Market Access through Bound Tariffs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal
on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive......WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long...
Market access through bound tariffs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal
2010-01-01
on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive......WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and longterm...
Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.
WTO negotiations rely on tariff reduction formulas. It has been argued that formula approaches are of increasing importance in trade talks, because of the large number of countries involved, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (e.g. tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rate....... No single formula dominates for all conditions. The ranking of the three tools depends on the degree of product differentiation in the industry, and the achieved reduction in the average tariff....
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Tariff Turbulence. * See also Information File on p. 1340 this issue. licence to practice should he deviate from the norm unduly. The Standard Tariff of fees is reviewed regularly in the light of increased costs, the rise in the cost of living, for the elimination of anomalies and so forth and this tariff for private patients, with its 10% ...
WTO Agricultural Tariffication with Lessons for Tariff Adoption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeong¡-Bin Im
2005-06-01
Full Text Available According to the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA, all agricultural non-tariff trade barriers should be converted into equivalent tariffs and further, reduced over time. However each member country has the authority to choose the tariff types when it converts NTBs to tariffs such as ad valorem tariff and specific tariff. The paper tries to find the reason for the choice of a certain type of tariff in the process of tariffication after the UR negotiation on agriculture. To achieve this goal, the paper analyses the effects of tariffication of a fixed quota into tariffs on price, trade and welfare in a number of scenarios related to the sources of uncertainty. In this paper, we examine the nonequivalence of specific tariff and ad valorem tariff, which are general type of tariffs used in the most of countries. The paper has shown that the two types of tariffs selected by tariffication of import quota are not generally equivalent in both their effects on price and trade stability and welfare with the trade model under uncertainty. The main conclusion of this study is that there is no general presumption that one tariff regime is superior to the other tariff regime under conditions of uncertainty. The precise source of uncertainty and the properties of the relevant demand and supply functions might affect the determination of tariff type selected after tariffication of non-tariff barriers.
Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.
2006-01-01
a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small...... for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other well known tariff reform rules, as e.g. the proportional and the concertina rules. We develop the properties of this tariff reform, characterize the sources of the potential welfare gains from tariff reform, use it to establish conditions under which some...... existing reforms are locally optimal, provide geometric illustrations and compare welfare effectiveness of reforms using numerical examples. Moreover, being a general concept, we apply it to the issue of market access and examine its implications. Overall, the paper's contribution lies in presenting...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan
2014-01-01
The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs....... In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural...... benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct...
EFFECT OF TARIFF ESCALATION ON GHANAIAN COCOA EXPORTS: AN EMPIRICAL PERSPECTIVE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Abdul Aziz
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This study analyses the effects of tariff escalation on Ghanaian cocoa exports in four importing markets: USA, EU, Japan and Malaysia. The study estimates nominal and effective protection coefficients in these markets based on ad-valorem equivalent of applied and bound specific tariffs. Results revealed that, effective protection exists in the Japanese and Malaysian cocoa industries at different stages of processing on both bound and applied tariffs. In contrast, the USA and the EU do not effectively protect their cocoa industries, thus, no tariff escalation on applied tariffs against cocoa imports from Ghana. This study concludes that from a static effect, higher tariffs do have a negative consequence on Ghanaian cocoa exports in these importing countries. From a dynamic perspective however, the relationship between tariff structures in these importing countries and Ghanaian cocoa exports is somewhat ambiguous and each situation has to be viewed on their own merit. A complete elimination of tariffs as a form of trade barrier on Ghanaian cocoa exports does not necessarily imply that Ghana could easily increase its exports of value added cocoa.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mats Lundahl
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.
International Stackelberg model with tariffs
Ferreira, Fernanda A.
2012-09-01
This paper analyses the effects of tariffs on an international economy with a monopolistic sector with two firms, located in two countries, each one producing a homogeneous good for both home consumption and export to the other identical country. We consider a game among governments and firms. First, the government imposes a tariff on imports and then we consider the two types of moving: simultaneous (Cournot-type model) and sequential (Stackelberg-type model) decisions by the firms. We also compare the results obtained in each model.
Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis
2006-01-01
Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present pa...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform.......Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present...... paper examines whether the country that implements such a reform ends up opening up its markets to international trade, i.e. whether its market access improves. It is shown that this is not necessarily so. We also show that, comparing to the reform of only tariffs, the tariff-tax reform is a less...
Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager
2006-01-01
This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier...... the tariff and the fixed export barrier. Tariff revenue falls for an increase in fixed exporting costs whereas we have a Laffer curve effect for the tariff. Finally, we establish that welfare falls with fixed export costs and large tariffs but increases for small tariffs, i.e. there exist a welfare...
Tariffs Ranking in Mixed Oligopoly with Revenue Constraint
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonard F. S. Wang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Utilizing linear mixed oligopoly model, this paper explores the magnitude of the maximum-revenue tariff, optimum-welfare tariff, and revenue-constrained optimal tariff that is especially designed for the consideration of the bureaucratic inefficiency. In particular, the tariff ranking issue is examined under both cases of Cournot competition and domestic public leadership. We found that, under Cournot competition, the optimum-welfare tariff is the highest and it is followed by the revenue-constrained optimal tariff while the maximum-revenue tariff is the lowest. But, under Stackelberg public leadership, if the domestic private firms are fewer than the foreign firms, the maximum-revenue tariff becomes the highest and the optimum-welfare exceeds the revenue-constrained optimal tariff.
Tariff-Specific Preferences and Their Influence on Price Sensitivity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agnieszka Wolk
2010-05-01
Full Text Available For many services, consumers can choose among a range of optional tariffs that differ in their access and usage prices. Recent studies indicate that tariff-specific preferences may lead consumers to choose a tariff that does not minimize their expected billing rate. This study analyzes how tariff-specific preferences influence the responsiveness of consumers’ usage and tariff choice to changes in price. We show that consumer heterogeneity in tariff-specific preferences leads to heterogeneity in their sensitivity to price changes. Specifically, consumers with tariff-specific preferences are less sensitive to price increases of their preferred tariff than other consumers. Our results provide an additional reason why firms should offer multiple tariffs rather than a uniform nonlinear pricing plan to extract maximum consumer surplus.
The Tariff Analysis Project: A database and analysis platform forelectricity tariffs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coughlin, K.; White, R.; Bolduc, C.; Fisher, D.; Rosenquist, G.
2006-05-12
Much of the work done in energy research involves ananalysis of the costs and benefits of energy-saving technologies andother measures from the perspective of the consumer. The economic valuein particular depends on the price of energy (electricity, gas or otherfuel), which varies significantly both for different types of consumers,and for different regions of the country. Ideally, to provide accurateinformation about the economic value of energy savings, prices should becomputed directly from real tariffs as defined by utility companies. Alarge number of utility tariffs are now available freely over the web,but the complexity and diversity of tariff structures presents aconsiderable barrier to using them in practice. The goal of the TariffAnalysis Project (TAP) is to collect andarchive a statistically completesample of real utility tariffs, and build a set of database and web toolsthat make this information relatively easy to use in cost-benefitanalysis. This report presentsa detailed picture of the current TAPdatabase structure and web interface. While TAP has been designed tohandle tariffs for any kind of utility service, the focus here is onelectric utilities withinthe United States. Electricity tariffs can bevery complicated, so the database structures that have been built toaccommodate them are quite flexible and can be easily generalized toother commodities.
Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (2015) - Revision 1
US International Trade Commission — This dataset is the 2015 Harmonized Tariff Schedule Revision 1 effective July 1, 2015. It provides the applicable tariff rates and statistical categories for all...
14 CFR 221.300 - Discontinuation of electronic tariff system.
2010-01-01
... of electronic tariff system. In the event that the electronic tariff system is discontinued, or the source of the data is changed, or a filer discontinues its business, all electronic data records prior to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discontinuation of electronic tariff system...
18 CFR 341.3 - Form of tariff.
2010-04-01
... title page of the issue, or at the top of each page, as appropriate. For example: “All rates in this... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.3 Form of tariff. (a) Tariffs may be filed...
A dressing down for tariff system.
Lukacs, R; Keynes, M; Dormer, M
1979-05-25
The poor standard of dressing provision in the crucial role of community nursing is discussed by Roy Lukacs, assistant district finance officer, Aylesbury and Milton Keynes Health District and Mike Dormer, product manager, patient care division, Johnson and Johnson. They ask why the drug tariff system is still common to many districts.
Reducing Tariffs According to WTO Accession Rules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis
2012-01-01
When Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007 it was granted an accession period up to 2014. During this period tariffs would have to fall according to the accession agreement. This paper evaluates this 2007–2014 trade liberalization by building an applied general equilibrium model...
Individual Mobile Communication Services and Tariffs
H. Chen (Hong)
2008-01-01
textabstractIndividual services and tariffs existed briefly in the beginning of telecommunications history 150 years ago but faded away over time. Service provisioning evolved into the current supplier-centric situation which has many limitations and disadvantages. This thesis re-embraces the
Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde
2015-01-01
This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...... behavior in such a way that the power system operation issues, such as system balance and congestion, can be alleviated. From the comparison study, including analysis and case study, the DT scheme outperforms the other tariff schemes in terms of cost saving and network operation condition improving....
Distribution network tariffs: A closed question?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez Ortega, Maria Pia; Perez-Arriaga, J. Ignacio; Abbad, Juan Rivier; Gonzalez, Jesus Peco [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, c/ Alberto Aguilera 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)
2008-05-15
Electricity regulators are facing new challenges to keep the pace of the liberalization process and the revision of regulatory schemes that is taking place all over the world. The pressure is also felt by regulated activities such as distribution. One of the main objectives of this process is to improve efficiency. Electricity rates and more specifically distribution network tariffs should also be adapted to these new requirements. This paper describes the main rate design approaches that are used to recover distribution costs. Drawbacks of the current methods are highlighted, and a new tariff design methodology based on cost causality is presented. Efficiency achievement as well as compliance with legal and regulatory criteria, such as cost recovery and non-discrimination, is analyzed. (author)
How to Price Discriminate When Tariff Size Matters
Adib Bagh; Hemant K. Bhargava
2013-01-01
Firms that serve a large market with many diverse consumer types use discriminatory or nonlinear pricing to extract higher revenue, inducing consumers to separate by self-selecting from a large number of tariff options. But the extent of price discrimination must often be tempered by the high costs of devising and managing discriminatory tariffs, including costs of supporting consumers in understanding and making selection from a complex menu of choices. These tariff design trade-offs occur i...
Taking Stock: American Safeguard Tariffs on Foreign Solar Panel Manufacturers
Editorial Team, IndraStra Global
2018-01-01
U.S. President Donald Trump has imposed 30 percent tariffs (so-called safeguard tariffs) on solar panels made outside the United States. He has also imposed at a minimum of 20 percent and a maximum of 50 percent tariff on residential washing machines. Trump’s current approach to trade was signaled late last year when the U.S. levied a staggering 292 percent tariff on C Series aircraft built by Bombardier Inc. In the past, he has been suggesting to scrap the North American Free Trade Agreement...
Tariff based value of wind energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Vilkko, M.; Antila, H.; Lautala, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)
1995-12-31
In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)
Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.
2011-06-01
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.
Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.
2005-01-01
tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....
Tariffs for energy efficiency; Tarifas para a eficiencia energetica
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Demostenes Barbosa da [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia
1991-10-01
This paper shows the economical aspects of the tariff in acts that promote the efficient use of the electric power and guide the energy offer investments. In the restrict context of the energy efficiency, the tariffs may be considered as a tool for system expansion and operation optimization 4 figs., 2 tabs.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ballester Pla, Coralio; Hernández, Penélope
2012-01-01
The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models...
Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A
2003-01-01
A bound on the nu /sup tau / magnetic moment is calculated through the reaction e/sup +/e/sup -/ to nu nu gamma at the Z/sub 1/-pole, and in the framework of a left-right symmetric model at LEP energies. We find that the bound is almost independent of the mixing angle phi of the model in the allowed experimental range for this parameter. (31 refs).
INCIDENTAL PROTECTION: AN EXAMINATION OF THE MORRILL TARIFF
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jane Flaherty
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Historians refer to the Morrill Tariff as the first statement of the nascent Republican party’s protectionist agenda, yet an analysis of the measure reveals that this enduring icon of historiography needs modification. Implemented as a direct response to the fiscal crisis created by the Buchanan administration, the Morrill Tariff represents a bipartisan effort to augment federal revenue for a depleted Treasury. Both President James Buchanan and many of his Democratic colleagues in Congress urged revising the Tariff of 1857 to arrest the growth of the federal deficit. However, the bitter rhetoric that accompanied the secession crisis has obscured the true nature of this short-lived, but important, revenue measure. An examination of the Morrill Tariff and the circumstances surrounding its passage demonstrate that it re-established the rates from the free trade Tariff of 1846 while providing incidental protection for select industries, a practice accepted, even advocated, by the Democratic party for over a decade.
Non-tariff Protectionism in EU Countries and Ukraine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melnyk Tetyana M.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The article assesses positions of the European Union as an integration association in international trade, studies the system of non-tariff regulation in EU countries and identifies key problems of harmonisation of the Ukrainian legislation to the European one in the sphere of non-tariff regulation of international trade. In order to assess scales of application of non-tariff measures in foreign trade, the article analyses the index of coverage and frequency of use of non-tariff restrictions, dynamics of initiated non-tariff measures and trade structure of their distribution, and also detects reasons of application of non-tariff restrictions. The article characterises the system of technical regulation of EU and assesses main steps of Ukraine on the way of bringing the domestic standards in correspondence with the European ones as a necessary condition for increase of export of domestic products and increase of its competitiveness. The prospect of further scientific studies in this direction lies in forecasting influence of non-tariff restrictions upon volumes of import and export flows in foreign trade.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Se-Kyun Choi
2003-06-01
Full Text Available The average tariff reduction rate is 20% point higher in five developed countries analyzed in this study compared to five developing countries following the direction offered by the Chairman's Draft Text. Average tariff reduction rates are 31.6% for the five developing countries and 51.4% for the five developed countries. Korea's tariff reduction rate reaches to 36.1%, the highest reduction in developing countries, when Korea retains the developing country status. When Korea makes tariff reductions following the direction for developed countries, the average tariff reduction rate rises to 55.8%. Tariff reductions following the second Draft Text affect the tariff structure. Tariff escalation, dispersion and peaks can be mitigated by applying the tariff reduction methods proposed in the Second Draft Text. Tariff reductions give rise to the effects of reducing tariff escalation problem and the effects are stronger for the commodities with higher tariff rates and in developed countries. The average tariff rate for tariff peak commodities is reduced by 40% in developing countries and by 60% in developed countries. Tariff dispersion is also mitigated by reducing tariff rates. The difference of the average tariff rate between Korea and Australia is reduced to 38.5% from 59.8% by cutting tariff rates with the rules proposed in the second Draft Text. Korea needs to prepare the Country Schedule in advance to evaluate the potential outcome of the tariff cut following the Draft Text and to capture various voices from producers, consumers and other related institutions. For the preparation of the Country Schedule, Korea needs to decide minimum tariff cut items within a group of the commodity classified by tariff rates and this procedure requires discussion among producer and consumer groups.
Global effects of accelerated tariff liberalization in the forest products sector to 2010.
Shushuai Zhu; Joseph Buongiorno; David J. Brooks
2002-01-01
This study projects the effects of tariff elimination on the world sector. Projections were done for two scenarios: (1) progressive tariff elimination according to the schedule agreed to under the current General Agreement on Tariff or Trade (GATT) and (2) complete elimination of tariff on wood products as proposed within the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)...
18 CFR 35.9 - Requirements for filing rate schedules, tariffs or service agreements.
2010-04-01
... FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Application § 35.9 Requirements for filing rate schedules, tariffs or service agreements. (a) Rate schedules, tariffs, and service agreements may be filed either by... rate schedules, tariffs or service agreements. 35.9 Section 35.9 Conservation of Power and Water...
18 CFR 35.10 - Form and style of rate schedules, tariffs and service agreements.
2010-04-01
... OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Application § 35.10 Form and style of rate schedules, tariffs and service agreements. (a) Every rate schedule, tariff or service agreement offered for filing with the... schedules, tariffs and service agreements. 35.10 Section 35.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...
49 CFR 1310.2 - Requirement to maintain tariffs.
2010-10-01
... HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.2 Requirement to maintain tariffs. (a) Except when providing transportation... household goods only if the rates, and related rules and practices, for such transportation or service are...
49 CFR 1310.6 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.
2010-10-01
... REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.6 Furnishing copies of tariff publications. (a) Copies of... transportation of household goods, as described in § 1310.4(a)(1), carriers may assess charges for furnishing...
Urban Water Tariffs in Spain: What Needs to Be Done?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel A. García-Rubio
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Recently, in the context of the Integrated Water Resources Management, demand policies are playing a more important role as opposed to traditional supply policies based on the construction of large hydraulic infrastructures. In this new context, water tariffs have become an important tool in achieving economic efficiency, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This paper reviews the situation of urban water tariffs in Spain, a country subject to high water stress. It analyzes the capacity of urban water tariffs to recover service costs and to promote efficiency, sustainability, affordability, and equity. Although it has made significant progress in recent years, the Spanish urban water tariff system still faces many challenges. Many of these challenges would be better addressed by a national independent regulatory body.
49 CFR 1312.7 - STB tariff designation.
2010-10-01
... exceed 5 numerical digits and may be followed by not more than 2 letter suffixes. Examples of tariff numbers are: STB XXXX 100 STB XX 8000-A STB XXXX 12345-AB (ii) Suffixes may be used only to designate...
Tariff-Mediated Network Effects Versus Strategic Disounting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zucchini, Leon; Claussen, Jörg; Trüg, Moritz
2013-01-01
Mobile telecommunication operators routinely charge subscribers lower prices for calls on their own network than for calls to other networks (on-net discounts). Studies on tariff-mediated network effects suggest this is due to large operators using on-net discounts to damage smaller rivals....... Alternatively, research on strategic discounting suggests that small operators use on-net discounts to advertise with low on-net prices. We test the relative strength of these effects using data on tariff setting in German mobile telecommunications between 2001 and 2009. We find that large operators are more...... likely to offer tariffs with on-net discounts but there is no consistently significant difference in the magnitude of discounts. Our results suggest that tariff-mediated network effects are the main cause of on-net discounts....
Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evans, Meredydd
2007-04-01
For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.
INNOVATIVE APPROACH IN THE COMPULSORY HEALTH INSURANCE TARIFF SETTING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Yu. Zasypkin
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Development of a single channel financing in the health system of the Russian Federation based on the standards of the compulsory health insurance (CHI requires a single channel financing of the health system through the CHI as one of the main direction using payment of the medical services in the form of so-called «full» tariff [1-12].It is not a secret that for many years the medical services tariff in the CHI system contained from only five items of expenditures (salary, charges on payroll, soft goods and clothing, medicines, bandages, other medical expenses, and food. On one hand, such defective tariff was based on the parallel government financing of the medical institutions (MIs, on the other hand, because of this tariff, the manager was hoppled in the control of the financial flows.
Tariff-based analysis of commercial building electricityprices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Rosenquist, Greg J.; VanBuskirk, Robert D.; McMahon, James E.
2008-03-28
This paper presents the results of a survey and analysis ofelectricity tariffs and marginal electricity prices for commercialbuildings. The tariff data come from a survey of 90 utilities and 250tariffs for non-residential customers collected in 2004 as part of theTariff Analysis Project at LBNL. The goals of this analysis are toprovide useful summary data on the marginal electricity prices commercialcustomers actually see, and insight into the factors that are mostimportant in determining prices under different circumstances. We providea new, empirically-based definition of several marginal prices: theeffective marginal price and energy-only anddemand-only prices, andderive a simple formula that expresses the dependence of the effectivemarginal price on the marginal load factor. The latter is a variable thatcan be used to characterize the load impacts of a particular end-use orefficiency measure. We calculate all these prices for eleven regionswithin the continental U.S.
Utility Green Tariff Programs: Considerations for Federal Agencies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heeter, Jenny
2017-05-08
This FEMP First Thursday presentation will explain the concept of a utility green tariff, how it differs from a green pricing program, and what questions federal agencies should have about participating.
Desirable role in an international duopoly model with tariffs
Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio
2012-09-01
In this paper, we study an international market model in which the home government imposes a tariff on the imported goods. The model has two stages. In the first stage, the home government chooses an import tariff to maximize a function that cares about the home firm's profit and the total revenue. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot or in a Stackelberg competition. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.
Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Courchene, T.J.; Allan, J.R. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Inst. of Intergovernmental Relations
2008-03-15
Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig.
Policy of Tariff Protection in the Light of WTO Accession
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MSc. Burim Gashi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Tariff rates are crucial instrument of trade policy. This paper covers several important issues related to the reforms of this area. First part of the paper explains the key features of tariffs as protection instrument: different policy takers and opposite economic interests; benefits and adverse effects; alternative measures of protection; dependence of tariff policy on the development priorities and the welfare effects, etc. This document explains main World Trade Organization requirements concerning protection policy such as primary role of tariffs, restricted set of non-tariff instruments, limited scope of safeguard measures, comparison on the legal development in the field until now, and an indication of further legislation changes necessary in the period of adjustment. It also gives main elements of the customs-reform strategy: choice and concentration of goals and priorities; criteria for preparation of the alternative scenarios; solving convergence problems; defining conditionality for alternative solutions and interdependence of relevant externalities. The goal of the paper is to give recommendation for trade policy reform in our country necessarily to become member of World Trade Organization.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujita, K. Sydny
2011-06-23
Consumers regularly forgo purchases of high efficiency appliances that appear to be cost effective at a reasonable rate of return. While some argue that this is a true revelation of preferences for appliance features, this 'efficiency gap' can be largely explained by a combination of market and behavioral failures that reduce consumers ability to evaluate the relative value of appliances and skew preferences toward initial cost savings, undervaluing future reductions in operating costs. These failures and barriers include externalities of energy use, imperfect competition between manufacturers, asymmetric information, bounded rationality, split incentives, and transaction costs (Golove 1996). Recognizing the social benefit of energy conservation, several major methods are used by policymakers to ensure that efficient appliances are purchased: minimum efficiency standards, Energy Star labeling, and rebates and tax credits. There is no single market for energy services; there are hundreds of uses, thousands of intermediaries, and millions of users, and likewise, no single appropriate government intervention (Golove 1996). Complementary approaches must be implemented, considering policy and institutional limitations. In this paper, I first lay out the rationale for government intervention by addressing the market and behavioral failures and barriers that arise in the context of residential energy efficiency. I then consider the ways in which some of these failures and barriers are addressed through major federal programs and state and utility level programs that leverage them, as well as identifying barriers that are not addressed by currently implemented programs. Heterogeneity of consumers, lack of financing options, and split incentives of landlords and tenants contribute significantly to the under-adoption of efficient appliances. To quantify the size of the market most affected by these barriers, I estimate the number of appliances, and in particular
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ballester Pla, Coralio
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The observation of the actual behavior by economic decision makers in the lab and in the field justifies that bounded rationality has been a generally accepted assumption in many socio-economic models. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the difficulties involved in providing a correct definition of what a rational (or irrational agent is. In this paper we describe two frameworks that employ different approaches for analyzing bounded rationality. The first is a spatial segregation set-up that encompasses two optimization methodologies: backward induction and forward induction. The main result is that, even under the same state of knowledge, rational and non-rational agents may match their actions. The second framework elaborates on the relationship between irrationality and informational restrictions. We use the beauty contest (Nagel, 1995 as a device to explain this relationship.
La observación del comportamiento de los agentes económicos tanto en el laboratorio como en la vida real justifica que la racionalidad acotada sea un supuesto aceptado en numerosos modelos socio-económicos. El objetivo de este artículo es ilustrar las dificultades que conlleva una correcta definición de qué es un agente racional (irracional. En este artículo se describen dos marcos que emplean diferentes metodologías para analizar la racionalidad acotada. El primero es un modelo de segregación espacial donde se contrastan dos metodologías de optimización: inducción hacia atrás y hacia adelante. El resultado principal es que, incluso con el mismo nivel de conocimiento, tanto agentes racionales como irracionales podrían coincidir en sus acciones. El segundo marco trabaja sobre la relación entre irracionalidad y restricción de información. Se utiliza el juego llamado “beauty contest” (Nagel 1995 como mecanismo para explicar dicha relación.
The impact of retail electricity tariff evolution on solar photovoltaic deployment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gagnon, Pieter; Cole, Wesley J.; Frew, Bethany; Margolis, Robert
2017-11-01
This analysis explores the impact that the evolution of retail electricity tariffs can have on the deployment of solar photovoltaics. It suggests that ignoring the evolution of tariffs resulted in up to a 36% higher prediction of the capacity of distributed PV in 2050, compared to scenarios that represented tariff evolution. Critically, the evolution of tariffs had a negligible impact on the total generation from PV - both utility-scale and distributed - in the scenarios that were examined.
22 CFR 91.3 - Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives.
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission... CONTROLS § 91.3 Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives. Consular officers shall render all proper assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives abroad to aid them in the...
18 CFR 154.208 - Service of tariff filings on customers and other parties.
2010-04-01
... SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.208 Service of tariff filings on customers and... customers and state regulatory commissions that have made a standing request for such service. (c) Within... section, service upon the designated recipient will be deemed service upon the customer or other party. (e...
Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob
2011-01-01
An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid...
Feed-in Tariffs: Good Practices and Design Considerations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2016-01-02
In recent years, feed-in tariff (FIT) activity has focused primarily on revisions to current policies, underscoring the need for stable and predictable, yet flexible, policy environments. This policy brief provides a primer on key FIT design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific FIT policy design.
Effects of import tariff implementation policy of refined sugar ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study was aimed at determining the effects of applied import tariff on welfare distribution, consumer expenditures, producer revenues, and efficiency losses (in production, consumption and net effect), as well as the level of competitiveness of cane sugar in Indonesia by calculating the Domestic Resource Cost (DRC).
Effect of Import Tariff Implementation Policy on Refined Sugar ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This research is aimed at determining: (a) the effect of welfare distribution with applied import tariff on the government revenue, consumer expenditures, producer revenues, and efficiency losses (in production, in consumption and net effect), and (b) the level of competitiveness of sugar cane in Indonesia by calculating the ...
Reactive Energy Billing in Operator Tariffs in Poland
Paweł Bućko; Artur Wilczyński
2015-01-01
The paper describes the current method of reactive energy billing in the tariffs of distribution grid operators in Poland. The current solutions are subject to critical assessment. Issues related to the motivation effect of the current solutions on consumers are analysed. Problems that occur in relation with connecting distributed generators to the distribution grid and challenges related to prosumer billing are indicated.
New experimental electricity tariff systems for household end use
Wolsink, M.
1997-01-01
A significant tool in Demand Side Management is the structure of tariffs. Price incentives can be directed at different parts of the efficiency-concept: efficiency in capacity planning, efficiency in total electricity consumption, efficiency in total fossil fuel use, efficiency in total energy
Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tamas, Meszaros Matyas; Zhou, Huizhong [Department of Economics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Bade Shrestha, S.O. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)
2010-08-15
Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters. (author)
Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matyas Tamas, Meszaros [Department of Economics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Bade Shrestha, S.O. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Zhou Huizhong, E-mail: zhou@wmich.ed [Department of Economics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)
2010-08-15
Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters.
Technical Barriers, Licenses and Tariffs as Means of Limiting Market Access
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager
2006-01-01
Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market access of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. We find that, if protection focuses predominantly on the number of foreign firms...... accessing the domestic market, a technical barrier (an import license) may dominate a tariff (tariff and a tech- nical barrier) in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. However, if protection pays su±cient focus on limiting the total import volume, then tariffs...
Tariff regulation models of the electric sector; Modelos de regulacao tarifaria do setor eletrico
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pires, Jose Claudio Linhares; Piccinini, Mauricio Serrao
2003-07-01
This article discusses the tariff regulation models adopted in the electricity utility sector, with a focus on the innovations introduced as a result of the liberalization of the sector that began in the 1980s. The principal tariff criteria are discussed: tariffs determined by the both the rate of return regulation and by marginal cost, and price-caps. Instruments complementary to tariffs are also examined. The main aim of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the tariff rules adopted in the electricity sector. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Kucera
1990-01-01
Full Text Available It is proved in [1] & [2] that a set bounded in an inductive limit E=indlim En of Fréchet spaces is also bounded in some En iff E is fast complete. In the case of arbitrary locally convex spaces En every bounded set in a fast complete indlim En is quasi-bounded in some En, though it may not be bounded or even contained in any En. Every bounded set is quasi-bounded. In a Fréchet space every quasi-bounded set is also bounded.
Participatory environmental governance in China: public hearings on urban water tariff setting.
Zhong, Li-Jin; Mol, Arthur P J
2008-09-01
In the late 1990s China started to expand its market economic reform to the public sector, such as water services. This reform led to major changes in urban water management, including water tariff management. The reforms in water tariff management relate not only to tariffs, but also to the decision-making on tariffs. Water tariff decision-making seems to move away from China's conventional mode of highly centralized and bureaucratic policy- and decision-making. The legalization, institutionalization and performance of public hearings in water tariff management forms a crucial innovation in this respect. This article analyzes the emergence, development and current functioning of public hearings in water tariff setting, and assesses to what extent public hearings are part of a turning point in China's tradition of centralized bureaucratic decision-making, towards more transparent, decentralized and participative governance.
No way around green tariffs; Oekotarife sind nicht mehr wegzudenken
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Briese, Dirk [trend:research GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)
2011-05-15
Just like green electricity, meanwhile a classic, so too now does newcomer ''green gas'' offer energy suppliers with an appropriate marketing mix far-reaching opportunities for improving their corporate image, securing customer loyalty and increasing turnover. However the only beneficiaries of this trend to date have been green-only suppliers which specialise in this market. Although most traditional suppliers have now added green tariffs to their product portfolio, this has given them little commercial success, since eco-minded consumers often consider green-only suppliers to be more credible. A recent study shows that the market volume of green electricity and green gas tariffs will grow markedly over the next five years. Energy suppliers should therefore turn their attention to the question of how they can best exploit this potential.
Why Did the Tariff-Growth Correlation Reverse After 1950?
Clemens, Michael A.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.
2002-01-01
This paper uses a new database to establish a key finding: high tariffs were associated with fast growth before World War II, while associated with slow growth thereafter. The paper offers some explanations for the sign switch by controlling for novel measures of the changing world economic environment. Rejecting alternative explanations based on changing export market growth or transportation cost declines, it shows how the oft-quoted Sachs-Warner result might be turned on its head in a worl...
Cross-Border Political Donations and Pareto-Efficient Tariffs
Endoh, Masahiro
2005-01-01
This paper examines the effects of lobbying activities across international borders, on determining each country’s import tariff in a multi-principal, multi-agent, menu-auction model. Cross-border political donations could promote international policy cooperation because of two of their distinctive characteristics. First, special interest groups use cross-border donations as tools to wield their influence on ruling parties of other countries directly, which promotes efficiency of policy forma...
Optimal decisions of countries with carbon tax and carbon tariff
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yumei Hou
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Purpose: Reducing carbon emission has been the core problem of controlling global warming and climate deterioration recently. This paper focuses on the optimal carbon taxation policy levied by countries and the impact on firms’ optimal production decisions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a two-stage game theory model to analyze the impact of carbon tariff and tax. Numerical simulation is used to supplement the theoretical analysis. Findings: Results derived from the paper indicate that the demand in an unstable market is significantly affected by environmental damage level. Carbon tariff is a policy-oriented tax while the carbon tax is a market-oriented one. Comprehensive carbon taxation policy benefit developed countries and basic policy is more suitable for developing countries. Research limitations/implications: In this research, we do not consider random demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suited the reality. Originality/value: This work provides a different perspective in analyzing the impact of carbon tax and tariff. It is the first study to consider two consuming market and the strategic game between two countries. Different international status of countries considered in the paper is also a unique point.
District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff
Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars
2014-12-01
The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.
Double Dividend from Tariff Differentiation of Reforestation Fund
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudarsono Soedomo
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Distortionary levy applied uniformly to all diameter classes of logs from logging natural forest can lead to inefficiencies; certain diameter should be left in the field because it is not economical to be used. Win-win or Pareto improving solution can be achieved if the government is more flexible. Social welfare is higher because of the waste that can be utilized to create employment, production and additional benefits for employers, as well as revenue for the state. Even if the levy rates are forced to zero for small-diameter timber, governments is actually not harmed at all because from the beginning the government does not get any revenue from small timber that is left in the field as waste. In scarcity situations of timber from natural forests, it is desirable if the government is considering differentiating charges in order to reduce or possibly eliminate the volume of waste generated by the levy. In general, tariff differentiation done in the form of higher tariffs for higher diameter logs. If possible, the lowest diameter limit of logs is forced down to its technical limits. That is, the processing tool that will determine how the minimum diameter logs can be processed profitably.Keywords: tariff differentiation, efficiency, timber utilization, government revenue, win-win solutionDOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.163
Tariff Impact on the Domestic Price of Vegetable Oil in Iran and the Associated Issues
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
omid gilanpour
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This study uses vector error correction model to examine the effects of oilseeds, crude oil and vegetable oil tariffs on vegetable oil consumer price. Monthly data sets for the years 2004-2013 and VAR and VECM models were applied for this study. Research findings indicates only a long term equilibrium relation between the study variables .The effect of vegetable oil tariffs on consumer and producer price index are 0.4 and 0.07, respectively. Furthermore, one percent increase in the oil seeds and crude oil tariff, will increase consumer prices by 2.35, 0.19percent. The huge gap between the impacts of the two tariffs –e.g. oilseeds and crude oil tariffs- on consumer price shows that oil industries work with low efficiency. This practically doubles the impact of tariff on consumers. Accordingly, structural reform in the oil industry can develop oil production and prevent additional burden upon the consumer price.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan
Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade costs. This paper introduces, apart from real variable (i.e. iceberg) and fixed export costs, two partially redistributed tariffs into a Melitz (2003) model. We present comparable results for welfare effects and changes...... to the most preferred mode of liberalization as the fraction of tariffs wasted moves from zero to unity. Apart from a situation with no tariff redistribution, reductions in iceberg trade costs are preferred to reductions in real fixed trade costs which again are preferred to cuts in unit tariffs....
PREDICTABLE TRENDS OF EU TARIFF POLICY IN GLOBALIZATION'S CONTEXT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caba Stefan
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This paper consists of information regarding current situation of international trade relations, in particular those pertaining to EU, concerning to preferential trade agreements, the trend towards globalization and custom policies. The importance of this document is given by the identification of strategy trends in respect to EU tariff policy in the context of changes at commercial exchange level, as a consequence of international trade globalization's trend. The tariff policy, as a component of the trade one, represents a factor which influences companies behavior and, consequently the structure of import-export interstates relations. Specialty literature has lately identified a less natural phenomenon: starting with adoption by WTO states members of some measures and principles that emphasize the trade globalization tendency, a significant number of preferential agreements were settled in the meanwhile, many of them being bilateral, fact at least at first view is opposite to globalization phenomenon. The causes of this phenomenon have not been yet completely identified by economic analysts, so that these preferential trade agreements can be translated as a an impediment in the way of globalization and, on the contrary an intermediate phase and an accelerator of global extension trade exchange phenomenon. The present work ideas are based on analysis by bibliographic guide that link to historical GATT/WTO and principles which sustain its operation and to dynamic of international trade. Also, there have been studied data related to strategies of trade policy adopted by EU. The results consist of information about tariff policy elements adopted or forecasted by EU in general strategic context of participation to international trade. Particularly, it is emphasized the new competencies that must be achieved by custom personnel because of changes in trade exchanges. The main idea is represented by the necessity of custom authorities responsibility
Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Couture, Toby D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Cory, Karlynn S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2011-06-01
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent policy used globally to reduce development risks, cut financing costs, and grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control. Using case studies and market-focused analysis, this report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines strengths and weaknesses of three cost-containment tools: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report provides useful insights on containing costs for policymakers and regulators in the United States and other areas where FIT policies are in development.
Environmental and international tariffs in a mixed duopoly
Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio
2013-10-01
In this paper, we study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets, in which the public firm maximizes the sum of consumer surplus and its profit. We also analyse the effects of privatization. The model has two stages. In the first stage, governments choose environmental taxes and import tariffs, simultaneously. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot competition, choosing output levels for the domestic market and to export. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.
