WorldWideScience

Sample records for boulders

  1. EXPLOITATION OF GRANITE BOULDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cotman

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of forming, petrography, features, properties and exploitation of granite boulders are described. The directional drilling and black powder blasting is the succesful method in exploitation of granite boulders (boulder technology (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. Boulder Magnetic Observatory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are vector and scalar component values of the Earth's magnetic field for 2004 recorded at the Boulder Magnetic Observatory in Colorado. Vector values are...

  3. Probability of Boulders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1997-01-01

    To collect background information for formulating a description of the expected soil properties along the tunnel line, in 1987 Storebælt initiated a statistical investigation of the occurrence and size of boulders in the Great Belt area. The data for the boulder size distribution were obtained...... by use of aerial photographing of cliff beaches with subsequent stereo metric measurement on the photographs. To get information about the density of occurrence, a series of continuous seismic scannings were also made along parallel lines in a corridor with the tunnel line as about the central line....... The data collection part of the investigation was made on the basis of geological expert advice (Gunnar Larsen, Århus) by the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI).The statistical data analysis combined with stochastic modeling based on geometry and sound wave diffraction theory gave a point estimate...

  4. Revisiting boulder fields on Bonaire (Leeward Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M.; May, S. M.; Brückner, H.

    2012-04-01

    Blocks and boulders are typical sedimentary features of rocky shorelines worldwide. In many cases, their deposition is related to tsunamis or severe storms, though inferences of certain extreme wave events from the boulder record, and in particular the differentiation between storms and tsunamis, remain difficult. At the eastern coast of Bonaire (Leeward Antilles), numerous limestone boulders and blocks (up to approx. 130 t) are distributed on top of a 3 to 6 m a.s.l. (above mean sea level) palaeo-reef terrace. Disagreement exists among a number of scholars concerning the transport processes involved in the formation of these boulder fields. In this paper, numerical approaches of coastal boulder entrainment and transport were applied in order to provide new and more reliable data on their origin. To improve the reliability of the boulder transport model, more realistic input parameters were provided by DGPS measurements of the boulder dimensions (3D models by triangulation of point clouds using a GIS) and the calculation of bulk densities by taking into account the different coralline lithofacies of the reef-rock clasts. Boulder transport equations from literature were modified and now consider the irregular shape and real dimensions of the boulders and blocks. The results indicate that boulder weight and dimension, and thus calculated wave energy and wave heights were overestimated in most of the previous studies, where calculations of boulder volume were based on multiplication of the main axes. The results of this study and wave heights observed during recent high-magnitude hurricanes seem to rule out storm-generated waves for the dislocation of the largest boulders and blocks, and point to the occurrence of palaeo-tsunamis on Bonaire. However, the majority of coarse-clast deposits may have been generated by hurricane swells. The results underline the significance of more realistic field data in modelling boulder transport by waves.

  5. 76 FR 8359 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE...) is proposing an adjustment to the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP) electric service base charge and rates... section 9(c) of the Reclamation Project Act of 1939 (43 U.S.C. 485h(c)), and other acts that specifically...

  6. Do Cement Boulders Mimic Natural Boulders for Macro-Invertebrates in the Southern Caspian Sea?

    OpenAIRE

    Pourjomeh, Fatemeh; Shokri, Mohammad Reza; Kiabi, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    The macro-invertebrates on natural (rock) and artificial (cement) boulders were compared along the southern Caspian Sea and the effect of structural features of boulders (i.e. orientation, facing, surface complexity, the degree of exposure to the wave action) on macro-invertebrate communities were investigated. Ten locations with rock walls in the southern Caspian Sea were investigated in which the isolated boulders of natural and artificial types with similar dimensions were haphazardly ...

  7. The Boulder Creek Batholith, Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Dolores J.

    1980-01-01

    The Boulder Creek batholith is the best known of several large Precambrian batholiths of similar rock composition that crop out across central Colorado. The rocks in the batholith belong to the calc-alkaline series and range in composition from granodiorite through quartz diorite (tonalite) to gneissic aplite. Two rock types dominate': the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, the major rock unit, and a more leucocratic and slightly younger unit herein named Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite. Besides mafic inclusions, which occur mainly in hornblende-bearing phases of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, there are cogenetic older and younger lenses, dikes, and small plutons of hornblende diorite, hornblendite, gabbro, and pyroxenite. Pyroxenite is not found in the batholith. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite in the batholith represents essentially two contemporaneous magmas, a northern body occurring in the Gold Hill and Boulder quadrangles and a larger southern body exposed in the Blackhawk and the greater parts of the Tungsten and Eldorado Springs quadrangles. The two bodies are chemically and mineralogically distinct. The northern body is richer in CaO and poorer in K2O, is more mafic, and has a larger percentage of plagioclase than the southern body. A crude sequence of rock types occurs from west to east in the batholith accompanied by a change in plagioclase composition from calcic plagioclase on the west to sodic on the east. Ore minerals tend to decrease, and the ratio potassium feldspar:plagioclase increases inward from the western contact of the batholith, indicating that the Boulder Creek batholith is similar to granodiorite batholiths the world over. Emplacement of the Boulder Creek batholith was contemporaneous with plastic deformation and high-grade regional metamorphism that folded the country rock and the batholith contact along west-northwest and north-northwest axes. Also, smaller satellitic granodiorite bodies tend to conform to the trends of foliation and fold axes in

  8. 76 FR 56430 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ..., e-mail [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Hoover Dam, authorized by the Boulder Canyon... continually reviews its security costs and seeks ways to reduce its overall costs. Hoover Dam security costs... border. Hoover Power Plant has nineteen (19) generating units (two for plant use) and an installed...

  9. African penguins Spheniscus demersus colonized Boulders, near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    2000-03-01

    Mar 1, 2000 ... African penguins Spheniscus demersus colonized. Boulders, near Simonstown, in 1985 (Cooper 1985). It was one of three colonies of African penguins formed in South Africa's Western Cape between 1982 and. 1985. The others were Stony Point at Betty's Bay in. 1982 (Broni 1982) and Robben Island in ...

  10. Geoelectric monitoring at the Boulder magnetic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Blum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance to a range of applied and fundamental studies, and obvious parallels to a robust network of magnetic-field observatories, long-term geoelectric field monitoring is rarely performed. The installation of a new geoelectric monitoring system at the Boulder magnetic observatory of the US Geological Survey is summarized. Data from the system are expected, among other things, to be used for testing and validating algorithms for mapping North American geoelectric fields. An example time series of recorded electric and magnetic fields during a modest magnetic storm is presented. Based on our experience, we additionally present operational aspects of a successful geoelectric field monitoring system.

  11. Geoelectric monitoring at the Boulder magnetic observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Cletus; White, Tim; Sauter, Edward A.; Stewart, Duff; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Love, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite its importance to a range of applied and fundamental studies, and obvious parallels to a robust network of magnetic-field observatories, long-term geoelectric field monitoring is rarely performed. The installation of a new geoelectric monitoring system at the Boulder magnetic observatory of the US Geological Survey is summarized. Data from the system are expected, among other things, to be used for testing and validating algorithms for mapping North American geoelectric fields. An example time series of recorded electric and magnetic fields during a modest magnetic storm is presented. Based on our experience, we additionally present operational aspects of a successful geoelectric field monitoring system.

  12. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Boulder ZED Design Build - Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Boulder, Colorado, that scored HERS 38 without PV and 0 with PV. This 2,504 ft2 custom home has advanced framed walls, superior insulation a ground-source heat pump, ERV, and triple-pane windows.

  13. Geological Investigations on Boulder-Clay of E. Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzel, van P.; Overweel, C.J.; Veenstra, H.J.

    1959-01-01

    In this article the results of a study on boulder-clay in the neighbourhood of Winschoten (N.E. Netherlands) are communicated (Chapter I). The underlying sediments of the boulder-clay in this area consist of fine preglacial sands and black clay. In the nuclei of the many drumlins a strongly

  14. Local late Amazonian boulder breakdown and denudation rate on Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.; Hauber, E.; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Inactive fan surfaces become smoother and develop desert pavement over time by weathering and erosion. We use this mechanism to estimate late Amazonian boulder breakdown and surface denudation rates on a young (∼1.25 Ma) (Schon et al., 2009) fan on Mars. This is done by comparing boulder size and

  15. Managing environmental impact of bouldering as a niche outdoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper proposes a normative management instrument to help environmental managers in the field of outdoor recreation and conservation limit the impact of sport climbing, bouldering in particular, as an action-sport activity. Evidence of the rising popularity of the bouldering sport and its associated impacts on ...

  16. Boulders and ponds on the Asteroid 433 Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombard, Andrew J.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Prockter, Louise M.; Thomas, Peter C.

    2010-12-01

    There are ˜300 features on the Asteroid 433 Eros that morphologically resemble ponds (flat-floored and sharply embaying the bounding depression in which they sit). Because boulders on Eros are apparently eroding in place and because ponds with associated boulders tend to be larger than ponds without blocks, we propose that ponds form from thermally disaggregated and seismically flattened boulder material, under the assumption that repeated day/night cycling causes material fatigue that leads to erosion of the boulders. Results from a simple boulder emplacement/thermal erosion model with boulders emplaced in a few discrete events (i.e., large impacts) match well the observed size distribution. Under this scenario, the subtle color differences of ponds (somewhat bluer than the rest of the surface) might be due to some combination of less space-weathered material and density stratification of silicate-rich chondrules and more metal-rich matrix from a disaggregated boulder. Volume estimates of ponds derived from NEAR Laser Rangefinder profiles are consistent with what can be supplied by boulders. Ponds are also observed to be concentrated in regions of low slope and high elevation, which suggests the presence of a less mobile regolith and thus a contrast in the resistance to seismic shaking between the pond material and the material that makes up the bounding depression. Future tests include shake-table experiments and temperature cycling (fatigue) of ordinary chondrites to test the thermal erosion mechanism.

  17. A story about distributions of dimensions and locations of boulders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2006-01-01

    distributions are well modeled by a Markov chain type of model. Different details of the data and their statistical analysis support several modeling conjectures concerning the glacial history of boulder deposition. In a companion paper it is described how the results of this beach boulder investigation...... for making a bored tunnel through the till deposit. Geographical universality was discovered through the statistical analysis of observations of boulder coordinates and dimension measures from wide spread cliff beach locations. One conclusion is that the joint size distribution up to some degree of modeling...

  18. Boulder-based wave hindcasting underestimates storm size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David; Woods, Joesphine; Rosser, Nick; Hansom, James; Naylor, Larissa

    2017-04-01

    Large boulder-size clasts represent an important archive of erosion and wave activity on the coast. From tropical coral reefs to eroding cliffs in the high-latitudes, boulders have been used to hindcast the frequency and magnitude of cyclones and tsunami. Such reconstructions are based on the balance between the hydrodynamic forces acting on individual clasts and the counteracting resistive forces of friction and gravity. Here we test the three principle hindcasting relationships on nearly 1000 intertidal boulders in North Yorkshire, U.K using a combination of field and airborne terrestrial LiDAR data. We quantify the predicted versus actual rates of movement and the degree to which local geomorphology can retard or accelerate transport. Actual clast movement is significantly less than predicted values, regardless of boulder volume, shape or location. In situ cementation of clasts to the substrate by marine organisms and clustering of clasts increases friction thereby preventing transport. The implication is that boulders do not always provide a reliable estimation of wave height on the coast and reliance solely on hindcasting relationships leads to an under prediction of the frequency and magnitude of past storm wave activity. The crucial need for process field studies to refine boulder transport models is thus demonstrated.

  19. Boulder Ozone Sonde Data Analyses for Multiple Tropopause Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Manney, G. L.; Johnson, B.; Minschwaner, K.; Torres, L.; Lawrence, Z. D.

    2014-12-01

    Boulder ozone profile measurements tend to feature structures with multiple layers in the troposphere, so called laminae. These have been shown to be related to several phenomena, including stratospheric air intrusions that are transported to the location of measurements and local gravity wave perturbations (Boulder is located near the Rocky Mountain range where gravity waves are prevalent). In addition, observations indicate that air from the tropical tropopause layer can be transported into regions with multiple tropopauses over the middle latitudes in the vicinity of the subtropical jets. We use GMAO's GEOS-5 data assimilation system products, including Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), interpolated to Boulder, Colorado, USA (40N, 105W) to assess incidence of upper tropospheric jets that influence UTLS ozone distribution. The proximity of the subtropical jet to Boulder results in frequent observations of multiple tropopauses. We analyze ozonesonde data launched in June-July 2014 to determine the origins of laminae observed in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS). Our tools include back trajectory analysis coupled with 4D satellite ozone profile data, including those from NASA's Aura Microwave Limb Sounder instrument. Filaments causing laminae in ozone profiles observed at Boulder will be tracked to origins in either stratospheric or tropospheric intrusions using reverse domain-filling (RDF) trajectory methods. Detailed studies of several ozone profiles collected over Boulder in June/July 2014 will help determine techniques for future analysis of a larger dataset that goes back to 1978. Ozone variability in the UTLS over Boulder is of importance for studies of local climatological ozone conditions, their causes/attribution, and with regard to EPA ozone regulations at the mountain sites across the USA.

  20. Boulder Dislodgement by Tsunamis and Storms: Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In the past, boulder dislodgement by tsunami and storm waves has been approached with a simple threshold approach in which a boulder was moved if the sum of the acting forces on the boulder is larger than zero. The impulse theory taught us, however, that this criterion is not enough to explain particle dislodgement. We employ an adapted version of the Newton's Second Law of Motion (NSLM) in order to consider the essence of the impulse theory which is that the sum of the forces has to exceed a certain threshold for a certain period of time. Furthermore, a classical assumption is to consider linear waves. However, when waves travel toward the shore, they alter due to non-linear processes. We employ the TRIADS model to quantify that change and how it impacts boulder dislodgement. We present our results of the coupled model (adapted NSLM and TRIADS model). The results project a more complex picture of boulder transport by storms and tsunami. The following question arises: What information do we actually invert, and what does it tell us about the causative event?

  1. Mechanics of boulder creation on stepped platforms during storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herterich, James; Dias, Frederic

    2017-04-01

    Overtopping waves can cause cliff erosion in the form of very large boulders. Impacts may induce microcracks in rock and hydraulic compression may detach a boulder along pre-existing bedrock joints. The coastal geological structure (rock type, fault orientation, joint alignment, etc.) is important in determining weaknesses in the rock that may lead to erosion. On the Aran Islands (Ireland), the cliff-tops are stepped platforms. Between winter storm periods, it is observed that boulders are created from the faces of the steps. This suggests that not only are the waves powerful enough to overtop the cliff, but the overtopping flow is still energetic enough to erode and transport large boulders. In this talk, we consider the wave-induced stress in a crack that extends into the cliff. The bending stress on the undersurface of the rock above the crack may induce microcracks. During high-pressure wave events, these microcracks can grow to complete fracture, creating new boulders. In this sense, the stepped platforms are "peeled" back over time. We model and analyze structural and wave conditions that affect this process.

  2. Somatic Profile of the Elite Boulderers in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozimek, Mariusz; Krawczyk, Marcin; Zadarko, Emilian; Barabasz, Zbigniew; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Stanula, Arkadiusz; Mucha, Dawid K; Jurczak, Adam; Mucha, Dariusz

    2017-04-01

    Ozimek, M, Krawczyk, M, Zadarko, E, Barabasz, Z, Ambroży, T, Stanula, A, Mucha, DK, Jurczak, A, and Mucha, D. Somatic profile of the elite boulderers in Poland. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 963-970, 2017-The study was designed to determine the values of selected somatic characteristics, body proportions, and the somatotype of elite bouldering climbers in Poland and to establish the relationships between the values of the somatic characteristics and climber's performance in bouldering. The study was conducted in a group of elite sport climbers (n = 10) who were ranked by the Polish Mountaineering Association in 2011, 2012, and 2013. The anthropometric measurements were made according to the relevant rules and standards. The results were used to calculate the values of somatic variables and body proportion indices for the climbers and to establish their somatotype. The results were compared with the data on untrained students (n = 165). The boulderers were found to differ significantly from the controls regarding body height (p somatotypes of the analyzed groups, the biggest differences were observed for the levels of mesomorphy (NS) and endomorphy, the latter being statistically significant (p somatotype) and a low body fat percentage (low endomorphy). Regarding body proportions, greater than average arm length to body height ratio and well-developed musculature of the limbs are required for a boulderer to perform on a competitive level. High arm length index and low body fat percentage represent the strongest determinants of performance in bouldering. It can be assumed that arm length index has a high diagnostic value for recruitment and selection of climbers.

  3. Boulder Dislodgment Reloaded: New insights from boulder transport and dislodgement by tsunamis and storms from three-dimensional numerical simulations with GPUSPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R.; Zainali, A.

    2014-12-01

    Boulders can be found on many coastlines around the globe. They are generally thought to be moved either during coastal storms or tsunamis because they are too heavy to be moved by more common marine or coastal processes. To understand storm and tsunami risk at given coastline, the event histories of both events need to be separated to produce a robust event statistics for quantitative risk analyses. Because boulders are most likely only moved by coastal storms or tsunamis, they are very suitable to produce the data basis for such event statistics. Boulder transport problem has been approached by comparing the driving with resisting forces acting on a boulder. However, we argue that this approach is not sufficient because the comparison of resisting and driving forces only constitutes boulder motion, but not for boulder dislodgment. Boulder motion means that the boulder starts to move out of its pocket. However, this motion does not guarantee that the boulder will reach the critical dislodgment position. Boulder dislodgment is a necessary condition to identify whether or not a boulder has moved. For boulder dislodgement, an equation of motion is needed, and that equation is Newtons Second Law of Motion (NSL). We perform fully coupled three-dimensional numerical simulation of boulders moved by waves where the boulders move according to NSL. Our numerical simulations are the first of their kind applied to tsunami and storm boulder motion. They show how storm and tsunami waves interact with boulders in a more realistic physical setting, and highlight the importance of submergence. Based on our simulations we perform a dimensional analysis that identifies the Froude number as important parameter, which can be considered large only in the front of tsunami waves, but small in the rest of tsunami wave and also generally small in storm waves. From a general point of view, our results indicate that the boulder transport problem is more complex than recently considered, and

  4. Factors influencing growth of the African penguin colony at Boulders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on growth of the Boulders colony of African penguins Spheniscus demersus from inception in 1985 to the present. More than 900 pairs now breed there. Growth of the colony slowed in 1995 and 1996 and reversed in 1998, coinciding with periods of low abundance of Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis off ...

  5. City of Boulder, Colorado Municipal Tree Resource Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; P.J. Peper; S.L. Gardner; K.E. Vargas; Q. Xiao

    2005-01-01

    Boulder is a vibrant city, renowned for its livability and cultural wealth and well known for its Smart Growth policies that protect and restore environmental quality while enhancing economic opportunity. The city maintains trees as an integral component of the urban infrastructure. Research indicates that healthy trees can mitigate impacts associated with the built...

  6. Testing Wetland Delineation Indicators in New England Boulder Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    NRCS 2009). The Sad - dleback boulder field is located at an elevation of 1830 ft (Fig. 2) and was deposited on the toe of a glacial slope (Fig. 3...August and Sep- tember are in large part attributable to two large storms that were rem- nants of tropical storms. ERDC/CRREL TR-12-4 10 Figure 6

  7. Erratic boulders in Switzerland, a geological and cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Erratic boulders are stones transported over quite long distances by glaciers and that differ from the type of rock upon which they rely. They range from the size of pebbles to large boulders weighing several thousand tons. Erratic boulders are significant geosites (Reynard, 2004) for several reasons. (1) First, they are indicators of former glacier extensions by marking glaciers' path, size and volume. In Switzerland, they allowed mapping the extension of large Alpine glaciers (the Rhine and Rhone glaciers, in particular) and their retreat stages (e.g. the Monthey erratic boulders that mark an important lateglacial stage of the Rhone glacier). Crystalline erratic boulders along the Jura range (limestone mountains) were used to map the altitude reached by the Rhone glacier during the two last glaciations. Precise mapping of crystalline and limestone boulders distribution also enabled mapping local Jura glaciers' recurrences after the Rhone glacier retreat. (2) During the last decades, several erratic boulders were used for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating, which allowed impressive advances in palaeoclimatic research. (3) Erratic blocks have also an ecological interest by the fact that they "have transported" specific habitats in areas far away from their origin (e.g. acid crystalline rocks and soils in limestone areas such as in the Jura). For all these reasons, several erratic boulders were classified in the inventory of Swiss geosites. Erratic boulders also have a significant cultural value (Lugon et al., 2006). (1) The Glacier Garden in Lucerne was discovered in 1872. It comprises various surfaces of "roches moutonnées", potholes and large erratic blocks that document the presence of the Reuss glacier. Considered as a natural monument it is now one of the most famous touristic attraction of Lucerne and Central Switzerland. (2) The Pierre Bergère stone, situated in Salvan (Mont-Blanc massif, South-western Switzerland), is the place where future Nobel Prize

  8. A time motion analysis of bouldering style competitive rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dominic J; Olsen, Peter D

    2010-05-01

    Limited research has been performed on competitive bouldering. The aim of this study was to quantify the movement dynamics of elite boulder climbers. Six climbers were filmed during a national competition consisting of 5 novel climbing problems or routes. Two problems were randomly selected and film footage was analyzed using Kandle Swinger Pro software to determine type and duration (seconds) of bouldering movements. All subjects provided consent, and the study had ethical approval. The mean +/- SD were determined for number of attempts per problem, duration of attempt, time on hold, and time to reach between holds. Exercise:recovery ratios were also calculated. On average, climbers attempted a problem 3.0 +/- 0.5 times, with an attempt lasting 28.9 +/- 10.8 seconds and rest periods of 114 +/- 31 seconds between attempts. Average time gripping holds was 7.9 +/- 1.3 seconds, with approximately 0.5 +/- 0.1 seconds recovery between reaching for holds. The exercise-to-recovery ratio was approximately 1:4 for attempting a problem and approximately 13:1 for forearm muscles during climbing. The exercise-to-recovery ratios allow sufficient time for recovery during and after a problem. However, the prolonged contraction of forearm muscles indicates the importance of strength and endurance in these muscles. Video analysis was found to be a useful tool for the quantification of movement characteristics of competitive elite boulders. Data collected could be utilized in the design of sport-specific tests and training programs. Future research could examine a larger number of athletes and problems and help develop performance tests and training interventions for bouldering.

  9. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, S.B.; Robins, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Boulder batholith of southwestern Montana is a composite Late Cretaceous intrusive mass, mostly composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite. This study was not restricted to the plutonic rocks; it also includes younger rocks that overlie the batholith, and older rocks that it intrudes. The Boulder batholith area has good overall potential for economic uranium deposits, because its geology is similar to that of areas that contain economic deposits elsewhere in the world, and because at least 35 uranium occurrences of several different types are present. Potential is greatest for the occurrence of small uranium deposits in chalcedony veins and base-metal sulfide veins. Three areas may be favorable for large, low-grade deposits consisting of a number of closely spaced chalcedony veins and enriched wall rock; the Mooney claims, the Boulder area, and the Clancy area. In addition, there is a good possibility of by-product uranium production from phosphatic black shales in the project area. The potential for uranium deposits in breccia masses that cut prebatholith rocks, in manganese-quartz veins near Butte, and in a shear zone that cuts Tertiary rhyolite near Helena cannot be determined on the basis of available information. Low-grade, disseminated, primary uranium concentrations similar to porphyry deposits proposed by Armstrong (1974) may exist in the Boulder batholith, but the primary uranium content of most batholith rocks is low. The geologic environment adjacent to the Boulder batholith is similar in places to that at the Midnite mine in Washington. Some igneous rocks in the project area contain more than 10 ppM U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and some metasedimentary rocks near the batholith contain reductants such as sulfides and carbonaceous material.

  10. 77 FR 64333 - Relocation of Transmission Lines for the U.S. 93 Boulder City Bypass Project, Boulder County, NV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Area Power Administration Relocation of Transmission Lines for the U.S. 93 Boulder City Bypass Project... and rebuilding approximately one mile of the Henderson-Mead 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines... installing new structures, conductors, overhead ground wire, insulators, and transmission line hardware. The...

  11. 49 CFR 393.136 - What are the rules for securing large boulders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., so that the boulder may roll, it must be placed in a crib made of hardwood timber fixed to the deck...-separated points of contact that prevent its tendency to roll in any direction. (5) If a boulder is tapered... satisfied: (1) The boulder must be secured individually with at least two chain tiedowns forming an “X...

  12. Boulder shores in South Africa – a distinct but poorly documented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boulder shores in South Africa – a distinct but poorly documented coastal habitat type. ... We propose that boulder shores merit separate management and conservation targets as compared to rock-platforms, though the ecology of boulder shores in the region remains very poorly known and requires further study. Keywords: ...

  13. NASA’s Asteroid Redirect Mission: The Boulder Capture Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Nuth, Joseph A.; Mazanek, Dan D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Reeves, David M.; Naasz, Bo J.

    2014-11-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar-electric-propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (˜4-10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (˜1-5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (˜100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. This option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well-characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa’s target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA’s OSIRIS REx and JAXA’s Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. The boulder option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting boulder be returned for subsequent sampling. This boulder option for NASA’s ARM can leverage knowledge of previously characterized NEAs from prior robotic missions, which provides more certainty of the target NEA

  14. Frequency-Range Distribution of Boulders Around Cone Crater: Relevance to Landing Site Hazard Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg-Watkins, R. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Boulders represent a landing hazard that must be addressed in the planning of future landings on the Moon. A boulder under a landing leg can contribute to deck tilt and boulders can damage spacecraft during landing. Using orbital data to characterize boulder populations at locations where landers have safely touched down (Apollo, Luna, Surveyor, and Chang'e-3 sites) is important for determining landing hazard criteria for future missions. Additionally, assessing the distribution of boulders can address broader science issues, e.g., how far craters distribute boulders and how this distribution varies as a function of crater size and age. The availability of new Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images [1] enables the use of boulder size- and range frequency distributions for a variety of purposes [2-6]. Boulders degrade over time and primarily occur around young or fresh craters that are large enough to excavate bedrock. Here we use NAC images to analyze boulder distributions around Cone crater (340 m diameter) at the Apollo 14 site. Cone crater (CC) was selected because it is the largest crater where astronaut surface photography is available for a radial traverse to the rim. Cone crater is young (approximately 29 Ma [7]) relative to the time required to break down boulders [3,8], giving us a data point for boulder range-frequency distributions (BRFDs) as a function of crater age.

  15. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder during third EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed standing next to a huge, split boulder during the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site on the Moon. The lunar rover, which transported Schmitt and Eugene A. Cernan, mission commander, to this extravehicular station from their Lunar Module, is seen in the background. Schmitt is the Apollo 17 lunar module pilot. The mosaic is made from two frames from Apollo 17 Hasselblad magaine 140.

  16. Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission: Robotic Boulder Capture Option Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Belbin, Scott P.; Reeves, David M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Naasz, Bo J.; Abell, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying an option for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) that would capture a multi-ton boulder (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (is approximately 100+ meter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cislunar space for subsequent human and robotic exploration. This alternative mission approach, designated the Robotic Boulder Capture Option (Option B), has been investigated to determine the mission feasibility and identify potential differences from the initial ARRM concept of capturing an entire small NEA (4-10 meters in size), which has been designated the Small Asteroid Capture Option (Option A). Compared to the initial ARRM concept, Option B allows for centimeter-level characterization over an entire large NEA, the certainty of target NEA composition type, the ability to select the boulder that is captured, numerous opportunities for mission enhancements to support science objectives, additional experience operating at a low-gravity planetary body including extended surface contact, and the ability to demonstrate future planetary defense strategies on a hazardous-size NEA. Option B can leverage precursor missions and existing Agency capabilities to help ensure mission success by targeting wellcharacterized asteroids and can accommodate uncertain programmatic schedules by tailoring the return mass.

  17. Boulder Distributions at Legacy Landing Sites: Assessing Regolith Production Rates and Landing Site Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, R. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; Lawrence, S. J.; Hayne, P. O.; Ghent, R. R.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how the distribution of boulders on the lunar surface changes over time is key to understanding small-scale erosion processes and the rate at which rocks become regolith. Boulders degrade over time, primarily as a result of micrometeorite bombardment so their residence time at the surface can inform the rate at which rocks become regolith or become buried within regolith. Because of the gradual degradation of exposed boulders, we expect that the boulder population around an impact crater will decrease as crater age increases. Boulder distributions around craters of varying ages are needed to understand regolith production rates, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images provide one of the best tools for conducting these studies. Using NAC images to assess how the distribution of boulders varies as a function of crater age provides key constraints for boulder erosion processes. Boulders also represent a potential hazard that must be addressed in the planning of future lunar landings. A boulder under a landing leg can contribute to deck tilt, and boulders can damage spacecraft during landing. Using orbital data to characterize boulder populations at locations where landers have safely touched down (Apollo, Luna, Surveyor, Chang'e-3) provides validation for landed mission hazard avoidance planning. Additionally, counting boulders at legacy landing sites is useful because: 1) LROC has extensive coverage of these sites at high resolutions (approximately 0.5 meters per pixel). 2) Returned samples from craters at these sites have been radiometrically dated, allowing assessment of how boulder distributions vary as a function of crater age. 3) Surface photos at these sites can be used to correlate with remote sensing measurements.

  18. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddeucci, Joe [Dept. of Public Works, Boulder, CO (United States). Utilities Division

    2013-03-29

    The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project (BCH) was purchased by the City of Boulder, CO (the city) in 2001. Project facilities were originally constructed in 1910 and upgraded in the 1930s and 1940s. By 2009, the two 10 MW turbine/generators had reached or were nearing the end of their useful lives. One generator had grounded out and was beyond repair, reducing plant capacity to 10 MW. The remaining 10 MW unit was expected to fail at any time. When the BCH power plant was originally constructed, a sizeable water supply was available for the sole purpose of hydroelectric power generation. Between 1950 and 2001, that water supply had gradually been converted to municipal water supply by the city. By 2001, the water available for hydroelectric power generation at BCH could not support even one 10 MW unit. Boulder lacked the financial resources to modernize the facilities, and Boulder anticipated that when the single, operational historical unit failed, the project would cease operation. In 2009, the City of Boulder applied for and received a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant for $1.18 million toward a total estimated project cost of $5.155 million to modernize BCH. The federal funding allowed Boulder to move forward with plant modifications that would ensure BCH would continue operation. Federal funding was made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Boulder determined that a single 5 MW turbine/generator would be the most appropriate capacity, given the reduced water supply to the plant. Average annual BCH generation with the old 10 MW unit had been about 8,500 MW-hr, whereas annual generation with a new, efficient turbine could average 11,000 to 12,000 MW-hr. The incremental change in annual generation represents a 30% increase in generation over pre-project conditions. The old turbine/generator was a single nozzle Pelton turbine with a 5-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 82%. The new unit is a

  19. NASA's asteroid redirect mission: Robotic boulder capture option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.

    2014-07-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar-electric-propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (˜4--10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (˜1--5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (˜100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well-characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU_3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense.

  20. Rounded boulders on Itokawa as clues to geological processes in the early solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Rizk, B.

    2015-12-01

    Large rounded boulders on Itokawa are a surprising find and may be evidence of forceful inter-boulder collisions occurring over protracted periods of time. Surface textures of some boulders are reminiscent of those on terrestrial aeolian sand grains despite five orders of magnitude difference in scale. Using Hertzian analysis and fracture strength data, we calculate that the maximum collisional velocities involved in the comminution process are ~6-7 m/s. We hypothesise that boulder rounding could be a product of collisions in a gravitationally stable orbiting debris field in which boulders acquire collisional energy from YORP spin. Collisional paths may be instigated by Yarkovsky drift and gyroscopic effects of rotation. Collisional energy is dissipated by elastic damping, but rapidly renewed by YORP spinup that takes only hundreds to thousands of years to regenerate comminution-strength collisions. The rounded boulders on Itokawa are found amongst angular, unworn material which suggests a mixed origin for Itokawa's regolith.

  1. Clast mobility within boulder beaches over two winters in Galicia, northwestern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alberti, Augusto; Trenhaile, Alan S.

    2015-11-01

    A micro-drone was used to make low altitude flights over boulder beaches at Laxe Brava and Oia in Galicia, northwestern Spain. Flights were made in July 2012, May 2013, and spring 2014. High resolution digital terrain models and orthophotographs, combined with GIS mapping, were used to monitor changes in the position of thousands of boulders. Maximum storm wave height was higher in the winter of 2013-2014 than in winter 2012-2013, and this was reflected in an increase in the proportion of the boulders that moved in the two winters, from 17% to almost 48% at Laxe Brava, and from 53% to almost 88% at Oia. The greater mobility of the boulders at Oia can be attributed in part to their generally smaller size, although there was considerable overlap between the size of boulders that moved and those that did not move within and between the two beaches. There were mobile boulders in areas up to several metres above the high tidal level on both beaches, and boulder transport in the shore-normal and alongshore directions triggered some changes in the beach profiles, particularly in the middle to upper parts of the beaches. Estimates of threshold transport conditions, scaled to boulder mass, breaker height, and other variables, suggested that all but the very largest boulders on the two beaches should have been mobile, even during the summer months when the waves were much lower than in winter. Model over-prediction can be attributed to a number of factors, including: constraints on movement imposed by surrounding boulders; differences in boulder size and their effect on pivoting angles and on the degree to which boulders are exposed or sheltered from wave impact; and difficulties in assigning appropriate values to model coefficients.

  2. An advanced three-phase physical, experimental and numerical method for tsunami induced boulder transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Coasts around the world are affected by high-energy wave events like storm surges or tsunamis depending on their regional climatological and geological settings. By focusing on tsunami impacts, we combine the abilities and experiences of different scientific fields aiming at improved insights of near- and onshore tsunami hydrodynamics. We investigate the transport of coarse clasts - so called boulders - due to tsunami impacts by a multi-methodology approach of numerical modelling, laboratory experiments, and sedimentary field records. Coupled numerical hydrodynamic and boulder transport models (BTM) are widely applied for analysing the impact characteristics of the transport by tsunami, such as wave height and flow velocity. Numerical models able to simulate past tsunami events and the corresponding boulder transport patterns with high accuracy and acceptable computational effort can be utilized as powerful forecasting models predicting the impact of a coast approaching tsunami. We have conducted small-scale physical experiments in the tilting flume with real shaped boulder models. Utilizing the structure from motion technique (Westoby et al., 2012) we reconstructed real boulders from a field study on the Island of Bonaire (Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea, Engel & May, 2012). The obtained three-dimensional boulder meshes are utilized for creating downscaled replica of the real boulder for physical experiments. The results of the irregular shaped boulder are compared to experiments with regular shaped boulder models to achieve a better insight about the shape related influence on transport patterns. The numerical model is based on the general two-phase mass flow model by Pudasaini (2012) enhanced for boulder transport simulations. The boulder is implemented using the immersed boundary technique (Peskin, 2002) and the direct forcing approach. In this method Cartesian grids (fluid and particle phase) and Lagrangian meshes (boulder) are combined. By applying the

  3. Boulder emplacement and remobilisation by cyclone and submarine landslide tsunami waves near Suva City, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A. Y. Annie; Terry, James P.; Ziegler, Alan; Pratap, Arti; Harris, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    The characteristics of a reef-top boulder field created by a local submarine landslide tsunami are presented for the first time. Our examination of large reef-derived boulders deposited by the 1953 tsunami near Suva City, Fiji, revealed that shorter-than-normal-period tsunami waves generated by submarine landslides can create a boulder field resembling a storm boulder field due to relatively short boulder transport distances. The boulder-inferred 1953 tsunami flow velocity is estimated at over 9 m s- 1 at the reef edge. Subsequent events, for example Cyclone Kina (1993), appear to have remobilised some large boulders. While prior research has demonstrated headward retreat of Suva Canyon in response to the repeated occurrence of earthquakes over the past few millennia, our results highlight the lingering vulnerability of the Fijian coastlines to high-energy waves generated both in the presence (tsunami) and absence (storm) of submarine failures and/or earthquakes. To explain the age discrepancies of U-Th dated coral comprising the deposited boulders, we introduce a conceptual model showing the role of repeated episodes of tsunamigenic submarine landslides in removing reef front sections through collapse. Subsequent high-energy wave events transport boulders from exposed older sections of the reef front onto the reef where they are deposited as 'new' boulders, alongside freshly detached sections of the living reef. In similar situations where anachronistic deposits complicate the deposition signal, age-dating of the coral boulders should not be used as a proxy for determining the timing of the submarine landslides or the tsunamis that generated them.

  4. 75 FR 26988 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human... notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the...

  5. 75 FR 45655 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the control of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human remains... sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the Native...

  6. 75 FR 28647 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human... notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the...

  7. 75 FR 77898 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the ] University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human... CFR 10.11(d). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution...

  8. 75 FR 45657 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the control of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human remains... notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the...

  9. 75 FR 69433 - City of Boulder, CO; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Boulder, CO; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment November 5, 2010. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy... Energy Projects has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for an application filed by City of Boulder...

  10. The Geographic Distribution of Boulder Halo Craters at Mid-to-High Latitudes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, L. X.; Fassett, C. I.; Levy, J. S.; King, I. R.; Chaffey, P. M.; Wagoner, C. M.; Hanlon, A. E.; Watters, J. L.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Holt, J. W.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Extensive evidence exists for ground ice at mid-to-high latitudes on Mars, including results from neutron spectroscopy [1-3], thermal properties [4-5], geomorphology [e.g., 6-9], and the in situ observations of Mars Phoenix [10]. This ground ice has been hypothesized to be emplaced diffusively and fill pores [11], or to have accumulated by ice and dust deposition that draped or mantled the terrain [7, 12]. These two processes are not mutually exclusive; both potentially have occurred on Mars [5]. One of the landforms found in areas where ground ice is common on Mars are boulder halo craters [e.g., 13-15] (Figure 1), which are topographically muted impact craters that are filled by ice-rich regolith. They are outlined by boulders that trace a circular outline of the original crater rim. Boulder halos generally have distinctly higher boulder densities than the surrounding background plains and have few boulders in their interiors. The mechanism of boulder halo crater formation is somewhat uncertain. Our working model is that an impact event occurs with sufficient size to excavate to a depth greater than the boulder-poor, ice-rich soils. Excavated boulders are deposited around the crater's rim and in its proximal ejecta. Quite rapidly [14], the crater becomes infilled by icy soil. Rather than being buried, boulders in the halo remain at the surface, perhaps be-cause they 'float' relative to finer-grained materials [14, 16]. Regardless of the details of this process, the life-time of boulders at the surface is much greater than the timescale needed to remove most of the craters' topography. Physical weathering of rocks must be greatly out-paced by crater infilling (the opposite of what is typical, e.g., on the Moon [17]). The rapidity of this infilling is easiest to understand if icy mantling material is deposited and accumulates, rather than simply being added by pore filling of soils. If this model is correct, boulder halos only form when they excavate rock

  11. Boulder coastal deposits at Favignana Island rocky coast (Sicily, Italy): Litho-structural and hydrodynamic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Fabrizio; Corradino, Marta; Parrino, Nicolò; Besio, Giovanni; Presti, Valeria Lo; Renda, Pietro; Calcagnile, Lucio; Quarta, Gianluca; Sulli, Attilio; Antonioli, Fabrizio

    2018-02-01

    Boulders are frequently dislodged from rock platforms, transported and deposited along coastal zones by high-magnitude storm waves or tsunamis. Their size and shape are often controlled by the thickness of bedding planes as well as by high-angle to bedding fracture network. We investigate these processes along two coastal areas of Favignana Island by integrating geological data for 81 boulders, 49 rupture surfaces (called sockets) and fracture orientation and spacing with four radiocarbon dates, numerical hydrodynamic analysis, and hindcast numerical simulation data. Boulders are scattered along the carbonate platform as isolated blocks or in small groups, which form, as a whole, a discontinuous berm. Underwater surveys also highlight free boulders with sharp edges and sockets carved out in the rock platform. Boulders are composed of ruditic- to arenitic-size clastic carbonates. Their size ranges from 0.6 to 3.7 m, 0.55 to 2.4 m, and 0.2 to 1 m on the major (A), medium (B), and minor (C) axes, respectively. The highest value of mass estimation is 12.5 t. Almost all of boulders and sockets are characterized by a tabular or bladed shape. The comparisons between a) the fractures spacing and the length of A- and B-axes, and b) the frequency peaks of C-axis with the recurrent thickness of beds measured along the coastal zone demonstrate the litho-structural control in the size and shape of joint-bounded boulders. These comparisons, together with the similarity between the shapes of the boulders and those of the sockets as well as between the lithology of boulders and the areas surrounding the sockets, suggest that blocks originate by detachment from the platform edge. Thus, the most common pre-transport setting is the joint-bounded scenario. Hydrodynamic equations estimate that the storm wave heights necessary to initiate the transport of blocks diverge from 2 m to 8 m for joint-bounded boulders and from few tens of centimeters up to 11 m for submerged boulders. The

  12. A story about estimation of a random field of boulders from incomplete seismic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the statistical interpretation of seismic diffraction measurements of boulder locations. The measurements are made in a corridor along the planned tunnel line for the later realized bored tunnel through the till deposits under the East Channel of the Great Belt in Denmark...... graphical registrations on seismograms do not make a proper interpretation possible without detailed knowledge about the joint distribution of the primary dimensions of the boulders. Therefore separate measurements were made of the dimensions of boulders deposited visibly on the cliff beaches of the Great...... and measured. These direct observations on site confirmed that the prediction was quite good....

  13. Differences in climbing-specific strength between boulder and lead rock climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchini, Maurizio; Violette, Frédéric; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare maximal muscle strength and rapid force capacity of finger flexors between boulder and lead climbers of national-international level. Ten boulder (mean ± SD, age 27 ± 8 years) and 10 lead climbers (age 27 ± 6 years) volunteered for the study. Ten nonclimbers (age 25 ± 4 years) were also tested. Isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force and rate of force development (RFD) produced in "crimp" and "open-crimp" hand positions were evaluated on an instrumented hold. Climbers were stronger than nonclimbers. More interestingly, MVC force and RFD were significantly greater in boulder compared with lead climbers (p rock climbers.

  14. Bonaire's boulder fields revisited: evidence for Holocene tsunami impact on the Leeward Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; May, Simon Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Supralittoral boulders and blocks are prominent sedimentary features along rocky shorelines worldwide. In most cases, their deposition is attributed to high-energy wave events (tsunamis, severe storms). Even though tsunami waves are expected to have higher transport capacities compared to storm waves, megaclasts of up to 100 t were observed to have been moved laterally by the latter waveform. The deduction of certain extreme wave events (tsunamis, severe storms) from the boulder record thus remains a major challenge in palaeo-event research; the debate on their differentiation is ongoing. At the eastern coast of Bonaire (Leeward Antilles) in the southern Caribbean, numerous limestone blocks and boulders (up to c. 130 t) are distributed on top of a 3-6 m a.s.l. (above mean sea level) palaeo-reef platform. Disagreement exists among a number of authors concerning the transport processes involved in the formation of the boulder fields. In this paper, state-of-the-art modelling approaches of coastal boulder entrainment and transport were applied in order to provide new and more reliable data to support/challenge the working hypothesis of tsunami deposition. To improve the reliability of the boulder transport model, more realistic input parameters were provided by new DGPS measurements of the boulder dimensions and the calculation of bulk densities by taking into account the heterogeneity of the reef-rock boulders. Existing hydrodynamic equations were modified to allow for the irregular shape and real dimensions of the boulders. The results indicate that (i) boulder weight and dimension, and thus (ii) calculated wave energy and wave heights were overestimated in most of the previous studies, where calculations of boulder volume were based on multiplication of the main axes. The results of this study and wave heights observed during recent severe tropical cyclones seem to rule out storm-generated waves for the dislocation of the largest blocks. However, the majority of

  15. Measured and Inferred Bedrock Faults in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (frifaultu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital line representation of measured and inferred bedrock faults in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin, Colorado. This file was created as...

  16. Fifty Years of Space Weather Forecasting from Boulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    The first official space weather forecast was issued by the Space Disturbances Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, in 1965, ushering in an era of operational prediction that continues to this day. Today, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) charters the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) as one of the nine National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to provide the nation's official watches, warnings, and alerts of space weather phenomena. SWPC is now integral to national and international efforts to predict space weather events, from the common and mild, to the rare and extreme, that can impact critical technological infrastructure. In 2012, the Strategic National Risk Assessment included extreme space weather events as low-to-medium probability phenomena that could, unlike any other meteorogical phenomena, have an impact on the government's ability to function. Recognizing this, the White House chartered the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) to produce the first comprehensive national strategy for the prediction, mitigation, and response to an extreme space weather event. The implementation of the National Strategy is ongoing with NOAA, its partners, and stakeholders concentrating on the goal of improving our ability to observe, model, and predict the onset and severity of space weather events. In addition, work continues with the research community to improve our understanding of the physical mechanisms - on the Sun, in the heliosphere, and in the Earth's magnetic field and upper atmosphere - of space weather as well as the effects on critical infrastructure such as electrical power transmission systems. In fifty years, people will hopefully look back at the history of operational space weather prediction and credit our efforts today with solidifying the necessary developments in observational systems, full-physics models of the entire Sun-Earth system, and tools for predicting the impacts to infrastructure to protect

  17. Indoor air quality in Latino homes in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Luis E.; Champion, Wyatt M.; Li, Ning; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2014-08-01

    Indoor concentrations of airborne pollutants can be several times higher than those found outdoors, often due to poor ventilation, overcrowding, and the contribution of indoor sources within a home. Americans spend most of their time indoors where exposure to poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can result in diminished respiratory and cardiovascular health. This study measured the indoor air quality in 30 homes of a low-income Latino community in Boulder, Colorado during the summer of 2012. Participants were administered a survey, which included questions on their health conditions and indoor air pollution sources like cigarette smoke, heating fuel, and building materials. Twenty-four hour samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from the indoor air were collected in each home; ambient PM2.5 samples were collected each day as well. Concurrent air samples were collected onto 47 mm Teflo and Tissuquartz filter at each location. Teflo filters were analyzed gravimetrically to measure PM2.5 and their extracts were used to determine levels of proteins and endotoxins in the fine fraction. The Tissuquartz filters were analyzed for elemental and organic carbon content (EC/OC). Results indicated that the indoor air contained higher concentrations of PM2.5 than the ambient air, and that the levels of OC were much higher than EC in both indoor and outdoor samples. This community showed no smoking in their homes and kept furry pets indoors at very low rates; therefore, cooking is likely the primary source of indoor PM. For responders with significant exposure to PM, it appeared to be primarily from occupational environments or childhood exposure abroad. Our findings indicate that for immigrant communities such as this, it is important to consider not only their housing conditions but also the relevant prior exposures when conducting health assessments.

