Sample records for boulders


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cotman


    Full Text Available The processes of forming, petrography, features, properties and exploitation of granite boulders are described. The directional drilling and black powder blasting is the succesful method in exploitation of granite boulders (boulder technology (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. Probability of Boulders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager


    To collect background information for formulating a description of the expected soil properties along the tunnel line, in 1987 Storebælt initiated a statistical investigation of the occurrence and size of boulders in the Great Belt area. The data for the boulder size distribution were obtained by...

  3. Boulder Magnetic Observatory (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are vector and scalar component values of the Earth's magnetic field for 2004 recorded at the Boulder Magnetic Observatory in Colorado. Vector values are...

  4. [Traumatic elbow dislocations in bouldering]. (United States)

    Sandmann, G H; Siebenlist, S; Lenich, A; Neumaier, M; Ahrens, P; Kirchhoff, C; Braun, K F; Lucke, M; Biberthaler, P


    Bouldering is a new trend sport which has become popular in recent years. From April 2011 to June 2012 a total of 5 patients with elbow dislocations from bouldering were admitted to our level 1 trauma center. The injuries varied from simple elbow dislocations to complex fracture dislocations. Elbow dislocations occurred during falling backwards when patients tried to protect themselves by retroversion of both arms. In all cases the falling height was less than 4 meters. The bouldering injury pattern, the diagnostic and therapeutic management as well as the rehabilitation program are described in detail in this article. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the special danger of bouldering for complex elbow injuries.

  5. Boulders Ejected From Small Impact Craters (United States)

    Bart, Gwendolyn D.; Melosh, H. J.


    We investigate the distribution of boulders ejected from lunar craters by analyzing high resolution Lunar Orbiter images. Our previous study (DPS 2004) of four small craters indicated that larger boulders are more frequently found close to the crater rim rather than far away, and that the size of the ejecta drops off as a power law with distance from the crater. Our current study adds more than ten new bouldery craters that range in size from 200 m to several kilometers and are found on a variety of terrain (mare, highlands, and the Copernicus ejecta blanket.) For each crater we plot the boulder diameter as a function of the ejection velocity of the boulder. We compare this size-velocity distribution with the size-velocity distribution of ejecta from large craters (Vickery 1986, 1987) to ascertain the mechanism of fracture of the substrate in the impact. We also make cumulative plots of the boulders, indicating the number of boulders of each size present around the crater. The cumulative plots allow us to compare our boulder distributions with the distributions of secondary craters from large impacts. Material thrown from a several-hundred-meter diameter crater may land intact as boulders, but material thrown from a tens-of-kilometers diameter crater will travel at a significantly higher velocity, and will form a secondary crater when it impacts the surface. Our data helps elucidate whether the upturn, at small diameters, of the cratering curve of the terrestrial planets is due to secondary impacts or to the primary population. This work is funded by NASA PGG grant NNG05GK40G.

  6. 78 FR 7775 - Boulder Canyon Project (United States)


    .... \\1\\ 75 FR 57912 (September 23, 2010). \\2\\ 133 FERC ] 62,229. The proposed BCP electric service base... in power rate adjustments (10 CFR part 903) were published on September 18, 1985 (50 FR 87835... Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE....

  7. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Boulder ZED Design Build - Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Boulder, Colorado, that scored HERS 38 without PV and 0 with PV. This 2,504 ft2 custom home has advanced framed walls, superior insulation a ground-source heat pump, ERV, and triple-pane windows.

  8. Geological Investigations on Boulder-Clay of E. Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzel, van P.; Overweel, C.J.; Veenstra, H.J.


    In this article the results of a study on boulder-clay in the neighbourhood of Winschoten (N.E. Netherlands) are communicated (Chapter I). The underlying sediments of the boulder-clay in this area consist of fine preglacial sands and black clay. In the nuclei of the many drumlins a strongly ice-push


    Fisher, Frederick S.; Johnson, Fredrick L.


    There have been no minerals produced from, and there are no mines located within the White Cloud-Boulder Roadless Area, Idaho; however, based on mineral studies, the southern part of the roadless area has a probable resource potential for tungsten and the northwestern corner a probable resource potential for gold and silver. The conclusions are based on the presence of favorable geologic environments for calc-silicate skarns in the southern part of the roadless area and the presence of gold-bearing quartz-carbonate veins in the northern part. The northern part of the area in the vicinity of Sheep Mountain-Bowery Peak has a probable resource potential for arsenic, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, silver, tin, and zinc, on the basis of geologic and geophysical data that suggest the presence of a buried intrusive body which probably has associated ore deposits. No energy resources were identified in the study.

  10. Characterization of Boulders Ejected from Small Impact Craters (United States)

    Bart, G. D.; Melosh, H. J.; Strom, R. G.


    When an asteroid or comet impacts the surface of a solid body, some of the surface material is often ejected from the crater in the form of blocks. We are characterizing the size and location of such blocks around craters on the Moon and Mars. The lunar craters were observed in Lunar Orbiter III images from P-12 and S-18. The Mars crater was observed in Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) Release No. MOC2-712. The craters range in size from 300 m to 3 km diameter. We measured the diameters of boulders observed around the craters, and also measured the distance between the boulder and the crater center. We then calculate the ejection velocity of each boulder based on how far the block was from the crater. The data indicate that larger boulders are more frequently found close to the crater rim rather than far away. The size of the ejecta drops off as a power law with distance from the crater. Our results are consistent with studies by Vickery (1986, 1987), which indirectly found the distribution of ejecta sizes from large craters by analyzing the size and distribution of their secondary craters. Our work characterizes the other end of the ejecta spectrum --- low velocity boulders ejected from small craters. We have also constructed R-plots of the boulder diameters for each crater. We found that the R-plot for the boulders has a dependence remarkably similar to an R-plot of the diameters of secondary craters. This similarity supports the already accepted idea that the impactors that produce secondaries are blocks ejected from larger craters. It is also consistent with the interpretation that the upturn of the cratering curve at small diameters on the terrestrial planets is due to secondary impacts rather than a primary population as some have proposed.