The economy-wide impact of multilateral NAMA tariff reductions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Baltzer, Kenneth; Babula, Ronald
The Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) negotiations were a key area in the Doha development round, which was suspended indefinitely in July 2006. In this paper, we model and estimate the economic effects on the world and Danish economies of some of the more important proposals that will likely...... tariff reductions with flexibility would generate modest increases in Danish trade and produce a slight improvement in the trade balance. They would also shift Danish trade patterns from EU and EFTA markets towards other world markets. The removal of the developing country flexibility rule would increase...
Design of Zone Tariff Systems in Public Transportation
Hamacher, H.W.; Schöbel, A.
2000-01-01
Given a public transportation system represented by its stops and direct connections between stops, we consider two problems dealing with the prices for the customers: The fare problem in which subsets of stops are already aggregated to zones and "good" tariffs have to be found in the existing zone system. Closed form solutions for the fare problem are presented for three objective functions. In the zone problem the design of the zones is part of the problem. This problem is NP hard and we th...
Bound states and the Bekenstein bound
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bousso, Raphael
2003-10-16
We explore the validity of the generalized Bekenstein bound, S<= pi M a. We define the entropy S as the logarithm of the number of states which have energy eigenvalue below M and are localized to a flat space region of width alpha. If boundary conditions that localize field modes are imposed by fiat, then the bound encounters well-known difficulties with negative Casimir energy and large species number, as well as novel problems arising only in the generalized form. In realistic systems, however, finite-size effects contribute additional energy. We study two different models for estimating such contributions. Our analysis suggests that the bound is both valid and nontrivial if interactions are properly included, so that the entropy S counts the bound states of interacting fields.
29 CFR 4.118 - Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates.
2010-07-01
... Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.118 Contracts for carriage..., railway line or oil or gas pipeline where published tariff rates are in effect”. In order for this... is actually governed by published tariff rates in effect pursuant to State or Federal law for such...
A global survey of urban water tariffs: are they sustainable, efficient and fair?
Zetland, D.J.; Gasson, C.
2013-01-01
This paper examines the relations between tariffs and sustainability, efficiency and equity, using a unique data-set for 308 cities in 102 countries. Higher water tariffs are correlated with lower per capita consumption, smaller local populations, lower water availability, higher demand and a lower
Abdelmotteleb, I.I.A.; Gómez, Tomás; Reneses, Javier
2017-01-01
As the penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) escalates in distribution networks, new network tariffs are needed to cope with this new situation. These tariffs should allocate network costs to users, promoting an efficient use of the distribution network. This paper proposes a
76 FR 61472 - Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar
2011-10-04
... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar AGENCY... the fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported refined sugar... imports of refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3...
76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar
2011-10-03
... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY... increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078 metric tons raw... MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined sugar) described in...
Reductions in real versus tariff barriers: the impact on industry concentration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp
2003-01-01
as a reduction of trade barriers) may exert opposing forces on industry concentration, depending on whether the barrier consists of real (frictional) or tariff costs. In particular, the Herfindahl index of industry concentration falls for a reduction in real costs, but rises for a reduction in tariff costs...
19 CFR 145.51 - Articles prohibited by section 305, Tariff Act of 1930.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles prohibited by section 305, Tariff Act of 1930. 145.51 Section 145.51 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 145.51 Articles prohibited by section 305, Tariff Act of 1930. (a) Types of articles. Various articles...
2010-04-01
... THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Application § 35.1 Application; obligation... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application; obligation to file rate schedules, tariffs and certain service agreements. 35.1 Section 35.1 Conservation of...
49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges). ...
Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-03-19
This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Mourrain, Bernard; Tsigaridas, Elias
2010-01-01
In this paper we derive aggregate separation bounds, named after Davenport-Mahler-Mignotte (DMM), on the isolated roots of polynomial systems, specifically on the minimum distance between any two such roots. The bounds exploit the structure of the system and the height of the sparse (or toric) re...... bound on the number of steps that subdivision-based algorithms perform in order to isolate all real roots of a polynomial system. This leads to the first complexity bound of Milne's algorithm [22] in 2D....
Discussing Chevalier’s Data on the Efficiency of Tariffs for American and French Canals in the 1830s
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo Reis Mourao
2015-04-01
Full Text Available This article revisits Michel Chevalier’s work and discussions of tariffs. Chevalier shifted from Saint-Simonism to economic liberalism during his life in the 19th century. His influence was soon perceived in the political world and economic debates, mainly because of his discussion of tariffs as instruments of efficient transport policies. This work discusses Chevalier’s thoughts on tariffs by revisiting his masterpiece, Le Cours d’Économie Politique. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA was conducted to test Chevalier’s hypothesis on the inefficiency of French tariffs. This work showed that Chevalier’s claims on French tariffs are not validated by DEA.
Tariff Considerations for Micro-Grids in Sub-Saharan Africa
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reber, Timothy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Xiangkun [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Salasovich, James A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2018-02-16
This report examines some of the key drivers and considerations policymakers and decision makers face when deciding if and how to regulate electricity tariffs for micro-grids. Presenting a range of tariff options, from mandating some variety of national (uniform) tariff to allowing micro-grid developers and operators to set fully cost-reflective tariffs, it examines various benefits and drawbacks of each. In addition, the report and explores various types of cross-subsidies and other transitional forms of regulation that may offer a regulatory middle ground that can help balance the often competing goals of providing price control on electricity service in the name of social good while still providing a means for investors to ensure high enough returns on their investment to attract the necessary capital financing to the market. Using the REopt tool developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to inform their study, the authors modeled a few representative micro-grid systems and the resultant levelized cost of electricity, lending context and scale to the consideration of these tariff questions. This simple analysis provides an estimate of the gap between current tariff regimes and the tariffs that would be necessary for developers to recover costs and attract investment, offering further insight into the potential scale of subsidies or other grants that may be required to enable micro-grid development under current regulatory structures. It explores potential options for addressing this gap while trying to balance This report examines some of the key drivers and considerations policymakers and decision makers face when deciding if and how to regulate electricity tariffs for micro-grids. Presenting a range of tariff options, from mandating some variety of national (uniform) tariff to allowing micro-grid developers and operators to set fully cost-reflective tariffs, it examines various benefits and drawbacks of each. In
Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munk, Knud Jørgen
As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than...... on border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax......-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes....
Supporting Effective Feed-in Tariff Development in Malaysia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-04-01
Since 2011, Malaysia's overarching policy framework for clean energy development, the New Energy Policy, has led to significant deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Building on the New Energy Policy, Malaysia mandated adoption of a renewable energy feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism under the 2011 Renewable Energy Act. In 2013, Malaysia's Sustainable Energy Development Authority partnered with the Clean Energy Solutions Center and the Clean Energy Regulators Initiative (CERI), via the Ask an Expert service, to implement FiT policies and expand renewable energy development. Through collaboration between the government of Malaysia and the Clean Energy Solutions Center, concrete policy action was supported and implemented, building a strong framework to expand and catalyze clean energy development.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michaël Cadilhac
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The Parikh finite word automaton model (PA was introduced and studied by Klaedtke and Ruess in 2003. Here, by means of related models, it is shown that the bounded languages recognized by PA are the same as those recognized by deterministic PA. Moreover, this class of languages is the class of bounded languages whose set of iterations is semilinear.
Bounded Gaussian process regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Larsen, Jan
2013-01-01
We extend the Gaussian process (GP) framework for bounded regression by introducing two bounded likelihood functions that model the noise on the dependent variable explicitly. This is fundamentally different from the implicit noise assumption in the previously suggested warped GP framework. We...
Bounding Species Distribution Models
Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.
2011-01-01
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].
49 CFR 1310.4 - Incorporation of tariff provisions by reference.
2010-10-01
... REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.4 Incorporation of tariff provisions by reference. (a... contract of carriage for the transportation of household goods, provided that: (1) The bill of lading or... household goods. ...
Open Access Transmission Tariff: Effective December 18, 1998 (Revised June 16, 1999).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
1999-06-16
Bonneville will provide Network Integration Transmission Service pursuant to the terms and conditions contained in this Tariff and Service Agreement. The service that Bonneville will provide under this Tariff allows a Transmission Customer to integrate, economically dispatch and regulate its current and planned Network Resources to serve its Network Load. Network Integration Transmission Service also may be used by the Transmission Customer to deliver nonfirm energy purchases to its Network Load without additional charge. To the extent that the transmission path for moving power from a Network Resource to a Network Load includes the Eastern and Southern Interties, the terms and conditions for service over such intertie facilities are provided under Part 2 of this Tariff. Also, transmission service for third-party sales which are not designated as Network Load will be provided under Bonneville's Point-to-Point Transmission Service (Part 2 of this Tariff).
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Vogl, Matthias
2012-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level...
The Impact of Utility Tariff Evolution on Behind-the-Meter PV Adoption
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-09-18
This analysis uses a new method to link the NREL Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model with the NREL distributed generation market demand model (dGen) to explore the impact that the evolution of retail electricity tariffs can have on the adoption of distributed photovoltaics (DPV). The evolution most notably takes the form of decreased mid-day electricity costs, as low-cost PV reduces the marginal cost of electricity during those hours and the changes are subsequently communicated to electricity consumers through tariffs. We find that even under the low PV prices of the new SunShot targets the financial performance of DPV under evolved tariffs still motivates behind-the-meter adoption, despite significant reduction in the costs of electricity during afternoon periods driven by deployment of cheap utility-scale PV. The amount of DPV in 2050 in these low-cost futures ranged from 206 GW to 263 GW, a 13-fold and 16-fold increase over 2016 adoption levels respectively. From a utility planner's perspective, the representation of tariff evolution has noteworthy impacts on forecasted DPV adoption in scenarios with widespread time-of-use tariffs. Scenarios that projected adoption under a portfolio of time-of-use tariffs, but did not represent the evolution of those tariffs, predicted up to 36 percent more DPV in 2050, compared to scenarios that did not represent that evolution. Lastly, we find that a reduction in DPV deployment resulting from evolved tariffs had a negligible impact on the total generation from PV - both utility-scale and distributed - in the scenarios we examined. Any reduction in DPV generation was replaced with utility-scale PV generation, to arrive at the quantity that makes up the least-cost portfolio.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zinaman, O. R.; Darghouth, N. R.
2015-02-01
While an export tariff is only one element of a larger regulatory framework for distributed generation, we choose to focus on tariff design because of the significant impact this program design component has on the various flows of value among power sector stakeholders. In that context, this paper is organized into a series of steps that can be taken during the design of a DGPV export tariff design. To that end this paper outlines a holistic, high-level approach to the complex undertaking of DGPV tariff design, the crux of which is an iterative cost-benefit analysis process. We propose a multi-step progression that aims to promote transparent, focused, and informed dialogue on CBA study methodologies and assumptions. When studies are completed, the long-run marginal avoided cost of the DGPV program should be compared against the costs imposed on utilities and non-participating customers, recognizing that these can be defined differently depending on program objectives. The results of this comparison can then be weighed against other program objectives to formulate tariff options. Potential changes to tariff structures can be iteratively fed back into established analytical tools to inform further discussions.
The electric tariff in the residential sector; Tarificacion electrica en el sector residencial
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)
1997-12-31
The main objective of this paper is to make an historical revision and analyze the current condition of the electric tariffs in the Mexican residential sector and ask ourselves if the equalization of tariffs generates the possibility that the entire population has access to the electricity service. The document is divided into three parts. The first one presents the history and the tendencies of the tariffs in the domestic sector in Mexico since 1973 until 1996 and the current tariff structure. The second one describes the characteristics of the residential users and mention is made of how the increment of the electric tariffs would affect the various population sectors. The last part of this paper presents some tariff criteria, that take into account energy conservation measures [Espanol] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es hacer una revision historica y analizar la situacion actual de las tarifas electricas en el sector residencial mexicano y preguntarnos si la igualdad de tarifas genera la posibilidad de que toda la poblacion tenga acceso al servicio electrico. El documento se divide en tres partes. La primera presenta la historia y tendencias de las tarifas del sector domestico en Mexico desde 1973 hasta 1996 y la estructura tarifaria actual. La segunda describe las caracteristicas de los usuarios residenciales y se menciona como afectaria el incremento de las tarifas electricas a los distintos sectores de la poblacion. La ultima parte de este trabajo presenta algunos criterios de tarificacion, que toman en cuenta medidas de ahorro de energia
Tate, Stephen James
2013-10-01
In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2007-01-15
The transient electricity regulated tariff was implemented by the law of the 7 december 2006 relative to the energy sector. It offers an adapted response to the enterprises confronted with the electricity prices increase. The document details this regulated tariff, provides the corresponding order of the 3 january 2007 and an interpretative note on the implementation of the transient regulated tariff. (A.L.B.)
European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gilberto Sarfati
1998-05-01
Full Text Available This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers. The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU level measures such as new standards, environment and anti-dumping rules, as well as Community expenditures in the different funds constitute new NTBs. Moreover, external competitors have to face other NTBs, such as VERs (Voluntary export restrictions, biased rules on public procurement, ecolabeling, and limitations on ownership, among other barriers. In this essay I demonstrate that the EU and the European national states run an active, unofficial industrial policy that distort the internal and external competition. The paper concludes that the EU industrial policy is not harmonized with the Single Market.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Derr, W. [Derr Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1996-07-01
Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay
2013-01-01
a bounded tamper and leakage resilient CCA secure public key cryptosystem based on the DDH assumption. We first define a weaker CPA-like security notion that we can instantiate based on DDH, and then we give a general compiler that yields CCA-security with tamper and leakage resilience. This requires...... a public tamper-proof common reference string. Finally, we explain how to boost bounded tampering and leakage resilience (as in 1. and 2. above) to continuous tampering and leakage resilience, in the so-called floppy model where each user has a personal hardware token (containing leak- and tamper...
Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José
2013-01-01
This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.
Hoyer, Paul
2017-05-01
Bound state poles in the S-matrix of perturbative QED are generated by the divergence of the expansion in α . The perturbative corrections are necessarily singular when expanding around free, {O}( α ^0 ) in and out states that have no overlap with finite-sized atomic wave functions. Nevertheless, measurables such as binding energies do have well-behaved expansions in powers of α (and log α ). It is desirable to formulate the concept of "lowest order" for gauge theory bound states such that higher order corrections vanish in the α → 0 limit. This may allow to determine a lowest order term for QCD hadrons which incorporates essential features such as confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, and thus can serve as the starting point of a useful perturbative expansion. I discuss a "Born" (no loop, lowest order in \\hbar ) approximation. Born level states are bound by gauge fields which satisfy the classical field equations. Gauss' law determines a distinct field A^0({\\varvec{x}}) for each instantaneous position of the charges. A Poincaré covariant boundary condition for the gluon field leads to a confining potential for q\\bar{q} and qqq states. In frames where the bound state is in motion the classical gauge field is obtained by a Lorentz boost of the rest frame field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simona Vasilica OPREA
2016-01-01
Full Text Available High volume of data is gathered via sensors and recorded by smart meters. These data are processed at the electricity consumer and grid operators' side by big data analytics. Electricity consumption optimization offers multiple advantages for both consumers and grid operators. At the electricity customer level, by optimizing electricity consumption savings are significant, but the main benefits will come from indirect aspects such as avoiding onerous grid investments, higher volume of renewable energy sources' integration, less polluted environment etc. In order to optimize electricity consumption, advanced tariff systems are essential due to the financial incentive they provide for electricity consumers' behaviour change. In this paper several advanced tariff systems are described in details. These systems are applied in England, Spain, Italy, France, Norway and Germany. These systems are compared from characteristics, advantages/disadvantages point of view. Then, different tariff systems applied in Romania are presented. Romanian tariff systems have been designed for various electricity consumers' types. Different tariff systems applied by grid operators or electricity suppliers will be included in the database model that is part of an informatics system for electricity consumption optimization.
Zainudin, W. N. R. A.; Ramli, N. A.
2017-09-01
In 2010, Energy Commission (EC) had introduced Incentive Based Regulation (IBR) to ensure sustainable Malaysian Electricity Supply Industry (MESI), promotes transparent and fair returns, encourage maximum efficiency and maintains policy driven end user tariff. To cater such revolutionary transformation, a sophisticated system to generate policy driven electricity tariff structure is in great need. Hence, this study presents a data analytics framework that generates altered revenue function based on varying power consumption distribution and tariff charge function. For the purpose of this study, the power consumption distribution is being proxy using proportion of household consumption and electricity consumed in KwH and the tariff charge function is being proxy using three-tiered increasing block tariff (IBT). The altered revenue function is useful to give an indication on whether any changes in the power consumption distribution and tariff charges will give positive or negative impact to the economy. The methodology used for this framework begins by defining the revenue to be a function of power consumption distribution and tariff charge function. Then, the proportion of household consumption and tariff charge function is derived within certain interval of electricity power. Any changes in those proportion are conjectured to contribute towards changes in revenue function. Thus, these changes can potentially give an indication on whether the changes in power consumption distribution and tariff charge function are giving positive or negative impact on TNB revenue. Based on the finding of this study, major changes on tariff charge function seems to affect altered revenue function more than power consumption distribution. However, the paper concludes that power consumption distribution and tariff charge function can influence TNB revenue to some great extent.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan
2014-01-01
Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade barriers. This paper introduces, apart from the customary real trade costs (i.e. iceberg and fixed export costs), two revenue generating trade barriers (i.e. an ad valorem tariff and a trade license) into a standard...... heterogeneous-firms-trade model with Pareto distributed productivities. We derive analytical welfare rankings of all four liberalization channels for an equal effect on two openness measures, for any trade cost level and while all four barriers are simultaneously present, i.e. for any initial equilibrium. We...... show that when openness is measured at retail prices, not border prices, the welfare rankings are sensitive to the degree of efficiency in revenue redistribution, e.g. the share of tariff revenues wasted on rent-seeking activities. As a result, multilateral tariff reductions can switch from the least...
King, Nicola C.; Aves, Stephen J.
2012-01-01
Following the publication of the higher education white paper increasing entry tariff and widening participation have become even more important issues for universities. This report examines the relationship between entry tariff and undergraduate achievement in Biosciences at the University of Exeter. We show that, whilst there is a significant…
2011-01-10
... Worsted Wool Fabrics for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of allocation of 2011 worsted wool fabric tariff rate quota. SUMMARY: The... certain worsted wool fabrics under tariff rate quotas established by Title V of the Trade and Development...
2013-01-28
... Worsted Wool Fabrics for Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of allocation of 2013 worsted wool fabric tariff rate quota. SUMMARY: The... certain worsted wool fabrics under tariff rate quotas established by Title V of the Trade and Development...
Meyer, B. K.
In the preceding chapter, we concentrated on the properties of free excitons. These free excitons may move through the sample and hit a trap, a nonradiative or a radiative recombination center. At low temperatures, the latter case gives rise to either deep center luminescence, mentioned in Sect. 7.1 and discussed in detail in Chap. 9, or to the luminescence of bound exciton complexes (BE or BEC). The chapter continues with the most prominent of these BECs, namely A-excitons bound to neutral donors. The next aspects are the more weakly BEs at ionized donors. The Sect. 7.4 treats the binding or localization energies of BEC from a theoretical point of view, while Sect. 7.5 is dedicated to excited states of BECs, which contain either holes from deeper valence bands or an envelope function with higher quantum numbers. The last section is devoted to donor-acceptor pair transitions. There is no section devoted specifically to excitons bound to neutral acceptors, because this topic is still partly controversially discussed. Instead, information on these A0X complexes is scattered over the whole chapter, however, with some special emphasis seen in Sects. 7.1, 7.4, and 7.5.
Design of grid tariffs in electricity systems with variable renewable energy and power to heat
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skytte, Klaus; Bergaentzlé, Claire; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund
2017-01-01
Large shares of variable renewable energy (VRE), requires flexibility solutions are developed. Considerable flexibility potentials exist from large consumers, e.g. power-to-heat (P2H) in district heating (DH). However, the existing grid tariffs obliterate the price signals from the wholesale...... designs that facilitate more flexible energy demand of DH operators. This is illustrated by a case study of Denmark that clearly demonstrates that the introduction of innovative tariffs will improve the business case for flexible P2H technologies and increase the value of VRE. In this way larger...... flexibility potentials can be induced and larger shares of VRE become integrated in the energy systems....
Real-Time Tariffs for Electric Vehicles in Wind Power based Power Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Silva, Marco
2013-01-01
The use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) will change significantly the planning and management of power systems in a near future. This paper proposes a real-time tariff strategy for the charge process of the EVs. The main objective is to evaluate the influence of real-time tariffs in the EVs owners......’ behaviour and also the impact in load diagram. The paper proposes the energy price variation according to the relation between wind generation and power consumption. The proposed strategy was tested in two different days in the Danish power system. January 31st and August 13th 2013 were selected because...
The tariff for fire and theft car insurance: analysis with a Cox model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruno Scarpa
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the problem of identification of a tariff for a Fire & Theft Car policy for Insurance Companies. Usually companies obtain this tariff by empirical estimate of the pure rate by evaluating the impact of some personalization variables. In this paper we propose the usage of a semi-parametric Cox model, where the response variable is not the waiting time until an event, but the degree of damage because of theft or fire of a car. The proposed model allows to easily tackle typical problems in data available to the companies, like the presence of franchises, which are treated as censored data.
Effects of a Tariff Reduction on Grain Self-Sufficiency: Evidence from Country-Level Panel Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Younghyeon Jeon
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of a tariff reduction on the grain self-sufficiency and the sustainability of domestic grain production. We develop a theoretical model in which trade, tariff, and supply-demand equations are explicitly included, with the classification of food importing and exporting countries. Estimation results based on panel data for 150 countries over 17 years show that the effects of domestic tariff of food-importing countries on the grain self-sufficiency rate (SSR are positive. This implies that market expansion through tariff reduction will have a negative effect on the importing country’s food SSR and sustainable domestic supply. Using the estimated coefficients on the empirical equations, we derived the elasticities of grain SSR with respect to the tariff rate of food-importing countries. Those are in the ranges of 0.221–0.387.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vranješ Mile
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Custom tariffs and the policy of custom tariffs have always been important instruments in the protection of domestic production from foreign competition, though the more in the past, the less in today's global economic environment. The idea of protectionism in international trade hasn't evaded the European Union either. The European Union has a common protectionist policy against countries that are not member to it. The agricultural production and the policy of administrative levies on the import of agricultural products pertain to the area that enjoys the highest degree of protection. The realization of such protectionist policy makes the international trade less free, while the free movement of goods is quintessential to the economic growth of the European Union, other regional economic integrations, individual countries and the society as such. The World Trade Organization, which imposes its own rules on the international trade, the creation of regional economic organizations in today's environment of international trade and free-trade agreements between individual states shrank to minimal the diapason of various protectionist measures and instruments. The decline of the idea of protectionism in international trade is evidenced by data on the share of the customs tariffs in the total fiscal revenues of the European Union and of the GDP of the member states. Namely, the fiscal impact of custom tariffs for some years shows a descending tendency, above all due to the process of globalization in foreign trade and liberalization at the scale of global economy. The European Union will be able to facilitate the development of the regional economic integrations only through the liberalization of foreign trade, because the idea of protectionism in international trade doesn't have perspectives on the long run.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maccari, Attilio
2003-03-01
The asymptotic perturbation (AP) method is applied to the study of the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in 3+1 dimensions with harmonic potential and external periodic excitation supposed to be in primary resonance with the frequency of a generic mode. The AP method uses two different procedures for the solutions: introducing an asymptotic temporal rescaling and balancing of the harmonic terms with a simple iteration. Standard quantum mechanics can be used to derive the lowest order approximate solution and amplitude and phase modulation equations are obtained. External force-response and frequency-response curves are found and the existence of dromions trapped in bound states is demonstrated.
The Liberalization of the Customs-Tariff Regulation as a System Object of Research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Storozhchuk Volodymyr M.
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the essence and the features of liberalization of the customs-tariff regulation as a system object of research. The key concepts of the domain have been defined as: liberalization, economic liberalization, foreign economic liberalization, foreign trade liberalization, liberalization of the customs-tariff regulation. The article substantiates the expediency of considering the liberalization management as a system with clearly defined elements: subject, object, target and means of management, purposes and results of functioning. Considered: essence of liberalization in the economy; the foreign economic liberalization as a current tendency of the foreign economic policy; foreign trade liberalization together with emphasizing the contradictory nature of effects of its impact on the well-being and the economic growth of country; essence of liberalization of the customs-tariff regulation together with determining the uncertainty of its effects, both at the national and international levels. The article defines elements of the system for management of the liberalization of the customs-tariff regulation, thus a theoretical background for developing a system model of this process is created, wherein components of the system and its environment (factors of influence, resources, processes, actors of interactions, etc. can be set with the desired degree of detalization.
Worku, T.; Mendoza Rodriguez, J.P.; Wielhouwer, J.L.
2016-01-01
Multilateral organizations recommend sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries to increase international trade in order to attain sustainable economic growth. The benefits of trade can be hampered, however, by tariff evasion. Using trade data from 2008–2014 of 31 SSA countries, we examine how the
Real Time Emulation of Dynamic Tariff for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Theis Bo; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun
2016-01-01
This paper presents the real time evaluation of the dynamic tariff (DT) method for alleviating congestion in a distribution networks with high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs). The DT method is implemented in a real time digital testing platform that emulates a real distribution...
2011-11-14
... submitting Form FMC-1 via the Commission's Web site. A list of the locations of all carrier and conference tariffs submitted on Form FMC-1 is published on the Commission's Web site. The list is updated in real... Container Line, C.A., Piso 16, Torre El Chorro, 007292 Esquina El Chorro, Caracas, Venezuela VOC Steel...
Individual Tariffs for Mobile Services: Analysis of Operator Business and Risk Consequences
H. Chen (Hong); L-F. Pau (Louis-François)
2007-01-01
textabstractA design approach is offered for individual tariffs for mass customized mobile service products, whereby operators can determine their contract acceptance rules to guarantee with a set probability their minimum profit and risk levels. It uses realistic improvements to earlier reported
Technical barriers, import licenses and tariffs as means of limiting market access
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp
2003-01-01
Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market entry of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. It is established that -- contrary to what one would expect -- a technical barrier...
Environmental, economic, and social impacts of feed-in tariffs : A Portuguese perspective 2000–2010
Behrens, P.A.; Rodrigues, J.D.F.; Bras, T.; Silva, C.
2016-01-01
Over the past two decades, many countries have used aggressive policies such as feed-in tariffs and power purchase agreements to promote renewable energy. These policies have been very successful in several countries, initiating large changes in the structure of energy sectors, and conferring large
18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.
2010-04-01
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of... ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.1...
Net metering and net feed-in tariff for embedded solar PV in South Africa
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Bischof-Niemz, T
2015-01-01
Full Text Available the electricity crisis that South Africa is currently facing in three dimensions: First, it is cheap with effective tariff payments of 0.8-0.9 R/kWh required to stimulate the market; second, it can be implemented fast, because of the distributed nature many...
Estimation and comparison of ostomy appliance costs with tariffs in Belgium.
Vanleene, Veerle; De Maré, Luc; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Debruyne, Hans; Simoens, Steven; Van den Steen, Dirk; Ramaekers, Dirk
2008-02-01
This study estimated costs of production and distribution of ostomy appliances, and compared cost estimates with tariffs in Belgium. The cost model took into account manufacturing costs, overhead, R&D, warehousing, profits, and distribution margins. Data were derived from manufacturers, a decomposition of finished products, and interviews with stakeholders. The cost model generated estimated retail prices of euro 2.96 for one-piece appliances, euro 1.62 for two-piece pouches, and euro 2.06 for two-piece flanges. Production and distribution costs accounted for 40 and 60% of retail prices, respectively. Estimated retail prices corresponded well with tariffs for one-piece appliances and for two-piece pouches. For two-piece regular flanges, a substantial difference was observed between the calculated price of euro 2.06 and the tariffs of euro 6.05. In the absence of publicly disclosed information on the cost structure of appliances, estimating ostomy appliance costs is valuable to reimbursement agencies when setting tariffs.
Schemes for aggregating preferential tariffs in agriculture,export volume effects and African LDCs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Wusheng
simulations of preference erosion and expansion scenarios, the TWPTs tend to incorrectly downplay preference erosion effect of MFN tariff cuts, and understate the export promotion effect of expanding preferences. In light of these claims, an alternative aggregation scheme is developed to calculate aggregated...
2013-03-21
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to Electric... will be available. Off-site participants interested in attending via teleconference or viewing the...
Network ownership and optimal tariffs for natural gas transport[Norway
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hagen, Kaare P.; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sannarnes, Jan Gaute
2004-11-01
This paper addresses the issue of national optimal tariffs for transportation of natural gas in a setting where national gas production in its entirety is exported to end-user markets abroad. In a situation where the transportation network is owned altogether by a vertically integrated national gas producer, it is shown that the optimal tariff depends on the ownership structure in the integrated transportation company as well as in the non-facility based gas company. There are two reasons why it is possibly optimal with a mark-up on marginal transportation costs. First, there is a premium on public revenue if domestic taxation is distorting. Second, with incomplete national taxation of rents from the gas sector, the transportation tariffs can serve as a second best way of appropriating rents accruing to foreigners. In a situation where the network is run as a separate entity subject to a rate of return regulation, it will be optimal to discriminate the tariffs between shippers for the usual Ramseyean reasons. (Author)
On the Effectiveness of Feed-in Tariffs in the Development of Photovoltaic Solar
E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); T. van Dorp (Tom); E. Maasland (Emiel)
2014-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Growing concern for climate change and rising scarcity of fossil fuels prompted governments to stimulate the development of renewables. This paper empirically tests whether feed-in tariff (FIT) policies have been effective in the development of photovoltaic solar
19 CFR 10.233 - Articles eligible for preferential tariff treatment.
2010-04-01
... the territory of any country that is not a CBTPA beneficiary country, the articles in the shipment do... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles eligible for preferential tariff... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United...
18 CFR 35.12 - Filing of initial rate schedules and tariffs.
2010-04-01
... summary cost analysis required by Statement BL, the public utility shall also submit a complete... filing public utility's overall rate of return or is it essentially an increment cost plus a share of the... tariffs. (a) The letter of a public utility transmitting to the Commission for filing an initial rate...
Mass Customization in Wireless Communication Services: Individual Service Bundles and Tariffs
H. Chen (Hong); L-F. Pau (Louis-François)
2007-01-01
textabstractThis paper presents results on mass customization of wireless communications services and tariffs. It advocates for a user-centric view of wireless service configuration and pricing as opposed to present-day service catalog options. The focus is on design methodology and tools for such
Refining Multivariate Value Set Bounds
Smith, Luke Alexander
Over finite fields, if the image of a polynomial map is not the entire field, then its cardinality can be bounded above by a significantly smaller value. Earlier results bound the cardinality of the value set using the degree of the polynomial, but more recent results make use of the powers of all monomials. In this paper, we explore the geometric properties of the Newton polytope and show how they allow for tighter upper bounds on the cardinality of the multivariate value set. We then explore a method which allows for even stronger upper bounds, regardless of whether one uses the multivariate degree or the Newton polytope to bound the value set. Effectively, this provides an alternate proof of Kosters' degree bound, an improved Newton polytope-based bound, and an improvement of a degree matrix-based result given by Zan and Cao.
Powis, David; James, David; Ferguson, Eamonn
2007-03-01
In the United Kingdom medical students are selected predominantly on their academic merit. Their academic achievement marks are equated via the tariff point score structure administered by the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS). We studied the applicant databases for 1998-2003 for one English medical school to determine the factors that predict high tariff point scores. Complete demographic data and relative socio-economic status, educational institution attended and tariff point score was available for 8997 UK applicants aged 21 years or younger to the 5-year Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (BM BS) course at Nottingham University medical school (and partially complete data for a further 1891 applicants). The data were subjected to standard univariate and multivariate analyses and to path analysis. In these samples, the independent predictors of a high tariff point score were being younger and male. The effect sizes were small, although significant. Higher tariff point scores were achieved by those from households less materially disadvantaged. Ethnicity was also a predictor with white, Chinese and those of mixed ethnic origin achieving higher tariff point scores than those from other groups. Finally, the type of school attended predicted academic achievement with applicants from further education colleges, independent schools and grant-maintained schools achieving higher tariff point scores. Notwithstanding the relatively homogeneous (predominantly young, white, high academic achievers) applicant pool to a single UK medical school we identified consistent significant predictors of high tariff point scores. As high tariff point scores are still the major entry criterion to UK medical schools, our findings will be of value in informing policy decisions concerning 'widening access' schemes being established at government request.
Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol
2011-01-20
Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply
Bounding approaches to system identification
Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Éric
1996-01-01
In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.
with Bounded Failure Intensity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Preeti Wanti Srivastava
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the Bayes prediction of the future failures of a deteriorating repairable mechanical system subject to minimal repairs and periodic overhauls. To model the effect of overhauls on the reliability of the system a proportional age reduction model is assumed and the 2-parameter Engelhardt-Bain process (2-EBP is used to model the failure process between two successive overhauls. 2-EBP has an advantage over Power Law Process (PLP models. It is found that the failure intensity of deteriorating repairable systems attains a finite bound when repeated minimal repair actions are combined with some overhauls. If such a data is analyzed through models with unbounded increasing failure intensity, such as the PLP, then pessimistic estimates of the system reliability will arise and incorrect preventive maintenance policy may be defined. On the basis of the observed data and of a number of suitable prior densities reflecting varied degrees of belief on the failure/repair process and effectiveness of overhauls, the prediction of the future failure times and the number of failures in a future time interval is found. Finally, a numerical application is used to illustrate the advantages from overhauls and sensitivity analysis of the improvement parameter carried out.
2012-08-01
...-2546-000; ER02-2546-001] CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market- Based Rate... above-referenced proceeding of CED Rock Springs, Inc.'s tariff revision filing, noting that such filing...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Angel A. Bayod-Rújula; Alessandro Burgio; Zbigniew Leonowicz; Daniele Menniti; Anna Pinnarelli; Nicola Sorrentino
2017-01-01
...) and related to feed-in tariff policies. The integrated photovoltaic battery systems are separately discussed in the regulatory context of Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, Australia, and Greece...
ExtremeBounds: Extreme Bounds Analysis in R
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marek Hlavac
2016-08-01
Full Text Available This article introduces the R package ExtremeBounds to perform extreme bounds analysis (EBA, a sensitivity test that examines how robustly the dependent variable of a regression model is related to a variety of possible determinants. ExtremeBounds supports Leamer's EBA that focuses on the upper and lower extreme bounds of regression coefficients, as well as Sala-i-Martin's EBA which considers their entire distribution. In contrast to existing alternatives, it can estimate models of a variety of user-defined sizes, use regression models other than ordinary least squares, incorporate non-linearities in the model specification, and apply custom weights and standard errors. To alleviate concerns about the multicollinearity and conceptual overlap of examined variables, ExtremeBounds allows users to specify sets of mutually exclusive variables, and can restrict the analysis to coefficients from regression models that yield a variance inflation factor within a prespecified limit.
Outsourcing under Threat: Estimated Impact of Potential Tariffs on US Imports from Mexico
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sorin BURNETE
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss the effects of certain trade policy measures, mostly import tariffs, presently contemplated by the US government, aimed at enhancing domestic employment in a number of targeted industries. I intend to show that insofar as such measures restrain free trade among NAFTA member-countries, they run counter to a basic rule suggested by conventional theory, stating that, following changes in the tariff structure, resources will shift toward activities that enjoy the highest rate of effective protection. I try to demonstrate that erecting barriers against inside-NAFTA trade, aside from hurting industries that use outsourcing extensively, has little chances to create incentives for labor shifts in the desired direction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hempling, S.; Elefant, C.; Cory, K.; Porter, K.
2010-01-01
State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, terms, and conditions. The use of feed-in tariffs simplifies the purchase process, provides revenue certainty to generators, and reduces the cost of financing generating projects. However, some argue that federal law--including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the Federal Power Act of 1935 (FPA)--constrain state-level feed-in tariffs. This report seeks to reduce the legal uncertainties for states contemplating feed-in tariffs by explaining the constraints imposed by federal statutes. It describes the federal constraints, identifies transaction categories that are free of those constraints, and offers ways for state and federal policymakers to interpret or modify existing law to remove or reduce these constraints. This report proposes ways to revise these federal statutes. It creates a broad working definition of a state-level feed-in tariff. Given this definition, this report concludes there are paths to non-preempted, state-level feed-in tariffs under current federal law.