  18. Tsunami-induced boulder transport - combining physical experiments and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; May, Simon Matthias; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brueckner, Helmut; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva

    2016-04-01

    Coasts are crucial areas for living, economy, recreation, transportation, and various sectors of industry. Many of them are exposed to high-energy wave events. With regard to the ongoing population growth in low-elevation coastal areas, the urgent need for developing suitable management measures, especially for hazards like tsunamis, becomes obvious. These measures require supporting tools which allow an exact estimation of impact parameters like inundation height, inundation area, and wave energy. Focussing on tsunamis, geological archives can provide essential information on frequency and magnitude on a longer time scale in order to support coastal hazard management. While fine-grained deposits may quickly be altered after deposition, multi-ton coarse clasts (boulders) may represent an information source on past tsunami events with a much higher preservation potential. Applying numerical hydrodynamic coupled boulder transport models (BTM) is a commonly used approach to analyse characteristics (e.g. wave height, flow velocity) of the corresponding tsunami. Correct computations of tsunamis and the induced boulder transport can provide essential event-specific information, including wave heights, runup and direction. Although several valuable numerical models for tsunami-induced boulder transport exist (e. g. Goto et al., 2007; Imamura et al., 2008), some important basic aspects of both tsunami hydrodynamics and corresponding boulder transport have not yet been entirely understood. Therefore, our project aims at these questions in four crucial aspects of boulder transport by a tsunami: (i) influence of sediment load, (ii) influence of complex boulder shapes other than idealized rectangular shapes, (iii) momentum transfers between multiple boulders, and (iv) influence of non-uniform bathymetries and topographies both on tsunami and boulder. The investigation of these aspects in physical experiments and the correct implementation of an advanced model is an urgent need

  19. Boulders on asteroid Toutatis as observed by Chang’e-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Ji, Jianghui; Huang, Jiangchuan; Marchi, Simone; Li, Yuan; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2015-01-01

    Boulders are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of small rocky bodies in the inner solar system and their spatial and size distributions give insight into the geological evolution and collisional history of the parent bodies. Using images acquired by the Chang’e-2 spacecraft, more than 200 boulders have been identified over the imaged area of the near-Earth asteroid Toutatis. The cumulative boulder size frequency distribution (SFD) shows a steep slope of −4.4 ± 0.1, which is indicative of a high degree of fragmentation. Similar to Itokawa, Toutatis probably has a rubble-pile structure, as most boulders on its surface cannot solely be explained by impact cratering. The significantly steeper slope for Toutatis’ boulder SFD compared to Itokawa may imply a different preservation state or diverse formation scenarios. In addition, the cumulative crater SFD has been used to estimate a surface crater retention age of approximately 1.6 ± 0.3 Gyr. PMID:26522880

  20. On the representativity of water vapour measurements at Boulder for global stratospheric trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossow, S.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term changes of water vapour in the lower stratosphere inevitably affect the surface climate. Thus understanding such changes is of primary importance. The longest continuous data set is based on balloon-borne frost point hygrometer observations at Boulder. Overall this data set shows an increase in water vapour since the 1980s accompanied by large variability on short time scales (Hurst et al., 2011). Recently a merged satellite data set, covering the time period between 1988 and 2010, has been analysed showing a decrease of water vapour in the lower stratosphere (Hegglin et al., 2014). This discrepancy is difficult to reconcile. There might be problems with one data set or even with both. Also the local behaviour at Boulder might not be representative for the zonal mean behaviour, which is represented by the satellite observations. So far this has been assumed and the Boulder changes have even been considered to be globally representative. Here I present investigations of this aspect using both model simulations and observations. References: Hegglin et al. (2014), "Vertical structure of stratospheric water vapour trends derived from merged satellite data", Nature Geoscience, 7, 768 - 776, doi:10.1038/ngeo2236. Hurst et al. (2011), "Stratospheric water vapor trends over Boulder, Colorado: Analysis of the 30 year Boulder record", Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, D02,306, doi:10.1029/2010JD015065.

  1. Boulders on asteroid Toutatis as observed by Chang'e-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Ji, Jianghui; Huang, Jiangchuan; Marchi, Simone; Li, Yuan; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2015-11-02

    Boulders are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of small rocky bodies in the inner solar system and their spatial and size distributions give insight into the geological evolution and collisional history of the parent bodies. Using images acquired by the Chang'e-2 spacecraft, more than 200 boulders have been identified over the imaged area of the near-Earth asteroid Toutatis. The cumulative boulder size frequency distribution (SFD) shows a steep slope of -4.4 ± 0.1, which is indicative of a high degree of fragmentation. Similar to Itokawa, Toutatis probably has a rubble-pile structure, as most boulders on its surface cannot solely be explained by impact cratering. The significantly steeper slope for Toutatis' boulder SFD compared to Itokawa may imply a different preservation state or diverse formation scenarios. In addition, the cumulative crater SFD has been used to estimate a surface crater retention age of approximately 1.6 ± 0.3 Gyr.

  2. Something more than boulders: A geological comment on the nomenclature of megaclasts on extraterrestrial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Delia E.; Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2017-01-01

    Large clasts are common on extraterrestrial bodies, and these are traditionally termed "blocks" and "boulders". These two terms can easily raise confusion, however, because they are used in a sense that differs from geological definitions. Several classifications of large clasts are currently in use in the Earth sciences, and they differ only in detail. They restrict the size of boulders to 1-4 m; larger particles are called "megaclasts". The analysis of the published information on large clasts on planet satellites, asteroids, and comets imply that the particles often described as "boulders" actually are megaclasts; boulders, as the term is used in the Earth sciences, are too small to be detected given the limited resolution of most images obtained. It were therefore scientifically preferable if the established geological literature were applied in the modern planetary and space research. It appears sensible to distinguish boulders from megaclasts; the latter comprise bodies that might be subdivided granulometrically into blocks, megablocks, and superblocks. It is also shown that the abundance of megaclasts on extraterrestrial bodies may itself be beneficial for our understanding of such particles, which are rare on Earth.

  3. Abundance and distribution of sessile invertebrates under intertidal boulders (São Paulo, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Rosana Moreira da

    1995-01-01

    The encrusting communities under two boulder fields (Praia Grande and Ponta do Baleeiro) were monitored monthly during 1990 and 1991, in São Sebastião, on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Two sizes of boulders were chosen: small (20-30 cm² underside area) and larger ones (160-220 cm²) located on the middle and lower levels of the intertidal. The community's components were mainly sessile animals either compound ones such as Bryozoa, Ascidiacea, Porifera and Cnidaria, in this ord...

  4. Evaluation of Boulder, CO,SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Vijayakumar, G. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE’s Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  5. Evaluation of Boulder, CO, SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Vijayakumar, G.

    2012-04-01

    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE's Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  6. 33 CFR 165.T11-281 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV. 165.T11-281 Section 165.T11-281 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.T11-281 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City...

  7. 78 FR 20168 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport, Boulder, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to release airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invite public comment...

  8. 75 FR 52015 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the University of Colorado Museum... determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has...

  9. 75 FR 52019 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the University of Colorado Museum... determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has...

  10. 75 FR 42771 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the University of Colorado Museum.... 3003(d)(3). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution...

  11. 76 FR 62833 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... contact the University of Colorado Museum. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary object...

  12. 76 FR 43719 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... contact the University of Colorado Museum. Disposition of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated...

  13. 76 FR 43715 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... University of Colorado Museum. ] Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the...

  14. 76 FR 62839 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... contact the University of Colorado Museum. Disposition of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated...

  15. 75 FR 57290 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the University of Colorado Museum..., 25 U.S.C. 3003(d)(3). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum...

  16. 76 FR 43713 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... contact the University of Colorado Museum. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary object...

  17. 77 FR 65681 - Boulder Canyon Project-Post-2017 Resource Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of proposed marketing criteria. SUMMARY: The Western Area Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is seeking comments on proposed marketing criteria for allocating the Federal power from the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP...

  18. 77 FR 35671 - Conformed Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for the Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Area Power Administration Conformed Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for the Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Conformance of power marketing criteria in... (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is modifying Part C of its...

  19. 75 FR 57912 - Boulder Canyon Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-150

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ...). This Act transferred to and vested in the Secretary of Energy the power marketing functions of the... using sound business principles. Both agencies continue to provide transparency in development of their... September 30, 2015, or until superseded. Available In the marketing area serviced by the Boulder Canyon...

  20. Restoration of a boulder reef in temperate waters: Strategy, methodology and lessons learnt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Dahl, Karsten; Niemann, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    and geotechnical surveys confirmed that the sea bed could support added boulders, and high resolution bathymetric surveys provided input for the design of the reef, particularly for numerical modelling of the hydrographic and sediment transport conditions. Numerical modelling was used to derive hydrographic design......Anthropogenic impacts on marine habitats are a global problem, particularly in coastal areas. While boulder reefs in temperate waters hold high biomass and biodiversity, and may be unable to recover from anthropogenic stressors without restoration efforts, little is known about how to restore......, collected in 2009, demonstrated that cavernous structures and shallow reef areas were restored. Moreover, data collected in 2012 confirmed the stability of the restored reef. Finally, results highlighted the importance of stakeholder mapping at the outset, appropriate timing of stakeholder involvement...

  1. Is There Evidence of Convectively Injected Water Vapor in the Lowermost Stratosphere Over Boulder, Colorado?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, D. F.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Davis, S. M.; Hall, E. G.; Jordan, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Anderson et al. (2012) reported the frequent presence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere over North America during summertime, based on aircraft measurements. They asserted that enhanced catalytic ozone destruction within these wet stratospheric air parcels presents a concern for UV dosages in populated areas, especially if the frequency of deep convective events increases. Schwartz et al.(2013) analyzed 8 years of more widespread Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of lower stratospheric water vapor over North America and concluded that anomalously wet (>8 ppm) air parcels were present only 2.5% of the time during July and August. However, given the 3-km vertical resolution of MLS water vapor retrievals in the lowermost stratosphere, thin wet layers deposited by overshooting convection may be present but not readily detectable by MLS. Since 1980 the balloon-borne NOAA frost point hygrometer (FPH) has produced nearly 400 high quality water vapor profiles over Boulder, Colorado, at 5-m vertical resolution from the surface to the middle stratosphere. The 34-year record of high-resolution FPH profiles obtained over Boulder during summer months is evaluated for evidence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere. A number of approaches are used to assess the contributions of deep convection to the Boulder stratospheric water vapor record. The results are compared to those based on MLS profiles over Boulder and the differences are discussed. Anderson, J. G., D. M. Wilmouth, J. B. Smith, and D. S. Sayres (2012), UV dosage levels in summer: Increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor, Science, 337(6096), 835-839, doi:10.1126/science.1222978. Schwartz, M. J., W. G. Read, M. L. Santee, N. J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, and G. L. Manney (2013), Convectively injected water vapor in the North American summer lowermost stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2316-2321, doi:10

  2. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  3. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of a Multifamily Retrofit in Climate Zone 5, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    In 2009, a 37-unit apartment complex located in Boulder, Colorado, underwent an energy retrofit to comply with Boulder SmartRegs Ordinance, a mandate that requires all rental properties to meet certain energy efficiency standards by 2018. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, worked with city planners and building owners to evaluate this program and recently completed a case study evaluating the effectiveness of a collection of retrofit measures.

  4. Multi-hole seismic modeling in 3-D space and cross-hole seismic tomography analysis for boulder detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Liu, Jiangping; Wang, Jing; Zong, Yuquan; Yu, Mingyu

    2016-11-01

    A boulder stone, a common geological feature in south China, is referred to the remnant of a granite body which has been unevenly weathered. Undetected boulders could adversely impact the schedule and safety of subway construction when using tunnel boring machine (TBM) method. Therefore, boulder detection has always been a key issue demanded to be solved before the construction. Nowadays, cross-hole seismic tomography is a high resolution technique capable of boulder detection, however, the method can only solve for velocity in a 2-D slice between two wells, and the size and central position of the boulder are generally difficult to be accurately obtained. In this paper, the authors conduct a multi-hole wave field simulation and characteristic analysis of a boulder model based on the 3-D elastic wave staggered-grid finite difference theory, and also a 2-D imaging analysis based on first arrival travel time. The results indicate that (1) full wave field records could be obtained from multi-hole seismic wave simulations. Simulation results describe that the seismic wave propagation pattern in cross-hole high-velocity spherical geological bodies is more detailed and can serve as a basis for the wave field analysis. (2) When a cross-hole seismic section cuts through the boulder, the proposed method provides satisfactory cross-hole tomography results; however, when the section is closely positioned to the boulder, such high-velocity object in the 3-D space would impact on the surrounding wave field. The received diffracted wave interferes with the primary wave and in consequence the picked first arrival travel time is not derived from the profile, which results in a false appearance of high-velocity geology features. Finally, the results of 2-D analysis in 3-D modeling space are comparatively analyzed with the physical model test vis-a-vis the effect of high velocity body on the seismic tomographic measurements.

  5. Rock climbing rescues: causes, injuries, and trends in Boulder County, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Daniel A; Sheets, Alison L; Entin, Jacob M; Christenson, David C

    2012-09-01

    To describe rates and patterns of rock climbing rescue incidents, morbidity and mortality in Boulder County, CO. Rocky Mountain Rescue Group incident reports from 1998 to 2011 were reviewed to provide a 14-year statistical account of rock climbing incidents. Rock climbing rescues in Boulder accounted for 428 of a total of 2198 (19.5%) mountain and wilderness rescue victims. Most rock climbing victims were male (78%), and 46% of victims were between the ages of 20 and 29 years; most rock climbing incidents occurred on weekend days (median time of 3:30 pm) during the spring, summer, and autumn. Technical roped climbers accounted for 58% of climbing victims, whereas unroped climbers accounted for 34%. Belay incidents accounted for 12% of climbing victims, whereas rock fall incidents accounted for 4.5% of victims. Most victims were uninjured (43% stranded or lost), whereas lower extremity injuries were the most common injury (29.5% of injured victims). A total of 5.5% of climbing victims were fatally injured (23 victims: 5 from lead falls and 9 from unroped falls). The occurrence of rock climbing-related rescue victims comprised one fifth of all rescue victims in Boulder County. A large fraction of incidents and fatalities resulted from unroped climbing. Incidents of lost or uninjured stranded climbers and belay incidents account for more than half of victims, which can likely be prevented by gaining appropriate experience, seeking local information, and applying some simple safety measures for control of rope belays. Copyright © 2012 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Abundance and distribution of sessile invertebrates under intertidal boulders (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Moreira da Rocha

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The encrusting communities under two boulder fields (Praia Grande and Ponta do Baleeiro were monitored monthly during 1990 and 1991, in São Sebastião, on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Two sizes of boulders were chosen: small (20-30 cm² underside area and larger ones (160-220 cm² located on the middle and lower levels of the intertidal. The community's components were mainly sessile animals either compound ones such as Bryozoa, Ascidiacea, Porifera and Cnidaria, in this order of abundance, or simple ones such as Polychaeta and Bivalvia, also in this order of abundance. All groups, except by serpulids (Polychaeta, had higher percent cover in the low intertidal region and under large boulders. Diversity was higher at Ponta do Baleeiro, and in the low intertidal region and on large boulders for both shores.Em São Sebastião, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, foram monitorados mensalmente dois ambientes de matacões em costões rochosos. Praia Grande e Ponta do Baleeiro, ao longo de 1990 e 1991. As condições ambientais avaliadas foram: temperatura e salinidade da água, hidrodinâmica, capacidade de abrasão da areia acumulada, heterogeneidade ambiental e porosidade das pedras. Foi estudada a comunidade incrustante na superfície inferior de pedras pequenas (20-30 cm² de área na face inferior e maiores (160-220 cm² dispostas nos estratos médio e inferior da zona entremarés. Esta comunidade era constituída principalmente por organismos sésseis coloniais (Bryozoa, Ascidiacea, Porifera e Cnidaria, nesta ordem de abundância ou solitários (Polychaeta e Bivalvia, nesta ordem de abundância. Todos os grupos, com exceção dos ser pulid cos (Polychaeta, apresentaram maior porcentagem de cobertura nos estratos inferiores e nas pedras grandes. A composição específica foi similar nos dois costões estudados, mas várias espécies ocorreram exclusivamente em um determinado nível de maré, ou tamanho de pedra

  7. Geology and uranium deposits of the Caribou area, Boulder County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F.B.; Cavender, W.S.; Kaiser, E.P.

    1954-01-01

    Pitchblende was discovered in the Caribou mine, Boulder County. Colo., in 1948 by Consolidated Caribou Silver Mines, incorporated during the reopening of the 1040-level.  Since 1948, a small quantity of pitchblende has been produced from the Radium vein during exploratory work that was done under contract with the Atomic Energy Commission. The Caribou mine, primarily a silver mine, develops five veins (Caribou. No Name, Poorman, Sherman and Silver Dollar) that were formerly worked as separate mines. Three other veins, the Radium, Elmer, and Nelson, are exposed in the Caribou mine only at and below the 920-level.  

  8. OSL surface exposure dating of wave-emplaced coastal boulders - Research concept and first results from the Rabat coast, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Dominik; May, Simon Matthias; Mhammdi, Nadia; King, Georgina; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Fields of wave-emplaced blocks and boulders represent impressive evidence of cyclone and tsunami flooding over Holocene time scales. Unfortunately, their use for coastal hazard assessment is in many cases impeded by the absence of appropriate dating approaches, which are needed to generate robust chronologies. The commonly applied AMS-14C, U/Th or ESR dating of coral-reef rocks and marine organisms attached to the clasts depends on a - mostly hypothetical - coincidence between the organisms' death and boulder displacement, and inferred event chronologies may be biased by the marine 14C-reservoir effect and reworked organisms. Here we discuss the potential of the recently developed optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) surface exposure dating technique to directly date the relocation process of wave-emplaced boulders. By measuring the depth-dependent resetting of luminescence signals in exposed rock surfaces and comparing it to the signal-depth profiles of known-age samples, OSL surface exposure dating may be capable to model direct depositional ages for boulder transport. Thereby, it promises to overcome the limitations of existing dating techniques, and to decipher complex transport histories of clasts that underwent multiple phases of exposure and burial. The concept and some first results of OSL surface exposure dating shall be presented for coastal boulders from the Rabat coast, Morocco, where the preconditions for successful dating are promising: (i) Several coastal boulders show clear indication of overturning during wave transport in the form of downward-facing bio-eroded surfaces; (ii) the boulders are composed of different types of sandstone that contain quartz and feldspar, the required dosimeters for OSL dating; (iii) all boulders are of Holocene age and, therefore, in the dating range of OSL surface exposure dating. The main challenges for a successful application are the intensive bio-erosion and weathering of some surfaces exposed after transport

  9. Quantitative Morphologic Analysis of Boulder Shape and Surface Texture to Infer Environmental History: A Case Study of Rock Breakdown at the Ephrata Fan, Channeled Scabland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Viles, Heather A.; Bourke, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Boulder morphology reflects both lithology and climate and is dictated by the combined effects of erosion, transport, and weathering. At present, morphologic information at the boulder scale is underutilized as a recorder of environmental processes, partly because of the lack of a systematic quantitative parameter set for reporting and comparing data sets. We develop such a parameter set, incorporating a range of measures of boulder form and surface texture. We use standard shape metrics measured in the field and fractal and morphometric classification methods borrowed from landscape analysis and applied to laser-scanned molds. The parameter set was pilot tested on three populations of basalt boulders with distinct breakdown histories in the Channeled Scabland, Washington: (1) basalt outcrop talus; (2) flood-transported boulders recently excavated from a quarry; and (3) flood-transported boulders, extensively weathered in situ on the Ephrata Fan surface. Size and shape data were found to distinguish between flood-transported and untransported boulders. Size and edge angles (approximately 120 degrees) of flood-transported boulders suggest removal by preferential fracturing along preexisting columnar joints, and curvature data indicate rounding relative to outcrop boulders. Surface textural data show that boulders which have been exposed at the surface are significantly rougher than those buried by fan sediments. Past signatures diagnostic of flood transport still persist on surface boulders, despite ongoing overprinting by processes in the present breakdown environment through roughening and fracturing in situ. Further use of this quantitative boulder parameter set at other terrestrial and planetary sites will aid in cataloging and understanding morphologic signatures of environmental processes.

  10. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, G.V. [United States Geological Survey , Anchorage, AK (United States); Mann, D.H. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Institute of Arctic Biology; Short, J.W. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Fisheries Laboratory

    2006-09-15

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by 'oil mousse', which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulder. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. (author)

  11. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: the importance of boulder-armoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Gail V; Mann, Daniel H; Short, Jeffrey W

    2006-09-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments.

  12. Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hetch Hetchy Pump Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, L; Kato, T; Van Hattem, M

    2007-06-28

    The purpose of this biological assessment is to review the proposed Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project in sufficient detail to determine to what extent the proposed action may affect any of the threatened, endangered, proposed, or sensitive species and designated or proposed critical habitats listed below. In addition, the following information is provided to comply with statutory requirements to use the best scientific and commercial information available when assessing the risks posed to listed and/or proposed species and designated and/or proposed critical habitat by proposed federal actions. This biological assessment is prepared in accordance with legal requirements set forth under regulations implementing Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (50 CFR 402; 16 U.S.C 1536 (c)). It is our desire for the Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project to receive incidental take coverage for listed species and critical habitat within the greater project area by means of amending the previous formal Section 7 consultation (1-1-04-F-0086) conducted a few hundred meters downstream by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 2002. All conservation measures, terms and conditions, and reporting requirements from the previous Biological Opinion (1-1-04-F-0086) have been adopted for this Biological Assessment and/or amendment.

  13. Survival Times of Meter-Sized Rock Boulders on the Surface of Airless Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Horz, F.; Ramsley, K.

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the survival times of meter-sized rock boulders on the surfaces of several airless bodies. As the starting point, we employ estimates of the survival times of such boulders on the surface of the Moon by[1], then discuss the role of destruction due to day-night temperature cycling, consider the meteorite bombardment environment on the considered bodies in terms of projectile flux and velocities and finally estimate the survival times. Survival times of meter-sized rocks on lunar surface: The survival times of hand specimen-sized rocks exposed to the lunar surface environment were estimated based on experiments modeling the destruction of rocks by meteorite impacts, combined with measurements of the lunar surface meteorite flux, (e.g.,[2]). For estimations of the survival times of meter-sized lunar boulders, [1] suggested a different approach based on analysis of the spatial density of boulders on the rims of small lunar craters of known absolute age. It was found that for a few million years, only a small fraction of the boulders ejected by cratering process are destroyed, for several tens of million years approx.50% are destroyed, and for 200-300 Ma, 90 to 99% are destroyed. Following [2] and other works, [1] considered that the rocks are mostly destroyed by meteorite impacts. Destruction of rocks by thermal-stress. However, high diurnal temperature variations on the surface of the Moon and other airless bodies imply that thermal stresses may also be a cause of surface rock destruction. Delbo et al. [3] interpreted the observed presence of fine debris on the surface of small asteroids as due to thermal surface cycling. They stated that because of the very low gravity on the surface of these bodies, ejecta from meteorite impacts should leave the body, so formation there of fine debris has to be due to thermal cycling. Based on experiments on heating-cooling of cm-scale pieces of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites and theoretical modeling of

  14. Geochemical studies of the White Breccia Boulders at North Ray Crater, Descartes region of the lunar highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Lum, R. K. L.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Philpotts, J. A.; Winzer, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    The samples of the White Breccia Boulders obtained during the Apollo 16 mission and investigated in the reported study include an anorthositic breccia (67415), a dark matrix breccia (67435), a light matrix breccia (67455), and a large clast of dark matrix breccia (67475) taken from the 67455 boulder. The chemical analyses of bulk samples of the samples are listed in a table. A graph shows the lithophile trace element abundances. Another graph indicates the variation of Sm with Al2O3 content for samples from the White Breccia Boulders. The North Ray Crater breccias are found to be in general slightly more aluminous than breccias from the other stations at the Apollo 16 site. Analyses of eight Apollo 16 breccias cited in the literature range from 25% to 35% Al2O3. However, the North Ray Crater breccias are more clearly distinct from the other Apollo 16 breccias in their contents of lithophile trace elements.

  15. Assessing enigmatic boulder deposits in NE Aegean Sea: importance of historical sources as tool to support hydrodynamic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vacchi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to their importance in the assessment of coastal hazards, several studies have focused on geomorphological and sedimentological field evidence of catastrophic wave impacts related to historical tsunami events. Among them, many authors used boulder fields as important indicators of past tsunamis, especially in the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanism of deposition of clusters of large boulders, consisting of beachrock slabs, which were found on the southern coasts of Lesvos Island (NE Aegean Sea. Methods to infer the origin of boulder deposits (tsunami vs. storm wave are often based on hydrodynamic models even if different environmental complexities are difficult to be incorporated into numerical models. In this study, hydrodynamic equations did not provide unequivocal indication of the mechanism responsible for boulder deposition in the study area. Further analyses, ranging from geomorphologic to seismotectonic data, indicated a tsunami as the most likely cause of displacement of the boulders but still do not allow to totally exclude the extreme storm origin. Additional historical investigations (based on tsunami catalogues, historical photos and aged inhabitants interviews indicated that the boulders are likely to have been deposited by the tsunami triggered by the 6.7 Ms Chios-Karaburum earthquake of 1949 or, alternatively, by minor effects of the destructive tsunami produced by 1956's Amorgos Island earthquake. Results of this study point out that, at Mediterranean scale, to flank numerical models with the huge amount of the available historical data become a crucial tool in terms of prevention policies related to catastrophic coastal events.

  16. Cosmogenic Ne-21 exposure ages of glacial boulders constrained by local bedrock erosion rates in Ong Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. J.; Balco, G.; Putkonen, J.; Bibby, T.; Giusti, C.; Ball, A. E.; Hedberg, C. P.; Diamond, M. S.; Ringger, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    In order to accurately determine the exposure age of glacial boulders with cosmogenic nuclides, we need to know something about the erosion rate of the rock and any previous exposure the boulder may have had. Commonly, the erosion rate is simply assumed, and inheritance is dealt with by both sampling strategy and removing outliers from the data. In this study, we determine the rock erosion rate by measuring the concentration of cosmogenic Ne-21 in granite bedrock samples. This is used to constrain the exposure age of glacial boulders of the same lithology from the same locale. Ong Valley, Antarctica, (157.5 East, 83.25 South) is an ice-free valley in the Miller Range of the Central Transantarctic Mountains. The valley contains three distinct glacial drifts, and the oldest of these is well defined by an end moraine. We collected samples from six boulders on this end moraine, and six additional samples from the surrounding bedrock that is composed of the same lithology, the Hope Granite. The bedrock samples were collected from the ridge bordering the valley, well above the glacial limit. Because the bedrock samples have not been shielded by ice and have been exposed for millions of years, the concentration of cosmogenic Ne-21 in these samples reflects only the erosion rate of the granite. We separated quartz from the granite samples following standard laboratory methods and measured the concentration of cosmogenic Ne-21 in the quartz at the BGC Noble Gas Thermochronometry Lab. The concentration of cosmogenic Ne-21 in the bedrock samples is interpreted as reflecting only the erosion rate. We can then assume that the erosion rate of the bedrock is equal to the erosion rate of the glacial boulders on the end moraine because they have the same lithology and have been subjected to the same climate conditions during their exposure. With this information, we can better constrain the exposure age of the glacial boulders in Ong Valley.

  17. Thermal stress and topography control on the exfoliation of spheroidal granite boulders in Pricopan Ridge, Macin Mountains, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Mirela; Vespremeanu-Stroe, Alfred

    2017-04-01

    Exfoliation is one of the most frequent processes of granite landforms shaping, its intensity being usually associated with the cumulated action of thermal stresses. Although exfoliation microforms are present on granite landforms in most of the warm-climates, the controlling factors of this process are not yet well defined. Within this study, we investigated the distribution pattern of the exfoliation microforms identified on the surface of 40 rounded granite boulders mapped on the western slope of Pricopan Ridge (Macin Mountains), in a semi-arid temperate environment (Northern Dobrogea, Romania). Continuous rock near-surface temperature measurement on a reference boulder over a four years period allowed us to evaluate the frequency and intensity of the rock thermal oscillations, taking into account (as control factors) (i) the fast temperature changes generated by convective summer rain events, (ii) the day-night temperature variations and (iii) the occurrence of freeze-thaw oscillations during winter. The relative rock strength at the rock surface was determined by Schmidt Hammer tests, which highlighted a reduced resistance of the boulder areas oriented towards South (mean rebound values of 27-33) compared to the North-exposed ones (mean rebound values of 43-50). Over a North-South profile of the boulders, the lowest resistance of the rock surface corresponds to their gently sloping southern faces (at slope values of 0-45 degrees (°)), which indicates a higher susceptibility of these sectors to be affected by weathering processes. These specific areas (gently-sloping faces of the rounded granite boulders) overlap the sector of high frequency and intensity of the investigated thermal-stress inducing processes, all three of them reaching the highest peak on the South-face of the boulders at slopes of 20°-30°. Correspondently, the exfoliation microforms mapped and morphometrically described in this study are developed most frequently in the area delimited by

  18. A re-evaluation of the relativistic redshift on frequency standards at NIST, Boulder, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, Nikolaos K.; Weiss, Marc A.

    2017-08-01

    We re-evaluated the relativistic redshift correction applicable to the frequency standards at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Boulder, Colorado, USA, based on a precise GPS survey of three benchmarks on the roof of the building where these standards had been previously housed, and on global and regional geoid models supported by data from the GRACE and GOCE missions, including EGM2008, USGG2009, and USGG2012. We also evaluated the redshift offset based on the published NAVD88 geopotential number of the leveling benchmark Q407 located on the side of Building 1 at NIST, Boulder, Colorado, USA, after estimating the bias of the NAVD88 datum at our specific location. Based on these results, our current best estimate of the relativistic redshift correction, if frequency standards were located at the height of the leveling benchmark Q407 outside the second floor of Building 1, with respect to the EGM2008 geoid whose potential has been estimated to be {{W}0}=62 636 855.69 {{m}2} {{s}-2} , is equal to (-1798.50  ±  0.06)  ×  10-16. The corresponding value, with respect to an equipotential surface defined by the International Astronomical Union’s (IAU) adopted value of {{W}0}=62 636 856.0 {{m}2} {{s}-2} , is (-1798.53  ±  0.06)  ×  10-16. These values are comparable to the value of (-1798.70  ±  0.30)  ×  10-16, estimated by Pavlis and Weiss in 2003, with respect to an equipotential surface defined by {{W}0}=62 636 856.88 {{m}2} {{s}-2} . The minus sign implies that clocks run faster in the laboratory in Boulder than a corresponding clock located on the geoid. Contribution of US government, not subject to Copyright.

  19. Boulder Deposits on the Southern Spanish Atlantic Coast: Possible Evidence for the 1755 AD Lisbon Tsunami?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Kelletat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Field evidence of visible tsunami impacts in Europe is scarce. This research focused on an analysis of large littoral debris and accompanying geomorphic features and their rela- tionship to a tsunami event at Cabo de Trafalgar, located on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast. Relative dating of weathering features as well as minor bioconstructive forms in the littoral zone suggest the Lisbon tsunami of 1755 AD as the event responsible for the large deposits described. This tsunami had run up heights of more than 19 m and was generated at the Gorringe Bank, located 500 km west off the Cape. Tsunami deposits at Cabo de Tra- falgar are the first boulder deposits identified on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast and are located approximately 250 km southeast of the Algarve coast (Portugal, where other geo- morphic evidence for the Lisbon tsunami has been reported.

  20. Long-term variability of supratidal coastal boulder activation in Brittany (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autret, Ronan; Dodet, Guillaume; Suanez, Serge; Roudaut, Gildas; Fichaut, Bernard

    2018-03-01

    High-energy supratidal coastal boulder deposit (SCBD) dynamics were investigated on Vierge Island and Pors Carn Point, north and south of western Brittany, France, respectively. Morphological changes induced by boulder transport and quarrying were quantified using high-resolution topographic survey data taken between 2012 and 2017. Additional in-situ wave parameters and water levels were also recorded over this period (2014-2017) in order to compute the maximum water levels and assess the relationship between SCBD morphological changes and specific hydrodynamic conditions. During extreme water levels (for maximum water levels exceeding a one in ten year event), SCBDs were broadly reworked (up to 40% of the total volume). During lower intensity events, for which maximum water levels were still very high, morphological changes represented 1% to 5% of the total volume. These morphological and hydrodynamic observations were then used to calibrate a chronology of SCBD activation events based on 70 years of hindcast winter maximum water levels. These long-term time-series showed great interannual variability in SCBD activation but no significant long-term trend. Winter-frequency SCBD activation was better correlated to the WEPA index (r = 0.46) than the NAO index (r = 0.1). Therefore, the WEPA index can be considered to be a more significant climate proxy for assessing storm-related geomorphic changes in the temperate latitudes of the N-E Atlantic basin (36°-52° N), including the Brittany coast. The potential of SCBDs as a morphological storm proxy for macrotidal high-energy rocky coasts is addressed.

  1. Risk factors for injury in sport climbing and bouldering: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollings, Kaikanani Y; McKay, Carly D; Emery, Carolyn A

    2015-09-01

    Rock climbing is an increasingly popular sport worldwide, as a recreational activity and a competitive sport. Several disciplines including sport climbing and bouldering have developed, each employing specific movements and techniques, leading to specific injuries. To examine risk factors and prevention measures for injury in sport climbing and bouldering, and to assess the methodological quality of existing studies. 12 electronic databases and several other sources were searched systematically using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eligible articles were peer-reviewed, based on primary research using original data; outcome measures included injury, morbidity or mortality in rock climbing, and included one or more potential risk factor or injury prevention strategy. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodology of research in each study using the Downs and Black Quality Index. The data extracted is summarised, and appraisals of the articles are presented with respect to the quality of evidence presented. 19 studies met the inclusion criteria, and introduced 35 possible risk factors or injury prevention measures in climbing. Age, increasing years of climbing experience, highest climbing grade achieved (skill level), high climbing intensity score (CIS) and participating in lead climbing are potential risk factors. Results regarding injury prevention measures remain inconclusive. This field is relatively new and, as such, the data are not as robust as for more established sports with a larger research foundation. The key need is establishing modifiable risk factors using prospective studies and high quality methodology, such that injury prevention strategies can be developed. The CIS may be a useful measure in this field of research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In NREL's report titled 'Assessing and Improving the Accuracy of Energy Analysis of Residential Buildings,' researchers propose a method for improving the accuracy of residential energy analysis methods. A key step in this process involves the comparisons of predicted versus metered energy use and savings. In support of this research need, CARB evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. In this study, CARB seeks to improve the accuracy of modeling software while assessing retrofit measures to specifically determine which are most effective for large multifamily complexes in the cold climate region. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  3. Bouldering: an alternative strategy to long-vertical climbing in root-climbing hortensias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados Mendoza, Carolina; Isnard, Sandrine; Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Rowe, Nick P; Van Acker, Joris; Goetghebeur, Paul; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2014-10-06

    In the Neotropics, the genus Hydrangea of the popular ornamental hortensia family is represented by climbing species that strongly cling to their support surface by means of adhesive roots closely positioned along specialized anchoring stems. These root-climbing hortensia species belong to the nearly exclusive American Hydrangea section Cornidia and generally are long lianescent climbers that mostly flower and fructify high in the host tree canopy. The Mexican species Hydrangea seemannii, however, encompasses not only long lianescent climbers of large vertical rock walls and coniferous trees, but also short 'shrub-like' climbers on small rounded boulders. To investigate growth form plasticity in root-climbing hortensia species, we tested the hypothesis that support variability (e.g. differences in size and shape) promotes plastic responses observable at the mechanical, structural and anatomical level. Stem bending properties, architectural axis categorization, tissue organization and wood density were compared between boulder and long-vertical tree-climbers of H. seemannii. For comparison, the mechanical patterns of a closely related, strictly long-vertical tree-climbing species were investigated. Hydrangea seemannii has fine-tuned morphological, mechanical and anatomical responses to support variability suggesting the presence of two alternative root-climbing strategies that are optimized for their particular environmental conditions. Our results suggest that variation of some stem anatomical traits provides a buffering effect that regulates the mechanical and hydraulic demands of two distinct plant architectures. The adaptive value of observed plastic responses and the importance of considering growth form plasticity in evolutionary and conservation studies are discussed. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Wildfire impacts on stream sedimentation: re-visiting the Boulder Creek Burn in Little Granite Creek, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra Ryan; Kathleen Dwire

    2012-01-01

    In this study of a burned watershed in northwestern Wyoming, USA, sedimentation impacts following a moderately-sized fire (Boulder Creek burn, 2000) were evaluated against sediment loads estimated for the period prior to burning. Early observations of suspended sediment yield showed substantially elevated loads (5x) the first year post-fire (2001), followed by less...

  5. A Case Study on Environmental Perspectives of Boulderers and Access Issues at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeremy; Davidson, Justin; Hutson, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there are concerns about access restrictions to bouldering, a form of rock climbing, and other outdoor activities practiced at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve located near Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. The Niagara Parks Commission is currently in the process of exploring ways to balance protection of the natural area with sustainable…

  6. University of Colorado at Boulder: Energy and Climate Revolving Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The University of Colorado at Boulder's student run Environmental Center leads the campus' sustainability efforts. The Center created the Energy and Climate Revolving Fund (ECRF) in 2007 to finance energy-efficiency upgrades. The ECRF functions as a source of funding for project loans and provides a method of financing projects that seeks to save…

  7. Collection Assessment in Response to Changing Curricula: An Analysis of the Biotechnology Resources at the University of Colorado at Boulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    Increasing demand for biotechnology and biomedical resources prompted the Engineering Library at the University of Colorado at Boulder (UCB) to complete a collection assessment of the journals, books, and other resources provided by the University Libraries. This paper presents a variety of methods for evaluating library collections and describes…

  8. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structure of the Floridan aquifer system near "Boulder Zone" deep wells in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, acquired, processed, and interpreted seismic-reflection data near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields to determine if geologic factors may contribute to the upward migration of injected effluent into that upper part of the Floridan aquifer system designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as an underground source of drinking water. The depth of the Boulder Zone at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields ranges from about 2,750 to 3,300 feet below land surface (ft bls), whereas overlying permeable zones used as alternative drinking water supply range in depth from about 825 to 1,580 ft bls at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structures imaged on seismic-reflection profiles created for the study describe the part of the Floridan aquifer system overlying and within the Boulder Zone. Features of the Floridan aquifer system underlying the Boulder Zone were not studied because seismic-reflection profiles acquired near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields lacked adequate resolution at such depths.

  9. Comparison of ozone retrievals from the Pandora spectrometer system and Dobson spectrophotometer in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J.; Evans, R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; McConville, G.

    2015-08-01

    A comparison of retrieved total column ozone (TCO) amounts between the Pandora #34 spectrometer system and the Dobson #061 spectrophotometer from direct-sun observations was performed on the roof of the Boulder, Colorado, NOAA building. This paper, part of an ongoing study, covers a 1-year period starting on 17 December 2013. Both the standard Dobson and Pandora TCO retrievals required a correction, TCOcorr = TCO (1 + C(T)), using a monthly varying effective ozone temperature, TE, derived from a temperature and ozone profile climatology. The correction is used to remove a seasonal difference caused by using a fixed temperature in each retrieval algorithm. The respective corrections C(TE) are CPandora = 0.00333(TE-225) and CDobson = -0.0013(TE-226.7) per degree K. After the applied corrections removed most of the seasonal retrieval dependence on ozone temperature, TCO agreement between the instruments was within 1 % for clear-sky conditions. For clear-sky observations, both co-located instruments tracked the day-to-day variation in total column ozone amounts with a correlation of r2 = 0.97 and an average offset of 1.1 ± 5.8 DU. In addition, the Pandora TCO data showed 0.3 % annual average agreement with satellite overpass data from AURA/OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and 1 % annual average offset with Suomi-NPP/OMPS (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership, the nadir viewing portion of the Ozone Mapper Profiler Suite).

  10. Community structure of intertidal boulder-cobble fields in the Straits of Magellan, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ríos

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on quantitative samples taken along 4 transects in mobile hard-bottom intertidal areas of the Canal Whiteside, Magellan region, biotic composition, abundance and distribution patterns are described. The intertidal substrates, mainly formed by boulders and cobbles, represent highly heterogenous habitats from the structural point of view, and demonstrated a species richness higher than previously mentioned in some preliminary reports. Community structure parameters (abundance, species richness, diversity, and evenness were not homogenous in the study areas, suggesting local dynamics. Differences in the vertical distribution of organisms were also found, suggesting changes of the zonation pattern along the beach profile. The macrofaunal assemblages were dominated by few species, with different specific compositions between transects. In general, representatives of Mollusca (Mytilus chilensis, Perumytilus purpuratus, Polychaeta (Hemipodus simplex, and Amphipoda (Paramoera fissicauda, P. brachyura, Transorchestia chilensis were the numerically dominant groups. In terms of biomass, molluscs were highly dominant, mainly M. chilensis and P. purpuratus. Among the macroalgae, rhodophytes were the group with the highest presence, but Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta was the dominant species. In the upper sandy terrace, no macroorganisms were found. Several species found at Canal Whiteside have a wide circumpolar distribution in Sub-Antarctic regions.

  11. Fast Lemons and Sour Boulders: Testing Crossmodal Correspondences Using an Internet-Based Testing Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to a popular family of hypotheses, crossmodal matches between distinct features hold because they correspond to the same polarity on several conceptual dimensions (such as active–passive, good–bad, etc. that can be identified using the semantic differential technique. The main problem here resides in turning this hypothesis into testable empirical predictions. In the present study, we outline a series of plausible consequences of the hypothesis and test a variety of well-established and previously untested crossmodal correspondences by means of a novel internet-based testing methodology. The results highlight that the semantic hypothesis cannot easily explain differences in the prevalence of crossmodal associations built on the same semantic pattern (fast lemons, slow prunes, sour boulders, heavy red; furthermore, the semantic hypothesis only minimally predicts what happens when the semantic dimensions and polarities that are supposed to drive such crossmodal associations are made more salient (e.g., by adding emotional cues that ought to make the good/bad dimension more salient; finally, the semantic hypothesis does not explain why reliable matches are no longer observed once intramodal dimensions with congruent connotations are presented (e.g., visually presented shapes and colour do not appear to correspond.

  12. Inland fields of dispersed cobbles and boulders as evidence for a tsunami on Anegada, British Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Bruce E.; Watt, Steve; Buckley, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Marine overwash from the north a few centuries ago transported hundreds of angular cobbles and boulders tens to hundreds of meters southward from limestone outcrops in the interior of Anegada, 140 km east–northeast of Puerto Rico. We examined two of several cobble and boulder fields as part of an effort to interpret whether the overwash resulted from a tsunami or a storm in a location where both events are known to occur. One of the cobble and boulder field extends 200 m southward from limestone outcrops that are 300 m inland from the island’s north shore. The other field extends 100 m southward from a limestone knoll located 800 m from the nearest shore. In the two fields, we measured the size, orientation, and spatial distribution of a total of 161 clasts and determined their stratigraphic positions with respect to an overwash sand and shell sheet deposit. In both fields, we found the spacing between clasts increased southward and that clast long-axis orientations are consistent with a transport trending north–south. Almost half the clasts are partially buried in a landward thinning and fining overwash sand and none were found embedded in the shelly mud of a pre-overwash marine pond. The two cobble and boulder fields resemble modern tsunami deposits in which dispersed clasts extend inland as a single layer. The fields contrast with coarse clast storm deposits that often form wedge-shaped shore-parallel ridges. These comparisons suggest that the overwash resulted from a tsunami and not from a storm.

  13. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: A Robotic Boulder Capture Option for Science, Human Exploration, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar electric propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (4 - 10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (1 - 5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well- characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense. Science: The RBC option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting

  14. Potential for timing high-energy marine inundation events in the recent geological past through age-dating of reef boulders in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Etienne, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    Transported coastal boulders have increasingly come to represent a valuable element of investigations within the broader framework of multi-proxy approaches applied to coastal hazard studies. Through a case study on Taveuni Island in Fiji, this paper outlines some approaches and hindrances to effective timing of prehistorical high-energy marine inundation events (storms and tsunamis) on tropical coastlines from the evidence of reef-platform carbonate boulders. Various sources of errors are outlined that investigators must consider when attempting to use carbonate boulder ages as a surrogate for timing past events. On Taveuni, uranium : thorium dates with a high level of precision (1-7 years) suggest that major inundation events have a return period of approximately 40-45 years since 1650 AD. Of particular importance, considerably different age dates are provided by coral samples sourced from the top and bottom (i.e. opposite faces) of individual boulders, so highlighting interpretation biases that must be avoided.

