improved lower bound for the fundamental...... problem of dynamic d-dimensional orthogonal range searching, stating that tqtu = Ω((lg n/lg lg n)d-1). Here tq denotes the query time and tu the update time of the data structure. This is an improvement of a lg1-δn factor over the recent lower bound of Larsen [FOCS'11], where δ>0 is a small constant......Table of Contents -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In this paper we present a number of improved lower bounds for range searching in the pointer machine and the group model. In the pointer machine, we prove lower bounds for the approximate simplex...
On functions of bounded variation
Aistleitner, Christoph; Pausinger, Florian; Svane, Anne Marie; Tichy, Robert F.
2015-01-01
The recently introduced concept of $\\mathcal{D}$-variation unifies previous concepts of variation of multivariate functions. In this paper, we give an affirmative answer to the open question from Pausinger \\& Svane (J. Complexity, 2014) whether every function of bounded Hardy--Krause variation is Borel measurable and has bounded $\\mathcal{D}$-variation. Moreover, we show that the space of functions of bounded $\\mathcal{D}$-variation can be turned into a commutative Banach algebra.
Bounding approaches to system identification
Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Éric
1996-01-01
In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.
Bukh, Boris
2011-01-01
In 2008, Bukh, Matousek, and Nivasch conjectured that for every n-point set S in R^d and every k, 0 <= k <= d-1, there exists a k-flat f in R^d (a "centerflat") that lies at "depth" (k+1) n / (k+d+1) - O(1) in S, in the sense that every halfspace that contains f contains at least that many points of S. This claim is true and tight for k=0 (this is Rado's centerpoint theorem), as well as for k = d-1 (trivial). Bukh et al. showed the existence of a (d-2)-flat at depth (d-1) n / (2d-1) - O(1) (the case k = d-2). In this paper we concentrate on the case k=1 (the case of "centerlines"), in which the conjectured value for the leading constant is 2/(d+2). We prove that 2/(d+2) is an *upper bound* for the leading constant. Specifically, we show that for every fixed d and every n there exists an n-point set in R^d for which no line in R^d lies at depth larger than 2n/(d+2) + o(n). This point set is the "stretched grid"---a set which has been previously used by Bukh et al. for other related purposes.
2012-04-25
... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement will be administered using certificates of quota eligibility. DATES..., the United States entered into the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (the...
19 CFR 132.17 - Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export certificate for sugar-containing products..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY QUOTAS Administration of Quotas § 132.17 Export...), the importer must possess a valid export certificate in order to claim the in-quota tariff rate...
2010-07-06
... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 128 (Tuesday, July 6, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 38805] [FR Doc No: 2010-16284] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RM07-16-000; RM01-5-000] Filing Via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings Notice of Display of Time on...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hempling, Scott [National Regulatory Research Inst., Silver Spring, MD (United States); Elefant, Carolyn [Law Offices of Carolyn Elefant, Washington, DC (United States); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)
2010-01-01
This report details how state feed-in tariff (FIT) programs can be legally implemented and how they can comply with federal requirements. The report describes the federal constraints on FIT programs and identifies legal methods that are free of those constrains.
Upton, J.R.; Shalloo, L.; Murphy, M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to provide insight into the variations in dairy farm electricity costs across five electricity tariffs. The effect of four milk cooling scenarios is also simulated to illustrate the effect of technologies on the electricity consumption, related costs and CO2 emissions of a
2011-08-12
... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products....
2010-08-17
... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products....
2012-09-10
...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and the Fiscal Year 2013 Overall Allotment Quantity Under the Sugar Marketing Allotment Program AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ). The FY 2013 raw...
2010-04-27
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...
2011-04-12
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...
2012-09-17
... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective...
2010-08-30
... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...
2010-08-05
...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar TRQ is established at 1,117,195...
19 CFR 132.18 - License for certain worsted wool fabric subject to tariff-rate quota.
2010-04-01
... consumption (Customs Form 7501, column 34), or its electronic equivalent (see paragraph (c)(1) of this section... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License for certain worsted wool fabric subject to tariff-rate quota. 132.18 Section 132.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT...
Definition of Distribution Network Tariffs Considering Distribution Generation and Demand Response
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soares, Tiago; Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita
2014-01-01
The use of distribution networks in the current scenario of high penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) is a problem of great importance. In the competitive environment of electricity markets and smart grids, Demand Response (DR) is also gaining notable impact with several benefits for the wh...... the determination of topological distribution factors, and consequent application of the MW-mile method. The application of the proposed tariffs definition methodology is illustrated in a distribution network with 33 buses, 66 DG units, and 32 consumers with DR capacity...... for the whole system. The work presented in this paper comprises a methodology able to define the cost allocation in distribution networks considering large integration of DG and DR resources. The proposed methodology is divided into three phases and it is based on an AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) including...
Overall review of feed-in tariff and renewable portfolio standard policy: A perspective of China
Yan, Q. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Yang, L.; Wang, X.
2016-08-01
A major share of China's total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is from the electric power sector. To solve this problem, Chinese government has implemented many renewable energy policies in the electric power sector. In China, the most popular renewable energy policies are Feed-in tariff (FIT) and renewable portfolio standard (RPS). This paper first introduces the current development of renewable electricity generation. Second the design plan and implement of FIT and RPS in China's thermal electricity generation sector are summarized in this paper. Third this paper establishes a complementary mode of FIT and RPS which can provide a stable environment to make the FIT and RPS work together. Finally, based on the above analysis, this paper proposes relative suggestions for the implementation of FIT and RPS in China making recommendation for the development of electricity generation from renewable energy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haller, Thomas [Simon-Kucher und Partners, Strategy und Marketing Consults, Wien (Austria); Stiller, Michael [Simon-Kucher und Partners, Bonn (Germany); Cerna, Daniela [Simon-Kucher und Partners, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2011-01-15
Power supply companies in German-speaking countries expect a marked shortening of product life cycles over the next five years. This means that new products will need to be developed at ever shorter time intervals. However, opinions on the success of newly introduced products are mediocre. While there is an understanding that the product portfolio should meet customers' needs, the importance of the conceptualisation phase in developing suitable products is systematically underestimated. A study performed by a reputed strategic consultancy firm has shown that at least when it comes to tariff migration there is a failure to address customers in a differentiated manner. A rethink in conceptualising product portfolios is needed if the success of new product launches is to be driven by other criteria than merely the price.
Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 3. Regulation and tariff
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1979-08-01
Volume 1 described the history of the railroad industry and pointed out that the number of separate companies, their monopoly power, and their trade and labor practices invited regulation by outsiders from the early days. Even though new regulations have been added over the years, few have been removed. Tariffs have been modified to fit a number of needs, not all of them economic. The effects of government regulation on the energy efficiency of railroad operations are examined. The development of railroad regulation is examined and the governmental legislation, policies, and procedures that make up the regulatory environment within which the railroads must operate are briefly described. The relationship among regulations, energy usage, and costs in three specific areas of regulation: long-haul rates, empty car distribution, and rates on low-density rail traffic are examined.
Unintended consequences of increasing block tariffs pricing policy in urban water
Dahan, Momi; Nisan, Udi
2007-03-01
We exploit a unique data set to estimate the degree of economies of scale in water consumption, controlling for the standard demand factors. We found a linear Engel curve in water consumption: each additional household member consumes the same water quantity regardless of household size, except for a single-person household. Our evidence suggests that the increasing block tariffs (IBT) structure, which is indifferent to household size, has unintended consequences. Large households, which are also likely to be poor given the negative correlation between income and household size, are charged a higher price for water. The degree of economies of scale found here erodes the effectiveness of IBT price structure as a way to introduce an equity consideration. This implication is important in view of the global trend toward the use of IBT.
The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fink, Sari [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Rogers, Jennifer [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)
2010-10-01
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15–20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.
Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.
2010-10-01
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.
Bounds for Asian basket options
Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle
2008-09-01
In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Li-Guo; TIAN Cheng-Lin; CHEN Ping-Xing; YUAN Nai-Chang
2009-01-01
We derive an analytical lower bound on the concurrence for bipartite quantum systems with an improved computable cross norm or realignment criterion and an improved positive partial transpose criterion respectively.Furthermore we demonstrate that our bound is better than that obtained from the local uncertainty relations criterion with optimal local orthogonal observables which is known as one of the best estimations of concurrence.
Asynchronous Bounded Expected Delay Networks
Bakhshi, Rena; Fokkink, Wan; Pang, Jun
2010-01-01
The commonly used asynchronous bounded delay (ABD) network models assume a fixed bound on message delay. We propose a probabilistic network model, called asynchronous bounded expected delay (ABE) model. Instead of a strict bound, the ABE model requires only a bound on the expected message delay. While the conditions of ABD networks restrict the set of possible executions, in ABE networks all asynchronous executions are possible, but executions with extremely long delays are less probable. In contrast to ABD networks, ABE networks cannot be synchronised efficiently. At the example of an election algorithm, we show that the minimal assumptions of ABE networks are sufficient for the development of efficient algorithms. For anonymous, unidirectional ABE rings of known size N we devise a probabilistic leader election algorithm having average message and time complexity O(N).
The Out-bound and In-bound Travelling Market
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Emily Yu
2009-01-01
@@ As the Spring Festival of China with a long vocation of seven days nationally is approaching,more and more attention is paid to the out-bound and inn-bound trayeling market.Will people hold their pockets firmly in the"cold winter"of world-wide financial crisis,or will they grab the great discount of traveling and take a good relax?
Bounds for Certain Character Sums
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨锦; 郑志勇
2003-01-01
This paper shows a connection between exponential sums and character sums. In particular, we introduce a character sum that is an analog of the classical Kloosterman sums and establish the analogous Weil-Estermann's upper bound for it. The paper also analyzes a generalized Hardy-Littlewood example for character sums, which shows that the upper bounds given here are the best possible. The analysis makes use of local bounds for the exponential sums and character sums. The basic theorems have been previously established.
Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zura Kakushadze
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhi-Hong Tao; Cong-Hua Zhou; Zhong Chen; Li-Fu Wang
2007-01-01
Bounded Model Checking has been recently introduced as an efficient verification method for reactive systems.This technique reduces model checking of linear temporal logic to propositional satisfiability.In this paper we first present how quantified Boolean decision procedures can replace BDDs.We introduce a bounded model checking procedure for temporal logic CTL* which reduces model checking to the satisfiability of quantified Boolean formulas.Our new technique avoids the space blow up of BDDs, and extends the concept of bounded model checking.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John A. Moore
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Historians have long examined the causes of the American Civil War. Frequently, they identify three explanatory factors: slavery, states’ rights and tariffs. This paper assesses the Tariffs of 1841 and 1842, asserting that arguments attributing the tariff as a causal factor of the Civil War are exaggerated and deserve reconsideration. Upon close examination, these tariff debates represent a continuation of a long-standing discourse as to whether American foreign trade policy should embrace free trade or protectionist characteristics. Consequently, these debates, which occurred only nineteen years before Fort Sumter, are more closely aligned with late 18th century debates over political economy than they are as a prelude cause to Civil War.
Computing Constrained Cramer Rao Bounds
Tune, Paul
2012-01-01
We revisit the problem of computing submatrices of the Cram\\'er-Rao bound (CRB), which lower bounds the variance of any unbiased estimator of a vector parameter $\\vth$. We explore iterative methods that avoid direct inversion of the Fisher information matrix, which can be computationally expensive when the dimension of $\\vth$ is large. The computation of the bound is related to the quadratic matrix program, where there are highly efficient methods for solving it. We present several methods, and show that algorithms in prior work are special instances of existing optimization algorithms. Some of these methods converge to the bound monotonically, but in particular, algorithms converging non-monotonically are much faster. We then extend the work to encompass the computation of the CRB when the Fisher information matrix is singular and when the parameter $\\vth$ is subject to constraints. As an application, we consider the design of a data streaming algorithm for network measurement.
Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien
2016-11-01
We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.
Some bounds for quantum copying
Rastegin, A E
2001-01-01
We derive lower bounds on the absolute error and the relative error of an abstract copying of two-state set. We do not specify a copying transformation and a dimension of state space. Only the unitarity of quantum mechanical transformations is used. Our approach is based on the notion of angle between two states. We first prove several useful statements, simply expressed in terms of angles. We then examine a lower bound on the absolute error, that was first considered by Hillery and Buzek. Our reasonings supplement and reinforce the results, obtained by them. So, we derive more strong bounds on the absolute error, and we also consider a tradeoff between size of error and corresponding probability distributions. After that we examine a lower bound on the relative error.
Schulz, M D; Vidal, J
2016-01-01
We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.
Foley, E C; Bird, H A
2013-04-01
The interface between sports medicine and performing arts medicine is closest for "tariff" sports, where the sportsperson can select their own programme of varying difficulty with the more complex skills carrying potential for higher marks. Inevitably, some performers over-reach themselves. Examples of injuries and prevention strategies to avoid such injuries are discussed in a preliminary analysis of four sports: diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating.
电费回收的策略与对策%Tariff Recovery Strategies and Countermeasures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王娟
2011-01-01
In the process of electricity market reform, how to solve the problem of tariff recovery is an important issue of the power sector. The power marketing is the core business of power supply company, and has far meaning for the efficiency of electricity charges recovery, in particular, the effective recovery of long-overdue electricity charges. In this paper, problems in the electricity charges recovery process in the new situation are elaborated, and then appropriate strategies and countenneasures are proposed.%在电力市场化改革的过程中如何解决电费回收难问题是电力部门的重要课题.而电力营销是供电企业的核心业务,对提高电费回收的力度及效率,尤其的有效回收陈欠电费,其意义深远.本文就新形势下电费回收过程中存在的问题进行阐述,进而提出相应的策略和对策.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natan Szuster
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate to what extent the IFRIC12 and ICPC01 accounting characteristics can influence in the formation of tariffs in the electricity sector in Brazil. The choice of this sector is justified by its economic relevance, its importance for the development of the country and mainly because it uses specific regulatory accounting rules. With a purely qualitative approach - justified by the incipient stage of the current research in this area – we conducted a theoretical study, focusing on qualitative information, through research of the literature and documents. The results show that the pricing model may change under the IFRIC 12 and ICPC 01 standards, which makes the effective application of these accounting standards in the environment regulated by the National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL a difficult and complex task. The study also indicates that the main difference between the regulatory accounting system promoted by ANEEL and the international standards is the impossibility of recognizing regulatory assets and liabilities under the latter system. Therefore, the Brazilian electricity sector is one of those that may have its financial statements most affected by the convergence of Brazilian accounting standards to international standards.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala; Almeida, Denizart do Rosario [ELETROBRAS - Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2006-07-01
The objective of the work is to identify the impacts of the variations in the tariffs of the electricity on the standard of growth of the consumption of electric energy, and the role that these variations had exerted in the allocation of resources by the companies of the sector, in the period 1995-2004. In this period, changes in the habits of consumption of energy due the adopted during the rationing, explain, in part, the reduction of the income-elasticity of the consumption of electric energy, but the contribution of a significant effect-price was important for this reduction. Also are evidenced, in this work, the categories of use and the regions that had more contributed for this effect. For the allocation of resources, from 1998 a decline of the participation of the investments in the sector in the total of investments of the economy is observed, with the companies of the sector presenting differentiated behaviors visibly. The companies of distribution apparently more privileged for the formation of resources, have presented, in the recent years, a declining evolution in its rate of investments when compared with the others segments. Among the determinative factors of the decisions of investment of the companies of distribution, can be mentioned the change in the standard of growth of the consumption and the effect of the evolution of the opportunity cost of the inversions. (author)
Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ho Wai Shin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP model was developed and implemented in General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS. The RE options considered including landfill gas, municipal solid waste, palm oil residue and hydro power. While the model presents a general approach for electricity planning, Iskandar Malaysia is applied as a case study in this research. Results: By considering the cost, FiT, availability of the Renewable Energy Source (RES and limit of RE fund for FiT remuneration in Malaysia. The optimization result indicates that Iskandar Malaysia can satisfy the set target of 40% carbon emission reduction by 2015 by implementing biomass RE. Conclusion: Itâs revealed that a total of 875 MW of RE is required from Biomass Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BBFB using various palm oil biomass fuel (mesofiber-215 MW, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-424 MW and kernel-236 MW. However, this increases the Cost Of Electricity (COE by 69-6.5% cents/kWh.
A Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Couture, Toby D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Williams, Emily [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)
2010-07-01
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker’s guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation.
Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.
2010-07-01
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.
Photovoltaics: reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and changing PV efficiencies and costs.
Zhang, H L; Van Gerven, T; Baeyens, J; Degrève, J
2014-01-01
Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.
Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. L. Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Feed-in-Tariff (FiT mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii describes the developments of PV, (iii applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium; and finally (iv predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.
The analysis of Taiwan's residential electricity demand under the electricity tariff policy
Chen, Po-Jui
In October 2013, the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower), the monopolized state utility service in Taiwan, implemented an electricity tariff adjustment policy to reduce residential electricity demand. Using bi-monthly billing data from 6,932 electricity consumers, this study examine how consumers respond to an increase in electricity prices. This study employs an empirical approach that takes advantage of quasi-random variation over a period of time when household bills were affected by a change in electricity price. The study found that this price increase caused a 1.78% decline in residential electricity consumption, implying a price elasticity of -0.19 for summer-season months and -0.15 for non-summer-season months. The demand for electricity is therefore relatively inelastic, likely because it is hard for people to change their electricity consumption behavior in the short-term. The results of this study highlight that demand-side management cannot be the only lever used to address Taiwan's forecasted decrease in electricity supply.
Energy use in the Marine Transportation Industry. Task II. Regulations and tariffs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1977-06-30
The regulatory framework of the commercial marine transportation industry is defined and these regulations are evaluated in terms of their energy impact. The approach used in the evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs was structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Each of these three steps is described in detail. The report is organized around nine chapters. Chapter I contains an introduction and summary of the results and conclusions. Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes: a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction; and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the seven existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. The results of each of these seven case studies are summarized. (MCW)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1977-12-01
The evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs is structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the 7 existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. Energy impacts of the state of Washington's tanker regulations, of tanker segregated ballast requirements, of inland waterway user charges, of cargo pooling and service rationalization, of the availability of intermodal container transportation services, of capacity limitations at lock and dam 26 on the Mississippi River and the energy implications of the transportation alternatives available for the West Coast crude oil supplies are discussed. (MCW)
Experimental activation of bound entanglement.
Kaneda, Fumihiro; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Kosaka, Hideo; Edamatsu, Keiichi
2012-07-27
Entanglement is one of the essential resources in quantum information and communication technology (QICT). The entanglement thus far explored and applied to QICT has been pure and distillable entanglement. Yet, there is another type of entanglement, called "bound entanglement," which is not distillable by local operations and classical communication. We demonstrate the experimental "activation" of the bound entanglement held in the four-qubit Smolin state, unleashing its immanent entanglement in distillable form, with the help of auxiliary two-qubit entanglement and local operations and classical communication. We anticipate that it opens the way to a new class of QICT applications that utilize more general classes of entanglement than ever, including bound entanglement.
Eta nuclear bound states revisited
Friedman, E; Mareš, J
2013-01-01
The strong energy dependence of the s-wave eta-N scattering amplitude at and below threshold, as evident in coupled-channels K-matrix fits and chiral models that incorporate the S11 N*(1535) resonance, is included self consistently in eta-nuclear bound state calculations. This approach, applied recently in calculations of kaonic atoms and Kbar-nuclear bound states, is found to impose stronger constraints than ever on the onset of eta-nuclear binding, with a minimum value of Re a_{eta N} approximately 0.9 fm required to accommodate an eta-4He bound state. Binding energies and widths of eta-nuclear states are calculated within several underlying eta-N models for nuclei across the periodic table, including eta-25Mg for which some evidence was proposed in a recent COSY experiment.
Lower Bounds for Sparse Recovery
Ba, Khanh Do; Price, Eric; Woodruff, David P
2011-01-01
We consider the following k-sparse recovery problem: design an m x n matrix A, such that for any signal x, given Ax we can efficiently recover x' satisfying ||x-x'||_1 <= C min_{k-sparse} x"} ||x-x"||_1. It is known that there exist matrices A with this property that have only O(k log (n/k)) rows. In this paper we show that this bound is tight. Our bound holds even for the more general /randomized/ version of the problem, where A is a random variable and the recovery algorithm is required to work for any fixed x with constant probability (over A).
Variables Bounding Based Retiming Algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宫宗伟; 林争辉; 陈后鹏
2002-01-01
Retiming is a technique for optimizing sequential circuits. In this paper, wediscuss this problem and propose an improved retiming algorithm based on variables bounding.Through the computation of the lower and upper bounds on variables, the algorithm can signi-ficantly reduce the number of constraints and speed up the execution of retiming. Furthermore,the elements of matrixes D and W are computed in a demand-driven way, which can reducethe capacity of memory. It is shown through the experimental results on ISCAS89 benchmarksthat our algorithm is very effective for large-scale sequential circuits.
Bounds for Completely Decomposable Jacobians
Duursma, Iwan
2010-01-01
A curve over the field of two elements with completely decomposable Jacobian is shown to have at most six rational points and genus at most 26. The bounds are sharp. The previous upper bound for the genus was 145. We also show that a curve over the field of $q$ elements with more than $q^{m/2}+1$ rational points has at least one Frobenius angle in the open interval $(\\pi/m,3\\pi/m)$. The proofs make use of the explicit formula method.
Variational Bounds for Creeping Composites
Procházka, Petr
2010-05-01
In the paper time dependent variational bounds are derived based on Extended Hashin-Shtrikman variational principles. Direct calculation leads to explicit formulas to be presented in the text. For various mechanical properties easy coding in Excel, say, can be used and verification of accuracy for numerical procedures is available using the derived formulas.
Pieter Paul Rubens, "Prometheus Bound."
Shoemaker, Marla K.
1986-01-01
Provides a full-color reproduction of Pieter Paul Rubens' painting, "Prometheus Bound," and a lesson plan for using it with students in grades 10 through 12. The goal of the lesson is to introduce students to the techniques of design and execution used by Rubens. (JDH)
Carvalho, Catarina; MarkoviÄ, Petar; Maróti, Miklós
2007-01-01
We prove that the constraint languages invariant under a short sequence of J\\'onsson terms (containing at most three non-trivial ternary terms) are tractable by showing that they have bounded width. This improves the previous result by Kiss and Valeriote and presents some evidence that the Larose-Zadori conjecture holds in the congruence-distributive case.