7 CFR Appendices 1, 2 and 3 to... - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing 1, Appendices 1, 2 and 3 to Subpart Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES...) (NOTE 16) 23,018,053 8,451,678 9,661,128 7,496,000 Argentina 7,690 92,310 Australia 535,628 5,542 758...
On a Strategy to Develop Robust and Simple Tariffs from Motor Vehicle Insurance Data
Christmann, Andreas
2004-01-01
The goals of this paper are twofold: we describe common features in data sets from motor vehicle insurance companies and we investigate a general strategy which exploits the knowledge of such features. The results of the strategy are a basis to develop insurance tariffs. The strategy is applied to a data set from motor vehicle insurance companies. We use a nonparametric approach based on a combination of kernel logistic regression and e-support vector regression.
Feed-in tariff for energy saving: thinking of the design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertoldi, Paolo; Rezessy, Silvia; Boza-Kiss, Benigna (European Commission, DG JRC, Ispra (Italy)); Oikonomou, Vlasis (SOM Research Inst., Univ. of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands))
2009-07-01
Financial incentives are important for the adoption of energy efficient technologies and overcoming certain market barriers to improved energy efficiency. Such incentives are broadly used in various environmental and energy fields and are usually associated with specific technology support, rather than a general sustainable behavioural change. While the declared goal of financial support schemes is to save energy or reduce harmful emissions rather than to foster new technologies per se, it is very often encountered that such financial support for energy efficient technologies does not ensure real energy savings due to the rebound effect and remaining barriers. It is common for financial support to be given to power producers for the verified production of renewable electricity, in the form of a guaranteed financial incentive (feed-in tariff). In the energy efficiency policy research little attention has been paid to the possible use of a feed-in tariff, in the form of a fixed financial incentive based on the kWh saved by the end-user. This paper discusses the possible setup of a feed-in tariff for energy savings. The paper first explores the rationale behind and the possible functionality of a feed-in for energy savings, giving examples of similar policy tools implemented or planned. The paper looks into additionality and persistency of energy savings and explores core interactions between the feed-in and existing tools for energy efficiency. Finally, key advantages and complexities related to a feed-in tariff scheme for energy savings are discussed, intending to open a discussion and foster further research on the topic.
THE IMPACT OF THE REDUCTION IN THE AUSTRALIAN ORANGE-JUICE TARIFF
Brown, Mark G.; Spreen, Thomas H.
2002-01-01
After substantial reduction in the Australian orange juice tariff, citrus growers in that country shifted their efforts away from Valencia orange production towards Navel oranges intended for the fresh market. Australia has been successful in penetrating the world market for fresh oranges. Given the large size of the orange industry in Florida, however, it is unlikely that Florida growers could follow the same model if the U.S. orange juice were substantially reduced or eliminated.
Bounds for Asian basket options
Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle
2008-09-01
In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.
The impact of further tariff reduction on the EU sugar sector in the forthcoming multilateral round
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. HUAN-NIEMI
2008-12-01
Full Text Available This paper indicates the need for reform in the EU sugar sector due to the erosion of "border protection" in the view of further reduction in import tariffs for sugar. Three tariff reduction methods are assessed to project the "border protection" for EU sugar: Swiss formula proposed by the Cairns Group, "Harbinson" Proposal by the World Trade Organization and Uruguay Round formula proposed by the EU. In the assumed forthcoming multilateral round for agriculture, the EU would need to lower the support price for sugar by 67%, if the Cairns Group tariff reduction method is used. However, if the "Harbinson" method is used, the EU would need to lower the support price for sugar by at least 35%. On the contrary, the EU may avoid lowering the support price for sugar with three conditions occurring simultaneously: 1 the Uruguay Round formula is used as the reduction method in the assumed new WTO round and the EU can use the minimum reduction rate of 15% for sugar
2012-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the “one hospital” approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the “one hospital” model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital’s cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314
The Evaluation of Feed-in Tariff Models for Photovoltaic System in Thailand
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sagulpongmalee Kangsadan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Thailand is targeted to reach 6,000 MW of total installed PV capacity by 2036. Feed-in tariff (FIT was one of the most successful PV mechanisms of Thailand for promoting PV generated electricity. The evaluation of the FIT models for PV in Thailand which was designed 3 models such as premium price FIT model (Adder in the first FIT policy to motivate attention on investment in PV power plant. After that used fixed price FIT model for PV ground-mounted and front-end loaded FIT model for solar rooftop. In addition to, Thailand has project-specific tariff design which FIT rates are differentiated tariff payment levels by technology, capacity size, and quality of the resource. As result of FIT policies, the PV installation is 1,287 MW of cumulative capacity in 2014. Furthermore, the financial evaluation of FIT for PV project in Thailand found that Net Present Value (NPV 32.97 million Baht, Internal Rate of Return (IRR 13.22%, payback period 8.86 years and B/C ratio was 1.66 which must be implemented in conjunction with other financial support measures such as low interest loans, tax benefits, etc. The several incentives to promote PV in Thailand especially FIT shown as PV projects are to be profitable and incentives to investors.
Yamazaki, T
2000-01-01
A new type of nuclear spectroscopy to study hadron-nucleus bound states is described. The first successful experiment was to search for deeply bound pi sup - states in heavy nuclei using the sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb(d, sup 3 He) reaction at GSI, in which a narrow peak arising from the 2p pi sup - orbital coupled with the neutron-hole states was observed at 135 MeV excitation energy. An improved experiment has just been carried out to separately identify the 1s and 2p pi sup - states. These experiments provide important information on the local potential strength, from which the effective mass of pi sup - is deduced to be 20 MeV. This method will be extended to search for eta and omega bound states as well as for K sup - bound states. The advantage of the bound-state spectroscopy versus invariant mass spectroscopy is emphasized.
Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zura Kakushadze
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.
Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 7. Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization - Languages, Turing Machines and Complexity Classes. M V Panduranga Rao. General Article Volume 14 Issue 7 July 2009 pp 682-690 ...
Bounded Rationality in Transposition Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg
2014-01-01
perspective may affect the commonly employed explanatory factors of administrative capacities, misfit and the heterogeneity of preferences among veto players. To prevent retrospective rationalisation of the transposition process, this paper traces this process as it unfolded in Denmark and the Netherlands....... As bounded rationality is apparent in the transposition processes in these relatively well-organised countries, future transposition studies should devote greater consideration to the bounded rationality perspective....
Water as an economic good and water tariff design. Comparison between IBT-con and IRT-cap
Liu, Junguo; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Xu, Jianxin
Although the proclamation of “water as an economic good” has been generally accepted among water resources managers, there are still some debates on the explanation of this topic. In this paper it is argued that different water forms or uses have different kinds of economic value. Even for the same form or use, water economic value can be transferred from one kind to another by interventions. If water is an economic good, water pricing should be recognized as one of the important incentive measures for water demand management. Although the increased block tariffs (IBTs) have become the tariff structure of choice in many developing countries, it still deserves more careful examination. The traditional IBT-con cannot achieve the initial objectives of IBTs for its incorrect designed structure. This paper is intent to critically examine the use of IBT-con and to strongly promote a new tariff structure, IRT-cap. The case study of Weinan City shows that IRT-cap is an effective tariff to achieve the objectives of equity, simplicity, transparency and implement as well. Also IRT-cap seems easier to achieve cost recovery than the traditional IBT-con taking the ability to pay of water consumers into account. Pilot projects are necessary to be formulated for verification of this new tariff.
Lorenc, A; Pedro, L; Badesha, B; Dize, C; Fernow, I; Dias, L
2013-10-01
A fifth of UK households live in fuel poverty, with significant health risks. Recent government strategy integrates public health with local government. This study examined barriers to switching energy tariffs and the impact of an energy tariff switching 'intervention' on vulnerable peoples' likelihood to, success in, switching tariffs. Participatory Action Research (PAR), conducted in West London. Community researchers from three voluntary/community organisations (VCOs) collaborated in recruitment, study design, data collection and analysis. VCOs recruited 151 participants from existing service users in three groups: Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities, older people (>75 yrs) and families with young children. Researchers conducted two semi-structured interviews with each participant, a week apart. The first interview asked about demographics, current energy supplier, financial situation, previous experience of tariff-switching and barriers to switching. Researchers then provided the 'intervention' - advice on tariff-switching, printed materials, access to websites. The second interview explored usefulness of the 'intervention', other information used, remaining barriers and information needs. Researchers kept case notes and a reflective log. Data was analysed thematically and collaboratively between the research coordinator and researchers. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS, with descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests. A total of 151 people were interviewed: 47 older people over 75 years, 51 families with young children, 51 BME (two were missing demographics). The majority were not White British or UK-born. Average household weekly income was £230. Around half described 'difficult' financial situations, 94% were receiving state benefits and 62% were in debt. Less than a third had tried to find a better energy deal; knowledge was the main barrier. After the intervention 19 people tried to switch, 13 did. Young families were most likely to
Rationale and design of the health economics evaluation registry for remote follow-up: TARIFF.
Ricci, Renato P; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Padeletti, Luigi; Sagone, Antonio; Vicentini, Alfredo; Vincenti, Antonio; Morichelli, Loredana; Cavallaro, Ciro; Ricciardi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Leonida; Fusco, Antonio; Rovaris, Giovanni; Silvestri, Paolo; Guidotto, Tiziana; Pollastrelli, Annalisa; Santini, Massimo
2012-11-01
The aims of the study are to develop a cost-minimization analysis from the hospital perspective and a cost-effectiveness analysis from the third payer standpoint, based on direct estimates of costs and QOL associated with remote follow-ups, using Merlin@home and Merlin.net, compared with standard ambulatory follow-ups, in the management of ICD and CRT-D recipients. Remote monitoring systems can replace ambulatory follow-ups, sparing human and economic resources, and increasing patient safety. TARIFF is a prospective, controlled, observational study aimed at measuring the direct and indirect costs and quality of life (QOL) of all participants by a 1-year economic evaluation. A detailed set of hospitalized and ambulatory healthcare costs and losses of productivity that could be directly influenced by the different means of follow-ups will be collected. The study consists of two phases, each including 100 patients, to measure the economic resources consumed during the first phase, associated with standard ambulatory follow-ups, vs. the second phase, associated with remote follow-ups. Remote monitoring systems enable caregivers to better ensure patient safety and the healthcare to limit costs. TARIFF will allow defining the economic value of remote ICD follow-ups for Italian hospitals, third payers, and patients. The TARIFF study, based on a cost-minimization analysis, directly comparing remote follow-up with standard ambulatory visits, will validate the cost effectiveness of the Merlin.net technology, and define a proper reimbursement schedule applicable for the Italian healthcare system. NCT01075516.
The Impact of Tariff Structure on Customer Retention, Usage, and Profitability of Access Services
Raghuram Iyengar; Kamel Jedidi; Skander Essegaier; Peter J. Danaher
2011-01-01
Past research in marketing and psychology suggests that pricing structure may influence consumers' perception of value. In the context of two commonly used pricing schemes, pay-per-use and two-part tariff, we evaluate the impact of pricing structure on consumer preferences for access services. To this end, we develop a utility-based model of consumer retention and usage of a new service. A notable feature of the model is its ability to capture the pricing structure effect and measure its impa...
Day-ahead tariffs for the alleviation of distribution grid congestion from electric vehicles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob
2012-01-01
An economically efficient day-ahead tariff (DT) is proposed with the purpose of preventing the distribution grid congestion resulting from electric vehicle (EV) charging scheduled on a dayahead basis. The DT concept developed herein is derived from the locational marginal price (LMP), in particular...... the congestion cost component of the LMP. A step-wise congestion management structure has been developed whereby the distribution system operator (DSO) predicts congestion for the coming day and publishes DTs prior to the clearing of the day-ahead market. EV fleet operators (FOs) optimize their EV charging...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz; Hoffman, Carlos A.A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia
1995-12-31
This paper presents relevant information concerning Excelsa, electric energy company of Espirito Santo State of Brazil, its costs and tariffs structure, legal aspects of its privatization process and scenarios concerning the tariffs evolution. 7 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fugimoto, Sergio Kinya
2010-07-01
Currently, the electric energy sector is preparing for the third round of the distributors tariff revisions. Since the regulatory environment is more consolidated in terms of required revenue, the agents are turning their attention to the necessary adjustment and correction of the tariff structure. In fact, ANEEL (regulatory agency) set topics for R and D projects considered strategic for the development of national energy sector, among them, the Tariff Structure Project. Recently, the regulatory agency also announced public hearings dealing with the costs allocation, price signals and tariffs for low-voltage consumers. In line with this debate, the thesis finds to analyze the methodology for calculating tariffs, systematizing knowledge dispersed in various references. For this, it discusses the major aspects of peak pricing theory, including American, British and French approaches, and researches the connection between the logic built into the costs allocation by hour and the criteria for electricity distribution system planning. Aiming to reflect the costs of each customer type, indicating a better utilization of the distribution system, are proposed improvements and innovation whose highlights are: shifting the idea that expansion costs should be only allocated in peak time of the system, setting the periods after calculating the costs, changing how to derive the reference charges by average aggregation of the costs and applying the methodology on altered load curves. Finally, this thesis seeks to prove that the current methodology, although designed by the time in which the electricity sector was aggregated, can be adapted according to the proposed improvements and innovations, and thus applied to the current environment in which electric energy businesses and tariffs are separated in generation, transmission, and distribution and retail areas. (author)
Space-bounded communication complexity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brody, Joshua Eric; Chen, Shiteng; Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.
2013-01-01
-obliviousness shows up. For this model we also introduce new techniques through which certain limitations of space-bounded computation are revealed. One of the main motivations of this work is in understanding the difference in the use of space when computing the following functions: Equality (EQ), Inner Product (IP......In the past thirty years, Communication Complexity has emerged as a foundational tool to proving lower bounds in many areas of computer science. Its power comes from its generality, but this generality comes at a price---no superlinear communication lower bound is possible, since a player may...... communicate his entire input. However, what if the players are limited in their ability to recall parts of their interaction? We introduce memory models for 2-party communication complexity. Our general model is as follows: two computationally unrestricted players, Alice and Bob, each have s(n) bits of memory...
H. Chen (Hong); L-F. Pau (Louis-François)
2004-01-01
textabstractThis paper addresses the mobile service pricing and affordability issues in China. Taking history as a mirror, it shows individual tariffs existed at the dawn of telephony. A vision of future mobile services with individual tariffs are formalized which will suit specially well the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brochard, B. [Maire de Cannes, 06 (France); Durieux, B. [Inspection General des Finances, 75 - Paris (France); Chevalier, J.M
2006-03-15
The presentation covered the recommendations and the major conclusions of the commission. The commission proposes a new method of tariffs fixing, asks a better answer to consumers expectations by the implementing of commercial offers, proposes more stable and open tariffs fixing rules and recommends an increase of the prices of 5,8%. (A.L.B.)
The effect of the water tariff structures on the water consumption in Mallorcan hotels
Deyà-Tortella, Bartolomé; Garcia, Celso; Nilsson, William; Tirado, Dolores
2016-08-01
Tourism increases water demand, especially in coastal areas and on islands, and can also cause water shortages during the dry season and the degradation of the water supply. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of water price structures on hotel water consumption on the island of Mallorca (Spain). All tourist municipalities on the island use different pricing structures, such as flat or block rates, and different tariffs. This exogenous variation is used to evaluate the effect of prices on water consumption for a sample of 134 hotels. The discontinuity of the water tariff structure and the fixed rate, which depends on the number of hotel beds, generate endogeneity problems. We propose an econometric model, an instrumental variable quantile regression for within artificial blocks transformed data, to solve both problems. The coefficients corresponding to the price variables are not found to be significantly different from zero. The sign of the effect is negative, but the magnitude is negligible: a 1% increase in all prices would reduce consumption by an average of only 0.024%. This result is probably due to the small share of water costs with respect to the total hotel operational costs (around 4%). Our regression model concludes that the introduction of water-saving initiatives constitutes an effective way to reduce consumption.
Levers supporting tariff growth for water services: evidence from a contingent valuation analysis.
Guerrini, Andrea; Vigolo, Vania; Romano, Giulia; Testa, Federico
2018-02-01
The backwardness of the water utilities sector necessitates urgent investment in infrastructure to improve water quality and efficiency in water supply networks. A policy of tariff growth represents the main source to sustain such investments. Therefore, customer engagement in the form of willingness to pay (WTP) is highly desirable by water utilities to obtain social legitimization and support. This study examines the determinants of consumers' WTP for improvement programs for three drinking water issues: quality of water sources, renewal of water mains, and building of new wastewater treatment plants. The study is based on a survey conducted among a sample of 587 customers of a water utility located in the province of Verona in the north of Italy. The contingence valuation method is used to measure WTP. Specifically, an ordinal logistic regression model yields the following significant determinants of WTP: quality of water and services provided, preference for privatization of the water utility, sustainable consumption of water, and some socio-demographic variables. The findings provide interesting insights into the drivers of WTP as well as managerial recommendations for water utilities. In particular, the findings show that water utilities need to improve service and water quality to increase customers' acceptance of tariff growth. In addition, utilities should invest in customer education and communication activities focusing on specific age groups (e.g., older customers) to enhance their WTP. Finally, communication strategies should reinforce the possible role of liberalization and privatization in supporting infrastructure investments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade.
Lupien, John R
2002-07-01
International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made.
Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.
2009-01-01
This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing ...
Physics with loosely bound nuclei
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
nuclear physics changed drastically as the new generation of accelerators started providing more and more rare isotopes, which are away from the line of stability. These weakly bound nuclei are found to exhibit new forms of nuclear matter and unprecedented exotic behaviour. The low breakup thresholds of these rare ...
Distance bounds on quantum dynamics
Lidar, Daniel A.; Zanardi, Paolo; Khodjasteh, Kaveh
2008-07-01
We derive rigorous upper bounds on the distance between quantum states in an open-system setting in terms of the operator norm between Hamiltonians describing their evolution. We illustrate our results with an example taken from protection against decoherence using dynamical decoupling.
Moderate deviations for bounded subsequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George Stoica
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We study Davis' series of moderate deviations probabilities for Lp-bounded sequences of random variables (p>2. A certain subseries therein is convergent for the same range of parameters as in the case of martingale difference or i.i.d. sequences.
Liu, Liu; Li, Shunping; Wang, Min; Chen, Gang
2017-01-01
The objective of this study was to compare the differences in the five-level EuroQol-5 dimensions (EQ-5D-5L) health state utility scores derived from Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and UK tariffs. Six hundred and twenty-one breast cancer patients were invited for a face-to-face interview in Qingdao Municipal Hospital, China. EQ-5D-5L was scored using tariffs from China, Japan, Korea, and the UK. The null hypothesis of normal distribution of the EQ-5D-5L utility score was tested by the Shapiro-Wilk test. Nonparametric Friedman test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine the difference among the four tariffs. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots were used to study the agreement among the four EQ-5D-5L scores. Known-groups validity was studied using a regression framework. There were 608 participants in the final analysis, with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of 48.0±9.6 years. EQ-5D-5L utility scores were non-normally distributed. The means (median) ± SD of EQ-5D-5L utilities derived from Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and UK tariffs were 0.828 (0.879) ±0.184, 0.802 (0.823) ±0.164, 0.831 (0.829) ±0.137, and 0.838 (0.866) ±0.154, respectively. Among pairwise comparisons, the difference of median EQ-5D-5L utility scores was only insignificant between Chinese and UK tariffs. Excellent agreements (with ICCs >0.9) were found among the four tariffs albeit the limits of agreement between each pair of tariffs were wide. Known-groups validity was supported. Although four country-specific EQ-5D-5L tariffs have shown an overall high level of correlation and agreement, none of them could be regarded as interchangeable. The higher correlation and agreement between Chinese and UK tariffs may be due to the similar functions that were used in the tariff development. In the absence of Chinese-specific tariff, the UK tariff is the second-best option to be applied in the Chinese population. Results of this study further contribute to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Heidari
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Economic effects of membership in the WTO in recent years, has been one of the most important issues for Iranian economy. If Iran joins the WTO, in this process, tariff reduction in agricultural sector will be one of the policies which has to be employed. Therefore, investigating economic effects of tariff reduction or even its elimination in this sector will be necessary in running effective policies to minimize the probabilistic losses of accession. Tariffs on agricultural products in Iran are determined merely on the basis of annual country economy, and have no long term strategy. Government is just obliged to impose effective tariffs on agricultural products imports, in order to protect local productions. On the other hand, according to the census of population and housing, the share of agricultural sector in employment has reduced during the past decade. Moreover, Iran central bank information indicated the reduction in the share of agricultural sector in GDP for the past decade. Declining the share of agriculture in production and employment, considering the high number of university graduates in the field of agriculture along with rising unemployment rate of this group, motivated this study to investigate the effect of tariff reduction in this sector on macroeconomic variables. Materials and Methods: This study analyzed the welfare effects of import tariffs reduction in agricultural sector from Iran most important commercial partners and vice versa, using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP, based on computable general equilibrium (CGE model. Moreover, the effects of tariffs reduction, is investigated on output, price level and transfer of production factors between different economic sectors. In order to simulate the above model, we used GTAP version 8 which covers 57 commodities and 113 regions with economic information of these regions. This model uses Social Accounting Matrix of countries as data information. Our
2010-08-30
... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the...
2010-07-06
... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw... Credit Corporation (CCC) today announced the reassignment of projected surplus cane sugar marketing...
2012-09-10
...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and the Fiscal Year 2013... quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ). The FY 2013 raw cane... percent of the OAQ), and the cane sugar sector was allotted 4,433,186 STRV (45.65 percent of the OAQ). CCC...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hempling, Scott [National Regulatory Research Inst., Silver Spring, MD (United States); Elefant, Carolyn [Law Offices of Carolyn Elefant, Washington, DC (United States); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)
2010-01-01
This report details how state feed-in tariff (FIT) programs can be legally implemented and how they can comply with federal requirements. The report describes the federal constraints on FIT programs and identifies legal methods that are free of those constrains.
2012-06-19
... forming price) because that is a market economy concept which is inapplicable by the very definition of an... Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended, In Certain Non-Market Economy Antidumping Proceedings AGENCY: Import... non-market economy (``NME'') antidumping proceedings by the amount of export ] tax, duty, or other...
Upton, J.R.; Shalloo, L.; Murphy, M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to provide insight into the variations in dairy farm electricity costs across five electricity tariffs. The effect of four milk cooling scenarios is also simulated to illustrate the effect of technologies on the electricity consumption, related costs and CO2 emissions of a
2010-07-06
... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 128 (Tuesday, July 6, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 38805] [FR Doc No: 2010-16284] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RM07-16-000; RM01-5-000] Filing Via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings Notice of Display of Time on Commission's...
2012-08-27
... of dairy article from a specified country of origin. The Import Policies and Export Reporting... No. and country of origin 1&2 Tokyo R. Uruguay R. schedule NON-CHEESE ARTICLES BUTTER (G-NOTE 6) 4... of licenses to import certain dairy articles under tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) as set forth in the...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Shabanova
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In article the condition of housing and communal services in the Republic of Daghestan is considered, the main problems, characteristic for the present stage of development of this sphere are revealed, the priority directions of improvement of tariff policy and management of development of housing and communal services are defined.
Effects of the introduction of producers' tariffs; Effecten invoering producententarief
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koutstaal, P.R.; Gerdes, J.; Volkers, C.H.; Wetzels, W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)
2012-06-15
The objective of the title study is to provide insights in the effects of introducing a producer tariff for electricity producers. A producer tariff will increase the variable costs of electricity production in the Netherlands. As a result, production in the Netherlands will slightly decrease and net imports will increase. The effects, however, are limited compared to developments in the reference scenario. Consequently, it is not to be expected that the introduction of a producer tariff of at most 1,00 euro per MWh will have a significant effect on possible future investments in new generation capacity. The commodity price for power shows a slight increase, however the effects on end user prices are very small [Dutch] In het huidige tarievensysteem worden de kosten van elektriciteitsnetten betaald door de afnemers van elektriciteit via de netwerktarieven (aansluit-, transport- en systeemtarieven). Er is momenteel geen producententarief. Dit betekent dat afnemers in Nederland ook de kosten dragen wanneer er elektriciteit zou worden geexporteerd en daarvoor netwerkaanpassingen plaats zouden moeten vinden. Een ander probleem is decentrale invoeding op regionale netten. Bij het bepalen van de toegestane kosten van beheerders van decentrale netwerken wordt in de huidige systematiek geen rekening gehouden met de hoeveelheid ingevoede elektriciteit door decentrale opwekking op distributienetwerken, welke sterk verschilt per regio. In deze studie is onderzocht wat de effecten zijn op investeringen van vier verschillende varianten voor producententarieven, van alleen een centraal tarief van 0,50 euro per MWh tot een combinatie van een centraal en decentraal tarief van 1,00 euro per MWh en een kolenbelasting van 13,73 euro/1000 kg (zoals opgenomen in het Lente-akkoord). De effecten zijn gekwantificeerd met behulp van een energiemarktmodel, POWERS, een model voor energieverbruik en decentrale opwekking in de industrie, SAVE-productie, een tarievenmodel en met business cases
Lower bounds in differential privacy
De, Anindya
2011-01-01
This is a paper about private data analysis, in which a trusted curator holding a confidential database responds to real vector-valued queries. A common approach to ensuring privacy for the database elements is to add appropriately generated random noise to the answers, releasing only these {\\em noisy} responses. In this paper, we investigate various lower bounds on the noise required to maintain different kind of privacy guarantees.
Geometry of Homogeneous Bounded Domains
Vesentini, E
2011-01-01
This title includes: S.G. Gindikin, I.I. Pjateckii-Sapiro, E.B. Vinberg: Homogeneous Kahler manifolds; S.G. Greenfield: Extendibility properties of real submanifolds of Cn; W. Kaup: Holomorphische Abbildungen in Hyperbolische Raume; A. Koranyi: Holomorphic and harmonic functions on bounded symmetric domains; J.L. Koszul: Formes harmoniques vectorielles sur les espaces localement symetriques; S. Murakami: Plongements holomorphes de domaines symetriques; and E.M. Stein: The analogues of Fatous' theorem and estimates for maximal functions.
Wronskian method for bound states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandez, Francisco M, E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [INIFTA (UNLP, CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Boulevard 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2011-05-15
We propose a simple and straightforward method based on Wronskians for the calculation of bound-state energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems. We explicitly discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the wavefunction and show that the allowed energies make the divergent part vanish. As illustrative examples we consider an exactly solvable model, the Gaussian potential well, and a two-well potential proposed earlier for the interpretation of the infrared spectrum of ammonia.
Cyclotron transitions of bound ions
Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Pavlov, George G.
2017-06-01
A charged particle in a magnetic field possesses discrete energy levels associated with particle rotation around the field lines. The radiative transitions between these levels are the well-known cyclotron transitions. We show that a bound complex of particles with a nonzero net charge displays analogous transitions between the states of confined motion of the entire complex in the field. The latter bound-ion cyclotron transitions are affected by a coupling between the collective and internal motions of the complex and, as a result, differ from the transitions of a "reference" bare ion with the same mass and charge. We analyze the cyclotron transitions for complex ions by including the coupling within a rigorous quantum approach. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the transition energies and oscillator strengths to those of the bare ion. Selection rules based on integrals of collective motion are derived for the bound-ion cyclotron transitions analytically, and the perturbation and coupled-channel approaches are developed to study the transitions quantitatively. Representative examples are considered and discussed for positive and negative atomic and cluster ions.
Distributed Optimization based Dynamic Tariff for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhao, Haoran
2017-01-01
This paper proposes a distributed optimization based dynamic tariff (DDT) method for congestion management in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs). The DDT method employs a decomposition based optimization method to have aggregators explicitly...... participate in congestion management, which gives more certainty and transparency compared to the normal DT method. With the DDT method, aggregators reveal their final aggregated plan and respect the plan during operation. By establishing an equivalent overall optimization, it is proven that the DDT method...... where challenges arise due to multiple congestion points, multiple types of flexible demands and network constraints. The case studies demonstrate the efficacy of the DDT method for congestion management in distribution networks....
Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 3. Regulation and tariff
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1979-08-01
Volume 1 described the history of the railroad industry and pointed out that the number of separate companies, their monopoly power, and their trade and labor practices invited regulation by outsiders from the early days. Even though new regulations have been added over the years, few have been removed. Tariffs have been modified to fit a number of needs, not all of them economic. The effects of government regulation on the energy efficiency of railroad operations are examined. The development of railroad regulation is examined and the governmental legislation, policies, and procedures that make up the regulatory environment within which the railroads must operate are briefly described. The relationship among regulations, energy usage, and costs in three specific areas of regulation: long-haul rates, empty car distribution, and rates on low-density rail traffic are examined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Arief Rijanto
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In year 2008, regulation of Indonesian telecommunicationindustries changes due the tariff pricing war within Telecommunication operator. This regulation tie up the telecommunication operator and affect operating revenue margin.The needs of financial flexibility within tele communication firm is increased.Capex, operating revenue and reinvestment needs to be flexible must be inline with competition and change of technology. This paper goals is measuring financial flexibility based on Capex, operating revenue and re-investment needs.Re-investment needs by Telecommunication operator can be financed with or without financial flexibility. Data from year 2007 up to 2014 is selected to accommodate before and after changes of telecommunication regulation. The regulation effect to financial flexibility of telecommunication firm is still relevantbecause telecommunication industries by nature needs larger capital to re-new the telecommunication technology. Real options method will be used to measure financial flexibility.Keywords: Financial flexibility, Price war, Telecommunication Regulation, Real Option
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Arief Rijanto
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In year 2008, regulation of Indonesian telecommunicationindustries changes due the tariff pricing war within Telecommunication opera-tor. This regulation tie up the telecommunication operator and affect operating revenue margin.The needs of financial flexibility within tele-communication firm is increased.Capex, operating revenue and reinvestment needs to be flexible must be inline with competition and change of technology. This paper goals is measuring financial flexibility based on Capex, operating revenue and re-investment needs.Reinvestment needs by Telecommunication operator can be financed with or without financial flexibility. Data from year 2007 up to 2014 is selec-ted to accommodate before and after changes of telecommunication regulation. The regulation effect to financial flexibility of telecommu-nication firm is still relevantbecause telecommunication industries by nature needs larger capital to re-new the telecommunication technology. Real options method will be used to measure financial flexibility.
Tailored emails prompt electric vehicle owners to engage with tariff switching information
Nicolson, Moira; Huebner, Gesche M.; Shipworth, David; Elam, Simon
2017-06-01
The carbon intensity of the electricity used to charge an electric vehicle (EV) is dependent on when in the day charging occurs. However, persuading EV owners to adopt incentives to charge during off-peak hours is challenging. Here we show that governments could exploit the 'window of opportunity' created when people purchase their first EV to promote time-of-use tariffs. Email recipients (n = 7,038 EV owners) were more likely to click-through to an information webpage when the email emphasized specific reductions in home-charging costs versus general bill savings. However, the 'window of opportunity' for maximizing potential adoption is short; email open rates declined from over 70% immediately after purchase to 40% for recipients owning their EV for over three months. These results demonstrate the potential of prompts to change behaviours for which opt-out enrolment (where enrolment is automatic unless people explicitly opt out) would be unethical or less effective.
Grid-tied photovoltaic and battery storage systems with Malaysian electricity tariff
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Subramani, Gopinath; Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K.; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar
2017-01-01
, and will hence result in commercial and industrial customers focussing on alternative energy supply to minimize the billing cost. This paper aims to review the technical assessment methods of a grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV)-battery storage system-with respect to maximum demand shaving. An effective......Under the current energy sector framework of electricity tariff in Malaysia, commercial and industrial customers are required to pay the maximum demand (MD) charge apart from the net consumption charges every month. The maximum demand charge will contribute up to 20% of the electricity bill...... battery storage system can provide the extra energy needed during the peak energy consumption periods, as well as when renewable energy (RE) sources go offline. Based on the reviews, maximum demand shaving with good Return-of-Investment (ROI) can be achieved by considering the actual load profile...
The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fink, Sari [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Rogers, Jennifer [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)
2010-10-01
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15–20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.
Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.
2010-10-01
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.
Tariff Integration for Public Transportation in the Metropolitan Area of Bucaramanga
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Carlos Jiménez Serpa
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The sole implementation of a Bus Rapid Transit System -BRT parallel to the conventional is not enough to guarantee meeting users and operators’ needs within the Metropolitan Area of Bucaramanga -MAB, Colombia. As time passed, these systems became inefficient; as a result, users started looking for alternative non-formal transportation means and the State incurred in additional financing for the permanence of the system. This paper seeks to bolster the modes of public transportation through a fare strategy that agrees with the actual distances travelled by the user. In other words, the purpose of this work is to establish tariff zones for the AMB to differentiate between those users moving in short journeys and those who travel long distances to get to their destination in order to create a balance between the users’ benefit, the quality of the travel, and the operation costs of BRT.
The Impact of Dynamic Electricity Tariff on Long-run Incremental Cost
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ding, Yi; Li, Yang; Pineda, Salvador
2012-01-01
infrastructure needs to be made in order to cope with this tremendous change in an efficient and effective manner. Long-run incremental cost (LRIC) pricing method is recognized as an economically efficient approach for pricing network charges, which provides forward-looking information for future investment cost......Electricity plays an important role in the future energy framework around the world. The foreseen high penetration of renewable energy resources and electric vehicles (EV) will change the way of understanding and operating power systems. Consequently, significant investment in network....... LRIC evaluation is usually conducted on the basis that demand is passive and uncontrollable. The impact of demand flexibility on LRIC has not been comprehensively studied. In this paper, the effect of dynamic electricity tariff and flexible demand on LRIC and network investment decisions is deeply...
Definition of Distribution Network Tariffs Considering Distribution Generation and Demand Response
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soares, Tiago; Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita
2014-01-01
The use of distribution networks in the current scenario of high penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) is a problem of great importance. In the competitive environment of electricity markets and smart grids, Demand Response (DR) is also gaining notable impact with several benefits for the wh......The use of distribution networks in the current scenario of high penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) is a problem of great importance. In the competitive environment of electricity markets and smart grids, Demand Response (DR) is also gaining notable impact with several benefits...... the determination of topological distribution factors, and consequent application of the MW-mile method. The application of the proposed tariffs definition methodology is illustrated in a distribution network with 33 buses, 66 DG units, and 32 consumers with DR capacity...
Efficient determination of distribution tariffs for the prevention of congestion from EV Charging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob
2012-01-01
A dual objective electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule optimisation is proposed here whereby both consumer driving requirements and grid constraints are respected. A day-ahead dynamic tariff (DT) for distribution systems is proposed as a price signal to EV fleet operators (FO) bidding...... into the day-ahead market. The DT acts to disperse charging at congested periods and locations, thereby preventing congestion on a day-ahead basis. The magnitude of the DT is determined from a simulated locational marginal prices (LMPs), and the time extent of the DT is determined from analysis of the system...... loading curve prior to the application of the DT. Case studies were performed using a sample distribution network modelled on a network from the Danish island of Bornholm. A variety of price profiles were used to illustrate the efficacy of this approach. The case study results show that this approach...
Lower bounds for randomized Exclusive Write PRAMs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MacKenzie, P.D.
1995-05-02
In this paper we study the question: How useful is randomization in speeding up Exclusive Write PRAM computations? Our results give further evidence that randomization is of limited use in these types of computations. First we examine a compaction problem on both the CREW and EREW PRAM models, and we present randomized lower bounds which match the best deterministic lower bounds known. (For the CREW PRAM model, the lower bound is asymptotically optimal.) These are the first non-trivial randomized lower bounds known for the compaction problem on these models. We show that our lower bounds also apply to the problem of approximate compaction. Next we examine the problem of computing boolean functions on the CREW PRAM model, and we present a randomized lower bound, which improves on the previous best randomized lower bound for many boolean functions, including the OR function. (The previous lower bounds for these functions were asymptotically optimal, but we improve the constant multiplicative factor.) We also give an alternate proof for the randomized lower bound on PARITY, which was already optimal to within a constant additive factor. Lastly, we give a randomized lower bound for integer merging on an EREW PRAM which matches the best deterministic lower bound known. In all our proofs, we use the Random Adversary method, which has previously only been used for proving lower bounds on models with Concurrent Write capabilities. Thus this paper also serves to illustrate the power and generality of this method for proving parallel randomized lower bounds.