  11. Boulder Dislodgement by Tsunamis and Storms: Version 2.0 (United States)

    Weiss, Robert


    In the past, boulder dislodgement by tsunami and storm waves has been approached with a simple threshold approach in which a boulder was moved if the sum of the acting forces on the boulder is larger than zero. The impulse theory taught us, however, that this criterion is not enough to explain particle dislodgement. We employ an adapted version of the Newton's Second Law of Motion (NSLM) in order to consider the essence of the impulse theory which is that the sum of the forces has to exceed a certain threshold for a certain period of time. Furthermore, a classical assumption is to consider linear waves. However, when waves travel toward the shore, they alter due to non-linear processes. We employ the TRIADS model to quantify that change and how it impacts boulder dislodgement. We present our results of the coupled model (adapted NSLM and TRIADS model). The results project a more complex picture of boulder transport by storms and tsunami. The following question arises: What information do we actually invert, and what does it tell us about the causative event?

  12. Resistance forces during boulder extraction from an asteroid (United States)

    Kulchitsky, Anton V.; Johnson, Jerome B.; Reeves, David M.


    Planning for NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) requires estimating the forces that appear during extraction of a boulder from the surface of an asteroid with unknown surface regolith properties. These forces are estimated for a vertical constant force or acceleration pull and a rolling, constant force, torque (peel) on a 4-m diameter spherical boulder using both analytic and discrete element method (DEM) models considering the effects of microgravity and regolith cohesion using Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model. Estimates of the bulk asteroid regolith cohesion strength derived from lunar and asteroid regolith studies ranged from 25 Pa to 250 Pa. JKR cohesive forces at particle contacts depend on particle surface energy and effective curvature radius (particle size). DEM particle size dependent cohesion parameters are linked to estimated regolith cohesion strength by simulating shear and tension tests over a range of DEM particle surface energies resulting in the formulation of the dependence of particle surface energy as a function of cohesion strength and particle size. Maximum extraction forces occur for a vertical pull through the boulder center of mass with constant acceleration. Extraction force decreases for a constant force pull to 0.62pc S where S is the boulder surface area embedded in the regolith and pc is the cohesion strength of the regolith. Boulder extraction by peeling produces the smallest forces by up to more than a factor of 2, as the failure across the boulder surface increases progressively rather than being fully engaged as occurs during a vertical pull extraction. Variations between DEM and analytic results differed from 9% to 17% over the range of regolith cohesion values and peel extraction leverage.

  13. Surface Macrofabric of Boulder Dominated Desert Mountain Slopes, California, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donald A. FRIEND


    Rhyolite domes formed over a million year continuum in eastern California are used to study boulder dominated slopes. Slopes in this study are steep (~25° to ~35°) and are made of coarse boulder sized blocks. These slopes include well varnished vertically oriented eolluvial deposits that have been likened to relict periglacial stone stripes, or as indicated in this study, are the result of ongoing desert slope processes. The deposits are common throughout the arid southwestern US, but their morphometric character, fabric, and rates of formation have not been assessed systematically.Results indicate that boulder deposits examined here are remnant from the original surface formed during volcanic eruption and that these boulder slope deposits evolve slowly. Grain size, grain shape and grain angularity do not change significantly from genesis to ~0.6 Ma; trends in the data change markedly after that time. Mean eigenvectors indicate a fabric oriented downhill, parallel to the slope,consistent with the visual impression that long thin to plate-like rocks orient themselves similarly; however,fabric is actually randomly dispersed, similar to that at slope genesis, as indicated by the eigenvalue analysis resultants of C and K. Interestingly, grains remain or become more angular over the million-year time scale of the study as they decrease in size,indicating active in situ weathering processes on individual grains; this result is counter to the common assumption that as grains weather they become more rounded over time.

  14. A time motion analysis of bouldering style competitive rock climbing. (United States)

    White, Dominic J; Olsen, Peter D


    Limited research has been performed on competitive bouldering. The aim of this study was to quantify the movement dynamics of elite boulder climbers. Six climbers were filmed during a national competition consisting of 5 novel climbing problems or routes. Two problems were randomly selected and film footage was analyzed using Kandle Swinger Pro software to determine type and duration (seconds) of bouldering movements. All subjects provided consent, and the study had ethical approval. The mean +/- SD were determined for number of attempts per problem, duration of attempt, time on hold, and time to reach between holds. Exercise:recovery ratios were also calculated. On average, climbers attempted a problem 3.0 +/- 0.5 times, with an attempt lasting 28.9 +/- 10.8 seconds and rest periods of 114 +/- 31 seconds between attempts. Average time gripping holds was 7.9 +/- 1.3 seconds, with approximately 0.5 +/- 0.1 seconds recovery between reaching for holds. The exercise-to-recovery ratio was approximately 1:4 for attempting a problem and approximately 13:1 for forearm muscles during climbing. The exercise-to-recovery ratios allow sufficient time for recovery during and after a problem. However, the prolonged contraction of forearm muscles indicates the importance of strength and endurance in these muscles. Video analysis was found to be a useful tool for the quantification of movement characteristics of competitive elite boulders. Data collected could be utilized in the design of sport-specific tests and training programs. Future research could examine a larger number of athletes and problems and help develop performance tests and training interventions for bouldering.

  15. 49 CFR 393.136 - What are the rules for securing large boulders? (United States)


    ...) Each boulder must be supported on at least two pieces of hard wood blocking at least 10 cm × 10 cm (4..., so that the boulder may roll, it must be placed in a crib made of hardwood timber fixed to the deck of the vehicle so that the boulder rests on both the deck and the timber, with at least three...

  16. NASA’s Asteroid Redirect Mission: The Boulder Capture Option (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Nuth, Joseph A.; Mazanek, Dan D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Reeves, David M.; Naasz, Bo J.


    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar-electric-propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (˜4-10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (˜1-5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (˜100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. This option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well-characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa’s target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA’s OSIRIS REx and JAXA’s Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. The boulder option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting boulder be returned for subsequent sampling. This boulder option for NASA’s ARM can leverage knowledge of previously characterized NEAs from prior robotic missions, which provides more certainty of the target NEA

  17. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder during third EVA (United States)


    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed standing next to a huge, split boulder during the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site on the Moon. The lunar rover, which transported Schmitt and Eugene A. Cernan, mission commander, to this extravehicular station from their Lunar Module, is seen in the background. Schmitt is the Apollo 17 lunar module pilot. The mosaic is made from two frames from Apollo 17 Hasselblad magaine 140.