A Functional Calculus for Quotient Bounded Operators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sorin Mirel Stoian
2006-12-01
Full Text Available If (X, P is a sequentially locally convex space, then a quotient bounded operator T beloging to QP is regular (in the sense of Waelbroeck if and only if it is a bounded element (in the sense of Allan of algebra QP. The classic functional calculus for bounded operators on Banach space is generalized for bounded elements of algebra QP.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyeongig Kim
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Customer-owned battery energy storage systems (BESS have been used to reduce electricity costs of energy storage owners (ESOs under a time-of-use (TOU tariff in Korea. However, the current TOU tariff can unintentionally induce customer’s electricity usage to have a negative impact on power systems. This paper verifies the impact of different BESS operation strategies on power systems under a TOU tariff by analyzing the TOU tariff structure and the customer’s load pattern. First, several BESS operation strategies of ESO are proposed to reduce the electricity cost. In addition, a degradation cost calculation method for lithium ion batteries is considered for the ESO to determine the optimal BESS operation strategy that maximizes both electricity cost and annual investment cost. The optimal BESS operation strategy that maximizes ESO’s net benefit is illustrated by simulation using an urban railway load data from Namgwangju Station, Korea. The results show that BESS connected to urban railway loads can negative impact power system operation. This is due to the high BESS degradation costs and lack of incentive of differential rates in TOU tariff that can effectively induce proper demand response.
Wind power feed-in-tariff price of consumptive%风电上网电价机制研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周莹; 张娜; 董振; 张婷
2012-01-01
随着能源与环境问题的日益突出,风力发电作为技术最成熟、最具开发条件和商业化前景的新发电方式越来越受到重视.目前国内风电发展仍停留在小规模发展或完全由政府投资的阶段,其中既有技术问题也有政策问题,而最核心的问题之一是风电上网电价的问题.风电上网电价的居高不下导致售电电价高于其他能源类型电价,进而导致风电利用率较低.从国内外风电上网电价机制入手,通过分析影响风电上网电价的自然、经济、技术、政策四个方面的风险因素,提出了基于风险的风电上网电价调整机制和激励电网风电消纳的风电上网补贴机制,并结合案例分析了新机制带来的电网公司、政府、风电厂商、用户各主体利益的变化,为合理制定风电上网电价机制提供了理论支持.%With the energy and environmental issues becoming more prominent, wind power generation receives more and more attention as the most mature technology, development conditions and promising new commercial power generation. At present, wind power development is still at the small-scale development or the stage fully funded by government, there is not only technical issues but also policy issues, however, one of the most central issue is the issue of wind power feed-in-tariff price. Because of high wind power feed-in tariff, the sales price is higher than other types of energy, which led to the low utilization of wind power. In this paper, from domestic and international wind power feed-in tariff mechanism to start, by analyzing the impact four risk factors of wind power feed-in-tariff price, including natural, economic, technical and policy aspects, the risk-based wind power feed-in-tariff price adjustment mechanism and incentive wind power consumptive subsidy mechanism are both proposed, combined with case studies of the new mechanism , that brings change of power grid companies, governments, wind
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, Ricardo Henrique dos; Santos, Rosana Rodrigues dos; Sauer, Ildo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: rosana2@uol.com.br
1999-07-01
The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. In this context, the aim of this work is to review the natural monopolies theory, regulation regimes, and the energy transmission tariffs of Brazilian electric power sector.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moghimi Mojtaba
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate a method of peak load shaving through the utilization of solar PV and battery energy storage whilst creating a cost effective Energy Management System (EMS. This is achieved by utilizing a rule-sets to manage and optimize a scheduling system with a forecasting algorithm. As Time of Use (ToU tariffs change throughout the day, a cost benefit can be achieved when a smart energy storage system is appropriately employed. The EMS operation is tested on an experimental microgrid with commercial load considering payback period calculation.
Physics with loosely bound nuclei
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Chhanda Samanta
2001-08-01
The essential aspect of contemporary physics is to understand properties of nucleonic matter that constitutes the world around us. Over the years research in nuclear physics has provided strong guidance in understanding the basic principles of nuclear interactions. But, the scenario of nuclear physics changed drastically as the new generation of accelerators started providing more and more rare isotopes, which are away from the line of stability. These weakly bound nuclei are found to exhibit new forms of nuclear matter and unprecedented exotic behaviour. The low breakup thresholds of these rare nuclei are posing new challenges to both theory and experiments. Fortunately, nature has provided a few loosely bound stable nuclei that have been studied thoroughly for decades. Attempts are being made to ﬁnd a consistent picture for the unstable nuclei starting from their stable counterparts. Some signiﬁcant differences in the structure and reaction mechanisms are found.
Lower Bounds on Paraclique Density.
Hagan, Ronald D; Langston, Michael A; Wang, Kai
2016-05-11
The scientific literature teems with clique-centric clustering strategies. In this paper we analyze one such method, the paraclique algorithm. Paraclique has found practical utility in a variety of application domains, and has been successfully employed to reduce the effects of noise. Nevertheless, its formal analysis and worst-case guarantees have remained elusive. We address this issue by deriving a series of lower bounds on paraclique densities.
Bound Modes in Dielectric Microcavities
Visser, P M; Lenstra, D
2002-01-01
We demonstrate how exactly bound cavity modes can be realized in dielectric structures other than 3d photonic crystals. For a microcavity consisting of crossed anisotropic layers, we derive the cavity resonance frequencies, and spontaneous emission rates. For a dielectric structure with dissipative loss and central layer with gain, the beta factor of direct spontaneous emission into a cavity mode and the laser threshold is calculated.
Entropy Bounds in Spherical Space
Brevik, I; Odintsov, S D; Brevik, Iver; Milton, Kimball A.; Odintsov, Sergei D.
2002-01-01
Exact calculations are given for the Casimir energy for various fields in $R\\times S^3$ geometry. The Green's function method naturally gives a result in a form convenient in the high-temperature limit, while the statistical mechanical approach gives a form appropriate for low temperatures. The equivalence of these two representations is demonstrated. Some discrepancies with previous work are noted. In no case, even for ${\\cal N}=4$ SUSY, is the ratio of entropy to energy found to be bounded.
2013-03-26
... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science... Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB Control Number: 1840-NEW. Type of Review: New... under the regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department...
Bounds on Generalized Huffman Codes
Baer, Michael B
2007-01-01
New lower and upper bounds are obtained for the compression of optimal binary prefix codes according to various nonlinear codeword length objectives. Like the coding bounds for Huffman coding - which concern the traditional linear code objective of minimizing average codeword length -- these are in terms of a form of entropy and the probability of the most probable input symbol. As in Huffman coding, some upper bounds can be found using sufficient conditions for the codeword corresponding to the most probable symbol being one bit long. Whereas having probability no less than 0.4 is a tight sufficient condition for this to be the case in Huffman coding, other penalties differ, some having a tighter condition, some a looser condition, and others having no such sufficient condition. The objectives explored here are ones for which optimal codes can be found using a generalized form of Huffman coding. These objectives include one related to queueing (an increasing exponential average), one related to single-shot c...
Kim, Hyo-Sil
2011-01-01
We study the motion-planning problem for a car-like robot whose turning radius is bounded from below by one and which is allowed to move in the forward direction only (Dubins car). For two robot configurations $\\sigma, \\sigma'$, let $\\ell(\\sigma, \\sigma')$ be the shortest bounded-curvature path from $\\sigma$ to $\\sigma'$. For $d \\geq 0$, let $\\ell(d)$ be the supremum of $\\ell(\\sigma, \\sigma')$, over all pairs $(\\sigma, \\sigma')$ that are at Euclidean distance $d$. We study the function $\\dub(d) = \\ell(d) - d$, which expresses the difference between the bounded-curvature path length and the Euclidean distance of its endpoints. We show that $\\dub(d)$ decreases monotonically from $\\dub(0) = 7\\pi/3$ to $\\dub(\\ds) = 2\\pi$, and is constant for $d \\geq \\ds$. Here $\\ds \\approx 1.5874$. We describe pairs of configurations that exhibit the worst-case of $\\dub(d)$ for every distance $d$.
Daly, Ruth A
2009-01-01
Beam powers and black hole masses of 48 extended radio sources are combined to obtain lower bounds on the spins and magnetic field strengths of supermassive black holes. This is done in the context of the models of Blandford & Znajek (1977) (the 'BZ' model) and Meier (1999); a parameterization for bounds in the context of other models is suggested. The bounds obtained for very powerful classical double radio sources in the BZ model are consistent with black hole spins of order unity for sources at high redshift. The black hole spins are largest for the highest redshift sources and decrease for sources at lower redshift; the sources studied have redshifts between zero and two. Lower power radio sources associated with central dominant galaxies may have black hole spins that are significantly less than one. Combining this analysis with other results suggests that the maximum values of black hole spin associated with powerful radio galaxies decline from values of order unity at a redshift of 2 to values of o...
电费回收风险项目绩效评价研究%Research on the Performance Evaluation of Tariff Recovery Project
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓艳
2016-01-01
In order to reduce the risk of tariff recovery, improve the efficiency of tariff recovery, and increase the profitability of the power companies, this article established the performance evaluation index system and evaluation process, analyzed the method of evaluation in detail, finally, summarized the benefit of tariff recovery from economic, social, management and other aspects.%为降低电费回收风险，提高电费回收的效率，增加电力企业的盈利能力。本文通过建立绩效评价指标体系和评价的流程，并且详细分析了评价的方法，最后对电费回收的经济、社会、管理等方面的效益进行了总结。
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez Garcia, V.E.; Blanco Jimenez, F.J.
2012-07-01
The Water Framework Directive requires the adoption of a tariff system that recovers the costs of water resources and the establishment of national water-pricing policies that help to achieve a sustainable water use. Water rates (tariffs) should be used as an auxiliary tool for consumption control, seeking for efficiency and a sustainable resource use. In this research, we studied the characteristics of the existing rates in seven Spanish cities, analyzing the behavior of consumption of domestic water during the period 2003-2010, in order to check whether the current Spanish rates conforms to the state of resources and the objectives of the Directive. The main conclusion of our work is that the current system has lost its effectiveness as a control consumption tool, making it necessary to rethink the pricing policy and a new tariff system in Spain. (Author)
On interpretations of bounded arithmetic and bounded set theory
Pettigrew, Richard
2008-01-01
In a recent paper, Kaye and Wong proved the following result, which they considered to belong to the folklore of mathematical logic. THEOREM: The first-order theories of Peano arithmetic and ZF with the axiom of infinity negated are mutually interpretable with interpretations that are inverse to each other. In this note, I describe a theory of sets that stands in the same relation to the bounded arithmetic IDelta0 + exp. Because of the weakness of this theory of sets, I cannot straightforwardly adapt Kaye and Wong's interpretation of the arithmetic in the set theory. Instead, I am forced to produce a different interpretation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2007-01-15
The ministry answers questions relative to the electricity price: the position of the tariffs in Europe, the tariffs for the industry, the margins, EDF, the energy policy and the part of the nuclear, the fight against the CO{sub 2}. (A.L.B.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sintya Jummoni Krissanty Umboh
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The purposes of this study is at analyzing the impact of maize import tariff policy changes on production and consumption in Indonesia. Three groups of households were assessed in this studi, namely: (1 large scale broiler farming, (2 small scale broiler farming, and (3 other households. Employed data in this study were classified into 3 types: (1 production and input, consumption, and household income, (2 inputs and outputs, and (3 elasticities. The abolishment of the import tariff policy on maize had an impact on increased maize imported and decreased maize price. Decreased domestic maize price was responded by maize farmer through lessing maize planted area and fertilizer input uses that had impact on the declining in maize production. On the other hand, this policy had positive impact on production of rice, chicken meat, and eggs which led to increase incomes of small scale broiler farming and agricultural sector, as well as national. It furthermore increased the consumption for maize, chicken meat, and eggs in Indonesia.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.
2005-11-14
The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qianhui Gao
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The principal objective of this study is to analyze welfare effects of Japan’s rice import quota focusing on the simultaneous buy and sell (SBS of the rice importation minimum access (MA policy. Based on the utility function specified in this study, the constructed model is adopted to measure consumption patterns through estimating elasticity of substitution between imported rice and Japan’s domestic rice, and consumers’ preference parameters for different kinds of rice. The results showed that Japanese households prefer domestic rice to the imported rice. Besides, three scenarios of adjusting rice quota volumes were carried out to examine the changes in consumer prices of imported rice and Japanese consumers’ welfares. The results revealed that tariff equivalents of the SBS import quota almost doubled the scale of the mark-up, and the intervention by the Ministry of Agriculture of Japan did cause non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs. Finally, if the SBS rice quota quantity was fixed at or larger than 180 thousand tons every fiscal year, the consumer prices of imported rice in Japan’s market would decrease to be less than the prices of Japan’s domestic rice, and therefore the imported rice would have more price advantages in this scenario.
Plater, Steve
2009-10-01
The UK government has announced the introduction from April 2010 of a feed-in tariff (FIT) for renewable energy, and initiated a consultation on its design. This paper compares three possible variants of a UK FIT for rooftop photovoltaic (PV) arrays, on the basis of calculated income and array cost payback time, and for three locations (north, central and southern England) and various levels of household electricity consumption. This modelling is based on an FIT rate equivalent to Germany's. It concludes that an FIT which paid only for PV electricity surplus to on-site needs, and exported to the grid, would mean a simple payback time too long to make array purchase appealing. Preferable would be either export to the grid of all PV electricity for FIT payment; or a lower FIT rate for electricity used on-site, plus full FIT for any surplus exported. The latter would involve significantly lower costs in feed-in tariff payments. Finally, the effect of the UK government's illustrative FIT rate for consultation is examined for the same locations and annual consumption levels.
Bound Polaron Pair Formation in Poly (phenylenevinylenes)
Rothberg, Lewis
The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * PHOTOGENERATED YIELD OF SINGLET EXCITONS * AGGREGRATION EFFECTS ON EXCITED STATE PHOTO-GENERATION * ASSIGNMENT TO BOUND POLARON PAIRS AND DISCUSSION * PROBLEMS WITH THE BOUND POLARON PAIR PICTURE AND CONCLUSION * REFERENCES
An Exponential Bound for Cox Regression☆
Kosorok, M. R.
2012-01-01
We present an asymptotic exponential bound for the deviation of the survival function estimator of the Cox model. We show that the bound holds even when the proportional hazards assumption does not hold. PMID:23565013
An Exponential Bound for Cox Regression.
Goldberg, Y; Kosorok, M R
2012-07-01
We present an asymptotic exponential bound for the deviation of the survival function estimator of the Cox model. We show that the bound holds even when the proportional hazards assumption does not hold.
Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.
2009-01-01
This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing...... quantities of interest. To be able to utilise the evidence about the derivative it is suggested to adapt the ‘conventional’ problem statement to variational calculus and the way to do so is demonstrated. A number of examples are given throughout the paper....
New bounds for multi-dimensional packing
Seiden, S.; Stee, van, Rob
2001-01-01
New upper and lower bounds are presented for a multi-dimensional generalization of bin packing called box packing. Several variants of this problem, including bounded space box packing, square packing, variable sized box packing and resource augmented box packing are also studied. The main results, stated for d=2, are as follows: A new upper bound of 2.66013 for online box packing, a new $14/9 + varepsilon$ polynomial time offline approximation algorithm for square packing, a new upper bound ...
The Acquisition of Bound and Free Anaphora.
Koster, Jan; Koster, Charlotte
Most linguists assume that bound anaphors such as "himself" are connected with their antecedents in a different way from free anaphors such as "him." Bound anaphora resolution is deterministic, based on Principle A of Chomsky's binding theory. Free anaphors, pronominals, cannot be bound in the domain of reflexives (principle…
Computing the bounds on the loss rates
Fourneau J.-M.; Mokdad L.; Pekergin N.
2002-01-01
We consider an example network where we compute the bounds on cell loss rates. The stochastic bounds for these loss rates using simple arguments lead to models easier to solve. We proved, using stochastic orders, that the loss rates of these easier models are really the bounds of our original model. For ill-balanced configurations these models give good estimates of loss rates.
Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil
2014-01-01
graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...
Tight adversary bounds for composite functions
Hoyer, P.; Spalek, R.
2005-01-01
The quantum adversary method is a very versatile method for proving lower bounds on quantum algorithms. It has many equivalent formulations, yields tight bounds for many computational problems, and has natural connections to classical lower bounds. One of its formulations is in terms of the spectral
Bound entangled states invariant under Ux
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Zhen; Wang Zhi-Xi
2008-01-01
This paper obtains an entangled condition for isotropic-like states by using an atomic map. It constructs a class of bound entangled states from the entangled condition and shows that the partial transposition of the state from the constructed bound entangled class is an edge bound entangled state by using range criterion.
Bounded rationality and heterogeneous expectations in macroeconomics
D. Massaro
2012-01-01
This thesis studies the effect of individual bounded rationality on aggregate macroeconomic dynamics. Boundedly rational agents are specified as using simple heuristics in their decision making. An important aspect of the type of bounded rationality described in this thesis is that the population of
Counting Young Tableaux of Bounded Height
Bergeron, Francois; Gascon, Francis
2000-03-01
We show that formulas of Gessel, for the generating functions for Young standard tableaux of height bounded by k (see [2]), satisfy linear differential equations, with polynomial coefficients, equivalent to P-recurrences conjectured by Favreau, Krob and the first author (see [1]) for the number of bounded height tableaux and pairs of bounded height tableaux.
Asymmetric dark matter bound state
Bi, Xiao-Jun; Kang, Zhaofeng; Ko, P.; Li, Jinmian; Li, Tianjun
2017-02-01
We propose an interesting framework for asymmetric scalar dark matter (ADM), which has novel collider phenomenology in terms of an unstable ADM bound state (ADMonium) produced via Higgs portals. ADMonium is a natural consequence of the basic features of ADM: the (complex scalar) ADM is charged under a dark local U (1 )d symmetry which is broken at a low scale and provides a light gauge boson X . The dark gauge coupling is strong and then ADM can annihilate away into X -pair effectively. Therefore, the ADM can form a bound state due to its large self-interaction via X mediation. To explore the collider signature of ADMonium, we propose that ADM has a two-Higgs doublet portal. The ADMonium can have a sizable mixing with the heavier Higgs boson, which admits a large cross section of ADMonium production associated with b b ¯. The resulting signature at the LHC depends on the decays of X . In this paper we consider a case of particular interest: p p →b b ¯ +ADMonium followed by ADMonium→2 X →2 e+e- where the electrons are identified as (un)converted photons. It may provide a competitive explanation to heavy di-photon resonance searches at the LHC.
Boosting equal time bound states
Dietrich, Dennis D; Jarvinen, Matti
2012-01-01
We present an explicit and exact boost of a relativistic bound state defined at equal time of the constituents in the Born approximation (lowest order in hbar). To this end, we construct the Poincar\\'e generators of QED and QCD in D=1+1 dimensions, using Gauss' law to express A^0 in terms of the fermion fields in A^1=0 gauge. We determine the fermion-antifermion bound states in the Born approximation as eigenstates of the time and space translation generators P^0 and P^1. The boost operator is combined with a gauge transformation so as to maintain the gauge condition A^1=0 in the new frame. We verify that the boosted state remains an eigenstate of P^0 and P^1 with appropriately transformed eigenvalues and determine the transformation law of the equal-time, relativistic wave function. The shape of the wave function is independent of the CM momentum when expressed in terms of a variable, which is quadratically related to the distance x between the fermions. As a consequence, the Lorentz contraction of the wave ...
Endurance bounds of aerial systems
Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.
2014-06-01
Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.
Decoherence in time evolution of bound entanglement
Sun, Z; Sun, C P; Wang, X; Sun, Zhe; Wang, Xiaoguang
2007-01-01
We study a dynamic process of disentanglement by considering the time evolution of bound entanglement for a quantum open system, two qutrits coupling to a common environment. Here, the initial quantum correlations of the two qutrits are characterized by the bound entanglement. In order to show the universality of the role of environment on bound entanglement, both bosonic and spin environments are considered. We found that the bound entanglement displays collapses and revivals, and it can be stable against small temperature and time change. The thermal fluctuation effects on bound entanglement are also considered.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled Substances K Appendix K to Subpart A of...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. K Appendix K...
Werner, Lone; Scholtens, Lambertus
2017-01-01
The development of renewable and sustainable energy is advanced by public financial support. This is particularly so in the German Energiewende, which seeks to replace nuclear and fossil electricity generation with wind, sun, and biomass. We study the impact of the (changes in the) feed-in tariff (F
2013-09-13
... Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the...-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The Secretary also announces the establishment of the FY 2014 in-quota aggregate quantity of certain sugars, syrups,...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kitzing, Lena
2014-01-01
. Using cash flow analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and mean-variance analysis, we quantify risk-return relationships for an exemplary offshore wind park in a simplified setting. We show that feedin tariffs systematically require lower direct support levels than feed-in premiums while providing the same...
国家经贸委公布部分产品进口配额及税率%SETC announces quotas and tariff rates on imported goods
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
@@ In accordance with"The Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Administration of Import and Export of Goods"as well as China's pledges upon its accession to the World Trade Organisation, China's State Economics and Trade Commission(SETC)recently published quotas and tariff rates for some imported goods for 2002.
Thermodynamic law from the entanglement entropy bound
Park, Chanyong
2015-01-01
From black hole thermodynamics, the Bekenstein bound has been proposed as a universal thermal entropy bound. It has been further generalized to an entanglement entropy bound which is valid even in a quantum system. In a quantumly entangled system, the non-negativity of the relative entropy leads to the entanglement entropy bound. When the entanglement entropy bound is saturated, a quantum system satisfies the thermodynamics-like law with an appropriately defined entanglement temperature. We show that the saturation of the entanglement entropy bound accounts for a universal feature of the entanglement temperature proportional to the inverse of the system size. In addition, we also find that a global quench unlike the excitation does not preserve the entanglement entropy bound.
Exact entanglement bases and general bound entanglement
Zhong, Z Z
2004-01-01
In this paper, we give the more general bound entangled states associated with the unextendible product bases (UPB), i.e. by using of the exact entanglement bases (EEB) and the complete basis with unextendible product bases (CBUPB), we prove that the arbitrary convex sums of the uniform mixtures (bound entangled states) associated with UPBs are still bound entangled states. Further, we discuss the equivalent transformation group and classification of the CBUPBs, and by using this classification, we prove that in the meaning of indistinguishability, the set of the above all possible bound entangled states can be reduced to the set of all possible mixtures of some fixed basic bound entangled states. At last, we prove that every operating of the partial transposition (PT) map acting upon a density matrix under any bipartite partitioning induces a mapping from the above reduced set of bound entangled states to oneself, which corresponds to a non-identical permutation of the basic bound entangled states.