Towards Automatic Resource Bound Analysis for OCaml
Hoffmann, Jan; Das, Ankush; Weng, Shu-Chun
2016-01-01
This article presents a resource analysis system for OCaml programs. This system automatically derives worst-case resource bounds for higher-order polymorphic programs with user-defined inductive types. The technique is parametric in the resource and can derive bounds for time, memory allocations and energy usage. The derived bounds are multivariate resource polynomials which are functions of different size parameters that depend on the standard OCaml types. Bound inference is fully automatic...
Distance hijacking attacks on distance bounding protocols
Cremers, Cas; Rasmussen, Kasper Bonne; Čapkun, Srdjan
2011-01-01
Distance bounding protocols are typically analyzed with respect to three types of attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud, and Terrorist Fraud. We define and analyze a fourth main type of attack on distance bounding protocols, called Distance Hijacking. We show that many proposed distance bounding protocols are vulnerable to this type of attack, and we propose solutions to make these protocols resilient to Distance Hijacking. We further show that verifying distance bounding protocols using exist...
Purity- and Gaussianity-bounded uncertainty relations
Mandilara, A.; Karpov, E.; Cerf, N. J.
2014-01-01
Bounded uncertainty relations provide the minimum value of the uncertainty assuming some additional information on the state. We derive analytically an uncertainty relation bounded by a pair of constraints, those of purity and Gaussianity. In a limiting case this uncertainty relation reproduces the purity-bounded derived by Man’ko and Dodonov and the Gaussianity-bounded one (Mandilara and Cerf 2012 Phys. Rev. A 86 030102R).
Bounded rationality and heterogeneous expectations in macroeconomics
Massaro, D.
2012-01-01
This thesis studies the effect of individual bounded rationality on aggregate macroeconomic dynamics. Boundedly rational agents are specified as using simple heuristics in their decision making. An important aspect of the type of bounded rationality described in this thesis is that the population of
Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil
2014-01-01
graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...
Upper bound on quantum stabilizer codes
Li, Zhuo; Xing, Li-Juan
2009-03-01
By studying sets of operators having constant weight, we present an analytical upper bound on the pure quantum stabilizer codes whose underlying quantum system can be of arbitrary dimension, which outperforms the well-known quantum Hamming bound, the optimal analytical upper bound so far for small code length.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John A. Moore
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Historians have long examined the causes of the American Civil War. Frequently, they identify three explanatory factors: slavery, states’ rights and tariffs. This paper assesses the Tariffs of 1841 and 1842, asserting that arguments attributing the tariff as a causal factor of the Civil War are exaggerated and deserve reconsideration. Upon close examination, these tariff debates represent a continuation of a long-standing discourse as to whether American foreign trade policy should embrace free trade or protectionist characteristics. Consequently, these debates, which occurred only nineteen years before Fort Sumter, are more closely aligned with late 18th century debates over political economy than they are as a prelude cause to Civil War.
Martin Natter; Andreas Mild; Udo Wagner; Alfred Taudes
2008-01-01
Tele.ring is a mobile phone organization selling contracts and cell phones in the Austrian market. The market situation in 2005 was highly competitive and dynamic, resulting in relatively short tariff life cycles. Excessively long lead times made tele.ring's management feel dissatisfied with their new tariff development process. Furthermore, a new competitor had entered the market, posing a major threat, and it was unclear how to effectively safeguard tele.ring's position in the market. In co...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Demostenes B. da
1992-12-31
In order to achieve energy efficiency, the marginal costs should be considered as a basis to tariffs, because they incorporate the signs of demand and the companies management in offering energy. This work proposes a tariff policy that would reduce the consumption of energy, making it more efficient than the existing one, and would also increase the economic efficiency. 16 refs., 8 figs., 39 tabs.
Capacity Bounds for Parallel Optical Wireless Channels
Chaaban, Anas
2016-01-01
A system consisting of parallel optical wireless channels with a total average intensity constraint is studied. Capacity upper and lower bounds for this system are derived. Under perfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT), the bounds have to be optimized with respect to the power allocation over the parallel channels. The optimization of the lower bound is non-convex, however, the KKT conditions can be used to find a list of possible solutions one of which is optimal. The optimal solution can then be found by an exhaustive search algorithm, which is computationally expensive. To overcome this, we propose low-complexity power allocation algorithms which are nearly optimal. The optimized capacity lower bound nearly coincides with the capacity at high SNR. Without CSIT, our capacity bounds lead to upper and lower bounds on the outage probability. The outage probability bounds meet at high SNR. The system with average and peak intensity constraints is also discussed.
Performance Bounds of Quaternion Estimators.
Xia, Yili; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Nitta, Tohru; Mandic, Danilo P
2015-12-01
The quaternion widely linear (WL) estimator has been recently introduced for optimal second-order modeling of the generality of quaternion data, both second-order circular (proper) and second-order noncircular (improper). Experimental evidence exists of its performance advantage over the conventional strictly linear (SL) as well as the semi-WL (SWL) estimators for improper data. However, rigorous theoretical and practical performance bounds are still missing in the literature, yet this is crucial for the development of quaternion valued learning systems for 3-D and 4-D data. To this end, based on the orthogonality principle, we introduce a rigorous closed-form solution to quantify the degree of performance benefits, in terms of the mean square error, obtained when using the WL models. The cases when the optimal WL estimation can simplify into the SWL or the SL estimation are also discussed.
Spectral computations for bounded operators
Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan
2001-01-01
Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...
Achieving best practice tariff may not reflect improved survival after hip fracture treatment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khan SK
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Sameer K Khan,1 Mark DF Shirley,2 Clare Glennie,1 Paul V Fearon,1 David J Deehan1 1The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 2School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Objective: The best practice tariff (BPT incentivizes hospitals in the England and Wales National Health Service to provide multiprofessional care to patients with hip fractures. The initial six targets included: 1 admission under consultant-led joint orthopedic–geriatric care, 2 multidisciplinary assessment protocol on admission, 3 surgery within 36 hours, 4 geriatrician review within 72 hours, 5 multiprofessional rehabilitation, and 6 assessment for falls and bone protection. We aimed to examine the relationship between BPT achievement and important patient outcomes and whether the BPT could predict these independently of other validated predictors.Materials and methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 516 patient episodes. Four outcomes were defined: 1 30-day mortality, 2 365-day mortality, 3 postoperative length of stay on trauma ward (LOS-T, and 4 total post-operative hospital LOS (LOS-H. Patient episodes were grouped as follows: 1 group 1, pre-BPT, 2 group 2, BPT achievers, 3 group 3, BPT fails. These were compared for mortality (χ2 test and for LOS (Kruskal–Wallis test. Event analysis was done for groups 2 and 3 using generalized linear modeling, with age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, hemoglobin, albumin, creatinine, and BPT achievement evaluated as predictors.Results: The three groups did not differ significantly in baseline characteristics or outcomes. In the event analysis, the risk of 30-day mortality was related only to abnormal creatinine (P=0.025; mortality at 365 days was related significantly to low albumin (P=0.023 and weakly to abnormal creatinine (P=0.089. The risks of both increased LOS-T and LOS-H were related to age only (P=0.052, P<0.001, respectively.Conclusion: Achieving BPT does not
Patrick Georges
2007-01-01
This paper shows that when moving from the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) to a Customs Union (CU), the general equilibrium impacts on Canadian GDP and welfare, of removing Rules of Origin (ROO), are potentially larger than the small effects resulting from the adoption of a common external tariff (CET). Therefore, proposals for a CU should not be dismissed solely on the basis that the establishment of a CET would marginally affect Canada while the negotiation process with the U.S....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yaffe, David P.
2010-10-15
For the last few years, several local and state governments have adopted ''feed-in tariffs'' to promote development of dispersed, small-scale renewable generation through incentive pricing. Most FITs are intended to stimulate development of small solar or renewable energy facilities. In July, FERC issued a decision restating that the Federal Power Act and PURPA 210, not state (or local) legislation, govern the price that local utilities may pay under FITs. (author)
Sauthoff, Saramena; Danne, Michael; Mußhoff, Oliver
2017-01-01
In order to achieve an environmentally friendly and sustainable energy supply, it is necessary that this goal is supported by society. In different countries worldwide it has been shown that one way consumers want to support the energy transition is by purchasing green electricity. However, few people make the leap from their intention to a buying decision. This study explores parameters that influence whether German consumers decide to switch to a green electricity tariff. We conducted a quo...
Foley, E C; Bird, H A
2013-04-01
The interface between sports medicine and performing arts medicine is closest for "tariff" sports, where the sportsperson can select their own programme of varying difficulty with the more complex skills carrying potential for higher marks. Inevitably, some performers over-reach themselves. Examples of injuries and prevention strategies to avoid such injuries are discussed in a preliminary analysis of four sports: diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating.
On order bounded subsets of locally solid Riesz spaces | Hong ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In a topological Riesz space there are two types of bounded subsets: order bounded subsets and topologically bounded subsets. It is natural to ask (1) whether an order bounded subset is topologically bounded and (2) whether a topologically bounded subset is order bounded. A classical result gives a partial answer to (1) ...
Using tolerance bounds in scientific investigations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wendelberger, J.R.
1996-07-01
Assessment of the variability in population values plays an important role in the analysis of scientific data. Analysis of scientific data often involves developing a bound on a proportion of a population. Sometimes simple probability bounds are obtained using formulas involving known mean and variance parameters and replacing the parameters by sample estimates. The resulting bounds are only approximate and fail to account for the variability in the estimated parameters. Tolerance bounds provide bounds on population proportions which account for the variation resulting from the estimated mean and variance parameters. A beta content, gamma confidence tolerance interval is constructed so that a proportion beta of the population lies within the region bounded by the interval with confidence gamma. An application involving corrosion measurements is used to illustrate the use of tolerance bounds for different situations. Extensions of standard tolerance intervals are applied to generate regression tolerance bounds, tolerance bounds for more general models of measurements collected over time, and tolerance intervals for varying precision data. Tolerance bounds also provide useful information for designing the collection of future data.
Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. L. Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Feed-in-Tariff (FiT mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii describes the developments of PV, (iii applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium; and finally (iv predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.
The analysis of Taiwan's residential electricity demand under the electricity tariff policy
Chen, Po-Jui
In October 2013, the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower), the monopolized state utility service in Taiwan, implemented an electricity tariff adjustment policy to reduce residential electricity demand. Using bi-monthly billing data from 6,932 electricity consumers, this study examine how consumers respond to an increase in electricity prices. This study employs an empirical approach that takes advantage of quasi-random variation over a period of time when household bills were affected by a change in electricity price. The study found that this price increase caused a 1.78% decline in residential electricity consumption, implying a price elasticity of -0.19 for summer-season months and -0.15 for non-summer-season months. The demand for electricity is therefore relatively inelastic, likely because it is hard for people to change their electricity consumption behavior in the short-term. The results of this study highlight that demand-side management cannot be the only lever used to address Taiwan's forecasted decrease in electricity supply.
A Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Couture, Toby D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Williams, Emily [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)
2010-07-01
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker’s guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation.
Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.
2010-07-01
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala; Almeida, Denizart do Rosario [ELETROBRAS - Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2006-07-01
The objective of the work is to identify the impacts of the variations in the tariffs of the electricity on the standard of growth of the consumption of electric energy, and the role that these variations had exerted in the allocation of resources by the companies of the sector, in the period 1995-2004. In this period, changes in the habits of consumption of energy due the adopted during the rationing, explain, in part, the reduction of the income-elasticity of the consumption of electric energy, but the contribution of a significant effect-price was important for this reduction. Also are evidenced, in this work, the categories of use and the regions that had more contributed for this effect. For the allocation of resources, from 1998 a decline of the participation of the investments in the sector in the total of investments of the economy is observed, with the companies of the sector presenting differentiated behaviors visibly. The companies of distribution apparently more privileged for the formation of resources, have presented, in the recent years, a declining evolution in its rate of investments when compared with the others segments. Among the determinative factors of the decisions of investment of the companies of distribution, can be mentioned the change in the standard of growth of the consumption and the effect of the evolution of the opportunity cost of the inversions. (author)
Energy use in the Marine Transportation Industry. Task II. Regulations and tariffs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1977-06-30
The regulatory framework of the commercial marine transportation industry is defined and these regulations are evaluated in terms of their energy impact. The approach used in the evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs was structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Each of these three steps is described in detail. The report is organized around nine chapters. Chapter I contains an introduction and summary of the results and conclusions. Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes: a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction; and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the seven existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. The results of each of these seven case studies are summarized. (MCW)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1977-12-01
The evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs is structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the 7 existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. Energy impacts of the state of Washington's tanker regulations, of tanker segregated ballast requirements, of inland waterway user charges, of cargo pooling and service rationalization, of the availability of intermodal container transportation services, of capacity limitations at lock and dam 26 on the Mississippi River and the energy implications of the transportation alternatives available for the West Coast crude oil supplies are discussed. (MCW)
New formulation feed method in tariff model of solar PV in Indonesia
Djamal, Muchlishah Hadi; Setiawan, Eko Adhi; Setiawan, Aiman
2017-03-01
Geographically, Indonesia has 18 latitudes that correlated strongly with the potential of solar radiation for the implementation of solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies. This is becoming the basis assumption to develop a proportional model of Feed In Tariff (FIT), consequently the FIT will be vary, according to the various of latitudes in Indonesia. This paper proposed a new formulation of solar PV FIT based on the potential of solar radiation and some independent variables such as latitude, longitude, Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE), and also socio-economic. The Principal Component Regression (PCR) method is used to analyzed the correlation of six independent variables C1-C6 then three models of FIT are presented. Model FIT-2 is chosen because it has a small residual value and has higher financial benefit compared to the other models. This study reveals the value of variable FIT associated with solar energy potential in each region, can reduce the total FIT to be paid by the state around 80 billion rupiahs in 10 years of 1 MW photovoltaic operation at each 34 provinces in Indonesia.
Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs
Zhang, H. L.; Van Gerven, T.; Baeyens, J.; Degrève, J.
2014-01-01
Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future. PMID:24959614
Bound anionic states of adenine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H
2007-03-20
Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic
Instanton bound states in ABJM theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2013-06-15
The partition function of the ABJM theory receives non-perturbative corrections due to instanton effects. We study these non-perturbative corrections, including bound states of worldsheet instantons and membrane instantons, in the Fermi-gas approach. We require that the total non-perturbative correction should be always finite for arbitrary Chern-Simons level. This finiteness is realized quite non-trivially because each bound state contribution naively diverges at some levels. The poles of each contribution should be canceled out in total. We use this pole cancellation mechanism to find unknown bound state corrections from known ones. We conjecture a general expression of the bound state contribution. Summing up all the bound state contributions, we find that the effect of bound states is simply incorporated into the worldsheet instanton correction by a redefinition of the chemical potential in the Fermi-gas system. Analytic expressions of the 3- and 4-membrane instanton corrections are also proposed.
Distance hijacking attacks on distance bounding protocols
Cremers, Cas; Rasmussen, Kasper Bonne; Čapkun, Srdjan
2011-01-01
Distance bounding protocols are typically analyzed with respect to three types of attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud, and Terrorist Fraud. We define a fourth main type of attacks on distance bounding protocols, called Distance Hijacking attacks. We show that many proposed distance bounding protocols are vulnerable to these attacks, and we propose solutions to make these protocols resilient to Distance Hijacking. Additionally, we generalize Distance Hijacking to Location Hijacking, to which ...
Boundedly UC spaces: characterisations and preservation | Jain ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A metric space (X, d) is called a boundedly UC space if every closed and bounded subset of X is a UC space. A metric space (X, d) is called a UC space if each real-valued continuous function on (X, d) is uniformly continuous. In this paper, we study twenty-two equivalent conditions for a metric space to be a boundedly UC ...
Bounded cohomology of discrete groups
Frigerio, Roberto
2017-01-01
The author manages a near perfect equilibrium between necessary technicalities (always well motivated) and geometric intuition, leading the readers from the first simple definition to the most striking applications of the theory in 13 very pleasant chapters. This book can serve as an ideal textbook for a graduate topics course on the subject and become the much-needed standard reference on Gromov's beautiful theory. -Michelle Bucher The theory of bounded cohomology, introduced by Gromov in the late 1980s, has had powerful applications in geometric group theory and the geometry and topology of manifolds, and has been the topic of active research continuing to this day. This monograph provides a unified, self-contained introduction to the theory and its applications, making it accessible to a student who has completed a first course in algebraic topology and manifold theory. The book can be used as a source for research projects for master's students, as a thorough introduction to the field for graduate student...
Bounded sets in fast complete inductive limits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Kucera
1984-01-01
Full Text Available Let E1⊂E2⊂… be a sequence of locally convex spaces with all identity maps: En→En+1 continuous and E=indlim En fast complete. Then each set bounded in E is also bounded in some En iff for any Banach disk B bounded in E and n∈N, the closure of B⋂En in B is bounded in some Em. This holds, in particular, if all spaces En are webbed.
Valuation models and Simon's bounded rationality
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Alexandra Strommer de Farias Godoi
2009-01-01
This paper aims at reconciling the evidence that sophisticated valuation models are increasingly used by companies in their investment appraisal with the literature of bounded rationality, according...
Some Improved Nonperturbative Bounds for Fermionic Expansions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lohmann, Martin, E-mail: marlohmann@gmail.com [Universita di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)
2016-06-15
We reconsider the Gram-Hadamard bound as it is used in constructive quantum field theory and many body physics to prove convergence of Fermionic perturbative expansions. Our approach uses a recursion for the amplitudes of the expansion, discovered in a model problem by Djokic (2013). It explains the standard way to bound the expansion from a new point of view, and for some of the amplitudes provides new bounds, which avoid the use of Fourier transform, and are therefore superior to the standard bounds for models like the cold interacting Fermi gas.
A strongly quasiconvex PAC-Bayesian bound
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thiemann, Niklas; Igel, Christian; Wintenberger, Olivier
We propose a new PAC-Bayesian bound and a way of constructing a hypothesis space, so that the bound is convex in the posterior distribution and also convex in a trade-off parameter between empirical performance of the posterior distribution and its complexity. The complexity is measured by the Ku......We propose a new PAC-Bayesian bound and a way of constructing a hypothesis space, so that the bound is convex in the posterior distribution and also convex in a trade-off parameter between empirical performance of the posterior distribution and its complexity. The complexity is measured...
New lower bound for the Capacitated Arc Routing Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wøhlk, Sanne
2006-01-01
We present a new lower bound, the Multiple Cuts Node Duplication Lower Bound, for the undirected Capacitated Arc Routing Problem.We prove that this new bound dominates the existing bounds for the problem. Computational results are also provided.......We present a new lower bound, the Multiple Cuts Node Duplication Lower Bound, for the undirected Capacitated Arc Routing Problem.We prove that this new bound dominates the existing bounds for the problem. Computational results are also provided....
Bounded rationality and learning in complex markets
Hommes, C.H.; Barkely Rosser Jr, J.
2009-01-01
This chapter reviews some work on bounded rationality, expectation formation and learning in complex markets, using the familiar demand-supply cobweb model. We emphasize two stories of bounded rationality, one story of adaptive learning and another story of evolutionary selection. According to the
Bounded rationality and learning in complex markets
Hommes, C.H.
2007-01-01
This chapter reviews some work on bounded rationality, expectation formation and learning in complex markets, using the familiar demand-supply cobweb model. We emphasize two stories of bounded rationality, one story of adaptive learning and another story of evolutionary selection. According to the
Spatial coagulation with bounded coagulation rate
Bailleul, Ismael
2010-01-01
We prove that the spatial coagulation equation with bounded coagulation rate is well-posed for all times in a given class of kernels if the convection term of the underlying particle dynamics has divergence bounded below by a positive constant. Multiple coagulations, fragmentation and scattering are also considered.
Schroedinger upper bounds to semirelativistic eigenvalues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, Richard L [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (Canada); Lucha, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)
2005-09-16
Problems posed by semirelativistic Hamiltonians of the form H = {radical}(m{sup 2} + p{sup 2}) + V(r) are studied. It is shown that energy upper bounds can be constructed in terms of certain related Schroedinger operators; these bounds include free parameters which can be chosen optimally.
No-arbitrage bounds for financial scenarios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geyer, Alois; Hanke, Michael; Weissensteiner, Alex
2014-01-01
We derive no-arbitrage bounds for expected excess returns to generate scenarios used in financial applications. The bounds allow to distinguish three regions: one where arbitrage opportunities will never exist, a second where arbitrage may be present, and a third, where arbitrage opportunities...
Nonatomic dual bakery algorithm with bounded tokens
Aravind, Alex A.; Hesselink, Wim H.
A simple mutual exclusion algorithm is presented that only uses nonatomic shared variables of bounded size, and that satisfies bounded overtaking. When the shared variables behave atomically, it has the first-come-first-served property (FCFS). Nonatomic access makes information vulnerable. The
Polynomially Bounded Sequences and Polynomial Sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Okazaki Hiroyuki
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, we formalize polynomially bounded sequences that plays an important role in computational complexity theory. Class P is a fundamental computational complexity class that contains all polynomial-time decision problems [11], [12]. It takes polynomially bounded amount of computation time to solve polynomial-time decision problems by the deterministic Turing machine. Moreover we formalize polynomial sequences [5].
Upper Bounds on Numerical Approximation Errors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raahauge, Peter
2004-01-01
This paper suggests a method for determining rigorous upper bounds on approximationerrors of numerical solutions to infinite horizon dynamic programming models.Bounds are provided for approximations of the value function and the policyfunction as well as the derivatives of the value function...
On the range of completely bounded maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard I. Loebl
1978-01-01
Full Text Available It is shown that if every bounded linear map from a C*-algebra α to a von Neumann algebra β is completely bounded, then either α is finite-dimensional or β⫅⊗Mn, where is a commutative von Neumann algebra and Mn is the algebra of n×n complex matrices.
A polynomial lower bound for testing monotonicity
A. Belovs (Aleksandr); Blais, E. (Eric)
2016-01-01
textabstractWe show that every algorithm for testing n-variate Boolean functions for monotonicity has query complexity Ω(n1/4). All previous lower bounds for this problem were designed for nonadaptive algorithms and, as a result, the best previous lower bound for general (possibly adaptive)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyeongig Kim
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Customer-owned battery energy storage systems (BESS have been used to reduce electricity costs of energy storage owners (ESOs under a time-of-use (TOU tariff in Korea. However, the current TOU tariff can unintentionally induce customer’s electricity usage to have a negative impact on power systems. This paper verifies the impact of different BESS operation strategies on power systems under a TOU tariff by analyzing the TOU tariff structure and the customer’s load pattern. First, several BESS operation strategies of ESO are proposed to reduce the electricity cost. In addition, a degradation cost calculation method for lithium ion batteries is considered for the ESO to determine the optimal BESS operation strategy that maximizes both electricity cost and annual investment cost. The optimal BESS operation strategy that maximizes ESO’s net benefit is illustrated by simulation using an urban railway load data from Namgwangju Station, Korea. The results show that BESS connected to urban railway loads can negative impact power system operation. This is due to the high BESS degradation costs and lack of incentive of differential rates in TOU tariff that can effectively induce proper demand response.
Kalhor, Rohollah; Amini, Saeed; Emami, Majid; Kakasoltani, Keivan; Rhamani, Nasim; Kalhor, Leila
2016-02-01
Efficient use of resources in organizations is one of the most important duties of managers. Appropriate allocation of resources can help managers to do this well. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of radiology services and to compare it with governmental tariffs (introduced by the Ministry of Health in Iran). This was a descriptive and applied study that was conducted using the retrospective approach. First, activity centers were identified on the basis of five main groups of hospital activities. Then, resources and resource drivers, activities, and hospital activity drivers were identified. At the next step, the activities related to the delivery of radiology process were identified. Last, through allocation of activities cost to the cost objects, the cost price of 66 services that were delivered in the radiology department were calculated. The data were collected by making checklists, using the hospital's information system, observations, and interviews. Finally, the data were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon test, Microsoft Excel, and SPSS software, version 18. The findings showed that from the total cost of wages, materials, and overhead obtained, the unit cost of the 66 cost objects (delivered services) in the Radiology Department were calculated using the ABC method (Price of each unit of Nephrostogram obtained $15.8 and Cystogram obtained $18.4). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicated that the distribution of data of cost price using the ABC method was not normal (p = 0.000). The Wilcoxon test showed that there was a significant difference between the cost of services and the tariff of radiology services (p = 0.000). The cost of delivered services in radiology departments was significantly higher than approved tariffs of the Ministry of Health, which can have a negative impact on the quality of services.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, Ricardo Henrique dos; Santos, Rosana Rodrigues dos; Sauer, Ildo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: rosana2@uol.com.br
1999-07-01
The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. In this context, the aim of this work is to review the natural monopolies theory, regulation regimes, and the energy transmission tariffs of Brazilian electric power sector.
Match-bounded String Rewriting Systems
Geser, Alfons; Hofbauer, Dieter; Waldmann, Johannes
2003-01-01
We introduce a new class of automated proof methods for the termination of rewriting systems on strings. The basis of all these methods is to show that rewriting preserves regular languages. To this end, letters are annotated with natural numbers, called match heights. If the minimal height of all positions in a redex is h+1 then every position in the reduct will get height h+1. In a match-bounded system, match heights are globally bounded. Using recent results on deleting systems, we prove that rewriting by a match-bounded system preserves regular languages. Hence it is decidable whether a given rewriting system has a given match bound. We also provide a sufficient criterion for the abence of a match-bound. The problem of existence of a match-bound is still open. Match-boundedness for all strings can be used as an automated criterion for termination, for match-bounded systems are terminating. This criterion can be strengthened by requiring match-boundedness only for a restricted set of strings, for instance the set of right hand sides of forward closures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez Garcia, V.E.; Blanco Jimenez, F.J.
2012-07-01
The Water Framework Directive requires the adoption of a tariff system that recovers the costs of water resources and the establishment of national water-pricing policies that help to achieve a sustainable water use. Water rates (tariffs) should be used as an auxiliary tool for consumption control, seeking for efficiency and a sustainable resource use. In this research, we studied the characteristics of the existing rates in seven Spanish cities, analyzing the behavior of consumption of domestic water during the period 2003-2010, in order to check whether the current Spanish rates conforms to the state of resources and the objectives of the Directive. The main conclusion of our work is that the current system has lost its effectiveness as a control consumption tool, making it necessary to rethink the pricing policy and a new tariff system in Spain. (Author)
Sound velocity bound and neutron stars.
Bedaque, Paulo; Steiner, Andrew W
2015-01-23
It has been conjectured that the velocity of sound in any medium is smaller than the velocity of light in vacuum divided by sqrt[3]. Simple arguments support this bound in nonrelativistic and/or weakly coupled theories. The bound has been demonstrated in several classes of strongly coupled theories with gravity duals and is saturated only in conformal theories. We point out that the existence of neutron stars with masses around two solar masses combined with the knowledge of the equation of state of hadronic matter at "low" densities is in strong tension with this bound.
Lability of copper bound to humic acid
Mao, Lingchen; Young, Scott D.; Bailey, Liz
2015-01-01
Geochemical speciation models generally include the assumption that all metal bound to humic acid and fulvic acid (HA, FA) is labile. However, in the current study, we determined the presence of a soluble ‘non-labile’ Cu fraction bound to HA extracted from grassland and peat soils. This was quantified by determining isotopically-exchangeable Cu (E-value) and EDTA-extraction of HA-bound Cu, separated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and assayed by coupled ICP-MS. Evidence of time-depend...
Positivity bounds on double parton distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diehl, Markus; Kasemets, Tomas
2013-03-15
Double hard scattering in proton-proton collisions is described in terms of double parton distributions. We derive bounds on these distributions that follow from their interpretation as probability densities, taking into account all possible spin correlations between two partons in an unpolarized proton. These bounds constrain the size of the polarized distributions and can for instance be used to set upper limits on the effects of spin correlations in double hard scattering. We show that the bounds are stable under leading-order DGLAP evolution to higher scales.
Lower bound for the nuclear kinetic energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dehesa, J.S. (Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear); Galvez, F.J. (Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica)
1985-06-27
We argue that the kinetic energy of a many-fermion system is bounded from below by Kqsup(-2/3)A sup(5/3) /
Continuous bounded cohomology of locally compact groups
2001-01-01
Recent research has repeatedly led to connections between important rigidity questions and bounded cohomology. However, the latter has remained by and large intractable. This monograph introduces the functorial study of the continuous bounded cohomology for topological groups, with coefficients in Banach modules. The powerful techniques of this more general theory have successfully solved a number of the original problems in bounded cohomology. As applications, one obtains, in particular, rigidity results for actions on the circle, for representations on complex hyperbolic spaces and on Teichmüller spaces. A special effort has been made to provide detailed proofs or references in quite some generality.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2007-01-15
The ministry answers questions relative to the electricity price: the position of the tariffs in Europe, the tariffs for the industry, the margins, EDF, the energy policy and the part of the nuclear, the fight against the CO{sub 2}. (A.L.B.)
Redshift-space limits of bound structures
Duenner, Rolando; Reisenegger, Andreas; Meza, Andres; Araya, Pablo A.; Quintana, Hernan
2007-01-01
An exponentially expanding Universe, possibly governed by a cosmological constant, forces gravitationally bound structures to become more and more isolated, eventually becoming causally disconnected from each other and forming so-called 'island universes'. This new scenario reformulates the question
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qianhui Gao
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The principal objective of this study is to analyze welfare effects of Japan’s rice import quota focusing on the simultaneous buy and sell (SBS of the rice importation minimum access (MA policy. Based on the utility function specified in this study, the constructed model is adopted to measure consumption patterns through estimating elasticity of substitution between imported rice and Japan’s domestic rice, and consumers’ preference parameters for different kinds of rice. The results showed that Japanese households prefer domestic rice to the imported rice. Besides, three scenarios of adjusting rice quota volumes were carried out to examine the changes in consumer prices of imported rice and Japanese consumers’ welfares. The results revealed that tariff equivalents of the SBS import quota almost doubled the scale of the mark-up, and the intervention by the Ministry of Agriculture of Japan did cause non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs. Finally, if the SBS rice quota quantity was fixed at or larger than 180 thousand tons every fiscal year, the consumer prices of imported rice in Japan’s market would decrease to be less than the prices of Japan’s domestic rice, and therefore the imported rice would have more price advantages in this scenario.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sintya Jummoni Krissanty Umboh
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The purposes of this study is at analyzing the impact of maize import tariff policy changes on production and consumption in Indonesia. Three groups of households were assessed in this studi, namely: (1 large scale broiler farming, (2 small scale broiler farming, and (3 other households. Employed data in this study were classified into 3 types: (1 production and input, consumption, and household income, (2 inputs and outputs, and (3 elasticities. The abolishment of the import tariff policy on maize had an impact on increased maize imported and decreased maize price. Decreased domestic maize price was responded by maize farmer through lessing maize planted area and fertilizer input uses that had impact on the declining in maize production. On the other hand, this policy had positive impact on production of rice, chicken meat, and eggs which led to increase incomes of small scale broiler farming and agricultural sector, as well as national. It furthermore increased the consumption for maize, chicken meat, and eggs in Indonesia.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.
2005-11-14
The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.; Lamy, M.L
2002-07-01
Incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources may focus on quantities (defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading), or they may focus on prices (feed-in tariffs). Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalized. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions (uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects) which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach. (author)
New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments...... with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section....
On bounds for symmetric divergence measures
Furuichi, S.; Yanagi, K.; Kuriyama, K.
2017-06-01
In the paper [1], tight bounds for symmetric divergence measures applying the results established by G.L.Gilardoni. In this article, we report on two kinds of extensions for the Sason's results, namely a classical q-extension and a non-commutative(quantum) extension. Especially, we improve Sason's bound of the summation of the absolute value for the difference between two probability distributions, applying the parameter q of Tsallis entropy, under a certain assumption.
Stable Bound States of Asymmetric Dark Matter
Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue
2014-01-01
The simplest renormalizable effective field theories with asymmetric dark matter bound states contain two additional gauge singlet fields one being the dark matter and the other a mediator particle that the dark matter annihilates into. We examine the physics of one such model with a Dirac fermion as the dark matter and a real scalar mediator. For a range of parameters the Yukawa coupling of the dark matter to the mediator gives rise to stable asymmetric dark matter bound states. We derive pr...
Malabsorption of protein bound vitamin B12.
Dawson, D W; Sawers, A H; Sharma, R K
1984-01-01
Patients with subnormal serum vitamin B12 concentrations were tested for absorption of protein bound vitamin B12 and compared with controls. Absorption of the protein bound vitamin appeared to decrease with increasing age in healthy subjects. Differences between the result of this test and the result of the Schilling test in patients who had undergone gastric surgery were confirmed; such differences were also seen in some patients who had iron deficiency anaemia, an excessive alcohol intake, ...
Dynamic optimization problems with bounded terminal conditions
Lee, A. Y.
1987-01-01
Bounded terminal conditions of nonlinear optimization problems are converted to equality terminal conditions via Valentine's device. In so doing, additional unknown parameters are introduced into the problem. The transformed problems can still be easily solved using the sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (SGRA) via a simple augmentation of the unknown parameter vector pi. Three example problems with bounded terminal conditions are solved to verify this technique.
Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gal, A.; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucky, Michal
2013-01-01
We bound the minimum number w of wires needed to compute any (asymptotically good) error-correcting code C:{0,1}Ω(n)→{0,1}n with minimum distance Ω(n), using unbounded fan-in circuits of depth d with arbitrary gates. Our main results are: 1) if d=2, then w=Θ(n (lgn/lglgn)2); 2) if d=3, then w...... bound gives the largest known lower bound for computing any linear map. The upper bounds imply that a (necessarily dense) generator matrix for our code can be written as the product of two sparse matrices. Using known techniques, we also obtain similar (but not tight) bounds for computing pairwise......-independent hash functions. Our lower bounds are based on a superconcentrator-like condition that the graphs of circuits computing good codes must satisfy. This condition is provably intermediate between superconcentrators and their weakenings considered before...
Dynamics of quadratic polynomials: Complex bounds for real maps
Lyubich, Mikhail; Yampolsky, Michael
1995-01-01
We extend Sullivan's complex a priori bounds to real quadratic polynomials with essentially bounded combinatorics. Combined with the previous results of the first author, this yields complex bounds for all real quadratics. Local connectivity of the corresponding Julia sets follows.
Bounds Estimation Via Regression with Asymmetric Cost Functions
DeCoste, D.
1997-01-01
This paper addresses a significant but mostly-neglected class of problems that we call bounds estimation. This includes learning empirical best-case and worst-case algorithmic complexity bounds and red-line bounds on sensor data.
James A. Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu; Frances Maplesden
2008-01-01
Secondary processed wood products - builder's carpentry and joinery, moldings and millwork, wooden furniture, and prefabricated buildings - have grown significantly in importance in the global trade of wood products. At the same time there has been increased use of non-tariff barriers to restrict their trade.Â These barriers could have an important impact on the...
2013-09-13
... Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the...-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The Secretary also... the in-quota TRQ amounts (expressed in terms of raw value) for imports of raw cane sugar and certain...
The case for a single-axis tracking solar PV array system to mitigate against the time-of-use tariff
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Szewczuk, S
2016-08-01
Full Text Available peak tariff is from 6:00pm to 8:00pm. A fixed-axis PV system generates peak electricity when the sun is overhead of the PV array. A single-axis PV tracking system allows for maximum production of electricity by tracking the sun soon after it appears...