  18. Untangling boulder dislodgement in storms and tsunamis: Is it possible with simple theories? (United States)

    Weiss, R.; Diplas, P.


    Boulders can move during storms and tsunamis. It is difficult to find a simple method to distinguish boulders moved by tsunami waves from those moved during storms in the field. In this contribution, we explore boulder dislodgement by storm and tsunami waves by solving an adapted version of Newton's Second Law of Motion in polar coordinates and defining a critical position for boulder dislodgement. We find that the boulder dislodgement is not only a function of the causative wave, but also of the roughness in the vicinity of the boulder and the slope angle. We employ the amplitude of storm and tsunami waves to dislodge boulders of given masses to evaluate if boulder dislodgement in storms can be untangled from boulder transport in tsunamis. As the main result of our numerical experiments, we find a significant difference between storm and tsunami waves to dislodge the same boulder for large masses and large roughness values. This allows us to conclude that simple theories are applicable to answer the questions asked in the title, but we argue only if they contain a critical dislodgement condition like the one presented here.

  19. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddeucci, Joe [Dept. of Public Works, Boulder, CO (United States). Utilities Division


    The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project (BCH) was purchased by the City of Boulder, CO (the city) in 2001. Project facilities were originally constructed in 1910 and upgraded in the 1930s and 1940s. By 2009, the two 10 MW turbine/generators had reached or were nearing the end of their useful lives. One generator had grounded out and was beyond repair, reducing plant capacity to 10 MW. The remaining 10 MW unit was expected to fail at any time. When the BCH power plant was originally constructed, a sizeable water supply was available for the sole purpose of hydroelectric power generation. Between 1950 and 2001, that water supply had gradually been converted to municipal water supply by the city. By 2001, the water available for hydroelectric power generation at BCH could not support even one 10 MW unit. Boulder lacked the financial resources to modernize the facilities, and Boulder anticipated that when the single, operational historical unit failed, the project would cease operation. In 2009, the City of Boulder applied for and received a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant for $1.18 million toward a total estimated project cost of $5.155 million to modernize BCH. The federal funding allowed Boulder to move forward with plant modifications that would ensure BCH would continue operation. Federal funding was made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Boulder determined that a single 5 MW turbine/generator would be the most appropriate capacity, given the reduced water supply to the plant. Average annual BCH generation with the old 10 MW unit had been about 8,500 MW-hr, whereas annual generation with a new, efficient turbine could average 11,000 to 12,000 MW-hr. The incremental change in annual generation represents a 30% increase in generation over pre-project conditions. The old turbine/generator was a single nozzle Pelton turbine with a 5-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 82%. The new unit is a

  20. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddeucci, Joe [Dept. of Public Works, Boulder, CO (United States). Utilities Division


    The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project (BCH) was purchased by the City of Boulder, CO (the city) in 2001. Project facilities were originally constructed in 1910 and upgraded in the 1930s and 1940s. By 2009, the two 10 MW turbine/generators had reached or were nearing the end of their useful lives. One generator had grounded out and was beyond repair, reducing plant capacity to 10 MW. The remaining 10 MW unit was expected to fail at any time. When the BCH power plant was originally constructed, a sizeable water supply was available for the sole purpose of hydroelectric power generation. Between 1950 and 2001, that water supply had gradually been converted to municipal water supply by the city. By 2001, the water available for hydroelectric power generation at BCH could not support even one 10 MW unit. Boulder lacked the financial resources to modernize the facilities, and Boulder anticipated that when the single, operational historical unit failed, the project would cease operation. In 2009, the City of Boulder applied for and received a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant for $1.18 million toward a total estimated project cost of $5.155 million to modernize BCH. The federal funding allowed Boulder to move forward with plant modifications that would ensure BCH would continue operation. Federal funding was made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Boulder determined that a single 5 MW turbine/generator would be the most appropriate capacity, given the reduced water supply to the plant. Average annual BCH generation with the old 10 MW unit had been about 8,500 MW-hr, whereas annual generation with a new, efficient turbine could average 11,000 to 12,000 MW-hr. The incremental change in annual generation represents a 30% increase in generation over pre-project conditions. The old turbine/generator was a single nozzle Pelton turbine with a 5-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 82%. The new unit is a

  1. NASA's asteroid redirect mission: Robotic boulder capture option (United States)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.


    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar-electric-propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (˜4--10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (˜1--5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (˜100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well-characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU_3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense.

  2. Maximum Velocity of a Boulder Ejected From an Impact Crater Formed on a Regolith Covered Surface (United States)

    Bart, G. D.; Melosh, H. J.


    We investigate the effect of regolith depth on boulder ejection velocity. A "boulder" refers to an apparently intact rock or rock fragment lying on a planetary surface, regardless of emplacement mechanism. Boulders appear in planetary images as positive relief features --- bright, sun-facing pixels adjacent to dark, shadowed pixels. We studied 12 lunar craters in high resolution (1~m) photographs from Lunar Orbiter III and V. Local regolith depth was measured using the method of small crater morphology. Ejection velocities of boulders were calculated assuming a ballistic trajectory to the final boulder location. A plot of regolith depth/crater diameter vs. maximum boulder ejection velocity shows that craters formed in deeper regolith (with respect to crater size) eject boulders at lower velocities. When ejection velocity (EjV) is in m/s, and regolith depth (Dr) and crater diameter (Dc) are in meters, the data fit the relation Dr / Dc = 1053 × EjVmax-2.823. To explain the data, we turn to impact cratering theory. An ejected particle will follow a streamline from its place of origin to its ejection point (the Z-model), and then follow a ballistic trajectory. Material ejected along more shallow streamlines is ejected at greater velocities. If shallow regolith covers the surface, the most shallow (greatest velocity) streamlines will travel only through the regolith. Boulders, however, must be ejected from the bedrock below the regolith. Thus, the boulder ejected with the greatest velocity originates just below the regolith, along the most shallow streamline through the bedrock. If the regolith is deeper, the most shallow streamline through the bedrock will be deeper, and the maximum velocity of an ejected boulder will be lower. Hence, the regolith depth and maximum ejection velocity of a boulder are correlated: greater boulder ejection velocities correspond to thinner regolith. We observe this correlation in the data.