Capacity Bounds for Parallel Optical Wireless Channels
Chaaban, Anas
2016-01-01
A system consisting of parallel optical wireless channels with a total average intensity constraint is studied. Capacity upper and lower bounds for this system are derived. Under perfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT), the bounds have to be optimized with respect to the power allocation over the parallel channels. The optimization of the lower bound is non-convex, however, the KKT conditions can be used to find a list of possible solutions one of which is optimal. The optimal solution can then be found by an exhaustive search algorithm, which is computationally expensive. To overcome this, we propose low-complexity power allocation algorithms which are nearly optimal. The optimized capacity lower bound nearly coincides with the capacity at high SNR. Without CSIT, our capacity bounds lead to upper and lower bounds on the outage probability. The outage probability bounds meet at high SNR. The system with average and peak intensity constraints is also discussed.
A reversal in the historical role of tariffs in economic growth? The cases of Brazil and Portugal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Eugénia Mata
2008-09-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the comparative role of protectionism on Brazilian and Portuguese economic growth for the period 1860-1950 in the context of the available theoretical approaches from international economics. Although the role of tariffs has long been debated in the historiography of both countries, this paper provides the first exercise that uses a methodology based on a macro-econometric approach for long-run time-series. Given Clemens' and Williamson's conclusion that the world environment matters, we test their claim for two countries on the tariff reversal paradox. The Brazilian and the Portuguese experiences confirm that protection was correlated with growth in the period before World War I, and it is unlikely that freer trade would have increased Portuguese growth, contrary to the established thesis. The First World War, however, was a turning point for Brazil. In carrying out this study, we have used the best data available to us, occasionally departing from those used by Clemens and Williamson. Our conclusions hold for alternative data sets.Este artigo discute o papel comparativo do protecionismo sobre o crescimento econômico brasileiro e português no período 1860-1950 no contexto das aproximações teóricas disponíveis da Economia Internacional. Embora o papel das tarifas tenha sido longamente discutido na historiografia dos dois países, este artigo fornece o primeiro exercício que usa a metodologia baseada na aproximação macroeconométrica para sucessões cronológicas de longa duração. Dada a conclusão de Clemens e Williamson de que o enquadramento mundial conta, testamos para os dois países a sua pretensão do tariff reversal paradox. As experiências brasileira e portuguesa confirmam que a proteção esteve correlacionada com o crescimento no período anterior à Primeira Guerra Mundial, e não é provável que comércio mais livre tivesse aumentado o crescimento econômico português, contrariamente à tese
Spectral computations for bounded operators
Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan
2001-01-01
Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...
Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Stone, A. Douglas; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin
2016-09-01
Bound states in the continuum (BICs) are waves that remain localized even though they coexist with a continuous spectrum of radiating waves that can carry energy away. Their very existence defies conventional wisdom. Although BICs were first proposed in quantum mechanics, they are a general wave phenomenon and have since been identified in electromagnetic waves, acoustic waves in air, water waves and elastic waves in solids. These states have been studied in a wide range of material systems, such as piezoelectric materials, dielectric photonic crystals, optical waveguides and fibres, quantum dots, graphene and topological insulators. In this Review, we describe recent developments in this field with an emphasis on the physical mechanisms that lead to BICs across seemingly very different materials and types of waves. We also discuss experimental realizations, existing applications and directions for future work.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2008-07-01
With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peper, F.; Huegging, T.; Fest, C. [viavera GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)
2006-08-15
The new Energy Industry Act (Energiewirtschaftsgesetz - EnWG) will have consequences for the German gas industry, i.e. unbundling requirements and enforced cooperation and restructuring of grid operators. There is a controversial discussion going on between the gas industry, the grid users and the regulation authority, the focus of which is on the development and definition of a new network access model for the gas industry, especially the formation of new market zones and the resulting consequences for the processes of the market partners concerned. The contribution discusses the system of equal tariffs within a market zone, which is one aspect of the market model under discussion. Selected example are to illustrate the underlying systematics. (orig.)
Felder, Stefan
2004-12-01
Drug price differences across national markets as they exist in the EU are often justified by the concept of Ramsey prices: with fixed costs for R&D, the optimal mark-ups on marginal costs are inversely related to the price elasticity in the individual markets. This well-known result prevails if consumer moral hazard is taken into account. Contrary to the situation without moral hazard, the uniform price does not necessarily dominate discriminatory pricing in welfare terms. The two-part tariff is a better alternative as it allows governments to address moral hazard. A uniform price combined with lump-payments reflecting differences in the willingness to pay and the moral hazard in member states appears to be an attractive option for a common EU drug market.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reichenbach, Johanna
2011-07-19
I study several policy instruments for carbon mitigation with a focus on subsidies for renewable energies, emission taxes and emission allowances. In Chapter 1, I analyze the optimal design and the welfare implications of two policies consisting of an emission tax for conventional fossil-fuel utilities combined with a subsidy for the producers of renewable energy equipment and an emission tax combined with a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity. In Chapter 2 I study the empirical interrelationships between European emission allowance prices and prices for electricity, hard coal and natural gas with an application to portfolio allocation. In Chapters 3 and 4, I discuss several policy-related issues of emissions trading, in particular the potential for market manipulations by firms holding a dominant position in the emission market, the output market or both, and competitive distortions and leakage due to unequal emission regulations across industries, sectors, regions, or countries. (orig.)
Using tolerance bounds in scientific investigations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wendelberger, J.R.
1996-07-01
Assessment of the variability in population values plays an important role in the analysis of scientific data. Analysis of scientific data often involves developing a bound on a proportion of a population. Sometimes simple probability bounds are obtained using formulas involving known mean and variance parameters and replacing the parameters by sample estimates. The resulting bounds are only approximate and fail to account for the variability in the estimated parameters. Tolerance bounds provide bounds on population proportions which account for the variation resulting from the estimated mean and variance parameters. A beta content, gamma confidence tolerance interval is constructed so that a proportion beta of the population lies within the region bounded by the interval with confidence gamma. An application involving corrosion measurements is used to illustrate the use of tolerance bounds for different situations. Extensions of standard tolerance intervals are applied to generate regression tolerance bounds, tolerance bounds for more general models of measurements collected over time, and tolerance intervals for varying precision data. Tolerance bounds also provide useful information for designing the collection of future data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerpott, Torsten J.; Paukert, Mathias [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Lehrstuhl Unternehmens- und Technologieplanung, Schwerpunkt Telekommunikationswirtschaft
2013-06-15
In Germany too, communication-capable electricity metering systems (CMS) together with time-based differentiation of kWh-rates for energy consumption are increasingly proliferated among household customers. Nevertheless, empirical evidence with respect to preferences of members of this customer group for the design of CMS tariff elements and of time-variant electricity consumption rates is still scarce. The present study captures such preferences by means of conjoint analysis of data obtained in an online survey of 754 German-speaking adults. Examined CMS tariff elements are a one-off installation fee and monthly recurring use charges. The studied characteristics of time-based rates are the number of time/tariff blocks, the maximum spread between kWh-rates for different time windows and the adaptability/predictability of kWh-rates. Most respondents judged multidimensional CMS and electricity consumption tariff offerings mainly in light of the CMS tariff characteristics. The vast majority of the participants perceived kWh-rates, which may change with a minimum lead time of one day as reducing the benefit of CMS and consumption tariff bundles. Tariff preferences on the one hand were only rarely significantly related to customers' socio-demographic and electricity procurement characteristics as well as their CMS-related expectations/assessments on the other. The willingness to accept CMS-related one-off installation and recurring service charges as well as the propensity to opt for time-dependent electricity consumption tariff variants differing clearly from non-differentiated electricity price schemes appear to be positively affected by customers' practical application experience with CMS and time-variant electricity consumption rates. Conclusions are drawn for energy suppliers seeking to propagate CMS-based time-variant tariffs among household customers in Germany and for future scholarly research. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Domiciano, Jose Antonio
2002-07-01
The present competition circumstances (ambient) require enterprises (companies or undertaking) like CERON to have understanding of all conditions to propose tariffs which give correct signal the consumers. Objective. Thus, search for valuations of model to define the tariff of electric energy based on marginal cost though a study in case of CERON. Method. Develop an investigation of a model of definition of tariffs of electric energy based on marginal costs to start the study in case of CERON and followed by analysis of its tariff structure. Results. With application of the signal (sign or indication) of tariffs, can measure the degree of separation of tariffs and to propose new modalities of alternate tariffs which offer conditions to reflect the real form of costs imposed by clients who form subgroups of tariffs of CERON. With final results, it offers parameters to trace (seek) important strategy for the company. Conclusion: The model gives condition's to identify and quantify of subsidies inside the tariff structure. It is a base which permits to create alternatives to resolve tariff distortions. It permits to have a better understanding which category (class) of consumers who are free will try to seek companies with tariffs which reflect really its costs. (author)
Bound anionic states of adenine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H
2007-03-20
Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic
Thermodynamic law from the entanglement entropy bound
Park, Chanyong
2016-04-01
From black hole thermodynamics, the Bekenstein bound has been proposed as a universal thermal entropy bound. It has been further generalized to an entanglement entropy bound which is valid even in a quantum system. In a quantumly entangled system, the non-negativity of the relative entropy leads to the entanglement entropy bound. When the entanglement entropy bound is saturated, a quantum system satisfies the thermodynamicslike law with an appropriately defined entanglement temperature. We show that the saturation of the entanglement entropy bound accounts for a universal feature of the entanglement temperature proportional to the inverse of the system size. In addition, we show that the deformed modular Hamiltonian under a global quench also satisfies the generalized entanglement entropy boundary after introducing a new quantity called the entanglement chemical potential.
Bounds on double-diffusive convection
Balmforth, Neil J.; Ghadge, Shilpa A.; Kettapun, Atichart; Mandre, Shreyas D.
2006-12-01
We consider double-diffusive convection between two parallel plates and compute bounds on the flux of the unstably stratified species using the background method. The bound on the heat flux for Rayleigh Bénard convection also serves as a bound on the double-diffusive problem (with the thermal Rayleigh number equal to that of the unstably stratified component). In order to incorporate a dependence of the bound on the stably stratified component, an additional constraint must be included, like that used by Joseph (Stability of Fluid Motion, 1976, Springer) to improve the energy stability analysis of this system. Our bound extends Joseph's result beyond his energy stability boundary. At large Rayleigh number, the bound is found to behave like R_T(1/2) for fixed ratio R_S/R_T, where R_T and R_S are the Rayleigh numbers of the unstably and stably stratified components, respectively.
Process expression of bounded Petri nets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴哲辉
1996-01-01
The concept of process expression of bounded Petri nets is presented.Moreover,an algorithm to find the process expression for a bounded Petri net is given.A process expression of a bounded Petri net is a regular expression whose every alphabet symbol represents a basic subprocess of the net.The regular set expressed by the regular expression is the set of all surjective processes of a bounded Petri net.A surjective process of a bounded Petri net is a process of this net in which every s-cut corresponds to a reachable marking of the net.Therefore,all surjective processes of a bounded Petri net can be obtained as long as its process expression and the basic subprocess represented by the alphabet symbols of the process expression are given.
Instanton bound states in ABJM theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2013-06-15
The partition function of the ABJM theory receives non-perturbative corrections due to instanton effects. We study these non-perturbative corrections, including bound states of worldsheet instantons and membrane instantons, in the Fermi-gas approach. We require that the total non-perturbative correction should be always finite for arbitrary Chern-Simons level. This finiteness is realized quite non-trivially because each bound state contribution naively diverges at some levels. The poles of each contribution should be canceled out in total. We use this pole cancellation mechanism to find unknown bound state corrections from known ones. We conjecture a general expression of the bound state contribution. Summing up all the bound state contributions, we find that the effect of bound states is simply incorporated into the worldsheet instanton correction by a redefinition of the chemical potential in the Fermi-gas system. Analytic expressions of the 3- and 4-membrane instanton corrections are also proposed.
Computing the bounds on the loss rates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fourneau J.-M.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available We consider an example network where we compute the bounds on cell loss rates. The stochastic bounds for these loss rates using simple arguments lead to models easier to solve. We proved, using stochastic orders, that the loss rates of these easier models are really the bounds of our original model. For ill-balanced configurations these models give good estimates of loss rates.
Conditionally bounding analytic ranks of elliptic curves
Bober, Jonathan W
2011-01-01
We describe a method for bounding the rank of an elliptic curve under the assumptions of the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture and the generalized Riemann hypothesis. As an example, we compute, under these conjectures, exact upper bounds for curves which are known to have rank at least as large as 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24. For the known curve of rank at least 28, we get a bound of 30.
Scalable Capacity Bounding Models for Wireless Networks
Du, Jinfeng; Medard, Muriel; Xiao, Ming; Skoglund, Mikael
2014-01-01
The framework of network equivalence theory developed by Koetter et al. introduces a notion of channel emulation to construct noiseless networks as upper (resp. lower) bounding models, which can be used to calculate the outer (resp. inner) bounds for the capacity region of the original noisy network. Based on the network equivalence framework, this paper presents scalable upper and lower bounding models for wireless networks with potentially many nodes. A channel decoupling method is proposed...
Conductivity bounds in probe brane models
Ikeda, Tatsuhiko N; Nakai, Yuichiro
2016-01-01
We discuss upper and lower bounds on the electrical conductivity of finite temperature strongly coupled quantum field theories, holographically dual to probe brane models, within linear response. In a probe limit where disorder is introduced entirely through an inhomogeneous background charge density, we find simple lower and upper bounds on the electrical conductivity in arbitrary dimensions. In field theories in two spatial dimensions, we show that both bounds persist even when disorder is included in the bulk metric. We discuss the challenges with finding sharp lower bounds on conductivity in three or more spatial dimensions when the metric is inhomogeneous.
Risk Bounds for Infinitely Divisible Distribution
Zhang, Chao
2012-01-01
In this paper, we study the risk bounds for samples independently drawn from an infinitely divisible (ID) distribution. In particular, based on a martingale method, we develop two deviation inequalities for a sequence of random variables of an ID distribution with zero Gaussian component. By applying the deviation inequalities, we obtain the risk bounds based on the covering number for the ID distribution. Finally, we analyze the asymptotic convergence of the risk bound derived from one of the two deviation inequalities and show that the convergence rate of the bound is faster than the result for the generic i.i.d. empirical process (Mendelson, 2003).
A Stronger LP Bound for Formula Size Lower Bounds via Clique Constraints
Ueno, Kenya
2009-01-01
We introduce a new technique proving formula size lower bounds based on the linear programming bound originally introduced by Karchmer, Kushilevitz and Nisan [11] and the theory of stable set polytope. We apply it to majority functions and prove their formula size lower bounds improved from the classical result of Khrapchenko [13]. Moreover, we introduce a notion of unbalanced recursive ternary majority functions motivated by a decomposition theory of monotone self-dual functions and give integrally matching upper and lower bounds of their formula size. We also show monotone formula size lower bounds of balanced recursive ternary majority functions improved from the quantum adversary bound of Laplante, Lee and Szegedy [15].
An outer bound for 2-receiver discrete memoryless broadcast channels
Nair, Chandra
2008-01-01
An outer bound to the two-receiver discrete memoryless broadcast channel is presented. We compare it to the known outer bounds and show that the outer bound presented is at least as tight as the existing bounds.
OPTIMAL TARIFF SETTING AND ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE STRATEGIC DETERMINATION%最优关税制定及国际贸易战略决定分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
龙麒圣; 李克强
2012-01-01
International trade is wide spread today, therefore interactions in tariffs strategy among countries are quite common in the international market. This paper discussed the problem of government tariff setting in international trade by establishing asymmetric quartet two-stage nested game model. Theoretical analysis showed that developing national trade was better than seclusion and there was an optimal tariff in trade which was superior to that of non-tariff, which would damage interest of others. In an asymmetric model of two countries and a single product with tariff barriers, free trade was not a rational choice under normal circumstances. The Nash equilibrium solution of two countries were both adopting optimal tariff policy, forming Prisoner＇s Dilemma, which could explain the prevalence of trade protection policy in reality.%当今世界国际贸易关系广泛存在，在不完全竞争的国际市场中充满了国家之间贸易政策的关税战略互动．本文建立了非对称的四方两阶段嵌套博弈模型，讨论了国际贸易中的政府关税设定．理论分析结果表明，对任意贸易国而言，开展国际贸易都优于闭关锁国；且存在一个最优关税优于无关税的自由贸易，但这将会损害他国利益．在具有关税壁垒的非对称的两国单一产品贸易模型中，自由贸易在通常情况下并非各国的理性选择，博弈中两国的纳什均衡解是双方均采用最优关税政策，形成囚徒困境，这解释了现实中贸易保护政策盛行的原因．
On the range of completely bounded maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard I. Loebl
1978-01-01
Full Text Available It is shown that if every bounded linear map from a C*-algebra α to a von Neumann algebra β is completely bounded, then either α is finite-dimensional or β⫅⊗Mn, where is a commutative von Neumann algebra and Mn is the algebra of n×n complex matrices.
No-arbitrage bounds for financial scenarios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geyer, Alois; Hanke, Michael; Weissensteiner, Alex
2014-01-01
We derive no-arbitrage bounds for expected excess returns to generate scenarios used in financial applications. The bounds allow to distinguish three regions: one where arbitrage opportunities will never exist, a second where arbitrage may be present, and a third, where arbitrage opportunities...
Spatial coagulation with bounded coagulation rate
Bailleul, Ismael
2010-01-01
We prove that the spatial coagulation equation with bounded coagulation rate is well-posed for all times in a given class of kernels if the convection term of the underlying particle dynamics has divergence bounded below by a positive constant. Multiple coagulations, fragmentation and scattering are also considered.
Generalized upper bound for inelastic diffraction
Troshin, S. M.; Tyurin, N. E.
2017-01-01
For inelastic diffraction, we obtain an upper bound valid for the whole range of the elastic scattering amplitude variation allowed by unitarity. We discuss the energy dependence of the inelastic diffractive cross-section on the base of this bound and recent Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data.
A generalized upper bound for inelastic diffraction
Troshin, S M
2016-01-01
For the inelastic diffraction, we obtain an upper bound valid in the whole range of the elastic scattering amplitude variation allowed by unitarity. We discuss the energy dependence of the inelastic diffractive cross-section on the base of this bound and recent LHC data.
New bounds for multi-dimensional packing
Seiden, S.; Stee, R. van
2001-01-01
New upper and lower bounds are presented for a multi-dimensional generalization of bin packing called box packing. Several variants of this problem, including bounded space box packing, square packing, variable sized box packing and resource augmented box packing are also studied. The main results,
A Note on Geodesically Bounded -Trees
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kirk WA
2010-01-01
Full Text Available It is proved that a complete geodesically bounded -tree is the closed convex hull of the set of its extreme points. It is also noted that if is a closed convex geodesically bounded subset of a complete -tree and if a nonexpansive mapping satisfies then has a fixed point. The latter result fails if is only continuous.
Upper Bounds on Numerical Approximation Errors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raahauge, Peter
2004-01-01
This paper suggests a method for determining rigorous upper bounds on approximationerrors of numerical solutions to infinite horizon dynamic programming models.Bounds are provided for approximations of the value function and the policyfunction as well as the derivatives of the value function...
Experimental evidence of bounds of quantum correlations
Bovino, F A; Castelletto, S; Degiovanni, I P; Rastello, M L; Berchera, I R
2003-01-01
We implemented the experiment proposed by Cabello [arXiv:quant-ph/0309172] to test the bounds of quantum correlation. As expected from the theory we found that, for certain choices of local observables, Cirel'son's bound of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality ($2\\sqrt{2}$) is not reached by any quantum states.
Lower Bounds of Concurrence for Multipartite States
Zhu, Xue-Na; Fei, Shao-Ming
2012-01-01
We study the entanglement of multipartite quantum states. Some lower bounds of the multipartite concurrence are reviewed. We further present more effective lower bounds for detecting and qualifying entanglement, by establishing functional relations between the concurrence and the generalized partial transpositions of the multipartite systems.
Threshold Circuit Lower Bounds on Cryptographic Functions
Kiltz, E.; Simon, H.U.
2005-01-01
In this work, we are interested in non-trivial upper bounds on the spectral norm of binary matrices $M$ from {-1, 1} $^{N × N}$. It is known that the distributed Boolean function represented by $M$ is hard to compute in various restricted models of computation if the spectral norm is bounded from ab
Bounds in the location-allocation problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juel, Henrik
1981-01-01
Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....
Structural Bounds on the Dyadic Effect
Cinelli, Matteo; Iovanella, Antonio
2016-01-01
In this paper we consider the dyadic effect introduced in complex networks when nodes are distinguished by a binary characteristic. Under these circumstances two independent parameters, namely dyadicity and heterophilicity, are able to measure how much the assigned characteristic affects the network topology. All possible configurations can be represented in a phase diagram lying in a two-dimensional space that represents the feasible region of the dyadic effect, which is bound by two upper bounds on dyadicity and heterophilicity. Using some network's structural arguments, we are able to improve such upper bounds and introduce two new lower bounds, providing a reduction of the feasible region of the dyadic effect as well as constraining dyadicity and heterophilicity within a specific range. Some computational experiences show the bounds' effectiveness and their usefulness with regards to different classes of networks.
Automatic analysis of distance bounding protocols
Malladi, Sreekanth; Kothapalli, Kishore
2010-01-01
Distance bounding protocols are used by nodes in wireless networks to calculate upper bounds on their distances to other nodes. However, dishonest nodes in the network can turn the calculations both illegitimate and inaccurate when they participate in protocol executions. It is important to analyze protocols for the possibility of such violations. Past efforts to analyze distance bounding protocols have only been manual. However, automated approaches are important since they are quite likely to find flaws that manual approaches cannot, as witnessed in literature for analysis pertaining to key establishment protocols. In this paper, we use the constraint solver tool to automatically analyze distance bounding protocols. We first formulate a new trace property called Secure Distance Bounding (SDB) that protocol executions must satisfy. We then classify the scenarios in which these protocols can operate considering the (dis)honesty of nodes and location of the attacker in the network. Finally, we extend the const...
Bound-free Spectra for Diatomic Molecules
Schwenke, David W.