  15. The role of landslides in downslope transport of caprock-derived boulders in sedimentary tablelands, Stołowe Mts, SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszyński, Filip; Jancewicz, Kacper; Kasprzak, Marek; Migoń, Piotr

    2017-10-01

    Escarpment slopes in sedimentary tablelands are often mantled by extensive boulder blankets. While lithology shows beyond doubt that caprock is the source of boulders, the processes involved in boulder movement and their distribution patterns are rarely examined. In this paper we investigate the role of landslides initiated within middle and lower escarpment slopes in redistributing boulder covers, on the example of the Stołowe Mountains in SW Poland. Quartz sandstones form caprock and give rise to precipitous, albeit rather low (30 m high at most, typically 10-15 m) uppermost slope sections, and are the source of boulders which occur at distances even 1 km away from the caprock, on the nearly flat footslope. Sedimentary series beneath caprock include fine-grained rocks such as mudstones, claystone and calcareous sandstones. Geomorphological mapping and geomorphometric analysis of a high-resolution DEM allowed us to identify landform patterns interpreted as resulting from landslides, both rotational and translational. The latter produced distinctive tread-and-riser topography, with risers up to 10 m high. Results of geophysical prospecting using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) confirm the presence of allochthonous, sandstone-derived upper layer that wedges out downslope and indicate resistivity contrasts at depth of 5-15 m, interpreted as basal boundaries of landslide material. Sandstone boulders rafted on top of slid masses and reached very distant footslope settings. The primary role of landsliding consists of transporting allochthonous boulders further than would be possible otherwise and accumulating boulders in clusters and linear belts across the slope, notably on risers.

  16. Acute injuries and overuse syndromes in sport climbing and bouldering in Austria: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieber, Karin; Angelmaier, Lukas; Csapo, Robert; Herceg, Malvina

    2012-06-01

    The increasing popularity of climbing activities is associated with a rise in the number of respective injuries and overuse syndromes. However, a comprehensive scrutiny of the incidence, kind and severity of climbing-related ailments in Austria is so far outstanding. We aimed to evaluate injuries and overuse syndromes in sport climbing and bouldering in Austria and to investigate whether the injury incidence differs between specific groups of climbers. Retrospective cross-sectional self-report study. A self-report questionnaire to assess (a) demographic and anthropometric characteristics, (b) climbing experience and skill level, and (c) detailed information on climbing-related injuries was made available in climbing halls and on the Internet. Data from 193 climbers (133 males and 60 females; age 30.4 ± 8.1 years; average climbing experience 9.3 ± 7.7 years) were acquired. A total of 374 injuries were reported by 130 participants (67.4 %). The single most common differential diagnoses, accounting for 56.7 % of all injuries, were strains and ruptures of annular ligaments of the fingers, lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, and sprains or fractures of the ankle joint. The odds for strains of the annular ligaments and lateral epicondylitis were greater in men and increased with older age and higher exposure to climbing stress. This is the first comprehensive study investigating climbing-related injuries in Austria. The incidence and kind of the ailments reported confirm results of previous studies. Moreover, our results suggest that the risk to suffer climbing-related overuse syndromes, but not acute injuries, is dependent on sex, age, and exposure to climbing stress.

  17. Cobble cam: Grain-size measurements of sand to boulder from digital photographs and autocorrelation analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, J.A.; Rubin, D.M.; Ruggiero, P.; Harney, J.N.; Draut, A.E.; Buscombe, D.

    2009-01-01

    A new application of the autocorrelation grain size analysis technique for mixed to coarse sediment settings has been investigated. Photographs of sand- to boulder-sized sediment along the Elwha River delta beach were taken from approximately 1??2 m above the ground surface, and detailed grain size measurements were made from 32 of these sites for calibration and validation. Digital photographs were found to provide accurate estimates of the long and intermediate axes of the surface sediment (r2 > 0??98), but poor estimates of the short axes (r2 = 0??68), suggesting that these short axes were naturally oriented in the vertical dimension. The autocorrelation method was successfully applied resulting in total irreducible error of 14% over a range of mean grain sizes of 1 to 200 mm. Compared with reported edge and object-detection results, it is noted that the autocorrelation method presented here has lower error and can be applied to a much broader range of mean grain sizes without altering the physical set-up of the camera (~200-fold versus ~6-fold). The approach is considerably less sensitive to lighting conditions than object-detection methods, although autocorrelation estimates do improve when measures are taken to shade sediments from direct sunlight. The effects of wet and dry conditions are also evaluated and discussed. The technique provides an estimate of grain size sorting from the easily calculated autocorrelation standard error, which is correlated with the graphical standard deviation at an r2 of 0??69. The technique is transferable to other sites when calibrated with linear corrections based on photo-based measurements, as shown by excellent grain-size analysis results (r2 = 0??97, irreducible error = 16%) from samples from the mixed grain size beaches of Kachemak Bay, Alaska. Thus, a method has been developed to measure mean grain size and sorting properties of coarse sediments. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Comparison of Ozone Retrievals from the Pandora Spectrometer System and Dobson Spectrophotometer in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J.; Evans, R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; McConville, G.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of retrieved total column ozone (TCO) amounts between the Pandora #34 spectrometer system and the Dobson #061 spectrophotometer from direct-sun observations was performed on the roof of the Boulder, Colorado, NOAA building. This paper, part of an ongoing study, covers a 1-year period starting on 17 December 2013. Both the standard Dobson and Pandora TCO retrievals required a correction, TCO(sub corr) = TCO (1 + C(T)), using a monthly varying effective ozone temperature, T(sub E), derived from a temperature and ozone profile climatology. The correction is used to remove a seasonal difference caused by using a fixed temperature in each retrieval algorithm. The respective corrections C(T(sub E)) are C(sub Pandora) = 0.00333(T(sub E) - 225) and C(sub Dobson) = -0.0013(T(sub E) - 226.7) per degree K. After the applied corrections removed most of the seasonal retrieval dependence on ozone temperature, TCO agreement between the instruments was within 1% for clear-sky conditions. For clear-sky observations, both co-located instruments tracked the day-to-day variation in total column ozone amounts with a correlation of r(exp 2) = 0.97 and an average offset of 1.1 +/- 5.8 DU. In addition, the Pandora TCO data showed 0.3% annual average agreement with satellite overpass data from AURA/OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and 1% annual average offset with Suomi-NPP/OMPS (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership, the nadir viewing portion of the Ozone Mapper Profiler Suite).

  19. Developing Capacity for Cities to Adapt to a Changing Climate-a Case Study in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, R.; Groves, D. G.; Nason, M.; Pandya, R.

    2016-12-01

    The City of Boulder in Colorado has undertaken many progressive climate-related initiatives, from signing the Kyoto protocol to passing a Climate Action Tax. But as the city prepared to launch its Climate Commitment document and lead a community process, it realized that one critical group that had not been fully engaged in the process was its own staff. It became clear that for organizational change to occur and for the city to meet its goals, city staff needed to develop a deeper understanding of the importance of the climate goals while also learning better how to use these goals to guide their long-term planning. In early 2016, the city launched a year-long "Climate Leaders" initiative which comprised of a series of workshops that brought together over 70 staff members with climate scientists and experts in climate adaptation planning. The first two workshops, billed as Climate 101 and 201, reviewed the best available scientific information about climate threats and potential impacts, and worked with participants to understand how climate changes could affect diverse city functions. These interactive workshops also explored ways to help city staff feel comfortable preparing for a significantly different climate and discussed ways to communicate this information to the public. From there the group split into two tracks. A "mitigation" track focused on the ways in which Boulder could meet its aggressive emissions reduction targets. The "adaptation" track developed integrated scenarios for citywide planning to highlight Boulder's vulnerability to climate change and guide adaptation planning. Bringing these two conversations together is helping city staff to explore critical linkages between mitigation and adaptation, develop common messages to build community support for climate action, and inform comprehensive climate resiliency planning. We will describe how Boulder successfully partnered with scientists and planning experts to program a year of interactive

  20. Economic Impacts from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program: Using Property-Assessed Clean Energy Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, M.; Cliburn, J. K.; Coughlin, J.

    2011-04-01

    This report examines the economic impacts (including job creation) from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program (CSLP), an example of Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing. The CSLP was the first test of PACE financing on a multi-jurisdictional level (involving individual cities as well as the county government). It was also the first PACE program to comprehensively address energy efficiency measures and renewable energy, and it was the first funded by a public offering of both taxable and tax-exempt bonds.

  1. Collaboration Between Environmental Water Chemistry Students and Hazardous Waste Treatment Specialists on the University of Colorado-Boulder Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Colorado-Boulder is one of a few universities in the country that has a licensed Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility (TSDF) for hazardous waste on campus. This facility, located on the bottom floor of the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) building, allows CU to more economically treat hazardous waste by enabling treatment specialists on staff to safely collect and organize the hazardous waste generated on campus. Hazardous waste is anything that contains a regulated chemical or compound and most chemicals used in engineering labs (e.g., acids, solvents, metal solutions) fall into this category. The EH&S staff is able to treat close almost 33% of the waste from campus and the rest is packed for off-site treatment at various places all over the country for disposal (e.g., Sauget, IL, Port Aurthor, TX). The CU-Boulder campus produced over 50 tons of hazardous waste in 2010 costing over $300,000 in off-campus expenses. The EH&S staff assigns one of over 50 codes to the waste which will determine if the waste can be treated on campus of must be shipped off campus to be disposed of. If the waste can be treated on campus, it will undergo one of three processes: 1) neutralization, 2) UV-ozone oxidation, or 3) ion exchange. If the waste is acidic but contains no heavy metals, the acid is neutralized with sodium hydroxide (a base) and can be disposed "down the drain" to the Boulder Wastewater Treatment Plant. If the waste contains organic compounds and no metals, a UV-ozone oxidation system is used to break down the organic compounds. Silver from photography wastewater can be removed using ion exchange columns. Undergraduate and graduate students worked with the hazardous waste treatment facility at the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) building on the CU-Boulder campus during the fall of 2011 and fall of 2012. Early in the semester, students receive a tour of the three batch treatment processes the facility is equipped with. Later in the

  2. Chemical data and lead isotopic compositions in stream-sediment samples from the Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Unruh, Dan M.; Church, Stan E.

    1999-01-01

    Metal-mining related wastes in the Boulder River basin study area in northern Jefferson County, Montana, have been evaluated for their environmental effects as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey Abandoned Mine Lands Project. Many mine and prospect waste dumps, and mill wastes are located in the drainage basins of Basin Creek, Cataract Creek, and High Ore Creek, the three major tributaries to the Boulder River in the study area. Throughout the study area, mine-waste material has been transported into and down streams, where it mixes with and becomes incorporated into the bed sediments. In some locations, waste material was placed by mine operators directly in stream channels, and has been transported downstream forming fluvial tailings deposits along the stream banks. Water quality and aquatic habitat have been affected by acid generation and toxic-metal mobility during snowmelt and storm water runoff events. Colloids formed by the raising of pH downstream from these mine sites sorb metals contributing to the high concentrations observed in both bed and suspended sediments within the watershed. This report presents geochemical data for bed sediments from 67 sites and lead isotope data for 59 sites. Also included are geochemical data for seven suspended-sediment samples, and one smelter slag sample. 

  3. Ozone comparison between Pandora #34, Dobson #061, OMI, and OMPS in Boulder, Colorado, for the period December 2013-December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jay; Evans, Robert; Cede, Alexander; Abuhassan, Nader; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; McConville, Glenn; Miyagawa, Koji; Noirot, Brandon

    2017-09-01

    A one-time-calibrated (in December 2013) Pandora spectrometer instrument (Pan #034) has been compared to a periodically calibrated Dobson spectroradiometer (Dobson #061) co-located in Boulder, Colorado, and compared with two satellite instruments over a 3-year period (December 2013-December 2016). The results show good agreement between Pan #034 and Dobson #061 within their statistical uncertainties. Both records are corrected for ozone retrieval sensitivity to stratospheric temperature variability obtained from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) and Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) model calculations. Pandora #034 and Dobson #061 differ by an average of 2.1 ± 3.2 % when both instruments use their standard ozone absorption cross sections in the retrieval algorithms. The results show a relative drift (0.2 ± 0.08 % yr-1) between Pandora observations against NOAA Dobson in Boulder, CO, over a 3-year period of continuous operation. Pandora drifts relative to the satellite Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) are +0.18 ± 0.2 % yr-1 and -0.18 ± 0.2 % yr-1, respectively, where the uncertainties are 2 standard deviations. The drift between Dobson #061 and OMPS for a 5.5-year period (January 2012-June 2017) is -0.07 ± 0.06 % yr-1.

  4. Increase in background stratospheric aerosol observed with lidar at Mauna Loa Observatory and Boulder, Colorado - article no. L15808

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, D.; Barnes, J.; O' Neill, M.; Trudeau, M.; Neely, R. [NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The stratospheric aerosol layer has been monitored with lidars at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii and Boulder in Colorado since 1975 and 2000, respectively. Following the Pinatubo volcanic eruption in June 1991, the global stratosphere has not been perturbed by a major volcanic eruption providing an unprecedented opportunity to study the background aerosol. Since about 2000, an increase of 4-7% per year in the aerosol backscatter in the altitude range 20-30 km has been detected at both Mauna Loa and Boulder. This increase is superimposed on a seasonal cycle with a winter maximum that is modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in tropical winds. Of the three major causes for a stratospheric aerosol increase: volcanic emissions to the stratosphere, increased tropical upwelling, and an increase in anthropogenic sulfur gas emissions in the troposphere, it appears that a large increase in coal burning since 2002, mainly in China, is the likely source of sulfur dioxide that ultimately ends up as the sulfate aerosol responsible for the increased backscatter from the stratospheric aerosol layer. The results are consistent with 0.6-0.8% of tropospheric sulfur entering the stratosphere.

  5. Behavioural changes of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after marine boulder reef restoration: Implications for coastal habitat management and Natura 2000 areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Stenberg, Claus

    2017-01-01

    While marine reefs are degraded globally, the responses of fish to marine reef restoration remain uncertain, particularly in temperate waters. This study measured the effect of marine boulder reef restoration on the behaviour of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., in a Natura 2000 area using acoustic...... telemetry. Cod were tagged and released in the study area before and after the restoration and tracked continuously for six months. A larger fraction of the released fish remained in the study area after restoration (94%) than before (53%). Moreover, throughout the study period, cod spent significantly more...... hours per day and prolonged their residence time in the study area after the restoration. The study indicates that marine reefs subjected to boulder extraction can be restored and function as favourable cod habitats. Temperate marine boulder reef restoration represents a valuable management tool...

  6. Distribution of effluent injected into the Boulder Zone of the Floridan aquifer system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, southeastern Florida, 1997–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.; Decker, Jeremy D.

    2018-02-09

    Nonhazardous, secondarily treated, domestic wastewater (effluent) has been injected about 1 kilometer below land surface into the Boulder Zone of the Floridan aquifer system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant in southeastern Florida. The Boulder Zone contains saline, nonpotable water. Effluent transport out of the injection zone is a risk of underground effluent injection. At the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, injected effluent was detected outside the Boulder Zone. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, investigated effluent transport from the Boulder Zone to overlying permeable zones in the Floridan aquifer system.One conceptual model is presented to explain the presence of effluent outside of the injection zone in which effluent injected into the Boulder Zone was transported to the Avon Park permeable zone, forced by buoyancy and injection pressure. In this conceptual model, effluent injected primarily into the Boulder Zone reaches a naturally occurring feature (a karst-collapse structure) near an injection well, through which the effluent is transported vertically upward to the uppermost major permeable zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer. The effluent is then transported laterally through the uppermost major permeable zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer to another naturally occurring feature northwest of the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, through which it is then transported vertically upward into the Avon Park permeable zone. In addition, a leak within a monitoring well, between monitoring zones, allowed interflow between the Avon Park permeable zone and the Upper Floridan aquifer. A groundwater flow and effluent transport simulation of the hydrogeologic system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, based on the hypothesized and non-unique conceptualization of the subsurface hydrogeology and flow system, generally replicated measured effluent constituent

  7. From Mountains to Plains: The Hydrogeochemistry of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado during High- and Low-Flow Conditions 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, P. L.; Murphy, S. F.; McCleskey, R. B.; Barber, L. B.; Roth, D. A.

    2002-05-01

    A hydrogeochemical study of the Boulder Creek watershed was undertaken to evaluate natural and anthropogenic sources of solutes and the geochemical processes that affect stream chemistry. The Boulder Creek watershed, 1160 km{2}, is in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and can be delineated into five physiographic/land use regions: the headwater region (elev. 4100 to 2600 m, tundra to pine/fir forest, Precambrian and Tertiary gneisses and plutons, sparse habitation), the mountain corridor (elev. 2600 to 1750 m, ponderosa pine, Precambrian and Tertiary gneisses and plutons, small mountain communities), the urban region (elev. 1750 to 1560 m, grassland, Mesozoic sedimentary units, City of Boulder), the wastewater-dominated reach (elev. 1560 to 1540 m, grassland, Mesozoic sedimentary units, sewage treatment plant effluent), and the agriculture region (elev. 1540 to 1480 m, grassland, Mesozoic sedimentary units, mixed urban and agricultural). Potential anthropogenic sources of solutes include: mining (hardrock and aggregate), septic systems, highway runoff, urban wastewater, and agricultural practices. A 70 km reach of Boulder Creek (16 sites) and its major inflows (13 sites) were sampled during high- and low-flow conditions in 2000. At all sites, discharge was measured or estimated, and water samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and organic carbon. At selected sites, analyses also included a suite of pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and wastewater-derived organic compounds and the strontium isotopic composition. Stream water in the headwater region is a dilute Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4- water, and in the mountain corridor a slight increase in solutes was observed. Within the urban reach solute concentrations increased, with the most dramatic increase below the sewage treatment plant. Many constituents continue to increase in concentration through the urban/agriculture region. Similar trends were observed during high- and low-flow conditions with

  8. Exerting Power in a Landscape Management Controversy: A case study of the proposed Penguin Parade at Boulder Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Foster

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing the future of places that are esteemed for both their cultural and natural heritage values is becoming increasingly contentious. This paper examines the spatialised strategies of two groups attempting to influence planning decisions over the fate of ten vernacular buildings in Boulder Bay, Christchurch, and their possible replacement by an eco-tourism proposal. Both groups' strategies include deploying global policy initiatives such as the IUCN Red List and the ICOMOS Charter, however, they diverge significantly over how the local landscape is portrayed. Those looking to preserve the baches, unsurprisingly emphasise local memory and the historical character of the place, while those proposing tourism development downplay many of the impacts of the proposal.

  9. Influence of large woody debris on channel morphology and dynamics in steep, boulder-rich mountain streams, western Cascades, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, John M.; Jones, Julia A.

    2003-03-01

    This study used 20-year records of stream channel change and wood to test hypotheses about the long-term influence of large woody debris (LWD) on channel morphology, channel stability, and sediment dynamics in a steep, boulder-rich mountain stream. We compared two nearly adjacent reaches of third-order Mack Creek over the period 1978-1997 after virtually all wood was removed from the channel of the lower reach in 1964. We assessed the long-term legacy of wood removal using repeated cross-section surveys, streamflow data, LWD inventory data, and detailed mapping and longitudinal profile surveys. At each of 11 cross sections in the upper reach and 19 in the lower reach, we calculated areas of scour and fill in response to the two largest floods in the record. We used quasi-likelihood logistic regression models to test the proportion of each reach that experienced change between consecutive surveys over the entire record (1978-1997) as a function of flood return periods. The longitudinal profile of the site without LWD was more variable than the reach with LWD at the finest scale (˜1 m) due to a greater frequency of boulder steps, but the reach with LWD was more variable at the channel unit scale. LWD-created steps 1 to 2.5 m high in the wood-rich reach accounted for nearly 30% of the total channel fall and created low-gradient upstream channel segments one to three channel widths long. As a result, both reaches have the same average slope (about 9%), but nearly three times as much of the channel in the wood-rich reach had a slope of ≤5% as in the reach without wood (20.4% of total channel length vs. 7.5% of channel length). The reach with abundant LWD was less responsive to moderate streamflow events (return period <˜5 years), but it responded similarly to peak flows with a return period of about 10 to 25 years. Although the average magnitude of cross-section changes was the same during the largest flood in the record (25-year return period), the reach without

  10. Boulder abundances and size-frequency distributions on Oxia Planum-Mars: Scientific implications for the 2020 ESA ExoMars rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Rossato, Sandro; Baratti, Emanuele; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Quantin, Cathy; Carter, John; Thollot, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the abundances and the size-frequency distributions (SFD) of boulders identified on a sector of the prime landing site for the ExoMars 2020 rover, in Oxia Planum region. By means of a HiRISE image, boulders ≥ 1.75 m across have been identified and subdivided according to the two main Oxia Planum geological units: the Noachian clay-rich formation (Nc), and the Amazonian volcanic deposit (Av). The spatial density of boulders ≥ 1.75 m over the entire study area is 6.75 × 10-4/m2, with a size-frequency that is best fit both with power-law and exponential-law curves with indices of -4.9 + 0.1/-0.2 and -1.29 + 0.04/-0.06 respectively. Significant differences were found by analysing separately the Av and Nc geological units. The data collected in the Av unit are well-fitted with a power-law curve with an index equal to -4.8 +/-0.2 and with an exponential-law curve with an index of -1.24 + 0.05,-0.06, whilst in the Nc unit such indices are -5.5 + 0.3/-0.4 and -1.70 + 0.09/-0.12 (power-law and exponential-law curve, respectively). The spatial density of boulders in the Av unit is 7.0 times larger than in the Nc one. This may be due primarily to the distinct mechanical properties of the two units that may result in a different production rate or preservation of the boulders. Secondly, the Av unit overlies the Nc unit, possibly resulting in more impacts and/or different weathering processes throughout the ages. This study provides a quantitative evaluation of the abundances of boulders ≥ 1.75 m across on Oxia Planum: it is therefore a reference for the ExoMars 2020 mission, both during the landing phase and the rover traverse to specific areas of interest. The landing ellipse presents much higher abundances of boulders ≥ 1.75 m than all previous Martian rover landing areas. This is particularly evident when the rougher Av unit is taken into account. Contrarily, the Nc unit shows a much more comparable value, but still slightly higher, to the Mars

  11. Indoor rock climbing (bouldering) as a new treatment for depression: study design of a waitlist-controlled randomized group pilot study and the first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttenberger, Katharina; Stelzer, Eva-Maria; Först, Stefan; Schopper, Matthias; Kornhuber, Johannes; Book, Stephanie

    2015-08-25

    Depression is one of the most common diseases in industrialised nations. Physical activity is regarded as an important part of therapeutic intervention. Rock climbing or bouldering (rock climbing to moderate heights without rope) comprises many aspects that are considered useful, but until now, there has been hardly any research on the effects of a bouldering group intervention on people with depression. The purpose of this controlled pilot study was twofold: first, to develop a manual for an eight-week interventional program that integrates psychotherapeutic interventions in a bouldering group setting and second, to assess the effects of a bouldering intervention on people with depression. The intervention took place once a week for three hours across a period of eight weeks. Participants were randomly assigned to the two groups (intervention vs. waitlist). The intervention group began the bouldering therapy immediately after a baseline measurement was taken; the waitlist participants began after an eight-week period of treatment as usual. On four measurement dates at eight-week intervals, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), the symptom checklist-90-R (SCL-90), the questionnaire on resources and self-management skills (FERUS), and the attention test d2-R. A total of 47 participants completed the study, and the data were analysed with descriptive statistics. Cohen's d was calculated as a measure of the effect size. For the primary hypothesis, a regression analysis and the Number Needed to Treat (NNT) (improvement of at least 6 points on the BDI-II) were calculated. After eight weeks of intervention, results indicated positive effects on the measures of depression (primary hypothesis: BDI-II: Cohen's d = 0.77), this was supported by the regression analysis with "group" as the only significant predictor of a change in depression (p = .007). The NNT was four. These findings provide the first evidence that therapeutic bouldering may

  12. Terse messaging and public health in the midst of natural disasters: the case of the Boulder floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jeannette; League, Cedar; Sellnow, Timothy L; Sellnow, Deanna D

    2015-01-01

    Social media are quickly becoming the channel of choice for disseminating emergency warning messages. However, relatively little data-driven research exists to inform effective message design when using these media. The present study addresses that void by examining terse health-related warning messages sent by public safety agencies over Twitter during the 2013 Boulder, CO, floods. An examination of 5,100 tweets from 52 Twitter accounts over the course of the 5-day flood period yielded several key conclusions and implications. First, public health messages posted by local emergency management leaders are most frequently retweeted by organizations in our study. Second, emergency public health messages focus primarily on drinking water in this event. Third, terse messages can be designed in ways that include imperative/instructional and declarative/explanatory styles of content, both of which are essential for promoting public health during crises. These findings demonstrate that even terse messages delivered via Twitter ought to provide information about the hazard event, its impact, and actionable instructions for self-protection.

  13. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 86-157-1678, Stag Dental Clinic, Boulder, Colorado. [Nitrous oxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    Employees of the Stag Dental Clinic, Boulder, Colorado requested an evaluation of nitrous oxide exposure during dental procedures. Direct reading measurements taken in the dental operatory immediately after nitrous oxide was administered showed levels exceeding 1000 parts per million (ppm) in the breathing zone of the dentist and his assistant. The levels remained high throughout the 1-hour procedure. The level of nitrous oxide in the hallway outside the operatory was 300 ppm and that in the adjacent operatory, 150 ppm (background). General-room air in the operatory in use was 800 ppm nitrous oxide. Levels of nitrous oxide decreased to 50 ppm 1.5 hours after the gas was turned off. The current NIOSH recommended time weighted average is 25 ppm. The author concludes that a health hazard existed at the dental office due to high exposures of nitrous oxide. It was recommended that a scavenging system should be installed. Recommendations also include routine maintenance on anesthetic and suction equipment, a follow-up evaluation after the exhaust systems have been in place, advising all dentists and other personnel in the clinic of the adverse health effects due to nitrous oxide, and use of more dilution ventilation.

  14. Experimental modelling of wave amplification over irregular bathymetry for investigations of boulder transport by extreme wave events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Louise; Whittaker, Trevor; Cox, Ronadh; Elsäßer, Björn

    2017-04-01

    During the winter of 2013-2014 the west coast of Ireland was exposed to 6 storms over a period of 8 weeks with wind speeds equating to hurricane categories 3 and 4. During this period, the largest significant wave height recorded at the Marine Institute M6 wave buoy, approximately 300km from the site, was 13.6m (on 26th January 2014). However, this may not be the largest sea state of that winter, because the buoy stopped logging on 30th January and therefore failed to capture the full winter period. During the February 12th 2014 "Darwin" storm, the Kinsale Energy Gas Platform off Ireland's south coast measured a wave height of 25 m, which remains the highest wave measured off Ireland's coasts[1]. Following these storms, significant dislocation and transportation of boulders and megagravel was observed on the Aran Islands, Co. Galway at elevations of up to 25m above the high water mark and distances up to 220 m inland including numerous clasts with masses >50t, and at least one megagravel block weighing >500t [2]. Clast movements of this magnitude would not have been predicted from the measured wave heights. This highlights a significant gap in our understanding of the relationships between storms and the coastal environment: how are storm waves amplified and modified by interactions with bathymetry? To gain further understanding of wave amplification, especially over steep and irregular bathymetry, we have designed Froude-scaled wave tank experiments using the 3D coastal wave basin facility at Queen's University Belfast. The basin is 18m long by 16m wide with wave generation by means of a 12m wide bank of 24 top hinged, force feedback, sector carrier wave paddles at one end. The basin is equipped with gravel beaches to dissipate wave energy on the remaining three sides, capable of absorbing up to 99% of the incident wave energy, to prevent unwanted reflections. Representative bathymetry for the Aran Islands is modelled in the basin based on a high resolution

  15. Integrating Infrastructure-Relevant Climate Projections into City Planning: Learning from Boulder CO, Austin TX and Washington DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, A. M. K.; Hayhoe, K.

    2015-12-01

    Over the coming century, climate change has the potential to impact infrastructure in many different ways, particularly in population-dense areas that depend on transportation and built environments. Many of these impacts may occur via changes in the frequency and magnitude of extremes: high and low temperature, heat waves, precipitation, coastal flooding, and storm events. Having a better idea of how the climate might change locally, both within the near future as well as toward the end of the century, can give city planners and engineers guidance when designing new structures and when repairing and fortifying existing components of buildings, bridges, highways, sewers, ports, etc. However, the type of event and the amount of damages that may be incurred are often highly specific to a given location. Over the last 10 years, we have worked with a broad range of cities, states, non-profit organizations, and federal agencies to integrate climate projections into ongoing resiliency, sustainability, and management processes. Drawing on that experience, we describe the broad steps in assimilating climate information into existing decision-making frameworks relevant to most applications, as well as highlighting many of the unique aspects of these analyses using examples from our most recent work with three very different cities - Austin TX, Boulder CO and Washington DC. From initial conversations with local experts to identify relevant thresholds to final integration of projected changes into the planning processes of these cities, these case studies highlight the utility of including future climate projections into infrastructure planning, the challenges to doing so, and the over-arching importance of communication and interaction between infrastructure experts, engineers, and scientists.

  16. Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2010 Fourmile burn area, Boulder County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Barbara C.; Stevens, Michael R.; Verdin, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the Fourmile Creek fire in Boulder County, Colorado, in 2010. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volumes of debris flows for selected drainage basins. Data for the models include burn severity, rainfall total and intensity for a 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainstorm, and topographic and soil property characteristics. Several of the selected drainage basins in Fourmile Creek and Gold Run were identified as having probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 60 percent, and many more with probabilities greater than 45 percent, in response to the 25-year recurrence, 1-hour rainfall. None of the Fourmile Canyon Creek drainage basins selected had probabilities greater than 45 percent. Throughout the Gold Run area and the Fourmile Creek area upstream from Gold Run, the higher probabilities tend to be in the basins with southerly aspects (southeast, south, and southwest slopes). Many basins along the perimeter of the fire area were identified as having low probability of occurrence of debris flow. Volume of debris flows predicted from drainage basins with probabilities of occurrence greater than 60 percent ranged from 1,200 to 9,400 m3. The predicted moderately high probabilities and some of the larger volumes responses predicted for the modeled storm indicate a potential for substantial debris-flow effects to buildings, roads, bridges, culverts, and reservoirs located both within these drainages and immediately downstream from the burned area. However, even small debris flows that affect structures at the basin outlets could cause considerable damage.

  17. Trends and variability of midlatitude stratospheric water vapour deduced from the re-evaluated Boulder balloon series and HALOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scherer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an updated trend analysis of water vapour in the lower midlatitude stratosphere from the Boulder balloon-borne NOAA frostpoint hygrometer measurements and from the Halogen Occulation Experiment (HALOE. Two corrections for instrumental bias are applied to homogenise the frostpoint data series, and a quality assessment of all soundings after 1991 is presented. Linear trend estimates based on the corrected data for the period 1980–2000 are up to 40% lower than previously reported. Vertically resolved trends and variability are calculated with a multi regression analysis including the quasi-biennal oscillation and equivalent latitude as explanatory variables. In the range of 380 to 640 K potential temperature (≈14 to 25 km, the frostpoint data from 1981 to 2006 show positive linear trends between 0.3±0.3 and 0.7±0.1%/yr. The same dataset shows trends between −0.2±0.3 and 1.0±0.3%/yr for the period 1992 to 2005. HALOE data over the same time period suggest negative trends ranging from −1.1±0.2 to −0.1±0.1%/yr. In the lower stratosphere, a rapid drop of water vapour is observed in 2000/2001 with little change since. At higher altitudes, the transition is more gradual, with slowly decreasing concentrations between 2001 and 2007. This pattern is consistent with a change induced by a drop of water concentrations at entry into the stratosphere. Previously noted differences in trends and variability between frostpoint and HALOE remain for the homogenised data. Due to uncertainties in reanalysis temperatures and stratospheric transport combined with uncertainties in observations, no quantitative inference about changes of water entering the stratosphere in the tropics could be made with the mid latitude measurements analysed here.

  18. Quantifying the effects of wildfire on changes in soil properties by surface burning of soils from the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieting, Celeste; Ebel, Brian A.; Singha, Kamini

    2017-01-01

    Study regionThis study used intact soil cores collected at the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory near Boulder, Colorado, USA to explore fire impacts on soil properties.Study focusThree soil scenarios were considered: unburned control soils, and low- and high-temperature burned soils. We explored simulated fire impacts on field-saturated hydraulic conductivity, dry bulk density, total organic carbon, and infiltration processes during rainfall simulations.New hydrological insights for the regionSoils burned to high temperatures became more homogeneous with depth with respect to total organic carbon and bulk density, suggesting reductions in near-surface porosity. Organic matter decreased significantly with increasing soil temperature. Tension infiltration experiments suggested a decrease in infiltration rates from unburned to low-temperature burned soils, and an increase in infiltration rates in high-temperature burned soils. Non-parametric statistical tests showed that field-saturated hydraulic conductivity similarly decreased from unburned to low-temperature burned soils, and then increased with high-temperature burned soils. We interpret these changes result from the combustion of surface and near-surface organic materials, enabling water to infiltrate directly into soil instead of being stored in the litter and duff layer at the surface. Together, these results indicate that fire-induced changes in soil properties from low temperatures were not as drastic as high temperatures, but that reductions in surface soil water repellency in high temperatures may increase infiltration relative to low temperatures.

  19. Cosmogenic exposure dating of boulders and bedrock in Denmark: wide range in ages reflect strong dependence of post-depositional stability related to specific glacial landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmark-Nielsen, Michael; Linge, Henriette; Fabel, Derek; Xu, Sheng

    2010-05-01

    The timing of ice-sheet fluctuations, as indicated by glacier advances and retreats, is detected from a wide range of geochronological techniques, including varve counting, and radiocarbon and luminescence dating of proglacial and inter till sediments. A robust Late Weichselian chronology of deglacial ice sheet fluctuations in southwestern Scandinavia indicates that the decline of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet from the Last Glacial Maximum position at c. 23-21 kyr (thousands of years) ago in central Denmark occurred through recessional stages and readvances. Active glaciers withdrew from eastern Denmark 17-16 kyr ago and left the southwestern Baltic basin ice free at the beginning of the Bølling interstade c. 14.5 kyr ago. The withdrawal left behind belts of elongate end moraines and streamlined ground moraine as large ice masses were successively isolated causing massive down wasting until c. 12 - 11 kyr ago. In Eastern Denmark and southernmost Sweden this lead to formation of complex superimposed glacial landscapes originally covered with a wealth of erratic boulders. Hitherto untried cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating was applied to sites in Eastern Denmark to test the method against independent chronologies. Samples collected from erratics, moraines and ice-sculpted bedrock were prepared at the Cosmogenic Nuclide Laboratory at the University of Glasgow and AMS measurements were carried out at the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC) AMS facility. Procedural blank corrected 10Be concentrations were converted to in situ 10Be surface exposure ages using the online CRONUS-Earth 10Be-26Al exposure age calculator Version 2.2. Exposure ages from 35 samples range between 11.5 and 20 kyr, 18 of which lie within the expected age envelope. Two samples show overestimated ages apparently due to cosmogenic nuclide inheritance from previous exposure episodes. The remaining 17, two of which have suffered from exhumation, are younger than predicted

  20. An analytical method for determining heat transfer from power plant coolant in the Florida 'Boulder Zone'. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, M.; Van den Berg, A.J.

    1974-07-01

    An analytical solution to the heat transfer problem of dissipating the heat from 83F power plant coolant to 60F rock and sea water is presented. The problem considers the concept of injecting the coolant into the 'Boulder Zone,' the cavernous geological strata underlying all of South Florida, allowing a fresh water 'bubble' to form, and cool for 30 days, before being recirculated back to the plant. The solution revealed that the average temperature of the 'bubble' would be 68.3F with approximately 37% of the total water discharged at 61F and 17% at 83F. The remaining water, or approximately 46% would be a mixture at about 73.5F. (GRA)

  1. Ozone comparison between Pandora #34, Dobson #061, OMI, and OMPS in Boulder, Colorado, for the period December 2013–December 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Herman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A one-time-calibrated (in December 2013 Pandora spectrometer instrument (Pan #034 has been compared to a periodically calibrated Dobson spectroradiometer (Dobson #061 co-located in Boulder, Colorado, and compared with two satellite instruments over a 3-year period (December 2013–December 2016. The results show good agreement between Pan #034 and Dobson #061 within their statistical uncertainties. Both records are corrected for ozone retrieval sensitivity to stratospheric temperature variability obtained from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI and Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2 model calculations. Pandora #034 and Dobson #061 differ by an average of 2.1 ± 3.2 % when both instruments use their standard ozone absorption cross sections in the retrieval algorithms. The results show a relative drift (0.2 ± 0.08 % yr−1 between Pandora observations against NOAA Dobson in Boulder, CO, over a 3-year period of continuous operation. Pandora drifts relative to the satellite Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and the Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS are +0.18 ± 0.2 % yr−1 and −0.18 ± 0.2 % yr−1, respectively, where the uncertainties are 2 standard deviations. The drift between Dobson #061 and OMPS for a 5.5-year period (January 2012–June 2017 is −0.07 ± 0.06 % yr−1.

  2. Transported beachrock slabs and coral boulders for interpreting high-energy waves: a case study from Ludao (Green Island) in south eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A. Y. Annie; Terry, James P.; Switzer, Adam D.; Pile, Jeremy

    2014-05-01

    Eastern Taiwan is frequently impacted by powerful typhoons that track close by or make direct landfall. On a beach in the SW of Ludao Island, a small volcanic island lying 35 km SE off mainland Taiwan (22.67° N 121.48° E), the presence of abundant beachrock slabs provides evidence of the sediment transport capabilities of high-energy waves generated by these storms. Our field-based investigation at Ludao explores the potential value of such beachrock slabs for wave analysis. One feature of the work is our rearrangement of the hydrodynamic transport equations of Nandasena et al. (2011) so that they are appropriate for this particular geomorphic setting, where exposed in situ beachrock outcrops liberate clasts which may then be transported either by run-up or backwash flow onto adjacent reefs. Such settings are common on tropical coastlines with fringing coral reefs and beaches comprising mostly biogenic sediments. Results show that the lowest flow velocities required to transport all measured beachrock slabs from their known outcrop sources to current positions are 3.16 m/s for run-up and 3.24 m/s for backwash. Elsewhere, 60 further coral and limestone boulders were also mapped and measured along the eastern coastline of Ludao. While most do not exhibit signs of recent transportation, several boulders up to 6.9 m3 in size were evidently moved by Typhoon Tembin in August 2012. Taken in conjunction, these complementary datasets provide a means for interpreting the characteristics of storm waves on Ludao during both recent and older events.

  3. Coral boulders, gravel tongues and sand sheets: Features of coastal accretion and sediment nourishment by Cyclone Tomas (March 2010) on Taveuni Island, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Samuel; Terry, James P.

    2012-11-01

    Tropical Cyclone (TC) Tomas in March 2010 was a category-4 storm that struck the northern and eastern islands of Fiji in the southwest Pacific, with the coast of Taveuni Island in particular experiencing a significant surge and high waves as the eye passed within 30 km. Post-storm field investigations of the coastal geomorphic impacts concentrated on an area in central Taveuni (S16°50' 179°52'W) where protected fringing reefs and coastlines form part of the Bouma National Heritage Park (BNHP). Here, a range of cyclone constructional imprints were found to have supplemented existing coastal sediments. Fresh coral boulders strewn across reef platforms indicate that TC Tomas had sufficient power to deliver new coral blocks, but that this material comprises a relatively minor component (20%) of pre-existing boulder fields. Comparison between the dimensions of fresh (max. 4.9 m3) and older blocks (max. > 40 m3) reveals that unknown earlier events (storms or tsunamis) produced much larger debris, and therefore presumably generated much stronger flow velocities across the fringing reefs than TC Tomas. Analysis of calcarenite slabs quarried from in situ beachrock exposures was particularly useful for calculating storm-surge flow velocities at the shoreline, giving mean values of 3.4 and 1.9 m/s for run-up and backwash, respectively. Several elongate tongues (max. length 75 m) of fresh coral gravel were also constructed perpendicular to the reef crest. A conceptual model of debris accretion based on wave refraction across a crescent-shaped reef front is developed to explain their formation, but which does not rely on the simultaneous existence of a reef-parallel rubble rampart. Overall, the patchy and discontinuous nature of cyclogenic accretionary features across reef, beach and back-beach locations indicates the potential challenges for identification and interpretation of palaeo-cyclone events within the sedimentary record on affected coastlines in the South Pacific

  4. US-Canada Monitoring Network Reveals Biodiversity Patterns in Data-poor Marine Cobble-Boulder Habitats of the Coastal Northwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahle, R.; Hunt, H.; Tremblay, J.; Comeau, M.; Silva, A.; Rochette, R.

    2016-02-01

    In the Northeast US and Atlantic Canada a regional collaborative of marine resource agencies, academics, and fishing industry participants monitor more than 100 coastal sites with subtidal cobble-boulder habitat, a prime nursery of commercially important lobsters and crabs. The survey's prime motivation is to quantify annual recruitment of early juvenile stages of these crustaceans. Quantifying faunal abundance in subtidal cobble-boulder habitats is logistically challenging, defying trawl, core and camera. Until recently surveys of cobble habitats were solely conducted by divers using airlift suction samplers in natural cobble beds. In 2005 we developed standardized cobble-filled collectors that considerably expand the survey's reach to greater depths and offshore areas. In addition to their value in monitoring commercial crustaceans, these vessel-deployed collectors have proven to be especially useful in biodiversity studies. Here we describe patterns of species richness and abundance of decapod crustaceans and small demersal fishes colonizing 800 cobble-filled collectors deployed yearly in 2008 and 2009 at near-shore sites across the steep thermal and biogeographic gradient from Rhode Island, USA to Newfoundland, Canada to 76 m depth. At least 17 decapod and 24 fish genera were represented, including cryptic fish taxa not readily detected with other sampling gear. Species richness at shallow sites (5-10 m) was greatest in the south, but did not follow a simple latitudinal cline; rather, it correlated strongly with the complex geography of summer bottom temperature, thereby setting a baseline for climate change studies. Given the world-wide prevalence of this coastal habitat, broader monitoring will reveal new insights on biodiversity patterns and ecosystem services it provides. We seek wider collaboration with the scientific community and stakeholders toward a broader understanding of this poorly studied marine habitat.

  5. Characterizing aquatic health using salmonid mortality, physiology, and biomass estimates in streams with elevated concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in the Boulder River Watershed, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aïda M.; Skaar, Don; Nimick, David A.; MacConnell, Elizabeth; Hogstrand, Christer

    2003-01-01

    Abandoned tailings and mine adits are located throughout the Boulder River watershed in Montana. In this watershed, all species of fish are absent from some tributary reaches near mine sources; however, populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontitalis, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and cut-throat trout O. clarki are found further downstream. Multiple methods must be used to investigate the effects of metals released by past mining activity because the effects on aquatic life may range in severity, depending on the proximity of mine sources. Therefore, we used three types of effects—those on fish population levels (as measured by survival), those on biomass and density, and those at the level of the individual (as measured by increases in metallothionein, products of lipid peroxidation, and increases in concentrations of tissue metals)—to assess the aquatic health of the Boulder River watershed. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the water column were associated with increased mortality of trout at sites located near mine waste sources. The hypertrophy (swelling), degeneration (dying), and necrosis of epithelial cells observed in the gills support our conclusion that the cause of death was related to metals in the water column. At a site further downstream (lower Cataract Creek), we observed impaired health of resident trout, as well as effects on biomass and density (measured as decreases in the kilograms of trout per hectare and the number per 300 m) and effects at the individual level, including increases in metallothionein, products of lipid peroxidation, and tissue concentrations of metals.

  6. U-Th-Pb and Rb-Sr systematics of Apollo 17 boulder 7 from the North Massif of the Taurus-Littrow Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, P.D.; Tatsumoto, M.; Unruh, D.M.

    1974-01-01

    Portions of highland breccia boulder 7 collected during the Apollo 17 mission were studied using UThPb and RbSr systematics. A RbSr internal isochron age of 3.89 ?? 0.08 b.y. with an initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.69926 ?? 0.00008 was obtained for clast 1 (77135,57) (a troctolitic microbreccia). A troctolitic portion of microbreccia clast 77215,37 yielded a UPb internal isochron of 3.8 ?? 0.2 b.y. and an initial 206Pb/207Pb of 0.69. These internal isochron age are interpreted as reflecting metamorphic events, probably related to impacts, which reset RbSr and UPb mineral systems of older rocks. Six portions of boulder 7 were analyzed for U, Th, and Pb as whole rocks. Two chemical groups appear to be defined by the U, Th, and Pb concentration data. Chemical group A is characterized by U, Th, and Pb concentrations and 238U/204Pb values which are higher than those of group B. Group A rocks have typical 232Th/238U ratios of ??? 3.85, whereas-group B rocks have unusually high Th/U values of ??? 4.1. Whole-rock UPb and PbPb ages are nearly concordant. Two events appear to be reflected in these data - one at ??? 4.4 b.y. and one at ??? 4.5 b.y. The chemical groupings show no correlation with documented ages. The old ages of ??? 4.4 b.y. and ??? 4.5 b.y. may, like the younger ??? 4.0 b.y. ages, be related to basin excavation events. ?? 1974.

  7. Chemical data and lead isotopic compositions of geochemical baseline samples from streambed sediments and smelter slag, lead isotopic compositions in fluvial tailings, and dendrochronology results from the Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Daniel M.; Fey, David L.; Church, Stan E.

    2000-01-01

    IntroductionAs a part of the U.S. Geological Survey Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative, metal-mining related wastes in the Boulder River study area in northern Jefferson County, Montana, have been evaluated for their environmental effects. The study area includes a 24-km segment of the Boulder River in and around Basin, Montana and three principal tributaries to the Boulder River: Basin Creek, Cataract Creek, and High Ore Creek. Mine and prospect waste dumps and mill wastes are located throughout the drainage basins of these tributaries and in the Boulder River. Mine-waste material has been transported into and down streams, where it has mixed with and become incorporated into the streambed sediments. In some localities, mine waste material was placed directly in stream channels and was transported downstream forming fluvial tailings deposits along the stream banks. Water quality and aquatic habitat have been affected by trace-element-contaminated sediment that moves from mine wastes into and down streams during snowmelt and storm runoff events within the Boulder River watershed.Present-day trace element concentrations in the streambed sediments and fluvial tailings have been extensively studied. However, in order to accurately evaluate the impact of mining on the stream environments, it is also necessary to evaluate the pre-mining trace-element concentrations in the streambed sediments. Three types of samples have been collected for estimation of pre-mining concentrations: 1) streambed sediment samples from the Boulder River and its tributaries located upstream from historical mining activity, 2) stream terrace deposits located both upstream and downstream of the major tributaries along the Boulder River, and 3) cores through sediment in overbank deposits, in abandoned stream channels, or beneath fluvial tailings deposits. In this report, we present geochemical data for six stream-terrace samples and twelve sediment-core samples and lead isotopic data for six terrace

  8. Colloidal transport in the Gordon Gulch catchment of the Boulder Creek CZO and its effect on C-Q relationships for silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Arnulfo A.; Derry, Louis A.; Mills, Taylor J.; Anderson, Suzanne P.