  3. Clast mobility within boulder beaches over two winters in Galicia, northwestern Spain (United States)

    Pérez-Alberti, Augusto; Trenhaile, Alan S.


    A micro-drone was used to make low altitude flights over boulder beaches at Laxe Brava and Oia in Galicia, northwestern Spain. Flights were made in July 2012, May 2013, and spring 2014. High resolution digital terrain models and orthophotographs, combined with GIS mapping, were used to monitor changes in the position of thousands of boulders. Maximum storm wave height was higher in the winter of 2013-2014 than in winter 2012-2013, and this was reflected in an increase in the proportion of the boulders that moved in the two winters, from 17% to almost 48% at Laxe Brava, and from 53% to almost 88% at Oia. The greater mobility of the boulders at Oia can be attributed in part to their generally smaller size, although there was considerable overlap between the size of boulders that moved and those that did not move within and between the two beaches. There were mobile boulders in areas up to several metres above the high tidal level on both beaches, and boulder transport in the shore-normal and alongshore directions triggered some changes in the beach profiles, particularly in the middle to upper parts of the beaches. Estimates of threshold transport conditions, scaled to boulder mass, breaker height, and other variables, suggested that all but the very largest boulders on the two beaches should have been mobile, even during the summer months when the waves were much lower than in winter. Model over-prediction can be attributed to a number of factors, including: constraints on movement imposed by surrounding boulders; differences in boulder size and their effect on pivoting angles and on the degree to which boulders are exposed or sheltered from wave impact; and difficulties in assigning appropriate values to model coefficients.

  4. 75 FR 77898 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the ] University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human... CFR 10.11(d). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum,...

  5. 75 FR 28647 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... Tribe, Crow Tribe, Fort Belknap Indian Community, and Three Affiliated Tribes (73 FR 8359-8360, February... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The...

  6. 75 FR 45657 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the control of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human remains... notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of...

  7. Size-frequency distribution of boulders ≥10 m on comet 103P/Hartley 2 (United States)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Lucchetti, Alice; Bertini, Ivano; Marzari, Francesco; A'Hearn, Michael F.; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Lazzarin, Monica; Naletto, Giampiero; Barbieri, Cesare


    Aims: We derive the size-frequency distribution of boulders on comet 103P/Hartley 2, which are computed from the images taken by the Deep Impact/HRI-V imaging system. We indicate the possible physical processes that lead to these boulder size distributions. Methods: We used images acquired by the High Resolution Imager-Visible CCD camera on 4 November 2010. Boulders ≥10 m were identified and manually extracted from the datasets with the software ArcGIS. We derived the global size-frequency distribution of the illuminated side of the comet (~50%) and identified the power-law indexes characterizing the two lobes of 103P. The three-pixel sampling detection, together with the shadowing of the surface, enables unequivocally detection of boulders scattered all over the illuminated surface. Results: We identify 332 boulders ≥10 m on the imaged surface of the comet, with a global number density of nearly 140/km2 and a cumulative size-frequency distribution represented by a power law with index of -2.7 ± 0.2. The two lobes of 103P show similar indexes, i.e., -2.7 ± 0.2 for the bigger lobe (called L1) and -2.6+ 0.2/-0.5 for the smaller lobe (called L2). The similar power-law indexes and similar maximum boulder sizes derived for the two lobes both point toward a similar fracturing/disintegration phenomena of the boulders as well as similar lifting processes that may occur in L1 and L2. The difference in the number of boulders per km2 between L1 and L2 suggests that the more diffuse H2O sublimation on L1 produce twice the boulders per km2 with respect to those produced on L2 (primary activity CO2 driven). The 103P comet has a lower global power-law index (-2.7 vs. -3.6) with respect to 67P. The global differences between the two comets' activities, coupled with a completely different surface geomorphology, make 103P hardly comparable to 67P. A shape distribution analysis of boulders ≥30 m performed on 103P suggests that the cometary boulders show more elongated shapes

  8. Boulders on asteroid Toutatis as observed by Chang'e-2

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yun; Huang, Jiangchuan; Marchi, Simone; Li, Yuan; Ip, Wing-Huen


    Boulders are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of small rocky bodies in the inner solar system and their spatial and size distributions give insight into the geological evolution and collisional history of the parent bodies. Using images acquired by the Chang'e-2 spacecraft, more than 200 boulders have been identified over the imaged area of the near-Earth asteroid Toutatis. The cumulative boulder size frequency distribution (SFD) shows a steep slope of -4.4 $\\pm$ 0.1, which is indicative of a high degree of fragmentation. Similar to Itokawa, Toutatis probably has a rubble-pile structure, as most boulders on its surface cannot solely be explained by impact cratering. The significantly steeper slope for Toutatis' boulder SFD compared to Itokawa may imply a different preservation state or diverse formation scenarios. In addition, the cumulative crater SFD has been used to estimate a surface crater retention age of approximately 1.6 $\\pm$ 0.3 Gyr.

  9. The Geographic Distribution of Boulder Halo Craters at Mid-to-High Latitudes on Mars (United States)

    Rader, L. X.; Fassett, C. I.; Levy, J. S.; King, I. R.; Chaffey, P. M.; Wagoner, C. M.; Hanlon, A. E.; Watters, J. L.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Holt, J. W.; Dyar, M. D.