2012-01-01
It is now recognized that prediction of radiative heating of entering space craft requires explicit treatment of the radiation field from the infrared (IR) to the vacuum ultra violet (VUV). While at low temperatures and longer wavelengths, molecular radiation is well described by bound-bound transitions, in the short wavelength, high temperature regime, bound-free transitions can play an important role. In this work we describe first principles calculations we have carried out for bound-bound and bound-free transitions in N2, O2, C2, CO, CN, NO, and N2+. Compared to bound ]bound transitions, bound-free transitions have several particularities that make them different to deal with. These include more complicated line shapes and a dependence of emission intensity on both bound state diatomic and atomic concentrations. These will be discussed in detail below. The general procedure we used was the same for all species. The first step is to generate potential energy curves, transition moments, and coupling matrix elements by carrying out ab initio electronic structure calculations. These calculations are expensive, and thus approximations need to be made in order to make the calculations tractable. The only practical method we have to carry out these calculations is the internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction (icMRCI) method as implemented in the program suite Molpro. This is a widely used method for these kinds of calculations, and is capable of generating very accurate results. With this method, we must first of choose which electrons to correlate, the one-electron basis to use, and then how to generate the molecular orbitals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peano, Claudia De Rosa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: cpeano@superig.com.br; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia e Administracao. Dept. de Economia]. E-mail: fanuatti@usp.br
2006-07-01
This work analyses the methodology adopted by ANEEL in electricity distribution companies' tariff revision. The theoretical approach assumes that the institutional endowment and existing regulatory framework restricts the regulators choice of tariff revision mechanism design. Regulators choice of methodology can contribute to the creation of a good reputation, reducing uncertainties and promoting efficiency. We evaluate how the chosen methods satisfy the aspect of internal coherence among them and with the commitments found in the basic legal framework of the industry. We conclude that the adoption of a Reference Firm as a benchmark presents some coherency and transparency, but the methodology has consistency problems and is not suitable to the maturity level and administrative capacity of the regulatory system. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anastasia Vladimirovna Kolesnikovа
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Availability of large amounts of forest resources in Russian Federation, as well as existence of the general border between Russia and China causes export orientation in the development of timber industry in regions of Russia, which have borders with China. On the basis of the actual material is considered the impact of ongoing customs and tariff policy on the development of the forestry sector toChina's border regions (for example, Zabaykalsky Kray.During the studies it was concluded that despite the ongoing customs and tariff policy in the Russian Federation is now forestry development of border regions is at an early stage. In addition, despite the existing flow of investment, including foreign investment it is by far not sufficient to change the current export-oriented raw timber industry complex border regions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-23
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cavalcante, Hellen Priscilla Marinho
2010-01-15
This article presents the main socioeconomic and legal aspects that affect Brazilian ethanol, exposing the context in which the production appeared in the country. Then will discuss the main non-tariff protectionist measures that affect the market for biofuels, explaining about its merits. After exposure of the panorama of the application of protectionist measures on Brazilian ethanol will be presented to the role played by the World Trade Organization - WTO, and its understanding of the classification of ethanol in international trade.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bjoerndal, Endre; Bjoerndal, Mette
2010-11-15
In this report, we make an evaluation of the energy component of the central grid tariff and the use of marginal loss rates. We will first review the theory of optimum transmission tariffs and describes how the marginal loss rates are calculated and how these are used in combination with the system price in the current transmission costs. We describe the trend in the Swedish marginal loss schedule, and we refer the very short development in the PJM area (U.S. east coast). As the Swedish and the Norwegian system is apparently based on the same principles, we problematize the lack of harmonization, since the systems actually are now very different. There is little doubt that Statnett has refined and improved methods for calculating the marginal loss rates, while ensuring that bottlenecks are still handled fairly easy by a few large price areas on Nord Pool Spot. We discuss the relationship between loss-tariff and congestion management, and we recommend that Statnett considering using the area price as the settlement price. This will make it much easier for operators to take account of losses. (Author)
On an Outer bound and an Inner Bound for the General Broadcast Channel
Gohari, Amin Aminzadeh; Anantharam, Venkat
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study the Nair-El Gamal outer bound and Marton's inner bound for general two-receiver broadcast channels. We show that the Nair-El Gamal outer bound can be made fully computable. For the inner bound, we show that, unlike in the Gaussian case, for a degraded broadcast channel even without a common message, Marton's coding scheme without a superposition variable is in general insufficient for obtaining the capacity region. Further, we prove various results that help to restrict the search space for computing the sum-rate for Marton's inner bound. We establish the capacity region along certain directions and show that it coincides with Marton's inner bound. Lastly, we discuss an idea that may lead to a larger inner bound.
Bounds on List Decoding Gabidulin Codes
Wachter-Zeh, Antonia
2012-01-01
An open question about Gabidulin codes is whether polynomial-time list decoding beyond half the minimum distance is possible or not. In this contribution, we give a lower and an upper bound on the list size, i.e., the number of codewords in a ball around the received word. The lower bound shows that if the radius of this ball is greater than the Johnson radius, this list size can be exponential and hence, no polynomial-time list decoding is possible. The upper bound on the list size uses subspace properties.
Positivity bounds on double parton distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diehl, Markus; Kasemets, Tomas
2013-03-15
Double hard scattering in proton-proton collisions is described in terms of double parton distributions. We derive bounds on these distributions that follow from their interpretation as probability densities, taking into account all possible spin correlations between two partons in an unpolarized proton. These bounds constrain the size of the polarized distributions and can for instance be used to set upper limits on the effects of spin correlations in double hard scattering. We show that the bounds are stable under leading-order DGLAP evolution to higher scales.
Vulnerable Derivatives and Good Deal Bounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murgoci, Agatha
2013-01-01
a new restriction in the arbitrage free model by setting upper bounds on the Sharpe ratios (SRs) of the assets. The potential prices that are eliminated represent unreasonably good deals. The constraint on the SR translates into a constraint on the stochastic discount factor. Thus, tight pricing bounds...... can be obtained. We provide a link between the objective probability measure and the range of potential risk-neutral measures, which has an intuitive economic meaning. We also provide tight pricing bounds for European calls and show how to extend the call formula to pricing other financial products...
Bounds for convection between rough boundaries
Goluskin, David
2016-01-01
We consider Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection in a layer of fluid between no-slip rough boundaries, where the top and bottom boundary heights are functions of the horizontal coordinates with bounded gradients. We use the background method to derive an upper bound on mean heat flux across the layer for all admissible boundary geometries. This flux, normalized by the temperature difference between the boundaries, can grow with the Rayleigh number ($Ra$) no faster than $Ra^{1/2}$ as $Ra \\rightarrow \\infty$. Coefficients of the bound are given explicitly in terms of the geometry, and evaluation of the coefficients is illustrated for sinusoidal boundaries.
On the reflection of magnon bound states
MacKay, Niall
2010-01-01
We investigate the reflection of two-particle bound states of a free open string in the light-cone AdS_5 x S^5 string sigma model, for large angular momentum J=J_56 and ending on a D7 brane which wraps the entire AdS_5 and a maximal S^3 of S^5. We use the superspace formalism to analyse fundamental and two-particle bound states in the cases of supersymmetry-preserving and broken-supersymmetry boundaries. We find the boundary S-matrices corresponding to bound states both in the bulk and on the boundary.
Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks
Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong
Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zunya Shi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The importance of remanufacturing has been recognized in research and practice. The integrated system, combining the forward and reverse activities of supply chains, is called closed-loop supply chain (CLSC system. By coordination in the CLSC system, players will get economic improvement. This paper studies different coordination performances of two types of contracts, two-part tariff (TTC and reverse revenue sharing contract (RRSC, in a closed-loop system. Through mathematical analysis based on Stackelberg Game Theory, we find that it is easy for manufacturer to improve more profits and retailer’s collection effects by adjusting the ratio of transfer collection price through RRSC, and we also give the function to calculate the best ratio of transfer collection price, which may be a valuable reference for the decision maker in practice. Besides, our results also suggest that although the profits of the coordinated CLSC system are always higher than the contradictory scenario, the RRSC is more favorable to the manufacturer than to the retailer, as results show that the manufacturer will share more profits from the system through RRSC. Therefore, RRSC has attracted the manufacturers more to closing the supply chain for economic consideration.
Family of nonlocal bound entangled states
Yu, Sixia; Oh, C. H.
2017-03-01
Bound entanglement, being entangled yet not distillable, is essential to our understanding of the relations between nonlocality and entanglement besides its applications in certain quantum information tasks. Recently, bound entangled states that violate a Bell inequality have been constructed for a two-qutrit system, disproving a conjecture by Peres that bound entanglement is local. Here we construct this kind of nonlocal bound entangled state for all finite dimensions larger than two, making possible their experimental demonstration in most general systems. We propose a Bell inequality, based on a Hardy-type argument for nonlocality, and a steering inequality to identify their nonlocality. We also provide a family of entanglement witnesses to detect their entanglement beyond the Bell inequality and the steering inequality.
An Exact Black Hole Entropy Bound
Birmingham, Daniel; Birmingham, Danny; Sen, Siddhartha
2001-01-01
We show that a Rademacher expansion can be used to establish an exact bound for the entropy of black holes within a conformal field theory framework. This convergent expansion includes all subleading corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking term.
THE EIGENVALUE PERTURBATION BOUND FOR ARBITRARY MATRICES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wen Li; Jian-xin Chen
2006-01-01
In this paper we present some new absolute and relative perturbation bounds for the eigenvalue for arbitrary matrices, which improves some recent results. The eigenvalue inclusion region is also discussed.
Compositional encoding for bounded model checking
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jun SUN; Yang LIU; Jin Song DONG; Jing SUN
2008-01-01
Verification techniques like SAT-based bounded model checking have been successfully applied to a variety of system models. Applying bounded model checking to compositional process algebras is, however, a highly non-trivial task. One challenge is that the number of system states for process algebra models is not statically known, whereas exploring the full state space is computa-tionally expensive. This paper presents a compositional encoding of hierarchical processes as SAT problems and then applies state-of-the-art SAT solvers for bounded model checking. The encoding avoids exploring the full state space for complex systems so as to deal with state space explosion. We developed an automated analyzer which combines complementing model checking tech-niques (I.e., bounded model checking and explicit on-the-fly model checking) to validate system models against event-based temporal properties. The experiment results show the analyzer handles large systems.
Bound phenolics in foods, a review.
Acosta-Estrada, Beatriz A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O
2014-01-01
Among phytochemicals, phenolic compounds have been extensively researched due to their diverse health benefits. Phenolic compounds occur mostly as soluble conjugates and insoluble forms, covalently bound to sugar moieties or cell wall structural components. Absorption mechanisms for bound phenolic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract greatly depend on the liberation of sugar moieties. Food processes such as fermentation, malting, thermoplastic extrusion or enzymatic, alkaline and acid hydrolyses occasionally assisted with microwave or ultrasound have potential to release phenolics associated to cell walls. Different kinds of wet chemistry methodologies to release and detect bound phenolic have been developed. These include harsh heat treatments, chemical modifications or biocatalysis. New protocols for processing and determining phenolics in food matrices must be devised in order to release bound phenolics and for quality control in the growing functional food industry.
Generalization error bounds for stationary autoregressive models
McDonald, Daniel J; Schervish, Mark
2011-01-01
We derive generalization error bounds for stationary univariate autoregressive (AR) models. We show that the stationarity assumption alone lets us treat the estimation of AR models as a regularized kernel regression without the need to further regularize the model arbitrarily. We thereby bound the Rademacher complexity of AR models and apply existing Rademacher complexity results to characterize the predictive risk of AR models. We demonstrate our methods by predicting interest rate movements.
New spectral features from bound dark matter
Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris
2016-07-01
We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature that we predict can provide a complementary verification of dark matter discovery at experiments with positive signal but unclear background. The effect is generically expected, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section.
The neural basis of bounded rational behavior
Coricelli, Giorgio; Nagel, Rosemarie
2010-01-01
Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. ...
Lower Bound of Electrical Conductivity from Holography
Ge, Xian-Hui; Wu, Shao-Feng
2015-01-01
We propose a universal lower bound of dc electrical conductivity in rotational- and translational- symmetries breaking systems via the holographic duality. This bound predicts that BTZ-black brane can be easily used to realize linear temperature resistivity. We also construct an anisotropic black brane solution, which yields linear temperature for the in-plane resistivity and insulating behavior for the out-of-plane resistivity. Ultimately, we discuss its implications in experiments.
Effective Height Upper Bounds on Algebraic Tori
Habegger, Philipp
2012-01-01
The main emphasis will be on height upper bounds in the algebraic torus G^{n}_{m}. By height we will mean the absolute logarithmic Weil height. Section 3.2 contains a precise definition of this and other more general height functions. The first appendix gives a short overview of known results in the abelian case. The second appendix contains a few height bounds in Shimura varieties.
Upper Bounds for the Laplacian Graph Eigenvalues
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jiong Sheng LI; Yong Liang PAN
2004-01-01
We first apply non-negative matrix theory to the matrix K = D + A, where D and A are the degree-diagonal and adjacency matrices of a graph G, respectively, to establish a relation on the largest Laplacian eigenvalue λ1 (G) of G and the spectral radius ρ(K) of K. And then by using this relation we present two upper bounds for λ1 (G) and determine the extremal graphs which achieve the upper bounds.
New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments...... with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section....
New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter
Catena, Riccardo
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section.
Spatially Adaptive Intensity Bounds for Image Restoration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaaren L. May
2003-11-01
Full Text Available Spatially-adaptive intensity bounds on the image estimate are shown to be an effective means of regularising the ill-posed image restoration problem. For blind restoration, the local intensity constraints also help to further define the solution, thereby reducing the number of multiple solutions and local minima. The bounds are defined in terms of the local statistics of the image estimate and a control parameter which determines the scale of the bounds. Guidelines for choosing this parameter are developed in the context of classical (nonblind image restoration. The intensity bounds are applied by means of the gradient projection method, and conditions for convergence are derived when the bounds are refined using the current image estimate. Based on this method, a new alternating constrained minimisation approach is proposed for blind image restoration. On the basis of the experimental results provided, it is found that local intensity bounds offer a simple, flexible method of constraining both the nonblind and blind restoration problems.
Quantum bounds for ordered searching and sorting
Hoyer, P; Shi, Y; Hoyer, Peter; Neerbek, Jan; Shi, Yaoyun
2001-01-01
We consider the quantum complexities of searching an ordered list and sorting an un-ordered list. For searching an ordered list of N elements, we prove a lower bound of \\frac{1}{\\pi}(\\ln(N)-1) on the number of oracle queries that access the list elements. This improves the previously best lower bound of ({1/12}\\log_2(N) - O(1)) due to Ambainis. For sorting N numbers, we prove a lower bound of \\frac{N}{2\\pi}(\\ln(N)-1) on the number of binary comparisons. The previously best lower bound is \\Omega(N). Our proofs are based on a weighted all-pairs inner product argument, and our results generalize to bounded error quantum algorithms. Both results are proven in the so-called quantum black box model, a quantum analogue of classical decision trees. In addition to our lower bound results, we give an exact quantum algorithm for ordered searching using (\\log_3(N) + O(1)) queries, which is roughly 0.631 \\log_2(N). Although our algorithm is worse than that of Farhi, Goldstone, Gutmann and Sipser, which makes 0.526 \\log_2(...
碳关税对中国出口贸易的影响及应对策略%Influences of Carbon Tariffs on Chinese Export and Countermeasures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
潘辉
2012-01-01
Carbon tariffs are new green trade barriers put forward by the United States to be imposed on energy-intensive products imported. It seems that the purpose of introducing carbon tariffs is to reduce global warming effects and to guarantee fair competition in global business transactions. But the fact is that the purpose of carbon tariffs is to dominate the speech right and contain the developing countries including China. Carbon tariffs influence China' s export-oriented businesses in two ways. First, it will make the cost of production become bigger which will in turn reduce exportation and make the export countries suffer from welfare losses. Second, carbon tariffs' environment regulations will force export-oriented enterprises to take reformation and enhance their efficiency and make them become more competitive in the long run. However, in the short run, as China does not have the prerequisite for "Porter Hypothesis" , carbon tariffs will lead to rising costs and declining competitiveness of export products. This paper systematically analyzes composition of China's export and direction of China' s export, points out that the introduction of carbon tariffs will impose a severe challenge on China's exportation in the present and better the market structure, the industrial structure and export structure in the long run. To deal with this situation, China' s government should take countermeasures such as taking "environment diplomacy" , imposing gradually carbon tax, and constructing green manufacturing system, etc.%碳关税是美国提出的针对国际贸易中高能耗进口产品征税的一种新型绿色贸易壁垒.从表面上看,碳关税的提出是为了缓解全球气候变暖的现实,促进全球贸易的公平竞争.实质上,碳关税的提出是美国国内政治经济博弈的结果,其目的是为了夺取世界经济新的话语权,同时也是为了制衡中国在内的发展中国家.碳关税对我国出口的影响机制有二:第一,碳
2011-01-01
This thesis develops a new FEM based algorithm for shakedown analysis of structures made of elastic plastic bounded linearly kinematic hardening material. Its concept can be briefly described as: Hardening law is simulated using a two-surface plastic model. One yield surface is the initial surface, defined by yield stress sigma_y, and the other one is the bounding surface, defined by ultimate strength sigma_u. The initial surface can translate inside the bounding surface without changing its ...
Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason
2005-02-07
We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.
Upper bounds on superpartner masses from upper bounds on the Higgs boson mass.
Cabrera, M E; Casas, J A; Delgado, A
2012-01-13
The LHC is putting bounds on the Higgs boson mass. In this Letter we use those bounds to constrain the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) parameter space using the fact that, in supersymmetry, the Higgs mass is a function of the masses of sparticles, and therefore an upper bound on the Higgs mass translates into an upper bound for the masses for superpartners. We show that, although current bounds do not constrain the MSSM parameter space from above, once the Higgs mass bound improves big regions of this parameter space will be excluded, putting upper bounds on supersymmetry (SUSY) masses. On the other hand, for the case of split-SUSY we show that, for moderate or large tanβ, the present bounds on the Higgs mass imply that the common mass for scalars cannot be greater than 10(11) GeV. We show how these bounds will evolve as LHC continues to improve the limits on the Higgs mass.
Bounds of Deviation for Branching Chains in Random Environments
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei Gang WANG
2011-01-01
We consider non-extinct branching processes in general random environments. Under the condition of means and second moments of each generation being bounded, we give the upper bounds and lower bounds for some form deviations of the process.
A Bound on Equipartition of Energy
Masi, Nicolo'
2011-01-01
In this article I want to demonstrate that the time-scale constraints for a thermodynamic system imply the new concept of equipartition of energy bound (EEB) or, more generally, a thermodynamical bound for the partition of energy. This means that I theorize and discuss the possibility to put an upper limit to the equipartition factor for a gas of particles. This could be interpreted as a sort of transcription of the entropy bounds from quantum-holographic sector. The number 4.93, i.e. the EEB, obtained from a comparison between the Margolus-Levitin quantum theorem and the TTT bound for relaxation times by Hod, seems like a special value for the thermodynamics of particle systems. This bound has been related to the idea of an extremal statistics and independently traced in a statistical mechanics framework. In fact, I identified a type of fluid that is capable of reaching to saturate the limit value I obtained for the equipartition factor. This was done by analyzing the mathematical behavior of the distributio...
Space Lower Bounds for Online Pattern Matching
Clifford, Raphael; Porat, Ely; Sach, Benjamin
2011-01-01
We present space lower bounds for online pattern matching under a number of different distance measures. Given a pattern of length m and a text that arrives one character at a time, the online pattern matching problem is to report the distance between the pattern and a sliding window of the text as soon as the new character arrives. We require that the correct answer is given at each position with constant probability. We give Omega(m) bit space lower bounds for L_1, L_2, L_\\infty, Hamming, edit and swap distances as well as for any algorithm that computes the cross-correlation/convolution. We then show a dichotomy between distance functions that have wildcard-like properties and those that do not. In the former case which includes, as an example, pattern matching with character classes, we give Omega(m) bit space lower bounds. For other distance functions, we show that there exist space bounds of Omega(log m) and O(log^2 m) bits. Finally we discuss space lower bounds for non-binary inputs and show how in som...
Introduction to QCD - a bound state perspective
Hoyer, Paul
2011-01-01
These lecture notes focus on the bound state sector of QCD. Motivated by data which suggests that the strong coupling \\alpha_s(Q) freezes at low Q, and by similarities between the spectra of hadrons and atoms, I discuss if and how QCD bound states may be treated perturbatively. I recall the basic principles of perturbative gauge theory bound states at lowest order in the \\hbar expansion. Born level amplitudes are insensitive to the i\\epsilon prescription of propagators, which allows to eliminate the Z-diagrams of relativistic, time-ordered Coulomb interactions. The Dirac wave function thus describes a single electron which propagates forward in time only, even though the bound state has any number of pair constituents when Feynman propagators are used. In the absence of an external potential, states that are bound by the Coulomb attraction of their constituents can be analogously described using only their valence degrees of freedom. The instantaneous A^0 field is determined by Gauss' law for each wave functi...
Bounded link prediction in very large networks
Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Xu, Zhongqi; Cai, Shimin; Yang, Jian; Michaelson, Andrew
2016-09-01
Evaluating link prediction methods is a hard task in very large complex networks due to the prohibitive computational cost. However, if we consider the lower bound of node pairs' similarity scores, this task can be greatly optimized. In this paper, we study CN index in the bounded link prediction framework, which is applicable to enormous heterogeneous networks. Specifically, we propose a fast algorithm based on the parallel computing scheme to obtain all node pairs with CN values larger than the lower bound. Furthermore, we propose a general measurement, called self-predictability, to quantify the performance of similarity indices in link prediction, which can also indicate the link predictability of networks with respect to given similarity indices.
Bound States in Boson Impurity Models
Shi, Tao; Wu, Ying-Hai; González-Tudela, A.; Cirac, J. I.
2016-04-01
The formation of bound states involving multiple particles underlies many interesting quantum physical phenomena, such as Efimov physics or superconductivity. In this work, we show the existence of an infinite number of such states for some boson impurity models. They describe free bosons coupled to an impurity and include some of the most representative models in quantum optics. We also propose a family of wave functions to describe the bound states and verify that it accurately characterizes all parameter regimes by comparing its predictions with exact numerical calculations for a one-dimensional tight-binding Hamiltonian. For that model, we also analyze the nature of the bound states by studying the scaling relations of physical quantities, such as the ground-state energy and localization length, and find a nonanalytical behavior as a function of the coupling strength. Finally, we discuss how to test our theoretical predictions in experimental platforms, such as photonic crystal structures and cold atoms in optical lattices.