Werner, Lone; Scholtens, Lambertus
2017-01-01
The development of renewable and sustainable energy is advanced by public financial support. This is particularly so in the German Energiewende, which seeks to replace nuclear and fossil electricity generation with wind, sun, and biomass. We study the impact of the (changes in the) feed-in tariff
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled Substances K Appendix K to Subpart A of...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. K Appendix K to...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
FÜLÖP ÁRPÁD-ZOLTÁN
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The analysis of the costs and of the structure of tariffs for operators in the sector of water and sewage system in Romania are a real challenge. Through this analysis we can form an overview of the costs which may involve in the service of providing clean water and the sewage and wastewater treatment. The costs is analysed both in the cost structure at the enterprise level and in comparison with the income made from the activity (supply of drinking water or treatment of wastewater. In the article we study the cost structure at the level of sector of activity and the correlation between the tariff applied to water and sewer services and size of enterprise, number of employees, wage costs, maintenance and repair costs, energy cost and other variables. The correlations results helps us to make the first steps for the realization of an equation of the cost at the level of the sector of water and sewage system. Another correlation study will be between the applied tariff and the size of the investments made with european co-financing in the framework of the SOP Environment. Through this correlation we determine if the size of the tariffs applied in this sector correlate to the size of the investments made in the SOP Environment.
Universal bounds in even-spin CFTs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qualls, Joshua D. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University,Taipei, Taiwan (China)
2015-12-01
We prove using invariance under the modular S− and ST−transformations that every unitary two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) having only even-spin primary operators (with no extended chiral algebra and with right- and left-central charges c,c̃>1) contains a primary operator with dimension Δ{sub 1} satisfying 0<Δ{sub 1}<((c+c̃)/24)+0.09280…. After deriving both analytical and numerical bounds, we discuss how to extend our methods to bound higher conformal dimensions before deriving lower and upper bounds on the number of primary operators in a given energy range. Using the AdS{sub 3}/CFT{sub 2} dictionary, the bound on Δ{sub 1} proves the lightest massive excitation in appropriate theories of 3D matter and gravity with cosmological constant Λ<0 can be no heavier than 1/8G{sub N}+O(√(−Λ)); the bounds on the number of operators are related via AdS/CFT to the entropy of states in the dual gravitational theory. In the flat-space approximation, the limiting mass is exactly that of the lightest BTZ black hole.
A reversal in the historical role of tariffs in economic growth? The cases of Brazil and Portugal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Eugénia Mata
2008-09-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the comparative role of protectionism on Brazilian and Portuguese economic growth for the period 1860-1950 in the context of the available theoretical approaches from international economics. Although the role of tariffs has long been debated in the historiography of both countries, this paper provides the first exercise that uses a methodology based on a macro-econometric approach for long-run time-series. Given Clemens' and Williamson's conclusion that the world environment matters, we test their claim for two countries on the tariff reversal paradox. The Brazilian and the Portuguese experiences confirm that protection was correlated with growth in the period before World War I, and it is unlikely that freer trade would have increased Portuguese growth, contrary to the established thesis. The First World War, however, was a turning point for Brazil. In carrying out this study, we have used the best data available to us, occasionally departing from those used by Clemens and Williamson. Our conclusions hold for alternative data sets.Este artigo discute o papel comparativo do protecionismo sobre o crescimento econômico brasileiro e português no período 1860-1950 no contexto das aproximações teóricas disponíveis da Economia Internacional. Embora o papel das tarifas tenha sido longamente discutido na historiografia dos dois países, este artigo fornece o primeiro exercício que usa a metodologia baseada na aproximação macroeconométrica para sucessões cronológicas de longa duração. Dada a conclusão de Clemens e Williamson de que o enquadramento mundial conta, testamos para os dois países a sua pretensão do tariff reversal paradox. As experiências brasileira e portuguesa confirmam que a proteção esteve correlacionada com o crescimento no período anterior à Primeira Guerra Mundial, e não é provável que comércio mais livre tivesse aumentado o crescimento econômico português, contrariamente à tese
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Werbeck, T.
1995-12-31
Electricity price formation is increasingly being determined by the conflict between traditional energy-economic aims and the ecological requirements of natural resource conservation and energy saving. In practice, households and small consumers are usually charged on the basis of a two-part tariff system despite the criticism this system receives for giving an incentive to waste energy. Based on a production- and cost-theoretical analysis of electricity production the present study develops a theoretical foundation of a tariff determination system that complies to the aims of Paretian welfare economics as well as the legal requirements of `cost-orientedness`. Furthermore it examines the most important implementation tools with regard to their efficacy. The study reveals that price formation according to marginal cost, which is preferable from the viewpoint of allocation theory, leads to a time-dependent tariff structure, while block tariffs and two-part tariffs should be rejected for reasons of welfare theory as well as on account of their lack of cost-orientedness. Current models on peak load price determination have been examined here with regard to the present situation in electricity production and a price structure appropriate to this has been developed taking demand interdependencies into account. The study concludes with an analysis of two topical examples, the `96 hour tariff` and the time-variable tariff of the municipal works of Saarbruecken. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Preissetzung fuer elektrische Energie steht in zunehmender Weise im Spannungsfeld zwischen traditionell energiewirtschaftlichen Zielen und oekologischen Gesichtspunkten der Schonung der natuerlichen Ressourcen und der Energieeinsparung. In der Praxis der Stromtarifierung kommen bei Haushalten und Kleinverbrauchern weitgehend zweiteilige Tarife zur Anwendung, obwohl diese in besonderem Masse als Anreize zur Energieverschwendung kritisiert wurden. Auf der Grundlage einer produktions- und
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2008-07-01
With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)
Multipole-bound molecular negative ions
Abdul-Karim, H; Desfrançois, C
2002-01-01
Within the framework of a simple electrostatic model, as compared to recent experimental results, we here discuss the stability of very weakly bound molecular negative ions. In contrast with the case of conventional valence anions, the excess electron is then located in a very diffuse orbital and is mainly bound by electrostatic dipolar, quadrupolar, and polarization forces, at large distances from the neutral molecular core. By fitting a single repulsion parameter of the model to the available experimental data, it is possible to make quantitative predictions of the excess-electron binding energies in these species. Critical values of the dipole moment, quadrupole moment or polarizability required for the observation of stable multipole-bound negative ions are predicted and compared to available experimental data and ab initio calculations. Refs. 26 (author)
Resistivity bound for hydrodynamic bad metals
Lucas, Andrew; Hartnoll, Sean A.
2017-10-01
We obtain a rigorous upper bound on the resistivity ρ of an electron fluid whose electronic mean free path is short compared with the scale of spatial inhomogeneities. When such a hydrodynamic electron fluid supports a nonthermal diffusion process—such as an imbalance mode between different bands—we show that the resistivity bound becomes ρ≲AΓ. The coefficient A is independent of temperature and inhomogeneity lengthscale, and Γ is a microscopic momentum-preserving scattering rate. In this way, we obtain a unified mechanism—without umklapp—for ρ˜T2 in a Fermi liquid and the crossover to ρ˜T in quantum critical regimes. This behavior is widely observed in transition metal oxides, organic metals, pnictides, and heavy fermion compounds and has presented a long-standing challenge to transport theory. Our hydrodynamic bound allows phonon contributions to diffusion constants, including thermal diffusion, to directly affect the electrical resistivity.
Properties of Water Bound in Hydrogels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir M. Gun’ko
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this review, the importance of water in hydrogel (HG properties and structure is analyzed. A variety of methods such as 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, XRD (X-ray powder diffraction, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, thermally stimulated depolarization current, quasi-elastic neutron scattering, rheometry, diffusion, adsorption, infrared spectroscopy are used to study water in HG. The state of HG water is rather non-uniform. According to thermodynamic features of water in HG, some of it is non-freezing and strongly bound, another fraction is freezing and weakly bound, and the third fraction is non-bound, free water freezing at 0 °C. According to structural features of water in HG, it can be divided into two fractions with strongly associated and weakly associated waters. The properties of the water in HG depend also on the amounts and types of solutes, pH, salinity, structural features of HG functionalities.
Correlation Distance and Bounds for Mutual Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael J. W. Hall
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The correlation distance quantifies the statistical independence of two classical or quantum systems, via the distance from their joint state to the product of the marginal states. Tight lower bounds are given for the mutual information between pairs of two-valued classical variables and quantum qubits, in terms of the corresponding classical and quantum correlation distances. These bounds are stronger than the Pinsker inequality (and refinements thereof for relative entropy. The classical lower bound may be used to quantify properties of statistical models that violate Bell inequalities. Partially entangled qubits can have lower mutual information than can any two-valued classical variables having the same correlation distance. The qubit correlation distance also provides a direct entanglement criterion, related to the spin covariance matrix. Connections of results with classically-correlated quantum states are briefly discussed.
Equivalence principle and bound kinetic energy.
Hohensee, Michael A; Müller, Holger; Wiringa, R B
2013-10-11
We consider the role of the internal kinetic energy of bound systems of matter in tests of the Einstein equivalence principle. Using the gravitational sector of the standard model extension, we show that stringent limits on equivalence principle violations in antimatter can be indirectly obtained from tests using bound systems of normal matter. We estimate the bound kinetic energy of nucleons in a range of light atomic species using Green's function Monte Carlo calculations, and for heavier species using a Woods-Saxon model. We survey the sensitivities of existing and planned experimental tests of the equivalence principle, and report new constraints at the level of between a few parts in 10(6) and parts in 10(8) on violations of the equivalence principle for matter and antimatter.
Yukawa Bound States and Their LHC Phenomenology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enkhbat Tsedenbaljir
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present the current status on the possible bound states of extra generation quarks. These include phenomenology and search strategy at the LHC. If chiral fourth-generation quarks do exist their strong Yukawa couplings, implied by current experimental lower bound on their masses, may lead to formation of bound states. Due to nearly degenerate 4G masses suggested by Precision Electroweak Test one can employ “heavy isospin” symmetry to classify possible spectrum. Among these states, the color-octet isosinglet vector ω 8 is the easiest to be produced at the LHC. The discovery potential and corresponding decay channels are covered in this paper. With possible light Higgs at ~125 GeV two-Higgs doublet version is briefly discussed.
Braneworld black holes and entropy bounds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Heydarzade
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The Bousso's D-bound entropy for the various possible black hole solutions on a 4-dimensional brane is checked. It is found that the D-bound entropy here is apparently different from that of obtained for the 4-dimensional black hole solutions. This difference is interpreted as the extra loss of information, associated to the extra dimension, when an extra-dimensional black hole is moved outward the observer's cosmological horizon. Also, it is discussed that N-bound entropy is hold for the possible solutions here. Finally, by adopting the recent Bohr-like approach to black hole quantum physics for the excited black holes, the obtained results are written also in terms of the black hole excited states.
Braneworld black holes and entropy bounds
Heydarzade, Y.; Hadi, H.; Corda, C.; Darabi, F.
2018-01-01
The Bousso's D-bound entropy for the various possible black hole solutions on a 4-dimensional brane is checked. It is found that the D-bound entropy here is apparently different from that of obtained for the 4-dimensional black hole solutions. This difference is interpreted as the extra loss of information, associated to the extra dimension, when an extra-dimensional black hole is moved outward the observer's cosmological horizon. Also, it is discussed that N-bound entropy is hold for the possible solutions here. Finally, by adopting the recent Bohr-like approach to black hole quantum physics for the excited black holes, the obtained results are written also in terms of the black hole excited states.
Entropy Bounds, Holographic Principle and Uncertainty Relation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. V. Volovich
2001-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract: A simple derivation of the bound on entropy is given and the holographic principle is discussed. We estimate the number of quantum states inside space region on the base of uncertainty relation. The result is compared with the Bekenstein formula for entropy bound, which was initially derived from the generalized second law of thermodynamics for black holes. The holographic principle states that the entropy inside a region is bounded by the area of the boundary of that region. This principle can be called the kinematical holographic principle. We argue that it can be derived from the dynamical holographic principle which states that the dynamics of a system in a region should be described by a system which lives on the boundary of the region. This last principle can be valid in general relativity because the ADM hamiltonian reduces to the surface term.
Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Hood, Michelle
2010-01-01
We surveyed 506 Australian high school students on career development (exploration, planning, job-knowledge, decision-making, indecision), personal functioning (well-being, self-esteem, life satisfaction, school satisfaction) and control variables (parent education, school achievement), and tested differences among work-bound, college-bound and…
2013-03-26
... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science... hand delivery. Please note that comments submitted by fax or email and those submitted after the... 1995 (PRA) (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)), provides the general public and Federal agencies with an...
Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gál, Anna; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucký, Michal
2011-01-01
We bound the minimum number w of wires needed to compute any (asymptotically good) error-correcting code C:01(n)01n with minimum distance (n), using unbounded fan-in circuits of depth d with arbitrary gates. Our main results are: (1) If d=2 then w=(n(lognloglogn)2) . (2) If d=3 then w=(nlglgn). (3......, our (n(lognloglogn)2) lower bound gives the largest known lower bound for computing any linear map, improving on the (nlg32n) bound of Pudlak and Rodl (Discrete Mathematics '94). We find the upper bounds surprising. They imply that a (necessarily dense) generator matrix for the code can be written...... as the product of two sparse matrices. The upper bounds are non-explicit: we show the existence of circuits (consisting of only XOR gates) computing good codes within the stated bounds. Using a result by Ishai, Kushilevitz, Ostrovsky, and Sahai (STOC '08), we also obtain similar bounds for computing pairwise...
Violation of Energy Bounds in Designer Gravity
Hertog, T
2007-01-01
We continue our study of the stability of designer gravity theories, where one considers anti-de Sitter gravity coupled to certain tachyonic scalars with boundary conditions defined by a smooth function W. It has recently been argued there is a lower bound on the conserved energy in terms of the global minimum of W, if the scalar potential arises from a superpotential P and the scalar reaches an extremum of P at infinity. We show, however, there are superpotentials for which these bounds do not hold.
G-frames with bounded linear operators
Xiao, Xiang-chun; Zhu, Yu-can; Shu, Zhi-biao; Ding, Ming-ling
2015-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the more general g-frame which is called a $K$-g-frame by combining a g-frame with a bounded linear operator $K$ in a Hilbert space. We give several equivalent characterizations for $K$-g-frames and discuss the stability of perturbation for $K$-g-frames. We also investigate the relationship between a $K$-g-frame and the range of the bounded linear operator $K$. In the end, we give two sufficient conditions for the remainder of a $K$-g-frame after an erasure to stil...
Bounds on fake weighted projective space
Kasprzyk, Alexander M.
2009-01-01
A fake weighted projective space X is a Q-factorial toric variety with Picard number one. As with weighted projective space, X comes equipped with a set of weights (λ0, ..., λn). We see how the singularities of P (λ0, ..., λn) influence the singularities of X, and how the weights bound the number of possible fake weighted projective spaces for a fixed dimension. Finally, we present an upper bound on the ratios λj/Σλi if we wish X to have only terminal (or canonical) singularities.
Fibered Transverse Knots and the Bennequin Bound
Etnyre, John B.; Van Horn-Morris, Jeremy
2008-01-01
We prove that a nicely fibered link (by which we mean the binding of an open book) in a tight contact manifold $(M,\\xi)$ with zero Giroux torsion has a transverse representative realizing the Bennequin bound if and only if the contact structure it supports (since it is also the binding of an open book) is $\\xi.$ This gives a geometric reason for the non-sharpness of the Bennequin bound for fibered links. We also note that this allows the classification, up to contactomorphism, of maximal self...
Verifying bound entanglement of dephased Werner states
Thomas, P.; Bohmann, M.; Vogel, W.
2017-10-01
The verification of quantum entanglement under the influence of realistic noise and decoherence is crucial for the development of quantum technologies. Unfortunately, a full entanglement characterization is generally not possible with most entanglement criteria such as entanglement witnesses or the partial transposition criterion. In particular, so-called bound entanglement cannot be certified via the partial transposition criterion. Here we present the full entanglement verification of dephased qubit and qutrit Werner states via entanglement quasiprobabilities. Remarkably, we are able to reveal bound entanglement for noisy mixed states in the qutrit case. This example demonstrates the strength of the entanglement quasiprobabilities for verifying the full entanglement of quantum states suffering from noise.
A note on BPS vortex bound states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Alonso-Izquierdo
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.
A note on BPS vortex bound states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alonso-Izquierdo, A., E-mail: alonsoiz@usal.es [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Garcia Fuertes, W., E-mail: wifredo@uniovi.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo (Spain); Mateos Guilarte, J., E-mail: guilarte@usal.es [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)
2016-02-10
In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reichenbach, Johanna
2011-07-19
I study several policy instruments for carbon mitigation with a focus on subsidies for renewable energies, emission taxes and emission allowances. In Chapter 1, I analyze the optimal design and the welfare implications of two policies consisting of an emission tax for conventional fossil-fuel utilities combined with a subsidy for the producers of renewable energy equipment and an emission tax combined with a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity. In Chapter 2 I study the empirical interrelationships between European emission allowance prices and prices for electricity, hard coal and natural gas with an application to portfolio allocation. In Chapters 3 and 4, I discuss several policy-related issues of emissions trading, in particular the potential for market manipulations by firms holding a dominant position in the emission market, the output market or both, and competitive distortions and leakage due to unequal emission regulations across industries, sectors, regions, or countries. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Domiciano, Jose Antonio
2002-07-01
The present competition circumstances (ambient) require enterprises (companies or undertaking) like CERON to have understanding of all conditions to propose tariffs which give correct signal the consumers. Objective. Thus, search for valuations of model to define the tariff of electric energy based on marginal cost though a study in case of CERON. Method. Develop an investigation of a model of definition of tariffs of electric energy based on marginal costs to start the study in case of CERON and followed by analysis of its tariff structure. Results. With application of the signal (sign or indication) of tariffs, can measure the degree of separation of tariffs and to propose new modalities of alternate tariffs which offer conditions to reflect the real form of costs imposed by clients who form subgroups of tariffs of CERON. With final results, it offers parameters to trace (seek) important strategy for the company. Conclusion: The model gives condition's to identify and quantify of subsidies inside the tariff structure. It is a base which permits to create alternatives to resolve tariff distortions. It permits to have a better understanding which category (class) of consumers who are free will try to seek companies with tariffs which reflect really its costs. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerpott, Torsten J.; Paukert, Mathias [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Lehrstuhl Unternehmens- und Technologieplanung, Schwerpunkt Telekommunikationswirtschaft
2013-06-15
In Germany too, communication-capable electricity metering systems (CMS) together with time-based differentiation of kWh-rates for energy consumption are increasingly proliferated among household customers. Nevertheless, empirical evidence with respect to preferences of members of this customer group for the design of CMS tariff elements and of time-variant electricity consumption rates is still scarce. The present study captures such preferences by means of conjoint analysis of data obtained in an online survey of 754 German-speaking adults. Examined CMS tariff elements are a one-off installation fee and monthly recurring use charges. The studied characteristics of time-based rates are the number of time/tariff blocks, the maximum spread between kWh-rates for different time windows and the adaptability/predictability of kWh-rates. Most respondents judged multidimensional CMS and electricity consumption tariff offerings mainly in light of the CMS tariff characteristics. The vast majority of the participants perceived kWh-rates, which may change with a minimum lead time of one day as reducing the benefit of CMS and consumption tariff bundles. Tariff preferences on the one hand were only rarely significantly related to customers' socio-demographic and electricity procurement characteristics as well as their CMS-related expectations/assessments on the other. The willingness to accept CMS-related one-off installation and recurring service charges as well as the propensity to opt for time-dependent electricity consumption tariff variants differing clearly from non-differentiated electricity price schemes appear to be positively affected by customers' practical application experience with CMS and time-variant electricity consumption rates. Conclusions are drawn for energy suppliers seeking to propagate CMS-based time-variant tariffs among household customers in Germany and for future scholarly research. (orig.)
Characterization of plasma membrane bound inorganic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: Currently, a major problem in the management of visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar, especially in the Indian subcontinent, is the growing unresponsiveness to conventional antimonial therapy. Membrane bound pyrophophatase (PPases) do not exist in plasma membrane from mammals. Thus, H+-PPases ...
Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
BASUDEB DATTA
2011-11-20
Nov 20, 2011 ... Using Kalai's result, Tay (1995) proved LBT for a bigger class of simplicial complexes (namely, normal pseudomanifolds). In 2008, we (Bagchi & Datta) have presented a self-contained combinatorial proof of LBT for normal pseudomanifolds. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta.
Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization-II
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 4. Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization - II. M V Panduranga Rao. General Article Volume 15 Issue 4 April 2010 pp 337-346 ... Keywords. Diagonalization; time–hierarchy theorem; relativization; Baker–Gill–Solovay theorem.
Vulnerable Derivatives and Good Deal Bounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murgoci, Agatha
2013-01-01
We price vulnerable derivatives – i.e. derivatives where the counterparty may default. These are basically the derivatives traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Default is modelled in a structural framework. The technique employed for pricing is good deal bounds (GDBs). The method imposes...
ASSESSMENT OF REAP-UPWARD BOUND.
LANG, MELVIN; HOPP, LAURENCE
THE IMPACT OF AN UPWARD BOUND (UB) PROGRAM ON THE ATTITUDES, MOTIVATION, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS WITH COLLEGE POTENTIAL IS EVALUATED. THE PROGRAM IS ONE OF THE 21 UB PROGRAMS RANDOMLY SELECTED FOR INTENSIVE STUDY. AT RUTGERS UB STUDENTS' ATTITUDES AND MOTIVATION TOWARD COLLEGE GOALS, SELF-EVALUATION AND SELF-ESTEEM,…
Lower Bounds for External Memory Dictionaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf
2003-01-01
We study trade-offs between the update time and the query time for comparison based external memory dictionaries. The main contributions of this paper are two lower bound trade offs between the I/O complexity of member queries and insertions: If N
Book Selection, Collection Development, and Bounded Rationality.
Schwartz, Charles A.
1989-01-01
Reviews previously proposed schemes of classical rationality in book selection, describes new approaches to rational choice behavior, and presents a model of book selection based on bounded rationality in a garbage can decision process. The role of tacit knowledge and symbolic content in the selection process are also discussed. (102 references)…
The metamorphosis of 'culture-bound' syndromes.
Jilek, W G; Jilek-Aall, L
1985-01-01
Starting from a critical review of the concept of 'culture-bound' disorders and its development in comparative psychiatry, the authors present the changing aspects of two so-called culture-bound syndromes as paradigms of transcultural metamorphosis (koro) and intra-cultural metamorphosis (Salish Indian spirit sickness), respectively. The authors present recent data on epidemics of koro, which is supposedly bound to Chinese culture, in Thailand and India among non-Chinese populations. Neither the model of Oedipal castration anxiety nor the model of culture-specific pathogenicity, commonly adduced in psychiatric and ethnological literature, explain these phenomena. The authors' data on Salish Indian spirit sickness describes the contemporary condition as anomic depression, which is significantly different from its traditional namesake. The traditional concept was redefined by Salish ritual specialists in response to current needs imposed by social changes. The stresses involved in creating the contemporary phenomena of koro and spirit sickness are neither culture-specific nor culture-inherent, as postulated for 'culture-bound' syndromes, rather they are generated by a feeling of powerlessness caused by perceived threats to ethnic survival.
Bounded relative motion under zonal harmonics perturbations
Baresi, Nicola; Scheeres, Daniel J.
2017-04-01
The problem of finding natural bounded relative trajectories between the different units of a distributed space system is of great interest to the astrodynamics community. This is because most popular initialization methods still fail to establish long-term bounded relative motion when gravitational perturbations are involved. Recent numerical searches based on dynamical systems theory and ergodic maps have demonstrated that bounded relative trajectories not only exist but may extend up to hundreds of kilometers, i.e., well beyond the reach of currently available techniques. To remedy this, we introduce a novel approach that relies on neither linearized equations nor mean-to-osculating orbit element mappings. The proposed algorithm applies to rotationally symmetric bodies and is based on a numerical method for computing quasi-periodic invariant tori via stroboscopic maps, including extra constraints to fix the average of the nodal period and RAAN drift between two consecutive equatorial plane crossings of the quasi-periodic solutions. In this way, bounded relative trajectories of arbitrary size can be found with great accuracy as long as these are allowed by the natural dynamics and the physical constraints of the system (e.g., the surface of the gravitational attractor). This holds under any number of zonal harmonics perturbations and for arbitrary time intervals as demonstrated by numerical simulations about an Earth-like planet and the highly oblate primary of the binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4.
Upper Bounds for Mutations of Potentials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Alexander Cruz Morales
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this note we provide a new, algebraic proof of the excessive Laurent phenomenon for mutations of potentials (in the sense of [Galkin S., Usnich A., Preprint IPMU 10-0100, 2010] by introducing to this theory the analogue of the upper bounds from [Berenstein A., Fomin S., Zelevinsky A., Duke Math. J. 126 (2005, 1-52].
Insoluble-Bound Phenolics in Food.
Shahidi, Fereidoon; Yeo, Ju-Dong
2016-09-11
This contribution provides a review of the topic of insoluble-bound phenolics, especially their localization, synthesis, transfer and formation in plant cells, as well as their metabolism in the human digestive system and corresponding bioactivities. In addition, their release from the food matrix during food processing and extraction methods are discussed. The synthesis of phenolics takes place mainly at the endoplasmic reticulum and they are then transferred to each organ through transport proteins such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporter at the organ's compartment membrane or via transport vesicles such as cytoplasmic and Golgi vesicles, leading to the formation of soluble and insoluble-bound phenolics at the vacuole and cell wall matrix, respectively. This part has not been adequately discussed in the food science literature, especially regarding the synthesis site and their transfer at the cellular level, thus this contribution provides valuable information to the involved scientists. The bound phenolics cannot be absorbed at the small intestine as the soluble phenolics do (5%-10%), thus passing into the large intestine and undergoing fermentation by a number of microorganisms, partially released from cell wall matrix of foods. Bound phenolics such as phenolic acids and flavonoids display strong bioactivities such as anticancer, anti-inflammation and cardiovascular disease ameliorating effects. They can be extracted by several methods such as acid, alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis to quantify their contents in foods. In addition, they can also be released from the cell wall matrix during food processing procedures such as fermentation, germination, roasting, extrusion cooking and boiling. This review provides critical information for better understanding the insoluble-bound phenolics in food and fills an existing gap in the literature.
Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds
Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.
Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s- 1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens (N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s- 1 and body angle from -15∘ to 50∘. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counterrotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag (L:D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10∘ to 30∘. Peak (L:D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15∘ or 20∘, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in CL and CD from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s- 1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s- 1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L:D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L:D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the
Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.
This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Free Trade and Tariffs; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism; and Nationalism vs. Internationalism. Each of the lessons concludes with a Mastery Test to be completed by the student. (DB)
Optimal Bounds in Parametric LTL Games
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Zimmermann
2011-06-01
Full Text Available We consider graph games of infinite duration with winning conditions in parameterized linear temporal logic, where the temporal operators are equipped with variables for time bounds. In model checking such specifications were introduced as "PLTL" by Alur et al. and (in a different version called "PROMPT-LTL" by Kupferman et al.. We present an algorithm to determine optimal variable valuations that allow a player to win a game. Furthermore, we show how to determine whether a player wins a game with respect to some, infinitely many, or all valuations. All our algorithms run in doubly-exponential time; so, adding bounded temporal operators does not increase the complexity compared to solving plain LTL games.
Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Anders Fjendbo
2016-01-01
Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim to...... and limited processing may occur due to time constraints, low involvement in the decision at hand, relying on habits or the task requiring too high a mental effort....... to maximise some subjective measure. Where other fields, for example within the social sciences and psychology, have made serious efforts to explore alternative models derived from principles of bounded rationality, this direction has begun to take speed within transport applications only recently. Bounded...
Tight Bounds for Distributed Functional Monitoring
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Woodruff, David P.; Zhang, Qin
2011-01-01
output to a function $f$ computed over the union of the inputs. The goal is to minimize the communication. We show the randomized communication complexity of estimating the number of distinct elements up to a $1+\\eps$ factor is $\\Omega(k/\\eps^2)$, improving the previous $\\Omega(k + 1/\\eps^2)$ bound......} t))$ to $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{1-2/p}/(\\eps^{4/p} t))$, giving the first bound for estimating $F_0$ in $t$ passes of $\\Omega(1/(\\eps^2 t))$ bits of space that does not use the gap-hamming problem, and showing a distribution for the gap-hamming problem with high external information cost or super...
A holographic bound for D3-brane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Momeni, Davood; Myrzakul, Aizhan; Myrzakulov, Ratbay [Eurasian National University, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Eurasian National University, Department of General Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom)
2017-06-15
In this paper, we will regularize the holographic entanglement entropy, holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for a configuration of D3-branes. We will also study the regularization of the holographic complexity from the action for a configuration of D3-branes. It will be demonstrated that for a spherical shell of D3-branes the regularized holographic complexity is always greater than or equal to the regularized fidelity susceptibility. Furthermore, we will also demonstrate that the regularized holographic complexity is related to the regularized holographic entanglement entropy for this system. Thus, we will obtain a holographic bound involving regularized holographic complexity, regularized holographic entanglement entropy and regularized fidelity susceptibility of a configuration of D3-brane. We will also discuss a bound for regularized holographic complexity from action, for a D3-brane configuration. (orig.)
Novel black hole bound states and entropy
Govindarajan, T R
2011-01-01
We solve for the spectrum of the Laplacian as Hamiltonian on $\\mathbb{R}^{2}-\\mathbb{D}$ and in $\\mathbb{R}^{3}-\\mathbb{B}$. A self-adjointness analysis with $\\partial\\mathbb{D}$ and $\\partial\\mathbb{B}$ as the boundary for the two cases shows that a general class of boundary conditions for which the Hamiltonian operator is essentially self-adjoint are of the mixed (Robin) type. With this class of boundary conditions we obtain 'bound state' solutions for the Schroedinger equation. Interestingly, these solutions are all localized near the boundary. We further show that the number of bound states is finite and is infact proportional to the perimeter or area of the removed \\emph{disc} or \\emph{ball}. We then argue that similar considerations should hold for static black hole backgrounds with the horizon treated as the boundary.
Spectral singularities and zero energy bound states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heiss, W.D. [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study, and Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Stellenbosch, 7602 Matieland (South Africa); Nazmitdinov, R.G. [Department de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)
2011-08-15
Single particle scattering around zero energy is re-analysed in view of recent experiments with ultra-cold atoms, nano-structures and nuclei far from the stability valley. For non-zero orbital angular momentum the low energy scattering cross section exhibits dramatic changes depending on the occurrence of either a near resonance or a bound state or the situation in between, that is a bound state at zero energy. Such state is singular in that it has an infinite scattering length, behaves for the eigenvalues but not for the eigenfunctions as an exceptional point and has no pole in the scattering function. These results should be observable whenever the interaction or scattering length can be controlled. (authors)
Volume Stability of Bitumen Bound Building Blocks
Thanaya I.N.A.
2010-01-01
This paper covers results of laboratory investigations on the volume stability of masonry units incorporating waste materials bound with bitumen (Bitublocks), due to moisture adsorption, thermal exposure and vacuum saturation. The materials used were steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, and 50 pen bitumen. The samples were produced in hot mix method, compacted, then exposed to moist and temperature. It was found that moisture adsorption from the environment caused the Bitublock to expand....
Closed form bound-state perturbation theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ollie J. Rose
1980-01-01
Full Text Available The perturbed Schrödinger eigenvalue problem for bound states is cast into integral form using Green's Functions. A systematic algorithm is developed and applied to the resulting equation giving rise to approximate solutions expressed as functions of the given perturbation parameter. As a by-product, convergence radii for the traditional Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theories emerge in a natural way.
EXPLICIT LOWER BOUNDS FOR LINEAR FORMS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leppälä, Kalle
2016-01-01
Let I be the field of rational numbers or an imaginary quadratic field and Z(I) its ring of integers. We study some general lemmas that produce lower bounds vertical bar B-0 + B-1 theta(1) +... + B-r theta(r)vertical bar >= 1/max{vertical bar B-1 vertical bar,...,vertical bar B-r vertical bar}(mu...
Exact BPS bound for noncommutative baby Skyrmions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Domrin, Andrei, E-mail: domrin@mi.ras.ru [Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, 119992, GSP-2, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lechtenfeld, Olaf, E-mail: lechtenf@itp.uni-hannover.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik and Riemann Center for Geometry and Physics, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstraße 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Linares, Román, E-mail: lirr@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, México D.F. (Mexico); Maceda, Marco, E-mail: mmac@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, México D.F. (Mexico)
2013-11-25
The noncommutative baby Skyrme model is a Moyal deformation of the two-dimensional sigma model plus a Skyrme term, with a group-valued or Grassmannian target. Exact abelian solitonic solutions have been identified analytically in this model, with a singular commutative limit. Inside any given Grassmannian, we establish a BPS bound for the energy functional, which is saturated by these baby Skyrmions. This asserts their stability for unit charge, as we also test in second-order perturbation theory.
Bounding symbolic powers via asymptotic multiplier ideals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zach Teitler
2009-04-01
Full Text Available We revisit a bound on symbolic powers found by Ein-Lazarsfeld-Smith and subsequently improved by Takagi-Yoshida. We show that the original argument of [6] actually gives the same improvement. On the other hand, we show by examples that any further improvement based on the same technique appears unlikely. This is primarily an exposition; only some examples and remarks might be new.
Herbert Simon: bounded rationality and organizations theory
Estrada, Fernando
2012-01-01
This article evaluates Herbert A. Simon’s contribution to organization theory, placing special emphasis on the criterion of bounded rationality. Simon’s criticism of the orthodox version of organizational bureaucracy is interpreted and his analysis is extended to institutional economics. One of Simon’s main achievements in organizational theory consisted of analytically evaluating the psychology of individual and collective behaviour, thereby opening up the way for future investigation by D. ...
Safe, Multiphase Bounds Check Elimination in Java
2010-01-28
National Science Foundation under grants CCF-0846010, EIA-0117255, CCF-0702527, and CNS-0855247. References [1] Elvira Albert, Germán Puebla, and Manuel ...David Grove, Michael Hind, Vivek Sarkar, Mauricio J. Serrano , V. C. Sreedhar, Harini Srinivasan, and John Whaley. The jalapeño dynamic optimizing...Computer Science, pages 137–153, August 2009. 40 Gampe, et al. Multiphase Bounds Check Elimination CS-TR-2010-001 [44] Martin Odersky and Philip Wadler
On Lower Bounds for Statistical Learning Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Po-Ling Loh
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In recent years, tools from information theory have played an increasingly prevalent role in statistical machine learning. In addition to developing efficient, computationally feasible algorithms for analyzing complex datasets, it is of theoretical importance to determine whether such algorithms are “optimal” in the sense that no other algorithm can lead to smaller statistical error. This paper provides a survey of various techniques used to derive information-theoretic lower bounds for estimation and learning. We focus on the settings of parameter and function estimation, community recovery, and online learning for multi-armed bandits. A common theme is that lower bounds are established by relating the statistical learning problem to a channel decoding problem, for which lower bounds may be derived involving information-theoretic quantities such as the mutual information, total variation distance, and Kullback–Leibler divergence. We close by discussing the use of information-theoretic quantities to measure independence in machine learning applications ranging from causality to medical imaging, and mention techniques for estimating these quantities efficiently in a data-driven manner.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peano, Claudia De Rosa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: cpeano@superig.com.br; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia e Administracao. Dept. de Economia]. E-mail: fanuatti@usp.br
2006-07-01
This work analyses the methodology adopted by ANEEL in electricity distribution companies' tariff revision. The theoretical approach assumes that the institutional endowment and existing regulatory framework restricts the regulators choice of tariff revision mechanism design. Regulators choice of methodology can contribute to the creation of a good reputation, reducing uncertainties and promoting efficiency. We evaluate how the chosen methods satisfy the aspect of internal coherence among them and with the commitments found in the basic legal framework of the industry. We conclude that the adoption of a Reference Firm as a benchmark presents some coherency and transparency, but the methodology has consistency problems and is not suitable to the maturity level and administrative capacity of the regulatory system. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kitzing, Lena
2014-01-01
Different support instruments for renewable energy expose investors differently to market risks. This has implications on the attractiveness of investment. We use mean-variance portfolio analysis to identify the risk implications of two support instruments: feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums....... Using cash flow analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and mean-variance analysis, we quantify risk-return relationships for an exemplary offshore wind park in a simplified setting. We show that feedin tariffs systematically require lower direct support levels than feed-in premiums while providing the same...... attractiveness for investment, because they expose investors to less market risk. These risk implications should be considered when designing policy schemes....