    Extensive evidence exists for ground ice at mid-to-high latitudes on Mars, including results from neutron spectroscopy [1-3], thermal properties [4-5], geomorphology [e.g., 6-9], and the in situ observations of Mars Phoenix [10]. This ground ice has been hypothesized to be emplaced diffusively and fill pores [11], or to have accumulated by ice and dust deposition that draped or mantled the terrain [7, 12]. These two processes are not mutually exclusive; both potentially have occurred on Mars [5]. One of the landforms found in areas where ground ice is common on Mars are boulder halo craters [e.g., 13-15] (Figure 1), which are topographically muted impact craters that are filled by ice-rich regolith. They are outlined by boulders that trace a circular outline of the original crater rim. Boulder halos generally have distinctly higher boulder densities than the surrounding background plains and have few boulders in their interiors. The mechanism of boulder halo crater formation is somewhat uncertain. Our working model is that an impact event occurs with sufficient size to excavate to a depth greater than the boulder-poor, ice-rich soils. Excavated boulders are deposited around the crater's rim and in its proximal ejecta. Quite rapidly [14], the crater becomes infilled by icy soil. Rather than being buried, boulders in the halo remain at the surface, perhaps be-cause they 'float' relative to finer-grained materials [14, 16]. Regardless of the details of this process, the life-time of boulders at the surface is much greater than the timescale needed to remove most of the craters' topography. Physical weathering of rocks must be greatly out-paced by crater infilling (the opposite of what is typical, e.g., on the Moon [17]). The rapidity of this infilling is easiest to understand if icy mantling material is deposited and accumulates, rather than simply being added by pore filling of soils. If this model is correct, boulder halos only form when they excavate rock

  10. Boulders increase resistance to clear-cut logging but not subsequent recolonization rates of boreal bryophytes. (United States)

    Schmalholz, Martin; Hylander, Kristoffer


    The extent to which a plant assemblage might recolonize a disturbed system is in general related to the availability of propagule sources and sites with appropriate conditions for establishment. Both these factors might be sensitive to aspects of spatial heterogeneity. Microtopographic variation may enhance initial resistance by reducing the impact of the disturbance and facilitating establishment of incoming propagules by providing shaded "safe-sites". This study explores the influence of microtopographic heterogeneity (caused by variation in surface boulder cover) on the recolonization of closed-canopy forest floor bryophytes using a chronosequence of 75 spruce-dominated forests in south-central Sweden (2-163 years after clear-cutting). We found that high boulder cover did increase survival and subsequent persistence in young forests at both investigated scales (i.e. 1,000 and 100 m(2)), although this pattern became less evident on the smaller spatial scale. Species accumulation in boulder-poor subplots was not different when surrounded by boulder-rich compared with boulder-poor subplots suggesting short-distance recolonization from boulder-created refugia to be of little importance during recolonization. To conclude, it seems that boulders increase initial resistance to clear-cutting for this bryophyte guild, but that the subsequent recolonization process is more likely to depend on external propagule sources and factors affecting establishment such as the microclimate in the developing stand.

  11. 77 FR 42695 - Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland; Boulder and Gilpin County... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland; Boulder and Gilpin County, CO; Eldora Mountain Resort Ski Area Projects; Correction AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA....

  12. Scaphopods from middle Liassic erratic boulders of northern Germany : with a review on Liassic Scaphopoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engeser, T.; Riedel, F.


    Three new scaphopod species, one new genus and one new family (Prodentalium bandeli sp. nov., Baltodentalium weitschati gen. & sp. nov., Progadilina spaethi sp. nov., Baltodentaliidae fam. nov.) are described from erratic boulders ('Ahrensburger Geschiebe') of Hoisdorf, northern Germany. The ammonoi

  13. 76 FR 43719 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human remains were removed from near Laguna, Cibola County, NM. This... removed from Maxson site number 121, a rock fall near Laguna, Cibola County, NM, by Asa Maxson,...

  14. Measured and Inferred Bedrock Faults in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (frifaultu) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital line representation of measured and inferred bedrock faults in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin, Colorado. This file was created as...

  15. 75 FR 47488 - FM Table of Allotments, Boulder Town, Levan, Mount Pleasant, and Richfield, UT (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments, Boulder Town, Levan, Mount Pleasant, and Richfield, UT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; petition for partial...

  16. Fifty Years of Space Weather Forecasting from Boulder (United States)

    Berger, T. E.


    The first official space weather forecast was issued by the Space Disturbances Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, in 1965, ushering in an era of operational prediction that continues to this day. Today, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) charters the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) as one of the nine National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to provide the nation's official watches, warnings, and alerts of space weather phenomena. SWPC is now integral to national and international efforts to predict space weather events, from the common and mild, to the rare and extreme, that can impact critical technological infrastructure. In 2012, the Strategic National Risk Assessment included extreme space weather events as low-to-medium probability phenomena that could, unlike any other meteorogical phenomena, have an impact on the government's ability to function. Recognizing this, the White House chartered the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) to produce the first comprehensive national strategy for the prediction, mitigation, and response to an extreme space weather event. The implementation of the National Strategy is ongoing with NOAA, its partners, and stakeholders concentrating on the goal of improving our ability to observe, model, and predict the onset and severity of space weather events. In addition, work continues with the research community to improve our understanding of the physical mechanisms - on the Sun, in the heliosphere, and in the Earth's magnetic field and upper atmosphere - of space weather as well as the effects on critical infrastructure such as electrical power transmission systems. In fifty years, people will hopefully look back at the history of operational space weather prediction and credit our efforts today with solidifying the necessary developments in observational systems, full-physics models of the entire Sun-Earth system, and tools for predicting the impacts to infrastructure to protect

  17. Indoor air quality in Latino homes in Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    Escobedo, Luis E.; Champion, Wyatt M.; Li, Ning; Montoya, Lupita D.