A Proof of the Conformal Collider Bounds
Hofman, Diego M; Meltzer, David; Poland, David; Rejon-Barrera, Fernando
2016-01-01
In this paper, we prove that the "conformal collider bounds" originally proposed by Hofman and Maldacena hold for any unitary parity-preserving conformal field theory (CFT) with a unique stress tensor in spacetime dimensions larger than 2. In particular this implies that the ratio of central charges for a unitary 4d CFT lies in the interval $\\frac{31}{18} \\geq \\frac{a}{c} \\geq \\frac{1}{3}$. For superconformal theories this is further reduced to $\\frac{3}{2} \\geq \\frac{a}{c} \\geq \\frac{1}{2}$. The proof relies only on CFT first principles - in particular, bootstrap methods - and thus constitutes the first complete field theory proof of these bounds. We further elaborate on similar bounds for non-conserved currents and relate them to results obtained recently from deep inelastic scattering.
η-nuclear bound states revisited
Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.
2013-10-01
The strong energy dependence of the s-wave ηN scattering amplitude at and below threshold, as evident in coupled-channels K-matrix fits and chiral models that incorporate the S11N* (1535) resonance, is included self-consistently in η-nuclear bound-state calculations. This approach, applied recently in calculations of kaonic atoms and Kbar-nuclear bound states, is found to impose stronger constraints than ever on the onset of η-nuclear binding, with a minimum value of ReaηN ≈ 0.9 fm required to accommodate an η-4He bound state. Binding energies and widths of η-nuclear states are calculated within several underlying ηN models for nuclei across the periodic table, including Mg25η for which some evidence was proposed in a recent COSY experiment.
Narrow deeply bound K- atomic states
Friedman, E.; Gal, A.
1999-07-01
Using optical potentials fitted to a comprehensive set of strong interaction level shifts and widths in K- atoms, we predict that the K- atomic levels which are inaccessible in the atomic cascade process are generally narrow, spanning a range of widths about 50-1500 keV over the entire periodic table. The mechanism for this narrowing is different from the mechanism for narrowing of pionic atom levels. Examples of such `deeply bound' K- atomic states are given, showing that in many cases these states should be reasonably well resolved. Several reactions which could be used to form these `deeply bound' states are mentioned. Narrow deeply bound states are expected also in overlinep atoms.
Shedding of cell membrane-bound proteoglycans.
Nam, Eon Jeong; Park, Pyong Woo
2012-01-01
Membrane-bound proteoglycans function primarily as coreceptors for many glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-binding ligands at the cell surface. The majority of membrane-bound proteoglycans can also function as soluble autocrine or paracrine effectors as their extracellular domains, replete with all GAG chains, are enzymatically cleaved and released from the cell surface by ectodomain shedding. In particular, the ectodomain shedding of syndecans, a major family of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, is an important posttranslational mechanism that modulates diverse pathophysiological processes. Syndecan shedding is a tightly controlled process that regulates the onset, progression, and resolution of various infectious and noninfectious inflammatory diseases. This review describes methods to induce and measure the shedding of cell membrane-bound proteoglycans, focusing on syndecan shedding as a prototypic example.
Bounded distortion homeomorphisms on ultrametric spaces
Hughes, Bruce; Morón, Manuel A
2010-01-01
It is well-known that quasi-isometries between R-trees induce power quasi-symmetric homeomorphisms between their ultrametric end spaces. This paper investigates power quasi-symmetric homeomorphisms between bounded, complete, uniformly perfect, ultrametric spaces (i.e., those ultrametric spaces arising up to similarity as the end spaces of bushy trees). A bounded distortion property is found that characterizes power quasi-symmetric homeomorphisms between such ultrametric spaces that are also pseudo-doubling. Moreover, examples are given showing the extent to which the power quasi-symmetry of homeomorphisms is not captured by the quasiconformal and bi-H\\"older conditions for this class of ultrametric spaces.
Weakly bound systems, continuum effects, and reactions
Jaganathen, Y; Ploszajczak, M
2012-01-01
Structure of weakly bound/unbound nuclei close to particle drip lines is different from that around the valley of beta stability. A comprehensive description of these systems goes beyond standard Shell Model and demands an open quantum system description of the nuclear many-body system. We approach this problem using the Gamow Shell Model which provides a fully microscopic description of bound and unbound nuclear states, nuclear decays, and reactions. We present in this paper the first application of the GSM for a description of the elastic and inelastic scattering of protons on 6He.
Irreversibility for all bound entangled states
Yang, D; Horodecki, R; Synak-Radtke, B; Yang, Dong; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Ryszard; Synak-Radtke, Barbara
2005-01-01
We derive a new inequality for entanglement for a mixed four-partite state. Employing this inequality, we present a one-shot lower bound for entanglement cost and prove that entanglement cost is strictly larger than zero for any entangled state. We demonstrate that irreversibility occurs in the process of formation for all non-distillable entangled states. In this way we solve a long standing problem, of how "real" is entanglement of bound entangled states. Using the new inequality we also prove impossibility of local-cloning and local-deleting of a known entangled state.
Bound constrained quadratic programming via piecewise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Pinar, M. C.
1999-01-01
We consider the strictly convex quadratic programming problem with bounded variables. A dual problem is derived using Lagrange duality. The dual problem is the minimization of an unconstrained, piecewise quadratic function. It involves a lower bound of lambda/sub 1/ , the smallest eigenvalue...... of a symmetric, positive definite matrix, and is solved by Newton iteration with line search. The paper describes the algorithm and its implementation including estimation of lambda/sub 1/ , how to get a good starting point for the iteration, and up- and downdating of Cholesky factorization. Results of extensive...
Generalized Bounds on Majoron-neutrino couplings
Tomás, R; Valle, José W F
2001-01-01
We discuss limits on neutrino-Majoron couplings both from laboratory experiments as well as from astrophysics. They apply to the simplest class of Majoron models which covers a variety of possibilities where neutrinos acquire mass either via a seesaw-type scheme or via radiative corrections. By adopting a general framework including CP phases we generalize bounds obtained previously. The combination of complementary bounds enables us to obtain a highly non-trivial exclusion region in the parameter space. We find that the future double beta project GENIUS, together with constraints based on supernova energy release arguments, could restrict neutrino-Majoron couplings down to the 10^{-7} level.
Lower bounds for unbounded operators and semigroups
2016-01-01
Let $A$ be an unbounded operator on a Banach space $X$. It is sometimes useful to improve the operator $A$ by extending it to an operator $B$ on a larger Banach space $Y$ with smaller spectrum. It would be preferable to do this with some estimates for the resolvent of $B$, and also to extend bounded operators related to $A$, for example a semigroup generated by $A$. When $X$ is a Hilbert space, one may also want $Y$ to be Hilbert space. Results of this type for bounded operators have been giv...
Proof of a Quantum Bousso Bound
Bousso, Raphael; Fisher, Zachary; Maldacena, Juan
2014-01-01
We prove the generalized Covariant Entropy Bound, $\\Delta S\\leq (A-A')/4G\\hbar$, for light-sheets with initial area $A$ and final area $A'$. The entropy $\\Delta S$ is defined as a difference of von Neumann entropies of an arbitrary state and the vacuum, with both states restricted to the light-sheet under consideration. The proof applies to free fields, in the limit where gravitational backreaction is small. We do not assume the null energy condition. In regions where it is violated, we find that the bound is protected by the defining property of light-sheets: that their null generators are nowhere expanding.
Kalhor, Rohollah; Amini, Saeed; Emami, Majid; Kakasoltani, Keivan; Rhamani, Nasim; Kalhor, Leila
2016-01-01
Introduction Efficient use of resources in organizations is one of the most important duties of managers. Appropriate allocation of resources can help managers to do this well. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of radiology services and to compare it with governmental tariffs (introduced by the Ministry of Health in Iran). Methods This was a descriptive and applied study that was conducted using the retrospective approach. First, activity centers were identified on the basis of five main groups of hospital activities. Then, resources and resource drivers, activities, and hospital activity drivers were identified. At the next step, the activities related to the delivery of radiology process were identified. Last, through allocation of activities cost to the cost objects, the cost price of 66 services that were delivered in the radiology department were calculated. The data were collected by making checklists, using the hospital’s information system, observations, and interviews. Finally, the data were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon test, Microsoft Excel, and SPSS software, version 18. Results The findings showed that from the total cost of wages, materials, and overhead obtained, the unit cost of the 66 cost objects (delivered services) in the Radiology Department were calculated using the ABC method (Price of each unit of Nephrostogram obtained $15.8 and Cystogram obtained $18.4). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicated that the distribution of data of cost price using the ABC method was not normal (p = 0.000). The Wilcoxon test showed that there was a significant difference between the cost of services and the tariff of radiology services (p = 0.000). Conclusions The cost of delivered services in radiology departments was significantly higher than approved tariffs of the Ministry of Health, which can have a negative impact on the quality of services. PMID:27054013
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guillo, Vicente Andreu; Sauer, Ildo Luis [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: illsauer@iee.usp.br
1999-07-01
The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. In this context, the aim of this work is to review the natural monopolies theory, regulation regimes, and the energy distribution tariffs of Brazilian electric power sector.
2006-01-01
This is Chapters 6 & 7 of my PhD thesis Understanding the World Wool Market: Trade, Productivity and Grower Incomes, UWA, 2006. The full thesis is available as Discussion Papers 06.19 to 06.24. The WOOLGEM model is applied to estimate the distortionary effects on prices, output, trade and regional welfare of wool tariff barriers. The estimates are simulated under long-run conditions where each region faces a trade balance constraint and capital is free to accumulate or depreciate within each ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warweg, Oliver; Bretschneider, Peter [Fraunhofer IOSB, Ilmenau (Germany). Institutsteil Angewandte Systemtechnik (AST); Schmelzer, Knut [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaftsrecht; Ifland, Mike; Westermann, Dirk [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany)
2012-07-01
During the research project RESIDENS (moRe Efficient energy utiliSation through system oriented Integration of DomEstic eNd customerS), representing this work's basis, the consequences of private customer's Indirect Demand Side Management have been investigated. The work at hand comments on problems which were being raised due to different load shapes for system operators and retailers regarding accounting and balancing of shortages or excesses in yearly quantities and presents possible approaches to a successful roll out of variable tariffs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zierdt, Tobias; Lang, Dirk [RWE Effizienz GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)
2012-09-15
Momentous changes loom ahead for Germany's energy supply system as a result of the energy turnaround. One central question is how load peaks from renewable energy plants can be conveniently accommodated on the demand side. Two research projects are currently being carried out to examine the acceptance of time-variable and load-variable tariffs for private households. First results show that using green electricity for heat generation is significantly more attractive for both customers and energy suppliers than using it to cover day-to-day electricity demand at a later time.
Non-tariff Trade Barrier and Agricultural Products Trade%非关税贸易壁垒与农产品贸易
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李秉龙; 王可山
2004-01-01
1．非关税壁垒的含义。非关税壁垒(Non—Tariff Barriers，NTB s)是指一国政府采取除关税外的各种办法来对本国的对外贸易活动进行调节、管理和控制的一切政策和手段的综合。战后随着GATY和WTO所推动的多轮贸易谈判的不断深入，世界关税水平得以大幅度降低，
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hippinen, I.; Pirhonen, J.; Ahtila, P. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Maekelae, V.M. [Komartek Oy, Lappeenranta (Finland)
2000-07-01
This is the final report of the research project 'Determination of hourly contract heat and water flow and demand of the tariffs', which was carried out by the Helsinki University of Technology and Komartek Oy. The report consists of two parts. Part A presents the study of the Helsinki University of Technology, in which the consumption of domestic hot water in different size houses were clarified. Part B presents the tariff calculations carried out by Komartek Oy. In the part of the Helsinki University of Technology, the consumption of hot household water has been measured in different sized houses in order to determine their real demand of district heat and heat exhanger capacity. Including earlier measurements, measurements were carried out in 35 buildings. The size of the houses varied from a two-family house to a house of 204 flats. The domestic hot water flows and water temperatures to and from the heat exchanger were measured continuously during periods of a day and a week. To find out the congruence between reality and the dimensioning standards, the measurement results have been compared with the current dimensioning standards. It became evident in the study, that the current dimensioning standards are considerably oversized. Measured maximum heat consumptions were in general less than half of the dimensioned maximums. Operation times for the maximum loads were very short timed, ranging from some tens of seconds to a couple of minutes. The maximum peak loads were either in the mornings or in the evenings. However, no special week-days with clear maximum loads were found during week measurements. In second part was studied how the domestic hot water consumption will influence on the incomes of a DH company and payments of different kinds of customers. Domestic hot water was calculated as a one hour maximum. It was found out that there were outstanding differences in payments of different sizes of customers between different tariffs when the total
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Couture, T.; Cory, K.
2009-06-01
This report analyzes renewable energy feed-in tariff (FIT) policies and explores the different FIT policies currently implemented in the United States. It also discusses of a few proposed policies, the best practices in FIT policy design, and examines how FITs can be used to target state policy goals. The report covers current and potential future interactions between FITs and other state and federal energy policies while also providing an overview of the impacts FIT policies have in terms of renewable energy deployment, job creation, and economic development.
Concerns on Monotonic Imbalance Bounding Matching Methods
Yatracos, Yannis G.
2013-01-01
Concerns are expressed for the Monotonic Imbalance Bounding (MIB) property (Iacus et al. 2011) and for MIB matching because i) the definition of the MIB property leads to inconsistencies and the nature of the imbalance measure is not clearly defined, ii) MIB property does not generalize Equal Percent Bias Reducing (EPBR) property, iii) MIB matching does not provide statistical information available with EPBR matching.
Lower bounds for polynomials using geometric programming
Ghasemi, Mehdi
2011-01-01
We make use of a result of Hurwitz and Reznick, and a consequence of this result due to Fidalgo and Kovacec, to determine a new sufficient condition for a polynomial $f\\in\\mathbb{R}[X_1,...,X_n]$ of even degree to be a sum of squares. This result generalizes a result of Lasserre and a result of Fidalgo and Kovacec, and it also generalizes the improvements of these results given in [6]. We apply this result to obtain a new lower bound $f_{gp}$ for $f$, and we explain how $f_{gp}$ can be computed using geometric programming. The lower bound $f_{gp}$ is generally not as good as the lower bound $f_{sos}$ introduced by Lasserre and Parrilo and Sturmfels, which is computed using semidefinite programming, but a run time comparison shows that, in practice, the computation of $f_{gp}$ is much faster. The computation is simplest when the highest degree term of $f$ has the form $\\sum_{i=1}^n a_iX_i^{2d}$, $a_i>0$, $i=1,...,n$. The lower bounds for $f$ established in [6] are obtained by evaluating the objective function ...
Covariant Entropy Bound and Padmanabhan's Emergent Paradigm
Hadi, H; Darabi, F
2016-01-01
The covariant entropy conjecture is invariant under time reversal and consequently its origin must be statistical rather than thermodynamical. This may impose a fundamental constraint on the number of degrees of freedom in nature. Indeed, the covariant entropy bound imposes an upper entropy bound for any physical system. Considering a cosmological system, we show that Padmanabhan's emergent paradigm, which indicates that the emergence of cosmic space is due to the discrepancy between the surface and bulk degrees of freedom, leads to a lower entropy bound. The lower and upper entropy bounds may coincide on the apparent horizon for the radiation field and dark energy with the equations of state $\\omega=\\frac{1}{3}$ and $\\omega=-1$, respectively. Moreover, the maximal entropy inside the apparent horizon occurs when it is filled completely by the radiation field or dark energy. It turns out that for dark energy case (pure de Sitter space)\\ the holographic principle is satisfied in the sense that the number of deg...
Improved lower bound for online strip packing
Harren, Rolf; Kern, Walter
2015-01-01
We study the online strip packing problem and derive an improved lower bound of ρ ≥ 2.589... for the competitive ratio of this problem. The construction is based on modified “Brown-Baker-Katseff sequences” (Brown et al. in Acta Inform. 18:207–225, 1982) using only two types of rectangles. In additio
A cosmological bound on radiative neutrino lifetime
Mirizzi, A.; Montanino, D.; Serpico, P. D.
2008-07-01
Neutrino oscillation experiments and direct bounds on absolute masses constrain neutrino mass differences to fall into the microwave energy range, for most of the allowed parameter space. As a consequence of these recent phenomenological advances, older constraints on radiative neutrino decays based on diffuse background radiations and assuming strongly hierarchical masses in the eV range are now outdated. We thus derive new bounds on the radiative neutrino lifetime using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the FIRAS instrument on board of COBE. The lower bound on neutrino lifetime is between a few ×1019 s and ~ 5 × 1020 s, depending on the neutrino mass ordering and on the absolute neutrino mass scale. However, due to phase space limitations, the upper bound on the effective magnetic moment mediating the decay is not better than ~10-8 μB. We also comment about possible improvements of these limits, by means of recent diffuse infrared photon background data.
Revisiting cosmological bounds on radiative neutrino lifetime
Mirizzi, A; Serpico, Pasquale Dario
2007-01-01
Neutrino oscillation experiments and direct bounds on absolute masses constrain neutrino mass differences to fall into the microwave energy range, for most of the allowed parameter space. As a consequence of these recent phenomenological advances, older constraints on radiative neutrino decays based on diffuse background radiations and assuming strongly hierarchical masses in the eV range are now outdated. We thus derive new bounds on the radiative neutrino lifetime using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the FIRAS instrument on board of COBE. The lower bound on the lifetime is between a few x 10^19 s and 5 x 10^20 s, depending on the neutrino mass ordering and on the absolute mass scale. However, due to phase space limitations, the upper bound in terms of the effective magnetic moment mediating the decay is not better than ~ 10^-8 Bohr magnetons. We also comment about possible improvements of these limits, by means of recent diffuse infrared photon background data. We ...
New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments...
Dilation volumes of sets of bounded perimeter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan
it to determine the derivative of the contact distribution function of a stationary random closed set at zero. A variant for uncountable Q is given, too. The proofs are based on approximation of the characteristic function of A by smooth functions of bounded variation and showing corresponding formulas for them....
Combined perturbation bounds:Ⅱ.Polar decompositions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
In this paper,we study the perturbation bounds for the polar decomposition A=QH where Q is unitary and H is Hermitian.The optimal （asymptotic） bounds obtained in previous works for the unitary factor,the Hermitian factor and singular values of A areσr2||ΔQ||F2≤||ΔA||F2, 1/2||ΔH||F2≤||ΔA||F2 and ||Δ∑||F2≤||ΔA||F2,respectively,where∑=diag（σ1,σ2,...,σr,0,...,0） is the singular value matrix of A andσr denotes the smallest nonzero singular value.Here we present some new combined （asymptotic） perturbation boundsσr2||ΔQ||F2+1/2||ΔH||F2≤||ΔA||F2 andσr2||ΔQ||F2+||Δ∑||F2≤||ΔA||F2 which are optimal for each factor.Some corresponding absolute perturbation bounds are also given.
Collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear dimers
Marcelis, B.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.; Petrov, D.S.
2008-01-01
We consider collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear molecules (dimers) formed in a two-species mixture of atoms with a large mass difference. We focus on dimers containing light fermionic atoms as they manifest collisional stability due to an effective dimer-dimer repulsion originating
BOUNDS FOR THE ZEROS OF POLYNOMIALS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
W. M. Shah; A.Liman
2004-01-01
Let P(z) =n∑j=0 ajzj be a polynomial of degree n. In this paper we prove a more general result which interalia improves upon the bounds of a class of polynomials. We also prove a result which includes some extensions and generalizations of Enestrom-Kakeya theorem.
Bounded relative motion under zonal harmonics perturbations
Baresi, Nicola; Scheeres, Daniel J.
2017-04-01
The problem of finding natural bounded relative trajectories between the different units of a distributed space system is of great interest to the astrodynamics community. This is because most popular initialization methods still fail to establish long-term bounded relative motion when gravitational perturbations are involved. Recent numerical searches based on dynamical systems theory and ergodic maps have demonstrated that bounded relative trajectories not only exist but may extend up to hundreds of kilometers, i.e., well beyond the reach of currently available techniques. To remedy this, we introduce a novel approach that relies on neither linearized equations nor mean-to-osculating orbit element mappings. The proposed algorithm applies to rotationally symmetric bodies and is based on a numerical method for computing quasi-periodic invariant tori via stroboscopic maps, including extra constraints to fix the average of the nodal period and RAAN drift between two consecutive equatorial plane crossings of the quasi-periodic solutions. In this way, bounded relative trajectories of arbitrary size can be found with great accuracy as long as these are allowed by the natural dynamics and the physical constraints of the system (e.g., the surface of the gravitational attractor). This holds under any number of zonal harmonics perturbations and for arbitrary time intervals as demonstrated by numerical simulations about an Earth-like planet and the highly oblate primary of the binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4.
Monotonicity and bounds on Bessel functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Larry Landau
2000-07-01
Full Text Available survey my recent results on monotonicity with respect to order of general Bessel functions, which follow from a new identity and lead to best possible uniform bounds. Application may be made to the "spreading of the wave packet" for a free quantum particle on a lattice and to estimates for perturbative expansions.
Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.
A Tight Bound for the Lamplighter Problem
Ganapathy, Murali K.; Tetali, Prasad
2006-01-01
We settle an open problem, raised by Y. Peres and D. Revelle, concerning the $L^2$ mixing time of the random walk on the lamplighter graph. We also provide general bounds relating the entropy decay of a Markov chain to the separation distance of the chain, and show that the lamplighter graphs once again provide examples of tightness of our results.
Qp-spaces on bounded symmetric domains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan Arazy
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We generalize the theory of Qp spaces, introduced on the unit disc in 1995 by Aulaskari, Xiao and Zhao, to bounded symmetric domains in Cd, as well as to analogous Moebius-invariant function spaces and Bloch spaces defined using higher order derivatives; the latter generalization contains new results even in the original context of the unit disc.
Properties of Excitons Bound to Ionized Donors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skettrup, Torben; Suffczynski, M.; Gorzkowski, W.
1971-01-01
Binding energies, interparticle distances, oscillator strengths, and exchange corrections are calculated for the three-particle complex corresponding to an exciton bound to an ionized donor. The results are given as functions of the mass ratio of the electron and hole. Binding of the complex is o...
A Characterization of Complete Bounded Domain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
殷慰萍; 苏简兵; 赵振刚
2002-01-01
@@ 1 IntroductionThis paper is concerned with biholomorphic mappings between two bounded domains D and G both in Cn.Consequently,an important question is whether the domain D is biholomorphic to G? We give an answer for this question under a very weak condition.