    2017-03-01

    The near-constant Si concentration under varying discharge observed in Gordon Gulch of the Boulder Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) indicates that the silica fluxes are strongly controlled by discharge. To identify the mechanisms supplying increased Si at high discharge (Q), we examine Si-Al-Fe-Ge in soils, streams, and groundwaters. We identify bedrock weathering in groundwater and colloidal transport as the two end-members that supply Si to the system. During base flow, streamflow is derived from groundwater, and weathering of feldspar is the main source of Si with a Ge/Si ratio 0.2-0.5 µmol/mol and low dissolved Al and Fe. The groundwater data are consistent with incongruent weathering of feldspar as the main source of dissolved Si. As discharge increases, Si-Al-Fe-bearing colloids are mobilized and the Ge/Si ratio of the stream rises to 3.0 µmol/mol. Mineralogical analysis using XRD identified Al-Si phases including kaolinite, illite, and quartz in the colloidal size fraction (plant operations.

  9. Changes in population structure and body dimensions of two xanthid crabs: A long-term study in a single boulder-shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Warburg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two xanthid crab species were studied during 29 months over a period of 14 years between 1986 and 1999 all in exactly the same boulder shore. One of the crab species studied was the xanthid, Eriphia verrucosa (Forskall, 1775 with 60 specimens, the other species, Xantho poressa (Olivi, 1792, with 155 specimens. A significant change in numbers of both males and females of E. verrucosa was noticeable between 1986 and 1996 with a marked drop in numbers between these years. In 1997 male numbers increased again to almosttheir previous numbers in the population during 1986. The population of X. poressa declined significantly towards the end of the study period. Numbers of both genders peaked in spring and again, in summer. There was generally a decline in numbers of both crab species during autumn and winter. Thus, the average capture during the seasons was highest in spring for males of both E. verrucosa, and X. poressa. The body dimensions: mass, carapace length (CL and width (CW were measured in both xanthids. The aim of this long-term study was to determine whether temporal changes in the population structure and allometric changes in the dimensions of these crabs took place. Only such long-term observations could reveal these changes in population.

  10. Sedimentology of granite boulder conglomerates and associated clastics in the onshore section of the late Mesozoic Pletmos Basin (Western Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordy, Emese M.; America, Travis

    2016-07-01

    Along the southern margin of South Africa, intermountain rift successions, which comprise unusually large, rounded granite boulders and other coarse clastics, reveal an important geological history about the mid-Mesozoic extensional tectonics that lead to the break-up of Gondwana. These strata, mapped as part of the Mid to Upper Jurassic Enon Formation, allow the assessment of the nature, intensity and mode of sediment transport in onshore section of the Pletmos Basin, which is one of the late Mesozoic basins in southern Africa. Based on sedimentary facies analysis, palaeocurrent measurements and semi-quantitative palaeohydraulic calculations, the results suggest that the abundant coarse sediment was deposited by debris-flows and stream-flow floods on a proximal alluvial fan with high gradient alluvial channels. The floods were intense with mean flow velocity of ˜6 m3/s and peak discharge of ˜450 m3/s. While the role of climate in the sedimentation dynamics remains unknown, syn-sedimentary rift tectonics were likely significant and caused, north of the major boundary fault, the unroofing and denudation of the uplifted mountainous source areas, including the Late Ediacaran-Cambrian Maalgaten Granite Suite and the Siluro-Ordovician Table Mountain Group (Cape Supergroup).

  11. Current achievements and challenges of a multiple dating approach (14C, 230Th/U and 36Cl) to infer tsunami transport age(s) of reef-top boulders on Bonaire (Leeward Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixhon, Gilles; May, Simon Matthias; Engel, Max; Mechernich, Silke; Schroeder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Frank, Norbert; Fohlmeister, Jens; Boulvain, Frédéric; Dunai, Tibor; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    The deposition of supratidal coarse-clast deposits is difficult to date, limiting their value for inferring frequency-magnitude patterns of high-energy wave events. On Bonaire (Leeward Antilles, Caribbean), these deposits form prominent landforms, and transport by one or several Holocene tsunamis is assumed at least for the largest clasts. Although a large dataset of 14C and electron spin resonance (ESR) ages is available for major coral rubble ridges and ramparts, it is still debated whether these data reflect the timing of major events, and how these datasets are biased by the reworking of coral fragments. As an attempt to overcome the current challenges for dating the dislocation of singular boulders, three distinct dating methods are implemented and compared: (i) 14C dating of boring bivalves attached to the boulders; (ii) 230Th/U dating of post-depositional, secondary calcite flowstone and subaerial microbialites at the underside of the boulders; and (iii) surface exposure dating of overturned boulders via 36Cl concentration measurements in corals. Approaches (ii) and (iii) have never been applied to coastal boulder deposits so far. The three 14C age estimates are older than 37 ka, i.e. most probably beyond the applicability of the method, which is attributed to post-depositional diagenetic processes, shedding doubt on the usefulness of this method in the local context. The remarkably convergent 230Th/U ages, all pointing to the Late Holocene period (1.0-1.6 ka), are minimum ages for the transport event(s). The microbialite sample yields an age of 1.23±0.23 ka and both flowstone samples are in stratigraphic order: the older (onset of carbonate precipitation) and younger flowstone layers yield ages of 1.59±0.03 and 1.23±0.03 ka, respectively. Four coral samples collected from the topside of overturned boulders yielded similar 36Cl concentration measurements. However, the computed ages are affected by large uncertainties, mostly due to the high natural

  12. Further Investigations of Cosmogenic Ne-21 Exposure Ages of Glacial Boulders Constrained by Local Bedrock Erosion Rates in Ong Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, C. P.; Morgan, D. J.; Cox, J.; Balco, G.; Putkonen, J.; Bibby, T.

    2014-12-01

    A history of glaciation can be tracked by determining the exposure age of boulders found in glacial drifts using the concentration of the cosmogenic nuclide Ne-21. In order to calculate exposure age, the erosion rate and previous exposure must be taken into consideration. In this study, we measured cosmogenic Ne-21 concentrations in quartz from samples of bedrock and samples taken from distinct glacial drifts in Antarctica. We determined the erosion rate using the concentrations of Ne-21 in the bedrock and then used this rate to calculate the exposure ages of the samples taken from the glacial drifts. The samples were collected from the Ong Valley, Antarctica (157.5 East, 83.25 South), an ice-free valley in the Miller Range of the Central Transantarctic Mountains that contains three distinct glacial drifts. We analyzed samples from the oldest and the youngest of these drifts, from moraines from a small alpine glacier to the east of the main valley, and from the surrounding bedrock of the valley walls above the glacial limit. The average erosion rate we calculated was 23 cm/Myrs. The six samples from the oldest glacial drift have an average exposure age of 2.1 Myrs, but have a range of 4.4 Myrs. The exposure age of samples from the middle of the youngest drift on the valley floor average 90.1 kyrs, with a range of 13.4 kyrs. Samples from a lateral moraine of this youngest drift have an average exposure age of 145 kyrs, with a range of 134 kyrs. The 7 samples taken from the alpine glacier east of Ong Valley have an average age of 1.10 Myrs, but a range of 3.87 Myrs. The high variability in ages among samples from the same glacial drift arises from prior exposure and postdepositional movement of the rocks.

  13. Save the Boulders Beach Penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerer, Katherine; Schnittka, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maybe it's the peculiar way they walk or their cute little suits, but students of all ages are drawn to penguins. To meet younger students' curiosity, the authors adapted a middle-school level, penguin-themed curriculum unit called Save the Penguins (Schnittka, Bell, and Richards 2010) for third-grade students. The students loved learning about…

  14. FLOODPLAIN, BOULDER COUNTY, COLORADO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  15. Concentration-discharge relationships during an extreme event: Contrasting behavior of solutes and changes to chemical quality of dissolved organic material in the Boulder Creek Watershed during the September 2013 flood: SOLUTE FLUX IN A FLOOD EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, Garrett P. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Rock, Nathan D. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Gabor, Rachel S. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Pitlick, John [Department of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Tfaily, Malak [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; McKnight, Diane M. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA

    2017-07-01

    During the week of September 10-17, 2013, close to 20 inches of rain fell across Boulder County, Colorado, USA. This rainfall represented a 1000-year event that caused massive hillslope erosion, landslides, and mobilization of sediments. The resultant stream flows corresponded to a 100-year flood. For the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BC-CZO), this event provided an opportunity to study the effect of extreme rainfall on solute concentration-discharge relationships and biogeochemical catchment processes. We observed base cation and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations at two sites on Boulder Creek following the recession of peak flow. We also isolated three distinct fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) for chemical characterization. At the upper site, which represented the forested mountain catchment, the concentrations of the base cations Ca, Mg and Na were greatest at the peak flood and decreased only slightly, in contrast with DOC and K concentrations, which decreased substantially. At the lower site within urban corridor, all solutes decreased abruptly after the first week of flow recession, with base cation concentrations stabilizing while DOC and K continued to decrease. Additionally, we found significant spatiotemporal trends in the chemical quality of organic matter exported during the flood recession, as measured by fluorescence, 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and FTICR-MS. Similar to the effect of extreme rainfall events in driving landslides and mobilizing sediments, our findings suggest that such events mobilize solutes by the flushing of the deeper layers of the critical zone, and that this flushing regulates terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages during the flow recession.

  16. Early precambrian asteroid impact-triggered tsunami: excavated seabed, debris flows, exotic boulders, and turbulence features associated with 3.47-2.47 Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew Y

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering studies of Precambrian impact fallout units and associated tsunami deposits in the Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, by B.M. Simonson and S.W. Hassler, document a range of tsunami deposits associated with impact fallout units whose impact connection is identified by associated microtektites and microkrystites (condensation spherules). The impact connection of these particles is demonstrated by iridium anomalies, unique platinum group elements patterns, and Ni-rich mineral phases. Densely packed tsunami-transported fragments and boulders overlie microkrystite units of the >2629 +/- 5 Ma top Jeerinah Impact Layer (JIL). Tsunami events closely follow spherule settling associated with the 2561 +/- 8 Ma Spherule Marker Bed SMB-1 and SMB-2 impact events, Bee Gorge Member, Wittenoom Formation. The two impact cycles are separated by a stratigraphically consistent silicified black siltstone, representing a "Quiet Interval." The SMB turbidites display turbulence eddies, climbing ripples, conglomerate pockets, slumps, and waterlogged sediment deformation features. Consequences of tsunami in the probably contemporaneous Carawine Dolomite (Pb-Pb carbonate ages of approximately 2.56-2.54 Ga), eastern Hamersley Basin, include sub-autochthonous below-wave base excavation and megabrecciation of sea floor substrata, resulting in a unique 10-30-m-thick spherule-bearing megabreccia marker mapped over a nearly 100-km north-south strike distance in the east Hamersley Basin. The field relations suggest a pretsunami settling of the bulk of the spherules. Tsunami wave effects include: (1). dispersal of the spherule-rich soft upper sea floor sediments as a subaqueous mud cloud and (2). excavation of consolidated substrata below the soft sediment zone. Excavation and megabrecciation included injection of liquefied spherule-bearing microbreccia into dilated fractures in the disrupted underlying carbonates. Near-perfect preservation of the spherules within the

  17. Analytical results for total-digestions, EPA-1312 leach, and net acid production for twenty-three abandoned metal-mining related wastes in the Boulder River watershed, northern Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Desborough, George A.; Finney, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    IntroductionMetal-mining related wastes in the Boulder River basin study area in northern Jefferson County, Montana, have been implicated in their detrimental effects on water quality with regard to acid generation and toxic-metal solubilization during snow melt and storm water runoff events. This degradation of water quality is defined chiefly by the “Class 1 Aquatic Life Standards” that give limits for certain dissolved metal concentrations according to water alkalinity.Veins enriched in base- and precious metals were explored and mined in the Basin, Cataract Creek, and High Ore Creek drainages over a period of more than 70 years. Extracted minerals included galena, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite and arsenopyrite. Most of the metal-mining wastes in the study area were identified and described by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology. In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 20 composite samples of mine-dump or tailings waste from ten sites in the Basin and Cataract Creek drainages, and two samples from one site in the High Ore Creek drainage. Desborough and Fey presented data concerning acid generation potential, mineralogy, concentrations of certain metals by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), and trace-element leachability of mine and exploration wastes from the ten sites of the Basin and Cataract Creek drainages. The present report presents total-digestion major- and trace-element analyses, net acid production (NAP), and results from the EPA-1312 synthetic precipitation leach procedure (SPLP) performed on the same composite samples from the ten sites from the Basin and Cataract Creek drainages, and two composite samples from the site in the High Ore Creek drainage.

  18. 78 FR 48670 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ..., (602) 605-2442, email [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Hoover Dam, authorized by the... Arizona and Nevada border. The Hoover Dam powerplant has 19 generating units (two for plant use) and an... carryover from FY 2011 into FY 2012 and higher than projected FY 2012 Other Revenues from the Hoover Dam...

  19. 77 FR 48151 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ..., (602) 605-2442, email [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Hoover Dam, authorized by the... Arizona and Nevada border. Hoover Dam power plant has nineteen (19) generating units (two for plant use... Charge is allocated to each BCP Contractor in proportion to their allocation of Hoover power. A BCP...

  20. 78 FR 7775 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Darrick Moe, Regional Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration... CONTACT: Jack Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power... Desert Southwest Customer Service Regional Office, Western Area Power Administration, 615 South 43rd...

  1. 77 FR 2533 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Darrick Moe, Regional Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration... inspection and copying at the Desert Southwest Customer Service Regional Office, Western Area Power... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western...

  2. Solar Imagery - Composites - Full Sun Drawings - Boulder

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Synoptic Analysis Drawings, also known as Neutral Line (NL) drawings, are produced each day by space weather forecaster at the NOAA National Weather Service (NWS)...

  3. Characterization of Boulders Ejected from Small Impact Craters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, G.D.; Melosh, H.J.; Strom, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    When an asteroid or comet impacts the surface of a solid body, some of the surface material is often ejected from the crater in the form of blocks. We are characterizing the size and location of such blocks around craters on the Moon and Mars. The lunar craters were observed in Lunar Orbiter III

  4. Boulders or urchins? Selecting seeding sites for juvenile Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent to which the relationship between juvenile abalone Haliotis midae and sea urchins Parechinus angulosus is induced by their physical habitat along the Namaqualand coast of South Africa was investigated. Correlation analyses between the proportion of abalone utilising sea urchins for refuge and the proportion ...

  5. Living with wildfire in Boulder County, Colorado, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Champ; Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Nicholas Flores

    2011-01-01

    The devastating impact of wildfire on residents living in fire prone areas has become an all too common media story in recent years. While significant efforts have been made to inform residents in fire prone areas of the risk, it is not clear to what extent property owners are taking action to reduce risk. Likewise, we know little about what factors are related to...

  6. Pré-filtração em pedregulho e filtração lenta com areia, manta não tecida e carvão ativado para polimento de efluentes domésticos tratados em leitos cultivados Pré-filtration in boulder and slow sand filtration with non-woven synthetic layers and granulated vegetal coal to improve quality in wastewater treated by constructed wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. S. Paterniani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo comparar sistemas de filtragem, composto de pré-filtro de pedregulho seguido de filtro lento com o meio filtrante areia e no topo manta sintética não tecida e pré-filtro de pedregulho seguido de filtro lento com meio filtrante areia e carvão ativado granular e no topo manta sintética não tecida, para polimento de efluentes domésticos tratados em leitos cultivados, visando à aplicação na fertirrigação. Na comparação dos sistemas de filtragem, avaliou-se a eficiência de remoção dos parâmetros: sólidos em suspensão, turbidez, cor aparente, demanda química de oxigênio, oxigênio dissolvido, ferro, manganês, coliformes totais e E. coli. Os dois sistemas operavam 24 horas por dia, com a mesma taxa de aplicação, tratando uma vazão total final de 1,5 m³ dia-1, sendo que a taxa de aplicação para a unidade de pré-filtração era, em média, de 8,4 m³ m-2 dia-1 e para cada uma das unidades de filtração lenta era, em media, de 2,7 m³ m-2 dia-1. As unidades de pré-filtração e filtração lenta mostraram-se eficientes na redução das concentrações de sólidos suspensos, turbidez, cor aparente e DQO, como polimento de esgotos domésticos previamente tratados. O uso de carvão ativado granular, em combinação com areia, proporcionou ao filtro lento maior eficiência na remoção de sólidos suspensos, cor, turbidez, coliformes totais e E. Coli., sem com isso aumentar a perda de carga inicial. Existe a possibilidade de utilização dos efluentes para a prática da fertirrigação, sendo necessário o processo de desinfecção ou não, dependendo da cultura e o sistema de irrigação utilizado.The objective of this study was the comparison between two filtration systems, being one composed of a boulder pre-filter followed by a slow filter with sand as filtration media and a non-woven synthetic fabric in the upper part, and the other one composed of a boulder pre-filter followed by a

  7. 76 FR 2579 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... blasting operations for the placement of a water intake pipe in Lake Mead during the first 6 months of 2011...

  8. 75 FR 13232 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... Pipe from Lake Mead throughout 2010. This safety zone is necessary to ensure non-authorized personnel...

  9. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z[sup 0] with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs.

  10. 76 FR 14063 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... archeological Native American diet. The remains may have been removed from the Gila National Forest or the Gila... evidence, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, deferred NAGPRA compliance responsibility to... funerary objects are a ceramic bowl, a ceramic jar, and one lot of stone flakes. The ceramic jar contains...

  11. H07880: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pt. St. Albans to Boulder Pt., Alaska, 1950-12-31

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. Slope-Aspect Control on Geochemical Weathering within the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldam, R.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Singha, K.; Moore, J.

    2016-12-01

    Geochemical weathering in the Critical Zone (CZ) results in regolith formation and solute generation, which are essential parts of landscape evolution and nutrient cycling. A process-based understanding of geochemical weathering is integral to prediction and evaluation of how Earth surface processes will respond to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, such as global climate change and land use. In part due to the difficulty of collecting deep samples, previous CZ investigations focused primarily on shallow (geologic heterogeneity throughout the BcCZO complicates identification of parent material for the weathering profile, and as a result, commonly used methods for calculating weathering rates (e.g., mass-balance models) do not accurately characterize the complex variability of protolith composition and mineral reactions. Ultimately, this study finds that additional data, such as depth-dependent quantitative mineralogy, are needed in order to comprehensively evaluate weathering processes in areas with highly heterogeneous bedrock, such as the BcCZO.

  13. 77 FR 39987 - Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland; Boulder and Gilpin County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ...; (4) provide new and upgraded lift infrastructure to improve the quality of the alpine ski experience... County, CO; Eldora Mountain Resort Ski Area Projects AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... the ski area, the proposed projects are designed to allow Eldora to meet guest expectations for a safe...

  14. Contractors Meeting in Propulsion Held in Boulder Colorado on June 10- 14, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-02

    0.1 and 0.2 MPa). I Results and Discussion The effects of dilution of L fuel stream has been assessed through measurements of the tota ! integrated soot...No. F49620-88-K-0003, SRI I International, Menlo Park, CA (November 1990). 2. G. Hilber, A. Lago , and R. Wallenstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1753 (1978

  15. Enhanced Sidescan-Sonar Mosaic of Boulder Basin - Lake Mead, Nevada: Geographic Coordinates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  16. Enhanced TIFF Sidescan-Sonar Mosaic of Boulder Basin - Lake Mead, Nevada: Geographic Coordinates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  17. EOS Aura Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation MOWG Meeting @ LASP (Boulder, CO) April 13, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, William J.; Fisher, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Presentation reflects EOS Aura mission status, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage, orbit maintenance maneuvers, conjunction assessment events, orbital parameters trends and predictions.

  18. Revista Espinhaço entrevistaDra. Bette Otto Bliesner(NCAR Boulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Behzadian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dra. Bette Otto Bliesner foi entrevistada pela Revista Espinhaço durante o BIARI 2016, que ocorreu em Providence (EUA na Brown University. Para este volume especial da Revista Espihaço, a Dra. Bette, pesquisadora do National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR e especialista em modelagem climática e paleo-climatologia, traz reflexões sobre seu recente trabalho no IPCC.Esta entrevista foi conduzida por Kourosh Behzadian (University of West London, Douglas Sathler (FIH/Cegeo/UFVJM and Lorena Fleury (UFRGS.

  19. H08688: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Boulder Point to Sumner Island, Alaska, 1965-05-24

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. Pulling Harder than the Hamate Tolerates: Evaluation of Hamate Injuries in Rock Climbing and Bouldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Christoph; Schweizer, Andreas; Hochholzer, Thomas; Bayer, Thomas; Schöffl, Volker

    2016-12-01

    Hamate hook fractures are rare injuries, comprising 2% to 4% of all carpal fractures. Climbing athletes seem to be affected more frequently than others, as they strain the passive and active anatomical structures of their hands and fingers to maximum capacity during training or competing. This stress is transmitted to the hook of the hamate by tightened flexor tendons, which creates high contact pressure to the ulnar margin of the carpal tunnel. Injuries of the hamate hook, caused by contact pressure of the anatomical structures, are rare and occur nearly exclusively during climbing. We diagnosed 12 athletes with hamate hook fractures who presented with diffuse pain in the wrist joint, which occurred either during or after climbing. Radiographs or computed tomography revealed fractures in the hamate bones in most of the patients; therapy consisted of consequent stress reduction. Follow-up investigations found that all athletes were free of symptoms after 10.7 ± 5.1 (6-24) (mean ± standard deviation with range) weeks. Resection of the hamate hook was necessary in 3 patients. All patients regained their preinjury climbing level. Climbers with an unspecific, diffuse pain in the wrist need to be examined by radiograph and, if radiograph is unclear, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to detect or exclude the diagnosis of hamate fracture in order to avoid severe complications. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tone-matched enhanced TIFF sidescan-sonar image from Boulder Basin, Lake Mead - UTM projection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  2. Contract W911NF-09-1-0111 (University of Colorado-Boulder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    graduating undergraduates funded by a DoD funded Center of Excellence grant for Education , Research and Engineering: The number of undergraduates funded by...Belytschko. A bridging domain method for coupling continua with molecular dynamics. Comp. Meth. App. Mech. Engr., 193(17-20):1645 – 69, 2004.

  3. 78 FR 79436 - Boulder Canyon Project-Post-2017 Resource Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... Area Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE... May 31, 1987. In 1977, the power marketing functions of the Secretary of Interior were transferred to... Hoover Power Plant Act of 1984 (43 U.S.C. 619) for the marketing of BCP power through September 30, 2017...

  4. Deposition of steeply infalling debris - pebbles, boulders, snowballs, asteroids, comets - around stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. C.; Veras, D.; Gänsicke, B. T.

    2017-09-01

    When Comet Lovejoy plunged into the Sun, and survived, questions arose about the physics of infall of small bodies. [1,2] has already described this infall in detail. However, a more general analysis for any type of star has been missing. [3] generalized previous studies, with specific applications to white dwarfs. High-metallicity pollution is common in white dwarf stars hosting remnant planetary systems. However, they rarely have detectable debris accretion discs, possibly because much of the influx is fast steeply infalling debris in star-grazing orbits, producing a more tenuous signature than a slowly accreting disc. Processes governing such deposition between the Roche radius and photosphere have so far received little attention and we model them here analytically by extending recent work on sun-grazing comets to white dwarf systems. We find that the evolution of cm-to-km size infallers most strongly depends on two combinations of parameters, which effectively measure sublimation rate and binding strength. We then provide an algorithm to determine the fate of infallers for any white dwarf, and apply the algorithm to four limiting combinations of hot versus cool (young/old) white dwarfs with snowy (weak, volatile) versus rocky (strong, refractory) infallers. We find: (i) Total sublimation above the photosphere befalls all small infallers across the entire white dwarf temperature range, the threshold size rising with it and 100× larger for rock than snow. (ii) All very large objects fragment tidally regardless of temperature: for rock, a0 ≽ 105 cm; for snow, a0 ≽ 103 - 3 × 104 cm across all white dwarf cooling ages. (iii) A considerable range of infaller sizes avoids fragmentation and total sublimation, yielding impacts or grazes with cold white dwarfs. This range rapidly narrows with increasing temperature, especially for snowy bodies. Finally, we briefly discuss how the various forms of deposited debris may finally reach the photosphere surface itself.

  5. Acoustic Noise Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine in Boulder, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roadman, J.; Huskey, A.

    2013-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of an acoustic noise test that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted on the SWIFT wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 11: Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques, IEC 61400-11 Ed.2.1, 2006-11. However, because the SWIFT is a small turbine, as defined by IEC, NREL used 10-second averages instead of 60-second averages and utilized binning by wind speed instead of regression analysis.

  6. Complex Flow: Workshop Report; January 17-18, 2012, University of Colorado, Boulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Wind Program organized a two-day workshop designed to examine complex wind flow into and out of the wind farm environment and the resulting impacts on the mechanical workings of individual wind turbines. An improved understanding of these processes will subsequently drive down the risk involved for wind energy developers, financiers, and owner/operators, thus driving down the cost of energy.

  7. 76 FR 93 - Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships (SURF) NIST Gaithersburg and Boulder Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... physical and engineering sciences and, as the lead Federal agency for technology transfer, it provides a..., chemistry, biology, materials science, nanotechnology, neutron research, engineering, mathematics, and..., mathematics, and computer science as described in the Federal Funding Opportunity. Applications for the...

  8. Book Review: Cooper, John F. Taiwan Nation-State or Province? Boulder: Westview Press, 2009. 288 PP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian Bakhtiar Rivai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe about my analysis of Cooper (2009 perspective in how we understand Taiwan as identity. There are two perspective that to see Taiwan in recent day. First of all, for nation who believe One China Policy, they assume that Taiwan is a province of People Republic of China which is Taiwan is part of Beijing government. Secondly, for nation who do not believe it, they assume that Taiwan is independence identity, a nation identity, and also sovereign country which is separated from mainland China influences. In this discourse about how we understand Taiwan,  this article is going to review from John F. Cooper which is in his book, Taiwan: nation state or province?. This book not only discuss how we can see Taiwan, however, how Taiwan in the future in political dynamic especially after US president Donald Trump who intent to support Taiwan as independence identity. 

  9. Unenhanced TIFF Sidescan-Sonar Mosaic of Boulder Basin - Lake Mead, Nevada: Geographic Coordinates (BBASIN_UNGEOG.TIF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  10. Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference (37th) Held at Boulder, Colorado on 9-12 October 1984. Program and Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-12

    J.T. Verdeyen, U. of CHARACTERISTICS OF A THERMICALLY Illinois at Urbana-Champaign GENERATED HEAT PIPE SODIUM PLASMA: V. Petricevic, L.W. Downes, D.G...plasma pinches emit intense vacuum uv radiation. In the embedded con- figuration cold surrounding gas damps pinch instabili- ties and insulates the... insulator flashover, from vacuum (10 6torr) to atmospheric pressure, is a local high pressure phenomenon. Voltages ranged from dc to microsecond pulses

  11. Artificial Intelligence in Maintenance: Proceedings of the Joint Services Workshop Held at Boulder, Colorado on 4-6 October 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    representations important for 11e nsa kit ifoie or Tecrhnology Support o he laboratory’S Arificial iitii.gence trseach on eecttonic itoubleSh OOing is povided...applications permits. This may be a Pollyannic vision of the future, but it is certainly one that must be taken into account in analyzing current directions and...Pollyannic vision of the future, but it is certainly one that must be taken into account in analyzing current directions and policies for training

  12. Shooting a Moving Target: The Sisyphus Boulder of Increasing Participation in Adult Education during the Period of Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalis, Thanassis

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a study conducted after the onset of the economic crisis in Greece. The study lasted for more than five years and was organized by the Research Institutes of Trade Union Confederation of Greece and the Hellenic Small Enterprises Institute of the Confederation of Professionals, Craftsmen and Merchants. Using a mixed…

  13. Pebbles, rocks, and boulders: The implementation of a school-based social engagement intervention for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Harker, Colleen; Olsen, Anne; Shingledecker, Travis; Barg, Frances; Mandell, David; Beidas, Rinad

    2017-11-01

    Few evidence-based practices, defined as the use of empirically supported research and clinical expertise for children with autism, have been successfully implemented and sustained in schools. This study examined the perspectives of school personnel ( n = 39) on implementing a social engagement intervention for children with autism. Semi-structured interviews, informed by the Domitrovich et al. (2008) framework, were conducted. Participants were asked about (1) school factors that affect the general implementation of evidence-based practices, (2) their specific experiences implementing the social engagement intervention, and (3) barriers to and facilitators of implementing the social engagement intervention. Data were analyzed using an integrated approach. General (e.g. implementation process, leadership, support, and staff) and intervention-specific (e.g. staff, barriers, and facilitators) implementation themes were identified. These findings suggest that a variety of factors should be considered when implementing evidence-based practices in schools and that implementing social engagement interventions for children with autism may require additional specific support for implementation.

  14. Pebbles, Rocks, and Boulders: The Implementation of a School-Based Social Engagement Intervention for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Harker, Colleen; Olsen, Anne; Shingledecker, Travis; Barg, Frances; Mandell, David; Beidas, Rinad

    2017-01-01

    Few evidence-based practices, defined as the use of empirically supported research and clinical expertise for children with autism, have been successfully implemented and sustained in schools. This study examined the perspectives of school personnel (n = 39) on implementing a social engagement intervention for children with autism. Semi-structured…

  15. International Conference on Multiphoton Processes (4th) Held in Boulder, Colorado on July 13-17, 1987: Program and Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, NJ 07974 201/582-3793 Roberto Befft, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 415/723-1945 Keith Barnett, Blackett...11+ 1/2) o A (cos1 a)(sin a)P (cos 2a)n r A A Z (1112m1m2 11112LM)Ym1 1 (r1)y1 2(r2). mm 2 The subscript nr of the Jacobi polynomial is the radial...correlation quantum number (nrc of Fano8 ). It equals the number of nodes in the Jacobi polynomial along 2 2 21 rI -r 2 coso R" 2 and can be

  16. 75 FR 19966 - Boulder Canyon Project-Post-2017 Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Management Program Power Marketing Initiative AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice... Southwest Region, a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is extending the comment period regarding the application of the Energy Planning and Management Program (Program) Power...

  17. 78 FR 5776 - University of Colorado Boulder, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... measure the electromagnetic near-field of optical antennas, plasmonics in metals and semiconductors (including graphene), photonic crystals, and other nanoscale spectroscopy applications. The instrument has...

  18. Mass and Spin Measurement Techniques (for the Large Hadron Collider):. Lectures Given at TASI 2011, Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Christopher G.

    2013-12-01

    For TASI 2011, I was asked to give a series of lectures on "Mass and Spin Measurement Techniques" with relevance to the Large Hadron Collider. This document provides a written record of those lectures - or more precisely of what I said while giving the lectures - warts and all. It is provided as my contribution to the proceedings primarily for the benefit of those who heard the lectures first hand and may wish to refer back to them. What it is not is a scientific paper or a teaching resource. Though lecture slides may be prepared in advance, what is actually said in a lecture is usually extemporaneous, may be partial, can be influenced by audience reaction, and may not even make sense without a visual record of the concomitant gesticulations of the lecturer. More worryingly, some of the statements made may be down-right false, if the lecturer's tongue is in a twist. Accordingly, these proceedings are provided without warranty of any kind - not least in respect of accuracy or impartiality. The lectures were intended to engage the audience and get them thinking about a number of topics that they had not seen before. They were not expected to be the sort of sombre or well-balanced overview of the field that one might hope to achive in a review. These proceedings are provided to jog the memory of those who saw the lectures first hand, and for little other purpose. Footnotes, where they appear, indicate text/thoughts I have added during the editing process that were not voiced during the lectures themselves. Copies of the lecture slides are inserted at approximately the locations they would have become visible in the lectures.

  19. Modified Level III Preacquisition Environmental Contaminants Survey for Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Jefferson and Boulder Counties, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is one of several important historical documents associated with remediation activities at the Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge. The Rocky Flats National...

  20. 77 FR 64847 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Adams, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... railroad agrees to negotiate an agreement. UP stated that it was not willing to negotiate for trail use... the line through its purchase of the line. UP points out that, on or prior to consummation of the proposed abandonment, UP will assign to RTD its interest as lessor under a lease with the BNSF Railway...

  1. International Conference on Coordination Chemistry (23rd) Held at Boulder, Colorado on 29 July - 3 August 1984. Abstracts of Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-03

    4I1iw oasee i the bea 015 go L ofelihe ow NNW*% 4 tgo t, s " m al-e" did . e w 1. mm""a"n of ofttm " raf aloweify, *"vebsth 4*2, 4"Noeg ~ wae sb...34?ZOti OF METAL COMPIZUS WITHU LIGAND-LIGM ND ZIYM ION a b oaro ab Paola A co Raf fee P. noo, Rosario Call. Vincenzo Cucinotta, Pier G. Daniel... CUSTERS Gerald D. Watt Charles F. Kettering Research Laboratory, Yellow Springs, Ohio USA 45387 Iron Is an essential elamt In mtabolic reactions. In

  2. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ∼2 m DIAMETER NEAR-EARTH ASTEROID 2015 TC25: A POSSIBLE BOULDER FROM E-TYPE ASTEROID (44) NYSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.; Bottke, William F.; Thirouin, Audrey; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Kelley, Michael S.; Ryan, William; Cloutis, Edward A.; Tegler, Stephen C.; Ryan, Eileen V.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Richardson, James E.; Le Corre, Lucille [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Moskovitz, Nicholas [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) (<20 m) are interesting, because they are progenitors for meteorites in our terrestrial collection. The physical characteristics of these small NEAs are crucial to our understanding of the effectiveness of our atmosphere in filtering low-strength impactors. In the past, the characterization of small NEAs has been a challenge, because of the difficulty in detecting them prior to close Earth flyby. In this study, we physically characterized the 2 m diameter NEA 2015 TC25 using ground-based optical, near-infrared and radar assets during a close flyby of the Earth (distance 128,000 km) in 2015 October 12. Our observations suggest that its surface composition is similar to aubrites, a rare class of high-albedo differentiated meteorites. Aubrites make up only 0.14% of all known meteorites in our terrestrial meteorite collection. 2015 TC25 is also a very fast rotator with a period of 133 ± 6 s. We combined the spectral and dynamical properties of 2015 TC25 and found the best candidate source body in the inner main belt to be the 70 km diameter E-type asteroid (44) Nysa. We attribute the difference in spectral slope between the two objects to the lack of regolith on the surface of 2015 TC25. Using the albedo of E-type asteroids (50%–60%) we refine the diameter of 2015 TC25 to 2 m, making it one of the smallest NEAs ever to be characterized.

  3. Physical and Chemical Water-Quality Data from Automatic Profiling Systems, Boulder Basin, Lake Mead, Arizona and Nevada, Water Years 2001-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Ryan C.; Westenburg, Craig L.; Veley, Ronald J.; Nylund, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    Water-quality profile data were collected in Las Vegas Bay and near Sentinel Island in Lake Mead, Arizona and Nevada, from October 2000 to September 2004. The majority of the profiles were completed with automatic variable-buoyancy systems equipped with multiparameter water-quality sondes. Profile data near Sentinel Island were collected in August 2004 with an automatic variable-depth-winch system also equipped with a multiparameter water-quality sonde. Physical and chemical water properties collected and recorded by the profiling systems, including depth, water temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved-oxygen concentration, and turbidity are listed in tables and selected water-quality profile data are shown in graphs.

  4. Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1981. Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (13th). Held in Boulder, Colorado on 17-18 November 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    investigate laser-damage resistance of polymer materials, which can have great peculiarities due to their specific structure and thermoelastic ...of the dye solutlon and coolant. Three heat exchangers - two which involve either the dye solution or coolant with the refrigerant and one which...solution/coolant tempera­ ture differential. Regulation of the temperatures and flows of the dye solution, coolant, and refrigerant allows maintenance

  5. Proceedings of the International Electronic Circuit Packaging Symposium (3rd) on Advances in Electronic Circuit Packaging Held at Boulder, Colorado on 15-17 August 1962. Volume 3,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    the chassis was fully extended, then lock automatically. Two hinged detents were located on top of the chassis, close to the panel. Releasing these... detents allowed the panel and chassis to rotate down 900 from the horizontal, exposing the complete chassis to the maintenance man. Since this was a...copper configuration. Guide pins, receptacles, and hardware are made of stainless steel. The molded body is of diallyl phthalate . The weight of any one

  6. Coupled three-layer model for turbulent flow over large-scale roughness: On the hydrodynamics of boulder-bed streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-hao; Liu, Shi-he; Huang, Li

    2018-02-01

    This study developed a three-layer velocity model for turbulent flow over large-scale roughness. Through theoretical analysis, this model coupled both surface and subsurface flow. Flume experiments with flat cobble bed were conducted to examine the theoretical model. Results show that both the turbulent flow field and the total flow characteristics are quite different from that in the low gradient flow over microscale roughness. The velocity profile in a shallow stream converges to the logarithmic law away from the bed, while inflecting over the roughness layer to the non-zero subsurface flow. The velocity fluctuations close to a cobble bed are different from that of a sand bed, and it indicates no sufficiently large peak velocity. The total flow energy loss deviates significantly from the 1/7 power law equation when the relative flow depth is shallow. Both the coupled model and experiments indicate non-negligible subsurface flow that accounts for a considerable proportion of the total flow. By including the subsurface flow, the coupled model is able to predict a wider range of velocity profiles and total flow energy loss coefficients when compared with existing equations.

  7. Army Research Office and Air Force Office of Scientific Research Contractors’ Meeting in Chemical Propulsion Held in Boulder, Colorado on June 11-13, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    LAE S /."GR43.0 20 188-spedes sk__ia M -J o 19-gmip .GR1.2 Qiemishy A 9-group -Dffusion 0> 3-group 10 ’’ ......... I0 I I , , I , 101 101 0.6 0.8...rotational speed is measured by an electronic system (Hall effect sensor) that counts the frequency of the rotating magnetic field of a magnet and a soft

  8. Transactions of the Army Conference on Applied Mathematics and Computing (6th) Held in Boulder, Colorado on 31 May - 3 June 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    for Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations David C. Arney, Rupak Biswas and Joseph E. Flaherty ............... 1051 Computations of Transonic Flow...Equations Oavid C. Arney, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, NY, Joseph E. Flaherty, Benet Laboratories, Watervliet, NY and Rupak Biswas, Rensselaer...Military Academy West Point, NY 10996-1786 Rupak Biswas Department of Computer Science Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, NY 12180-3590 Joseph E

  9. Quantifying the effects of wildfire on changes in soil properties by surface burning of soils from the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Wieting

    2017-10-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Soils burned to high temperatures became more homogeneous with depth with respect to total organic carbon and bulk density, suggesting reductions in near-surface porosity. Organic matter decreased significantly with increasing soil temperature. Tension infiltration experiments suggested a decrease in infiltration rates from unburned to low-temperature burned soils, and an increase in infiltration rates in high-temperature burned soils. Non-parametric statistical tests showed that field-saturated hydraulic conductivity similarly decreased from unburned to low-temperature burned soils, and then increased with high-temperature burned soils. We interpret these changes result from the combustion of surface and near-surface organic materials, enabling water to infiltrate directly into soil instead of being stored in the litter and duff layer at the surface. Together, these results indicate that fire-induced changes in soil properties from low temperatures were not as drastic as high temperatures, but that reductions in surface soil water repellency in high temperatures may increase infiltration relative to low temperatures.

  10. Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983. Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (15th). Held in Boulder, Colorado on 14-16 November 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    OPTIQUE which is considered as the best optic polisher in FRANCE j with damage threshold around 8.5 J/cm 2 (figure 2). 22· samples were tested with an...J/cm2 • MATRA’s laboratory "couches minces optiques " (thin optical layers) production commercial mirrors was around 3.5 J/cm2 in 1982. In order to...cleaning or dried-on cleaning agent residues. This list is by no means complete and can be extended to include dust grains, fibres etc. We know from

  11. Ferroelectrics Volume 122 Numbers 1-4 1991. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals (3rd) Held in Boulder, Colorado on 23-28 June, 1991, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Fot6nica - ETSI Telecomunicaci6n Ciudad Universitaria , 28040 Madrid Spain ABSTRACT An accurate description of spectral and angular optical...rinderstandine of terroe lectrictit and associated phenomena and ,:plrcid pohp rstcin rh I uiilization )I Oicse: materials iII des cc%.and systems Xii...MODULATOR [P-661 M. KILLINGER. J. L. DE BOUGRENET DE LA TOCNAYE AND P. CAMBON 89/[4431 PHOTOVOLTAIC OPTICALLY ADDRESSED SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR [P-671 C. C

  12. Ferroelectrics Volume 121 Numbers 1-4, 1991. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals (3rd) Held in Boulder, Colorado on 23-28 June 1991. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    like to thank the Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia of Spain for financial support. REFERENCES Previous papers in the series include: a) D. M. Walba...several milestones in the history of ferroelec- Professor F G. Ullman tricity research. Electric Engineering Department This special issue will cover

  13. Lasers Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1985. Proceedings of the Symposium on Optical Materials for High-Power Lasers (17th) Held in Boulder, Colorado on October 28-30, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    DIVISION 2787 SOUTH ORANGE BLOSSOM TRAIL APOPKA, FL 32703 Neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) is a commonly used laser material for solid...Photon Energy, eV * Figu 42 Pseudodiiect~ic functions of the Au implanted mirror asli fupction of fluence. The *2x10 cm and 5x10 cm- regions were

  14. Book Review of "Being Brown in Dixie: Race, Ethnicity, and Latino Immigration in the New South" 2011. Boulder, Colorado: FirstForumPress, by Cameron D. Lippard and Charles A. Gallagher, eds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Madsen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Moving with the prospect of employment in the US, there has been an influx of migrants from Latin America since the 1990s that has introduced many populations in the South to unfamiliar neighbors. Consequently, a dimension has been added to the long-existing racial turmoil between whites and blacks in these southern states: a "brown" dimension.

  15. Cohesive stresses and size effect in quasi-brittle materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Size effect; fracture mechanics; cohesive stresses; cementitious material. ... D Natekar2. Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 803090427, USA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 803090427, USA ...

  16. Toddlers' Scientific Explorations: Encounters with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Lauren Foster; Hall, Ellen; Lynch, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This article features Boulder Journey School, located in Boulder, Colorado, a full-day, year-round school that welcomes over 200 young children, ages 6 weeks to 6 years, and their families. The school community is committed to a culture based on children as curious and competent individuals capable of coconstructing knowledge. In Boulder Journey…

  17. The isotopic composition of ore lead of the Creede mining district and vicinity, San Juan Mountains, Colorado: Text of a talk presented at the San Juan Mountains symposium to honor Thomas A. Steven; Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, May 2, 1987, Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, N.K.; Barton, P.B.; Bethke, P.M.; Doe, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    Galenas from the major Creede veins and their northern extensions are remarkably homogeneous in Pb-isotopic composition and are too radiogenic to have been derived from any magma comparable in composition to the principal volcanic rocks. This pattern was identified by Doe et al. in 1979 who proposed that the lead was derived from the Precambrian basement. The homogeneity of the ore leads, however, requires a uniform reservoir; an unlikely prospect for lead from the Precambrian basement. We report on 16 new analyses of geographically and paragenetically dispersed galenas from the Creede district and other areas as far as 11 km to the north. The lead values range from 18.972 to 19.060 for 206Pb/204Pb, from 15.591 to 15.671 for 207Pb/204Pb, and from 37.781 to 37.921 for 208Pb/204Pb. These ranges overlap those previously reported for the main ore zone.

  18. Oceanographic profile temperature and salinity data using CTD, collected by the University of Colorado Boulder and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, RVI Nathaniel B. Palmer cruise NBP07-09, Bellinghausen Sea, 2007-09 to 2007-10 (NODC Accession 0120761)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean pressure, temperature, and salinity data are reported from 85 CTD profiles acquired in the Bellingshausen Sea. These austral spring observations, taken along...

  19. The Icarus Illusion: Technology, Doctrine and the Soviet Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Kipp, Jacob W., eds. Soviet Aviation and Air Power. Boulder: Westview Press, 1977. Hollowav. David. The Soviet Union and the Arms Race. New Haven: Yale...L. Fighter Combat: Tactics, and Maneuvering. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1985. Scott, Harriet Fast and Scott, William F. The Armed Forces of the...USSR. Boulder: Praeger, 1979. Scott, Harriet Fast and Scott, William F., eds. The Soviet Art of War: Doctrine, Strategy and Tactics. Boulder

  20. RADIONUCLIDE DISPERSION RATES BY AEOLIAN, FLUVIAL, AND POROUS MEDIA TRANSPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Walton; P. Goodell; C. Brashears; D. French; A. Kelts

    2005-07-11

    Radionuclide transport was measured from high grade uranium ore boulders near the Nopal I Site, Chihuahua, Mexico. High grade uranium ore boulders were left behind after removal of a uranium ore stockpile at the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). During the 25 years when the boulder was present, radionuclides were released and transported by sheetflow during precipitation events, wind blown resuspension, and infiltration into the unsaturated zone. In this study, one of the boulders was removed, followed by grid sampling of the surrounding area. Measured gamma radiation levels in three dimensions were used to derive separate dispersion rates by the three transport mechanisms.