    Indoor concentrations of airborne pollutants can be several times higher than those found outdoors, often due to poor ventilation, overcrowding, and the contribution of indoor sources within a home. Americans spend most of their time indoors where exposure to poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can result in diminished respiratory and cardiovascular health. This study measured the indoor air quality in 30 homes of a low-income Latino community in Boulder, Colorado during the summer of 2012. Participants were administered a survey, which included questions on their health conditions and indoor air pollution sources like cigarette smoke, heating fuel, and building materials. Twenty-four hour samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from the indoor air were collected in each home; ambient PM2.5 samples were collected each day as well. Concurrent air samples were collected onto 47 mm Teflo and Tissuquartz filter at each location. Teflo filters were analyzed gravimetrically to measure PM2.5 and their extracts were used to determine levels of proteins and endotoxins in the fine fraction. The Tissuquartz filters were analyzed for elemental and organic carbon content (EC/OC). Results indicated that the indoor air contained higher concentrations of PM2.5 than the ambient air, and that the levels of OC were much higher than EC in both indoor and outdoor samples. This community showed no smoking in their homes and kept furry pets indoors at very low rates; therefore, cooking is likely the primary source of indoor PM. For responders with significant exposure to PM, it appeared to be primarily from occupational environments or childhood exposure abroad. Our findings indicate that for immigrant communities such as this, it is important to consider not only their housing conditions but also the relevant prior exposures when conducting health assessments.

  18. Intertidal boulder pavements in the northeastern Gulf of Alaska and their geological significance (United States)

    Eyles, C. H.


    Striated boulder pavements, consisting of planar concentrations of clasts having striated upper surfaces, are a common feature of glacigenic deposits but their origin is not well understood. Laterally extensive pavements are currently forming in the intertidal zone west of Icy Bay in the Gulf of Alaska. Pavements comprise "armoured" layers of interlocking boulders, one clast thick, that have been eroded from underlying outcrops of Late Cenozoic glaciomarine diamictites; they originate essentially as lag surfaces along a high energy, storm-dominated, mesotidal shoreline. Boulder pavements are either flat or show a "nucleated" plan form where successively smaller boulders have been accreted around a large core boulder. Nucleation imparts a hummocky surface topography to the pavements and suggests that some form of size sorting of clasts has occurred. Packing is promoted by repeated tamping of the clast lag by floating masses of glacier ice which become grounded across the intertidal zone at low tide. Repeated abrasion of the pavement surface by debris contained within ice blocks produces smooth, flattened clast upper surfaces and short, randomly oriented striations. Data from Icy Bay can be used to constrain the origin of laterally extensive boulder pavements exposed in Late Cenozoic glaciomarine sediments on Middleton Island. The significance of such pavements in the geologic record is that they form along erosional unconformities and may identify sequence boundaries.

  19. Boulders shifted during Supertyphoon Haiyan (7-9 Nov 2013) - Observations from Eastern Samar (Philippines) (United States)

    Engel, Max; May, S. Matthias; Brill, Dominik; Cuadra, Camille; Lagmay, A. Mahar F.; Santiago, Joy; Suarez, J. Kenneth; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Brückner, Helmut


    Boulder fields record maximum magnitudes of coastal flooding during strong storms or tsunamis. Such a maximum magnitude tropical cyclone - Supertyphoon Haiyan - made landfall in the Philippines on 8 November 2013. During this typhoon, longshore transport of blocks of up to 180 t and upslope transport of boulders weighing up to 23.5 t to elevations of 10 m above mean lower low water level was documented in a combined analysis of bi-temporal satellite images and field survey at Hernani, Eastern Samar. Boulders were mapped and their volumes were derived from 3D models based on DGPS and structure-from-motion. Initiation-of-motion approaches show that boulders were shifted by flow velocities of 8.9-9.6 m/s, which significantly exceeds depth-averaged flow velocities given by a local coupled hydrodynamic and wave model (Delft3D) of the typhoon with a maximum <1.5 m/s. These results, in combination with recently published phase-resolving wave models and survivor videos from Hernani, support the hypothesis that infragravity waves induced by the typhoon, which are not resolved in phase-averaged storm surge models, were responsible for the exceptional high-velocity flooding in Eastern Samar. Our findings show that tsunamis and hydrodynamic conditions induced by storms may shift boulders of similar size and, therefore, demand a careful re-evaluation of storm-related transport where it, based on the boulder's sheer size, has previously been excluded.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mhammdi, Fida Medina


    Full Text Available The rocky coastline south of Rabat (Morocco shows a large number of boulders lying upon the lithified dune system. The boulders, of 4-100 tons, may be single, in imbricated sets, or forming clusters and ridges. Several of the boulders were lifted and overturned, thus showing pool apertures downwards. Transport distance is generally decametric because of the surface roughness, but it can reach 300 m in flat areas. All boulders have been detached from their initial position at the fractured front of the active cliff. Quantification with the help wave hydrodynamics and rock displacement mechanics shows that dislodgement and transport of these boulders were accomplished rather by tsunami than by storm waves. Although no dating was attempted, post- emplacement bio-erosion by littorinids and the absence of any erosional features below the boulders suggests that they were emplaced during the 1st November 1755 AD Lisbon tsunami.

  1. Tsunami-induced boulder transport - combining physical experiments and numerical modelling (United States)

    Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; May, Simon Matthias; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brueckner, Helmut; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva


    Coasts are crucial areas for living, economy, recreation, transportation, and various sectors of industry. Many of them are exposed to high-energy wave events. With regard to the ongoing population growth in low-elevation coastal areas, the urgent need for developing suitable management measures, especially for hazards like tsunamis, becomes obvious. These measures require supporting tools which allow an exact estimation of impact parameters like inundation height, inundation area, and wave energy. Focussing on tsunamis, geological archives can provide essential information on frequency and magnitude on a longer time scale in order to support coastal hazard management. While fine-grained deposits may quickly be altered after deposition, multi-ton coarse clasts (boulders) may represent an information source on past tsunami events with a much higher preservation potential. Applying numerical hydrodynamic coupled boulder transport models (BTM) is a commonly used approach to analyse characteristics (e.g. wave height, flow velocity) of the corresponding tsunami. Correct computations of tsunamis and the induced boulder transport can provide essential event-specific information, including wave heights, runup and direction. Although several valuable numerical models for tsunami-induced boulder transport exist (e. g. Goto et al., 2007; Imamura et al., 2008), some important basic aspects of both tsunami hydrodynamics and corresponding boulder transport have not yet been entirely understood. Therefore, our project aims at these questions in four crucial aspects of boulder transport by a tsunami: (i) influence of sediment load, (ii) influence of complex boulder shapes other than idealized rectangular shapes, (iii) momentum transfers between multiple boulders, and (iv) influence of non-uniform bathymetries and topographies both on tsunami and boulder. The investigation of these aspects in physical experiments and the correct implementation of an advanced model is an urgent need