A PSL Bounded Model Checking Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Lei; ZHAO Zongtao
2012-01-01
SAT-based bounded model checking （BMC） is introduced as an important complementary technique to OBDD-based symbolic model checking, and is an efficient verification method for parallel and reactive systems. However, until now the properties verified by bounded model checking are very finite. Temporal logic PSL is a property specification language （IEEE-1850） describing parallel systems and is divided into two parts, i.e. the linear time logic FL and the branch time logic OBE. In this paper, the specification checked by BMC is extended to PSL and its algorithm is also proposed. Firstly, define the bounded semantics of PSL, and then reduce the bounded semantics into SAT by translating PSL specification formula and the state transition relation of the system to the propositional formula A and B, respectively. Finally, verify the satisfiability of the conjunction propositional formula of A and B. The algorithm results in the translation of the existential model checking of the temporal logic PSL into the satisfiability problem of propositional formula. An example of a queue controlling circuit is used to interpret detailedly the executing procedure of the algorithm.
Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution functions
Henneman, A A
2001-01-01
When more than one hadron takes part in a hard process, an extended set of quark distribution and fragmentation functions becomes relevant. In this talk, the derivation of Soffer-like bounds for these functions, in the case of a spin-1/2 target, is sketched and some of their aspects are discussed.
Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution functions
Henneman, A.
2000-01-01
When more than one hadron takes part in a hard process, an extended set of quark distribution and fragmentation functions becomes relevant. In this talk, the derivation of Soffer-like bounds for these functions, in the case of a spin-1/2 target, is sketched and some of their aspects are discussed.
Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution functions
Henneman, A.
2001-01-01
When more than one hadron takes part in a hard process, an extended set of quark distribution and fragmentation functions becomes relevant. In this talk, the derivation of Soffer-like bounds for these functions, in the case of a spin-1/2 target [1], is sketched and some of their aspects are discussed.
Lower Bound for Visual Cryptography Schemes
Cheraghi, Abbas
2007-01-01
For a given visual cryptography scheme, it is possible to present a basis matrices for it and most of constructions are based on basis matrices. In this paper we introduce a lower bound for the pixel expansion of visual cryptography schemes with basis matrices. To make the main theorem more flexible, we will introduce a lower bound based on induced matchings of hypergraph of qualified sets. As an application, we present an algebraic proof for the fact that the pixel expansion of basis matrices of any $k$ out of $k$ scheme is at least $2^{k-1}$. In the sequel, we present a lower bound for the pixel expansion of a given graph access structure in term of maximum number of edges in an induced matching. Finally, we show that the minimum pixel expansion of basis matrices of graph access structure $P_n$ is exactly $\\lceil \\frac{n+1}{2}\\rceil$ and this shows the lower bound mentioned in the main theorem is sharp.
Sharp Bounds for Symmetric and Asymmetric Diophantine Approximation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cornelis KRAAIKAMP; Ionica SMEETS
2011-01-01
In 2004,Tong found bounds for the approximation quality of a regular continued fraction convergent to a rational number,expressed in bounds for both the previous and next approximation.The authors sharpen his results with a geometric method and give both sharp upper and lower bounds.The asymptotic frequencies that these bounds occur are also calculated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heindl, Peter; Voigt, Sebastian
2012-07-01
This paper examines the local impacts of renewable energy carrier promotion by the German feed-in tariffs scheme ''Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz'' for the German State of Baden-Wuerttemberg by using an input-output approach. The local impacts are of particular interest as in Baden-Wuerttemberg the manufacturing industries are highly important compared to the rest of Germany. We analyze the effects of the policy actions on the production as well as the employment of several sectors. We construct a regional input-output table of Baden- Wuerttemberg and introduce the construction and the operation of installations for seven renewable energy types in order to examine different paths to achieve the state government's targets. We consider two scenarios with different sources funding the investments in the construction and operation of renewable energy installations. In the first scenario, all the necessary investments are funded completely by internal sources. Hence, the scenario is driven by the assumption that these investments either crowd out investments in other industries of the regional economy or the investments are paid by the government, i.e. by taxes which are borne by all other industries and by the households. Therefore, the final demand of all other sectors decreases. In this scenario, we have a slightly positive total turnover effect, although in many sectors the turnover effect is negative. In addition, the total employment effect is negative since the more labour-intensive industries are affected more heavily from the policy than the less labour-intensive industries. The second scenario considers the case of a partly external funding by taking into account that the installations may be demanded from ''abroad'', i.e. the rest of Germany and the rest of the world. Therefore, investments in other industries are not completely crowded out in this scenario. We find positive production and employment effects also for
Bounded sets in the range of an X∗∗-valued measure with bounded variation
B. Marchena; Piñeiro, C.
2000-01-01
Let X be a Banach space and A⊂X an absolutely convex, closed, and bounded set. We give some sufficient and necessary conditions in order that A lies in the range of a measure valued in the bidual space X∗∗ and having bounded variation. Among other results, we prove that X∗ is a G. T.-space if and only if A lies inside the range of some X∗∗-valued measure with bounded variation whenever XA is isomorphic to a Hilbert space.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baena, D. Eduardo Martin [Endesa, Principe de Vergara 187, Madrid (Spain)
1998-07-01
It looks like that all over the World things are changing. Many countries, Spain among them, where electricity regulations were usual, are changing their regulatory mainframe. Since January 1, 1998, electricity production is a deregulated activity in Spain. There has to be open market competition. Prices that are very important for the time coming, have to cover the production cost plus some profits in order to maintain the company profitability. This cultural change applies to all our production facilities, including nuclear power plants. Taking into account this new situation and the nuclear competitiveness, it is important for all of us to understand this issue. As it is well known, nuclear energy is capital intensive, that means it has to compete as base load units due to their low operating costs and their large capital ones. For that reason it is important to reduce as much as possible the operating and maintenance cost as well as the fuel one, which will allow nuclear plants to compete in marginal costs with others units. Nuclear energy, in Spain, is not going to fix the pool price but it has to recover some depreciation through it, the remaining being recovered by the recognition of an important part of the stranded cost. (author)
REE bound DNA in natural plant
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王玉琦; 江平; 郭繁清; 张智勇; 孙景信; 许雷; 曹国印
1999-01-01
The binding of rare earth elements (REEs) with nucleic acids in the leaves of fern Dicranopteris dichotoma (DD) has been studied by molecular activation analysis (MAA). The REEs bound DNA (REE-DNA) was obtained from the leaves of DD. The CTAB-based procedure was modified for extraction of total DNA. The purity of DNA was examined by UV spectroscopy. The DNA obtained was separated and determined by agarose gel electrophoresis further. Meanwhile, the contents of eight rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu,Tb, Yb and Lu) in REE-DNA were detected by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results showed that REE-DNA with higher purity could be extracted from plant using this method. It was also found that REEs were bound firmly with DNA in the leaves of DD. The molecular weight (MW) of REE-DNA band was about 22 kb in agarose gel electrophoresis.
A Holographic Bound on Cosmic Magnetic Fields
McInnes, Brett
2015-01-01
Magnetic fields large enough to be observable are ubiquitous in astrophysics, even at extremely large length scales. This has led to the suggestion that such fields are seeded at very early (inflationary) times, and subsequently amplified by various processes involving, for example, dynamo effects. Many such mechanisms give rise to extremely large magnetic fields at the end of inflationary reheating, and therefore also during the quark-gluon plasma epoch of the early universe. Such plasmas have a well-known holographic description. We show that holography imposes an upper bound on the intensity of magnetic fields (scaled by the squared temperature) in these circumstances, and that the values expected in some models of cosmic magnetism come close to attaining that bound.
Compressed sensing performance bounds under Poisson noise
Raginsky, Maxim; Marcia, Roummel F; Willett, Rebecca M
2009-01-01
This paper describes performance bounds for compressed sensing (CS) where the underlying sparse or compressible (sparsely approximable) signal is a vector of nonnegative intensities whose measurements are corrupted by Poisson noise. In this setting, standard CS techniques cannot be applied directly for several reasons. First, the usual signal-independent and/or bounded noise models do not apply to Poisson noise, which is non-additive and signal-dependent. Second, the CS matrices typically considered are not feasible in real optical systems because they do not adhere to important constraints, such as nonnegativity and photon flux preservation. Third, the typical $\\ell_2$--$\\ell_1$ minimization leads to overfitting in the high-intensity regions and oversmoothing in the low-intensity areas. In this paper, we describe how a feasible positivity- and flux-preserving sensing matrix can be constructed, and then analyze the performance of a CS reconstruction approach for Poisson data that minimizes an objective functi...
Nemytskii operator on generalized bounded variation space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
René Erlín Castillo
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we show that if the Nemytskii operator maps the (φ, α-bounded variation space into itself and satisfies some Lipschitz condition, then there are two functions g and h belonging to the (φ, α-bounded variation space such that f(t, y = g(ty + h(t for all t ∈ [a, b], y ∈ R. Resumen. En este artículo demostramos que si el operador de Nemytskii lleva el espacio de variación (φ, α-acotada en sí mismo, y satisface cierta condición de Lipschitz, entonces existen dos funciones g y h perteneciendo al espacio de variación (φ, α-acotada tal que f(t, y = g(ty + h(t para todo t ∈ [a, b], y ∈ R.
Optimal Bounds in Parametric LTL Games
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Zimmermann
2011-06-01
Full Text Available We consider graph games of infinite duration with winning conditions in parameterized linear temporal logic, where the temporal operators are equipped with variables for time bounds. In model checking such specifications were introduced as "PLTL" by Alur et al. and (in a different version called "PROMPT-LTL" by Kupferman et al.. We present an algorithm to determine optimal variable valuations that allow a player to win a game. Furthermore, we show how to determine whether a player wins a game with respect to some, infinitely many, or all valuations. All our algorithms run in doubly-exponential time; so, adding bounded temporal operators does not increase the complexity compared to solving plain LTL games.
Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators
Correa, Luis A.; Palao, José P.; Adesso, Gerardo; Alonso, Daniel
2013-04-01
An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modeling of the machine-baths interaction, is a fundamental source of irreversibility which prevents the refrigerator from approaching the Carnot performance arbitrarily closely in practice. The potential role of quantum correlations in the operation of these machines is also investigated.
Some general bounds for 1-D scattering
Visser, M
1999-01-01
One-dimensional scattering problems are of wide physical interest and are encountered in many diverse applications. In this article I establish some very general bounds for reflection and transmission coefficients for one-dimensional potential scattering. Equivalently, these results may be phrased as general bounds on the Bogolubov coefficients, or statements about the transfer matrix. A similar analysis can be provided for the parametric change of frequency of a harmonic oscillator. A number of specific examples are discussed---in particular I provide a general proof that sharp step function potentials always scatter more effectively than the corresponding smoothed potentials. The analysis also serves to collect together and unify what would otherwise appear to be quite unrelated results.
PSPACE Bounds for Rank-1 Modal Logics
Schröder, Lutz
2007-01-01
For lack of general algorithmic methods that apply to wide classes of logics, establishing a complexity bound for a given modal logic is often a laborious task. The present work is a step towards a general theory of the complexity of modal logics. Our main result is that all rank-1 logics enjoy a shallow model property and thus are, under mild assumptions on the format of their axiomatisation, in PSPACE. This leads to a unified derivation of tight PSPACE-bounds for a number of logics including K, KD, coalition logic, graded modal logic, majority logic, and probabilistic modal logic. Our generic algorithm moreover finds tableau proofs that witness pleasant proof-theoretic properties including a weak subformula property. This generality is made possible by a coalgebraic semantics, which conveniently abstracts from the details of a given model class and thus allows covering a broad range of logics in a uniform way.
Bounds on bacterial cell growth rates
Landy, Jonathan
2013-01-01
Recent experiments have shown that rod-like bacteria in nutrient-rich media grow in length at an exponential rate. Here, I point out that it is the elongated shape of these bacteria that allows for this behavior. Further, I show that when a bacterium's growth is limited by some nutrient -- taken in by the cell through a diffusion-to-capture process -- its growth is suppressed: In three-dimensional geometries, the length $L$ is bounded by $\\log L \\lesssim t^{1/2}$, while in two dimensions the length is bounded by a power-law form. Fits of experimental growth curves to these predicted, sub-exponential forms could allow for direct measures of quantities relating to cellular metabolic rates.
Performance bounds for Lambda Policy Iteration
Scherrer, Bruno
2007-01-01
We consider the discrete-time infinite-horizon discounted stationary optimal control problem formalized by Markov Decision Processes. We study Lambda Policy Iteration, a family of algorithms parameterized by lambda, originally introduced by Ioffe and Bertsekas. Lambda Policy Iteration generalizes the standard algorithms Value Iteration and Policy Iteration, and has some connections with TD(Lambda) introduced by Sutton & Barto. We deepen the original theory developped by Ioffe and Bertsekas by providing convergence rate bounds which generalize standard bounds for Value Iteration described for instance by Puterman. We also develop the theory of this algorithm when it is used in an approximate form. Doing so, we extend and unify the separate analyses developped by Munos for Approximate Value Iteration and Approximate Policy Iteration.
Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Anders Fjendbo
2016-01-01
Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim...... to maximise some subjective measure. Where other fields, for example within the social sciences and psychology, have made serious efforts to explore alternative models derived from principles of bounded rationality, this direction has begun to take speed within transport applications only recently. Bounded...... rational choice behaviour focuses on how the latter approach can be seriously taken into account within transport applications. As the editors discuss in the introduction, a true optimal choice can only be made if an individual has full and perfect information of all relevant attributes in his/her choice...
Mutual information rate and bounds for it.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Murilo S Baptista
Full Text Available The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR, is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic, and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators.
Mutual information rate and bounds for it.
Baptista, Murilo S; Rubinger, Rero M; Viana, Emilson R; Sartorelli, José C; Parlitz, Ulrich; Grebogi, Celso
2012-01-01
The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators.
Reinforcement Learning with Bounded Information Loss
Peters, Jan; Mülling, Katharina; Seldin, Yevgeny; Altun, Yasemin
2011-03-01
Policy search is a successful approach to reinforcement learning. However, policy improvements often result in the loss of information. Hence, it has been marred by premature convergence and implausible solutions. As first suggested in the context of covariant or natural policy gradients, many of these problems may be addressed by constraining the information loss. In this paper, we continue this path of reasoning and suggest two reinforcement learning methods, i.e., a model-based and a model free algorithm that bound the loss in relative entropy while maximizing their return. The resulting methods differ significantly from previous policy gradient approaches and yields an exact update step. It works well on typical reinforcement learning benchmark problems as well as novel evaluations in robotics. We also show a Bayesian bound motivation of this new approach [8].
Mutual Information Rate and Bounds for It
Baptista, Murilo S.; Rubinger, Rero M.; Viana, Emilson R.; Sartorelli, José C.; Parlitz, Ulrich; Grebogi, Celso
2012-01-01
The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators. PMID:23112809
Empirical processes with bounded \\psi_1 diameter
Mendelson, Shahar
2010-01-01
We study the empirical process indexed by F^2=\\{f^2 : f \\in F\\}, where F is a class of mean-zero functions on a probability space. We present a sharp bound on the supremum of that process which depends on the \\psi_1 diameter of the class F (rather than on the \\psi_2 one) and on the complexity parameter \\gamma_2(F,\\psi_2). In addition, we present optimal bounds on the random diameters \\sup_{f \\in F} \\max_{|I|=m} (\\sum_{i \\in I} f^2(X_i))^{1/2} using the same parameters. As applications, we extend several well known results in Asymptotic Geometric Analysis to any isotropic, log-concave ensemble on R^n.
Dynamics of Nonlinear Waves on Bounded Domains
Maliborski, Maciej
2016-01-01
This thesis is concerned with dynamics of conservative nonlinear waves on bounded domains. In general, there are two scenarios of evolution. Either the solution behaves in an oscillatory, quasiperiodic manner or the nonlinear effects cause the energy to concentrate on smaller scales leading to a turbulent behaviour. Which of these two possibilities occurs depends on a model and the initial conditions. In the quasiperiodic scenario there exist very special time-periodic solutions. They result for a delicate balance between dispersion and nonlinear interaction. The main body of this dissertation is concerned with construction (by means of perturbative and numerical methods) of time-periodic solutions for various nonlinear wave equations on bounded domains. While turbulence is mainly associated with hydrodynamics, recent research in General Relativity has also revealed turbulent phenomena. Numerical studies of a self-gravitating massless scalar field in spherical symmetry gave evidence that anti-de Sitter space ...
Upper and lower bounds on quantum codes
Smith, Graeme Stewart Baird
This thesis provides bounds on the performance of quantum error correcting codes when used for quantum communication and quantum key distribution. The first two chapters provide a bare-bones introduction to classical and quantum error correcting codes, respectively. The next four chapters present achievable rates for quantum codes in various scenarios. The final chapter is dedicated to an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity. Chapter 3 studies coding for adversarial noise using quantum list codes, showing there exist quantum codes with high rates and short lists. These can be used, together with a very short secret key, to communicate with high fidelity at noise levels for which perfect fidelity is, impossible. Chapter 4 explores the performance of a family of degenerate codes when used to communicate over Pauli channels, showing they can be used to communicate over almost any Pauli channel at rates that are impossible for a nondegenerate code and that exceed those of previously known degenerate codes. By studying the scaling of the optimal block length as a function of the channel's parameters, we develop a heuristic for designing even better codes. Chapter 5 describes an equivalence between a family of noisy preprocessing protocols for quantum key distribution and entanglement distillation protocols whose target state belongs to a class of private states called "twisted states." In Chapter 6, the codes of Chapter 4 are combined with the protocols of Chapter 5 to provide higher key rates for one-way quantum key distribution than were previously thought possible. Finally, Chapter 7 presents a new upper bound on the quantum channel capacity that is both additive and convex, and which can be interpreted as the capacity of the channel for communication given access to side channels from a class of zero capacity "cloning" channels. This "clone assisted capacity" is equal to the unassisted capacity for channels that are degradable, which we use to find new upper
Singular integral on bounded strictly pseudoconvex domain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GONG Ding-dong
2008-01-01
Kytmanov and Myslivets gave a special Cauchy principal value of the singular integral on the bounded strictly pseudoconvex domain with smooth boundary. By means of this Cauchy integral principal value, the corresponding singular integral and a composition formula are obtained. This composition formula is quite different from usual ones in form. As an application, the corresponding singular integral equation and the system of singular integral equations are discussed as well.
Invariance and stability for bounded uncertain systems.
Peng, T. K. C.
1972-01-01
The positive limit sets of the solutions of a contingent differential equation are shown to possess an invariance property. In this connection the 'invariance principle' in the theory of Lyapunov stability is extended to systems with unknown, bounded, time-varying parameters, and thus to a large and important class of nonautonomous systems. Asymptotic stability criteria are obtained and applied to guaranteed cost control problems.
Nonminimal global monopoles and bound orbits
Nucamendi, U; Sudarsky, D; Nucamendi, Ulises; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel
2000-01-01
We perform a numerical analysis of the gravitational field of a global monopole coupled nonminimally to gravity, and find that, for some given nonminimal couplings (in constrast with the minimal coupling case), there is an attractive region where bound orbits exist. We exhibit the behavior of the frequency shifts that would be associated with `rotation curves' of stars in circular orbits in the spacetimes of such global monopoles.
The lower bound on independence number
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI; Yusheng
2002-01-01
［1］Caro, Y., New Results on the Independence Number, Technical Report, Tel_Aviv: Tel_Aviv University, 1979.［2］Wei, V., A lower bound on the stability number of a simple graph, Bell Laboratories Technical Memorandum, 1981, 81_11217_11219.\\}［3］Alon, N., Spencer, J., The Probabilistic Method, New York: Wiley_Interscience, 1992.［4］Ajtai, M., Komls, J., Szemerédi E., A note on Ramsey numbers, J. Combin. Theory, Ser. A, 1980, 29: 354-360.［5］Shearer, J., A note on the independence number of triangle_free graphs, Discrete Math., 1983, 46: 83-87.［6］Kim, J., The Ramsey number R(3,t)has order of magnitude t\\+2／logt, Random Structures Algorithms, 1995, 7: 174-207.［7］Tardos, E., 1997 Fulkerson Prize, Notices of American Math. Soc., 1998, 45(8): 984.［8］Griggs, J., Lower bounds on the independence number in term of the degrees, J. Combin. Theory, Ser. B, 1983, 34: 22-29.［9］Li, Y., Rousseau, C., Fan_complete graph Ramsey numbers, J. Graph Theory, 1996, 23: 413-420.［10］Shearer, J., A note on the independence number of triangle_free graphs, II, J. Combin. Theory, Ser. B, 1991, 53: 300-307.［11］Li, Y., Rousseau, C., On book_complete Ramsey numbers, J. Combin. Theory, Ser. B, 1996, 68: 36-44.［12］Li, Y., Rousseau, C., Zang, W., Asymptotic upper bounds for Ramsey functions, Graphs Combin., 2001, 17: 123-128.［13］Caro, Y., Li, Y., Rousseau, C. et al., Asymptotic bounds for some bipartite graph: complete graph Ramsey numbers, Discrete Math., 2000, 220: 51-56.
Lower bounds on the Calabi functional
Donaldson, S. K.
2005-01-01
The main result of this paper shows that "test configurations" give new lower bounds on the $L^{2}$ norm of the scalar curvature on a Kahler manifold. This is closely analogous to the analysis of the Yang-Mills functional over Riemann surfaces by Atiyah and Bott. The proof uses asymptotic approximation by finite-dimensional problems: the essential ingredient being the Tian-Zelditch-Lu expansion of the "density of states" function.
Exact BPS bound for noncommutative baby Skyrmions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Domrin, Andrei, E-mail: domrin@mi.ras.ru [Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, 119992, GSP-2, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lechtenfeld, Olaf, E-mail: lechtenf@itp.uni-hannover.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik and Riemann Center for Geometry and Physics, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstraße 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Linares, Román, E-mail: lirr@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, México D.F. (Mexico); Maceda, Marco, E-mail: mmac@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, México D.F. (Mexico)
2013-11-25
The noncommutative baby Skyrme model is a Moyal deformation of the two-dimensional sigma model plus a Skyrme term, with a group-valued or Grassmannian target. Exact abelian solitonic solutions have been identified analytically in this model, with a singular commutative limit. Inside any given Grassmannian, we establish a BPS bound for the energy functional, which is saturated by these baby Skyrmions. This asserts their stability for unit charge, as we also test in second-order perturbation theory.