  1. Nobel Prize 2012 Information and Announcements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Serge Haroche, Collège de France, Paris, France, École Normale Supérieure, Paris, France. David J Wineland, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO, USA; Univer- sity of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. Chemistry. “for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors” to. Robert J Lefkowitz, Howard Hughes ...

  2. Development of a New Operational Air Pollution Forecast System on Regional and Urban Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.

    2001-01-01

    Proceedings of the Millennium NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held May 15-19 in Boulder, Colorado.......Proceedings of the Millennium NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held May 15-19 in Boulder, Colorado....

  3. It’s Mine! Why the US Intelligence Community Does Not Share Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Commodity: Use-Value and Value,” in Charles Lemert (ed.), Social Theory: The Multicultural and Classic Readings, Second Edition (Boulder, CO: Westview...The Multicultural and Classic Readings. Second edition. Edited by Charles Lemert . Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999. Mill, John Stuart. System

  4. Variation in foraging activity of Acanthochitona garnoti (Mollusca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; x = 182 rnm). Chitons on the boulder beach travelled greater distances (x = 367 mm) during foraging than those from aeolian shores (x = 105 mm). It is suggested that this IS a result of boulder beach chitons having further to travel to find a ...

  5. Cultural Resources Investigations of the Upper Minnesota River (639) Project, Deuel and Grant Counties, South Dakota, and Lac Qui Parle and Yellow Medicine Counties, Minnesota,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    1981 Dated Stone Circle Sites in Wyoming. In: Megaliths to Medicine Wheels: Boulder Structures in Archaeology, pp. 93-100, ed. by M. Wilson, K. L. Road...In: Megaliths to Medicine Wheels: Boulder Structures in Archaeology, ed. by M. Wilson, K. L. Road, and K. J. Hardy. Proceedings of the Eleventh

  6. A New Paradigm for Turbulence Control for Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    Hussein∗ and Sedat Biringen† Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences , University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA Abstract Direct ...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spanwise-rotating turbulent channel flow as well as the...turbulent channel flow using direct numerical simulation (DNS) was also conducted. The reduction of the kinetic energy of large amplitude perturbations

  7. Implications of volcanic erratics in Quaternary deposits of North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby; Larsen, Ole

    1982-01-01

    Erratic boulders, petrographically similar to the volcanics exposed around Kap Washington, are found on islands and along the coast much further to the east. Isotopic measurements on two such boulders show that these volcanic rocks are of the same age as the Kap Washington volcanics. The regional...

  8. Disturbance-mediated facilitation by an intertidal ecosystem engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeffrey T; Gribben, Paul E

    2017-09-01

    Ecosystem engineers facilitate communities by providing a structural habitat that reduces abiotic stress or predation pressure for associated species. However, disturbance may damage or move the engineer to a more stressful environment, possibly increasing the importance of facilitation for associated communities. In this study, we determined how disturbance to intertidal boulders (i.e., flipping) and the subsequent movement of a structural ecosystem engineer, the tube-forming serpulid worm Galeolaria caespitosa, from the bottom (natural state, low abiotic stress) to the top (disturbed state, high abiotic stress) surface of boulders influenced the importance of facilitation for intertidal communities across two intertidal zones. Theory predicts stronger relative facilitation should occur in the harsher environments of the top of boulders and the high intertidal zone. To test this prediction, we experimentally positioned boulders with the serpulids either face up or face down for 12 months in low and high zones in an intertidal boulder field. There were very different communities associated with the different boulders and serpulids had the strongest facilitative effects on the more stressful top surface of boulders with approximately double the species richness compared to boulders lacking serpulids. Moreover, within the serpulid matrix itself there was also approximately double the species richness (both zones) and abundance (high zone only) of small invertebrates on the top of boulders compared to the bottom. The high relative facilitation on the top of boulders reflected a large reduction in temperature by the serpulid matrix on that surface (up to 10°C) highlighting a key role for modification of the abiotic environment in determining the community-wide facilitation. This study has demonstrated that disturbance and subsequent movement of an ecosystem engineer to a more stressful environment increased the importance of facilitation and allowed species to

  9. Nanoscale memory elements based on the superconductor-ferromagnet proximity effect and spin-transfer torque magnetization switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Burm

    Superconducting-ferromagnetic hybrid devices have potential for a practical memory technology compatible with superconducting logic circuits and may help realize energy-efficient, high-performance superconducting computers. We have developed Josephson junction devices with pseudo-spin-valve barriers. We observed changes in Josephson critical current depending on the magnetization state of the barrier (parallel or anti-parallel) through the superconductor-ferromagnet proximity effect. This effect persists to nanoscale devices in contrast to the remanent field effect. In nanopillar devices, the magnetization states of the pseudo-spin-valve barriers could also be switched with applied bias currents at 4 K, which is consistent with the spin-transfer torque effect in analogous room-temperature spin valve devices. These results demonstrate devices that combine major superconducting and spintronic effects for scalable read and write of memory states, respectively. Further challenges and proposals towards practical devices will also be discussed.In collaboration with: William Rippard, NIST - Boulder, Matthew Pufall, NIST - Boulder, Stephen Russek, NIST-Boulder, Michael Schneider, NIST - Boulder, Samuel Benz, NIST - Boulder, Horst Rogalla, NIST-Boulder, Paul Dresselhaus, NIST - Boulder

  10. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition. Volume 2: Mechanics of rolling sphere-soil slope interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, H. J.; Mitchell, J. K.

    1971-01-01

    The soil deformation mode under the action of a rolling sphere (boulder) was determined, and a theory based on actual soil failure mechanism was developed which provides a remote reconnaissance technique for study of soil conditions using boulder track observations. The failure mechanism was investigated by using models and by testing an instrumented spherical wheel. The wheel was specifically designed to measure contact pressure, but it also provided information on the failure mechanism. Further tests included rolling some 200 spheres down sand slopes. Films were taken of the rolling spheres, and the tracks were measured. Implications of the results and reevaluation of the lunar boulder tracks are discussed.

  11. Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge Land Protection Plan for Section 16 Acquisition

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is located 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado on the borders of Boulder, Broomfield, and Jefferson Counties and...

  12. Recalling a Great Achievement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry Petroski

    2010-01-01

      A comprehensive hydrological and geological study of the river and its canyons led to the recommendation that a large flood control and hydroelectric dam be constructed in the vicinity of Boulder...

  13. Depth to Coal Mining in the Colorado Front Range (frimndpthu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the depth to (overburden above) abandoned underground coal mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  14. Conservation of geo- and -biodiversity in Lithuania: are there conflicts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga

    2014-05-01

    Lithuanian surface is sculptured by more than five glaciers, which retreated c. 10 000 years ago. After the ice sheets melted in Lithuania, Latvia and Poland, and other neighbouring countries, they left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields. Hundreds of single boulders and boulder fields are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and other countries and are variably protected. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Rapid weather changes in Lithuania cause the weathering of erratic boulders. However, the fastest erosion is by overgrowing cryptogams: lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, algae, cyanobacteria and bryophytes. Lichens are among the first colonizers of rock surfaces, and their impact on stonework heritage is rather well documented. Hard rocks (e.g. granites) are weathering considerably slower than soft or relatively soft sandstones, dolomites or marbles; however serious impact is visible on stones with inscriptions, drawings and open surfaces of the protected nature monuments. Lichens gradually cover whole boulder surfaces obscuring their geological value and contributing to the surface weathering in Lithuania and neighbouring countries where numerous protected stony nature monuments occur. The 73 of the 723 species of lichenized and allied fungi in Lithuania are confined to hard acid rocks. Eight of these acid rock-dwelling species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them have high threat category or are thought to be extinct now. There is no conservation conflict between the red-listed saxicolous lichens and their substrate where the species are confined to wild boulder meadows. Here lichens and their boulder substrate suffer from excessive growth and overshadowing from surrounding vascular plants, also from pollution which change stone surface properties and induce encroachment of more aggressive species than the usual slow-growing acid rock

  15. 78 FR 34125 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, San Juan National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University; University of Colorado Museum of Natural History, Boulder... Carnegie Institution, was curated by the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University...

  16. Good Days on the Trail, 1938-1942: Film Footage of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This film documents student hiking trips conducted by the University of Colorado at Boulder in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA during the summers of 1938-1942....

  17. Chronology and processes of late Quaternary hillslope sedimentation in the eastern South Island, New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borella, Josh; Quigley, Mark; Sohbati, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Optical and radiocarbon dating of loessic hillslope sediments in New Zealand’s South Island is used to constrain the timing of prehistoric rockfalls and associated seismic events, and quantify spatial and temporal patterns of hillslope sedimentation including responses to seismic and anthropogenic...... forcing. Trenches adjacent to prehistoric boulders enable stratigraphic analysis of loess and loess-colluvium pre- and post-dating boulder emplacement, respectively. Luminescence ages from loessic sediments constrain the timing of boulder emplacement to between 3.0 and 12.5 ka, well before the arrival...... of Polynesians (ca. AD 1280) and Europeans (ca. AD 1800) in New Zealand, and suggest loess accumulation was continuing at the study site until 12–13 ka. Large (>5m3) prehistoric rockfall boulders preserve an important record of Holocene hillslope sedimentation by creating local traps (i.e. accommodation space...

  18. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  19. Geomagnetic Observatory Annual Means Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) / World Data Center, Boulder maintains an active database of...

  20. Coherent Optical Transceiver using Circular Polarization-Based Balanced Mixing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boulder Nonlinear Systems (BNS) proposes to use its electro-optic component and subsystem expertise to transition a patented heterodyne detection scheme previously...

  1. High Resolution Results and Scalability of Numerical Modeling of Wind Flow at White Sands Missile Range

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haines, Patrick A; Grove, David J; Sun, Wen-Yih; Hsu, Wu-Ron

    2004-01-01

    ...) and large scale turbulence scale (20 m to 200 m). It is a fully explicit, compressible three-dimensional code and has compared quite to a wide variety of known analytical solution or observed situations including the Boulder Wind Storm...

  2. Generality and Topic Specificity of Cognitive Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher; Scott, William A.

    1975-01-01

    A multitrait-multimethod strategy was used to assess eight structural properties of cognition applied to several classes of objects by 88 university students in Boulder, Colorado, United States, and 80 university students in Kyoto and Otsu, Japan. (Editor)

  3. 47 CFR 73.622 - Digital television table of allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 19 Santa Rosa 54 Stockton 25, 46, 62 Twentynine Palms 23 Vallejo 34 Ventura 49 Visalia 28, *50c... Twentynine Palms 23 Vallejo 34 Ventura 49 Visalia 28, *50 Watsonville *25 COLORADO Boulder 15 Broomfield *13...

  4. A Conversation on "Cage-Busting Leadership": Manager Editor Angela Pascopella Speaks with Author Frederick M. Hess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascopella, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Recalling the myth of Sisyphus repeatedly pushing the same boulder up a mountain in his new book, author and educator Frederick M. Hess explains how the K12 education leadership is faltering, and how it can rise above.

  5. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheeler, Carl A.; Shaw, R.Todd

    1994-01-01

    The Umatilla habitat improvement program targets improvement of water quality and the restoration of riparian areas, holding, spawning and rearing habitats of steelhead, spring and fall Chinook and coho salmon. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation are responsible for enhancing stream reaches within the Reservation boundaries as guided by an implementation plan developed cooperatively with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and the U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Umatilla National Forest. Enhancements included the construction of nine boulder deflectors, two boulder weirs with pools, and 4 instream boulder placements. Instream cover was improved through the placement of 38 instream cover trees that were cabled to anchor boulders and four rootwads placed and anchored in pools. High tensile fence was constructed along 1.2 miles of stream bank to exclude livestock from riparian areas.

  6. Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc. (BNS) proposes to develop an Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter (E-O IFTSP). The polarimetric system is...

  7. Modeling of Performance, Cost, and Financing of Concentrating Solar, Photovoltaic, and Solar Heat Systems (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christiansen, C.

    2006-10-03

    This poster, submitted for the CU Energy Initiative/NREL Symposium on October 3, 2006 in Boulder, Colorado, discusses the modeling, performance, cost, and financing of concentrating solar, photovoltaic, and solar heat systems.

  8. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  9. Legislative Action: The Possibility of Instant Retrenchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamus, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Planning models developed at the University of Colorado, Boulder and resulting strategies for coping with legislated retrenchment are presented. Several areas for course of action are examined: contingency planning, planning for flexibility and enhancing real productivity. (LC)

  10. 78 FR 70581 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    .... 83,064 IBM Corporation, Global Business Boulder, CO...... September 6, 2012. Services, Application... sales of the workers' firm; or (B) A loss of business by the workers' firm with the firm described in...

  11. The Evolution of Israeli Civil-Military Relations: Domestic Enablers and the Quest for Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Figure 9145). Figure 9. Domestic Defense Spending (% GDP) 144 Guy Ben-Porat and Shlomo Mizrahi ...Israeli Case. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1986. Ben-Porat, Guy, and Shlomo Mizrahi . “Political Culture, Alternative Politics and Foreign Policy: The

  12. Groatite, NaCaMn (super 2+) 2 (PO 4 )[PO 3 (OH)] 2 , a new mineral species of the alluaudite group from the Tanco Pegmatite, Bernic Lake, Manitoba, Canada; description and crystal structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, M A; Hawthorne, F C; Ball, N A; Ramik, R A; Roberts, A C

    2009-01-01

    .... It was found in a phosphate - carbonate mass in a spodumene-rich boulder. Groatite occurs sparingly as slightly divergent sprays of acicular crystals, embedded stellate sprays and as a tabular mass of densely intergrown acicular crystals...

  13. Symposium on the Tropospheric Chemistry of the Antarctic Region: Pre- Conference Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    reaction for the halogens F2, Cl 2 and Br 2 . 4 LONG-TERM AEROSOL MEASUREMENTS AT THE SOUTH POLE B.A. Bodhaine, NOAA/ CMDL , 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO...80303-3328 The Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory ( CMDL ) program of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) conducts...carbon measurements. COVARIATION OF SOME COMPONENTS OF THE ANTARCTIC TROPOSPHERE B.A. Bodhaine, T. Conway NOAA/ CMDL , 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303

  14. Simulation of Blast Loading on an Ultrastructurally-based Computational Model of the Ocular Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA independent example lens capsule inflation analyses are pre- sented...experiment involves two cameras measuring the displacement of microspherules on the anterior surface of the lens cap- sule as it is inflated with fluid...A cryo-holder (Gatan Inc., Warrendale, PA, USA ) was used in the scope which kept the temperature of the sample at -180 ℃. 86 6.2 Experimental Setup

  15. Review: Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty, and Sorrow (2009 Buchbesprechung: Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty, and Sorrow (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bierschenk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Pierre Englebert (2009, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty, and Sorrow, Boulder, Co. & London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, ISBN: 978-1-58826-646-0 (Hardcover / 978-1-58826-623-1 (Paperback, 310 pages. Besprechung der Monographie: Pierre Englebert (2009, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty, and Sorrow, Boulder, Co. & London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, ISBN: 978-1-58826-646-0 (Hardcover / 978-1-58826-623-1 (Paperback, 310 Seiten.

  16. Sediment transport and erosional processes of a mountain bedrock channel using high-resolution topographic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yu-Hsuan; Shyu, J. Bruce H.

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, spatial information with high resolution and accuracy have become widely available, thanks to the rapid technological developments. Such data have been applied in a variety of topics, including the digitization and monitoring of outcrops and the construction of digital elevation models (DEMs) of landscapes. In fluvial geomorphology, it is critical to understand the sediment transport and erosional processes of bedrock channels, but previously this is generally done using computer numerical simulations or minimized experiments. Therefore, this study intends to observe in situ fluvial sediment transport and erosional processes using terrestrial laser scanning (also called "ground LiDAR") and structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry in a mountain bedrock channel in eastern Taiwan. Along the Swallow Grotto (Yanzikou) section of the Liwu River, there are many large boulders with different sizes that are up to more than ten meters. Most of these boulders came from rock fall events of a nearby tributary, and are gneiss in composition, distinctively different from the bedrock of the river channel (marble). Thus in this study, we chose these boulders as our survey targets. We applied ground LiDAR survey to observe the movement of the boulders, and to understand the transportation threshold of sediments under different flow conditions. For those giant boulders that do not seem to be moveable under regular fluvial conditions, we suspect that bedrock erosional processes apply to them. We then used SfM photogrammetry to monitor the erosion of particular boulders. By constructing 3D models of the boulders before and after flooding events, we will be able to analyze the amount and location of erosion occurred on the boulders. Combining these different datasets and results, we hope to further understand the sediment transport and erosional processes of bedrock channels.

  17. Colombia’s FARC: More Than Just Opportunistic Criminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    in ruins. See James F. Rochlin, Vanguard Revolutionaries in Latin America: Peru, Colombia, Mexico (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003), 91...Peru, Colombia, Mexico (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003), 137. 25. A key factor which strengthened the FARC’s increased militarization...implemented the Politica de Seguridad Democratica. This initiative recruited local men to serve as “home guards” tasked to provide presence in villages

  18. Human Estimation of Slope, Distance, and Height of Terrain in Simulated Lunar Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    colored boulder near the rim of North Ray Crater. Despite the apparent closeness of the surrounding objects, the boulder beyond his right shoulder is...Figure 1.2 House Rock, located beyond the right shoulder of Apollo 14 Astronaut Young, is 150 m away Slope and distance estimation has clearly been... readapting the interpretation of their sensory input on the Moon. Figure 2.2 Lack of aerial perspective to discriminate the distance to the Mons

  19. First evidence of biogenic habitat from tubeworms providing a near-absolute habitat requirement for high-intertidal Ulva macroalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Liversage

    Full Text Available Disturbances in ecological systems can cause new resources to become available and can free the resources held by strongly competitive species. In intertidal boulder fields, wave-action causes disturbance by overturning boulders and freeing space for re-colonisation. In this study, mensurative experiments showed that boulder disturbance may also cause new biogenic-habitat resources to become available, if pre-disturbance boulders originally had tubeworm encrustations on their undersides. On the high-shore of a South Australian rocky coast, a small proportion of boulders had extensive encrustations of serpulid and spirorbid worm-tubes on their uppersides, and were likely to have recently been overturned, as spirorbid tubeworms are almost always only underneath boulders while living. Ulva macroalgae was absent from all boulders, except those with worm-tubes, where up to 61% Ulva cover was observed. Many boulders with tubes did not, however, have much algae, and this was likely caused by grazing. While limpets were seldom observed attached to tube encrustations, snails such as Nerita atramentosa and Bembicium nanum were equally abundant on and off tubes. N. atramentosa was likely the main grazer, as its densities were negatively correlated with Ulva cover. The mechanism causing association of Ulva and worm-tubes is unknown, but may be related to retention of moisture or algal spores within the complex topography of the tubes. Alternatively, some tubes may still have been living and providing nutrients for Ulva from excretory products. This study takes the first step towards understanding a very distinct habitat requirement which allows an important alga to persist in the hostile environment of the rocky-intertidal high shore.

  20. First evidence of biogenic habitat from tubeworms providing a near-absolute habitat requirement for high-intertidal Ulva macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liversage, Kiran

    2017-01-01

    Disturbances in ecological systems can cause new resources to become available and can free the resources held by strongly competitive species. In intertidal boulder fields, wave-action causes disturbance by overturning boulders and freeing space for re-colonisation. In this study, mensurative experiments showed that boulder disturbance may also cause new biogenic-habitat resources to become available, if pre-disturbance boulders originally had tubeworm encrustations on their undersides. On the high-shore of a South Australian rocky coast, a small proportion of boulders had extensive encrustations of serpulid and spirorbid worm-tubes on their uppersides, and were likely to have recently been overturned, as spirorbid tubeworms are almost always only underneath boulders while living. Ulva macroalgae was absent from all boulders, except those with worm-tubes, where up to 61% Ulva cover was observed. Many boulders with tubes did not, however, have much algae, and this was likely caused by grazing. While limpets were seldom observed attached to tube encrustations, snails such as Nerita atramentosa and Bembicium nanum were equally abundant on and off tubes. N. atramentosa was likely the main grazer, as its densities were negatively correlated with Ulva cover. The mechanism causing association of Ulva and worm-tubes is unknown, but may be related to retention of moisture or algal spores within the complex topography of the tubes. Alternatively, some tubes may still have been living and providing nutrients for Ulva from excretory products. This study takes the first step towards understanding a very distinct habitat requirement which allows an important alga to persist in the hostile environment of the rocky-intertidal high shore.

  1. Clastic patterned ground in Lomonosov crater, Mars: examining fracture controlled formation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Alexander M.; Balme, Matthew R.; Patel, Manish R.; Hagermann, Axel

    2017-10-01

    The area surrounding Lomonosov crater on Mars has a high density of seemingly organised boulder patterns. These form seemingly sorted polygons and stripes within kilometre scale blockfields, patches of boulder strewn ground which are common across the Martian high latitudes. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain the formation of clastic patterned ground on Mars. It has been proposed that these structures could have formed through freeze-thaw sorting, or conversely by the interaction of boulders with underlying fracture polygons. In this investigation a series of sites were examined to evaluate whether boulder patterns appear to be controlled by the distribution of underlying fractures and test the fracture control hypotheses for their formation. It was decided to focus on this suite of mechanisms as they are characterised by a clear morphological relationship, namely the presence of an underlying fracture network which can easily be evaluated over a large area. It was found that in the majority of examples at these sites did not exhibit fracture control. Although fractures were present at many sites there were very few sites where the fracture network appeared to be controlling the boulder distribution. In general these were not the sites with the best examples of organization, suggesting that the fracture control mechanisms are not the dominant geomorphic process organising the boulders in this area.

  2. Water-quality effects on Baker Lake of recent volcanic activity at Mount Baker, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortleson, Gilbert Carl; Wilson, Reed T.; Foxworthy, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    Increased volcanic activity on Mount Baker, which began in March 1975, represents the greatest known activity of a Cascade Range volcano since eruptions at Lassen Peak, Calif. during 1914-17. Emissions of dust and increased emanations of steam, other gases, and heat from the Sherman Crater area of the mountain focused attention on the possibility of hazardous events, including lava flows, pyroclastic eruptions, avalanches, and mudflows. However, the greatest undesirable natural results that have been observed after one year of the increased activity are an increase in local atmospheric pollution and a decrease in the quality of some local water resources, including Baker Lake. Baker Lake, a hydropower reservoir behind Upper Baker Dam, supports a valuable fishery resource and also is used for recreation. The lake's feedwater is from Baker River and many smaller streams, some of which, like Boulder Creek, drain parts of Mount Baker. Boulder Creek receives water from Sherman Crater, and its channel is a likely route for avalanches or mudflows that might originate in the crater area. Boulder Creek drains only about 5 percent of the total drainage area of Baker Lake, but during 1975 carried sizeable but variable loads of acid and dissolved minerals into the lake. Sulfurous gases and the fumarole dust from Sherman Crater are the main sources for these materials, which are brought into upper Boulder Creek by meltwater from the crater. In September 1973, before the increased volcanic activity, Boulder Creek near the lake had a pH of 6.0-6.6; after the increase the pH ranged as low as about 3.5. Most nearby streams had pH values near 7. On April 29, in Boulder Creek the dissolved sulfate concentration was 6 to 29 times greater than in nearby creeks or in Baker River; total iron was 18-53 times greater than in nearby creeks; and other major dissolved constituents generally 2 to 7 times greater than in the other streams. The short-term effects on Baker Lake of the acidic

  3. Surface-exposure ages of Front Range moraines that may have formed during the Younger Dryas, 8.2 cal ka, and Little Ice Age events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.; Madole, R.; Kubik, P.; McDonald, R.

    2007-01-01

    Surface-exposure (10Be) ages have been obtained on boulders from three post-Pinedale end-moraine complexes in the Front Range, Colorado. Boulder rounding appears related to the cirque-to-moraine transport distance at each site with subrounded boulders being typical of the 2-km-long Chicago Lakes Glacier, subangular boulders being typical of the 1-km-long Butler Gulch Glacier, and angular boulders being typical of the few-hundred-m-long Isabelle Glacier. Surface-exposure ages of angular boulders from the Isabelle Glacier moraine, which formed during the Little Ice Age (LIA) according to previous lichenometric dating, indicate cosmogenic inheritance values ranging from 0 to ???3.0 10Be ka.11Surface-exposure ages in this paper are labeled 10Be; radiocarbon ages are labeled 14C ka, calendar and calibrated radiocarbon ages are labeled cal ka, and layer-based ice-core ages are labeled ka. 14C ages, calibrated 14C ages, and ice core ages are given relative to AD 1950, whereas 10Be ages are given relative to the sampling date. Radiocarbon ages were calibrated using CALIB 5.01 and the INTCAL04 data base Stuiver et al. (2005). Ages estimated using CALIB 5.01 are shown in terms of their 1-sigma range. Subangular boulders from the Butler Gulch end moraine yielded surface-exposure ages ranging from 5 to 10.2 10Be ka. We suggest that this moraine was deposited during the 8.2 cal ka event, which has been associated with outburst floods from Lake Agassiz and Lake Ojibway, and that the large age range associated with the Butler Gulch end moraine is caused by cosmogenic shielding of and(or) spalling from boulders that have ages in the younger part of the range and by cosmogenic inheritance in boulders that have ages in the older part of the range. The surface-exposure ages of eight of nine subrounded boulders from the Chicago Lakes area fall within the 13.0-11.7 10Be ka age range, and appear to have been deposited during the Younger Dryas interval. The general lack of inheritance in

  4. Analysis of growth directions of columnar stromatolites from Walker Lake, western Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshyn, V A; Corsetti, F A

    2011-09-01

    Samples of digitate, branching, columnar stromatolites were collected from the steep sides and near horizontal top of four in situ boulders located on the southwestern side of Walker Lake, Nevada, to test the widely held assumption that stromatolite column formation represents a phototropic response. We would predict that the columns on the steeply dipping sides of the boulder would bend upwards toward the light during growth if phototropism was significant during stromatolite morphogenesis. Angle of growth measurements on >300 stromatolites demonstrate that the stromatolites grew nearly normal to their growth surface, regardless of the inclination of their growth surface. No significant differences in the distribution of growth angles between north-, south-, east-, or west-facing samples were observed, and stromatolite lamina thickness did not systematically vary with position on the boulder. The lack of a strong phototropic response does not rule out a biological origin for the Walker Lake structures, but it does suggest that phototropic growth was not a dominant factor controlling stromatolite morphogenesis in these stromatolites and that column formation cannot be uniquely attributed as a phototropic response in stromatolites. It is interesting to note that the morphology of the stromatolites on the top of the boulder is identical to stromatolites on the steep sides. Stromatolite morphogenetic models that predict branching typically require a vertically directed sedimentary component, a feature that would have likely affected the stromatolites on the tops of the boulders, but not the sides, suggesting that other factors may be important in stromatolite morphogenesis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Terrestrial cosmogenic surface exposure dating of glacial and associated landforms in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range of central Nevada and along the northeastern flank of the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnousky, Steven G.; Briggs, Richard; Caffee, Marc W.; Ryerson, Rick J.; Finkel, Robert C.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2016-01-01

    Deposits near Lamoille in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range of central Nevada and at Woodfords on the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada each record two distinct glacial advances. We compare independent assessments of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) surface exposure ages for glacial deposits that we have determined to those obtained by others at the two sites. At each site, TCN ages of boulders on moraines of the younger advance are between 15 and 30 ka and may be associated with marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 2. At Woodfords, TCN ages of boulders on the moraine of the older advance are younger than ~ 60 ka and possibly formed during MIS 4, whereas boulders on the correlative outwash surface show ages approaching 140 ka (~ MIS 6). The TCN ages of boulders on older glacial moraine at Woodfords thus appear to severely underestimate the true age of the glacial advance responsible for the deposit. The same is possibly true at Lamoille where clasts sampled from the moraine of the oldest advance have ages ranging between 20 and 40 ka with a single outlier age of ~ 80 ka. The underestimations are attributed to the degradation and denudation of older moraine crests. Noting that boulder ages on the older advances at each site overlap significantly with MIS 2. We speculate that erosion of the older moraines has been episodic, with a pulse of denudation accompanying the inception of MIS 2 glaciation.

  6. METER-SIZED MOONLET POPULATION IN SATURN'S C RING AND CASSINI DIVISION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillie, Kevin; Colwell, Joshua E. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Esposito, Larry W. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder, 392 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0392 (United States); Lewis, Mark C., E-mail: kevin.baillie@cea.fr [Department of Computer Science, Trinity University, One Trinity Place, San Antonio, TX 78212-7200 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Stellar occultations observed by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph reveal the presence of transparent holes a few meters to a few tens of meters in radial extent in otherwise optically thick regions of the C ring and the Cassini Division. We attribute the holes to gravitational disturbances generated by a population of {approx}10 m boulders in the rings that is intermediate in size between the background ring particle size distribution and the previously observed {approx}100 m propeller moonlets in the A ring. The size distribution of these boulders is described by a shallower power-law than the one that describes the ring particle size distribution. The number and size distribution of these boulders could be explained by limited accretion processes deep within Saturn's Roche zone.

  7. Application of electrical and electromagnetic methods to study sedimentary covers in high mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomecka-Suchoń, Sylwia; Żogała, Bogdan; Gołębiowski, Tomisław; Dzik, Grażyna; Dzik, Tomasz; Jochymczyk, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    The results of geophysical studies conducted with selected electrical and electromagnetic methods in the Kondratowa Valley in the Tatra Mountains (the Carpathian Mountains, Poland) are presented in the article. The surveys were performed with the following methods: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), georadar (GPR) and conductivity meter (CM). The objective of the noninvasive geophysical measurements was to determine the thickness of the Quaternary postglacial sediments that fill the bottom of the valley and to designate the accumulation of boulders deposited on Quaternary sediments. The results of ERT surveys conducted along the axis of the valley allowed to determine the changeability of the thickness of the postglacial sediments and allowed to designate a few areas of occurrence of boulders. The ERT, GPR and CM surveys conducted across the valley allowed to designate with high accuracy the thickness of the accumulation of boulders sliding down the valley bottom from the couloirs surrounding the valley.

  8. Anthropocene rockfalls travel farther than prehistoric predecessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, Josh Walter; Quigley, Mark; Vick, Louise

    2016-09-01

    Human modification of natural landscapes has influenced surface processes in many settings on Earth. Quantitative data comparing the distribution and behavior of geologic phenomena before and after human arrival are sparse but urgently required to evaluate possible anthropogenic influences on geologic hazards. We conduct field and imagery-based mapping, statistical analysis, and numerical modeling of rockfall boulders triggered by the fatal 2011 Christchurch earthquakes (n = 285) and newly identified prehistoric (Holocene and Pleistocene) boulders (n = 1049). Prehistoric and modern boulders are lithologically equivalent, derived from the same source cliff, and yield consistent power-law frequency-volume distributions. However, a significant population of modern boulders (n = 26) traveled farther downslope (>150 m) than their most-traveled prehistoric counterparts, causing extensive damage to residential dwellings at the foot of the hillslope. Replication of prehistoric boulder distributions using three-dimensional rigid-body numerical models that incorporate lidar-derived digital topography and realistic boulder trajectories and volumes requires the application of a drag coefficient, attributed to moderate to dense slope vegetation, to account for their spatial distribution. Incorporating a spatially variable native forest into the models successfully predicts prehistoric rockfall distributions. Radiocarbon dating provides evidence for 17th to early 20th century deforestation at the study site during Polynesian and European colonization and after emplacement of prehistoric rockfall. Anthropocene deforestation enabled modern rockfalls to exceed the limits of their prehistoric predecessors, highlighting a shift in the geologic expression of rockfalls due to anthropogenic activity. Reforestation of hillslopes by mature native vegetation could help reduce future rockfall hazard.

  9. The petroglyphs of Dowzdaghi, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kazempur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with recording and interpreting a complex of petroglyphs at Dowzdaghi in the northern part of Iranian Azerbaijan in Northwestern Iran. The assemblage can be divided into four sub-assemblages; the designs and images depicted on the surfaces of isolated boulders usually constitute a panel and sometimes individual motifs and inscriptions. The investigations have revealed more than 400 carved and scratched drawings on rock boulders on Mt. Dowzdaghi. The main themes include anthropomorphic figures, animals (ibex, with long elaborated curved horn, deer, dog, horse, bull, ram, fox, snake, alligator, and hedgehog, hunting scenes, Arabic and Persian inscriptions, and symbolic designs.

  10. Fouling of coarse-clastic sediments with macrophytes depending on the rate of abrasion, Murmansk coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavenda, S. V.; Mitayev, M. V.; Malavenda, S. S.; Gerasimova, M. V.

    2017-05-01

    It is shown for the first time that the hydrodynamics and average daily gradient of air temperature affect the rate of abrasion of the coarse-clastic material on the boulder littoral of the Murmansk coast, as well as the density of its fouling by macroalgae. The proportion and biomass of species-explerents vary depending on the hydrological and meteorological conditions. The annual species-explerents ( Acrosiphonia arcta, Blidingia minima, Spongomorpha aeruginosa, Pylaiella littoralis) are the basis for new phytocenoses. In the fucus phytocenoses of the boulder littoral, these groupings represent the intermediate stage of fouling of the coarse-clastic material.

  11. Brief communication "Does the Eltanin asteroid tsunami provide an alternative explanation for the Australian megatsunami hypothesis?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dominey-Howes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Australian megatsunami hypothesis has been developed over two decades. It charts repeated inundation of the South East Australian coast during the Holocene by bolide impact megatsunamis. The most enigmatic evidence for these proposed events are high elevation cliff-top boulders. There is however an absence of known sources for these megatsunamis, and as such we question whether the researchers may have the correct mechanism but the wrong events. Given the low denudation rates of this passive, intraplate environment, we suggest that boulder emplacement may have been solely the result of the much older Eltanin asteroid tsunami about 2.5 Ma ago.

  12. Size Sorting on the Rubble-Pile Asteroid Itokawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbrot, Troy; Sabuwala, Tapan; Siu, Theo; Vivar Lazo, Miguel; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2017-03-17

    Photographs of the asteroid Itokawa reveal unexpectedly strong size segregation between lowlands populated almost entirely by small pebbles and highlands consisting of larger boulders. We propose that this segregation may be caused by a simple and unexplored effect: pebbles accreting onto the asteroid rebound from boulders, but sink into pebbly regions. By number, overwhelmingly more particles on Itokawa are pebbles, and collisions involving these pebbles must unavoidably cause pebbly regions to grow. We carry out experiments and simulations that demonstrate that this mechanism of size sorting based on simple counting of grains produces strong lateral segregation that reliably obeys an analytic formula.

  13. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Mission Description and Objectives: NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), a robotic mission to visit a large (greater than approximately 100 meters diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will explore and investigate the boulder and return to Earth with samples. The ARRM is currently planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026.

  14. Factors controlling streambed coverage of Didymosphenia geminata in two regulated streams in the Colorado Front Range

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Matthew P; McKnight, Diane M.; Cullis, James D.; Greene, Alicia; Vietti, Kristin; Liptzin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Didymosphenia geminata is a stalk-forming freshwater diatom which was historically found primarily in oligotrophic lakes and streams, but has recently become a nuisance species in many lotic systems worldwide. In the last 5–8 years, D. geminata has become established in Boulder Creek and South Boulder Creek, two regulated montane streams in the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Factors that may influence the growth of D. geminata were monitored during the summer of 2006. D. geminat...

  15. Storm wave deposits in southern Istria (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolchi, Sara; Furlani, Stefano; Devoto, Stefano; Scicchitano, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The accumulation of large boulders related to extreme waves are well documented in different areas of the Mediterranean coasts, such as in Turkey, Algeria, Egypt, Greece (Lesbos and Crete islands), France, Spain, Malta, Italy (Sicily and Apulia regions). These deposits have been associated to storm or tsunami events or both, depending on the local history. If compared to the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic Sea is considered a shallow basin, with very low wave energy. In particular the NE Adriatic, where Istria Peninsula (Croatia) is located, geological and geomorphological evidences of extreme wave events have never been described, as well as no tsunamis have been registered. We present the boulder deposits that have been recently found out in southern Istria, at Premantura and Marlera localities and we discuss the mechanisms that could have been responsible of the detachment and movement of these large rocky blocks from the emerged part of the coast and from the sea bottom inland. A multidisciplinary approach was adopted: geological and geomorphological surveyings, UAV and digital photogrammetric analysis, applying of the hydrodynamic equations as well as underwater profiles were carried out between 2012 and 2016. The southern Istrian coasts are composed of Cretaceous bedded limestones, sub-horizontal or gently inclined toward the sea and are exposed to southern winds, Scirocco and Libeccio, with wide fetch. The boulder deposits occur in correspondence of flat promontories or ancient quarry pavements, where the topography, together with the bedding planes and a dense fracture pattern constitute the predisposing factors of the boulder sizing and detachment. Boulder sizes, density, position and elevation have been measured in order to apply the hydrodynamic equations, which provide wave height values that can discriminate a storm from a tsunami origin. Biogenic marine encrustations, sometimes very recent, have been observed on large part of the boulders, attesting

  16. Size Sorting on the Rubble-Pile Asteroid Itokawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbrot, Troy; Sabuwala, Tapan; Siu, Theo; Vivar Lazo, Miguel; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2017-03-01

    Photographs of the asteroid Itokawa reveal unexpectedly strong size segregation between lowlands populated almost entirely by small pebbles and highlands consisting of larger boulders. We propose that this segregation may be caused by a simple and unexplored effect: pebbles accreting onto the asteroid rebound from boulders, but sink into pebbly regions. By number, overwhelmingly more particles on Itokawa are pebbles, and collisions involving these pebbles must unavoidably cause pebbly regions to grow. We carry out experiments and simulations that demonstrate that this mechanism of size sorting based on simple counting of grains produces strong lateral segregation that reliably obeys an analytic formula.

  17. Advances in threat assessment and their application to forest and rangeland management—Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pye; H. Michael Rauscher; Yasmeen Sands; Danny C. Lee; Jerome S. Beatty

    2010-01-01

    In July 2006, more than 170 researchers and managers from the United States, Canada, and Mexico convened in Boulder, Colorado, to discuss the state of the science in environmental threat assessment. This two-volume general technical report compiles peer-reviewed papers that were among those presented during the 3-day conference. Papers are organized by four broad...

  18. The Kinetics and Dynamics of Elementary Gas-Phase Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    accompanied by musical entertainment. The banquet will begin at approximately 7.45 pm in the Noble Room. Shuttle buses will be available after the...teams (with Ian as overall co-ordinator) were awarded the European Union�s Descartes Prize. This came during a sabbatical period for Ian in Boulder

  19. Strategic Culture and Strategic Studies: An Alternative Framework for Assessing al-Qaeda and the Global Jihad Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    14, 2010). Accessed at the website of the SITE Intelligence Group. 71 Shultz: Assessing al-Qaeda and the Global Jihad Movement Jacob Kipp, “The...Art of War: Doctrine, Strategy, and Tactics, edited by Harriet Fast Scott and William Scott (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1982). See especially Parts III-V

  20. Call Me Sisyphus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Gordon MacKenzie (au- thor of Orbiting the Giant Hairball: A Corporate Fool’s Guide to Surviving with Grace) calls a “plum tree structure” and looked at...ghting.” Editor’s note: In Greek mythology , Sisyphus was condemned to an eternity of punishment in Hades that consisted of rolling a huge boulder to

  1. U.S. Tundra Biome-International Biological Program. U.S. Tundra Biome Publication List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    1978) Geoecologi - cal mapping scheme for Alaskan coastal tundra. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Permafrost, July 10-13, 1978...Bib 35-1900/ Iyes, J.D. (Ed.) (1980) Geoecology of the Colorado Front Range: A Study of Alpine and Subalpine Environments. Boulder, Colorado

  2. Translating Expertise into Effective Instruction: The Impacts of Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) on Lab Report Quality and Student Retention in the Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldon, David F.; Timmerman, Briana Crotwell; Stowe, Kirk A.; Showman, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Poor instruction has been cited as a primary cause of attrition from STEM majors and a major obstacle to learning for those who stay [Seymour and Hewitt [1997]. Talking about leaving: Why undergraduates leave the sciences. Boulder, CO: Westview]. Using a double-blind design, this study tests the hypothesis that the lack of explicit instructions in…

  3. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is temporarily...

  4. Geomorphic investigation of the Late-Quaternary landforms in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shubhra Sharma

    2018-02-14

    Feb 14, 2018 ... present a stunning evidence of how climate shapes the face of the .... were identified from their fan-shaped morphology with distal and .... clast. The sandy horizon is overlain by angular to sub-rounded boulders. In the downstream, where the river channel is wider, presence of alternate lake and fluvial ...

  5. Inverse Modeling Estimates of the Global Nitrous Oxide Surface Flux from 1998-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, A.; Michalak, A.; Bruhwiler, L.; Peters, W.; Dlugokencky, E.; Tans, P.P.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of nitrous oxide in air samples from 48 sites in the Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network made by NOAA/ESRL GMD CCGG (the Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gases group in the Global Monitoring Division at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado) and the three-dimensional

  6. Difference in information needs for wildfire evacuees and non-evacuees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. McCaffrey; Anne-Lise Knox Velez; Jason Alexander. Briefel

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether evacuees from two wildfires displayed different information seeking behavior than non-evacuees. Findings are the results of a mail survey sent to residents affected by wildfires outside Flagstaff, Arizona and Boulder, Colorado in 2010. We found evacuees sought information more actively than non-evacuees and placed a greater emphasis on use...

  7. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 228 views 9:25 Overcoming Addiction ► How To Prevent Relapse - Duration: 3:51. Truth Of Addiction 104, ... 720 views 9:00 Transcending addiction and redefining recovery: Jacki Hillios at TEDxBoulder - Duration: 13:19. TEDx ...

  8. Selection for protection from insolation results in the visual isolation of Yellow-eyed Penguin Megadyptes antipodes nests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clark, RD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available with randomly sampled unused sites in flax Phormium tenax and Hebe elliptica coastal scrub at Boulder Beach, and in coastal forest at Hinahina Cove, New Zealand, 2006–2007. Results of univariate tests and the evaluation of logistic regression models suggested...

  9. 43 CFR 431.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... restore the Project to a former good operating condition. Colorado River Dam Fund or Fund shall mean that... specified in the Project Act, the Adjustment Act, the Colorado River Basin Project Act, and the Hoover Power... electric service pursuant to the Hoover Power Plant Act. Project or Boulder Canyon Project shall mean all...

  10. measurement of radionuclides in processed mine tailings in jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    thoroughly with old methods, to recover additional minerals. Yesterday's tails can be tomorrow's resource as seen during the 1990's when the extensive tailings dumps of Kalgoorlie/Boulder in Western Australia were reprocessed profitably by kaltails mining. (Wikipedia the free encyclopedia). MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  11. Corrigendum to ;Applications of biotite inclusion composition to zircon provenance determination; [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 473 (2017) 237-246

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T. Mark

    2017-10-01

    We are grateful for support from the Collaborative for Research in Origins (CRiO) at the University of Colorado Boulder, which is funded by the John Templeton Foundation-FfAME Origins program. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the John Templeton Foundation.

  12. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boulder, Colo : Westview 1993. Ahnaimugan S, Asuen MI. Coital laceration of the vagina. Ausz NZJObstet Gynae 1980; 20: 180-181. Periman, Sally E, Hertweck, Paige S. Water- ski douch injury in a premenarcheal female. Paediat Oct 1995; 96(4): P782, 2. Kizer KW. Medical hazards of the water- skiing douche. Ann Emerg ...

  13. Proceedings of the International Cryocoolers Conference (4th) Held in Easton, Maryland on 25-26 September 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-30

    Standards George Robinson Massachusetts Institute of Technology Advisory Board John Barclay Samuel Russo LASL Hughes Aircraft Co. Edgar Edelsack Allan ...Boulder, CO 80202 303-442-1248 Baebler, Miha Institut Zoran Rant Blaugher, Richard D. Kidriceva 66 ( POE 88) Westinghouse Electric Corp. Skofjaloka

  14. Zero Waste: A Realistic Sustainability Program for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumpert, Kary; Dietz, Cyndra

    2012-01-01

    Eco-Cycle, one of the nation's oldest and largest nonprofit recycling organizations, has coordinated recycling services and environmental education programs for the two Boulder area public school districts (80 schools) since 1987. In 2005, Eco-Cycle launched the Green Star Schools program in four pilot elementary schools with the goal of moving…

  15. 77 FR 59663 - Agency Information Collection Activities Under OMB Review; Renewal of a Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... tribal entities, water districts, and individuals that use Colorado River water. Frequency: Monthly and... ] Flow, and Consumptive Use of Colorado River Water in the Lower Colorado River Basin (OMB Control Number...: Margot Selig, Supervisory Contract and Repayment Specialist, Water Administration Group, Boulder Canyon...

  16. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be available...

  17. Explaining the United States-Israel Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Relations, ed. Robert O. Freedman (Boulder: Westview Press, 2012), 22. 47 radicals such as Gamal Abdel Nasser to become more defiant. The United...States backed Egypt in the 1956 Suez War, taking on Britain, France, and Israel, but received no credit from Nasser . The aftermath of the Israeli

  18. Dilemmas of Polish Military Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-05

    Stanislaw Koziej, Teoria Sztuki Wojenne, (Warsw: Wydawnictwo Bellona, 1993),105-109. 49 William S. Lind. Maneuver Warfare Handbook. (Boulder, Colorado...Printing Office, June 2000), 1-3. 64 Stanislaw Koziej. Teoria Sztuki Wojennej (The Theory of Art of War) (Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Bellona, 1993), 105-109

  19. Limits of Freedom: The Ward Churchill Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nell, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    The University of Colorado's Ward Churchill is but the latest in a long line of professors whose volatile statements have created controversy for themselves and their universities. Specific personnel matters in the case have been meticulously addressed in Boulder, but several larger questions have been curiously neglected. One might well ask, for…

  20. Major Joint/Combined Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Force conducted a saturation bombing of the Monte Cassino monastery against the advice of the respective air commanders. Not surprisingly, all...From the Stone Age to Alexander the Great, rev. ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997), 134. 4 Rowena Reed, Combined Operations in the Civil War

  1. 10 CFR 904.6 - Charge for capacity and firm energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charge for capacity and firm energy. 904.6 Section 904.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.6 Charge for capacity and firm energy. The charge for Capacity and...