  2. The thermal emission from boulders on (25143) Itokawa and general implications for the YORP effect

    CERN Document Server

    Ševeček, P; Čapek, D; Ďurech, J


    Infrared radiation emitted from an asteroid surface causes a torque that can significantly affect rotational state of the asteroid. The influence of small topographic features on this phenomenon, called the YORP effect, seems to be of utmost importance. In this work, we show that a lateral heat diffusion in boulders of suitable sizes leads to an emergence of a local YORP effect which magnitude is comparable to the YORP effect due to the global shape. We solve a three-dimensional heat diffusion equation in a boulder and its surroundings by the finite element method, using the FreeFem++ code. The contribution to the total torque is inferred from the computed temperature distribution. Our general approach allows us to compute the torque induced by a realistic irregular boulder. For an idealized boulder, our result is consistent with an existing one-dimensional model. We also estimated (and extrapolated) a size distribution of boulders on (25143) Itokawa from close-up images of its surface. We realized that topog...

  3. The thermal emission from boulders on (25143) Itokawa and general implications for the YORP effect (United States)

    Ševeček, P.; Brož, M.; Čapek, D.; Ďurech, J.


    Infrared radiation emitted from an asteroid surface causes a torque that can significantly affect rotational state of the asteroid. The influence of small topographic features on this phenomenon, called the YORP effect, seems to be of utmost importance. In this work, we show that a lateral heat diffusion in boulders of suitable sizes leads to an emergence of a local YORP effect which magnitude is comparable to the YORP effect due to the global shape. We solve a three-dimensional heat diffusion equation in a boulder and its surroundings by the finite element method, using the FREEFEM++ code. The contribution to the total torque is inferred from the computed temperature distribution. Our general approach allows us to compute the torque induced by a realistic irregular boulder. For an idealized boulder, our result is consistent with an existing one-dimensional model. We also estimated (and extrapolated) a size distribution of boulders on (25143) Itokawa from close-up images of its surface. We realized that topographic features on Itokawa can potentially induce a torque corresponding to a rotational acceleration of the order of 10-7 rad d-2 and can therefore explain the observed phase shift in light curves.

  4. Boulders on asteroid Toutatis as observed by Chang’e-2 (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Ji, Jianghui; Huang, Jiangchuan; Marchi, Simone; Li, Yuan; Ip, Wing-Huen


    Boulders are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of small rocky bodies in the inner solar system and their spatial and size distributions give insight into the geological evolution and collisional history of the parent bodies. Using images acquired by the Chang’e-2 spacecraft, more than 200 boulders have been identified over the imaged area of the near-Earth asteroid Toutatis. The cumulative boulder size frequency distribution (SFD) shows a steep slope of -4.4 ± 0.1, which is indicative of a high degree of fragmentation. Similar to Itokawa, Toutatis probably has a rubble-pile structure, as most boulders on its surface cannot solely be explained by impact cratering. The significantly steeper slope for Toutatis’ boulder SFD compared to Itokawa may imply a different preservation state or diverse formation scenarios. In addition, the cumulative crater SFD has been used to estimate a surface crater retention age of approximately 1.6 ± 0.3 Gyr.

  5. Prediction of blast boulders in open pit mines via multiple regression and artificial neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghiasi Majid; Askarnejad Nematollah; Dindarloo Saeid R.; Shamsoddini Hamed


    The most important objective of blasting in open pit mines is rock fragmentation. Prediction of produced boulders (oversized crushed rocks) is a key parameter in designing blast patterns. In this study, the amount of boulder produced in blasting operations of Golegohar iron ore open pit mine, Iran was pre-dicted via multiple regression method and artificial neural networks. Results of 33 blasts in the mine were collected for modeling. Input variables were: joints spacing, density and uniaxial compressive strength of the intact rock, burden, spacing, stemming, bench height to burden ratio, and specific charge. The dependent variable was ratio of boulder volume to pattern volume. Both techniques were successful in predicting the ratio. In this study, the multiple regression method was superior with coefficient of determination and root mean squared error values of 0.89 and 0.19, respectively.

  6. Evaluation of Boulder, CO, SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Vijayakumar, G.


    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE's Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  7. Evaluation of Boulder, CO,SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Vijayakumar, G. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)


    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE’s Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  8. 75 FR 21037 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Non-Competitive (Direct) Sales of Public Lands, Boulder County, CO (United States)


    ...: Proposed Non-Competitive (Direct) Sales of Public Lands, Boulder County, CO AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Boulder County, Colorado. The parcels are being considered for direct sale to parties at no less than the... contained in 43 CFR 2711.3- 3 make allowances for direct sales when a competitive sale is inappropriate...

  9. 78 FR 20168 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport... (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport, Boulder, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to release airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invite public...

  10. 75 FR 52015 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the University of Colorado Museum... determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that...

  11. 76 FR 43715 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... University of Colorado Museum. ] Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary objects to...

  12. 76 FR 43713 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... contact the University of Colorado Museum. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary...

  13. 77 FR 39987 - Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland; Boulder and Gilpin County... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland; Boulder and Gilpin County, CO; Eldora Mountain Resort Ski Area Projects AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  14. A story about estimation of a random field of boulders from incomplete seismic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager


    deposits along the tunnel line. By use of this important distribution information and of the observed homogeneity of the seismic point source field together with the physical properties of diffraction it became possible to make the wanted prediction. During the excavation the found boulders were counted...

  15. 75 FR 26988 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... Mountain Tribe and the Southern Ute Indian Tribe in an area stretching from southwestern to south...

  16. 76 FR 59770 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Boulder County, CO (United States)


    ... Abandonments to abandon 1.37 miles of rail line extending between milepost 20.80 and milepost 22.17 at Lafayette, in Boulder County, CO (the Line). The Line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 80026 and includes no stations. BNSF has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the Line for...

  17. 77 FR 35671 - Conformed Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for the Boulder Canyon Project (United States)


    ... Area Power Administration Conformed Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for the Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Conformance of power marketing criteria in... (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is modifying Part C of...