A bound particle coupled to two thermostats
Fogedby, Hans C.; Imparato, Alberto
2011-05-01
We consider a harmonically bound Brownian particle coupled to two distinct heat reservoirs at different temperatures. We show that the presence of a harmonic trap does not change the large deviation function from the case of a free Brownian particle discussed by Derrida and Brunet and Visco. Likewise, the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem related to the entropy production at the heat sources remains in force. We support the analytical results with numerical simulations.
Sublinear Bounds for Randomized Leader Election
Kutten, Shay; Pandurangan, Gopal; Peleg, David; Robinson, Peter; Trehan, Amitabh
2012-01-01
This paper concerns {\\em randomized} leader election in synchronous distributed networks. A distributed leader election algorithm is presented for complete $n$-node networks that runs in O(1) rounds and (with high probability) uses only $O(\\sqrt{n}\\log^{3/2} n)$ messages to elect a unique leader (with high probability). When considering the "explicit" variant of leader election where eventually every node knows the identity of the leader, our algorithm yields the asymptotically optimal bounds...
Bounds on hadronic axions from stellar evolution
Raffelt, Georg G.; Dearborn, David S. P.
1987-10-01
We consider in detail the effect of the emission of ``hadronic'' invisible axions (which do not couple to electrons) from the interior of stars on stellar evolution. To this end we calculate plasma emission rates for axions due to the Primakoff process for the full range of conditions encountered in a giant star. Much attention is paid to plasma, degeneracy, and screening effects. We reconsider the solar bound by evolving a 1.0 Msolar star to solar age and lowering the presolar helium abundance so as to obtain the correct present-day luminosity of the Sun. The previous bound on the axion-photon coupling of G9cluster M67 and with the value 1.3×108 yr derived from the number of such stars in the old galactic disk population. We obtain a conservative limit of G9decay and probably the possibility of measuring the solar hadronic axion flux which, according to our bounds, must be less than 2×10-3 of the solar luminosity. There remains a narrow range of parameters (0.01<~G9<~0.1, ma<~10-4 eV) in which a recently proposed laboratory experiment might still measure axionlike particles.
Tight Bounds for Distributed Functional Monitoring
Woodruff, David P
2011-01-01
We resolve several fundamental questions in the area of distributed functional monitoring, initiated by Cormode, Muthukrishnan, and Yi (SODA, 2008). In this model there are $k$ sites each tracking their input and communicating with a central coordinator that continuously maintain an approximate output to a function $f$ computed over the union of the inputs. The goal is to minimize the communication. We show the randomized communication complexity of estimating the number of distinct elements up to a $1+\\eps$ factor is $\\Omega(k/\\eps^2)$, improving the previous $\\Omega(k + 1/\\eps^2)$ bound and matching known upper bounds. For the $p$-th frequency moment $F_p$, $p > 1$, we improve the previous $\\Omega(k + 1/\\eps^2)$ communication bound to $\\tilde{\\Omega}(k^{p-1}/\\eps^2)$. We obtain similar improvements for heavy hitters, empirical entropy, and other problems. We also show that we can estimate $F_p$, for any $p > 1$, using $\\tilde{O}(k^{p-1}\\poly(\\eps^{-1}))$ communication. This drastically improves upon the pre...
Dependence Uncertainty Bounds for the Expectile of a Portfolio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edgars Jakobsons
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We study upper and lower bounds on the expectile risk measure of risky portfolios when the joint distribution of the risky components is not fully specified. First, we summarize methods for obtaining bounds when only the marginal distributions of the components are known, but not their interdependence (unconstrained bounds. In particular, we provide the best-possible upper bound and the best-possible lower bound (under some conditions, as well as numerical procedures to compute them. We also derive simple analytic bounds that appear adequate in various situations of interest. Second, we study bounds when some information on interdependence is available (constrained bounds. When the variance of the portfolio is known, a simple-to-compute upper bound is provided, and we illustrate that it may significantly improve the unconstrained upper bound. We also show that the unconstrained lower bound cannot be readily improved using variance information. Next, we derive improved bounds when the bivariate distributions of each of the risky components and a risk factor are known. When the factor induces a positive dependence among the components, it is typically possible to improve the unconstrained lower bound. Finally, the unconstrained dependence uncertainty spreads of expected shortfall, value-at-risk and the expectile are compared.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2005-07-01
The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)
新形势下电力企业电费回收管控措施与手段%Tariff Recovery Control Measures for Power Enterprise under the New Situation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张瑛
2016-01-01
Tariff recovery is an important link in electric power enterprise capital turnover. In the current economic downturn, there is increasing electricity charge risk. Combined with the tariff recovery management status in the current situation, this paper has carried out in-depth analysis and discussion, and puts forward measures and means to prevent tariff risk management, to dissolve the tariff recovery problem quickly, and reduce operating losses.%电费回收是电力企业资金周转的一个重要环节，在当前市场经济不景气的情况下，电费风险日益突显。结合电费回收管理现状，就当前的严峻形势，本文开展了深入分析，探讨、提出防范电费风险管理措施及手段，以迅速化解电费回收难题，减少经营损失。
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru
2004-10-15
The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a
Ionically Bound Peroxidase from Peach Fruit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neves Valdir Augusto
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Soluble, ionically bound peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO were extracted from the pulp of peach fruit during ripening at 20°C. Ionically bound form was purified 6.1-fold by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The purified enzyme showed only one peak of activity on Sephadex G-100 and PAGE revealed that the enzyme was purified by the procedures adopted. The purified enzyme showed a molecular weight of 29000 Da, maximum activity at pH 5.0 and at 40ºC. The calculated apparent activation energy (Ea for the reaction was10.04 kcal/mol. The enzyme was heat-labile in the temperature range of 60 to 75ºC with a fast inactivation at 75ºC. Measurement of residual activity showed a stabilizing effect of sucrose at various temperature/sugar concentrations (0, 10, 20 %, w/w, with an activation energy (Ea for inactivation increasing with sucrose concentration from 0 to 20% (w/w. The Km and Vmax values were 9.35 and 15.38 mM for 0-dianisidine and H2O2, respectively. The bound enzyme was inhibited competitively by ferulic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids with different values of Ki,. L-cysteine, p-coumaric and indolacetic acid and Fe++ also inhibited the enzyme but at a lower grade. N-ethylmaleimide and p-CMB were not effective to inhibit the enzyme demonstrating the non-essentiality of SH groups.
Persistence of noncompact normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds in bounded geometry
Eldering, Jaap
2012-01-01
We prove a persistence result for noncompact normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds in Riemannian manifolds of bounded geometry. The bounded geometry of the ambient manifold is a crucial assumption in order to control the uniformity of all estimates throughout the proof.
Spectral conditions for entanglement witnesses versus bound entanglement
Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej; Sarbicki, Gniewomir
2009-10-01
It is shown that entanglement witnesses constructed via the family of spectral conditions are decomposable, i.e., cannot be used to detect bound entanglement. It supports several observations that bound entanglement reveals highly nonspectral features.
Spectral conditions for entanglement witnesses vs. bound entanglement
Chruscinski, Dariusz; Sarbicki, Gniewomir
2009-01-01
It is shown that entanglement witnesses constructed via the family of spectral conditions are decomposable, i.e. cannot be used to detect bound entanglement. It supports several observations that bound entanglement reveals highly non-spectral features.
CBC bound proteins and RNA fate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Giacometti, Simone
the different CBC subcomplexes are recruited to the RNP. Here, we used an individual nucleotide-resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) approach to identify the transcriptome-wide targets for 5 different components of the CBCAP and CBCN complexes, and compared results to the previously...... may therefore be determined by additional RNA features and/or by other RNA-binding proteins, which may synergize with the cap and drive the formation of one specific CBC subcomplex instead of another. In an attempt to identify yet unknown factors that may interact with cap-bound CBCAP and CBCN, we...
Landauer Bound for Analog Computing Systems
Diamantini, M Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A
2016-01-01
By establishing a relation between information erasure and continuous phase transitions we generalise the Landauer bound to analog computing systems. The entropy production per degree of freedom during erasure of an analog variable (reset to standard value) is given by the logarithm of the configurational volume measured in units of its minimal quantum. As a consequence every computation has to be carried on with a finite number of bits and infinite precision is forbidden by the fundamental laws of physics, since it would require an infinite amount of energy.
Informationally complete quantum measurements & entanglement bounds
Flammia, Steven Thomas
2007-12-01
We define a class of measurements which we call pure-state informationally complete (PSI-complete) POVMs. These are measurements which can be used to reconstruct the pure state of a d-dimensional quantum system, but not necessarily a mixed state. We show that 2d measurement outcomes is necessary and sufficient for PSI-completeness. This demonstrates that the measurement complexity (as measured by the number of measurement outcomes) can achieve quadratic improvements when the system is confidently believed to be in a pure state. Next, we consider symmetric informationally complete POVMs (SIC-POVMs). SIC-POVMs are relevant for mixed state quantum tomography, but are not well understood. We prove a theorem related to the conjectured existence of SIC-POVMs showing the uniqueness (up to certain symmetries) of SIC-POVMs of a particular group-covariant type when the dimension of the Hilbert space is a prime number. In the second part of the dissertation, we consider a computational model that has access to only one pure qubit, along with n qubits in the totally mixed state. This model is thought to be capable of performing sonic computational tasks exponentially faster than any known classical algorithm. We show that circuits of this type generally lead to entangled states, but where the entanglement (as measured by the negativity) is bounded by a constant, independent of n, for all bipartite divisions. This suggests that the global nature of entanglement is a more important resource than the magnitude of the entanglement. We then consider multiply constrained bounds on entanglement measures based on convex constraint functions. We outline the general procedure, and then explicitly implement the program for the case of 4 x N quantum systems by bounding the entanglement of formation, the concurrence, and the tangle. Finally, we develop generalized bounds for quantum single-parameter estimation problems for which the coupling to the parameter is described by intrinsic multi
Landauer bound for analog computing systems
Diamantini, M. Cristina; Gammaitoni, Luca; Trugenberger, Carlo A.
2016-07-01
By establishing a relation between information erasure and continuous phase transitions we generalize the Landauer bound to analog computing systems. The entropy production per degree of freedom during erasure of an analog variable (reset to standard value) is given by the logarithm of the configurational volume measured in units of its minimal quantum. As a consequence, every computation has to be carried on with a finite number of bits and infinite precision is forbidden by the fundamental laws of physics, since it would require an infinite amount of energy.
Mass bounds on a very light neutralino
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dreiner, Herbi K. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physis and Physikalisches Institut; Heinemeyer, Sven [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Kittel, Olaf [Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and CAFPE; Langenfeld, Ulrich [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Weber, Arne M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut; Weiglein, Georg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). IPPP
2008-12-15
Within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) we systematically investigate the bounds on the mass of the lightest neutralino. We allow for non-universal gaugino masses and thus even consider massless neutralinos, while assuming in general that R-parity is conserved. Our main focus are laboratory constraints. We consider collider data, precision observables, and also rare meson decays to very light neutralinos. We then discuss the astrophysical and cosmological implications. We find that a massless neutralino is allowed by all existing experimental data and astrophysical and cosmological observations. (orig.)
Mass bounds on a very light neutralino
Dreiner, Herbi K.; Heinemeyer, Sven; Kittel, Olaf; Langenfeld, Ulrich; Weber, Arne M.; Weiglein, Georg
2009-08-01
Within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) we systematically investigate the bounds on the mass of the lightest neutralino. We allow for non-universal gaugino masses and thus even consider massless neutralinos, while assuming in general that R-parity is conserved. Our main focus is on laboratory constraints. We consider collider data, precision observables, and also rare meson decays to very light neutralinos. We then discuss the astrophysical and cosmological implications. We find that a massless neutralino is allowed by all existing experimental data and astrophysical and cosmological observations.
Bounding the bias of contrastive divergence learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fischer, Anja; Igel, Christian
2011-01-01
Optimization based on k-step contrastive divergence (CD) has become a common way to train restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs). The k-step CD is a biased estimator of the log-likelihood gradient relying on Gibbs sampling. We derive a new upper bound for this bias. Its magnitude depends on k......, the number of variables in the RBM, and the maximum change in energy that can be produced by changing a single variable. The last reflects the dependence on the absolute values of the RBM parameters. The magnitude of the bias is also affected by the distance in variation between the modeled distribution...
A Holographic Bound for D3-Brane
Momeni, Davood; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Myrzakul, Aizhan; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2016-01-01
In this paper, we will calculate the holographic entanglement entropy, holographic complexity, and fidelity susceptibility for a D3-brane. It will be demonstrated that for a D3-brane the holographic complexity is always greater than or equal to than the fidelity susceptibility. Furthermore, we will also demonstrate that the holographic complexity is related to the holographic entanglement entropy for this system. Thus, we will obtain a holographic bound involving holographic complexity, holographic entanglement entropy and fidelity susceptibility of a D3-brane.
Novel Bound States in Graphene with Impurities
Gupta, Kumar S
2008-01-01
We obtain a novel bound state spectrum of the low energy excitations near the Fermi points of graphene in the presence of a charge impurity. The effects of possible short range interactions induced by the impurity are modelled by suitable boundary conditions. The spectrum in the subcritical region of the effective Coulomb coupling is labelled by a parameter which characterizes the boundary conditions and determines the inequivalent quantizations of the system. In the supercritical region we obtain a renormalization group flow for the effective Coulomb coupling.
Jackson's Theorem on Bounded Symmetric Domains
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ming Zhi WANG; Guang Bin REN
2007-01-01
Polynomial approximation is studied on bounded symmetric domain Ω in C n for holo-morphic function spaces X ,such as Bloch-type spaces,Bergman-type spaces,Hardy spaces,Ω algebra and Lipschitz space.We extend the classical Jackson ’s theorem to several complex variables:E k f,X ) ω (1 /k,f,X ),where E k f,X )is the deviation of the best approximation of f ∈X by polynomials of degree at mostk with respect to the X -metric and ω (1/k,f,X )is the corresponding modulus of continuity.
Bounds on entanglement in qudit subsystems
Kendon, Vivien M.; Zyczkowski, Karol; Munro, William J.
2002-01-01
The entanglement in a pure state of N qudits (d-dimensional distinguishable quantum particles) can be characterised by specifying how entangled its subsystems are. A generally mixed subsystem of m qudits is obtained by tracing over the other N-m qudits. We examine the entanglement in the space of mixed states of m qudits. We show that for a typical pure state of N qudits, its subsystems smaller than N/3 qudits will have a positive partial transpose and hence are separable or bound entangled. ...
Arsenic-bound excitons in diamond
Barjon, J.; Jomard, F.; Morata, S.
2014-01-01
A set of new excitonic recombinations is observed in arsenic-implanted diamond. It is composed of two groups of emissions at 5.355/5.361 eV and at 5.215/5.220/5.227 eV. They are respectively attributed to the no-phonon and transverse-optical phonon-assisted recombinations of excitons bound to neutral arsenic donors. From the Haynes rule, an ionization energy of 0.41 eV is deduced for arsenic in diamond, which shows that arsenic is a shallower donor than phosphorus (0.6 eV), in agreement with theory.
Derivation of sink strengths in bounded media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brailsford, A.D. (Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (USA). Engineering and Research Staff)
1981-11-01
Several reasons for the need to extend the rate theory of point defect recovery processes to bounded media are cited. This paper is concerned with the essential first step, the derivation of the strength of sinks near a free surface. The Effective Medium method is used. Sink strengths so derived are shown to be formally the same as those found in an unbounded system. Image effects associated with the surface are proved to be small when the sink is located more than a few sink radii from the surface.
Bound Alternative Direction Optimization for Image Deblurring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiangrong Zeng
2014-01-01
the ℓp regularizer by a novel majorizer and then, based on a variable splitting, to reformulate the bound unconstrained problem into a constrained one, which is then addressed via an augmented Lagrangian method. The proposed algorithm actually combines the reweighted ℓ1 minimization method and the alternating direction method of multiples (ADMM such that it succeeds in extending the application of ADMM to ℓp minimization problems. The conducted experimental studies demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm for the synthesis ℓp minimization over the state-of-the-art algorithms for the synthesis ℓ1 minimization on image deblurring.
Infrared spectroscopy of weakly bound molecular ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeh, Lisa I-Ching
1988-11-01
The infrared spectra of a series of hydrated hydronium cluster ions and of protonated ethane ion are presented. A tandem mass spectrometer is ideally suited to obtaining the spectra of such weakly bound molecular ions. Traditional absorption spectroscopy is not feasible in these situations, so the techniques described in this thesis make use of some consequence of photon absorption with higher sensitivity than simply attenuation of laser power. That consequence is dissociation. By first mass selecting the parent ion under study and then mass selecting the fragment ion formed from dissociation, the near unit detection efficiency of ion counting methods has been used to full advantage.
Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Y., E-mail: yiriolin@illinois.edu; Leggett, A. J. [University of Illinois at Urhana-Champaign, Dept. of Physics (United States)
2014-12-15
We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it.
Total-variation regularization with bound constraints
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chartrand, Rick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
We present a new algorithm for bound-constrained total-variation (TV) regularization that in comparison with its predecessors is simple, fast, and flexible. We use a splitting approach to decouple TV minimization from enforcing the constraints. Consequently, existing TV solvers can be employed with minimal alteration. This also makes the approach straightforward to generalize to any situation where TV can be applied. We consider deblurring of images with Gaussian or salt-and-pepper noise, as well as Abel inversion of radiographs with Poisson noise. We incorporate previous iterative reweighting algorithms to solve the TV portion.
Valuation models and Simon's bounded rationality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandra Strommer de Farias Godoi
2009-09-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at reconciling the evidence that sophisticated valuation models are increasingly used by companies in their investment appraisal with the literature of bounded rationality, according to which objective optimization is impracticable in the real world because it would demand an immense level of sophistication of the analytical and computational processes of human beings. We show how normative valuation models should rather be viewed as forms of reality representation, frameworks according to which the real world is perceived, fragmented for a better understanding, and recomposed, providing an orderly method for undertaking a task as complex as the investment decision.
Mass bounds on a very light neutralino
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dreiner, Herbi K. [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Heinemeyer, Sven [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Kittel, Olaf [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and CAFPE, Granada (Spain); Langenfeld, Ulrich [DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen (Germany); Weber, Arne M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Munich (Germany); Weiglein, Georg [University of Durham, IPPP, Durham (United Kingdom)
2009-08-15
Within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) we systematically investigate the bounds on the mass of the lightest neutralino. We allow for non-universal gaugino masses and thus even consider massless neutralinos, while assuming in general that R-parity is conserved. Our main focus is on laboratory constraints. We consider collider data, precision observables, and also rare meson decays to very light neutralinos. We then discuss the astrophysical and cosmological implications. We find that a massless neutralino is allowed by all existing experimental data and astrophysical and cosmological observations. (orig.)
Betweenness Centrality : Algorithms and Lower Bounds
Kintali, Shiva
2008-01-01
One of the most fundamental problems in large scale network analysis is to determine the importance of a particular node in a network. Betweenness centrality is the most widely used metric to measure the importance of a node in a network. In this paper, we present a randomized parallel algorithm, lower bounds and an algebraic method for computing betweenness centrality of all nodes in a network. We prove that any path comparison based algorithm cannot compute betweenness of all nodes in less than O(nm) time.
Mass Bounds on a Very Light Neutralino
Dreiner, H K; Kittel, O; Langenfeld, U; Weber, A M; Weiglein, G
2009-01-01
Within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) we systematically investigate the bounds on the mass of the lightest neutralino. We allow for non-universal gaugino masses and thus even consider massless neutralinos, while assuming in general that R-parity is conserved. Our main focus are laboratory constraints. We consider collider data, precision observables, and also rare meson decays to very light neutralinos. We then discuss the astrophysical and cosmological implications. We find that a massless neutralino is allowed by all existing experimental data and astrophysical and cosmological observations.
Lower complexity bounds for lifted inference
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jaeger, Manfred
2015-01-01
the feasibility of lifted inference on certain syntactically defined classes of models. Lower complexity bounds that imply some limitations for the feasibility of lifted inference on more expressive model classes were established earlier in Jaeger (2000; Jaeger, M. 2000. On the complexity of inference about...... that under the assumption that NETIME≠ETIME, there is no polynomial lifted inference algorithm for knowledge bases of weighted, quantifier-, and function-free formulas. Further strengthening earlier results, this is also shown to hold for approximate inference and for knowledge bases not containing...
BOUND PERIODICAL HOLDINGS BATTELLE - NORTHWEST LIBRARY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1967-05-01
This report lists the bound periodicals in the Technical Library at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. It was prepared from a computer program and is arranged in two parts. Part one is an alphabetical list of journals by title; part two is an arrangement of the journals by subject. The list headings are self-explanatory, with the exception of the title code, which is necessary in the machine processing. The listing is complete through June, 1966 and updates an earlier publication issued in March, 1965.
Is there an quasi-bound state?
Wilkin, C; Chiladze, D; Dymov, S; Hanhart, C; Hartmann, M; Hejny, V; Kacharava, A K; Keshelashvili, I; Khoukaz, A; Maeda, Y; Mersmann, T; Mielke, M; Mikirtychiants, S; Papenbrock, M; Rathmann, F; Rausmann, T; Schleichert, R; Ströher, H; Täschner, A; Valdau, Yu; Wronska, A
2007-01-01
The observed variation of the total cross section for the dp -> 3He eta reaction near threshold means that the magnitude of the s--wave amplitude falls very rapidly with the eta centre--of--mass momentum. It is shown here that recent measurements of the momentum dependence of the angular distribution imply a strong variation also in the phase of this amplitude. Such a behaviour is that expected from a quasi--bound or virtual eta-3He state. The interpretation can be investigated further through measurements of the deuteron or proton analysing powers and/or spin--correlations.
Nuclear dynamics of K¯ bound states
Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.
2006-07-01
K¯ nuclear bound states were generated dynamically within a relativistic mean field (RMF) model. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus was found for light nuclei. The behavior of the dynamically calculated width ΓK¯ as function of the K¯ binding energy was studied. A lower limit of ΓK¯ ˜ 35 - 45 MeV for 1s K¯ nuclear states in light nuclei such as 12C was placed on the width expected for deep binding in the range B K¯ ˜ 100 - 200 MeV.