Research on Estimates of Xi’an City Life Garbage Pay-As-You-Throw Based on Two-part Tariff method
Yaobo, Shi; Xinxin, Zhao; Fuli, Zheng
2017-05-01
Domestic waste whose pricing can’t be separated from the pricing of public economics category is quasi public goods. Based on Two-part Tariff method on urban public utilities, this paper designs the pricing model in order to match the charging method and estimates the standard of pay-as-you-throw using data of the past five years in Xi’an. Finally, this paper summarizes the main results and proposes corresponding policy recommendations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bjoerndal, Endre; Bjoerndal, Mette
2010-11-15
In this report, we make an evaluation of the energy component of the central grid tariff and the use of marginal loss rates. We will first review the theory of optimum transmission tariffs and describes how the marginal loss rates are calculated and how these are used in combination with the system price in the current transmission costs. We describe the trend in the Swedish marginal loss schedule, and we refer the very short development in the PJM area (U.S. east coast). As the Swedish and the Norwegian system is apparently based on the same principles, we problematize the lack of harmonization, since the systems actually are now very different. There is little doubt that Statnett has refined and improved methods for calculating the marginal loss rates, while ensuring that bottlenecks are still handled fairly easy by a few large price areas on Nord Pool Spot. We discuss the relationship between loss-tariff and congestion management, and we recommend that Statnett considering using the area price as the settlement price. This will make it much easier for operators to take account of losses. (Author)
Ionically Bound Peroxidase from Peach Fruit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neves Valdir Augusto
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Soluble, ionically bound peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO were extracted from the pulp of peach fruit during ripening at 20°C. Ionically bound form was purified 6.1-fold by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The purified enzyme showed only one peak of activity on Sephadex G-100 and PAGE revealed that the enzyme was purified by the procedures adopted. The purified enzyme showed a molecular weight of 29000 Da, maximum activity at pH 5.0 and at 40ºC. The calculated apparent activation energy (Ea for the reaction was10.04 kcal/mol. The enzyme was heat-labile in the temperature range of 60 to 75ºC with a fast inactivation at 75ºC. Measurement of residual activity showed a stabilizing effect of sucrose at various temperature/sugar concentrations (0, 10, 20 %, w/w, with an activation energy (Ea for inactivation increasing with sucrose concentration from 0 to 20% (w/w. The Km and Vmax values were 9.35 and 15.38 mM for 0-dianisidine and H2O2, respectively. The bound enzyme was inhibited competitively by ferulic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids with different values of Ki,. L-cysteine, p-coumaric and indolacetic acid and Fe++ also inhibited the enzyme but at a lower grade. N-ethylmaleimide and p-CMB were not effective to inhibit the enzyme demonstrating the non-essentiality of SH groups.
Bound values for Hall conductivity of heterogeneous medium under ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
- ditions in inhomogeneous medium has been studied. It is shown that bound values for. Hall conductivity differ from bound values for metallic conductivity. This is due to the unusual character of current percolation under quantum Hall effect ...
The S-matrix for systems with bound states
Ruijgrok, Th.W.
A unitary S-matrix is defined for a system of three particles, two of which can form a bound state. It is shown how for elastic scattering the polarization of the bound state must be taken into account.
Linear Plotkin bound for entanglement-assisted quantum codes
Guo, Luobin; Li, Ruihu
2013-03-01
The entanglement-assisted (EA) formalism is a generalization of the standard stabilizer formalism, and it can transform arbitrary quaternary classical linear codes into entanglement-assisted quantum error correcting codes (EAQECCs) by using of shared entanglement between the sender and the receiver. Using the special structure of linear EAQECCs, we derive an EA-Plotkin bound for linear EAQECCs, which strengthens the previous known EA-Plotkin bound. This linear EA-Plotkin bound is tighter then the EA-Singleton bound, and matches the EA-Hamming bound and the EA-linear programming bound in some cases. We also construct three families of EAQECCs with good parameters. Some of these EAQECCs saturate this linear EA-Plotkin bound and the others are near optimal according to this bound; almost all of these linear EAQECCs are degenerate codes.
Bound states in the strong coupling limit
Martin, A
1972-01-01
The author shows that the number of bound states of a particle in a short-range potential in n dimensions is given asymptotically by N=g /sup n/2/S/sub n//(2 pi )/sup n/ integral mod 2MV/sup -//h(cross)/sup 2/ mod /sup n/2/d/sup n/x+0(g/sup n/2-g/) for g to infinity , where gV /sup -/ is the attractive part of the potential, and S/sub /n is the volume of the n dimensional sphere with unit radius. (10 refs).
Topological edge states of bound photon pairs
Gorlach, Maxim A.; Poddubny, Alexander N.
2017-05-01
We predict the existence of interaction-driven edge states of bound two-photon quasiparticles in a dimer periodic array of nonlinear optical cavities. The energy spectrum of photon pairs is dramatically richer than in the noninteracting case or in a simple lattice, featuring collapse and revival of multiple edge and bulk modes as well as edge states in continuum. We link the edge-state existence to the two-photon quantum walk graph connectivity. Our results offer a route to control quantum entanglement and provide insights into the physics of many-body topological states.
Properties of Excitons Bound to Ionized Donors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skettrup, Torben; Suffczynski, M.; Gorzkowski, W.
1971-01-01
Binding energies, interparticle distances, oscillator strengths, and exchange corrections are calculated for the three-particle complex corresponding to an exciton bound to an ionized donor. The results are given as functions of the mass ratio of the electron and hole. Binding of the complex...... is obtained for mass ratios up to 0.426. The interparticle distances are up to 50 times larger than the corresponding exciton radius. The oscillator strengths are about 104 times greater than those of free excitons, while the exchange corrections for the complex are comparable to those of free excitions...
Landauer Bound for Analog Computing Systems
Diamantini, M. Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A.
2016-01-01
By establishing a relation between information erasure and continuous phase transitions we generalise the Landauer bound to analog computing systems. The entropy production per degree of freedom during erasure of an analog variable (reset to standard value) is given by the logarithm of the configurational volume measured in units of its minimal quantum. As a consequence every computation has to be carried on with a finite number of bits and infinite precision is forbidden by the fundamental laws of physics, since it would require an infinite amount of energy.
Model Independent Bounds on Kinetic Mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hook, Anson; Izaguirre, Eder; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC
2011-08-22
New Abelian vector bosons can kinetically mix with the hypercharge gauge boson of the Standard Model. This letter computes the model independent limits on vector bosons with masses from 1 GeV to 1 TeV. The limits arise from the numerous e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments that have been performed in this energy range and bound the kinetic mixing by {epsilon} {approx}< 0.03 for most of the mass range studied, regardless of any additional interactions that the new vector boson may have.
Engineering the coupling between Majorana bound states
Shi, Z. C.; Shao, X. Q.; Xia, Y.; Yi, X. X.
2017-09-01
We study the coupling between Majorana bound states (CMBS), which is mediated by a topologically trivial chain in the presence of pairing coupling and long-range coupling. The results show that CMBS can be enhanced by the pairing coupling and long-range coupling of the trivial chain. When driving the trivial chain by periodic driving field, we deduce the analytical expressions of CMBS in the high-frequency limit, and demonstrate that CMBS can be modulated by the frequency and amplitude of driving field. Finally we exhibit the application of tunable CMBS in realizing quantum logic gates.
Valuation models and Simon's bounded rationality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandra Strommer de Farias Godoi
2009-09-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at reconciling the evidence that sophisticated valuation models are increasingly used by companies in their investment appraisal with the literature of bounded rationality, according to which objective optimization is impracticable in the real world because it would demand an immense level of sophistication of the analytical and computational processes of human beings. We show how normative valuation models should rather be viewed as forms of reality representation, frameworks according to which the real world is perceived, fragmented for a better understanding, and recomposed, providing an orderly method for undertaking a task as complex as the investment decision.
Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Y., E-mail: yiriolin@illinois.edu; Leggett, A. J. [University of Illinois at Urhana-Champaign, Dept. of Physics (United States)
2014-12-15
We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it.
Score Bounded Monte-Carlo Tree Search
Cazenave, Tristan; Saffidine, Abdallah
Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) is a successful algorithm used in many state of the art game engines. We propose to improve a MCTS solver when a game has more than two outcomes. It is for example the case in games that can end in draw positions. In this case it improves significantly a MCTS solver to take into account bounds on the possible scores of a node in order to select the nodes to explore. We apply our algorithm to solving Seki in the game of Go and to Connect Four.
Infrared spectroscopy of weakly bound molecular ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeh, Lisa I-Ching
1988-11-01
The infrared spectra of a series of hydrated hydronium cluster ions and of protonated ethane ion are presented. A tandem mass spectrometer is ideally suited to obtaining the spectra of such weakly bound molecular ions. Traditional absorption spectroscopy is not feasible in these situations, so the techniques described in this thesis make use of some consequence of photon absorption with higher sensitivity than simply attenuation of laser power. That consequence is dissociation. By first mass selecting the parent ion under study and then mass selecting the fragment ion formed from dissociation, the near unit detection efficiency of ion counting methods has been used to full advantage.
BOUND PERIODICAL HOLDINGS BATTELLE - NORTHWEST LIBRARY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1967-05-01
This report lists the bound periodicals in the Technical Library at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. It was prepared from a computer program and is arranged in two parts. Part one is an alphabetical list of journals by title; part two is an arrangement of the journals by subject. The list headings are self-explanatory, with the exception of the title code, which is necessary in the machine processing. The listing is complete through June, 1966 and updates an earlier publication issued in March, 1965.
A lower bound of concurrence for multipartite quantum systems
Zhu, Xue-Na; Li, Ming; Fei, Shao-Ming
2018-02-01
We present a lower bound of concurrence for four-partite systems in terms of the concurrence for M (2≤ M≤ 3) part quantum systems and give an analytical lower bound for 2⊗ 2⊗ 2⊗ 2 mixed quantum sates. It is shown that these lower bounds are able to improve the existing bounds and detect entanglement better. Furthermore, our approach can be generalized to multipartite quantum systems.
Semirelativistic N-boson systems bound by attractive pair potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, Richard L [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (Canada); Lucha, Wolfgang [Institute for High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: rhall@mathstat.concordia.ca, E-mail: wolfgang.lucha@oeaw.ac.at
2009-10-02
We establish bounds on the energy of a system of N identical bosons bound by attractive pair potentials and obeying the semirelativistic Salpeter equation. The lower bound is provided by a 'reduction', with the aid of Jacobi relative coordinates, to a suitably scaled one-body Klein-Gordon problem. Complementary upper energy bounds are provided by means of a Gaussian trial function. Detailed results are presented for the exponential pair potential V(r) = -vexp(-r/a)
Bounding the number of remarkable values via Jouanolou's theorem
Chèze, Guillaume
2015-01-01
In this article we bound the number of remarkable values of a polynomial vector field. The proof is short and based on Jouanolou's theorem about rational first integrals of planar polynomial derivations. Our bound is given in term of the size of a Newton polygon associated to the vector field. We prove that this bound is almost reached.
Bounding the number of remarkable values via Jouanolou's theorem
Chèze, Guillaume
2015-05-01
In this article we bound the number of remarkable values of a polynomial vector field. The proof is short and based on Jouanolou's theorem about rational first integrals of planar polynomial derivations. Our bound is given in term of the size of a Newton polygon associated to the vector field. We prove that this bound is almost reached.
Bound values for Hall conductivity of heterogeneous medium under ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bound values for Hall conductivity under quantum Hall effect (QHE) conditions in inhomogeneous medium has been studied. It is shown that bound values for Hall conductivity differ from bound values for metallic conductivity. This is due to the unusual character of current percolation under quantum Hall effect conditions.
Bounds in the generalized Weber problem under locational uncertainty
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juel, Henrik
1981-01-01
An existing analysis of the bounds on the Weber problem solution under uncertainty is incorrect. For the generalized problem with arbitrary measures of distance, we give easily computable ranges on the bounds and state the conditions under which the exact values of the bounds can be found...
Samuel Andrés Arias Valencia; Germán Campuzano Maya
2003-01-01
PURPOSE: To describe the tendency of reference tariffs in recent years in three colombian institutions (Sociedad Colombiana de Patología Clínica —SCPC—, Instituto de Seguros Sociales —ISS— and Ministry of Health), for the three laboratory tests with greater demand, namely: glucose test, urine analysis and blood count. Methodology: The tariffs for these tests in the aforementioned institutions were analyzed since first available until 2003. Tariffs of the SCPC are adjusted according to officia...
Generalized bounds for convex multistage stochastic programs
Künzi, H; Fandel, G; Trockel, W; Basile, A; Drexl, A; Dawid, H; Inderfurth, K; Kürsten, W; Schittko, U
2005-01-01
This work was completed during my tenure as a scientific assistant and d- toral student at the Institute for Operations Research at the University of St. Gallen. During that time, I was involved in several industry projects in the field of power management, on the occasion of which I was repeatedly c- fronted with complex decision problems under uncertainty. Although usually hard to solve, I quickly learned to appreciate the benefit of stochastic progr- ming models and developed a strong interest in their theoretical properties. Motivated both by practical questions and theoretical concerns, I became p- ticularly interested in the art of finding tight bounds on the optimal value of a given model. The present work attempts to make a contribution to this important branch of stochastic optimization theory. In particular, it aims at extending some classical bounding methods to broader problem classes of practical relevance. This book was accepted as a doctoral thesis by the University of St. Gallen in June 2004.1...
Bounds of parameter estimation for interference signals.
Li, Chengshuai; Zhu, Yizheng
2017-08-20
Parameter estimation, especially frequency estimation, from noisy observations of interference is essential in optical interferometric sensing and metrology. The Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) of such estimation determines measurement sensitivity limit. Unlike the well-studied complex sinusoids in communication theory, an optical interference signal is distinctly different in its model parameters and noise statistics. The connection between these parameters and their estimation bounds has not been well understood. Here we propose a complete, realistic multiparameter interference model corrupted by a combination of shot noise, dark noise, and readout noise. We derive the Fisher information matrix and the CRBs for all model parameters, including intensity, visibility, optical path length (frequency), and initial phase. We show that the CRBs of frequency and phase are coupled but not affected by the knowledge of intensity and visibility. Knowing the initial phase offers significant sensitivity advantage, which is verified by both theoretical derivations and numerical simulations. In addition to the complete model, a shot noise-limited case is studied, permitting the calculation of the CRBs directly from measured data.
More loosely bound hadron molecules at CDF?
Bignamini, C; Piccinini, F; Polosa, A D; Riquer, V; Sabelli, C
2010-01-01
In a recent paper we have proposed a method to estimate the prompt production cross section of X(3872) at the Tevatron assuming that this particle is a loosely bound molecule of a D and a D*bar meson. Under this hypothesis we find that it is impossible to explain the high prompt production cross section found by CDF at sigma(X(3872)) \\sim 30-70 nb as our theoretical prediction is about 300 times smaller than the measured one. Following our work, Artoisenet and Braaten, have suggested that final state interactions in the DD*bar system might be so strong to push the result we obtained for the cross section up to the experimental value. Relying on their conclusions we show that the production of another very narrow loosely bound molecule, the X_s=D_s D_s*bar, could be similarly enhanced. X_s should then be detectable at CDF with a mass of 4080 MeV and a prompt production cross section of sigma(X_s) \\sim 1-3 nb.
Search for a bound K− pp system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Camerini P.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Data from the K− absorption reaction on 6,7Li, 9Be, 13C and 16O have recently been collected by FINUDA at the DAΦNE φ-factory (Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati-INFN, following an earlier lower statitics run on 12C and some other targets. FINUDA is a high acceptance magnetic spectrometer which performed a wide range of studies by detecting the charged particles and neutrons exiting the targets after the absorption event. In this paper it is discussed about the study of the A(K− , Λp reaction in the context of the search for deeply bound $ar{K}$ - nuclear states. The observation of a bump in the Λp invariant mass distribution is discussed in terms of a possible signature of a deeply bound K− pp kaonic cluster as well as of more conventional physics. An overview of the experimental situation in this ﬁeld will be given.
A Conjectured Bound on Accidental Symmetries
Buican, Matthew
2012-01-01
In this note, we study a large class of four-dimensional R-symmetric theories, and we describe a new quantity, \\tau_U, which is well-defined in these theories. Furthermore, we conjecture that this quantity is larger in the ultraviolet (UV) than in the infrared (IR), i.e. that \\tau_U^{UV}>\\tau_U^{IR}. While we do not prove this inequality in full generality, it is straightforward to show that our conjecture holds in the subset of theories that do not have accidental symmetries. In addition, we subject our inequality to an array of non-trivial tests in theories with accidental symmetries and dramatically different dynamics both in N=1 and N=2 supersymmetry and find that our inequality is obeyed. One interesting consequence of this conjecture is that the mixing of accidental symmetries with the IR superconformal R current is bounded by the UV quantity, \\tau_U^{UV}. To demonstrate the potential utility of this bound, we apply it to the somewhat mysterious SU(2) gauge theory of Intriligator, Seiberg, and Shenker a...
Bounds for phylogenetic network space metrics.
Francis, Andrew; Huber, Katharina T; Moulton, Vincent; Wu, Taoyang
2018-04-01
Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for representation of reticulate evolution. Recently, a space of unrooted phylogenetic networks was introduced, where such a network is a connected graph in which every vertex has degree 1 or 3 and whose leaf-set is a fixed set X of taxa. This space, denoted [Formula: see text], is defined in terms of two operations on networks-the nearest neighbor interchange and triangle operations-which can be used to transform any network with leaf set X into any other network with that leaf set. In particular, it gives rise to a metric d on [Formula: see text] which is given by the smallest number of operations required to transform one network in [Formula: see text] into another in [Formula: see text]. The metric generalizes the well-known NNI-metric on phylogenetic trees which has been intensively studied in the literature. In this paper, we derive a bound for the metric d as well as a related metric [Formula: see text] which arises when restricting d to the subset of [Formula: see text] consisting of all networks with [Formula: see text] vertices, [Formula: see text]. We also introduce two new metrics on networks-the SPR and TBR metrics-which generalize the metrics on phylogenetic trees with the same name and give bounds for these new metrics. We expect our results to eventually have applications to the development and understanding of network search algorithms.
Counting Majorana bound states using complex momenta
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Mandal
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Recently, the connection between Majorana fermions bound to the defects in arbitrary dimensions, and complex momentum roots of the vanishing determinant of the corresponding bulk Bogoliubov–de Gennes (BdG Hamiltonian, has been established (EPL, 2015, 110, 67005. Based on this understanding, a formula has been proposed to count the number (n of the zero energy Majorana bound states, which is related to the topological phase of the system. In this paper, we provide a proof of the counting formula and we apply this formula to a variety of 1d and 2d models belonging to the classes BDI, DIII and D. We show that we can successfully chart out the topological phase diagrams. Studying these examples also enables us to explicitly observe the correspondence between these complex momentum solutions in the Fourier space, and the localized Majorana fermion wavefunctions in the position space. Finally, we corroborate the fact that for systems with a chiral symmetry, these solutions are the so-called "exceptional points", where two or more eigenvalues of the complexified Hamiltonian coalesce.
Dilation volumes of sets of bounded perimeter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan
This paper analyzes the first order behavior (that is, the right sided derivative) of the volume of the dilation A ⊕ tQ as t converges to zero. Here A and Q are subsets of n-dimensional Euclidean space, A has bounded perimeter and Q is compact. If Q consists of two points only, x and x+u, say......, this derivative coincides up to sign with the directional derivative of the covariogram of A in direction u. By known results for the covariogram, this derivative can therefore be expressed by the cosine transform of the surface area measure of A. We extend this result to sets Q that are at most countable and use...... it to determine the derivative of the contact distribution function of a stationary random closed set at zero. A variant for uncountable Q is given, too. The proofs are based on approximation of the characteristic function of A by smooth functions of bounded variation and showing corresponding formulas for them....
Magnetic resonance elastography: Inversions in bounded media.
Kolipaka, Arunark; McGee, Kiaran P; Manduca, Armando; Romano, Anthony J; Glaser, Kevin J; Araoz, Philip A; Ehman, Richard L
2009-12-01
Magnetic resonance elastography is a noninvasive imaging technique capable of quantifying and spatially resolving the shear stiffness of soft tissues by visualization of synchronized mechanical wave displacement fields. However, magnetic resonance elastography inversions generally assume that the measured tissue motion consists primarily of shear waves propagating in a uniform, infinite medium. This assumption is not valid in organs such as the heart, eye, bladder, skin, fascia, bone and spinal cord, in which the shear wavelength approaches the geometric dimensions of the object. The aim of this study was to develop and test mathematical inversion algorithms capable of resolving shear stiffness from displacement maps of flexural waves propagating in bounded media such as beams, plates, and spherical shells, using geometry-specific equations of motion. Magnetic resonance elastography and finite element modeling of beam, plate, and spherical shell phantoms of various geometries were performed. Mechanical testing of the phantoms agreed with the stiffness values obtained from finite element modeling and magnetic resonance elastography data, and a linear correlation of r(2) >or= 0.99 was observed between the stiffness values obtained using magnetic resonance elastography and finite element modeling data. In conclusion, we have demonstrated new inversion methods for calculating shear stiffness that may be more appropriate for waves propagating in bounded media. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
A balance for dark matter bound states
Nozzoli, F.
2017-05-01
Massive particles with self interactions of the order of 0.2 barn/GeV are intriguing Dark Matter candidates from an astrophysical point of view. Current and past experiments for direct detection of massive Dark Matter particles are focusing to relatively low cross sections with ordinary matter, however they cannot rule out very large cross sections, σ/M > 0.01 barn/GeV, due to atmosphere and material shielding. Cosmology places a strong indirect limit for the presence of large interactions among Dark Matter and baryons in the Universe, however such a limit cannot rule out the existence of a small sub-dominant component of Dark Matter with non negligible interactions with ordinary matter in our galactic halo. Here, the possibility of the existence of bound states with ordinary matter, for a similar Dark Matter candidate with not negligible interactions, is considered. The existence of bound states, with binding energy larger than ∼ 1 meV, would offer the possibility to test in laboratory capture cross sections of the order of a barn (or larger). The signature of the detection for a mass increasing of cryogenic samples, due to the possible particle accumulation, would allow the investigation of these Dark Matter candidates with mass up to the GUT scale. A proof of concept for a possible detection set-up and the evaluation of some noise sources are described.
Performance Bounds on Two Concatenated, Interleaved Codes
Moision, Bruce; Dolinar, Samuel
2010-01-01
A method has been developed of computing bounds on the performance of a code comprised of two linear binary codes generated by two encoders serially concatenated through an interleaver. Originally intended for use in evaluating the performances of some codes proposed for deep-space communication links, the method can also be used in evaluating the performances of short-block-length codes in other applications. The method applies, more specifically, to a communication system in which following processes take place: At the transmitter, the original binary information that one seeks to transmit is first processed by an encoder into an outer code (Co) characterized by, among other things, a pair of numbers (n,k), where n (n > k)is the total number of code bits associated with k information bits and n k bits are used for correcting or at least detecting errors. Next, the outer code is processed through either a block or a convolutional interleaver. In the block interleaver, the words of the outer code are processed in blocks of I words. In the convolutional interleaver, the interleaving operation is performed bit-wise in N rows with delays that are multiples of B bits. The output of the interleaver is processed through a second encoder to obtain an inner code (Ci) characterized by (ni,ki). The output of the inner code is transmitted over an additive-white-Gaussian- noise channel characterized by a symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) Es/No and a bit SNR Eb/No. At the receiver, an inner decoder generates estimates of bits. Depending on whether a block or a convolutional interleaver is used at the transmitter, the sequence of estimated bits is processed through a block or a convolutional de-interleaver, respectively, to obtain estimates of code words. Then the estimates of the code words are processed through an outer decoder, which generates estimates of the original information along with flags indicating which estimates are presumed to be correct and which are found to
On the Applicability of Lower Bounds for Solving Rectilinear
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Jens; Karisch, Stefan E.; Perregaard, M.
1998-01-01
The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) belongs to the hard core of NP-hard optimization problems. After almost forty years of research only relatively small instances can be solved to optimality. The reason is that the quality of the lower bounds available for exact methods is not sufficient....... Recently, lower bounds based on decomposition were proposed for the so called rectilinear QAP that proved to be the strongest for a large class of problem instances. We investigate the strength of these bounds when applied not only at the root node of a search tree but as the bound function used...... in a Branch-and-Bound code solving large scale QAPs....
Degenerate quantum codes and the quantum Hamming bound
Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Klappenecker, Andreas
2010-03-01
The parameters of a nondegenerate quantum code must obey the Hamming bound. An important open problem in quantum coding theory is whether the parameters of a degenerate quantum code can violate this bound for nondegenerate quantum codes. In this article we show that Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes, over a prime power alphabet q⩾5, cannot beat the quantum Hamming bound. We prove a quantum version of the Griesmer bound for the CSS codes, which allows us to strengthen the Rains’ bound that an [[n,k,d
A sharp upper bound for departure from normality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, S.L.
1993-08-01
The departure from normality of a matrix is a real scalar that is impractical to compute if a matrix is large and its eigenvalues are unknown. A simple formula is presented for computing an upper bound for departure from normality in the Frobenius norm. This new upper bound is cheaper to compute than the upper bound derived by Henrici. Moreover, the new bound is sharp for Hermitian matrices, skew-Hermitian matrices and, in general, any matrix with eigenvalues that are horizontally or vertically aligned in the complex plane. In terms of applications, the new bound can be used in computing bounds for the spectral norm of matrix functions or bounds for the sensitivity of eigenvalues to matrix perturbations.
Butterfly velocity bound and reverse isoperimetric inequality
Feng, Xing-Hui; Lü, H.
2017-03-01
We study the butterfly effect of the AdS planar black holes in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. We find that the butterfly velocities can be expressed by a universal formula vB2=T S /(2 VthP ). In doing so, we come upon a near-horizon geometrical formula for the thermodynamical volume Vth . We verify the volume formula by examining a variety of AdS black holes. We also show that the volume formula implies that the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality follows straightforwardly from the null-energy condition, for static AdS black holes. The inequality is thus related to an upper bound of the butterfly velocities.
Congeniality bounds on quark masses from nucleosynthesis
Ali, M. Hossain; Hossain, M. Jakir; Tariq, Abdullah Shams Bin
2013-08-01
The work of Jaffe, Jenkins and Kimchi [Phys. Rev. D 79, 065014 (2009)] is revisited to see if indeed the region of congeniality found in their analysis survives further restrictions from nucleosynthesis. It is observed that much of their congenial region disappears when imposing conditions required to produce the correct and required abundances of the primordial elements as well as ensure that stars can continue to burn hydrogen nuclei to form helium as the first step in forming heavier elements in stellar nucleosynthesis. The remaining region is a very narrow slit reduced in width from around 29 MeV found by Jaffe et al. to only about 2.2 MeV in the difference of the nucleon/quark masses. Further bounds on δmq/mq seem to reduce even this narrow slit to the physical point itself.
CBC bound proteins and RNA fate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Giacometti, Simone
The cap-binding complex (CBC) plays a pivotal role in post-transcriptional processing events and orchestrates a variety of metabolic pathways, through association with different interaction partners. Two CBC sub-complexes, the CBC-ARS2-PHAX (CBCAP) and the CBC-nuclear exosome targeting (NEXT......) binding varies with the RNA maturation stage, with the CBC being highly enriched on mature mRNA, ARS2/PHAX/ZC3H18/MTR4 less so, and RMB7 preferentially bound to pre-mRNAs; (iv) MTR4 and RBM7 show different specificities, with RBM7 being highly enriched on introns and promoter upstream transcripts (PROMPTs......) complex (CBCN), were recently shown to target capped RNA either toward export or degradation, but the mechanisms by which they can discriminate between different RNA families and route them toward different metabolic pathways still remain unclear. A major question to be answered is how and when...
Frenetic Bounds on the Entropy Production
Maes, Christian
2017-10-01
We give a systematic derivation of positive lower bounds for the expected entropy production (EP) rate in classical statistical mechanical systems obeying a dynamical large deviation principle. The logic is the same for the return to thermodynamic equilibrium as it is for steady nonequilibria working under the condition of local detailed balance. We recover there recently studied "uncertainty" relations for the EP, appearing in studies about the effectiveness of mesoscopic machines. In general our refinement of the positivity of the expected EP rate is obtained in terms of a positive and even function of the expected current(s) which measures the dynamical activity in the system, a time-symmetric estimate of the changes in the system's configuration. Also underdamped diffusions can be included in the analysis.
Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redondo, J.
2007-12-15
The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to {chi}
Surface-bound states in nanodiamonds
Han, Peng; Antonov, Denis; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Bester, Gabriel
2017-05-01
We show via ab initio calculations and an electrostatic model that the notoriously low, but positive, electron affinity of bulk diamond becomes negative for hydrogen passivated nanodiamonds and argue that this peculiar situation (type-II offset with a vacuum level at nearly midgap) and the three further conditions: (i) a surface dipole with positive charge on the outside layer, (ii) a spherical symmetry, and (iii) a dielectric mismatch at the surface, results in the emergence of a peculiar type of surface state localized just outside the nanodiamond. These states are referred to as "surface-bound states" and have consequently a strong environmental sensitivity. These type of states should exist in any nanostructure with negative electron affinity. We further quantify the band offsets of different type of nanostructures as well as the exciton binding energy and contrast the results with results for "conventional" silicon quantum dots.
Volume Stability of Bitumen Bound Building Blocks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thanaya I.N.A.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper covers results of laboratory investigations on the volume stability of masonry units incorporating waste materials bound with bitumen (Bitublocks, due to moisture adsorption, thermal exposure and vacuum saturation. The materials used were steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, and 50 pen bitumen. The samples were produced in hot mix method, compacted, then exposed to moist and temperature. It was found that moisture adsorption from the environment caused the Bitublock to expand. The samples with less intense curing regime experienced lower expansion and became stable faster, and vice versa. Under thermal condition (at 70°C, the samples with less intense curing regime underwent higher expansion, and vice versa. They were also highly reversible. Their volume stability was found unique under water exposure. The expansion on first vacuum saturation cycle was irreversible, then largely reversible on the following cycles.
General bounds in Hybrid Natural Inflation
Germán, Gabriel; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Sussman, Roberto A.; Tapia, José
2017-12-01
Recently we have studied in great detail a model of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) by constructing two simple effective field theories. These two versions of the model allow inflationary energy scales as small as the electroweak scale in one of them or as large as the Grand Unification scale in the other, therefore covering the whole range of possible energy scales. In any case the inflationary sector of the model is of the form V(phi)=V0 (1+a cos(phi/f)) where 0<= a<1 and the end of inflation is triggered by an independent waterfall field. One interesting characteristic of this model is that the slow-roll parameter epsilon(phi) is a non-monotonic function of phi presenting a maximum close to the inflection point of the potential. Because the scalar spectrum Script Ps(k) of density fluctuations when written in terms of the potential is inversely proportional to epsilon(phi) we find that Script Ps(k) presents a minimum at phimin. The origin of the HNI potential can be traced to a symmetry breaking phenomenon occurring at some energy scale f which gives rise to a (massless) Goldstone boson. Non-perturbative physics at some temperature T
Resignation Syndrome: Catatonia? Culture-Bound?
Sallin, Karl; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Evers, Kathinka; Engström, Ingemar; Hjern, Anders; Petrovic, Predrag
2016-01-01
Resignation syndrome (RS) designates a long-standing disorder predominately affecting psychologically traumatized children and adolescents in the midst of a strenuous and lengthy migration process. Typically a depressive onset is followed by gradual withdrawal progressing via stupor into a state that prompts tube feeding and is characterized by failure to respond even to painful stimuli. The patient is seemingly unconscious. Recovery ensues within months to years and is claimed to be dependent on the restoration of hope to the family. Descriptions of disorders resembling RS can be found in the literature and the condition is unlikely novel. Nevertheless, the magnitude and geographical distribution stand out. Several hundred cases have been reported exclusively in Sweden in the past decade prompting the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare to recognize RS as a separate diagnostic entity. The currently prevailing stress hypothesis fails to account for the regional distribution and contributes little to treatment. Consequently, a re-evaluation of diagnostics and treatment is required. Psychogenic catatonia is proposed to supply the best fit with the clinical presentation. Treatment response, altered brain metabolism or preserved awareness would support this hypothesis. Epidemiological data suggests culture-bound beliefs and expectations to generate and direct symptom expression and we argue that culture-bound psychogenesis can accommodate the endemic distribution. Last, we review recent models of predictive coding indicating how expectation processes are crucially involved in the placebo and nocebo effect, delusions and conversion disorders. Building on this theoretical framework we propose a neurobiological model of RS in which the impact of overwhelming negative expectations are directly causative of the down-regulation of higher order and lower order behavioral systems in particularly vulnerable individuals. PMID:26858615
Resignation syndrome: Catatonia? Culture-bound?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karl eSallin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Resignation syndrome (RS designates a long-standing disorder predominately affecting psychologically traumatised children and adolescents in the midst of a strenuous and lengthy migration process. Typically a depressive onset is followed by gradual withdrawal progressing via stupor into a state that prompts tube feeding and is characterised by failure to respond even to painful stimuli. The patient is seemingly unconscious. Recovery ensues within months to years and is claimed to be dependent on the restoration of hope to the family.Descriptions of disorders resembling RS can be found in the literature and the condition is unlikely novel. Nevertheless, the magnitude and geographical distribution stand out. Several hundred cases have been reported exclusively in Sweden in the past decade prompting the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare to recognise RS as a separate diagnostic entity. The currently prevailing stress hypothesis fails to account for the regional distribution and contributes little to treatment. Consequently, a re-evaluation of diagnostics and treatment is required. Psychogenic catatonia is proposed to supply the best fit with the clinical presentation. Treatment response, altered brain metabolism or preserved awareness would support this hypothesis.Epidemiological data suggests culture-bound beliefs and expectations to generate and direct symptom expression and we argue that culture-bound psychogenesis can accommodate the endemic distribution.Last, we review recent models of predictive coding indicating how expectation processes are crucially involved in the placebo and nocebo effect, delusions and conversion disorders. Building on this theoretical framework we propose a neurobiological model of RS in which the impact of overwhelming negative expectations are directly causative of the down-regulation of higher order and lower order behavioural systems in particularly vulnerable individuals.
Resignation Syndrome: Catatonia? Culture-Bound?
Sallin, Karl; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Evers, Kathinka; Engström, Ingemar; Hjern, Anders; Petrovic, Predrag
2016-01-01
Resignation syndrome (RS) designates a long-standing disorder predominately affecting psychologically traumatized children and adolescents in the midst of a strenuous and lengthy migration process. Typically a depressive onset is followed by gradual withdrawal progressing via stupor into a state that prompts tube feeding and is characterized by failure to respond even to painful stimuli. The patient is seemingly unconscious. Recovery ensues within months to years and is claimed to be dependent on the restoration of hope to the family. Descriptions of disorders resembling RS can be found in the literature and the condition is unlikely novel. Nevertheless, the magnitude and geographical distribution stand out. Several hundred cases have been reported exclusively in Sweden in the past decade prompting the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare to recognize RS as a separate diagnostic entity. The currently prevailing stress hypothesis fails to account for the regional distribution and contributes little to treatment. Consequently, a re-evaluation of diagnostics and treatment is required. Psychogenic catatonia is proposed to supply the best fit with the clinical presentation. Treatment response, altered brain metabolism or preserved awareness would support this hypothesis. Epidemiological data suggests culture-bound beliefs and expectations to generate and direct symptom expression and we argue that culture-bound psychogenesis can accommodate the endemic distribution. Last, we review recent models of predictive coding indicating how expectation processes are crucially involved in the placebo and nocebo effect, delusions and conversion disorders. Building on this theoretical framework we propose a neurobiological model of RS in which the impact of overwhelming negative expectations are directly causative of the down-regulation of higher order and lower order behavioral systems in particularly vulnerable individuals.
Coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulence.