  2. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall be entitled to such Excess Capacity to integrate the operation of the Boulder City Area Projects and other... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. ’A World of Secrets: The Uses and Limits of Intelligence’, by Walter Laquer - An Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Hopkins, the University of Chicago, Harvard, Georgetown, and the Center for Strategic and Interna - tional Studies. (21:1626) His credentials as writer...James M. Keagle, 57-66. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1985. 10. Hilsman, Roger. The Politica of Policy Making in Defense adForeign Affairs: Cneetual Modaln

  4. South African Airborne Operations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specifically tailored for the aircraft (both fixed and rotary-wing) which they use, the parachute units are seen ... Nyasaland, where sabotaged bridges, road blocks and airfields littered with petrol drums, boulders ...... SANDF Documentation Service, Archival Group 44 Para Bde, Op Instructore for: Design for Battle, Op MELBA.

  5. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, D. [Boulder Country Pollution Prevention Program, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. The Institutionalization of Drug Trafficking Organizations: Comparing Colombia and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    128; and Celso Amorim, Comando Vermelho: A Historia Secreta do Crime Organizado (Rio de Janeiro: Editora Record, 1993). 44 As a side observation...America, by Sonia Alvarez, Evelina Dagnino and Arturo Escobar, 1–32. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998. Amorim, Celso. Comando Vermelho: A Historia

  7. 76 FR 57719 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... ARMY, XU W071 ENDIST WALLA WALLA, WALLA WALLA, WA. Service Type/Location: Warehouse Staffing Services, Warehouse Section--Building Branch--NOAA's Logistics Div., Building 22, 325 Broadway Street, Boulder, CO..., Contracting Services Office, Fort Belvoir, VA. Barry S. Lineback, Director, Business Operations. BILLING CODE...

  8. The Art of Playground Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammatt, Heather

    2002-01-01

    Makes the case for integrating artistic expression into park and playground landscape design to create recreational areas with a more holistic look. The Foothills Community Park in Boulder, Colorado, is used to illustrate the use of artistic expression that preserves and celebrates the natural elements while creating a sense of community identity…

  9. Fish species composition and abundance on a subtropical, artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phy, with larger crevices, gullies and boulders towards the seaward end of the reef. The surface area of the reef top was calculated to be approximately 22 250 m'. The dominant macroinvertebrates associated with the reef were brown mussels (Perna perna), sea urchins (Stomop- neustes vario/aris and Tripneustes gratil/a), ...

  10. Detection of High Altitude Aircraft Wake Vortices Using Infrared Doppler Lidar: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    velocity distribution ( Tipler , 1987:69). The velocity distribution in ont. direction, say the x-direction, is a i Gaussian distribution with standard...Coherent Laser Radar, Report #CTI-TR-8903. Contract OF33615-88-C-1756. Boulder, CO: Coherent Technologies, Inc., Octo- ber 1989. Tipler , Paul A

  11. 49 The Geology and Mineralogy of Clay Occurrences Around Kutigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Dessauvagie (1972) identified clays in the. Middle Niger Basin or the Nupe sandstone now renamed the Nupe Group. They studied the Stratigraphic succession in the area and reported the direct overlying of the basement complex by a coarse conglomerate, clay- sandstone admixture, boulders etc of sedimentary origin.

  12. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Green River Launch Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-29

    the ceremony are acquired 2-24 by dreaming of animals or birds who taught the dreamer to use individualistic paraphernalia or rituals. Peyote buttons...University of California Press.* • 1948. Ute Peyotism . Boulder: University of Colorado Press. ._ 1966. Ute Tribal Area. Utah Historical Quarterly 34:43

  13. Preparing General Purpose Forces in the United States and British Armies for Counterinsurgent Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    program is an intense, “ accelerated ” educational experience that provides graduates with tools to meet challenges through Senior Level Education. POC: Dr...Conflict. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1986. Kotter , John P. Leading Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1996. 181 Krepinevich, Andrew F

  14. Analytic Model for Tangential YORP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubov, Oleksiy

    2017-12-01

    The tangential YORP effect (TYORP) plays a significant role in the dynamical evolution of asteroids, and up to now has only been studied numerically. This paper describes the first analytic model of the TYORP effect. Although the model rests on numerous physical and mathematical simplifications, the final analytic expression for TYORP is found to be in agreement with the results of rigorous numeric simulations to the accuracy of several tens of percent. The analytic expression obtained is used to estimate the TYORP produced by the non-flat surface of regolith—a contribution to TYORP that has never been considered. It is found that the contribution to TYORP arising from regolith can be comparable to the conventional TYORP produced by boulders. Then, the analytic expression is fitted with a log-normal function and used to integrate TYORP over all boulder sizes. The general trend of TYORP for multiple boulders appears qualitatively similar to the trend of one boulder, and it also demonstrates a maximal TYORP at some particular rotation rate. The expression obtained for integrated TYORP may be instrumental for simulations of the evolution of asteroids subject to TYORP. The physical origin of TYORP is discussed in light of the constructed analytic model.

  15. International Conference on Optical and Millimeter Wave Propagation and Scattering in the Atmosphere Held in Florence, Italy on 27-30 May 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    LaboraL ..ry Boulder, Colorado 80303 (invited) INTRODUCTION There have been many attempts to derive profiles of optical refractive tur- bulence in the...research was also provided by Progetto Strategico CNR " Clima e Ambiente dell’ Area Mediterranea". References (I) P.C. Waterman, "Matrix Formulation

  16. Meeting report : fungal its workshop (october 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bates, Scott T; Ahrendt, Steven; Bik, Holly M; Bruns, Thomas D; Caporaso, J Gregory; Cole, James; Dwan, Michael; Fierer, Noah; Gu, Dai; Houston, Shawn; Knight, Rob; Leff, Jon; Lewis, Christopher; Maestre, Juan P; McDonald, Daniel; Nilsson, R Henrik; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Robert, Vincent; Schoch, Conrad; Scott, James; Taylor, D Lee; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Stajich, Jason E

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes a meeting held in Boulder, CO USA (19-20 October 2012) on fungal community analyses using ultra-high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The meeting was organized as a two-day workshop, with the

  17. Incipient motion of gravel and coal beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Wiberg & Smith 1987; Wilcock & Southard 1988; Bridge & Bennett 1992; Wilcock 1992,. 1993; Kuhnle 1993; Patel & Ranga Raju 1999; Dey 1999; Dey et al 1999; Dey & Debnath. 2000). Furthermore, experimental studies with gravel beds were put forward by Bathust et al. (1987) and field studies with gravel and boulder ...

  18. 2014 CESM Tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Marika

    2014-08-11

    The 2014 annual tutorial for the Community Earth System Model (CESM) was held on August 11-August 15, 2014 at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, CO. It included lectures and practical sessions on numerous aspects of the CESM model. The proceedings submitted here include a description of the tutorial.

  19. Mineral X, a new thalcusite homologue from the Ilimaussaq complex, South Greenland Contribution to the mineralogy of Ilimaussaq, no. 144

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.

    2011-01-01

    Mineral X is assumed to be a new member of the thalcusite homologous series with the structural formula TlCu2NS2N+1 with N=1.5. It was found in loose ussingite-analcime boulders on the Taseq slope towards the Narsaq Elv in the northern part of the Ilimaussaq complex in South Greenland in associat...

  20. Mineral X, a new thalcusite homologue from the Ilimaussaq complex, south Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Karup-Møller, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Mineral X is assumed to be a new member of the thalcusite homologous series with the structural formula TlCu2NS2N+1 with N=1.5. It was found in loose ussingite-analcime boulders on the Taseq slope towards the Narsaq Elv in the northern part of the Ilímaussaq complex in South Greenland in associat...

  1. Creating Access to Invisible Special Collections: Using Participatory Management to Reduce a Backlog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, M. Winslow; Hollis, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries used participatory management to reduce a special collections backlog. Without an increase in budget or staffing, technical and public services departments designed a pilot project to redeploy internal human resources in a collaborative manner. The process of backlog management is discussed.

  2. 75 FR 43930 - Notice of Petitions by Firms for Determination of Eligibility To Apply for Trade Adjustment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... SAE Circuits produces printed Boulder, CO 80301. circuit boards, which are produced using epoxy resin... and table top ashtrays. Superior Battery Manufacturing Co., P.O. Box 1010, Russell 7/16/2010 The firm produces lead acid Inc. Springs, KY 42642. batteries; primary manufacturing materials include lead, plastic...

  3. The Army College Fund and Military Manpower: A Review of Existing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    for other factors affecting earnings (Goldberg & Warner, 1986; 13 Daymont & Andrisani , 1986) have provided some support for this thesis. However, it...Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Daymont, T., & Andrisani , P. (1986, December). The economic returns to military service. Paper presented at the American

  4. The colonisation of woodland gaps by ferns and horsetails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, P.

    2010-01-01

    In the Voorsterbos, a planted woodland on a former sea-floor (the Netherlands), artificial gaps within stands of Fagus sylvatica on boulder clay were monitored for five or six years after cutting. Ten fern species and three species of horsetail established in these gaps, with Dryopteris cristata,

  5. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. April 2004 - April 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    See also related item Weather Modification Technologies in the October 2003 Environmental Security monthly report.] Source: Hey ! You! Get off my...limited time on the website) More Heat Waves Expected. by Dan Whipple ; Boulder CO (UPI) Aug 23, 2004 http://www.spacedaily.com/news/climate

  6. Seafloor off Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The seafloor off Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine ecosystems; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet)

  7. Applications of Adaptive Quantum Control to Research Questions in Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damrauer, Niels [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This award supported a broad research effort at the University of Colorado at Boulder comprising synthesis, applications of computational chemistry, development of theory, exploration of material properties, and advancement of spectroscopic tools including femtosecond pulse shaping techniques. It funded six graduate students and two postdoctoral researchers.

  8. What I Think I May Have Learned--Reflections on 50 Years of Teaching: An Interview with Michael Wertheimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Kurt D.

    2006-01-01

    Kurt Michael is an associate professor in the Department of Psychology at Appalachian State University (ASU) where he teaches history and systems of psychology, abnormal psychology, child psychopathology, and interventions for children and adolescents. He received his BA (cum laude) from the University of Colorado at Boulder and his MS and PhD in…

  9. Potential Threats to Spanish Security: Implications for the United States and NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Talleres Graficos , 1982. 104 Clark, The Basque Insurgents, p. 93. 105 Alonso, p. 70. 39 Party (PNV) was legitimiz. J and accounted for approximately...73. Alonso, Alejandro Munoz. El Terrorismo en Espana. Barcelona: Talleres Graficos , 1982. Arango, E. Ramon. Spain, From Repression to Renewal. Boulder

  10. 47 CFR 1.924 - Quiet zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the proposed operation. The notification must include the geographical coordinates of the antenna location, the antenna height, antenna directivity (if any), the channel, the emission type and power. (2... Coordinator, Department of Commerce, NOAA R/OM62, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305; telephone 303-497-6548, in...

  11. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    the NOAA /OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA, from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/ ) for 1979- 2014 into three-month blocks. The plan is to analyze...hours. The highest winds we experienced, during the nor’easter, were accompanied by snow. Salinities of ice/snow samples from antennas and cables on

  12. 77 FR 11573 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ...; they were received through police seizures or private citizens in Arapaho, Boulder, Delta, Dolores..., at minimum, two individuals were transferred to History Colorado by the Dolores County, CO, Sheriff's... Dolores County, CO. The exact origin of the remains is unknown. Osteological analysis determined that the...

  13. 75 FR 877 - Cancellation of the South Valley Facilities Expansion Project-Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Cancellation of the South Valley Facilities Expansion Project-- Clark County, NV... (NOI) to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the South Valley Facilities Expansion... Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Colorado Region, P.O. Box 61470, Boulder City, NV 89006-1470. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  14. Casa de la Esperanza: A Case Study of Service Coordination at Work in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquiz, Maria E.; Hernandez, Carlota Loya

    This chapter describes how a federally funded farmworker housing facility in northern Colorado--Casa de la Esperanza--has changed the lives of migrant students and their families. The history of migrant workers in Colorado is described, as well as the struggle to construct a permanent farmworker housing facility. Casa was built in Boulder County,…

  15. 15 CFR 265.14 - Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Signs. 265.14 Section 265.14 Commerce..., MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Traffic and Vehicular Regulations § 265.14 Signs. Every driver shall comply with all posted traffic and parking signs. ...

  16. Provenance of the Late Neogene Siwalik sandstone, Kumaun ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An understanding about lithology, tectonics and unroofing history of provenance is mostly drawn from ... history of Late Neogene Siwalik sandstone of the ...... and Tibet: Mountain Roots to Mountain Tops (eds). Macfarlane A, Sorkhabi R B and Quade (Colorado: Boulder), J. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper, pp. 239–256.

  17. Effect of dietary levels of a modified meat meal on performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... 33-34, Boulder, Colorado. Rehman H, Rosenkranz C, Bohm J, Wang MQ (2007). Dietary Inulin. Affects the Morphology but not the Sodium-Dependent Glucose and. Glutamine Transport in the Jejunum of Broilers. Poult. Sci. 86: 118-. 122. SAS Institute (1997). SAS User's guide: Statistics. Version 6.12 ed.

  18. Operation HARDTACK 2, 1958.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-03

    station at Yucca Flat and six observation stations at Tonopah, China Lake, Beatty, and Alamo, Nevada; St. George , Utah; and Shoshone, California (28...established manned microbarograph stations at the Control Point, Las Vegas, and Boulder City, Nevada; Bishop and Inyokern, California; and St. George ...ATTN: Ofr of Libraries ATTN: Documents Dept Glassboro State College Hollins College ATTN: Librarian ATTN: Librarian Gleeson Library Hoover Institution

  19. The Physics of a Simple Camera Stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 50,000 people ran and walked down the street past my home in the 33rd annual running of the 10-km Bolder Boulder footrace on the morning of Memorial Day, May 30, 2011. In addition to the serious runners, there were many individuals dressed in all manner of amusing festival costumes; some were jogging and some were walking. Early in…

  20. Analysis of Hopkinson Bar Pressure Gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    N Brand Blvd, Glendale, CA 91203. Los Alamos Technical Associates, ATTN: Mr. McKee, 5301 Central, NE, Suite 751, Albuquerque, NM 87108 Particle...Measurement Systems, ATTN: Mr. Robert Knollenberg, 1855 South 57th Court, Boulder, CO 80301 Research & Development Associates, ATTN: Dr. Kuhl, Mr. Mazzola

  1. Biografia della fisica

    CERN Document Server

    Gamow, George

    1963-01-01

    Nato a Odessa nel 1904, è morto a Boulder (Colorado) nel 1968. Dopo essersi laureato all'Università di Leningrado, nel 1928 frequentò la scuola estiva di Gottinga. Le ricerche di quel periodo gli consentirono di spegiare il fenomeno, allora misterioso, della radioattività naturale e gli esperimenti di Lord Rutherford sulla trasformazione indotta sugli elementi leggeri...

  2. 78 FR 50091 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Colorado Museum of Natural History...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... definition of sacred objects. Lineal descendants or representatives of any Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian... of Colorado Museum of Natural History, Boulder, CO that meet the definition of sacred objects under... the practice of traditional Native American religions by their present-day adherents. Pursuant to 25 U...

  3. Developing Battery Computer Aided Engineering Tools for Military Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    of Colorado at Boulder ( CUB ) to link NREL’s large format cell-level Multi-Scale Multi-Domain (MSMD) model with a new solid mechanics model developed...by CUB under subcontract. To complement the modeling study, NREL performed electrochemical characterization and aging tests on large format 8Ah

  4. 47 CFR 25.203 - Choice of sites and frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... theoretical calculations and/or actual measurements) of any special techniques, such as the use of artificial... Management Coordinator, Department of Commerce, Research Support Services, NOAA R/E5X2, Boulder Laboratories... the theoretical field strength value and existing root-sum-square or other ambient radio field signal...

  5. Unusual features caused by lightning impact in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, P.; Abrahamsen, N.; Rasmussen, T.

    2006-01-01

       Two lightning impacts are described from an area near the Inland Ice in West Greenland. The first lightning blasted an outcrop of metacherts. It subsequently split into two branches, which traversed rock outcrops and boulders, leaving behind two white almost straight lines, 30 m and 14 m long ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ryan, Peter G. Vol 80, No 1 (2009) - Articles Habitat use, distribution and breeding ecology of the globally threatened Rudd's Lark and Botha's Lark in eastern South Africa Abstract · Vol 80, No 2 (2009) - Articles The effect of flipper banding on the breeding success of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus at Boulders ...

  7. Research Techniques in Wave Propagation and Scattering. Program and Abstracts of Workshop/Symposium held at the Ohio State University on 18-21 October 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Colorado Boulder, CO 80309 F.J. Sabina Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas 04510 Mexico, D.F. Diffraction of elastic...EXPANSIONS APPLIED TO -. DIFFRACTION OF ELASTIC WAVES S.K. Vatta, Univeu,,a o6 Colouado F.J. Sabina, In6titto de Inve.tigacione. en Matematica ., Mexico 10:20

  8. Lithological and Structural Controls on the Development of Aquifer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    basement rocks). Based on ..... Quaternary sediments are quite scarce in the Tsalit–Ira River Basin and present in the areas underlain by ... thickness ranging from 2-5m with rounded gravels of 13-15cm in average grain size, with some boulders ...

  9. Educational Transformation in Upper-Division Physics: The Science Education Initiative Model, Outcomes, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Wilcox, Bethany; Caballero, Marcos D.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Pollock, Steven J.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the need for a scalable, institutionally supported model of educational change, the Science Education Initiative (SEI) was created as an experiment in transforming course materials and faculty practices at two institutions--University of Colorado Boulder (CU) and University of British Columbia. We find that this departmentally…

  10. Operational Ethics in Coalition Warfare: Whose Ethics Will Prevail? A Philosophical/Theological Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-13

    Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1996. Der Derian , James . Virtuous War. Boulder: Westview Press, 2001. Eerdman, William B. Eerdman’s...34choices freely made and the rational principle employed." 25 There are three "fathers" of Utilitarianism, Jeremy Bentham, James Mill, and his son John...26 Eerdman, p. 246-50. See also: James

  11. Fish responses to flow velocity and turbulence in relation to size, sex and parasite load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, F. A.; Wilson, C. A. M. E.; Brew, A.; Cable, J.

    2014-01-01

    Riverine fish are subjected to heterogeneous flow velocities and turbulence and may use this to their advantage by selecting regions that balance energy expenditure for station holding while maximizing energy gain through feeding opportunities. This study investigated microhabitat selection by guppies Poecilia reticulata in terms of flow characteristics generated by hemisphere boulders in an open channel flume. Velocity and turbulence influenced the variation in swimming behaviour with respect to size, sex and parasite intensity. With increasing body length, fish swam further and more frequently between boulder regions. Larger guppies spent more time in the areas of high-velocity and low-turbulence regions beside the boulders, whereas smaller guppies frequented the low-velocity and high-turbulence regions directly behind the boulders. Male guppies selected the regions of low velocity, indicating possible reduced swimming ability owing to hydrodynamic drag imposed by their fins. With increasing Gyrodactylus turnbulli burden, fish spent more time in regions with moderate velocity and lowest turbulent kinetic energy which were the most spatially and temporally homogeneous in terms of velocity and turbulence. These findings highlight the importance of heterogeneous flow conditions in river channel design owing to the behavioural variability within a species in response to velocity and turbulence. PMID:24284893

  12. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    economic deposits of gold in steep shear zones. Most of the schist belts include greywackes (with economic deposits of manganese in the Sandur belt), polymict conglomerates (with clasts of banded ferru- ginous chert, metabasalt and granite: Some of the boulders of granite in the conglomerates in the Kolar belt are up to ...

  13. Displaced Islamic Identities: Language, Time and Space in Post 9/11 America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines how women in the Muslim Student Association (MSA) at the University of Colorado at Boulder respond to the negative stereotypes of Islam and Muslims that have proliferated since 9/11. The media's positioning of Muslim women as "backwards" and "un-American" compels MSA women to construct an extensive…

  14. Using Participatory and Service Design to Identify Emerging Needs and Perceptions of Library Services among Science and Engineering Researchers Based at a Satellite Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew; Kuglitsch, Rebecca; Bresnahan, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study used participatory and service design methods to identify emerging research needs and existing perceptions of library services among science and engineering faculty, post-graduate, and graduate student researchers based at a satellite campus at the University of Colorado Boulder. These methods, and the results of the study, allowed us…

  15. Multi-year persistence of oil mousse on high energy beaches distant from the Exxon Valdez spill origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Gail V.; Mann, Daniel H.; Short, Jeffrey W.

    1999-01-01

    For at least 5 yr after the Exxon Valdez spill, relatively unweathered oil mousse has persisted on the exposed rocky shores of Shelikof Strait 500 km from Prince William Sound, Alaska. Previously it was thought that oil would be rapidly removed from such geomorphic settings by wave action. Oil mousse persists at sites in Katmai National Park and Preserve (NP&P) where it was stranded high in the intertidal zone under a lag of large boulders. These boulders armor the beach, preventing waves from disturbing the substrate and its included oil. Weathering of this stranded mousse has been slight – mousse sampled in 1989, 1992 and 1994 show negligible changes in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons compared to 11-day old Exxon Valdez crude. The preservation of this oil is due to its transport as mousse boli whose interiors largely escape weathering, followed by its sheltering in the interstices of boulder-armored beaches. The transport of mousse may allow for the long distance dispersal of less weathered, and hence still toxic oil. Our findings suggest that the low ecological sensitivity ratings previously applied to exposed, rocky shorelines need to be modified. The biological threat posed by oil stranded on the Katmai NP&P coast probably is slight because of its small amount and sequestered state. However, it still possesses the ability to be chemically toxic and could be released through disturbance of the armoring boulders by unusually high wave events.

  16. Assessing Learning Outcomes in Middle-Division Classical Mechanics: The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Marcos D.; Doughty, Leanne; Turnbull, Anna M.; Pepper, Rachel E.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable and validated assessments of introductory physics have been instrumental in driving curricular and pedagogical reforms that lead to improved student learning. As part of an effort to systematically improve our sophomore-level classical mechanics and math methods course (CM 1) at CU Boulder, we have developed a tool to assess student…

  17. 76 FR 81487 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Area Power Administration Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing... Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is... Consolidated Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for Boulder City Area Projects (Conformed Criteria...

  18. 76 FR 30147 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Area Power Administration Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing... Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is... General Consolidated Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for Boulder City Area Projects (Conformed...

  19. 15 CFR 265.41 - Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gambling. 265.41 Section 265.41..., GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.41 Gambling. No... gambling devices, the conduct of lotteries or pools, or in the selling or purchasing of numbers tickets, or...

  20. A Ludlow conodont fauna from Irian Jaya (Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, van den M.

    1990-01-01

    The conodont fauna extracted from a boulder in the Lorentz River (southern Irian Jaya) is described. Arguments are put forward that the elements of Distomodus dubius (Rhodes, 1953) sensu Jeppsson, 1972 are part of the apparatus of species of Coryssognathus Link & Druce, 1972, a genus that

  1. 15 CFR 265.34 - Conformity with posted signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conformity with posted signs. 265.34 Section 265.34 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL..., GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.34 Conformity with...

  2. Mechanisms for Breast Cancer Cell Resistance to Doxorubicin and Solutions to Resistance and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    Kimberly Maleski , Michael Coleman, Array BioPharma/CU Symposium, Boulder, CO, June 2001. - degrees Catherine Fowler, M.S. degree with thesis. - new...associate Glen Post, graduate research assistant Kimberly Malesky , graduate research assistant Elizabeth Ashley, research assistant (9) CONCLUSIONS The

  3. Geophysical investigations off Vijaydurg bay, Maharashtra, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Ramana, M.V.

    and boulders (murrum and sand), altered traps and trap basement. Presence of some faults and intrusions along the reported weak planes, oriented in N-S,NNE and NW-SE has been established on the basis of seismic and magnetic investigations....

  4. Keep Writing Weird: A Call for Eco-Administration and Engaged Writing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Influenced by ecological theories of writing, the author proposes a new model for writing curriculum design and community-based projects. The article provides a project of the Writing Initiative for Service and Engagement at the University of Colorado Boulder as an example of programmatic engagement with a community issue using an ecological…

  5. Soft matter's charismatic pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Tom

    2012-11-01

    This summer I took a break from lecturing at a graduate training school in Boulder, Colorado, to attend a talk by the soft-condensed-matter physicist David Weitz. His lecture was about colloids, and in the middle of it, he began to reminisce about the field's early days.

  6. The geomorphic effect of recent storms - Quantifying meso scale abrasion across a shore platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Niamh; Bourke, Mary; Naylor, Larissa

    2017-04-01

    Boulder abrasion trails (BATs) are lineations on the surface of rock platforms formed by the movement of traction-load clasts by waves. They have been observed on a variety of platform lithologies, including limestone, granite and basalt. Despite previous reporting of these features, the abrasion styles and geomorphic work done by boulder transport has not been quantified. We present the first quantitative measurement of shore platform erosion by boulder transport during extreme storms that occurred in the winter of 2015-2016. Following two storm events in 2016 we mapped and measured 33 individual BATs on a sandstone platform on the west coast of Ireland. The total (minimum) abraded surface area was 10m2. The total (minimum) volume of material abraded was 0.2m3. In order to test the efficacy of this process during non-storm conditions we conducted field experiments on the same platform. We identified two sites on the platform that were similar, but differed in their intertidal roughness. We installed an RBR solo wave pressure transducer (PT) at 0m OD at both locations to record wave data. We measured platform roughness, determined as the fractal dimension of the platform profiles at both sites. We deployed an array of boulders of known dimensions and mass, parallel to the shoreline at 0.5m intervals from the PTs. The experiments were conducted 1. during relatively calm conditions and 2. during higher energy conditions. Data was collected for one tidal cycle. Any boulder displacement distance and direction was measured and geomorphic effects were documented. We find that BATs are formed under a range of wave energy conditions. Our observations indicate that along the North Atlantic coastline, BATs can occur at a high frequency, only limited by sediment supply. Our data show that abrasion by boulder transport is a potentially significant geomorphological process acting to abrade platforms under contemporary climate conditions. In addition, our preliminary findings

  7. Patterns of megaclasts along the coast of Eastern Samar (Philippines) - Implications for Holocene extreme-wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; Boesl, Fabian; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Galang, Jam Albert; Gonzalo, Lia Anne; Llanes, Francesca; Quix, Eva; Schroeder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Frank, Norbert; Mahar Lagmay, Alfredo; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Visayas region in the Philippines is hit by some of the most violent tropical cyclones on Earth on a regular basis, exemplified by Typhoon Haiyan, 7-9 November 2013, and a number of other category 4 and 5 events during the last decades. Moreover, strong earthquakes along the Philippine Trench have triggered several tsunamis in the historical past. Coastal flooding through extreme waves associated with these events represents a significant hazard for communities along the eastern coasts of Samar. However, not much is known about frequency-magnitude relationships of coastal flooding events and the maximum magnitude on centennial and millennial scales, which can be derived from geological traces and which have to be considered in a coastal hazard management process. We investigated a large boulder field in Eastern Samar distributed over an elevated, intertidal palaeo-reef platform in order to understand mechanisms of boulder transport and to derive implications for the maximum spatial extent, height, and velocity of coastal flooding. In the field, we recorded location, shape, morphological features as well as length and orientation of the main axes of more than 250 boulders, the a-axes of which were between 1.5 and 10.7 m. Eight samples were taken for Th/U dating of post-depositional, secondary calcite flowstones and pre-depostional coral, and four samples were taken for radiocarbon dating of pre-depositional, sessil organisms attached to the boulders. We 3D-mapped the most important parts of the boulder field using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and created structure-from-motion (SfM) models of the most prominent boulders, which will be used for inverse modelling of transport flows. Samples of the most common coralline lithofacies were taken for density estimations. We used interviews with elders of the local community as well as multi-temporal analysis of satellite images to reconstruct recent flooding patterns and boulder movement during recent events

  8. Geosites of Lithuania as an environment for dwelling of specific biota: geo- and biodiversity interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga; Jukoniene, Ilona; Prigodina Lukosiene, Ingrida

    2016-04-01

    Surface of Lithuania and surrounding countries is sculptured by five glaciations, which left behind morainic tills and melt water deposits, modified by erosion and later used for agriculture or overgrown by wild meadows or forests. The glaciations also left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields that are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and surrounding countries. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Though sparse, but of high scientific value, Devonian, Permian, Triassic and Jurassic outcrops and quarries of Lithuania are variably protected. Quaternary scientists attempted to use single erratic boulders, their fields and abundances in tills to imply glacier dynamics. Some erratics came from known localities in Scandinavia and are called indicator boulders because they show the source and directions of ice sheet movements. Huge single boulders (e.g. 7 m long and 6 m high Puntukas, Anyksciai Regional Park) and wild boulder fields are natural monuments and attractive sites for visitors. Outcrops and quarries of Devonian dolomites and gypsium, Permian limestones and Jurassic sandstones widely used for a scientific research are parts of the protected geo-diversity in the Venta and Birzai regional parks, N and NW Lithuania. On the other hand, a large part of the c. 700 species of lichenized and allied fungi and of c. 500 bryophytes known in Lithuania are confined to natural or semi-natural (quarries) rocky habitats. Eight rock-dwelling lichen and nine bryophyte species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them are known from 1-2 localities or are thought to be extinct now. Besides, the recent investigations of dolomite quarries revealed them to be habitats for 7 bryophyte, 8 lichenized and lichenicolous species, previously unknown for Lithuania. One new lichenicolous species was discovered (Khodosovtsev et al., 2012). Some of the newfinds are rare or absent

  9. Tracing Landscape Evolution of the Sila Massif using 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Gerald; Ruppli, Annina; Brandová, Dagmar; Scarciglia, Fabio; Norton, Kevin; Christl, Marcus; Egli, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Erosion distinctly shapes earth's surface and therefore influences landscape and, in particular, also soils. The evolution of landscapes and soils are known to evolve in discontinuous ways over thousands of years. Several studies have tried to compare erosion rates over different time periods, thereby trying to derive a chronology of process rates. These studies, however, often had a catchment-wide approach and, thus, basically lack in a distinction of soil erosion from erosion as a general landscape process. To decipher soil erosion rates over millennia time-scales, new approaches are therefore needed. Landscapes affected by intense erosion and denudation may be characterised by boulder fields or "tor" landforms, i.e. tower-like or dome-shaped, often castellated, residual rock boulders (resistant to erosion) "growing" from gentle landforms. Determining the speed of boulder exhumation, soil erosion rates over different time periods can be deduced. The Sila Massif upland plateau in Calabria (Italy) exhibits boulder fields that seemed to be exhumed over time. 10Be-dating along vertical profiles of such granitic boulders was now used as a new approach to unravel long-term erosional phases and to reconstruct the lowering of the surface. The results cover a time span of the last 140 ka and revealed several phases of their exhumation. The different trends could be connected to specific climate conditions, yet a major tectonic influence could be excluded, as the main uplift ended about 400 ka ago. This new approach provides a new insight into soil erosion and denudation rates during the Pleistocene and Holocene.

  10. Spatial evaluation of extreme wave deposits at Boca Olivia, Bonaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, S. G.; Jaffe, B. E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Richmond, B. M.; Morton, R. A.; Hatcher, G.

    2007-12-01

    A field mapping survey was conducted in early November, 2006, on the east coast of Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles, to help assess the potential risk of extreme wave events such as tsunamis and hurricanes in the Caribbean. The purpose of the survey was to determine the extent, spatial distribution, and origin of a sedimentary deposit occurring along the shoreline near Boca Olivia that ranges in size from sand to boulder. The deposit, which rests on an older Pleistocene reef platform now 4 to 7 m above present sea level, is presumed to have been formed by one or multiple extreme wave events over time. Approximately 600 boulders were measured in the deposit and georeferenced using GPS and high-resolution aerial photographs collected using a specially designed kite and digital camera system. In addition, topographic profile transects and geologic field observations were recorded. Boulders were mapped over nearly 5 km of coastline with most measurements concentrated along roughly 500 m in the Boca Olivia area. Boulders were observed up to 250 m inland from the shoreline and ranged in volume from 0.01 m3 to 74 m3. Approximately 80% of the boulders measured were smaller than 1.0 m3. The extent and spatial distribution of the deposit is being investigated to determine what type of extreme wave event or combination of events formed and modified the deposit over time. Mapping and analyzing spatial distributions of sedimentary deposits formed by past extreme wave events will help develop a greater understanding of the potential tsunami risk for the Caribbean and other parts of the world.

  11. Modeling of U-series Radionuclide Transport Through Soil at Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekar, K. E.; Goodell, P. C.; Walton, J. C.; Anthony, E. Y.; Ren, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located at Pena Blanca in Chihuahua, Mexico. Mining of high-grade uranium ore occurred in the early 1980s, with the ore stockpiled nearby. The stockpile was mostly cleared in the 1990s; however, some of the high-grade boulders have remained there, creating localized sources of radioactivity for a period of 25-30 years. This provides a unique opportunity to study radionuclide transport, because the study area did not have any uranium contamination predating the stockpile in the 1980s. One high-grade boulder was selected for study based upon its shape, location, and high activity. The presumed drip-line off of the boulder was marked, samples from the boulder surface were taken, and then the boulder was moved several feet away. Soil samples were taken from directly beneath the boulder, around the drip-line, and down slope. Eight of these samples were collected in a vertical profile directly beneath the boulder. Visible flakes of boulder material were removed from the surficial soil samples, because they would have higher concentrations of U-series radionuclides and cause the activities in the soil samples to be excessively high. The vertical sampling profile used 2-inch thicknesses for each sample. The soil samples were packaged into thin plastic containers to minimize the attenuation and to standardize sample geometry, and then they were analyzed by gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Ge(Li) detector for Th-234, Pa-234, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pb-210. The raw counts were corrected for self-attenuation and normalized using BL-5, a uranium standard from Beaverlodge, Saskatchewan. BL-5 allowed the counts obtained on the Ge(Li) to be referenced to a known concentration or activity, which was then applied to the soil unknowns for a reliable calculation of their concentrations. Gamma ray spectra of five soil samples from the vertical profile exhibit decreasing activities with increasing depth for the selected radionuclides

  12. Styles of early diagenesis and the preservation potential of onshore tsunami deposits-A re-survey of Isla Mocha, Central Chile, 2 years after the February 27, 2010, Maule tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlburg, Heinrich; Spiske, Michaela

    2015-08-01

    The style of early diagenesis and preservation of onshore tsunami deposits are poorly constrained. Only tsunami surveys and subsequent re-surveys can fill this information gap. Here we present the results of a first re-survey in 2012 on Isla Mocha following the original survey in 2010 in the wake of the February 27, 2010, Maule earthquake and tsunami in central Chile. As a result of this tsunami, a large number of boulders consisting of clay-rich fine sandstones representing the Miocene age bedrock of the island had been transferred from the tidal to shallow subtidal zone onto the coastal plain. Coarse clastic sediment mixtures of pebbles, granules, and sand entrained at coastal plain terraces and transported up to the maximum runup position c. 600 m from the coast by the inflow had been left behind as extensive backflow blankets on the lower coastal plain. In 2012, vegetation had covered the 2010 tsunami deposits. Sediment beyond 200 m from the coast had been removed by a combination of surface processes and grazing cattle. Grain-size distributions of the preserved sediment show an increase of the sand fraction at the expense of the coarser grain sizes. Boulders show patterns resembling mud cracks on the surface and evidence of disintegration into smaller fragments and sand. Veneers of dried algae documenting the derivation of the boulders from the tidal zones had flaked off partly or completely from most rock surfaces. At the northern, wind-facing coast of the island, a c. 130 m long and 1.2 m high beach ridge had accumulated, most likely from reworked tsunami sediment. Boulders deposited by tsunamis are commonly assigned a high preservation potential. We demonstrate for the first time that such boulders may in fact disintegrate rapidly and disappear from the record over short geological time scales, given a lithology susceptible to weathering. The degree of modification to the lsla Mocha tsunami boulders and deposits strongly questions the applicability of

  13. Spatial Mapping of NEO 2008 EV5 Using Small Satellite Formation Flying and Steresoscopic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan; Singh Derewa, Chrishma

    2016-10-01

    NASA is currently developing the first-ever robotic Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) to the near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 with the objective to capture a multi-ton boulder from the asteroids surface and use its mass to redirect its parent into a CIS lunar orbit where astronauts will study its physical and chemical composition.A critical step towards achieving this mission is to effectively map the target asteroid, identify the candidate boulder for retrieval and characterize its critical parameters. Currently, ARRM utilizes a laser altimeter to characterize the height of the boulders and mapping for final autonomous control of the capture. The proposed Lava-Kusha mission provides the increased of stereoscopic imaging and mapping, not only the Earthward side of the asteroid which has been observed for possible landing sites, but mapping the whole asteroid. LKM will enhance the fidelity of the data collected by the laser altimeter and gather improved topographic data for future Orion missions to 2008 EV5 once in cis lunar space.LKM consists of two low cost small satellites (6U) as a part of the ARRM. They will launch with ARRM as an integrated part of the system. Once at the target, this formation of pathfinder satellites will image the mission critical boulder to ensure the system design can support its removal. LKM will conduct a series of flybys prior to ARRM's rendezvous. LKMs stereoscopic cameras will provide detailed surveys of the boulder's terrain and environment to ensure ARRM can operate safely, reach the location and interface with the boulder. The LKM attitude control and cold gas propulsion system will enable formation maintenance maneuvers for global mapping of asteroid 2008 EV5 at an altitude of 100 km to a high-spatial resolution imaging altitude of 5 km.LKM will demonstrate formation flying in deep space and the reliability of stereoscopic cameras to precisely identify a specific target and provide physical characterization of an asteroid. An

  14. Late Quaternary glaciation history of northernmost Greenland - Evidence of shelf-based ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Kjær, Kurt H; Funder, Svend

    2010-01-01

    -flow along the coastal plain. Volcanic erratic boulders document ice-transport from 80 to 100 km west of the study area. We argue that these findings are best explained by local outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet and local ice caps that merged to form a shelf-based ice in the Arctic Ocean......We present the mapping of glacial landforms and sediments from northernmost Greenland bordering 100 km of the Arctic Ocean coast. One of the most important discoveries is that glacial landforms, sediments, including till fabric measurements, striae and stoss-lee boulders suggest eastward ice...... and possibly confirming an extensive ice shelf in the Lincoln Sea between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. It is speculated that the shelf-based ice was largely affected by the presence of thick multiyear sea ice in the Arctic Ocean that prevented it from breaking up and forced the outlet glaciers to flow...

  15. Assessing learning outcomes in middle-division classical mechanics: The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D. Caballero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and validated assessments of introductory physics have been instrumental in driving curricular and pedagogical reforms that lead to improved student learning. As part of an effort to systematically improve our sophomore-level classical mechanics and math methods course (CM 1 at CU Boulder, we have developed a tool to assess student learning of CM 1 concepts in the upper division. The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument (CCMI builds on faculty consensus learning goals and systematic observations of student difficulties. The result is a 9-question open-ended post test that probes student learning in the first half of a two-semester classical mechanics and math methods sequence. In this paper, we describe the design and development of this instrument, its validation, and measurements made in classes at CU Boulder and elsewhere.

  16. Special Education Students Improve Academic Performance through Problem-Based Learning and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Kintsch, A.

    2003-12-01

    Boulder High School Special Education students work in teams on donated wireless computers to solve problems created by global climate change. Their text is Richard Somerville's The Forgiving Air. They utilize Wheeling Jesuit University's remote sensing web site and private computer bulletin board. Their central source for problem-based learning (PBL) is www.cotf.edu, NASA's Classroom of the Future Global Change web site. As a result, students not only improve their abilities to write, read, do math and research, speak, and work as team members, they also improve self-esteem, resilience, and willingness to take more challenging classes. Two special education students passed AP exams, Calculus and U.S. Government, last spring and Jay Matthews of Newsweek rates Boulder High as 201st of the nation's top 1000 high schools.

  17. 3rd Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Louie, Berverly; McCarthy, Sandy

    1985-01-01

    Cryocoolers 3 documents the output of the Third Cryocooler Conference, held at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado, on September 17-18, 1984. About 140 people from 10 countries attended the conference representing industry, government, and academia. A total of 26 papers were presented orally at the conference and all appear in written form in the proceedings. The focus of this conference was on small cryocoolers in the temperature range of 4 - 80 K. Mechanical and nonmechanical types are discussed in the various papers. Applications of these small cryocoolers include the cooling of infrared detectors, cryopumps, small superconducting devices and magnets, and electronic devices. The conference proceedings reproduced here was published by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado as NBS Special Publication #698.

  18. Digital Collections Are a Sprint, Not a Marathon: Adapting Scrum Project Management Techniques to Library Digital Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dulock

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a case study in which a small team from the digital initiatives group and metadata services department at the University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder Libraries conducted a pilot of the Scrum project management framework. The pilot team organized digital initiatives work into short, fixed intervals called sprints—a key component of Scrum. Over a year of working in the modified framework yielded significant improvements to digital collection work, including increased production of digital objects and surrogate records, accelerated publication of digital collections, and an increase in the number of concurrent projects. Adoption of sprints has improved communication and cooperation among participants, reinforced teamwork, and enhanced their ability to adapt to shifting priorities.

  19. Sensitivity of the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) to Launch Date and Asteroid Stay Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura M.; McCarty, Steven L.; Strange, Nathan J.; Qu, Min; Shen, Haijun; Vavrina, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASAs) proposed Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is being designed to robotically capture and then redirect an asteroidal boulder mass into a stable orbit in the vicinity of the moon, where astronauts would be able to visit and study it. The current reference trajectory for the robotic portion, ARRM, assumes a launch on a Delta IV H in the end of the calendar year 2021, with a return for astronaut operations in cislunar space in 2026. The current baseline design allocates 245 days of stay time at the asteroid for operations and boulder collection. This paper outlines analysis completed by the ARRM mission design team to understand the sensitivity of the reference trajectory to launch date and asteroid stay time.

  20. Studies of lunar regolith dynamics using measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides in lunar rocks, soils and cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, J. S.; Reeves, J. H.; Evans, J. C.; Perkins, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with two types of measurements. The first deals with the use of Al-26 to define regolith gardening processes which have occurred in the upper portion of the lunar cores that were collected both by the deep drilling and drive tube operations. The second portion of the study involves the use of Mn-53 and Al-26 concentrations to determine the surface exposure histories of individual rocks over the past ten million years. It is found that during the past two million years, 15011 has had a history of simple gardening with an accumulation rate of 2 cm/m.y. The Apollo 15 Station 2 boulder appears to have been in place for about five million years. The 'shadowed' soil (75237) shows a shielding effect of about 40%. The Apollo 16 Station 9 boulder appears to have been in place for about four million years and thus is apparently not related to the South Ray Crater event.

  1. The Process of Transforming an Advanced Lab Course: Goals, Curriculum, and Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Zwickl, Benjamin M; Lewandowski, H J

    2012-01-01

    A thoughtful approach to designing and improving labs, particularly at the advanced level, is critical for the effective preparation of physics majors for professional work in industry or graduate school. With that in mind, physics education researchers in partnership with the physics faculty at the University of Colorado Boulder have overhauled the senior-level Advanced Physics Lab course. The transformation followed a three part process of establishing learning goals, designing curricula that align with the goals, and assessment. Similar efforts have been carried out in physics lecture courses at the University of Colorado Boulder, but this is the first systematic research-based revision of one of our laboratory courses. The outcomes of this effort include a set of learning goals, a suite of new lab-skill activities and transformed optics labs, and a set of assessments specifically tailored for a laboratory environment. While the particular selection of advanced lab experiments varies widely between institu...

  2. Conference on Refrigeration for Cryogenic Sensors and Electronic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, D B; McCarthy, S E; Cryogenic Refrigeration Conference; International Cryocooler Conference; Cryocoolers 1

    1981-01-01

    This proceedings documents the output of a meeting of refrigeration specialists held at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, CO, on October 6 and 7, 1980. Building on an earlier invitation-only meeting in 1977, the purpose of this first open meeting was to discuss progress in the development of refrigeration systems to cool cryogenic sensors and electronic systems in the temperature range below 20 K and with required cooling capacities below 10 W. The meeting was jointly sponsored by the International Institute of Refrigeration - Commission A1/2, the Office of Naval Research, the Naval Research Laboratory, the Cryogenic Engineering Conference, and the National Bureau of Standards. This first open cryocooler conference consisted of 23 papers presented by representatives of industry, government, and academia. The conference proceedings reproduced here was published by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado as NBS Special Publication #607. Subsequent meetings would become known as the Intern...

  3. Absolute-Gravity Workshop planned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Roger; Sasagawa, Glenn

    The new FG5 absolute gravimeter has a design goal accuracy of 1 μGal and represents the most recent of a series of gravimeters inspired by advances in gravimeter design by J. Faller at the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA) in Boulder, Colo. A 2-day workshop will be held in Boulder from March 22 to 23 to discuss current and future applications of absolute gravity (g). Details of the workshop appear at the end of this article. The instrument is based on the principle of interferometrically measuring the time and position of a weight falling in a vacuum, using a stabilized laser and an atomic clock [cf. Cook, 1967; Faller, 1963; Hammond, 1970; Zumberge, 1981; Niebauer, 1986].