Complexity Considerations, cSAT Lower Bound
Hofman, Radoslaw
2007-01-01
This article discusses completeness of Boolean Algebra as First Order Theory in Goedel's meaning. If Theory is complete then any possible transformation is equivalent to some transformation using axioms, predicates etc. defined for this theory. If formula is to be proved (or disproved) then it has to be reduced to axioms. If every transformation is deducible then also optimal transformation is deducible. If every transformation is exponential then optimal one is too, what allows to define lower bound for discussed problem to be exponential (outside P). Then we show algorithm for NDTM solving the same problem in O(n^c) (so problem is in NP), what proves that P \
Greedy Wavelet Projections are Bounded on BV (Preprint)
2003-10-30
functions of bounded variation on IRd with d ??? 2. Let ????, ?? ??? ??, be a wavelet basis of compactly supported functions normalized in BV, i.e...Wojtaszczyk October 30, 2003 Abstract Let BV = BV(IRd) be the space of functions of bounded variation on IRd with d ≥ 2. Let ψλ, λ ∈ ∆, be a wavelet basis...greedy approximation, functions of bounded variation , thresholding, bounded projections. 1 Introduction The space BV := BV(Ω) of functions of
Asymptotic bound on binary self-orthogonal codes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DING Yang
2009-01-01
We present two constructions for binary self-orthogonal codes. It turns out that our constructions yield a constructive bound on binary self-orthogonal codes. In particular, when the in-formation rate R = 1/2, by our constructive lower bound, the relative minimum distance δ≈ 0.0595 (for GV bound, δ≈0.110). Moreover, we have proved that the binary self-orthogonal codes asymptotically achieve the Gilbert-Varshamov bound.
Asymptotic bound on binary self-orthogonal codes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
We present two constructions for binary self-orthogonal codes. It turns out that our constructions yield a constructive bound on binary self-orthogonal codes. In particular, when the in-formation rate R = 1/2, by our constructive lower bound, the relative minimum distance δ≈ 0.0595 (for GV bound, δ≈ 0.110). Moreover, we have proved that the binary self-orthogonal codes asymptotically achieve the Gilbert-Varshamov bound.
Persistence-Based Branch Misprediction Bounds for WCET Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puffitsch, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
Branch prediction is an important feature of pipelined processors to achieve high performance. However, it can lead to overly pessimistic worst-case execution time (WCET) bounds when being modeled too conservatively. This paper presents bounds on the number of branch mispredictions for local dyna...... linear programming formulations of the WCET problem. An evaluation on a number of benchmarks shows that with these bounds, dynamic branch prediction does not necessarily lead to higher WCET bounds than static prediction schemes....
Bounds for the connective constant of the hexagonal lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alm, S E; Parviainen, R [Department of Mathematics, Uppsala University, Box 480, 75106 Uppsala (Sweden)
2004-01-23
We give improved bounds for the connective constant of the hexagonal lattice. The lower bound is found by using Kesten's method of irreducible bridges and by determining generating functions for bridges on one-dimensional lattices. The upper bound is obtained as the largest eigenvalue of a certain transfer matrix. Using a relation between the hexagonal and the (3.12{sup 2}) lattices, we also give bounds for the connective constant of the latter lattice.
Andrade, Daniel
2012-01-01
We present a new method to propagate lower bounds on conditional probability distributions in conventional Bayesian networks. Our method guarantees to provide outer approximations of the exact lower bounds. A key advantage is that we can use any available algorithms and tools for Bayesian networks in order to represent and infer lower bounds. This new method yields results that are provable exact for trees with binary variables, and results which are competitive to existing approximations in credal networks for all other network structures. Our method is not limited to a specific kind of network structure. Basically, it is also not restricted to a specific kind of inference, but we restrict our analysis to prognostic inference in this article. The computational complexity is superior to that of other existing approaches.
浅议碳关税及其对中国工业化进程的影响%Discussion on Carbon Tariff and Its Effects on Chinese Industrialization Process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭而郛; 鞠美庭
2013-01-01
This article analyzes the essence and international influence of carbon tariff, through the research on the background and policy intent of carbon tariff.The article also analyses the choice of Chinese industrialization and its effects from carbon tariff.Consequently, the article put forward that the essence of carbon tariff is a kind of new trading protection to maintain the competitive industry and enforce international political speech right of western countries.And the carbon tariff would have a profound impact on China's foreign trade, as well as the overall industrialization process, forcing China to accelerate the implementation of the transformation of the mode of economic growth, and create a new industrialization road to adapt to the complicated international background.%通过对碳关税的提出背景、政策意图的研究,对碳关税的实质及国际影响进行了分析,并且对碳关税对中国工业化道路的选择,以及对中国工业化进程的影响进行了分析.提出碳关税的实质是对本国产业竞争力以及为巩固和加强国际政治话语权而实施的新型贸易保护手段.碳关税政策将对中国的对外贸易以及整体工业化进程产生深远的影响,迫使中国继续加快实施经济增长方式的转变,创新适应目前复杂国际背景的新型工业化道路.
Bounded Rationality, Retaliation, and the Spread of Urban Violence
Jacobs, Bruce A.; Wright, Richard
2010-01-01
Drawing from in-depth interviews with 52 active street criminals, this article examines the grounded theoretic implications of bounded rationality for retaliatory street violence. The bounds on rationality that this article explores are anger, uncertainty, and time pressure. These bounds create imperfections in the retaliatory decision-making…
Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn
2000-01-01
Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run...
Bounds in the generalized Weber problem under locational uncertainty
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juel, Henrik
1981-01-01
An existing analysis of the bounds on the Weber problem solution under uncertainty is incorrect. For the generalized problem with arbitrary measures of distance, we give easily computable ranges on the bounds and state the conditions under which the exact values of the bounds can be found...
Almost Chebyshev set with respect to bounded subsets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李冲; 王兴华
1997-01-01
The uniqueness and existence of restricted Chebyshev center with respect to arbitrary subset are investigated. The concept of almost Chebyshev sets with respect to bounded subsets is introduced. It is proved that each closed subset in a reflexive locally uniformly convex (uniformly convex, respectively) Banach space is an almost Chebyshev subset with respect to compact convex subsets (bounded convex subsets and bounded subsets, respectively).
Upper bounds on the solution of coupled algebraic riccati equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Czornik Adam
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Upper bounds for eigenvalues of a solution to continuous time coupled algebraic Riccati equation (CCARE and discrete time coupled algebraic Riccati equation (DCARE are developed as special cases of bounds for the unified coupled algebraic Riccati equation (UCARE. They include bounds of the maximal eigenvalues, the sums of the eigenvalues and the trace.
Lower bounds for the minimum distance of algebraic geometry codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beelen, Peter
, such as the Goppa bound, the Feng-Rao bound and the Kirfel-Pellikaan bound. I will finish my talk by giving several examples. Especially for two-point codes, the generalized order bound is fairly easy to compute. As an illustration, I will indicate how a lower bound can be obtained for the minimum distance of some......A one-point AG-code is an algebraic geometry code based on a divisor whose support consists of one point. Since the discovery of the Feng-Rao lower bound for the minimum distance, there has been a renewed interest in such codes. This lower bound is also called the order bound. An alternative...... description of these codes in terms of order domains has been found. In my talk I will indicate how one can use the ideas behind the order bound to obtain a lower bound for the minimum distance of any AG-code. After this I will compare this generalized order bound with other known lower bounds...
经验分析电价与电费管理的稽查%An Empirical Analysis of Price and Tariff Management Audit
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
董娜; 邓驭; 唐靖; 姚新芹
2014-01-01
为进一步提升电价与电费管理的工作质量，采取有效措施、深入落实各管理环节的稽查工作是非常必要的。结合自身的工作经验，以电价稽查、电费账务处理等内容为切入点，对电价与电费管理的稽查作一综述，以供业内同行参考。%In order to further improve the quality of electricity and electricity management, and to take effective measures to further the implementation of the various management aspects of inspection work is necessary. With their own work experience, price checks, electricity accounts processing and other content as the starting point for price and tariff management audit reviewed for industry peers reference.
Mustafaoglu, Mustafa Sinan
Some of the main energy issues in developing countries are high dependence on non-renewable energy sources, low energy efficiency levels and as a result of this high amount of CO2 emissions. Besides, a common problem of many countries including developing countries is economic inequality problem. In the study, solar photovoltaic policies of Germany, Japan and the USA is analyzed through a quantitative analysis and a new renewable energy support mechanism called Socio Feed-in Tariff Mechanism (SocioFIT) is formed based on the analysis results to address the mentioned issues of developing countries as well as economic inequality problem by using energy savings as a funding source for renewable energy systems. The applicability of the mechanism is solidified by the calculations in case of an implementation of the mechanism in Turkey.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schweighofer, M.; Tretter, H.; Veigl, A.
2006-07-01
This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a review of possible systems that could be used to promote power production in Switzerland using renewable energy sources. Promotional models on both the provider and consumer sides that use both price and quantity as control factors are examined. Three models are compared: the submission-to-tender model, the quota model with certificates and a model that uses cost-based feed-in tariffs. On the basis of a comparison with Austria, interaction between increasing the proportion of renewable forms of energy and the realisation of energy-efficiency goals is discussed. A further part of the report deals with various options for the use of biomass as a source of energy.
Revisiting the upper bounding process in a safe Branch and Bound algorithm
Goldsztejn, Alexandre; Michel, Claude; Rueher, Michel
2008-01-01
Finding feasible points for which the proof succeeds is a critical issue in safe Branch and Bound algorithms which handle continuous problems. In this paper, we introduce a new strategy to compute very accurate approximations of feasible points. This strategy takes advantage of the Newton method for under-constrained systems of equations and inequalities. More precisely, it exploits the optimal solution of a linear relaxation of the problem to compute efficiently a promising upper bound. First experiments on the Coconuts benchmarks demonstrate that this approach is very effective.
A balance for Dark Matter bound states
Nozzoli, F
2016-01-01
Massive particles with self interactions of the order of 0.2 barn/GeV are intriguing Dark Matter candidates from an astrophysical point of view. Direct detection searches for very massive particles, with relatively high cross sections with ordinary matter, cannot rule out $\\sigma/M > 0.01$ barn/GeV, due to atmosphere and material shielding. Here, the possibility of the existence of bound states with ordinary matter, for Dark Matter candidates with not negligible interactions, is considered. The existence of bound states, with binding energy larger than $\\sim$1 meV, would offer the possibility to test in laboratory capture cross sections of the order of a barn (or larger). The signature of the detection of a mass increasing of cryogenic samples, due to the possible Dark Matter accumulation, would allow the investigation of Dark Matter particles with mass up to the GUT scale. A proof of concept for a possible detection set-up and the evaluation of some noise sources are described.
ADMonium: Asymmetric Dark Matter Bound State
Bi, Xiao-Jun; Ko, P; Li, Jinmian; Li, Tianjun
2016-01-01
We propose a novel framework for asymmetric scalar dark matter (ADM), which has interesting collider phenomenology in terms of an unstable ADM bound state (ADMonium) produced via Higgs portals. ADMonium is a natural consequence of the basic features of ADM: the (complex scalar) ADM is charged under a dark local $U(1)_d$ symmetry which is broken at a low scale and provides a light gauge boson $X$. The dark gauge coupling is strong and then ADM can annihilate away into $X$-pair effectively. Therefore, the ADM can form bound state due to its large self-interaction via $X$ mediation. To explore the collider signature of ADMonium, we propose that ADM has a two-Higgs doublet portal. The ADMonium can have a sizable mixing with the heavier Higgs boson, which admits a large cross section of ADMonium production associated with $b\\bar b$. Of particular interest, our setup nicely explains the recent di-photon anomaly at 750 GeV via the events from ${\\rm ADMonium}\\ra 2X(\\ra e^+e^-)$, where the electrons are identified as ...
A bound on the entropy of supergravity?
de Boer, Jan; Messamah, Ilies; Bleeken, Dieter Van den
2009-01-01
We determine, in two independent ways, the number of BPS quantum states arising from supergravity degrees of freedom in a system with fixed total D4D0 charge. First, we count states generated by quantizing the spacetime degrees of freedom of 'entropyless' multicentered solutions consisting of anti-D0-branes bound to a D6-anti-D6 pair. Second, we determine the number of free supergravity excitations of the corresponding AdS_3 geometry with the same total charge. We find that, although these two approaches yield a priori different sets of states, the leading degeneracies in a large charge expansion are equal to each other and that, furthermore, the number of such states is parametrically smaller than that arising from the D4D0 black hole's entropy. This strongly suggests that supergravity alone is not sufficient to capture all degrees of freedom of large supersymmetric black holes. Comparing the free supergravity calculation to that of the D6-anti-D6-D0 system we find that the bound on the free spectrum imposed...
On Bounding Problems of Quantitative Information Flow
Yasuoka, Hirotoshi
2011-01-01
Researchers have proposed formal definitions of quantitative information flow based on information theoretic notions such as the Shannon entropy, the min entropy, the guessing entropy, belief, and channel capacity. This paper investigates the hardness of precisely checking the quantitative information flow of a program according to such definitions. More precisely, we study the "bounding problem" of quantitative information flow, defined as follows: Given a program M and a positive real number q, decide if the quantitative information flow of M is less than or equal to q. We prove that the bounding problem is not a k-safety property for any k (even when q is fixed, for the Shannon-entropy-based definition with the uniform distribution), and therefore is not amenable to the self-composition technique that has been successfully applied to checking non-interference. We also prove complexity theoretic hardness results for the case when the program is restricted to loop-free boolean programs. Specifically, we show...
Generalized bounds for convex multistage stochastic programs
Künzi, H; Fandel, G; Trockel, W; Basile, A; Drexl, A; Dawid, H; Inderfurth, K; Kürsten, W; Schittko, U
2005-01-01
This work was completed during my tenure as a scientific assistant and d- toral student at the Institute for Operations Research at the University of St. Gallen. During that time, I was involved in several industry projects in the field of power management, on the occasion of which I was repeatedly c- fronted with complex decision problems under uncertainty. Although usually hard to solve, I quickly learned to appreciate the benefit of stochastic progr- ming models and developed a strong interest in their theoretical properties. Motivated both by practical questions and theoretical concerns, I became p- ticularly interested in the art of finding tight bounds on the optimal value of a given model. The present work attempts to make a contribution to this important branch of stochastic optimization theory. In particular, it aims at extending some classical bounding methods to broader problem classes of practical relevance. This book was accepted as a doctoral thesis by the University of St. Gallen in June 2004.1...
On Aharonov-Casher bound states
Silva, E. O.; Andrade, F. M.; Filgueiras, C.; Belich, H.
2013-04-01
In this work bound states for the Aharonov-Casher problem are considered. According to Hagen's work on the exact equivalence between spin-1/2 Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, is known that the ∇ṡ E term cannot be neglected in the Hamiltonian if the spin of particle is considered. This term leads to the existence of a singular potential at the origin. By modeling the problem by boundary conditions at the origin which arises by the self-adjoint extension of the Hamiltonian, we derive for the first time an expression for the bound state energy of the Aharonov-Casher problem. As an application, we consider the Aharonov-Casher plus a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator. We derive the expression for the harmonic oscillator energies and compare it with the expression obtained in the case without singularity. At the end, an approach for determination of the self-adjoint extension parameter is given. In our approach, the parameter is obtained essentially in terms of physics of the problem.
On Aharonov-Casher bound states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, E.O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Luis, MA (Brazil); Andrade, F.M. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Filgueiras, C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)
2013-04-15
In this work bound states for the Aharonov-Casher problem are considered. According to Hagen's work on the exact equivalence between spin-1/2 Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects, is known that the {nabla}.E term cannot be neglected in the Hamiltonian if the spin of particle is considered. This term leads to the existence of a singular potential at the origin. By modeling the problem by boundary conditions at the origin which arises by the self-adjoint extension of the Hamiltonian, we derive for the first time an expression for the bound state energy of the Aharonov-Casher problem. As an application, we consider the Aharonov-Casher plus a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator. We derive the expression for the harmonic oscillator energies and compare it with the expression obtained in the case without singularity. At the end, an approach for determination of the self-adjoint extension parameter is given. In our approach, the parameter is obtained essentially in terms of physics of the problem. (orig.)
Finding Light Spanners in Bounded Pathwidth Graphs
Grigni, Michelangelo
2011-01-01
Given an edge-weighted graph $G$ and $\\epsilon>0$, a $(1+\\epsilon)$-spanner is a spanning subgraph $G'$ whose shortest path distances approximate those of $G$ within a $(1+\\epsilon)$ factor. If $G$ is from certain minor-closed graph families (at least bounded genus graphs and apex graphs), then we know that light spanners exist. That is, we can compute a $(1+\\epsilon)$-spanner $G'$ with total edge weight at most a constant times the weight of a minimum spanning tree. This constant may depend on $\\epsilon$ and the graph family, but not on the particular graph $G$ nor on its edge weighting. For weighted graphs from several minor-closed graph families, the existence of light spanners has been essential in the design of approximation schemes for the metric TSP (the traveling salesman problem) and some similar problems. In this paper we make some progress towards the conjecture that light spanners exist for every minor-closed graph family. In particular, we show that they exist for graphs with bounded pathwidth. W...
Search for a bound K− pp system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Camerini P.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Data from the K− absorption reaction on 6,7Li, 9Be, 13C and 16O have recently been collected by FINUDA at the DAΦNE φ-factory (Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati-INFN, following an earlier lower statitics run on 12C and some other targets. FINUDA is a high acceptance magnetic spectrometer which performed a wide range of studies by detecting the charged particles and neutrons exiting the targets after the absorption event. In this paper it is discussed about the study of the A(K− , Λp reaction in the context of the search for deeply bound $ar{K}$ - nuclear states. The observation of a bump in the Λp invariant mass distribution is discussed in terms of a possible signature of a deeply bound K− pp kaonic cluster as well as of more conventional physics. An overview of the experimental situation in this ﬁeld will be given.
Bound states -- from QED to QCD
Hoyer, Paul
2014-01-01
These lectures are divided into two parts. In Part 1 I discuss bound state topics at the level of a basic course in field theory: The derivation of the Schr\\"odinger and Dirac equations from the QED Lagrangian, by summing Feynman diagrams and in a Hamiltonian framework. Less well known topics include the equal-time wave function of Positronium in motion and the properties of the Dirac wave function for a linear potential. The presentation emphasizes physical aspects and provides the framework for Part 2, which discusses the derivation of relativistic bound states at Born level in QED and QCD. A central aspect is the maintenance of Poincar\\'e invariance. The transformation of the wave function under boosts is studied in detail in D=1+1 dimensions, and its generalization to D=3+1 is indicated. Solving Gauss' law for $A^0$ with a non-vanishing boundary condition leads to a linear potential for QCD mesons, and an analogous confining potential for baryons.
Nuclear internal conversion between bound atomic states
Chemin, J. F.; Harston, M. R.; Karpeshin, F. F.; Carreyre, J.; Attallah, F.; Aleonard, M. M.; Scheurer, J. N.; Boggaert, G.; Grandin, J. R.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.
2003-01-01
We present experimental and theoretical results for rate of decay of the (3/2)+ isomeric state in 125Te versus the ionic charge state. For charge state larger than 44 the nuclear transition lies below the threshold for emission of a K-shell electron into the continuum with the result that normal internal conversion is energetically forbiden. Rather surprisingly, for the charge 45 and 46 the lifetime of the level was found to have a value close to that in neutral atoms. We present direct evidence that the nuclear transition could still be converted but without the emission of the electron into the continuum, the electron being promoted from the K-shell to an other empty bound state lying close to the continuum. We called this process BIC. The experimental results agree whith theoretical calculations if BIC resonances are taken into account. This leads to a nuclear decay constant that is extremely sensitive to the precise initial state and simple specification of the charge state is no longer appropriate. The contribution to decay of the nucleus of BIC has recently been extended to the situation in which the electron is promoted to an intermediate filled bound state (PFBIC) with an apparent violation of the Pauli principle. Numerical results of the expected dependence of PFBIC on the charge state will be presented for the decay of the 77.351 keV level in 197Au.
Bound and Radiation Fields in Rindler Frame
Hirayama, T
2001-01-01
Energy-momentum tensor of Li\\'enard-Wiechert field is split into bound and emitted parts in Rindler frame, by generalizing the reasoning of Teitelboim used in inertial frame. Our discussion proceeds with the the notion of ``energy'' defined with respect to the Killing vector field attached to the frame. We obtain the ``radiation formula in Rindler frame''(Rindler version of Larmor formula) and it is found that the radiation power is proportional to the square of ``acceleration $\\alpha^\\mu$ of the charge relative to the Rindler frame''. This result makes us split the Li\\'enard-Wiechert field into the part $\\tII$ which is linear in $\\alpha^\\mu$ and the part $\\tI$ which is independent of $\\alpha^\\mu$, and by using them, we split the energy-momentum tensor into two parts. We find that these are properly interpreted as the emitted and bound parts of the tensor in Rindler frame. In our identification of radiation, a charge does not radiate not only in the case where the charge is fixed to the Rindler frame, but als...
Completely bounded norms of right module maps
Levene, Rupert H
2011-01-01
It is well-known that if T is a D_m-D_n bimodule map on the m by n complex matrices, then T is a Schur multiplier and $\\|T\\|_{cb}=\\|T\\|$. If n=2 and T is merely assumed to be a right D_2-module map, then we show that $\\|T\\|_{cb}=\\|T\\|$. However, this property fails if m>1 and n>2. For m>1 and n=3,4 or $n\\geq m^2$, we give examples of maps T attaining the supremum C(m,n)=\\sup \\|T\\|_{cb} taken over the contractive, right D_n-module maps on M_{m,n}, and we show that C(m,n) grows with m and n. As a consequence, if H is an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space and D is a masa in B(H), then there is a bounded right D-module map on the compact operators which is not completely bounded.
Kim, Yongbae; Olivi, Luisa; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Maertens, Alex; Joseph P Bressler
2007-01-01
Aluminum and other trivalent metals were shown to stimulate uptake of transferrin bound iron and nontransferrin bound iron in erytholeukemia and hepatoma cells. Because of the association between aluminum and Alzheimer’s Disease, and findings of higher levels of iron in Alzheimer’s disease brains, the effects of aluminum on iron homeostasis were examined in a human glial cell line. Aluminum stimulated dose- and time-dependent uptake of nontransferrin bound iron and iron bound to transferrin. ...
Upper bounds for reversible circuits based on Young subgroups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abdessaied, Nabila; Soeken, Mathias; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal;
2014-01-01
We present tighter upper bounds on the number of Toffoli gates needed in reversible circuits. Both multiple controlled Toffoli gates and mixed polarity Toffoli gates have been considered for this purpose. The calculation of the bounds is based on a synthesis approach based on Young subgroups that...... that results in circuits using a more generalized gate library. Starting from an upper bound for this library we derive new bounds which improve the existing bound by around 77%. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....