Dennis, David J C
2015-01-01
The inherent difficulty of understanding turbulence has led to researchers attacking the topic in many different ways over the years of turbulence research. Some approaches have been more successful than others, but most only deal with part of the problem. One approach that has seen reasonable success (or at least popularity) is that of attempting to deconstruct the complex and disorganised turbulent flow field into to a set of motions that are in some way organised. These motions are generally called "coherent structures". There are several strands to this approach, from identifying the coherent structures within the flow, defining their characteristics, explaining how they are created, sustained and destroyed, to utilising their features to model the turbulent flow. This review considers research on coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulent flows: a class of flow which is extremely interesting to many scientists (mainly, but not exclusively, physicists and engineers) due to their prevalence in nature, industry and everyday life. This area has seen a lot of activity, particularly in recent years, much of which has been driven by advances in experimental and computational techniques. However, several ideas, developed many years ago based on flow visualisation and intuition, are still both informative and relevant. Indeed, much of the more recent research is firmly indebted to some of the early pioneers of the coherent structures approach. Therefore, in this review, selected historical research is discussed along with the more contemporary advances in an attempt to provide the reader with a good overview of how the field has developed and to highlight the perspicacity of some of the early researchers, as well as providing an overview of our current understanding of the role of coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulent flows.
Coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David J.C. Dennis
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The inherent difficulty of understanding turbulence has led to researchers attacking the topic in many different ways over the years of turbulence research. Some approaches have been more successful than others, but most only deal with part of the problem. One approach that has seen reasonable success (or at least popularity is that of attempting to deconstruct the complex and disorganised turbulent flow field into to a set of motions that are in some way organised. These motions are generally called "coherent structures". There are several strands to this approach, from identifying the coherent structures within the flow, defining their characteristics, explaining how they are created, sustained and destroyed, to utilising their features to model the turbulent flow. This review considers research on coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulent flows: a class of flow which is extremely interesting to many scientists (mainly, but not exclusively, physicists and engineers due to their prevalence in nature, industry and everyday life. This area has seen a lot of activity, particularly in recent years, much of which has been driven by advances in experimental and computational techniques. However, several ideas, developed many years ago based on flow visualisation and intuition, are still both informative and relevant. Indeed, much of the more recent research is firmly indebted to some of the early pioneers of the coherent structures approach. Therefore, in this review, selected historical research is discussed along with the more contemporary advances in an attempt to provide the reader with a good overview of how the field has developed and to highlight the perspicacity of some of the early researchers, as well as providing an overview of our current understanding of the role of coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulent flows.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yugo Tanaka
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Feed-in tariff (FiT policy approaches for renewable energy (RE deployment are employed in many nations around the world. Although FiTs are considered effective in boosting RE deployment, the issue of increasing energy bills and social burden is an often-reported negative impact of their use. The FiT has been employed in Japan since 2012, following after many developed countries, and, as was experienced in other nations, led to a social burden imparted on society significantly higher than initial government estimates. Although policy decision making does not necessarily reflect international policy experience, it is still prudent to ask how international policy experiences of social burden increase were considered within the Japanese approach. In this research, we analyzed the transfer process by adapting a conventional model to develop more objective observations than was previously possible, by setting a benchmark for evaluation based on prior international experiences. We identified two streams of policy transfer, each led by different actors; the government and representatives of the National Diet of Japan (Diet. Both actors were exposed to the same experiences, however the interpretation, application to policy development and priority settings employed were vastly different. Although the framework can only assess policy learning processes, we have found that the government undertook a reasonable and rational process toward learning, while, on the other hand, the modified bill developed by the Diet members did not thoroughly derive learnings in the same way, due to cognitive and political reasons, and specifically, the issue of limiting social burden was not addressed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mokhov V.G.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze the youngest in the world competitive market of electric energy and power of Russia. The hypothesis that there is a significant time lag between the launch date regulated competitive energy market and the actual state of its transition to a stationary operation. To test the hypothesis covered the electric energy consumer’s reaction on tariffs changes in the UES of the Ural in the period of time after restructuring RJSC “UES of Russian Federation”. Factual data of UES of Russia’s System operator shows how indicator values of electric energy consumption elasticity changes: consuming turns from elastic to inelastic according to price. Proved that in 2014 the energy demand matches to a competitive market. As a methodical research tool used 5 types of regression analysis equations for time series of electricity consumption, in addiction by the rate of the day-ahead market for 2009-2014. The research found that the transition to a competitive market of electricity production in Russia in fact was didn’t carried out in 2008, but was carried in 2014. Research proved that the electricity market regression analysis applied in predicting short periods of time (day-ahead market, because by increasing the time interval of forecasting accuracy of the forecast is decreases. The research results have great practical significance for the power industry subjects, especially those with high energy intensity of production, as the increase in the accuracy of forecasting reduces fines and total costs for electricity.
Bounded Semantics of CTL and SAT-Based Verification
Zhang, Wenhui
Bounded model checking has been proposed as a complementary approach to BDD based symbolic model checking for combating the state explosion problem, esp. for efficient error detection. This has led to a lot of successful work with respect to error detection in the checking of LTL, ACTL (the universal fragment of CTL) and ACTL* properties by satisfiability testing. The use of bounded model checking for verification (in contrast to error detection) of LTL and ACTL properties has later also been studied. This paper studies the potentials and limitations of bounded model checking for the verification of CTL and CTL* formulas. On the theoretical side, we first provide a framework for discussion of bounded semantics, which serves as the basis for bounded model checking, then extend the bounded semantics of ACTL to a bounded semantics of CTL, and discuss the limitation of developing such a bounded semantics for CTL*. On the practical side, a deduction of a SAT-based bounded model checking approach for ACTL properties from the bounded semantics of CTL is demonstrated, and a comparison of such an approach with BDD-based model checking is presented based on experimental results.
Kalhor, Rohollah; Amini, Saeed; Emami, Majid; Kakasoltani, Keivan; Rhamani, Nasim; Kalhor, Leila
2016-01-01
Introduction Efficient use of resources in organizations is one of the most important duties of managers. Appropriate allocation of resources can help managers to do this well. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of radiology services and to compare it with governmental tariffs (introduced by the Ministry of Health in Iran). Methods This was a descriptive and applied study that was conducted using the retrospective approach. First, activity centers were identified on the basis of five main groups of hospital activities. Then, resources and resource drivers, activities, and hospital activity drivers were identified. At the next step, the activities related to the delivery of radiology process were identified. Last, through allocation of activities cost to the cost objects, the cost price of 66 services that were delivered in the radiology department were calculated. The data were collected by making checklists, using the hospital’s information system, observations, and interviews. Finally, the data were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon test, Microsoft Excel, and SPSS software, version 18. Results The findings showed that from the total cost of wages, materials, and overhead obtained, the unit cost of the 66 cost objects (delivered services) in the Radiology Department were calculated using the ABC method (Price of each unit of Nephrostogram obtained $15.8 and Cystogram obtained $18.4). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicated that the distribution of data of cost price using the ABC method was not normal (p = 0.000). The Wilcoxon test showed that there was a significant difference between the cost of services and the tariff of radiology services (p = 0.000). Conclusions The cost of delivered services in radiology departments was significantly higher than approved tariffs of the Ministry of Health, which can have a negative impact on the quality of services. PMID:27054013
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Couture, T.; Cory, K.
2009-06-01
This report analyzes renewable energy feed-in tariff (FIT) policies and explores the different FIT policies currently implemented in the United States. It also discusses of a few proposed policies, the best practices in FIT policy design, and examines how FITs can be used to target state policy goals. The report covers current and potential future interactions between FITs and other state and federal energy policies while also providing an overview of the impacts FIT policies have in terms of renewable energy deployment, job creation, and economic development.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guillo, Vicente Andreu; Sauer, Ildo Luis [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: illsauer@iee.usp.br
1999-07-01
The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. In this context, the aim of this work is to review the natural monopolies theory, regulation regimes, and the energy distribution tariffs of Brazilian electric power sector.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hippinen, I.; Pirhonen, J.; Ahtila, P. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Maekelae, V.M. [Komartek Oy, Lappeenranta (Finland)
2000-07-01
This is the final report of the research project 'Determination of hourly contract heat and water flow and demand of the tariffs', which was carried out by the Helsinki University of Technology and Komartek Oy. The report consists of two parts. Part A presents the study of the Helsinki University of Technology, in which the consumption of domestic hot water in different size houses were clarified. Part B presents the tariff calculations carried out by Komartek Oy. In the part of the Helsinki University of Technology, the consumption of hot household water has been measured in different sized houses in order to determine their real demand of district heat and heat exhanger capacity. Including earlier measurements, measurements were carried out in 35 buildings. The size of the houses varied from a two-family house to a house of 204 flats. The domestic hot water flows and water temperatures to and from the heat exchanger were measured continuously during periods of a day and a week. To find out the congruence between reality and the dimensioning standards, the measurement results have been compared with the current dimensioning standards. It became evident in the study, that the current dimensioning standards are considerably oversized. Measured maximum heat consumptions were in general less than half of the dimensioned maximums. Operation times for the maximum loads were very short timed, ranging from some tens of seconds to a couple of minutes. The maximum peak loads were either in the mornings or in the evenings. However, no special week-days with clear maximum loads were found during week measurements. In second part was studied how the domestic hot water consumption will influence on the incomes of a DH company and payments of different kinds of customers. Domestic hot water was calculated as a one hour maximum. It was found out that there were outstanding differences in payments of different sizes of customers between different tariffs when the total
The neural basis of bounded rational behavior
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Coricelli, Giorgio
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. We apply a cognitive hierarchy model to classify subject’s choices in the experimental game according to the degree of strategic reasoning so that we can identify the neural substrates of different levels of strategizing. We found a correlation between levels of strategic reasoning and activity in a neural network related to mentalizing, i.e. the ability to think about other’s thoughts and mental states. Moreover, brain data showed how complex cognitive processes subserve the higher level of reasoning about others. We describe how a cognitive hierarchy model fits both behavioural and brain data.
La racionalidad limitada es un fenómeno observado de manera frecuente tanto en juegos experimentales como en situaciones cotidianas. La Neuroeconomía puede mejorar la comprensión de los procesos mentales que caracterizan la racionalidad limitada; en paralelo nos puede ayudar a comprender comportamientos que violan el equilibrio. Nuestro trabajo presenta resultados recientes sobre la bases neuronales del razonamiento estratégico (y sus límite en juegos competitivos —como el juego del “beauty contest”. Estudiamos las bases neuronales del comportamiento estratégico en juegos con interacción entre sujetos usando resonancia magnética funcional (fMRI. Las decisiones de los participantes se clasifican acorde al grado de razonamiento estratégico: el llamado modelo de Jerarquías Cognitivas. Los resultados muestran una correlación entre niveles de
Bounds on Threshold of Regular Random $k$-SAT
Rathi, Vishwambhar; Rasmussen, Lars; Skoglund, Mikael
2010-01-01
We consider the regular model of formula generation in conjunctive normal form (CNF) introduced by Boufkhad et. al. We derive an upper bound on the satisfiability threshold and NAE-satisfiability threshold for regular random $k$-SAT for any $k \\geq 3$. We show that these bounds matches with the corresponding bound for the uniform model of formula generation. We derive lower bound on the threshold by applying the second moment method to the number of satisfying assignments. For large $k$, we note that the obtained lower bounds on the threshold of a regular random formula converges to the lower bound obtained for the uniform model. Thus, we answer the question posed in \\cite{AcM06} regarding the performance of the second moment method for regular random formulas.
Nonequilibrium quantum bounds to Landauer's principle: Tightness and effectiveness
Campbell, Steve; Guarnieri, Giacomo; Paternostro, Mauro; Vacchini, Bassano
2017-10-01
We assess two different nonequilibrium quantum Landauer bounds: the traditional approach based on the change in entropy, referred to as the "entropic bound," and one based on the details of the dynamical map, referred to as the "thermodynamic bound." By first restricting to a simple exactly solvable model of a single two-level system coupled to a finite-dimensional thermal environment and by exploiting an excitation-preserving interaction, we establish the dominant role played by the population terms in dictating the tightness of these bounds with respect to the dissipated heat and clearly establish that coherences only affect the entropic bound. Furthermore, we show that sharp boundaries between the relative performance of the two quantities emerge and find that there are clear instances where both approaches return a bound weaker than Clausius' statement of the second law, rendering them ineffective. Finally, we show that our results extend to generic interaction terms.
Persistence-Based Branch Misprediction Bounds for WCET Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puffitsch, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
Branch prediction is an important feature of pipelined processors to achieve high performance. However, it can lead to overly pessimistic worst-case execution time (WCET) bounds when being modeled too conservatively. This paper presents bounds on the number of branch mispredictions for local...... linear programming formulations of the WCET problem. An evaluation on a number of benchmarks shows that with these bounds, dynamic branch prediction does not necessarily lead to higher WCET bounds than static prediction schemes....... dynamic branch predictors. To handle interferences between branch instructions we use the notion of persistence, a concept that is also found in cache analyses. The bounds apply to branches in general, not only to branches that close a loop. Furthermore, the bounds can be easily integrated into integer...
Upper bounds on minimum cardinality of exact and approximate reducts
Chikalov, Igor
2010-01-01
In the paper, we consider the notions of exact and approximate decision reducts for binary decision tables. We present upper bounds on minimum cardinality of exact and approximate reducts depending on the number of rows (objects) in the decision table. We show that the bound for exact reducts is unimprovable in the general case, and the bound for approximate reducts is almost unimprovable in the general case. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
NITRO MUSK BOUND TO CARP HEMOGLOBIN ...
Nitroaromatic compounds including synthetic nitro musks are important raw materials and intermediates in the synthesis of explosives, dyes, and pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care-products (PPCPs). The nitro musks such as musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) are extensively used as fragrance ingredients in PPCPs and other commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (4-AMX) metabolite as well as a 2- amino-MK (2-AMK) metabolite were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry' (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM) in both the electron ionization (ElMS) and electron capture (EC) negative ion chemical ionization (NICIMS) modes. Detection of 4-AMX and 2-AMK occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin, derived from the nitroso metabolites, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released metabolites were extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation, and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. A comparison between the El and EC approaches was made. EC NICIMS detected both metabolites whereas only 4-AMX was detected by ElMS. The EC NICIMS approach exhibited fewer matrix responses and provided a lower detection limit. Quantitation in both approaches was based on internal standard and a calibration plot. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Q
Organically bound tritium analysis in environmental samples
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baglan, N. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Arpajon (France); Kim, S.B. [AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Cossonnet, C. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/STEME/LMRE, Orsay (France); Croudace, I.W.; Warwick, P.E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Fournier, M. [IRSN/DG/DMQ, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Galeriu, D. [IFIN-HH, Horia-Hulubei, Inst. Phys. and Nucl. Eng., Bucharest (Romania); Momoshima, N. [Kyushu University, Radioisotope Ctr., Fukuoka (Japan); Ansoborlo, E. [CEA/DEN/DRCP/CETAMA, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)
2015-03-15
Organically bound tritium (OBT) has become of increased interest within the last decade, with a focus on its behaviour and also its analysis, which are important to assess tritium distribution in the environment. In contrast, there are no certified reference materials and no standard analytical method through the international organization related to OBT. In order to resolve this issue, an OBT international working group was created in May 2012. Over 20 labs from around the world participated and submitted their results for the first intercomparison exercise results on potato (Sep 2013). The samples, specially-prepared potatoes, were provided in March 2013 to each participant. Technical information and results from this first exercise are discussed here for all the labs which have realised the five replicates necessary to allow a reliable statistical treatment. The results are encouraging as the increased number of participating labs did not degrade the observed dispersion of the results for a similar activity level. Therefore, the results do not seem to depend on the analytical procedure used. From this work an optimised procedure can start to be developed to deal with OBT analysis and will guide subsequent planned OBT trials by the international group.
Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations.
Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao
2015-07-08
We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(πΦ/Φ0) as a signature of MBSs, with Φ the magnetic flux through SQUID and Φ0 = hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching.
Dynamics of water bound to crystalline cellulose
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O’Neill, Hugh; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Petridis, Loukas; He, Junhong; Mamontov, Eugene; Hong, Liang; Urban, Volker; Evans, Barbara; Langan, Paul; Smith, Jeremy C.; Davison, Brian H.
2017-09-19
Interactions of water with cellulose are of both fundamental and technological importance. Here, we characterize the properties of water associated with cellulose using deuterium labeling, neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering provided quantitative details about the dynamical relaxation processes that occur and was supported by structural characterization using small-angle neutron scattering and X-ray diffraction. We can unambiguously detect two populations of water associated with cellulose. The first is “non-freezing bound” water that gradually becomes mobile with increasing temperature and can be related to surface water. The second population is consistent with confined water that abruptly becomes mobile at ~260 K, and can be attributed to water that accumulates in the narrow spaces between the microfibrils. Quantitative analysis of the QENS data showed that, at 250 K, the water diffusion coefficient was 0.85 ± 0.04 × 10-10 m2sec-1 and increased to 1.77 ± 0.09 × 10-10 m2sec-1 at 265 K. MD simulations are in excellent agreement with the experiments and support the interpretation that water associated with cellulose exists in two dynamical populations. Our results provide clarity to previous work investigating the states of bound water and provide a new approach for probing water interactions with lignocellulose materials.
Decision theory with resource-bounded agents.
Halpern, Joseph Y; Pass, Rafael; Seeman, Lior
2014-04-01
There have been two major lines of research aimed at capturing resource-bounded players in game theory. The first, initiated by Rubinstein (), charges an agent for doing costly computation; the second, initiated by Neyman (), does not charge for computation, but limits the computation that agents can do, typically by modeling agents as finite automata. We review recent work on applying both approaches in the context of decision theory. For the first approach, we take the objects of choice in a decision problem to be Turing machines, and charge players for the "complexity" of the Turing machine chosen (e.g., its running time). This approach can be used to explain well-known phenomena like first-impression-matters biases (i.e., people tend to put more weight on evidence they hear early on) and belief polarization (two people with different prior beliefs, hearing the same evidence, can end up with diametrically opposed conclusions) as the outcomes of quite rational decisions. For the second approach, we model people as finite automata, and provide a simple algorithm that, on a problem that captures a number of settings of interest, provably performs optimally as the number of states in the automaton increases. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
McAndrew, Josephine; Paul, Stephan; Emmerich, Ralf; Engels, Ralf; Fierlinger, Peter; Gabriel, Mirko; Gutsmiedl, Erwin; Mellenthin, Johannes; Schön, Johannes; Schott, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Andreas; Grüenauer, Florian; Röhrmoser, Anton
2012-05-01
An experiment to observe the bound beta-decay (BOB) of the free neutron into a hydrogen atom and an electron anti-neutrino is described. The hyperfine spin state population of the monoenergetic hydrogen atom yields the neutrino left-handedness or possible right-handed admixture as well as possible small scalar and tensor contributions to the weak force. The BOB H(2s) hyperfine states can be separated with a Lamb-Shift Spin Filter. These monoenergetic H(2s) atoms are ionised into H- by charge exchanging within an argon cell. These ions are then separated using an adaptation of a MAC-E Filter. A first experiment is proposed at the FRMII high thermal-neutron flux beam reactor SR6 through-going beam tube, where we will seek to observe this rare neutron decay-mode for the first time and determine the branching ratio. After successful completion, the hyperfine spin state population will be determined, possibly at the ILL high-flux beam reactor through-going beam tube H6-H7, where the thermal neutron flux is a factor of four larger.
Bound state in positron scattering by allene
Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Sanchez, Sergio d'Almeida; Bettega, Márcio H. F.
2017-12-01
We report integral and differential cross sections for positron collisions with allene, calculated with the Schwinger multichannel method. The cross sections were computed in the static-polarization approximation for energies up to 7 eV. We have tested a series of single-particle basis sets and different polarization schemes to improve the description of low-energy positron scattering by the allene molecule. We have found that the use of extra centers with no net charge with additional single-particle s - and p -type functions centered at them are essential in order to accurately reproduce the polarization potential and, hence, obtain proper scattering cross sections. The choice of the allene molecule was due to the fact that it is a highly symmetric molecule with no permanent dipole moment and would allow several different calculations. Our cross sections are compared to the available experimental data for the total cross section with a reasonable agreement after correcting their results due to the low angular discrimination of their apparatus. Also, a virtual state was observed in the integral cross section that became a bound state when the description of the polarization potential is improved. We also observed a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum in the cross section whose location varies from 2.7 to 3.4 eV, depending on the polarization scheme used in the calculations.
Classical Physics and the Bounds of Quantum Correlations.
Frustaglia, Diego; Baltanás, José P; Velázquez-Ahumada, María C; Fernández-Prieto, Armando; Lujambio, Aintzane; Losada, Vicente; Freire, Manuel J; Cabello, Adán
2016-06-24
A unifying principle explaining the numerical bounds of quantum correlations remains elusive, despite the efforts devoted to identifying it. Here, we show that these bounds are indeed not exclusive to quantum theory: for any abstract correlation scenario with compatible measurements, models based on classical waves produce probability distributions indistinguishable from those of quantum theory and, therefore, share the same bounds. We demonstrate this finding by implementing classical microwaves that propagate along meter-size transmission-line circuits and reproduce the probabilities of three emblematic quantum experiments. Our results show that the "quantum" bounds would also occur in a classical universe without quanta. The implications of this observation are discussed.
Tight lower bound for percolation threshold on an infinite graph.
Hamilton, Kathleen E; Pryadko, Leonid P
2014-11-14
We construct a tight lower bound for the site percolation threshold on an infinite graph, which becomes exact for an infinite tree. The bound is given by the inverse of the maximal eigenvalue of the Hashimoto matrix used to count nonbacktracking walks on the original graph. Our bound always exceeds the inverse spectral radius of the graph's adjacency matrix, and it is also generally tighter than the existing bound in terms of the maximum degree. We give a constructive proof for existence of such an eigenvalue in the case of a connected infinite quasitransitive graph, a graph-theoretic analog of a translationally invariant system.
What Information Theory Says about Bounded Rational Best Response
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
Probability Collectives (PC) provides the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to bounded rational games. Here an explicit solution to the equations giving the bounded rationality equilibrium of a game is presented. Then PC is used to investigate games in which the players use bounded rational best-response strategies. Next it is shown that in the continuum-time limit, bounded rational best response games result in a variant of the replicator dynamics of evolutionary game theory. It is then shown that for team (shared-payoff) games, this variant of replicator dynamics is identical to Newton-Raphson iterative optimization of the shared utility function.
Upper bounds on quantum uncertainty products and complexity measures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guerrero, Angel; Sanchez-Moreno, Pablo; Dehesa, Jesus S. [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain) and Institute Carlos I for Computational and Theoretical Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Institute Carlos I for Computational and Theoretical Physics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)
2011-10-15
The position-momentum Shannon and Renyi uncertainty products of general quantum systems are shown to be bounded not only from below (through the known uncertainty relations), but also from above in terms of the Heisenberg-Kennard product . Moreover, the Cramer-Rao, Fisher-Shannon, and Lopez-Ruiz, Mancini, and Calbet shape measures of complexity (whose lower bounds have been recently found) are also bounded from above. The improvement of these bounds for systems subject to spherically symmetric potentials is also explicitly given. Finally, applications to hydrogenic and oscillator-like systems are done.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2003-07-01
The national transportation network involves: the main network constituted by the transportation works binding the access and exit points of the national territory and the underground storages; the regional network for the regional distribution upstream of the main network. The chosen tariff model is a in-out type. Each tariff includes the access terms on the main network, the exit terms of the main network, sometimes the binding terms between the equilibrium zones, the transportation terms on the regional network and the delivery terms. (A.L.B.)
Is regional species diversity bounded or unbounded?
Cornell, Howard V
2013-02-01
Two conflicting hypotheses have been proposed to explain large-scale species diversity patterns and dynamics. The unbounded hypothesis proposes that regional diversity depends only on time and diversification rate and increases without limit. The bounded hypothesis proposes that ecological constraints place upper limits on regional diversity and that diversity is usually close to its limit. Recent evidence from the fossil record, phylogenetic analysis, biogeography, and phenotypic disparity during lineage diversification suggests that diversity is constrained by ecological processes but that it is rarely asymptotic. Niche space is often unfilled or can be more finely subdivided and still permit coexistence, and new niche space is often created before ecological limits are reached. Damped increases in diversity over time are the prevalent pattern, suggesting the need for a new 'damped increase hypothesis'. The damped increase hypothesis predicts that diversity generally increases through time but that its rate of increase is often slowed by ecological constraints. However, slowing due to niche limitation must be distinguished from other possible mechanisms creating similar patterns. These include sampling artifacts, the inability to detect extinctions or declines in clade diversity with some methods, the distorting effects of correlated speciation-extinction dynamics, the likelihood that opportunities for allopatric speciation will vary in space and time, and the role of undetected natural enemies in reducing host ranges and thus slowing speciation rates. The taxonomic scope of regional diversity studies must be broadened to include all ecologically similar species so that ecological constraints may be accurately inferred. The damped increase hypothesis suggests that information on evolutionary processes such as time-for-speciation and intrinsic diversification rates as well as ecological factors will be required to explain why regional diversity varies among times
Structure Biology of Membrane Bound Enzymes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fu, Dax [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). School of Medicine. Dept. of Physiology
2016-11-30
The overall goal of the proposed research is to understand the membrane-associated active processes catalyzed by an alkane $\\square$-hydroxylase (AlkB) from eubacterium Pseudomonase oleovorans. AlkB performs oxygenation of unactivated hydrocarbons found in crude oils. The enzymatic reaction involves energy-demanding steps in the membrane with the uses of structurally unknown metal active sites featuring a diiron [FeFe] center. At present, a critical barrier to understanding the membrane-associated reaction mechanism is the lack of structural information. The structural biology efforts have been challenged by technical difficulties commonly encountered in crystallization and structural determination of membrane proteins. The specific aims of the current budget cycle are to crystalize AlkB and initiate X-ray analysis to set the stage for structural determination. The long-term goals of our structural biology efforts are to provide an atomic description of AlkB structure, and to uncover the mechanisms of selective modification of hydrocarbons. The structural information will help elucidating how the unactivated C-H bonds of saturated hydrocarbons are oxidized to initiate biodegradation and biotransformation processes. The knowledge gained will be fundamental to biotechnological applications to biofuel transformation of non-edible oil feedstock. Renewable biodiesel is a promising energy carry that can be used to reduce fossil fuel dependency. The proposed research capitalizes on prior BES-supported efforts on over-expression and purification of AlkB to explore the inner workings of a bioenergy-relevant membrane-bound enzyme.
Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gál, Anna; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucký, Michal
2012-01-01
We bound the minimum number w of wires needed to compute any (asymptotically good) error-correcting code C:{0,1}Ω(n) -> {0,1}n with minimum distance Ω(n), using unbounded fan-in circuits of depth d with arbitrary gates. Our main results are: (1) If d=2 then w = Θ(n ({log n/ log log n})2). (2) If d...... on a superconcentrator-like condition that the graphs of circuits computing good codes must satisfy. This condition is provably intermediate between superconcentrators and their weakenings considered before....
Bounds of Certain Dynamic Inequalities on Time Scales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deepak B. Pachpatte
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study explicit bounds of certain dynamic integral inequalities on time scales. These estimates give the bounds on unknown functions which can be used in studying the qualitative aspects of certain dynamic equations. Using these inequalities we prove the uniqueness of some partial integro-differential equations on time scales.
Optimal Two Parameter Bounds for the Seiffert Mean
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui Sun
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We obtain sharp bounds for the Seiffert mean in terms of a two parameter family of means. Our results generalize and extend the recent bounds presented in the Journal of Inequalities and Applications (2012 and Abstract and Applied Analysis (2012.
Sum rule expressions for bounds on Van der Waals coefficients
Luyckx, R.; Coulon, P.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.
1979-01-01
We present a simple matrix solution for the moment equations that occur in recently discovered bounds on van der Waals coefficients. Using this matrix solution it is possible to express these new bounds directly in terms of the oscillator strength sum rules of the interacting systems.
Bounded Baire functions and the Henstock-Stieltjes integral
Tantrawan, Made; Indrati, Ch. Rini
2016-02-01
In this paper, we give a sufficient condition for bounded Baire functions to be integrable in the sense of the Henstock-Stieltjes integral. By considering the space of all bounded Baire class α functions (α theorem for two-norm continuous linear functionals defined on bℬα [a, b] in terms of the Henstock-Stieltjes integral.
On parallel Branch and Bound frameworks for Global Optimization
Herrera, Juan F.R.; Salmerón, José M.G.; Hendrix, Eligius M.T.; Asenjo, Rafael; Casado, Leocadio G.
2017-01-01
Branch and Bound (B&B) algorithms are known to exhibit an irregularity of the search tree. Therefore, developing a parallel approach for this kind of algorithms is a challenge. The efficiency of a B&B algorithm depends on the chosen Branching, Bounding, Selection, Rejection, and Termination
Entropy Bounds for Constrained Two-Dimensional Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Justesen, Jørn
1999-01-01
The maximum entropy and thereby the capacity of 2-D fields given by certain constraints on configurations are considered. Upper and lower bounds are derived.......The maximum entropy and thereby the capacity of 2-D fields given by certain constraints on configurations are considered. Upper and lower bounds are derived....
Improved Space Bounds for Cache-Oblivious Range Reporting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Afshani, Peyman; Zeh, Norbert
2011-01-01
second main result shows that any cache-oblivious 2-d three-sided range reporting data structure with the optimal query bound has to use Ω(N logε N) space, thereby improving on a recent lower bound for the same problem. Using known transformations, the lower bound extends to 3-d dominance reporting and 3......We provide improved bounds on the size of cacheoblivious range reporting data structures that achieve the optimal query bound of O(logB N + K/B) block transfers. Our first main result is an O(N √ logN log logN)-space data structure that achieves this query bound for 3-d dominance reporting and 2-d...... three-sided range reporting. No cache-oblivious o(N log N/ log logN)-space data structure for these problems was known before, even when allowing a query bound of O(logO(1) 2 N + K/B) block transfers.1 Our result also implies improved space bounds for general 2-d and 3-d orthogonal range reporting. Our...
Higgs interchange and bound states of superheavy fermions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Hypothetical superheavy fourth-generation fermions with a very small coupling with the rest of the Standard Model can give rise to long enough lived bound states. The production and the detection of these bound states would be experimentally feasible at the LHC. Extending, in the present study, the analysis of other ...
A Partitioning and Bounded Variable Algorithm for Linear Programming
Sheskin, Theodore J.
2006-01-01
An interesting new partitioning and bounded variable algorithm (PBVA) is proposed for solving linear programming problems. The PBVA is a variant of the simplex algorithm which uses a modified form of the simplex method followed by the dual simplex method for bounded variables. In contrast to the two-phase method and the big M method, the PBVA does…
Holographic bounds on the UV cutoff scale in inflationary cosmology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keski-Vakkuri, Esko; Sloth, Martin Snoager
2003-01-01
We discuss how holographic bounds can be applied to the quantum fluctuations of the inflaton. In general the holographic principle will lead to a bound on the UV cutoff scale of the effective theory of inflation, but it will depend on the coarse-graining prescription involved in calculating the e...
A bounds on the resonant frequency of rectangular microstrip antennas
Bailey, M. C.
1980-01-01
The calculation of currents induced by a transverse electric plane wave normally incident upon an infinite strip embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to infer a lower bound on the resonant frequency (or resonant-E-plane dimension) for rectangular microstrip antennas. An upper bound is provided by the frequency for which the E-plane dimension is a half-wavelength.
Quasi-bound states, resonance tunnelling, and tunnelling times ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In analogy with the definition of resonant or quasi-bound states used in three-dimensional quantal scattering, we define the quasi-bound states that occur in one- dimensional transmission generated by twin symmetric potential barriers and evaluate their energies and widths using two typical examples: (i) twin ...
Bound states in a hyperbolic asymmetric double-well
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartmann, R. R., E-mail: richard.hartmann@dlsu.edu.ph [Physics Department, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila (Philippines)
2014-01-15
We report a new class of hyperbolic asymmetric double-well whose bound state wavefunctions can be expressed in terms of confluent Heun functions. An analytic procedure is used to obtain the energy eigenvalues and the criterion for the potential to support bound states is discussed.
Monetary and fiscal policy under bounded rationality and heterogeneous expectations
Lustenhouwer, J.E.
2017-01-01
The goal of this thesis is to use plausible and intuitive models of bounded rationality to give new insights in monetary and fiscal policy. Particular focus is put on the zero lower bound on the nominal interest rate, forward guidance, and fiscal consolidations. The thesis considers different forms
Asymptotic-bound-state model for Feshbach resonances
Tiecke, T.G.; Goosen, M.R.; Walraven, J.T.M.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.
2010-01-01
We present an asymptotic-bound-state model which can be used to accurately describe all Feshbach resonance positions and widths in a two-body system. With this model we determine the coupled bound states of a particular two-body system. The model is based on analytic properties of the two-body
Bounding W-W ' Mixing with Spin Asymmetries at RHIC
Boer, Daniel; den Dunnen, Wilco J.
2010-01-01
The W boson can obtain a small right-handed coupling to quarks and leptons through mixing with a hypothetical W' boson that appears in many extensions of the standard model. Measuring or even bounding this coupling to the light quarks is very challenging. Only one model independent bound on the
On the Feng-Rao bound for generalized hamming weights
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geil, Hans Olav; Thommesen, Christian
2006-01-01
The Feng-Rao bound gives good estimates of the minimum distance of a large class of codes. In this work we are concerned with the problem of how to extend the Feng-Rao bound so that it deals with all the generalized Hamming weights. The problem was solved by Heijnen and Pellikaan in [7] for a lar...
Parity lifetime of bound states in a proximitized semiconductor nanowire
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Higginbotham, Andrew Patrick; Albrecht, Sven Marian; Kirsanskas, Gediminas
2015-01-01
superconductor layer, yielding an isolated, proximitized nanowire segment. We identify Andreev-like bound states in the semiconductor via bias spectroscopy, determine the characteristic temperatures and magnetic fields for quasiparticle excitations, and extract a parity lifetime (poisoning time) of the bound...... state in the semiconductor exceeding 10 ms....
Bounds on the Effect of Progressive Structural Degradation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Achtziger, Wolfgang; Bendsøe, Martin P; Taylor, John E.
1997-01-01
Problem formulations are presented for the evaluation of upper and lower bounds on the effect of progressive structural degradation. For the purposes of this study, degradation effect is measured by an increase in global structural compliance (flexibility). Thus the stated bounds are given simply...
Detecting Majorana nonlocality using strongly coupled Majorana bound states
Rubbert, S.H.P.; Akhmerov, A.R.
2016-01-01
Majorana bound states (MBS) differ from the regular zero energy Andreev bound states in their nonlocal properties, since two MBS form a single fermion. We design strategies for detection of this nonlocality by using the phenomenon of Coulomb-mediated Majorana coupling in a setting which still
Bounds of memory strength for power-law series
Guo, Fangjian; Yang, Dan; Yang, Zimo; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Zhou, Tao
2017-05-01
Many time series produced by complex systems are empirically found to follow power-law distributions with different exponents α . By permuting the independently drawn samples from a power-law distribution, we present nontrivial bounds on the memory strength (first-order autocorrelation) as a function of α , which are markedly different from the ordinary ±1 bounds for Gaussian or uniform distributions. When 1 3 , the upper bound remains +1 while the lower bound descends below 0. Theoretical bounds agree well with numerical simulations. Based on the posts on Twitter, ratings of MovieLens, calling records of the mobile operator Orange, and the browsing behavior of Taobao, we find that empirical power-law-distributed data produced by human activities obey such constraints. The present findings explain some observed constraints in bursty time series and scale-free networks and challenge the validity of measures such as autocorrelation and assortativity coefficient in heterogeneous systems.
Viscosity bound violation in holographic solids and the viscoelastic response
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alberte, Lasma [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Baggioli, Matteo [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Physics, Institute for Condensed Matter Theory, University of Illinois,1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Pujolàs, Oriol [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE),The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)
2016-07-14
We argue that the Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) lower bound on the viscosity to entropy density ratio holds in fluid systems but is violated in solid materials with a non-zero shear elastic modulus. We construct explicit examples of this by applying the standard gauge/gravity duality methods to massive gravity and show that the KSS bound is clearly violated in black brane solutions whenever the massive gravity theories are of solid type. We argue that the physical reason for the bound violation relies on the viscoelastic nature of the mechanical response in these materials. We speculate on whether any real-world materials can violate the bound and discuss a possible generalization of the bound that involves the ratio of the shear elastic modulus to the pressure.