  4. Simulation of rockfalls triggered by earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Harp, E.L.; Kagawa, T.

    1990-01-01

    A computer program to simulate the downslope movement of boulders in rolling or bouncing modes has been developed and applied to actual rockfalls triggered by the Mammoth Lakes, California, earthquake sequence in 1980 and the Central Idaho earthquake in 1983. In order to reproduce a movement mode where bouncing predominated, we introduced an artificial unevenness to the slope surface by adding a small random number to the interpolated value of the mid-points between the adjacent surveyed points. Three hundred simulations were computed for each site by changing the random number series, which determined distances and bouncing intervals. The movement of the boulders was, in general, rather erratic depending on the random numbers employed, and the results could not be seen as deterministic but stochastic. The closest agreement between calculated and actual movements was obtained at the site with the most detailed and accurate topographic measurements. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  5. THE PROBLEMS OF IDENTIFICATION OF THE NEO-PLEISTOCENE GLACIAL MEGA-FLOOD DEPOSITS IN THE ALTAI MOUNTAINS REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Zol’nikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Similarities and differences of glacial megaflood deposits and deposits of other genetic types of Gorny Altai are considered in the paper. Diluvial sedimentary complex includes (from bottom to top: debris flow facies of boulder-pebbles with giant boulders; floodplain facies of parallel laminated sands and gruss, fluvial cross-bedded pebbles facies, suspension facies of sands and silts; mud flow facies, facies secondary-dammed lake is thin parallel-laminated silts and sands. The deposits of different genetic types may appear similar in facies, textural and structural characteristics, but the geological structure and sedimentary facies architecture of the sediment complexes of various origins (the number of co-observed lithotypes and geologic nature of their relationship have a specific and recognizable.

  6. Early lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A new method (Shaw, 1974) for investigating paleointensity (the ancient magnetic field) was applied to three subsamples of a single, 1-m homogeneous clast from a recrystallized boulder of lunar breccia. Several dating methods established 4 billion years as the age of boulder assembly. Results indicate that the strength of the ambient magnetic field at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon was about 0.4 oersted at 4 billion years ago. Values as high as 1.2 oersted have been reported (Collison et al., 1973). The required fields are approximately 10,000 times greater than present interplanetary or solar flare fields. It is suggested that this large field could have arisen from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri sun.

  7. Analysis of Shield Construction in Spherical Weathered Granite Development Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Quan; Li, Peigang; Gong, Shuhua

    2018-01-01

    The distribution of spherical weathered bodies (commonly known as "boulder") in the granite development area directly affects the shield construction of urban rail transit engineering. This paper is based on the case of shield construction of granite globular development area in Southern China area, the parameter control in shield machine selection and shield advancing during the shield tunneling in this special geological environment is analyzed. And it is suggested that shield machine should be selected for shield construction of granite spherical weathered zone. Driving speed, cutter torque, shield machine thrust, the amount of penetration and the speed of the cutter head of shield machine should be controlled when driving the boulder formation, in order to achieve smooth excavation and reduce the disturbance to the formation.

  8. A City for All Citizens: Integrating Children and Youth from Marginalized Populations into City Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Van Vliet

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Socially just, intergenerational urban spaces should not only accommodate children and adolescents, but engage them as participants in the planning and design of welcoming spaces. With this goal, city agencies in Boulder, Colorado, the Boulder Valley School District, the Children, Youth and Environments Center at the University of Colorado, and a number of community organizations have been working in partnership to integrate young people’s ideas and concerns into the redesign of parks and civic areas and the identification of issues for city planning. Underlying their work is a commitment to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and children’s rights to active citizenship from a young age. This paper describes approaches used to engage with young people and methods of participation, and reflects on lessons learned about how to most effectively involve youth from underrepresented populations and embed diverse youth voices into the culture of city planning.

  9. Age of overwash and rate of relative sea-level rise inferred from detrital heads and microatolls of medieval corals at Anegada, British Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer, W.; Feuillet, N.; Robert, H.; Brian, A.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Deschamps, P.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.; Fuentes, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Coral boulders deposited on Anegada, an island 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench, record overwash dated to AD 1200-1450 and relative sea-level changes that preceded it. Composed largely of Pleistocene limestone, Anegada is less than 8 m above sea level and is fringed on the north and east by a coral reef where Atlantic Ocean waves break. The lowest parts of the island were washed over from the north in AD 1650-1800, as judged from landforms and deposits reported previously (doi:10.1007/s11069-010-9622-6). The coral boulders indicate overwash of higher elevation and earlier age. The boulders were apparently torn from the adjacent reef by a tsunami of nearby origin, as inferred in companion abstracts on geology and modeling. We found the corals scattered in five areas inland from the north shore. Two of the areas show solitary coral heads 1500 m from the reef. The boulders are more numerous in the three other areas, where they are up to 500-700 m from the reef and up to 4 m above sea level. Some were transported over beach ridges or through breaches cut into them. Others are hundreds of meters inland from a modern storm berm. Most rest on the Pleistocene limestone. Many are overturned. Most are broken but few are whole. The largest measured diameter is 2 m and the greatest measured height is 1 m. Most of the boulders are of the brain coral Diploria strigosa, but smaller Porites asteroides and Montastrea annularis are also present. Some of the D. strigosa retain the rounded shape typical of living heads and are dimpled with holes perhaps left by feather-duster worms. The preservation of these features suggests that many of the boulders came ashore alive. We avoided dating a head that shows field evidence for death before transport; an erosional surface cuts across its youngest growth bands and is covered with the remains of encrusting marine organisms. Among the 18 coral boulders dated, 13 form a young group with ages in the range 890±25 to 1020±25 14C yr BP

  10. Multiple dating approach (14C, U/Th and 36Cl) of tsunami-transported reef-top megaclasts on Bonaire (Leeward Antilles) - potential and current limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixhon, Gilles; May, Simon Matthias; Engel, Max; Mechernich, Silke; Keulertz, Rebecca; Schroeder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Fohlmeister, Jens; Frank, Norbert; Dunai, Tibor; Brueckner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Coastal hazard assessment depends on reliable information on the magnitude and frequency of past high-energy wave events (EWE: tsunamis, storms). For this purpose onshore sedimentary records represent promising geo-archives for the mid- and late-Holocene EWE history. In comparison to fine-grained sediments which have been extensively studied in the recent past, supralittoral megaclasts are less investigated, essentially due to the difficulties related to the dating of corresponding depositional events, and thus their limited value for inferring the timing of major events. On Bonaire (Leeward Antilles, Caribbean), supratidal coarse-clast deposits form prominent landforms all around the island. Fields of large boulders (up to 150 t) are among the best-studied reef-top megaclasts worldwide. Transport by Holocene tsunamis is assumed at least for the largest boulders (Engel and May, 2012). Although a large dataset of 14C and electron spin resonance (ESR) ages is available for major coral rubble ridges and ramparts, showing some age clusters during the Late Holocene, it is still debated whether these data reflect the timing of major depositional/transport event(s), and how these data sets are biased by reworking of coral fragments. In addition, different processes may be responsible for the deposition of the coral rubble ridges and ramparts (storm) and the solitary megaclasts (tsunami). As an attempt to overcome the current challenges for dating the dislocation of the megaclasts, three distinct dating methods were implemented: (i) 14C dating of boring bivalves (Lithophaga) attached to the boulders; (ii) uranium-series (U/Th) dating of post-depositional, secondary calcitic flowstone at the underside of the boulders; and (iii) surface exposure dating of overturned boulders via 36Cl concentration measurements in corals. The three 14C datings yield age estimates >37 ka, i.e. most probably beyond the applicability of the method, which sheds doubt on the usefulness of this

  11. Operational Art in Theory and War: A Comparison of Soviet Theory and the Red Army’s Conduct in Operation BAGRATION 1944

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    Harriet Fast Scott and William F. Scott, eds. The Soviet Art of War: Doctrine, Strategy, and Tactics (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1982), 24. 10...Harrison, Richard W. The Russian Way of War: Operational Art, 1904-1940. USA: University Press of Kansas, 2001. 33 Kipp, Jacob W. Mass, Mobility...States Air Force. Washington DC: United States Air Force, 1972. Scott, Harriet Fast, and William F. Scott. The Soviet Art of War: Doctrine

  12. Soviet Airlift Doctrine & Capabilities -- An Outsider’s View in 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-02

    p. 6. 4. Soviet Military Encvclooedia, Moscow: Military Publishing House, 1984, p. 240. 5. Ibid., p. 240. 9 6. Harriet F. Scott and William F. Scott...Review, 3 July 1981, p. 24. 2. Harriet F. Scott and William F. Scott, The Armed Forces of the USSR, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1982, p. 159. 3...Press, 1953, p. 351. 2. Jacob W. Kipp and Kurt S. Schultz, Historical analysis of the Use of Mobile Forces by Russia and the USSR, Texas: Center for

  13. The Evolution of Russian Offensive Air Warfare Theory: From Deep Battle to Aerospace War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Fundamentals of Air Force Employment" in The Soviet Art of War: Doctrine, Strategy and Tactics, Harriet Fast Scott and William F. Scott (ed.) (Boulder, Co...Strategy and Tactics Harriet Fast Scott and William F. Scott (ed.) ,66 5 Ibid., 66 17 destruction of the enemy air force, destruction and delaying of enemy...of victory through the independent use of airpower was " 3Dr Jacob Kipp, "Soviet Tactical Aviation in the Post-War Period," Airpower lournal Spring

  14. Proceedings of the Symposium of the COSPAR Satellite Beacon Group on the Geophysical Use of Satellite Beacon Observations Held at Boston University on 1- 4 June 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-04

    dato Figure 2 if strates a sustained SITEC where AN 4.7 x I0i s electrons m -2 at 2141.8 Ut and AN 6.7 x 101 5 m- 2 T2MAX for a radial path. AIn...the Instituto Geofisico del Peru), we have received some ATS-6 data from Ancon, from Boulder (recorded by our NOAA colleagues), and from Ootacomund

  15. Experimental Comprehensive Solar Flare Indices for Major and Certain Lesser Flares 1975-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    A AI’IM’MJIX Dt "i.i :>:,I:I< I;VI,; FDK \\’iV,-\\,il’i l< oru Inufctlj DATO T1MK (UT) OK FLARK OR EVENT M79 1707-1750 18 j 2156-2243...Balsley, NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, Boulder, CO, and Ronald F. Woodman, Jicamarca Radar Observatory, Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Lima, Peru

  16. Singapore’s Declining Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    when it comes to population control . When population growth threatened to overwhelm the new country, it took direct measures to combat the problem...Southeast Asian Studies, 1994. Neher, Clark D. Southeast Asia in the New International Era. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2002. Population in Brief...policy/docs/progdesc/ssptw/2006- 2007/ asia /singapore.html World Population Ageing, 2009. United Nations. New York, NY: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2009.

  17. Surficial geology and distribution of post-impoundment sediment of the western part of Lake Mead based on a sidescan sonar and high-resolution seismic-reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, David C.; Cross, VeeAnn A.; Rudin, Mark J.; Parolski, Kenneth F.

    1999-01-01

    Sidescan sonar imagery and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles were collected in Las Vegas Bay and Boulder Basin of Lake Mead to determine the surficial geology as well as the distribution and thickness of sediment that has accumulated in these areas of the lake since the completion of Hoover Dam in 1935 (Gould, 1951). Results indicate that the accumulation of post-impoundment sediment is restricted to the original Colorado River bed which runs down the axis of Boulder Basin from Boulder Canyon to Hoover Dam, and the old Las Vegas Creek bed that bisects Las Vegas Bay. The sediment cover along the original Colorado River bed is continuous and is typically greater than 10-m thick throughout much of its length with the thickness in some areas exceeding 35 meters. The flat-lying nature of the deposits suggests that they are the result of turbidity currents that flow the length of the lake. The sediment cover in Las Vegas Bay is much thinner (rarely exceeding 2 m in thickness) and more discontinuous. The source for these sediments presumably is Las Vegas Wash and a series of other ephemeral washes that empty into this part of the lake. The presence of sediments along the entire length of the Las Vegas Creek bed suggests that turbidity currents probably are active here as well, and that sediment has been transported from these streams at least 10 km down the axis of this valley to where it enters Boulder Basin. Alluvial deposits and rock outcrops are still exposed on large parts of the lake floor.

  18. Development and Tuning of a 3-D Stochastic Inversion Methodology for the European Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    west of the (most likely) Late Triassic-Early Jurassic Novaya Zemlya Fold Belt. The nature of the underlying crystalline crust and upper mantle in...10 and 150 s period were combined with existing data provided by the University of Colorado at Boulder. This new data set was inverted for maps...showing the 2D group-velocity distribution of Love and Rayleigh waves for specific periods . Using a Monte Carlo inversion technique (Shapiro and

  19. Virtual Machine Language Controls Remote Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center worked with Blue Sun Enterprises, based in Boulder, Colorado, to enhance the company's virtual machine language (VML) to control the instruments on the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatiles Extraction mission. Now the NASA-improved VML is available for crewed and uncrewed spacecraft, and has potential applications on remote systems such as weather balloons, unmanned aerial vehicles, and submarines.

  20. Defining the Role and Responsibility of the Fire Service Within Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Press. Kouzes , J. M. and Posner , B. Z. (1995). The leadership challenge . Boulder CO: Jossey- Bass Publishers. London Fire Brigade. (2008). Risk...success. The tasks include: challenge the process, inspire a shared vision, enable others to act, model the way and encourage the heart ( Kouzes ... Posner , 1995, p. 12). Leaders must challenge the process by moving the fire service beyond the status quo to a level of proactive strategic performance

  1. Post-Conflict Realities and the Future of Stability in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    International Labor Organization.”290 Given the low oil prices and economic slowdown in the Middle East, the future of migrant labor in the region...grievances, radicalization, lack of reforms, potential for future instability 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 117 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT...status and 71 Maya Chadda, Building Democracy in South Asia: India, Nepal, Pakistan (Boulder, CO: Lynne

  2. Radar Cross-Section (RCS) Measurements of a Dismount With Rocket-Propelled Grenade (RPG) Launcher at Ka-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    IE- TD F JENIA FT HUACHUCA AZ 85613-5300 US ARMY NATL GROUND INTLLGNC CTR ATTN IANG-CE-FM/MS404 W NIXON 2055 BOULDERS RD CHARLOTTESVILLE VA...TECHL PUB (2 COPIES) ATTN AMSRD-ARL-CI-OK-TL TECHL LIB (2 COPIES) ATTN AMSRD-ARL-SE-RM E ADLER ATTN IMNE-ALC-IMS MAIL & RECORDS MGMT ATTN AMSRD-AAR- AEP -F C VON DER LIPPE ADELPHI MD 20783-1197

  3. Leadex Data Report. Part 3. Aircraft Data and Flight Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Technical Memorandum EPL CMDL - 5 ANALYSIS OF METEOROWGICAL CONDITIONS DURING AGASP-IV: MARCH 30 - APRIL 23,1992 G. A. Herbert Climate Monitoring and...UTC. 49 This page intentionally left blank 50 . Extracted from: NOAA Techukal Memomudum ERL CMDL (To be migned) THE ANALYSIS OF HAZE DISTRIBUTIOG... CMDL E19200 FISH HAWK LAKE RD 325 BROADWAY WATERSMEET MI 49969 BOULDER CO 80303-3328 301 TRACY HAACK DR ROBERT SCHUCHMAN NRL CODE 7533 ERIM BOX 8618

  4. Special Operations Doctrine: Is it Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-07

    boulder, with a bead of sweat running down the side of his head, one special forces soldier sipped coffee from his thermos as he reflected on a...under Taliban influence. In his final sip of coffee before descending down the mountain, the U.S. special forces soldier wondered, how do we avoid... Anthony Blinken in a July 5, 2016 interview indicated that ISIL’s indiscriminate terror attacks are actually a measure of success for the United

  5. Ohio State University Symposium (45th) on Molecular Spectroscopy Held in Columbus, Ohio on 11-15 Jun 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-15

    Colorado, 80303; J. ORTIGOSO, R. ESCRIBANO, Instituto de Estructura de al Materia, Consejo Superior a~. Investigacionos Cientificas, Serrano 119, 28006...Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO 80303. Address of Ortigoso and Escribano: Instituto de Estructura de al Materia, Consejo Superior de investigaciones...8217 assignment of the rotorsional spectrum of tert-Butyl isocyanate will be pie - sented in the talk. Address of Stahl. Andresen. Dreizler and Grabow: Institut

  6. Area Handbook Series: Argentina: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Etchepareborda, Roberto, Ricardo M. Ortiz, and Juan V. Orona, La crisis de 1930: Ensayos (I). ( Biblioteca Politica Argentina, 15.) Buenos Aires: Centro...Roots of Dependency in Peru and Argentina. Boulder: Westview Press, 1984. Gambini, Hugo. Las presidencias peronistas: La primera pre- sidencia de...in Bagü Pinedo et al, (eds.). La crisis de 1930: Testimonios (H). Argentina: Biblioteca Politica Argentina, 1983. Goldwert, Marvin. Democracy

  7. The intersection of behavioral genetics and political science: introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K

    2012-02-01

    The collection of papers in this special edition of Twin Research and Human Genetics represents a major land-mark at the intersection of behavioral genetics and political science. This issue is the fruit of 20 political scientists attending the Behavioral Genetics Association Methods Workshop in Boulder and a hands-on training practicum at the Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, and includes results from the first wave of political science twin surveys.

  8. Crosstalk between nitric oxide and hypoxia-inducible factor signaling pathways: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickson MD; Poyton RO

    2015-01-01

    Marina D Hendrickson, Robert O Poyton Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA Abstract: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is responsible for cellular adaptations to hypoxia. While oxygen (O2) negatively regulates its stability, many other factors affect HIF-1 stability and activity, including nitric oxide (NO). NO derived from l-arginine and nitrite (NO2–) could nitrosylate or nitrate HIF-1 and multiple proteins involv...

  9. What Are the Security Requirements for a Two-State Solution between Israel and Palestine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    identity of Israel. Alan Richards and John Waterbury point to differences of identity based on secular socialism or religious nationalism.33 Charles...704 (2007); 421. 33 Alan Richards and John Waterbury , A Political Economy of the Middle East, Third Edition ed. (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press...Alan Richards and John Waterbury in their book, A Political Economy of the Middle East, “Israel has gone the farthest in the development and

  10. Revolution in Egypt and the Potential for a New Suez Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    Richards and John Waterbury , A Political Economy of the Middle East (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2008), 21. 30 Botman, Egypt from Independence to...Movement, 18-19. 32 Richards and Waterbury , A Political Economy of the Middle East, 120-121. 33 David Tal, The 1956 War: Collusion and Rivalry in the...Economists Alan Richards and John Waterbury argue rents allowed Egypt to avoid thorough reform of its highly distorted pricing system and its structurally

  11. One Step Back, Two Steps Forward: An Analytical Framework for Airpower in Small Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    and Farrokh Moshiri (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991), 52. 26 Following World War II, the French returned to Indochina and reestablished pro ...social, and economic discrimination by the colons to fuel a widespread surge of nationalism directed at the colonial authorities. Pro - French...political, social, and economic features of the country.161 In October 1979, reform-minded military officers ousted authoritarian President Carlos Humberto

  12. Initial Results from the Experimental Measurement Campaign (XMC for Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL Instrument Assessment (XPIA Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewer W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Experimental Measurement Campaign (XMC for Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL Instrument Assessment (XPIA is a DOE funded study to develop and validate methods of making three dimensional measurements of wind fields. These techniques are of interest to study wind farm inflows and wake flows using remote sensing instrumentation. The portion of the experiment described in this presentation utilizes observations from multiple Doppler wind lidars, soundings, and an instrumented 300m tower, the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO in Erie, Colorado.

  13. Intelligence Operations In Small Wars: A Comparison Of The Malayan Emergency And Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    127 Ibid, 159. 128 Comber, Malaya’s Secret Police 1945–60, 154 129 Harry D. Latimer , Monograph on National Security Affairs: U.S. Psychological...of Ideas: The US Propaganda Campaign in Vietnam, (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1981), 243. 134 Latimer , Monograph on National Security Affairs, 23...Effort: Key to Success in Afghanistan.” Strategic Forum, no 248 (October 2009): 1-12. Latimer , Harry D. Monograph on National Security Affairs: U.S

  14. Simplified Quantum Logic with Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-23

    Monroe, D. Leibfried, B. E. King, D. M. Meekhof, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland National Institute of Standards and Technology , Boulder, Colorado 80303...couples the states un&u↓& and un&u↑& with Rabi frequency @13,14# Vn ,n5 1 \\ u^n z^↑uHI~ j !u↓& zn&u 5g jz^nueih~a1a †!un& z 5g je 2h2/2Ln~h 2!, ~4

  15. Long Baseline (Transoceanic) Surveying Using the Global Positioning System and Its Broadcast Ephemeris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    G)(1 In Equation j1), Pc Is the corresponding calculated range determined from the GPS broadcast ephemeris, the assumed site location, and the...B. Data whose A of Equation (1) differed from the A at the previous time epoch by more than 0.5 m were deleted. Also, if the consecutive good data did...90009 1 University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80302 1 AFGL-PHP Hanscom AFB Magnavox Research Laboratory Attn: Jack Klobuchar 1 2829 Moricopa St. Bedford, MA

  16. Thermal Conductivity of Metals and Alloys at Low Temperatures: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1954-09-01

    I _ j TEMERUURE 7K 1404 MANGANESE Cume Simp Muro @ Remarks Reference .......................... k-0.06 at 83K for the B phse.. H. Reddemnana (1935). M...The thermal conductivity of tin, mer- er, Berlin ) 5th ed., vol. 2, 1923; 5th ed., 1st supple- cury, indium, and tantalum at liquid helium tem- ment... Berlin . (1952). BouLDER, CoLoRwO, July 23, 1954 U.4. GOVIERNMENT PRINTING OPPICE 68

  17. A new model of Pleistocene glaciation in the northern Urals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhov, V. I.

    2017-10-01

    This is an overview of the latest data on the age of topographically expressed glacigenic formations of the Polar Urals obtained by international geological teams by modern dating techniques including optical luminescence, radiocarbon and cosmogenic beryllium in exposed boulders. The new dates combined with the results of geological mapping and remote sensing data is a basis for rejecting the concept of the Quaternary Uralian ice caps in favor of small alpine glaciers which developed south of the Kara ice sheet.

  18. Bolstering United Nations Intelligence: Cultural and Structural Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    necessary precondition” (Francis Fukuyama, 2004). 2 Karen Mingst and Margaret Karns , p. 83. 3 JP 1-02, p. 175, 179. 4 Julian Harston, p. 10. 5...fighting criminal and terrorist networks (Moses Naim , 2003). 44 Stanley McChrystal. 45 A real-world example comes from Ethiopia, where a field monitor...Karen A., and Margaret P. Karns . The United Nations in the 21st Century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2007. Munoz, Carlos. “DoD

  19. Supernumerary rainbows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Mikolaj; Sawicki, Pawel

    2000-01-01

    Late in the afternoon of July 19, 1999, we were able to photograph some very unusual rainbows in the sky over Boulder, Colorado. The picture here shows a primary rainbow, a fainter secondary bow above it, and several pastel-shaded rainbows inside the primary one. While we think we counted as many as four concurrent rainbows in that afternoon, only three of them show up in developed prints.

  20. Landslide in Coprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    15 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the distal (far) end of a landslide deposit in Coprates Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Large boulders, the size of buildings, occur on the landslide surface. This October 2004 picture is located near 15.3oS, 54.6oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  1. Categorical Confusion? The Strategic Implications of Recognizing Challenges Either as Irregular or Traditional

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ends of the conflict spectrum were somewhat combined in a shotgun stra- tegic marriage . The atomic battlefield was expected to oblige armies to wage...strategies, and even tactics, were seriously flawed systemically. But the urge to categorize and clarify, after the fashion of Victorian entomologists...1945-1980, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1980; Andrew J. Bacevich, The Pentomic Era : The U.S. Army between Korea and Viet- nam, Washington, DC

  2. Use of cosmogenic 35S for comparing ages of water from three alpine-subalpine basins in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueker, J.K.; Turk, J.T.; Michel, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    High-elevation basins in Colorado are a major source of water for the central and western United States; however, acidic deposition may affect the quality of this water. Water that is retained in a basin for a longer period of time may be less impacted by acidic deposition. Sulfur-35 (35S), a short-lived isotope of sulfur (t( 1/2 ) = 87 days), is useful for studying short-time scale hydrologic processes in basins where biological influences and water/rock interactions are minimal. When sulfate response in a basin is conservative, the age of water may be assumed to be that of the dissolved sulfate in it. Three alpine-subalpine basins on granitic terrain in Colorado were investigated to determine the influence of basin morphology on the residence time of water in the basins. Fern and Spruce Creek basins are glaciated and accumulate deep snowpacks during the winter. These basins have hydrologic and chemical characteristics typical of systems with rapid hydrologic response times. The age of sulfate leaving these basins, determined from the activity of 35S, averages around 200 days. In contrast, Boulder Brook basin has broad, gentle slopes and an extensive cover of surficial debris. Its area above treeline, about one-half of the basin, is blown free of snow during the winter. Variations in flow and solute concentrations in Boulder Brook are quite small compared to Fern and Spruce Creeks. After peak snowmelt, sulfate in Boulder Brook is about 200 days older than sulfate in Fern and Spruce Creeks. This indicates a substantial source of older sulfate (lacking 35S) that is probably provided from water stored in pore spaces of surficial debris in Boulder Brook basin.

  3. Efficient Synthesis of Network Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-17

    specialized hardware. Because the con- troller has global visibility and full control over the entire network, SDN makes it possible to implement a wide...Pavol Černý CU Boulder pavol.cerny@colorado.edu Nate Foster Cornell University jnfoster@cs.cornell.edu Abstract Software-defined networking ( SDN ...is revolutionizing the net- working industry, but current SDN programming platforms do not provide automated mechanisms for updating global

  4. Orographic Microbursts in a Severe Winter Windstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Bill Spendley and to Steve Chiswell for help with GEMPAIC Thanks to John Grovenstein, the Macintosh wizard and running partner. I owe special gratitude...knowledge of the typical environment of the windstorms provided by the theories, climatologies were compiled for windstorms in Boulder, Colorado...examined for the patterns caused by orographic microbursts. If these patterns are somewhat universal, new insights can be gained concerning the nature of

  5. Unity of Action Through a Whole of Society Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    way to enable this strategy. Joint Publication 1, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States of America , provides the directive for unity of...August 2010): 5. 12 Obama, National Security Strategy, 27. 13 Admiral Michael Mullen, The Military Strategy of the United States of America ...Ligteringren, eds., Debating Development (London, UK: Oxfam , GB, 2001), 21. 19 Jonathan Goodhand, Aiding Peace (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers

  6. 11th Annual CMMI Technology Conference and User Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    Charlottesville * Baltimore *# ^ Ocean Springs * Rolling Meadows *# ^ Sykesville * Boulder * ^ Colorado Springs * ^ Buffalo * Apopka...City, UT NSD Charlottesville, VA N&MSD Cincinnati, OH L&SPSD Melville, NY N&MSD Buffalo, NY L&SPSD Colorado Springs , CO ISRSD IAE Reporting...just about anywhere  MVC pattern on client and server  MVC pattern(s) can manage the interaction between user and the user interface, and

  7. Flow Control of Flexible Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-06

    interested in a more detailed discussion of the prior work they are referred to journal and conference publications that were published as a result of...Flex- ible NACA 0018 Finite Span Wing. Oral Presentation. Rocky Mountain Fluid Mechanics Research Symposium 2015, Boulder, CO, August 4, 2015. 3. E...Rocky Mountain Section 2015 Annual Technical Symposium, Golden, CO, November 6, 2015. 4. E. Culler, J. Farnsworth, C. Fagley, and T. McLaughlin

  8. Martian Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    9 April 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows patterned ground on the martian northern plains. The circular features are buried meteor impact craters; the small dark dots associated with them are boulders. The dark feature at left center is a wind streak. Location near: 75.1oN, 303.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  9. Cross-Cultural Strategies for Improving the Teaching, Training, and Mentoring Skills of Military Transition Team Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    State University 777 29th Street , Suite 202 International Affairs Boulder, CO 80303 Van Campen Hall...Curriculum Experts (1) HOST NATIONALS — (10) From Afghanistan (3), Iraq (1), Jordan (1), Senegal (1), Democratic Republic of Congo (1), Saudi Arabia...parts of the Arab world (Zaharna, 2009 in press). The Senegalese Soldier said, “In Africa, the parents usually like to tell stories to the kids and

  10. Report for the MPV Demonstration at New Boston Air Force Base, New Hampshire: UXO Characterization in Challenging Survey Environments Using the MPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-28

    site that included a densely wooded area which posed an accessibility challenge due to boulders, roots and tight vegetation , and a positioning...The MPV can be deployed at sites where terrain and vegetation preclude use of heavier, cart-based systems. Portability can improve productivity in...survey Extended footprint coverage  Mapped survey data 98% coverage with 70 cm footprint in open field Met: 99% coverage Station spacing

  11. 16th International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    DeTar, Carleton E; Sugar, Robert; Toussaint, Douglas; Lattice '98

    We give here a compilation of papers presented at Lattice 98 (XVI Intl. Symposium on Lattice Field Theory, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 13-18 July 1998). The contents are in html form with clickable links to the papers that exist on the hep-lat archives. We hope that this will make it easier to access the presentations at the conference. Comments on, and corrections to, this compilation should be sent to degrand@aurinko.colorado.edu.

  12. Sport climbing from a medical point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Schweizer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Rock climbing, sport climbing and bouldering are highly popular new sport disciplines. An increasing number of indoor climbing gyms throughout the country offer the possibility to perform the sport regularly independently from the weather. As a result a variety of new pathologies like the closed flexor tendon pulley rupture of the finger and syndromes caused by overuse mainly in the upper extremity have appeared and should be familiar to physicians and therapists working in the field of sport...

  13. Archaeological Mitigation of AR-102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-16

    the same kind of cores, nodules of chert, decortication flakes and shatter as were found to the south. Several quarry blanks were observed one of which...of the lithics came from here, and there are numerous large cores, rhatter, decortication flakes and other remains of quarrying. The third collect...of basalt boulders in this area, ith many naturally occurring nodules of chert. There are [ many cores, decortication flakes and other indications

  14. Integrated Path Detection of Co2 and CH4 Using a Waveform Driven Electro-Optic Single Sideband Laser Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated path concentrations of ambient levels of carbon dioxide and methane have been measured during nighttime periods at NIST, Boulder (CO, USA, using a ground-based, eyesafe laser system. In this contribution, we describe the transmitter and receiver system, demonstrate measurements of CO2 and CH4 in comparison with an in situ point sensor measurement using a commercial cavity ring-down instrument, and demonstrate a speckle noise reduction method.

  15. Global NATO: Transformation of a Regional Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop.” 2 Kenneth N. Waltz, “Structural Realism after the Cold War...character of the new Russian military doctrine 2014. It recognizes NATO as her greatest security risk. “TASS: Russia - Putin Endorses Updated Version of...Strategies,” in Helga Haftendorn and Christian Tuschhoff, eds., America and Europe in an Era of Change (Boulder, Colorado: Westview, 1993), p. 53

  16. Protracted People’s War in the Philippines: A Persistent Communist Insurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    August 24, 2006). 7 Gregg R. Jones, Red Revolution: Inside the Philippine Guerilla Movement (Boulder, San Francisco , London: Westview Press, 1989...have an uncanny ability to float with the tide. As Senator Aquilino Q. Pimentel states, when the leaders lose interest in their party affairs or are...Beijing, China, February 23-24, 2004): 9. 12 Senator Aquilino Q. Pimentel , “Multi-parties Strengthen Democracy” (speech presented at the 4th

  17. Cuba: transition of disintegration?

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Stubbs

    1998-01-01

    [First paragraph] Toward a New Cuba? Legacies of a Revolution. MIGUEL ANGEL CENTENO & MAURICIO FONT (eds.). Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner, 1997. ix + 245 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95) Essays on Cuban History: Historiography and Research. Louis A. PEREZ, JR. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994. xiv + 306 pp. (Cloth US$ 44.95) Cuba's Second Economy: From Behind the Scenes to Center Stage. JORGE F. PEREZ-LOPEZ. New Brunswick NJ: Transaction, 1995. 221 pp. (Cloth US$ 32.95)...

  18. PARAMETERS, U.S. Army War College Quarterly. Volume 23, Number 1, Spring 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    interfere- ill Spring 1993- -7 r7 -the private -lives- of homosexuals, transsexuals , transvestites, and others re- garded as-deviant. It is quiteanother... Child , en (New York- Summiit Books,-1992), p. 25. 3. Robert-Bork, The-Tempting of America (New York: The Free Press. 1990), pp. 115-26. 4, Ibid., p...Westport. Conn.: Praeger. 1992. 242 pp. S47.95. Child . Jack. The Central Amterican Peace Piocess. 1983-1991: Sheathing Swords, Building Confidence. Boulder

  19. Multiple processes regulate long-term population dynamics of sea urchins on Mediterranean rocky reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Hereu

    Full Text Available We annually monitored the abundance and size structure of herbivorous sea urchin populations (Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula inside and outside a marine reserve in the Northwestern Mediterranean on two distinct habitats (boulders and vertical walls over a period of 20 years, with the aim of analyzing changes at different temporal scales in relation to biotic and abiotic drivers. P. lividus exhibited significant variability in density over time on boulder bottoms but not on vertical walls, and temporal trends were not significantly different between the protection levels. Differences in densities were caused primarily by variance in recruitment, which was less pronounced inside the MPA and was correlated with adult density, indicating density-dependent recruitment under high predation pressure, as well as some positive feedback mechanisms that may facilitate higher urchin abundances despite higher predator abundance. Populations within the reserve were less variable in abundance and did not exhibit the hyper-abundances observed outside the reserve, suggesting that predation effects maybe more subtle than simply lowering the numbers of urchins in reserves. A. lixula densities were an order of magnitude lower than P. lividus densities and varied within sites and over time on boulder bottoms but did not differ between protection levels. In December 2008, an exceptionally violent storm reduced sea urchin densities drastically (by 50% to 80% on boulder substrates, resulting in the lowest values observed over the entire study period, which remained at that level for at least two years (up to the present. Our results also showed great variability in the biological and physical processes acting at different temporal scales. This study highlights the need for appropriate temporal scales for studies to fully understand ecosystem functioning, the concepts of which are fundamental to successful conservation and management.

  20. Multiple processes regulate long-term population dynamics of sea urchins on Mediterranean rocky reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereu, Bernat; Linares, Cristina; Sala, Enric; Garrabou, Joaquim; Garcia-Rubies, Antoni; Diaz, David; Zabala, Mikel

    2012-01-01

    We annually monitored the abundance and size structure of herbivorous sea urchin populations (Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula) inside and outside a marine reserve in the Northwestern Mediterranean on two distinct habitats (boulders and vertical walls) over a period of 20 years, with the aim of analyzing changes at different temporal scales in relation to biotic and abiotic drivers. P. lividus exhibited significant variability in density over time on boulder bottoms but not on vertical walls, and temporal trends were not significantly different between the protection levels. Differences in densities were caused primarily by variance in recruitment, which was less pronounced inside the MPA and was correlated with adult density, indicating density-dependent recruitment under high predation pressure, as well as some positive feedback mechanisms that may facilitate higher urchin abundances despite higher predator abundance. Populations within the reserve were less variable in abundance and did not exhibit the hyper-abundances observed outside the reserve, suggesting that predation effects maybe more subtle than simply lowering the numbers of urchins in reserves. A. lixula densities were an order of magnitude lower than P. lividus densities and varied within sites and over time on boulder bottoms but did not differ between protection levels. In December 2008, an exceptionally violent storm reduced sea urchin densities drastically (by 50% to 80%) on boulder substrates, resulting in the lowest values observed over the entire study period, which remained at that level for at least two years (up to the present). Our results also showed great variability in the biological and physical processes acting at different temporal scales. This study highlights the need for appropriate temporal scales for studies to fully understand ecosystem functioning, the concepts of which are fundamental to successful conservation and management.

  1. Opportunities for Tropical Cyclone Motion Research in the Northwest Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    Bureau of Meteorology Dr. R. Anthes Research Centre NCAR P. 0. Box 1289K...P. 0. Box 3000 Melbourne, Victoria 3001 Boulder, CO 80307 Australia Dr. Y. Kurihara Dr. John McBride Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Bureau of Meteorology Princeton...Mathur National Meteorological Center Dr. Tom Keenan Washington, DC 20233 Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre Dr. Simon Chang P. 0. Box 1289K

  2. Interim Review of the Possibilities and Opportunities for the ONR Tropical Cyclone Motion Research Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    models. Similarly, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre is developing an 14. 14 initialization technique for their numerical model that...Guam) G. Holland Bureau of Meteorology (Australia) Y. Kurihara Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA) R. Merrill Cooperative Institute for...20008 Dr. Greg Holland Bureau of Meteorology Dr. R. Anthes Research Centre NCAR P. 0. Box 1289K P. 0. Box 3000 Melbourne, Victoria 3001 Boulder, CO 80307

  3. Delivering and Incentivizing Data Management Education to Geoscience Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, S. L.; Johnson, A. M.; Hauser, T.

    2015-12-01

    Good data management practices are imperative for all researchers who want to ensure the usability of their research data. For geoscientists, this is particularly important due to the vast amount of data collected as part of field work, model studies, or other efforts. While many geoscientists want to ensure their data is appropriately maintained, they are generally not trained in good data management, which, realistically, has a much lower priority in the "publish or perish" cycle of research. Many scientists learn programming or advanced computational and data skills during the process of developing their research. With the amount of digital data being collected in the sciences increasing, and the interest federal funding agencies are taking in ensuring data collected is well maintained, there is pressure to quickly and properly educate and train geoscientists on its management. At the University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder), Research Data Services (RDS) has developed several educational and outreach activities centered at training researchers and students in ways to properly manage their data, including "boot camps", workshops, individual consultations, and seminars with topics of interest to the CU-Boulder community. Part of this effort is centered at incentivizing the researcher to learn these tools and practices despite their busy schedule. Much of this incentive has come through small grant competitions at the university level. The two competitions most relevant are a new "Best Digital Data Management Plan" competition, awarding unrestricted funds to the best plan submitted in each of five categories, and an added data management plan requirement to an existing faculty competition. This presentation will focus on examples of user outreach and educational opportunities given to researchers at CU-Boulder, incentives given to the researchers to participate, and assessment of the impact of these activities.

  4. Soundless Chemical Demolition Agents

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The traditional approach to demolishing concrete structures or reducing the size of large rocks or boulders has typically included the use of explosives. The resulting explosions are associated with the obvious risks posed by shock waves and fly rock. Soundless chemical demolition agents (SCDAs) have proven to be viable substitutes for the use of explosives. SCDAs are powdery materials that will expand considerably when mixed with water.

  5. Proposal 1114.11.2956B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degrand, Thomas [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The Theoretical Advanced Study Institute was held at the University of Colorado, Boulder, during June 1 - 26, 2015. The topic was "New Frontiers in Fields and Strings." Topics included many discussions of entanglement entropy, the conformal bootstrap, AdS/CFT techniques and applications, cosmology, and the black hole information problem. The organizers were Professors Joseph Polchinski (KITP Santa Barbara) and Pedro Vieira (Perimeter Institute). Sixty-one students heard sixty-two lectures by sixteen lecturers. A Proceedings is in press.

  6. Lieutenant General Robert L. Bullard: Understanding Small and Large Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    rapidly as many did later in the twentieth century, he was able to mature as a company and field grade officer longer – arguably allowing him to...the Philippines when he began to contemplate his views on pacification and cultural awareness. During those years, Bullard undoubtedly matured and...Vietnam’s Hearts and Minds. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995. Langley, Lester. The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898-1934

  7. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  8. Deriving meaningful climate effects data from social media

    OpenAIRE

    Fuka, Mary Zayin; Fuka, Daniel Richard

    2014-01-01

    AGU 2011 Poster Session GC23B-0954 Mary Z Fuka, TriplePoint Physics LLC, Boulder, CO, United States & Daniel R Fuka, Cornell Univ, Ithaca, NY, United States.  ABSTRACT BODY: This paper presents our research on extracting meaningful climate indicator data from unsolicited observations ("tweets") made by Twitter users regarding their physical surroundings and events occurring around them. Our goal is to establish whether the existing understanding of climate indicator data collected by mo...

  9. Monitoring lingering oil from the Exxon Valdez spill on Gulf of Alaska armored beaches and mussel beds sixteen years post-spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, G.V.; Mann, D.H.; Short, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Final Rept. ; Prepared in Cooperation With Alaska Univ., Fairbanks. Inst. of Arctic Biology. Sponsored By National Marine Fisheries Service, Juneau, Ak. AlaskaFisheries Science Center. ; Stranded Exxon Valdez Oil Has Persisted for 16 Years At Boulder-Armored Beach Sites Along National Park Coastlines Bordering the Gulf of Alaska. These Sites Are Up to 640 Km From the Spill Origin and Were Contaminated By Oil Mousse, a Viscous Water-in-Oil Emulsion. Although Surface Oil Has Continued to Decline, Subsurface Oiling Persists in Patches. Especially Striking Is the General Lack of Weathering of Stranded Oil on Armored Beaches Over the Last 16 Years. At Three of the Four Sites Where Oil Was Sampled in 2005, the Oil Was Compositionally Similar to 11-Day Old Exxon Valdez Oil, Even After 16 Years. The Formation of Mousse Allowed Less-Weathered Oil to Be Transported Long Distances. The Sequestration of the Oil Beneath a Boulder Armor, Coupled With the Stability of the Boulder Armoring (Investigated By Examining Movement of Marked Boulders), Had Contributed to the Lengthy Persistence of This Stranded Oil. Opportunistic Sampling of Several Previously Studied Oiled Mussel Beds Indicates Continued Contamination of At Least One of the Sites By Not Very Weathered Exxon Valdez Oil. Long-Term Persistence of Oil in These Habitats Should Cause Reconsideration of Response Activities After Spills, and May Influence the Environmental Sensitivity Indices Applied to These Habitats. 

  10. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado, Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R., ed.

    2004-05-12

    OAK-B135 The results and progress of research funded by DOE grant number DOE-FG03-95ER40913 at the University of Colorado at Boulder is described. Includes work performed at the HERMES experiment at DESY to study the quark structure of the nucleon and the hadronization process in nuclei, as well as hadronic reactions studied at LAMPF, KEK, and Fermilab.

  11. Specialized Finite Set Statistics (FISST)-Based Estimation Methods to Enhance Space Situational Awareness in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-17

    34 Doctorial Dissertion, University of Colorado Boulder, 2011. [8] D. A. Vallado, Fundamentals of Astrodynamics and Applications , New York: McGraw- Hill...manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This report is the result of contracted fundamental research deemed...This report describes research on the application of a Cardinalized Probability Hypothesis Density (CPHD) multi-target filter, parameterized in

  12. Environmental Report on the Northwest Pacific for the Marine Seismic System (MSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Ieogeografiya; Neogenovaya Sistema , p. 408-413. Dz i ewonski , A. and M. Landi sman (1979 ). Great Circle Rayleigh and Love Wave Dispersion from 100 to 900...Vostochnoy Azi i , tom 2, Stratigrafiya i Pa Ieogeografiya; Melovaya Sistema V. N. Vereshchagin et a I., eds-, p. 343-347. Veltsman, P. S. (1966). On the...Rockville, AAD National Geophysical and Solar Terrestrial Data Center, Boulder, CO Oregon State University, School of Oceano- graphy, Corvallis, OR

  13. Map Manager QTX, cross-platform software for genetic mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, K F; Cudmore, R H; Meer, J M

    2001-12-01

    Map Manager QTX (QTX) is software for analysis of genetic mapping experiments in experimental plants and animals. It includes functions for mapping both Mendelian and quantitative trait loci. QTX is an enhanced version of Map Manager QT, rewritten with the aid of cross-platform libraries (XVT, Boulder Software Foundry, Inc.), which allow it to be compiled for multiple computer platforms. It currently is distributed for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS and is available at http://mapmgr.roswellpark.org/mmQTX.html.

  14. The Role of Ukraine’s Communists in the Ukrainian Independence Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Jarvesoo. A Case Study of a Soviet Republic: The Estonian SSR. Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1978. NPS DK511.E5 E81. Parsons , Talcott . "Some Theoretical...urbanization and by the unprecedented expansion of the educational systems" and second, the Party and bureaucracy which exercised control over the system...Through agitation and propaganda the intellectual content of communication would be controlled and a new anti-nationalist education would take place to

  15. Experimental Program Final Technical Progress Report: 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Edward R. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

    2014-09-12

    This is the final technical report of the grant DE-FG02-04ER41301 to the University of Colorado at Boulder entitled "Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics" and describes the results of our funded activities during the period 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012. These activities were primarily carried out at Fermilab, RHIC, and the German lab DESY. Significant advances in these experiments were carried out by members of the Colorado group and are described in detail.