Analysis of Price Stackelberg Duopoly Game with Bounded Rationality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lian Shi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The classical Stackelberg game is extended to boundedly rational price Stackelberg game, and the dynamic duopoly game model is described in detail. By using the theory of bifurcation of dynamical systems, the existence and stability of the equilibrium points of this model are studied. And some comparisons with Bertrand game with bounded rationality are also performed. Stable region, bifurcation diagram, The Largest Lyapunov exponent, strange attractor, and sensitive dependence on initial conditions are used to show complex dynamic behavior. The results of theoretical and numerical analysis show that the stability of the price Stackelberg duopoly game with boundedly rational players is only relevant to the speed of price adjustment of the leader and not relevant to the follower’s. This is different from the classical Cournot and Bertrand duopoly game with bounded rationality. And the speed of price adjustment of the boundedly rational leader has a destabilizing effect on this model.
Synergism between soluble and dietary fiber bound antioxidants.
Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H
2015-03-04
This study investigates the synergism between antioxidants bound to dietary fibers (DF) of grains and soluble antioxidants of highly consumed beverages or their pure antioxidants. The interaction between insoluble fractions of grains containing bound antioxidants and soluble antioxidants was investigated using (i) a liposome-based system by measuring the lag phase before the onset of oxidation and (ii) an ESR-based system by measuring the reduction percentage of Fremy's salt radical. In both procedures, antioxidant capacities of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were measured as well as their combinations, which were prepared at different ratios. The simple addition effects of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were compared with measured values. The results revealed a clear synergism for almost all combinations in both liposome- and ESR-based systems. The synergism observed in DF-bound-soluble antioxidant system paints a promising picture considering the role of fiber in human gastrointestinal (GI) tract health.
Quantum engine efficiency bound beyond the second law of thermodynamics.
Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Mukherjee, Victor; Ghosh, Arnab; Kofman, Abraham G; Kurizki, Gershon
2018-01-11
According to the second law, the efficiency of cyclic heat engines is limited by the Carnot bound that is attained by engines that operate between two thermal baths under the reversibility condition whereby the total entropy does not increase. Quantum engines operating between a thermal and a squeezed-thermal bath have been shown to surpass this bound. Yet, their maximum efficiency cannot be determined by the reversibility condition, which may yield an unachievable efficiency bound above unity. Here we identify the fraction of the exchanged energy between a quantum system and a bath that necessarily causes an entropy change and derive an inequality for this change. This inequality reveals an efficiency bound for quantum engines energised by a non-thermal bath. This bound does not imply reversibility, unless the two baths are thermal. It cannot be solely deduced from the laws of thermodynamics.
Viscosity bound violation in holographic solids and the viscoelastic response
Alberte, Lasma; Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol
2016-07-01
We argue that the Kovtun-Son-Starinets (KSS) lower bound on the viscosity to entropy density ratio holds in fluid systems but is violated in solid materials with a nonzero shear elastic modulus. We construct explicit examples of this by applying the standard gauge/gravity duality methods to massive gravity and show that the KSS bound is clearly violated in black brane solutions whenever the massive gravity theories are of solid type. We argue that the physical reason for the bound violation relies on the viscoelastic nature of the mechanical response in these materials. We speculate on whether any real-world materials can violate the bound and discuss a possible generalization of the bound that involves the ratio of the shear elastic modulus to the pressure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franco de Saravia, Christina
2010-06-15
While the Spanish solar industry is already in a state of apprehension, the Minister of Industry made things even worse by hinting at a reduction of reimbursement tariffs, with reverse effect. Since then, the industry isholding its breath, and a new forum has been founded to promote the interests of the solar industry. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2005-07-01
The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)
Lying for the Greater Good: Bounded Rationality in a Team
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oktay Sürücü
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the interaction between fully and boundedly rational agents in situations where their interests are perfectly aligned. The cognitive limitations of the boundedly rational agent do not allow him to fully understand the market conditions and lead him to take non-optimal decisions in some situations. Using categorization to model bounded rationality, we show that the fully rational agent can nudge, i.e., he can manipulate the information he sends and decrease the expected loss caused by the boundedly rational agent. Assuming different types for the boundedly rational agent, who differ only in the categories used, we show that the fully rational agent may learn the type of the boundedly rational agent along their interaction. Using this additional information, the outcome can be improved and the amount of manipulated information can be decreased. Furthermore, as the length of the interaction increases the probability that the fully rational agent learns the type of the boundedly rational agent grows
On the Feng-Rao bound for generalized Hamming weights
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geil, Olav; Thommesen, Christian
2005-01-01
The Feng-Rao bound gives good estimates of the minimum distance of a large class of codes. In this work we are concerned with the problem of how to extend the Feng-Rao bound so that it deals with all the generalized Hamming weights. The problem was solved by Heijnen and Pellikaan in [7] for a large...... family of codes that includes the duals of one-point geometric Goppa codes and the q-ary Reed-Muller codes, but not the Feng-Rao improved such ones. We show that Heijnen and Pellikaan’s results holds for the more general class of codes for which the traditional Feng-Rao bound can be applied. We also...... establish the connection to the Shibuya-Sakaniwa bound for generalized Hamming weights ([15], [16], [17], [18], [19] and [20]). More precisely we show that the Shibuya-Sakaniwa bound is a consequence of the extended Feng-Rao bound. In particular the extended Feng-Rao bound gives always at least as good...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru
2004-10-15
The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a
Finite energy bounds for $\\piN$ scattering
Grassberger, P; Schwela, D
1974-01-01
Upper bounds on energy averaged pi N cross sections are given. Using low energy data and data from pi N backward scattering and NN to pi pi annihilation, it is found that sigma /sub tot/
Mass spectrum bound state systems with relativistic corrections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dineykhan, M; Zhaugasheva, S A [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Toinbaeva, N Sh; Jakhanshir, A [al-Farabi Kazak National University, 480012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)
2009-07-28
Based on the investigation of the asymptotic behaviour of the polarization loop function for charged n scalar particles in an external gauge field, we determine the interaction Hamiltonian including relativistic corrections. The mass spectrum of the bound state is analytically derived. The mechanism for arising of the constituent mass of the relativistic bound-state forming particles is explained. The mass and the constituent mass of the two-, three- and n-body relativistic bound states are calculated taking into account relativistic corrections. The corrections arising due to the one- and two-loop electron polarization to the energy spectrum of muonic hydrogen with orbital and radial excitations are calculated.
Upper Bounds on Stream I/O Using Semantic Interpretations
Gaboardi, Marco; Péchoux, Romain
2009-01-01
The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com; International audience; This paper extends for the first time semantics interpretation tools to infinite data in order to ensure Input/Output upper bounds on first order Haskell like programs on streams. By I/O upper bounds, we mean temporal relations between the number of reads performed on the input stream elements and the number of output elements produced. We study several I/O upper bounds properties that are of both theoretic...
Bounded-Angle Iterative Decoding of LDPC Codes
Dolinar, Samuel; Andrews, Kenneth; Pollara, Fabrizio; Divsalar, Dariush
2009-01-01
Bounded-angle iterative decoding is a modified version of conventional iterative decoding, conceived as a means of reducing undetected-error rates for short low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. For a given code, bounded-angle iterative decoding can be implemented by means of a simple modification of the decoder algorithm, without redesigning the code. Bounded-angle iterative decoding is based on a representation of received words and code words as vectors in an n-dimensional Euclidean space (where n is an integer).
Universal Bound on the Fano Factor in Enzyme Kinetics
Barato, Andre C
2015-01-01
The Fano factor, an observable quantifying fluctuations of product generation by a single enzyme, can reveal information about the underlying reaction scheme. A lower bound on this Fano factor that depends on the thermodynamic affinity driving the transformation from substrate to product constrains the number of intermediate states of an enzymatic cycle. So far, this bound has been proven only for a unicyclic network of states. We show that the bound can be extended to arbitrary multicyclic networks, with the Fano factor constraining the largest value of the effective length, which is the ratio between the number of states and the number of products, among all cycles.
Thermodynamic Upper Bound on Broadband Light Coupling with Photonic Structures
Yu, Zongfu
2012-10-01
The coupling between free space radiation and optical media critically influences the performance of optical devices. We show that, for any given photonic structure, the sum of the external coupling rates for all its optical modes are subject to an upper bound dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. Such bound limits how efficient light can be coupled to any photonic structure. As one example of application, we use this upper bound to derive the limit of light absorption in broadband solar absorbers. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Lower bounds on Q of some dipole shapes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, Oleksiy S.
2016-01-01
The lower bound on the radiation Q of an arbitrary electrically small antenna shape can be determined by finding the optimal electric current density on the exterior surface of the shape, such that the Q of this current radiating in free space is minimized, and then augmenting it with a magnetic...... current density cancelling the fields inside the shape's surface. The Q of these coupled electric and magnetic currents radiating in free space is the lower bound on Q for the given shape. The approach is exemplified and its general applicability is substantiated by computing the lower bounds...
Upper bound on the radii of black-hole photonspheres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)
2013-11-25
One of the most remarkable predictions of the general theory of relativity is the existence of black-hole “photonspheres”, compact null hypersurfaces on which massless particles can orbit the central black hole. We prove that every spherically-symmetric asymptotically flat black-hole spacetime is characterized by a photonsphere whose radius is bounded from above by r{sub γ}⩽3M, where M is the total ADM mass of the black-hole spacetime. It is shown that hairy black-hole configurations conform to this upper bound. In particular, the null circular geodesic of the (bald) Schwarzschild black-hole spacetime saturates the bound.
Bounds on charge and heat diffusivities in momentum dissipating holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amoretti, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova,via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146, Genova (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Genova,via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146, Genova (Italy); Lorentz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden NL-2333 CA (Netherlands); Braggio, Alessandro [INFN - Sezione di Genova,via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146, Genova (Italy); CNR-SPIN,Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146, Genova (Italy); Magnoli, Nicodemo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova,via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146, Genova (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Genova,via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146, Genova (Italy); Musso, Daniele [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste (Italy)
2015-07-20
Inspired by a recently conjectured universal bound for thermo-electric diffusion constants in quantum critical, strongly coupled systems and relying on holographic analytical computations, we investigate the possibility of formulating Planckian bounds in different holographic models featuring momentum dissipation. For a certain family of solutions to a simple massive gravity dilaton model at zero charge density we find linear in temperature resistivity and entropy density alongside a constant electric susceptibility. In addition we explicitly find that the sum of the thermo-electric diffusion constants is bounded.
OPRA capacity bounds for selection diversity over generalized fading channels
Hanif, Muhammad Fainan
2014-05-01
Channel side information at the transmitter can increase the average capacity by enabling optimal power and rate adaptation. The resulting optimal power and rate adaptation (OPRA) capacity rarely has a closed-form analytic expression. In this paper, lower and upper bounds on OPRA capacity for selection diversity scheme are presented. These bounds hold for variety of fading channels including log-normal and generalized Gamma distributed models and have very simple analytic expressions for easy evaluation even for kth best path selection. Some selected numerical results show that the newly proposed bounds closely approximate the actual OPRA capacity. © 2014 IEEE.
Bound states in Galilean-invariant quantum field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corley, S.R.; Greenberg, O.W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States)
1997-02-01
We consider the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of a model of two spinless fermions interacting via a two-body potential. We introduce quantum fields associated with the two particles as well as the expansion of these fields in asymptotic {open_quotes}in{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}out{close_quotes} fields, including such fields for bound states, in principle. We limit our explicit discussion to a two-body bound state. In this context we discuss the implications of the Galilean invariance of the model and, in particular, show how to include bound states in a strictly Galilean-invariant quantum field theory. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bassi, C.; Caldon, R.; Lorenzoni, A. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettrica
1999-09-01
The work is focused on the evaluation of the costs of an electricity transmission system operator and on their allocation among the users of the grid in liberalized market. After a recall of the goals of an efficient tariff for transmission, an original method for the cost allocation is proposed called ZI. Based on the marginal cost approach, this method could be the base for setting an efficient transmission tariff that at the same time covers costs and stimulates efficient behaviours. The performances of such an approach have been tested on a real 47 bus grid and ZI tariffs have been compared to the traditional postage stamp ones, highlighting the strong differences between them. [Italian] Il lavoro affronta il problema della valutazione dei costi sostenuti da un'azienda di trasmissione di energie elettrica e della relativa equa ripartizione fra gli utilizzatori del sistema in un mercato liberalizzato ovvero in condizioni di libero accesso alla rete. Dopo una puntualizzazione degli obiettivi che devono perseguire i sistemi tariffari della trasmissione elettrica, viene presentato un metodo originale di attribuzione dei costi. Utilizzando il principio marginalista e in presenza di un certo livello di libera contrattazione tra produttori e consumatori, tale metodo potrebbe costituire una base per la definizione di tariffe capaci di coprire i costi e in grado di stimolare l'efficienza del sistema quando non vi fossero vincoli di uniformita geografica delle tariffe. Una verifica delle prestazioni del metodo proposto viene successivamente effettuata con l'applicazione ad un modello realistico di rete ed i risultati vengono confrontati con quelli ottenuti, a parita' di condizioni, con uno dei piu diffusi metodi tradizionali.
P2-16: Dual-Bound Model and the Role of Time Bound in Perceptual Decision Making
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daeseob Lim
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The diffusion model (DM encapsulates the dynamics of perceptual decision within a ‘diffusion field’ that is defined by a basis with sensory-evidence (SE and time vectors. At the core of the DM, it assumes that a decision is not made until an evidence particle drifts in the diffusion field and eventually hits one of the two pre-fixed bounds defined in the SE axis. This assumption dictates when and which choice is made by referring to when and which bound will be hit by the evidence particle. What if urgency pressures the decision system to make a choice even when the evidence particle has yet hit the SE bound? Previous modeling attempts at coping with time pressure, despite differences in detail, all manipulated the coordinate of SE bounds. Here, we offer a novel solution by adopting another bound on the time axis. This ‘dual-bound’ model (DBM posits that decisions can also be made when the evidence particle hits a time bound, which is determined on a trial-by-trial basis by a ‘perceived time interval’ – how long the system can stay in the ‘diffusion’ field. The classic single-bound model (SBM exhibited systematic errors in predicting both the reaction time distributions and the time-varying bias in choice. Those errors were not corrected by previously proposed variants of the SBM until the time bound was introduced. The validity of the DBM was further supported by the strong across-individual correlation between observed precision of interval timing and the predicted trial-by-trial variability of the time bound.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schweighofer, M.; Tretter, H.; Veigl, A.
2006-07-01
This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a review of possible systems that could be used to promote power production in Switzerland using renewable energy sources. Promotional models on both the provider and consumer sides that use both price and quantity as control factors are examined. Three models are compared: the submission-to-tender model, the quota model with certificates and a model that uses cost-based feed-in tariffs. On the basis of a comparison with Austria, interaction between increasing the proportion of renewable forms of energy and the realisation of energy-efficiency goals is discussed. A further part of the report deals with various options for the use of biomass as a source of energy.
Fundamental bound on the reliability of quantum information transmission.
Sharma, Naresh; Warsi, Naqueeb Ahmad
2013-02-22
Information theory tells us that if the rate of sending information across a noisy channel were above the capacity of that channel, then the transmission would necessarily be unreliable. For classical information sent over classical or quantum channels, one could, under certain conditions, make a stronger statement that the reliability of the transmission shall decay exponentially to zero with the number of channel uses, and the proof of this statement typically relies on a certain fundamental bound on the reliability of the transmission. Such a statement or the bound has never been given for sending quantum information. We give this bound and then use it to give the first example where the reliability of sending quantum information at rates above the capacity decays exponentially to zero. We also show that our framework can be used for proving generalized bounds on the reliability.
Entropy relations and bounds of horizons in modified gravity
Liu, Hang; Meng, Xin-he; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Bin
2017-07-01
We first give some entropy relations for black holes in modified gravity models, which are introduced as an elegant technique trick for handling various entropy bounds. For these entropy relations, some are mass-independent and universal, while others are not. Then we study the entropy bound of horizons in modified gravity, including Horava-Lifshitz gravity, massive gravity and Einstein-dilaton gravity. We focus on black holes with two or three physical horizons, containing the event horizon, Cauchy horizon and negative horizon which is physical for the observers in the negative radial coordinate region. In these modified gravity, entropy bounds are geometrical bounds which are related close to the cosmological radius for asymptotically (A)dS black holes, while they are Penrose-like inequalities for asymptotically flat black holes. Moreover, they depend on the constants characterizing the strength of modified terms in the actions. We also present the first law of thermodynamics and Smarr relations for horizons.
Optimum Cooperative UAV Sensing Based on Cramer-Rao Bound
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Gu, G; Chandler, P. R; Schumacher, C. J; Sparks, A; Pachter, M
2005-01-01
.... Based on the Cramer-Rao bound, we are able to derive the minimum achievable error variance in estimation of the position and the velocity of the GMT, and obtain the optimal geometries of the UAV...
Search for Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States with AMADEUS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Skurzok Magdalena
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We briefly report on the search for Deeply Bound Kaonic Nuclear States with AMADEUS in the Σ0p channel following K− absorption on 12C and outline future perspectives for this work.
Bounded rationality alters the dynamics of paediatric immunization acceptance
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Oraby, Tamer; Bauch, Chris T
2015-01-01
... "rational" decision model that are often described as "bounded rationality". However, the impact of such cognitive effects in the context of paediatric infectious disease vaccines has received relatively little attention...
Capacity bounds for parallel IM-DD optical wireless channels
Chaaban, Anas
2016-07-26
A system consisting of parallel intensity-modulation direct-detection optical wireless channels with a total average intensity constraint is studied. Capacity upper and lower bounds for this system are derived. If channel-state information is available at the transmitter, the bounds have to be optimized with respect to intensity allocation over the parallel channels. The optimization of the lower bound is non-convex, however, the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions can be used to find a list of possible solutions one of which is optimal. The optimal solution can then be found by an exhaustive search algorithm, which is computationally expensive. To overcome this, we propose a low-complexity intensity allocation algorithm which is nearly optimal. The optimized capacity lower bound coincides with the capacity at high signal-to-noise ratio. © 2016 IEEE.
Inequalities involving upper bounds for certain matrix operators
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 116; Issue 3. Inequalities Involving Upper Bounds for Certain Matrix Operators. R Lashkaripour D Foroutannia. Volume ... Keywords. Inequality; norm; summability matrix; Hausdorff matrix; Hilbert matrix; weighted sequence space; Lorentz sequence space.
Tight bounds on accessible information and informational power
Dall'Arno, Michele; Buscemi, Francesco; Ozawa, Masanao
2014-06-01
The accessible information quantifies the amount of classical information that can be extracted from an ensemble of quantum states. Analogously, the informational power quantifies the amount of classical information that can be extracted by a quantum measurement. For both quantities, we provide upper and lower bounds that depend only on the dimension of the system, and we prove their tightness. In the case of symmetric informationally complete (SIC) ensembles and measurements, stronger bounds are provided and their tightness proved for qubits and qutrits. From our upper bounds, we notice, perhaps surprisingly, that the statistics generated by SIC ensembles or measurements in arbitrary dimension, though optimal for tomographic purposes, in fact never contain more than just one bit of information, the rest being constituted by completely random bits. On the other hand, from our lower bounds, we obtain an explicit strategy beating the so-called pretty-good one for the extraction of mutual information in the case of SIC ensembles and measurements.
Application of Beyond Bound Decoding for High Speed Optical Communications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Bomin; Larsen, Knud J.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José
2013-01-01
This paper studies the application of beyond bound decoding method for high speed optical communications. This hard-decision decoding method outperforms traditional minimum distance decoding method, with a total net coding gain of 10.36 dB....
Prospects for narrowing bounds on Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Stevens, Bjorn; Sherwood, Steven C; Bony, Sandrine; Webb, Mark J
2016-01-01
The concept of Earth's Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity ( ECS ) is reviewed. A particular problem in quantifying plausible bounds for ECS has been how to account for all of the diverse lines of relevant scientific evidence...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Requardt, M.
1985-01-01
For a large class of potentials the author proves upper bounds on the number of bound states in the various angular momentum channels below a certain energy E. As by-product he derives estimates on the maximal angular momentum etc. The class of allowed potentials enclose as typical candidate potentials with infinitely many bound states below the essential spectrum, respectively potentials which go to infinity for r ..-->.. infinity as e.g. the model potentials used in quarkonium physics like V(r) = -a(1/r) + br. Generalizations to the case of N-body quantum mechanics seem to be possible. (Auth.).
The exact distribution of the Hansen-Jagannathan bound
Kan, R; Robotti, C
2008-01-01
Under the assumption of multivariate normality of asset returns, this paper presents a geometrical interpretation and the finite-sample distributions of the sample Hansen-Jagannathan (1991) bounds on the variance of admissible stochastic discount factors, with and without the nonnegativity constraint on the stochastic discount factors. In addition, since the sample Hansen-Jagannathan bounds can be very volatile, we propose a simple method to construct confidence intervals for the population H...
Some unsolved problems on meromorphic functions of uniformly bounded characteristic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shinji Yamashita
1985-01-01
Full Text Available The family UBC(R of meromorphic functions of uniformly bounded characteristic in a Rieman surface R is defined in terms of the Shimizu-Ahlfors characteristic function. There are some natural parallels between UBC(R and BMOA(R, the family of holomorphic functions of bounded mean oscillation in R. After a survey some open problems are proposed in contrast with BMOA(R.
Upper bounds for domination related parameters in graphs on surfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir Samodivkin
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper we give tight upper bounds on the total domination number, the weakly connected domination number and the connected domination number of a graph in terms of order and Euler characteristic. We also present upper bounds for the restrained bondage number, the total restrained bondage number and the restricted edge connectivity of graphs in terms of the orientable/nonorientable genus and maximum degree.
A probabilistic lower bound for two-stage stochastic programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dantzig, G.B.; Infanger, G.
1995-11-01
In the framework of Benders decomposition for two-stage stochastic linear programs, the authors estimate the coefficients and right-hand sides of the cutting planes using Monte Carlo sampling. The authors present a new theory for estimating a lower bound for the optimal objective value and they compare (using various test problems whose true optimal value is known) the predicted versus the observed rate of coverage of the optimal objective by the lower bound confidence interval.
An analysis of 60 cases of culture bound syndromes.
Bhatia, M S
1999-04-01
Of 60 cases of culture bound syndromes seen in psychiatry OPD, Dhat syndrome was most common (76.7%), followed by possession syndrome (13.3%). Depression by the most common associated psychiatric disorder. As the data on culture bound syndromes in Indian subcontinent is less, this study calls for careful evaluation of these patients psychologically to detect and treat the associated psychiatric comorbidity appropriately.
Semi-bounded Rationality: A model for decision making
Tshilidzi Marwala
2013-01-01
In this paper the theory of semi-bounded rationality is proposed as an extension of the theory of bounded rationality. In particular, it is proposed that a decision making process involves two components and these are the correlation machine, which estimates missing values, and the causal machine, which relates the cause to the effect. Rational decision making involves using information which is almost always imperfect and incomplete as well as some intelligent machine which if it is a human ...
A Lower Bound for Chaos on the Elliptical Stadium
Canale, E; Oliffson-Kamphorst, S; De Pinto-Carvalho, S; Canale, Eduardo; Markarian, Roberto; Kamphorst, Sylvie Oliffson; Carvalho, Sonia Pinto de
1997-01-01
The elliptical stadium is a plane region bounded by a curve constructed by joining two half-ellipses by two parallel segments of equal length. The billiard inside it, as a map, generates a two parameters family of dynamical systems. It is known that the system is ergodic for a certain region of the parameter space. In this work we study the stability of a particular family of periodic orbits obtaining good bounds for the chaotic zone.
Offsite Radiological Consequence Analysis for the Bounding Flammable Gas Accident
Carro, C A
2003-01-01
This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequences of the bounding flammable gas accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank The calculation applies reasonably conservation input parameters in accordance with DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A, guidance. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from Office of River Protection.
Antibody-bound amyloid precursor protein upregulates ornithine decarboxylase expression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Tatjana; Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Gabrielsson, Maria
2006-01-01
domain. Alterations in gene expression evoked by antibody-bound APP were analysed using human pathway-finder gene arrays and the largest change in expression levels was found for ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). These results were confirmed by Western blotting which showed even higher upregulation...... signalling events. This study shows that antibody-bound APP leads to altered gene expression that may be relevant to AD....
Some Meet-in-the-middle Circuit Lower Bounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, K.A.; Miltersen, P.B.
2004-01-01
We observe that a combination of known top-down and bottom-up lower bound techniques of circuit complexity may yield new circuit lower bounds. An important example is this: Razborov and Wigderson showed that a certain function f in ACC 0 cannot be computed by polynomial size circuits consisting o...... layers of MAJORITY gates at the top and an arbitrary AC 0 circuit feeding the MAJORITY gates....
Infinite Horizon Discrete Time Control Problems for Bounded Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We establish Pontryagin Maximum Principles in the strong form for infinite horizon optimal control problems for bounded processes, for systems governed by difference equations. Results due to Ioffe and Tihomirov are among the tools used to prove our theorems. We write necessary conditions with weakened hypotheses of concavity and without invertibility, and we provide new results on the adjoint variable. We show links between bounded problems and nonbounded ones. We also give sufficient conditions of optimality.
Bounded Error Approximation Algorithms for Risk-Based Intrusion Response
2015-09-17
AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0324 Bounded Error Approximation Algorithms for Risk-Based Intrusion Response K Subramani West Virginia University Research...2015. 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bounded Error Approximation Algorithms for Risk-Based Intrusion Response 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0199. 5b. GRANT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Our research consisted of modeling the intrusion response problem as one of finding a partial vertex cover in
Analytic continuation of bound states to solve resonance states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanaka, Norimichi; Arai, Koji [Niigata Univ. (Japan); Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Varga, K.
1997-05-01
As a method to determine the parameters of the resonance state, a method is proposed using analytic continuation on bound constants of correlation. The characteristics of this method consists in probability of prediction of the parameters of the resonance state only by calculation of the bound state. Owing to conducting the analytic continuation on square root of energy in the bound state as a function relating to the bound constant, energy and width in the bound state was determined. Here was reported on a result of application of this method to three systems. Some partial wave on two systems showing correlation at a simple potential and a resonance state of zero of all orbital angular motion quality in three boson system were determined using the analytic continuation method. These results agreed well with one used a method of integrating Schroedinger equation directly and one used the complex scaling method, and this method was found to be much efficient for the study of the resonance state. Under a background of becoming applicable to the method of analytic continuation, there was development of calculating method for the recent small number multi system. As the characteristics of the analytic continuation method is used for only calculation of the bound state, it is convenient at a point applicable to the method to obtain conventional bound state and then is much efficient in a point of applicability of calculus of variations. However, in order to obtain coefficient of Pade approximation correctly, the bound state must be solved correctly, which is difficult for more complex system and is not always applicable to every systems. (G.K.)
Central Charge Bounds in 4D Conformal Field Theory
Rattazzi, Riccardo; Vichi, Alessandro
2010-01-01
We derive model-independent lower bounds on the stress tensor central charge C_T in terms of the operator content of a 4-dimensional Conformal Field Theory. More precisely, C_T is bounded from below by a universal function of the dimensions of the lowest and second-lowest scalars present in the CFT. The method uses the crossing symmetry constraint of the 4-point function, analyzed by means of the conformal block decomposition.
Optimal combinations bounds of root-square and arithmetic means ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
(Math. Sci.) Vol. 122, No. 1, February 2012, pp. 41–51. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Optimal combinations bounds of root-square and arithmetic means for Toader mean. YU-MING CHU1,∗. , MIAO-KUN ..... Computational and numerical experiments show that the bounds in (3.24) and (3.25) for E(r) are better than that in ...
Complementarity reveals bound entanglement of two twisted photons
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Löffler, Wolfgang
2013-08-01
We demonstrate the detection of bipartite bound entanglement as predicted by the Horodecki's in 1998. Bound entangled states, being heavily mixed entangled quantum states, can be produced by incoherent addition of pure entangled states. Until 1998 it was thought that such mixing could always be reversed by entanglement distillation; however, this turned out to be impossible for bound entangled states. The purest form of bound entanglement is that of only two particles, which requires higher-dimensional (d > 2) quantum systems. We realize this using photon qutrit (d = 3) pairs produced by spontaneous parametric downconversion, that are entangled in the orbital angular momentum degrees of freedom, which is scalable to high dimensions. Entanglement of the photons is confirmed via a ‘maximum complementarity protocol’. This conceptually simple protocol requires only maximized complementary of measurement bases; we show that it can also detect bound entanglement. We explore the bipartite qutrit space and find that, also experimentally, a significant portion of the entangled states are actually bound entangled.
On the Content Bound for Real Quadratic Field Extensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert G. Underwood
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Let K be a finite extension of Q and let S = {ν} denote the collection of K normalized absolute values on K. Let V+K denote the additive group of adeles over K and let K ≥0 c : V + → R denote the content map defined as c({aν } = Q K ν ∈S ν (aν for {aν } ∈ V+K A classical result of J. W. S. Cassels states that there is a constant c > 0 depending only on the field K with the following property: if {aν } ∈ V+K with c({aν } > c, then there exists a non-zero element b ∈ K for which ν (b ≤ ν (aν , ∀ν ∈ S. Let cK be the greatest lower bound of the set of all c that satisfy this property. In the case that K is a real quadratic extension there is a known upper bound for cK due to S. Lang. The purpose of this paper is to construct a new upper bound for cK in the case that K has class number one. We compare our new bound with Lang’s bound for various real quadratic extensions and find that our new bound is better than Lang’s in many instances.
Opinion formation with time-varying bounded confidence.
Zhang, YunHong; Liu, QiPeng; Zhang, SiYing
2017-01-01
When individuals in social groups communicate with one another and are under the influence of neighbors' opinions, they typically revise their own opinions to adapt to such peer opinions. The individual threshold of bounded confidence will thus be affected by both a change in individual confidence and by neighbor influence. Individuals thus update their own opinions with new bounded confidence, while their updated opinions also influence their neighbors' opinions. Based on this reasoned factual assumption, we propose an opinion dynamics model with time-varying bounded confidence. A directed network is formed by the rule of the individual bounded confidence threshold. The threshold of individual bounded confidence involves both confidence variation and the in/out degree of the individual node. When the confidence variation is greater, an individual's confidence in persisting in his own opinion in interactions is weaker, and the individual is more likely to adopt neighbors' opinions. In networks, the in/out degree is determined by individual neighbors. Our main research involves the process of opinion evolution and the basic laws of opinion cluster formation. Group opinions converge exponentially to consensus with stable neighbors. An individual opinion evolution is determined by the average neighbor opinion effect strength. We also explore the conditions involved in forming a stable neighbor relationship and the influence of the confidence variation in the convergence of the threshold of bounded confidence. The results show that the influence on opinion evolution is greater with increased confidence variation.
Free and bound water in normal and cataractous human lenses.
Heys, Karl R; Friedrich, Michael G; Truscott, Roger J W
2008-05-01
To analyze free and total water in human normal and cataractous lenses. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine total water, and differential scanning calorimetry was used for free water. In normal human lenses, the total water content of the nucleus remained unchanged with age, but the state of the water altered. The ratio of free to bound water increased steadily throughout adult life. In a 20-year-old person, there was approximately one bound water molecule for each free water molecule in the lens center, whereas in a 70- to 80-year-old person, there were two free water molecules for each bound water molecule. This conversion of bound to free water does not appear to be simply a consequence of the aggregation of soluble crystallins into high molecular weight aggregates because studies with intact pig lenses, in which such processes were facilitated by heat, did not show similar changes. The region of the lens in which the barrier to diffusion develops at middle age corresponds to a transition zone in which the protein concentration is intermediate between that of the cortex and the nucleus. In cataractous lenses, the free-to-bound water ratio was not significantly different from that of age-matched normal lenses; however, total water content in the center of advanced nuclear cataractous lenses was slightly lower than in normal lenses. As the human lens ages, bound water is progressively changed to free water. Advanced nuclear cataract may be associated with lower total hydration of the lens nucleus.
Cosmological stability bound in massive gravity and bigravity
Fasiello, Matteo; Tolley, Andrew J.
2013-12-01
We give a simple derivation of a cosmological bound on the graviton mass for spatially flat FRW solutions in massive gravity with an FRW reference metric and for bigravity theories. This bound comes from the requirement that the kinetic term of the helicity zero mode of the graviton is positive definite. The bound is dependent only on the parameters in the massive gravity potential and the Hubble expansion rate for the two metrics. We derive the decoupling limit of bigravity and FRW massive gravity, and use this to give an independent derivation of the cosmological bound. We recover our previous results that the tension between satisfying the Friedmann equation and the cosmological bound is sufficient to rule out all observationally relevant FRW solutions for massive gravity with an FRW reference metric. In contrast, in bigravity this tension is resolved due to different nature of the Vainshtein mechanism. We find that in bigravity theories there exists an FRW solution with late-time self-acceleration for which the kinetic terms for the helicity-2, helicity-1 and helicity-0 are generically nonzero and positive making this a compelling candidate for a model of cosmic acceleration. We confirm that the generalized bound is saturated for the candidate partially massless (bi)gravity theories but the existence of helicity-1/helicity-0 interactions implies the absence of the conjectured partially massless symmetry for both massive gravity and bigravity.
The lower bound on complexity of parallel branch-and-bound algorithm for subset sum problem
Kolpakov, Roman; Posypkin, Mikhail
2016-10-01
The subset sum problem is a particular case of the Boolean knapsack problem where each item has the price equal to its weight. This problem can be informally stated as searching for most dense packing of a set of items into a box with limited capacity. Recently, coarse-grain parallelization approaches to Branch-and-Bound (B&B) method attracted some attention due to the growing popularity of weakly-connected distributed computing platforms. In this paper we consider one of such approaches for solving the subset sum problem. One of the processors (manager) performs some number of B&B steps on the first stage with generating some subproblems. On the second stage, the generated subproblems are sent to other processors, one subproblem per processor. The processors solve completely the received subproblems, the manager collects all the obtained solutions and chooses the optimal one. For this algorithm we formally define the parallel execution model (frontal scheme of parallelization) and the notion of the frontal scheme complexity. We study the frontal scheme complexity for a series of subset sum problems.
A unification of Cramer-Rao type bounds. [in signal parameter estimation
Rife, D. C.; Goldstein, M.; Boorstyn, R. R.
1975-01-01
This correspondence examines multiparameter generalizations of the Cramer-Rao (C-R) bound and related bounds from a new viewpoint. We derive a general class of bounds and show that Rao's generalization is the tightest (best) of the class. A bound reported by Zacks is another member of the class. This derivation of the C-R bound emphasizes its optimum nature. The relationship of the general class to Barankin bounds is also discussed.
Information-Theoretic Bounded Rationality and ε-Optimality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel A. Braun
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Bounded rationality concerns the study of decision makers with limited information processing resources. Previously, the free energy difference functional has been suggested to model bounded rational decision making, as it provides a natural trade-off between an energy or utility function that is to be optimized and information processing costs that are measured by entropic search costs. The main question of this article is how the information-theoretic free energy model relates to simple ε-optimality models of bounded rational decision making, where the decision maker is satisfied with any action in an ε-neighborhood of the optimal utility. We find that the stochastic policies that optimize the free energy trade-off comply with the notion of ε-optimality. Moreover, this optimality criterion even holds when the environment is adversarial. We conclude that the study of bounded rationality based on ε-optimality criteria that abstract away from the particulars of the information processing constraints is compatible with the information-theoretic free energy model of bounded rationality.
Resistance of Soil-Bound Prions to Rumen Digestion
Saunders, Samuel E.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Bartz, Jason C.
2012-01-01
Before prion uptake and infection can occur in the lower gastrointestinal system, ingested prions are subjected to anaerobic digestion in the rumen of cervids and bovids. The susceptibility of soil-bound prions to rumen digestion has not been evaluated previously. In this study, prions from infectious brain homogenates as well as prions bound to a range of soils and soil minerals were subjected to in vitro rumen digestion, and changes in PrP levels were measured via western blot. Binding to clay appeared to protect noninfectious hamster PrPc from complete digestion, while both unbound and soil-bound infectious PrPSc proved highly resistant to rumen digestion. In addition, no change in intracerebral incubation period was observed following active rumen digestion of unbound hamster HY TME prions and HY TME prions bound to a silty clay loam soil. These results demonstrate that both unbound and soil-bound prions readily survive rumen digestion without a reduction in infectivity, further supporting the potential for soil-mediated transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) and scrapie in the environment. PMID:22937149