  16. Sun River (24CA74): A Stratified Pelican Lake and Oxbow Occupation Site near Great Falls, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-31

    Oxbow Cascade County Phytoliths Pelican Lake Settlement Flotation 20. A.STIRACT . -u are. dde If n-"e- .. d nden~ff7 by block .- ber) The Sun River...Susan K. Short, Pollen Analyst * Rhoda Owen Lewis, Phytolith Analyst Meg Van Ness, Flotation Analyst Historical Research Associates Missoula, Montana...ANALYSES Susan K. Short, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, Boulder, Colorado D PHYTOLITH RESULTS Rhoda Lewis, Paleoenvironmental Consultants

  17. U. S. Pacific Fleet. Central Pacific Force. Operation Plan Number Cen 1-43

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-10-25

    Hermit Grizzly Trumpet Frogleg Dingbat Pontiac Victoria Tripod Buckeye Dutchman Panhandle Juniper Pedigree Bradshaw Pelican Carbuncle V/aldorf...GANSSVOQRT (DD 608) GREINER (DE 37) C. R. GREER (DE 23) GRIDLEY (DD 380) GUADALUPE (AO 32) HALS (DD 642) HARRIS (APA 2) HARRISON (DD 573) B. R...Boulder Bluejacket Oxnard Sunflower Ladylake Victoria LI Dorado Teaticket VJinnepeg Bullsgap Kenosha Carnival Hodown Kalaraazoo MonroG Mascot Horatio

  18. Improving Government Legitimacy in the Eyes of Its People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Aristotle, Tacitus of the Roman Empire, French politician de Tocqueville, the German philosophers Karl Marx , Max Weber and Hannah Arendt are all...rights abuse. Philippines In the book titled The Ramon Magsaysay Story, Carlos P. Romulo and Marvin M. Gray describe how President Ramon...Revolutionaries in Latin America: Peru, Colombia, Mexico. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003 Romulo, Carlos P., and Marvin M. Gray. The Ramon

  19. Southern California Coastal Processes Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    A report describing the program which is to restore and enhance a degraded wetland on the San Diego coast. Program is to be included in the local...42 DESCRIPTION " Describes the occurrence of cobbles and boulders of glaucophane schist and rock grains in sedimentary rocks in Southern California...San Juan Creek and Trabuco Creek, Facility Nos. LO and L02, Aggradation/ Degradation Study CITATION : Orange County Environmental Management Agency

  20. Foreign Policy Dimensions of Argentina and Brazill: Emerging Middle Powers Marching to their Own Drum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    supply a - subcritical nuclear unit and other equipment to Paraguay.103 In 1979, Brazil initiated a cooperative program with Venezuela which marked the...Elizabeth G. Ferris and Jennie K. Lincoln (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1981), p. 167. 58. David C. Jordan , "Argentina’s Military Commonwealth...34 Latin American Regional Reports: Southern Cone, 27 May, 1983, p. 3. 64. Jordan , "Argentina’s Military Commonwealth," p. 69. " 65. "Beagle Channel

  1. Impact of the Energy Crisis on Corps of Engineers Recreation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    including truck 17 campers) and folddown camping trailers. 43. The only really bright spot in touri ;m duririg 1979 was the amount of foreign...34 Business Research Division, Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. Goeldner, C. R., Dicke, K., and Sletta...Y. 1975. "Travel Trends in the United States and Canada," Business Research Division, Graduate School of Business Administration, University of

  2. Can cosmogenic nuclides (36Cl) unravel the timing of dislocation of tsunami blocks on Bonaire (Leeward Antilles)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; Rixhon, Gilles; Brückner, Helmut; May, S. Matthias; Binnie, Steve; Dunai, Tibor J.

    2013-04-01

    On Bonaire (Leeward Antilles) and rocky coasts worldwide, high-energy wave events (tsunamis, storms) dislocate coarse-clast deposits (Engel and May, 2012). Using these onshore blocks and boulders to derive ages for the most powerful events on millennial scales is still a major challenge. We apply terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN), in particular 36Cl, in case of the largest blocks in order to directly date the transport event(s), i.e. the inferred tsunami(s). This dating method has hitherto been disregarded in the coastal environment, particularly in the context of block transport. The following characteristics of the blocks are fundamental for the success of the presented dating approach: (1) due to the lithology (aragonite, calcite), concentration measurements of 36Cl are performed; (2) only large and thick boulders and blocks (>50 t, >2 m thickness) for which tsunami transport was inferred (Engel and May, 2012) were sampled; (3) since the boulders stem from the edge of the coral reef platform, they had been exposed to cosmic radiation prior to the transport event(s) and had already accumulated a certain amount of TCN. To avoid this problem of inheritance, we only sampled the thickest clasts, and those having experienced a 180° overturn during transport; thus, having exposed a "blank" side to cosmic rays only since the event. The complete overturn is attested by the presence of inactive rock pools in upside-down position and bioerosive notches. Engel, M., and May, S. M.: Bonaire's boulder fields revisited: Evidence for Holocene tsunami impact on the Leeward Antilles, Quat. Sci. Rev., 54, 126-141, 2012.

  3. Making the Connection: An Air Strategy Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    from my fellow students, who tolerated my constant pestering and offered abundant, positive criticism. I am especially grateful for the considerable...edition, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, Inc., 1994. 81 INTERNET DOCUMENT INFORMATION FORM A. Report Title: Making the Connection: An Air Strategy Analysis...Framework B. DATE Report Downloaded From the Internet 3/5199 C. Report’s Point of Contact: (Name, Organization, Address, Office Symbol, & Ph #): School

  4. Validation of the AMC-71 Mobility Model. Appendix A: Vehicle Data. Appendix B: Location and Description of Test Sites. Appendix C: Definitions of Terrain Terms and Procedures Used to Collect Terrain Data for Validation Tests. Appendix D: Basic Terrain Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    1700 ft of the traverse were broad, flat wash areas of sandy, gravelly silt with some large boulders and dead vege - tation. The remainder of the tra...areas, especially near pine stands, the ground surface was com- pletely covered with thick pine straw, which allowed little or no vege - tation growth at...computed from data obtained using the sample cell techni- que,* where cell diameter depends upon including 20 or more obstacles of the size designated as

  5. Proceedings: USA-CERL Technology Transfer (T2) Workshop Held in Urbana, Illinois on December 15-16 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Information, edited by William R. King and Gerald Zaltman . Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1979. Griffith, Ray G. "Field Activities in Technology...February 1986. Kotler , Philip, Bobby J. Calder, Brian Sternthal, and Alice Tybout. "A Marketing Approach to the Development and Dissemination of...Behavior for Scientific and Technical information." In Marketing Scientific and Technical Information, edited by William R. King and Gerald Zaltman

  6. The Lodin Elv Formation; a Plio-Pleistocene occurrence in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyling-Hanssen, Rolf W.; Funder, Svend Visby; Petersen, Kaj Strand

    1983-01-01

    Greenland, is described and minted the Lodin El\\' Formation. The sedimentary sequence consists of sorted sand and silt ovcrlain by diamicton containing erratic boulders. Both units contain ill siw molluscs and foraminiferal assemblages. The sediments occur as an erosional remnant of local distrib...... analyses of mollusc shells. The Lodin Elv Formation records the earliest known evidence of glaciation and arctic conditions in Greenland in post-Precambrian time....

  7. On Death Ground: Why Weak States Resist Great Powers Explaining Coercion Failure in Asymmetric Interstate Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Kosovo demanded that its status be elevated to that of a Republic.456 456 Cohen, Lenard J. (2001) Serpent in the Bosom: The Rise and Fall of Slobodan...CT: Yale University Press 71 460 Cohen, Lenard J. (2001) Serpent in the Bosom: The Rise and Fall of Slobodan Milosevic Boulder, CO: Westview 59 461...these events in two ways. First, he crafted a new Serbian constitution that was overwhelmingly approved in a 463 Cohen, Lenard J. (2001) Serpent in

  8. The Behavior of the Snow White Chilled-Mirror Hygrometer in Extremely Dry Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Vömel, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Shiotani, M.; Hasebe, F.; Oltmans, S. J.; Barnes, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    The Snow White hygrometer, made by Meteolabor AG, Switzerland, is a new chilled-mirror instrument using a thermoelectric Peltier cooler to measure atmospheric water vapor. Its performance under dry conditions is evaluated in simultaneous measurements using the NOAA/CMDL frost-point hygrometer at Boulder, Colorado; San Cristo´bal, Gala´pagos Islands, Ecuador; Watukosek, Indonesia; and Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. The Snow White exhibits a lower detection limit of about 3%–6% rela...

  9. "The Secret Air War Over France" USAAF Special Operations Units in the French Campaign of 1944

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    another group of fifty intelligence agents for post D-Day infiltration as the PROUST Project.103 All was now ready for OVERLORD. Intelligence agents...infiltrated sixty SUSSEX intelligence agents for the Secret Intelligence Branch of OSS/London. The "Carpetbaggers" dropped forty-six PROUST Project...Operations. Boulder: Westview Press, 1988. Ruby, Marcel . F Section, SOE. London: Leo Cooper Ltd., 1988. Smith, Bradley F. The Shadow Warriors. New York

  10. Built Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsyth, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinclair, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The market currently encourages BWT deployment before the technology is ready for full-scale commercialization. To address this issue, industry stakeholders convened a Rooftop and Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the National Wind Technology Center, located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. This report summarizes the workshop.

  11. Storm, rogue wave, or tsunami origin for megaclast deposits in western Ireland and North Island, New Zealand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, John F.; Ryan, Paul D.

    2017-12-01

    The origins of boulderite deposits are investigated with reference to the present-day foreshore of Annagh Head, NW Ireland, and the Lower Miocene Matheson Formation, New Zealand, to resolve disputes on their origin and to contrast and compare the deposits of tsunamis and storms. Field data indicate that the Matheson Formation, which contains boulders in excess of 140 tonnes, was produced by a 12- to 13-m-high tsunami with a period in the order of 1 h. The origin of the boulders at Annagh Head, which exceed 50 tonnes, is disputed. We combine oceanographic, historical, and field data to argue that this is a cliff-top storm deposit (CTSD). A numerical model for CTSDs is developed which indicates that boulder shape in addition to density and dimensions should be taken into account when applying hydrodynamic equations to such deposits. The model also predicts that the NE Atlantic storms are capable of producing boulderites that, when size alone is considered, cannot be distinguished from tsunamites. We review the characteristics that identify the origins of these two deposits.

  12. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Key persornel in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment at the University of Colorado at Boulder include Tawnya Ferbiak (software engineer), Susan Batiste (research assistant), and Christina Winkler (graduate research assistant). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  13. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM0 Flight Hardware in Bench Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Engineering bench system hardware for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is tested on a lab bench at the University of Colorado in Boulder. This is done in a horizontal arrangement to reduce pressure differences so the tests more closely resemble behavior in the microgravity of space. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  14. Mechanic of Granular Materials (MGM) Investigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Key persornel in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment are Mark Lankton (Program Manager at University Colorado at Boulder), Susan Batiste (research assistance, UCB), and Stein Sture (principal investigator). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  15. Sclerite calcification and reef-building in the fleshy octocoral genus Sinularia (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, M.-S.; Huang, H.-D.; Dai, C.-F.; Hsiao, Y.-C.; Benayahu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Alcyonacean octocorals in tropical reefs are usually not considered as reef builders. Some Sinularia species, however, are capable of consolidating sclerites at the colony base to form spiculite. Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan, features both fossilized and recently formed boulders composed of spiculite, thus demonstrating the role of Sinularia in contributing to the reef structure. Section radiography of an 18.5 kg spiculite boulder demonstrated a regular density banding of 3-6-mm intervals. Core survey indicated spiculite coverage of 25-30% on the live reef and of 30-40% on the uplifted boulders. Cores taken from living Sinularia revealed a distinct transition from discrete sclerites to compact spiculite and amorphous calcium carbonate cementing the sclerites. In the widespread S. gibberosa, sclerite formation appeared to start intracellularly, followed by a prolonged extracellular calcification process. At the calcification site, multiple sclerocytes formed expanded pseudopod-like membranes that interconnected, forming multicellular vesicles (MCVs) around the sclerites. The MCVs and the pseudopods disappeared at sclerite maturation, followed by degradation of the sclerocytes around the mature sclerites. At the colony base, granular vesicles were distributed among the sclerites, indicating a cementing process in progress. These findings suggest that colonies of Sinularia are able to cement sclerites and consolidate them at their base into spiculite, thus making them reef builders.

  16. Groundwater Contributions to Intermittent Streamflow in a Headwater Catchment: How do Geoclimatic Controls Influence Downstream Water Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smull, E. M.; Gooseff, M. N.; Singha, K.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrologic connectivity of headwater catchments affects surface water yield and quality of downstream drinking water supplies. Lower Gordon Gulch, a 2.75 km2 catchment, is part of the Boulder Creek watershed - the primary drinking water supply for the city of Boulder, Colorado. We hypothesize that the geologic and climatic environment within the catchment controls the magnitude, timing, and duration of hydrologic connection between the landscape and the stream, and thus the distribution of major ions to the surface water. Specifically, bedrock patterns, vegetation type and density, and snowpack dynamics influence how precipitation inputs move from the hillslopes to the catchment outlet. Preliminary results suggest that north-facing hillslopes with steeper slopes, deeper weathering of bedrock, denser vegetation stands, and a seasonal snowpack, provide consistently greater groundwater inputs to the stream compared to the south-facing hillslopes. We believe that this is in part due to subsurface bedrock patterns forcing a dominate cross-valley gradient. Through an extensive observation network of hillslope wells, periodic stream water balance measurements, and synoptic chemistry samples, we plan to continue our assessment of the spatio-temporal connectivity dynamics throughout the seasonal dry down (late summer through winter), during which streamflow can be intermittent. Results will help to guide landuse practices of upland catchments with respect to their role in Boulder's drinking water supply.

  17. A new skink (Scincidae: Saproscincus) from rocky rainforest habitat on Cape Melville, north-east Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Conrad J

    2013-01-01

    Saproscincus skinks are restricted to wet forest habitats of eastern Australia. Eleven species have previously been described, with most having small distributions in disjunct areas of subtropical and tropical rainforest. The localized distributions and specific habitat requirements of Saproscincus have made them a key group for understanding the biogeographic history of Australia's rainforests. Here I describe a new species of Saproscincus from the Melville Range on Cape Melville, north-east Australia. The Melville Range is composed of boulder-fields and areas of rainforest in the uplands, and is highly isolated from other areas of elevated rainforest. All individuals of the new species were found on a moist ridgeline, active on boulders under a rainforest canopy or on boulder-field immediately adjacent to rainforest. Saproscincus saltus sp. nov. is highly distinct in morphology and colour pattern. Of particular interest are its long limbs and digits compared to congeners, which in conjunction with the observed ecology, suggest a long history of association with rock. The discovery of S. saltus sp. nov. extends the distribution of the genus over 100 km north from the nearest congeners in the Wet Tropics region. This species brings the number of vertebrates known to be endemic to the Melville Range to six, which is remarkable for such a small area.

  18. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Energy dissipation of rockfalls by coppice structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciabocco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop elements to improve understanding of the behaviour of a coppice in relation to the phenomenon of falling boulders. The first section proposes an amendment to the equation for calculating the index which describes the probability of impact between a rock and plants in managed coppice forests. A study was carried out, using models to calculate the kinetic energy of a falling boulder along a slope considering the kinetic energy dissipated during the impact with the structure of forest plants managed by coppice. The output of the simulation models were then compared with the real dynamics of falling boulders in field tests using digital video.

    It emerged from an analysis of the results of this comparison that a modification to the 1989 Gsteiger equation was required, in order to calculate the "Average Distance between Contacts" (ADC. To this purpose, the concept of "Structure of Interception", proposed in this paper, was developed, valid as a first approach for describing the differences in the spatial distribution of stems between coppice and forest. This study also aims to provide suggestions for forestry management, in order to maintain or increase the protective capacity of a coppice managed with conventional techniques for the area studied, modifying the dendrometric characteristics.

  20. Preliminary Results of Tectonic Geomorphology Investigation of the Northern Cyprus coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Cengiz; Tüysüz, Okan; Melnick, Daniel; Damla Altınbaş, Cevza; Zeynel Öztürk, Muhammed; Oruç Baykara, Mehmet; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-04-01

    Cyprus, an island located in the Eastern Mediterranean region, is a part of subduction zone that defines the plate boundary at the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau. The presence of uplifted marine terraces, wave-cut notches, surface ruptures and tsunami deposits are pieces of evidence of subduction related active deformation in the northern part of the island. To understand timing, mode and rate of deformation, we conducted high-resolution geomorphic mapping of marine terraces and levelling of wave-cut notches by using drone and DGPS. Tsunami boulders and boulder trains reaching up to 5-6 meters were discovered and surface rupture of an earthquake strechting from offshore to onshore was mapped for the first time with this study. Coral fossils were collected from marine terraces and tsunami boulders for age determinations by U-Th and 14C dating techniques, respectively. U-Th dating results indicate 144±12 (2s) ka for the MIS5e terrace at 40 m above sea level and 14C ages show the late Holocene (<4.5 ka) coseismic deformation. Here we will present tectonic implicatios from temporal and spatial distribution of marine terraces and wave-cut notches along the northern Cyprus. This study is supported by the Istanbul Technical University Research Found (Project no: 37548).

  1. U-Sries Disequilibra in Soils, Pena Blanca Natural Analog, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. French; E. Anthony; P. Goodell

    2006-03-16

    The Nopal I uranium deposit located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico. The deposit was mined in the early 1980s, and ore was stockpiled close by. This stockpile area was cleared and is now referred to as the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). Some of the high-grade boulders from the site rolled downhill when it was cleared in the 1990s. For this study soil samples were collected from the alluvium surrounding and underlying one of these boulders. A bulk sample of the boulder was also collected. Because the Prior High Grade Stockpile had no ore prior to the 1980s a maximum residence time for the boulder is about 25 years, this also means that the soil was at background as well. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radionuclides from ore to the soil. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected include {sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, and {sup 214}Bi. Peak areas for each isotope are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Canberra Ge (Li) detector and GENIE 2000 software. The boulder sample is close to secular equilibrium when compared to the standard BL-5 (Beaver Lodge Uraninite from Canada). Results for the soils, however, indicate that some daughter/parent pairs are in secular disequilibrium. These daughter/parent (D/P) ratios include {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U, which is greater than unity, {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th, which is also greater than unity, and {sup 210}Pb/{sup 214}Bi, which is less than unity. The gamma-ray spectrum for organic material lacks {sup 230}Th peaks, but contains {sup 234}U and {sup 226}Ra, indicating that plants preferentially incorporate {sup 226}Ra. Our results, combined with previous studies require multistage history of mobilization of the uranium series radionuclides. Earlier studies at the ore zone could limit the time span for mobilization only

  2. Impacts of severe wave event to the coastal environment, east Taiwan: a case study of 2015 Typhoon Soudelor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shao-Yi; Yen, Jiun-Yee; Wu, Bo-Lin; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Ting-Yi

    2017-04-01

    As an island surrounded by open water bodies, Taiwan faces associated challenges of oceanic events such as tidal, current and seasonsal wave cycles. In addition to the secular variations of the adjacent oceans, researchers have raised public awareness toward extreme wave events such as tsunamis and storm surges that may cause great damage to coastal infrastructures and loss of valuable lives. The east coast of Taiwan is prone to suffer from typhoons every year and records have shown that more than 30% of the low-pressure centers took the east coastline as their landing point. In year 2015, Typhoon Soudelor attacked the east coast of Taiwan and resulted in a great number of casualties and severe damage to the infrastructures all over the island. Soudelor is not the greatest typhoon of the year yet still brought in significant influences to the coastal topography due to its path and robust structure. In order to understand the impacts of typhoons like Soudelor, we investigated the coastal areas of Hualien, east Taiwan, to document how sediments and debris are transported along the shoreline under the extreme wave condition. Four coastal areas were surveyed to extract applicable information such as local relief profiles, grain size distribution of drifted sediments/debris, maximum inundation limit and so forth. Field observation suggests that the waves displayed great capability of transporting the sediments and redistributing the beach morphology. For instance, the beach of Qixing Lake (Chishingtan) has astonishing records like maximum volume of transported boulder around 3,000,000 cm3, maximum long axis of transported boulder around 144 cm, maximum distance of boulder transportation of 70 m, and maximum inundation distance of ca. 180 m. The composition and distribution of the drifted sediments in every areas vary with local geological conditions but in general all suggest similar characteristics: 1. the transported materials size down toward inland; 2. The sediments

  3. Rockfall-induced impact force causing a debris flow on a volcanoclastic soil slope: a case study in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Budetta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available On 10 January 2003, a rockfall of approximately 10 m3 affected a cliff some 25 m high located along the northern slopes of Mt. St. Angelo (Nocera Inferiore, province of Salerno in the southern Italian region of Campania. The impact of boulders on the lower sector of the slope, along which detrital-pyroclastic soils outcrop, triggered a small channelled debris flow of about 500 m3. Fortunately, no damage nor victims resulted from the landslide. Several marks of the impacts were observed at the cliff toe and outside the collapsed area, and the volumes of some fallen boulders were subsequently measured. By means of in-situ surveys, it was possible to reconstruct the cliff's geo-structural layout in detail. A rockfall back-analysis was subsequently performed along seven critical profiles of the entire slope (surface area of about 4000 m2. The results of this numerical modelling using the lumped-mass method were then used to map the kinetic iso-energy curves. In the triggering area of the debris flow, for a falling boulder of 1 m3, the mean kinetic energy was estimated at 120 kJ, this value being equivalent to an impact force, on an inclined surface, of some 800 kN. After landing, due to the locally high slope gradient (about 45°, and low angle of trajectory at impact (about 23°, some boulders slid down the slope as far as the endpoints. The maximum depth of penetration into the ground by a sliding block was estimated at about 16 cm. Very likely, owing to the high impact force of boulders on the saturated soil slope outcropping at the cliff base, the debris flow was triggered under undrained loading conditions. Initial failure was characterized by a translational slide involving a limited, almost elliptical area where the pyroclastic cover shows greater thickness in comparison with the surrounding areas.

  4. Consideration of geomorphological uncertainties with terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND): combining Schmidt-hammer and 10Be dating, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    As the importance of glaciers as key indicators of global change has increased during recent years, investigating Holocene glaciers chronologies has gained higher attention accordingly. One reason is the need for a better understanding of the climate - glacier relationship. Comparative studies play a major role in this field of research owing to the natural diversity of glacier behaviour. Detailed Holocene glacier chronologies are, furthermore, necessary to verify and eventually adjust glacier models indispensable for many attempts to predict future glacier changes. The Southern Alps of New Zealand are one of the few key study areas on the Southern Hemisphere where, in general, evidence is still sparse compared to its Northern counterpart. Improvement and reassessment of the Late Holocene glacier chronology in this region is, therefore, an important goal of current research. Recently, terrestrial (in situ) cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating has been increasingly applied to Holocene moraines in New Zealand and elsewhere. In the context of numerical ("absolute") dating techniques, terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND) seems to have been established as an alternative to the previously dominating radiocarbon (14C) dating of organic material (plant remains, organic-rich soil layers etc.) buried beneath or within moraines. Precision and time resolution achieved by the newest laboratory standards and procedures (Schaefer et al. 2009) is truly a milestone and will promote future attempts of TCND in any comparable context. Maybe, TCND has the potential to at least partially replace radiocarbon (14C) dating in its dominating role for the "absolute" dating of Holocene glacial deposits. By contrast, field sampling for TCND often lacks appropriate consideration of geomorphological uncertainties. Whereas much effort is made with the high precision results achieved in the laboratory, the choice of boulders sampled on Holocene moraines is often purely made

  5. 'Tool' use by the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David H.; Brunson, Shawn

    1993-01-01

    Perhaps the best documented example of regular tool use for a falconiform is the Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) striking an Ostrich (Struthio camelus) egg with a stone (J. van Lawick-Goodall and H. van Lawick-Goodall 1966, Nature 212:1468-1469; R.K. Brooke 1979, Ostrich 50:257-258). Another species, the Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus), routinely drops bones on stone slabs to gain access to the marrow within (L. Brown and D Amadon 1968, Eagles, hawks and falcons of the world, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY U.S.A.). Some, however, would argue that, because the stone is not manipulated, the bone-dropping Lammergeier is not actually using a tool. Another reported example of tool use is the Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis) that allegedly cast a stone at a human intruder near its nest (C.L. Blair 1981, Raptor Research 15:120).]The following may be yet another example of tool use by a raptor. On 5 June 1985, we observed an adult Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) soaring low (ca 15 m) over the grass-covered slopes of the Galiuro Mountains in southern Arizona. The bird had, probably just moments before, captured a ca I m snake (probably a glossy snake, Arizona elegans, judging by size, shape and color). When the hawk passed near us, it was holding the snake by both feet near the snake's midpoint. With head elevated and mouth open, the snake appeared intent upon biting the hawk. When the hawk was ca 100 m distant from us, it made several shallow stoops over a scattered group of large boulders. On some (and perhaps all) passes, the bird swept sharply upward as it passed over and nearly collided with a boulder. The centrifugal force associated with this change in direction caused the snake to pendulate below the hawk's talons and strike the boulder. During one pass, we observed the snake's head and tail flipping up behind the hawk after slapping the boulder. Not all swoops were over the same boulder, but one particularly obtrusive (ca 1 m tall) boulder was used at least

  6. Should precise numerical dating overrule glacial geomorphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Numerical age dating techniques, namely different types of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND), have achieved an impressive progress in both laboratory precision and regional calibration models during the past few decades. It is now possible to apply precise TCND even to young landforms like Late Holocene moraines, a task seemed hardly achievable just about 15 years ago. An increasing number of studies provide very precise TCND ages for boulders from Late Holocene moraines enabling related reconstruction of glacier chronologies and the interpretation of these glacial landforms in a palaeoclimatological context. These studies may also solve previous controversies about different ages assigned to moraines obtained by different dating techniques, for example relative-age dating techniques or techniques combining relative-age dating with few fixed points derived from numerical age dating. There are a few cases, for example Mueller Glacier and nearby long debris-covered valley glacier in Aoraki/Mt.Cook National Park (Southern Alps, New Zealand), where the apparent "supremacy" of TCND-ages seem to overrule glacial geomorphological principles. Enabled by a comparatively high number of individual boulders precisely dated by TCND, moraine ridges on those glacier forelands have been primarily clustered on basis of these boulder ages rather than on their corresponding morphological position. To the extreme, segments of a particular moraine complex morphologically and sedimentologically proven to be formed during one event have become split and classified as two separate "moraines" on different parts of the glacier foreland. One ledge of another moraine complex contains 2 TCND-sampled boulders apparently representing two separate "moraines"-clusters of an age difference in the order of 1,500 years. Although recently criticism has been raised regarding the non-contested application of the arithmetic mean for calculation of TCND-ages for individual moraines, this

  7. An Overview of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) as a capability demonstration for future human exploration, including use of high-power solar electric propulsion, which allows for the efficient movement of large masses through deep space. The ARM will also demonstrate the capability to conduct proximity operations with natural space objects and crewed operations beyond the security of quick Earth return. The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), currently in formulation, will visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, conduct a demonstration of a slow push planetary defense technique, and redirect the multi-ton boulder into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts aboard an Orion spacecraft will dock with the robotic vehicle to explore the boulder and return samples to Earth. The ARM is part of NASA's plan to advance technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. The ARM and subsequent availability of the asteroidal material in cis-lunar space, provide significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). NASA established the Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST), comprised of scientists, engineers, and technologists, which supported ARRM mission requirements formulation, answered specific questions concerning potential target asteroid physical properties, and produced a publically available report. The ARM Investigation Team is being organized to support ARM implementation and execution. NASA is also open to collaboration with its international partners and welcomes further discussions. An overview of the ARM robotic and crewed segments, including mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, and a discussion

  8. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM): Exploration of a Former Binary NEA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) as a capability demonstration for future human exploration, including use of high-power solar electric propulsion, which allows for the efficient movement of large masses through deep space. The ARM will also demonstrate the capability to conduct proximity operations with natural space objects and crewed operations beyond the security of quick Earth return. The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), currently in formulation, will visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, conduct a demonstration of a slow push planetary defense technique, and redirect the multi-ton boulder into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts aboard an Orion spacecraft will dock with the robotic vehicle to explore the boulder and return samples to Earth. The ARM is part of NASA's plan to advance technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. The ARM and subsequent availability of the asteroidal material in cis-lunar space, provide significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The current reference target for the ARM is NEA (341843) 2008 EV5, which may have been the primary body of a former binary system (Busch et al., 2011; Tardivel et al., 2016). The ARRM will perform several close proximity operations to investigate the NEA and map its surface. A detailed investigation of this object may allow a better understanding of binary NEA physical characteristics and the possible outcomes for their evolution. An overview of the ARM robotic and crewed segments, including mission operations, and a discussion of potential opportunities for participation with the ARM will be provided in this presentation.

  9. Isotopic data for Late Cretaceous intrusions and associated altered and mineralized rocks in the Big Belt Mountains, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.; Unruh, Daniel M.; Hofstra, Albert H.

    2017-03-07

    The quartz monzodiorite of Mount Edith and the concentrically zoned intrusive suite of Boulder Baldy constitute the principal Late Cretaceous igneous intrusions hosted by Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of the Newland Formation in the Big Belt Mountains, Montana. These calc-alkaline plutonic masses are manifestations of subduction-related magmatism that prevailed along the western edge of North America during the Cretaceous. Radiogenic isotope data for neodymium, strontium, and lead indicate that the petrogenesis of the associated magmas involved a combination of (1) sources that were compositionally heterogeneous at the scale of the geographically restricted intrusive rocks in the Big Belt Mountains and (2) variable contamination by crustal assimilants also having diverse isotopic compositions. Altered and mineralized rocks temporally, spatially, and genetically related to these intrusions manifest at least two isotopically distinct mineralizing events, both of which involve major inputs from spatially associated Late Cretaceous igneous rocks. Alteration and mineralization of rock associated with the intrusive suite of Boulder Baldy requires a component characterized by significantly more radiogenic strontium than that characteristic of the associated igneous rocks. However, the source of such a component was not identified in the Big Belt Mountains. Similarly, altered and mineralized rocks associated with the quartz monzodiorite of Mount Edith include a component characterized by significantly more radiogenic strontium and lead, particularly as defined by 207Pb/204Pb values. The source of this component appears to be fluids that equilibrated with proximal Newland Formation rocks. Oxygen isotope data for rocks of the intrusive suite of Boulder Baldy are similar to those of subduction-related magmatism that include mantle-derived components; oxygen isotope data for altered and mineralized equivalents are slightly lighter.

  10. Simulated bat populations erode when exposed to climate change projections for western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hayes

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that temperature and precipitation conditions correlate with successful reproduction in some insectivorous bat species that live in arid and semiarid regions, and that hot and dry conditions correlate with reduced lactation and reproductive output by females of some species. However, the potential long-term impacts of climate-induced reproductive declines on bat populations in western North America are not well understood. We combined results from long-term field monitoring and experiments in our study area with information on vital rates to develop stochastic age-structured population dynamics models and analyzed how simulated fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes populations changed under projected future climate conditions in our study area near Boulder, Colorado (Boulder Models and throughout western North America (General Models. Each simulation consisted of an initial population of 2,000 females and an approximately stable age distribution at the beginning of the simulation. We allowed each population to be influenced by the mean annual temperature and annual precipitation for our study area and a generalized range-wide model projected through year 2086, for each of four carbon emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, RCP8.5. Each population simulation was repeated 10,000 times. Of the 8 Boulder Model simulations, 1 increased (+29.10%, 3 stayed approximately stable (+2.45%, +0.05%, -0.03%, and 4 simulations decreased substantially (-44.10%, -44.70%, -44.95%, -78.85%. All General Model simulations for western North America decreased by >90% (-93.75%, -96.70%, -96.70%, -98.75%. These results suggest that a changing climate in western North America has the potential to quickly erode some forest bat populations including species of conservation concern, such as fringed myotis.

  11. Abrasion and algal fouling of coarse material on the Murman littoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malavenda S. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available On the Murmansk coast of the Barents Sea the boulder littoral zone is widely spread mostly covered by Fucus communities. This is one of the most productive benthic communities of the Barents Sea. The studies of intertidal communities have the long history, but the dynamics of intertidal ecosystems due to surf and storms is not clear. The goal of the work is to identify the leading factors that determine the rate of abrasion of coarse material and fouling algae-macrophytes of the intertidal zone of Murman. The study has been conducted in the Zelenetskaya Bay of the Barents Sea on the basis of the biological station of the MMBI KSC RAS. The rate of abrasion has been carried out during 2004–2013, phyto-overgrowing – 2009–2013. In three pilot landfills 12 samples of coarse material have been exposed during the year (from July to next July. The weight change of the sample as well as species composition and biomass of algae of fouling communities have been investigated. The influence of the surf intensity, temperature of water and air has been analyzed (univariate analysis of variance ANOVA has been applied. It has been shown that on the littoral of the Murmansk coast the abrasion of coarse material is determined primarily by the number of storms, so the storm rate has been proposed. It has been revealed that the density of fouling boulders with macroalgae depends primarily on the intensity of the surf and the average gradient of air temperature. The basis for the emerging communities of annual species are green (Acrosiphonia arcta, Blidingia minima, Spongomorpha aeruginosa and brown algae (Pylaiella littoralis, Dictyosiphon chordaria. These algae groups are found everywhere in Fucus communities of the boulder intertidal zone of the Murman coast and probably they are the intermediate stage of fouling the coarse-grained material

  12. Precipitable water characteristics during the 2013 Colorado flood using ground-based GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsing, Hannah K.; Wang, Junhong; Mears, Carl; Braun, John J.

    2017-11-01

    During 9-16 September 2013, the Front Range region of Colorado experienced heavy rainfall that resulted in severe flooding. Precipitation totals for the event exceeded 450 mm, damages to public and private properties were estimated to be over USD 2 billion, and nine lives were lost. This study analyzes the characteristics of precipitable water (PW) surrounding the event using 10 years of high-resolution GPS PW data in Boulder, Colorado, which was located within the region of maximum rainfall. PW in Boulder is dominated by seasonal variability with an average summertime maximum of 36 mm. In 2013, the seasonal PW maximum extended into early September and the September monthly mean PW exceeded the 99th percentile of climatology with a value 25 % higher than the 40-year climatology. Prior to the flood, around 18:00 UTC on 8 September, PW rapidly increased from 22 to 32 mm and remained around 30 mm for the entire event as a result of the nearly saturated atmosphere. The frequency distribution of September PW for Boulder is typically normal, but in 2013 the distribution was bimodal due to a combination of above-average PW values from 1 to 15 September and much drier conditions from 16 to 30 September. The above-normal, near-saturation PW values during the flood were the result of large-scale moisture transport into Colorado from the Tropical Eastern Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico. This moisture transport was the product of a stagnating cutoff low over the southwestern United States working in conjunction with an anticyclone located over the southeastern United States. A blocking ridge located over the Canadian Rocky Mountains kept both of the synoptic features in place over the course of several days, which helped to provide continuous moisture to the storm, thus enhancing the accumulated precipitation totals.

  13. Analytical Results for 42 Fluvial Tailings Cores and 7 Stream Sediment Samples from High Ore Creek, Northern Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Church, Stan E.

    1998-01-01

    Metal-mining related wastes in the Boulder River basin study area in northern Jefferson County, Montana have been implicated in their detrimental effects on water quality with regard to acid-generation and toxic-metal solubility. Sediments, fluvial tailings and water from High Ore Creek have been identified as significant contributors to water quality degradation of the Boulder River below Basin, Montana. A study of 42 fluvial tailings cores and 7 stream sediments from High Ore Creek was undertaken to determine the concentrations of environmentally sensitive elements (i.e. Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) present in these materials, and the mineral phases containing those elements. Two sites of fluvial deposition of mine-waste contaminated sediment on upper High Ore Creek were sampled using a one-inch soil probe. Forty-two core samples were taken producing 247 subsamples. The samples were analyzed by ICP-AES (inductively coupled-plasma atomic emission spectroscopy) using a total mixed-acid digestion. Results of the core analyses show that the elements described above are present at very high concentrations (to 22,000 ppm As, to 460 ppm Ag, to 900 ppm Cd, 4,300 ppm Cu, 46,000ppm Pb, and 50,000 ppm Zn). Seven stream-sediment samples were also analyzed by ICP-AES for total element content and for leachable element content. Results show that the sediment of High Ore Creek has elevated levels of ore-related metals throughout its length, down to the confluence with the Boulder River, and that the metals are, to a significant degree, contained in the leachable phase, namely the hydrous amorphous iron- and manganese-hydroxide coatings on detrital sediment particles.

  14. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Southern Nevada Region: Potential for Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, B. J.; Metcalf, R. V.; Berry, D.; McLaurin, B.; Kent, D.; Januch, J.; Goossens, D.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring fibrous actinolite, winchite, magnesioriebeckite, richterite, magnesiohornblende, and erionite have been found in rock, soil, and dust in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The areas containing naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) include urban areas (e.g. Boulder City) and rural areas where people routinely enjoy outdoor activities including horseback riding, running, hiking, bicycling, and off-road-vehicle (ORV) recreation. A recent study showing mesothelioma in young people and women suggests some form of environmental exposure. Rock, soil, dust and clothing were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); additional rock samples were analyzed using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EPMA); additional soil samples were analyzed using PLM (polarizing light microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) using the Fluidized Bed Asbestos Segregator preparation method. Winds have transported and mixed the Ca-amphiboles, which are primarily from Nevada, with the Na-amphiboles that are primarily from northwestern Arizona. Erionite, which has not previously been reported in this area, was a common soil component found in 5 of 6 samples. The erionite source has not yet been determined. Winds have transported the amphibole and erionite particles into the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area - an ORV recreation area located 35 km north of Boulder City that otherwise would not be geologically predicted to contain fibrous amphiboles. In Boulder City, wind directions are primarily bimodal N-NE and S-SW with the strongest winds in the spring coming from the S-SW. The arid climate in this part of the Mojave Desert greatly increases the potential for wind erosion and human exposures. These results suggest that the entire Las Vegas Basin has, at times, received these particles through wind transport. Because the most likely human exposure pathway is through inhalation of dust, the Las Vegas

  15. a Microgravity Survey to Determine the Extent of AN Andesitic Sill that Intrudes across the Rio Grande River Basin, Rio Grande Rift Valley, Sunland Park, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L. A.; Shinagel, S.; Villalobos, J. I.; Avila, V.; Montana, C. J.; Kaip, G.

    2012-12-01

    In Sunland Park, NM, there is an andesite outcrop near the bank of the Rio Grande (called the River Andesite) which does not match the surrounding sedimentary deposition. Studies of the River Andesite by Garcia (1970) indicate the outcrop is petrologically similar to the Muleros Andesite of Mt. Cristo Rey located several km to the south. A limited GPR and magnetic survey conducted by UTEP students in 2008 suggested the River Andesite was part of a dike, although Garcia mapped smaller outcrops of andesite ~300 m west of the river that may be part of the same body. We have recently (June 2012) found large andesite boulders that may be the outcrops Garcia mapped, although it is uncertain whether these boulders are in-situ. We initially collected microgravity and magnetic data in a small region near the river outcrop in December 2011 to determine the extent of the outcrop. Our preliminary modeling of these data showed the river outcrop appeared to merge with a more extensive igneous body at depth. Ground conductivity data collected near the river outcrop in March 2012 suggested that the outcrop impacts groundwater flow and sediment deposition adjacent to the river. From May through July 2012 we have been collecting additional microgravity data on a grid with 100-200 m spacing extending ~ 500 m from both sides of the river outcrop to better determine the extent of the buried andesite body. We also plan to conduct GPR and magnetic surveys near the recently discovered andesite boulders to determine if these are truly in-situ and part of the same igneous body as the river outcrop. Our eventual goal is to determine how extensive the andesite unit is and how it may impact groundwater flow and flooding in this area of growing urbanization.

  16. Forearm muscle oxygenation during sustained isometric contractions in rock climbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kodejška

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bouldering and lead climbing are divergent disciplines of the sport of rock climbing. Bouldering moves are short and powerful, whilst sport climbing is longer and require a greater degree of endurance. Aim. The aim of this study was to compare forearm muscle oxygenation during sustained isometric contraction between lead climbers (LC and boulderers (BO. Methods. Eight BO and twelve LC completed maximal finger flexor strength test and sustained contractions to exhaustion at 60% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Differences between BO and LC in maximal strength, time to exhaustion, force time integral (FTI, and tissue oxygenation (SmO2 were assessed by t-test for independent samples. Results. LC showed significantly lower level of average tissue oxygenation (BO 38.9% SmO2, s = 7.4; LC 28.7% SmO2, s = 7.1 and maximal tissue deoxygenation (BO 25.6% SmO2, s = 8.2; LC 13.5% SmO2, s = 8.5. LC demonstrated significantly lower finger flexor strength (519 N, s = 72 than BO (621 N, s = 142. LC sustained a longer time of contraction (not significantly (BO 52.2 s, s = 11.5; LC 60.6 s, s = 13 and achieved a similar value of FTI (BO 17421 Ns, s = 4291; LO 17476 Ns, s = 5036 in the endurance test. Conclusions. The results showed lower deoxygenation during sustained contraction in BO than LC despite similar FTI, indicating different local metabolic pathways in both groups.

  17. GAMMA-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF THE U-SERIES INTERMEDIATE DAUGHTERS FROM SOIL SAMPLES AT THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOG, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. French; E.Y. Anthony; P.C. Goodell

    2005-07-18

    The Pena Blanca natural analog is located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, approximately 50 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The Sierra Pena Blanca is composed mainly of ash-flow tuffs, and the uranium in the region is contained in the brecciated zones of these tuffs. The Pena Blanca site is considered a natural analog to the proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository because they share similar characteristics of structure, volcanic lithology, tectonic activity, and hydrologic regime. One of the mineralized zones, the Nopal I deposit, was mined in the early 1980s and the ore was stockpiled close to the mine. This stockpile area has subsequently been cleared and is referred to as the prior high-grade stockpile (PHGS) site. Soil surrounding boulders of high-grade ore associated with the PHGS site have been sampled. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radioisotopes from the boulder to the soil during the past 25 years. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. The daughter to parent ratios are used to establish whether the samples are in secular equilibrium. Activities are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected by gamma-ray spectroscopy include {sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, and {sup 234}Pa. Preliminary results indicate that some daughter to parent pairs appear to be in secular disequilibrium. Thorium is in excess relative to uranium, and radium is in excess relative to thorium. A deficiency appears to exist for {sup 210}Pb relative to {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb. If these results are borne out by further analysis, they would suggest transport of nuclides from the high-grade boulder into its surroundings, followed by continued leaching of uranium and lead from the environment.

  18. The Stickney Crater ejecta secondary impact crater spike on Phobos: Implications for the age of Stickney and the surface of Phobos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsley, Kenneth R.; Head, James W.

    2017-04-01

    A global and uniformly distributed spike of secondary impact craters on Phobos with diameters (D) energy conversion inefficiencies of the crater formation process. We also calculate the pre- and post-impact Phobos moment of inertia that further contributes to the desynchronizing effect. The majority of the Stickney ejecta that exited from Phobos was trapped in orbits around Mars until it later accumulated back onto Phobos over a period of sufficient period of desynchronized rotation exposed the entire surface of Phobos to ejecta that returned from martian orbits. In view of how all or most craters observed inside Stickney Crater approximate the size/frequency distribution (SFD) of Stickney secondary impacts, it is infeasible to derive an age for Stickney Crater based on an assumption of background impacts ( 2.8-4.2 Ga according to Schmedemann et al. (2014)). In view of how crater-counting is unworkable for age-dating Stickney Crater we conclude an alternate age for Stickney Crater of 0.1-0.5 Ga that is constrained instead by the boulder evidence of Thomas et al. (2000), the boulder destruction rate analysis of Basilevsky et al. (2013, 2015), and the observed space weathering of Phobos regolith (Cipriani et al., 2011; Pieters et al., 2014). Assessing several implications of our model we 1) summarize the crater SFD and temporal nature of the Stickney secondary impact spike on Phobos, 2) predict the global equivalent thickness of deposits on Phobos from Stickney ejecta and subsequent secondary impact gardening, 3) examine the hypothesis that the Stickney impact was a trailing hemisphere event on Phobos that reoriented Phobos to its present-day synchronous ;tidal lock; longitude, 4) set limits on the volume of low-velocity Stickney ejecta that is available to produce Phobos grooves from rolling boulders, and 5) estimate the crater SFD of a meteor spike on Mars from a trailing hemisphere Stickney impact.

  19. Lunar Crater Interiors with High Circular Polarization Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, C. M.; Campbell, B. A.; Morgan, G.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed 12.6-cm Earth-based radar images of the Moon to search for older craters (pre-Copernican) that display high values of the circular polarization ratio (CPR) on their interior walls. These craters have highly eroded rims and ejecta, indicating that there must be a source exposed within the crater interior that is continuously creating a rougher surface. Of particular interest are craters between 10-25 km in diameter that occur in smooth plains in the highlands, where competent layers are not expected as they are for the mare. After identifying these high-CPR interiors in pre-Copernican craters, we studied LROC NAC and Kaguya TC images to search for possible albedo and layering on crater interior walls that might signal the presence of anomalous material. Our results indicate that high-CPR craters generally have boulder fields clustered around their upper interior walls. We divide the high-CPR craters into three types: (1) craters on the layered mare lava flows; (2) craters in the highlands that correlate to mapped locations of smooth plains; and (3) craters on the highlands that are not associated with smooth plains. Most of the high-CPR craters in the highlands are associated with Eratosthenian-period craters, and most of these are also on smooth plains, indicating that impact melt sheets are a likely source for the boulders exposed on their interior walls. Statistical analyses will be performed after incorporating multiple lunar datasets into GIS to quantify these preliminary interpretations. Figure 1. Example of high-CPR crater Zagut A located on smooth plains in the highlands. LROC images showing boulders on (a) northern crater interior wall and (b) southern crater interior wall. (c) Stronlgy enhanced values of CPR are observed for the interior of Zagut A.

  20. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments of western Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Clos, Andrew R.; Parker, Castle E.

    2014-01-01

    Multibeam-echosounder data, collected during survey H12299 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 162-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York, are used along with sediment samples and bottom photography, collected at 37 stations in this area by the U.S. Geological Survey during cruise 2013-005-FA, to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These data and interpretations provide important base maps for future studies of the sea floor, focused, for example, on benthic ecology and resource management. The features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the glacial history and modern tidal regime. Features include bedforms such as sand waves and megaripples, boulders, a large current-scoured depression, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and areas of modern marine sediment. Sand covers much of the study area and is often in the form of sand waves and megaripples, which indicate environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Boulders and gravelly lag deposits, which indicate environments of erosion or nondeposition, are found off the coast of Gardiners Island and on bathymetric highs, probably marking areas where deposits associated with recessional ice-front positions, the northern flank of the terminal moraine, or coastal-plain sediments covered with basal till are exposed. Bottom photographs and video of boulders show that they are commonly covered with sessile fauna. Strong tidal currents have produced the deep scour depression along the northwestern edge of the study area. The eastern side of this depression is armored with a gravel lag. Sea-floor areas characterized by modern marine sediments appear featureless at the 2-meter resolution of the bathymetry and flat to current rippled in the photography. These modern environments are indicative of sediment sorting and reworking.