  18. Aswan site on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Morphology, boulder evolution, and spectrophotometry (United States)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Oklay, Nilda; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Giacomini, Lorenza; Massironi, Matteo; Bertini, Ivano; El-Maarry, M. R.; Marzari, Francesco; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Höfner, Sebastian; Lee, Jui-Chi; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Groussin, Olivier; Naletto, Giampiero; Lazzarin, Monica; Barbieri, Cesare; Sierks, Holger; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; Keller, Horst U.; Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Barucci, Maria A.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Cremonese, Gabriele; Da Deppo, Vania; Davidsson, Björn; De Cecco, Mariolino; Debei, Stefano; Ferri, Francesca; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulle, Marco; Güttler, Carsten; Gutierrez, Pedro J.; Hviid, Stubbe F.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jorda, Laurent; Knollenberg, Jörg; Kramm, J.-Rainer; Küppers, Michael; Kürt, Ekkehard; Lara, Luisa M.; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Lopez Moreno, Jose J.; Magrin, Sara; Michalik, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Thomas, Nicholas; Tubiana, Cecilia


    Aims: We provide a detailed morphological analysis of the Aswan site on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). We derive the size-frequency distribution of boulders ≥2 m and correlate this distribution with the gravitational slopes for the first time on a comet. We perform the spectral analysis of this region to understand if possible surface variegation is related to thedifferent surface textures observable on the different units. Methods: We used two OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) image data sets acquired on September 19 and 22, 2014, with a scale of 0.5 m/px. Gravitational slopes derived from the 3D shape model of 67P were used to identify and interpret the different units of the site. By means of the high-resolution NAC data sets, boulders ≥2.0 m can be unambiguously identified and extracted using the software ArcGIS. Coregistered and photometrically corrected color cubes were used to perform the spectral analyses, and we retrieved the spectral properties of the Aswan units. Results: The high-resolution morphological map of the Aswan site (0.68 km2) shows that this site is characterized by four different units: fine-particle deposits located on layered terrains, gravitational accumulation deposits, taluses, and the outcropping layered terrain. Multiple lineaments are identified on the Aswan cliff, such as fractures, exposed layered outcrops, niches, and terraces. Close to the terrace margin, several arched features observed in plan view suggest that the margin progressively retreats as a result of erosion. The size-frequency of boulders ≥2 m in the entire study area has a power-law index of -3.9 +0.2/-0.3 (1499 boulders ≥2 m/km2), suggesting that the Aswan site is mainly dominated by gravitational events triggered by sublimation and/or thermal insolation weathering causing regressive erosion. The boulder size-frequency distribution versus gravitational slopes indicates that when higher gravitational slope terrains are considered, only boulders ≤10 m

  19. A note of caution on the use of boulders for exposure dating of depositional surfaces (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Hetzel, R.; Kuhlmann, J.; Ramos, V. A.


    Exposure dating of boulders has been widely applied to determine the age of depositional surfaces under the assumption that the pre-depositional nuclide component in most boulders is negligible (e.g. Bierman et al., 1995; van der Woerd et al., 2006). Here we present a case study on fluvial terraces at the active mountain front of the eastern Andes, where this assumption is clearly invalid, because sandstone boulders (n = 13) at two sites contain a highly variable inherited 10Be component and have apparent 10Be ages that exceed the age of the respective surface by up to 93 ka. Likewise, boulders from active stream channels (n = 5) contain a substantial inherited 10Be component, equivalent to 5-48 ka of exposure. The age of the fluvial terraces is well determined by 10Be depth profiles on sand samples, which allow to correct for the pre-depositional nuclide component. At site 1, three terraces have 10Be ages of 3.20 ± 0.42 ka (T2), 11.11 ± 0.87 ka (T3), and 16.0 ± 1.1 ka (T4). The age of T3 is furthermore confirmed by a calibrated 14C age of 12.61 ± 0.20 ka BP. At site 2, terrace T3 has an age of 13.5 ± 2.1 ka (derived on a 10Be depth profile), while boulders indicate apparent ages from 14 to 31 ka. The average inherited 10Be concentration of sand grains - determined from depth profiles and stream sediments - is small and equivalent to 1-3 ka of exposure, whereas the mean inheritance of the boulders is an order of magnitude higher. This causes great caution by determining erosion rates. The huge contrast is related to the different provenance and transport history of sand and boulders. While the sand is derived from rapidly eroding Miocene sediments exposed near the mountain front, the boulders originate from Triassic sandstones in the internal part of the fold-and-thrust belt. On their way to the mountain front the boulders were temporarily stored and irradiated in alluvial fans that are currently reworked. Sediment deposition in intramontane basins and

  20. What do Meteorite Falls Tell Us about the Strength of Asteroid Boulders (United States)

    Britt, Daniel; Demasi, Michael; Kring, David


    One possible source of data on the strength of a boulder on an asteroid's surface is the meteorite collection and the observations of meteorite falls. Since highly fractured boulders should breakup in the atmosphere and arrive as meteorite showers, the relative ratio of boulders to showers can provide insight into boulder strength. Since about 85-95% of the mass of a meteoroid is lost during atmospheric entry, we have chosen to investigate only those falls with a final recovered mass of at least 10 kg. This corresponds to a minimum pre-atmospheric mass of 100-200 kg and roughly 25 centimeter minimum diameter. Using the Catalogue of Meteorites and the Meteoritical Bulletins we compiled a list of observed meteorite falls with a total recovered mass greater than or equal to 10 kg. We found a total of 269 meteorites that met these criteria, of which 263 entries reported or estimated the number of fragments associated with their falls. The overall percentage of observed showers was found to be around 34%. The ratio of "boulders" to showers was determined to be around 1.94:1. Comparing the percentage of showers within the meteorite types shows a trend in strength with irons (showers only 4.3%) very rarely exhibit reported showers, stony-irons (25%), ordinary chondrites (28.5%), achondrites (35.7%), and carbonaceous chondrites (70%) are dominantly showers.The meteorite fall data primarily sample the "boulder" population of meteoroids roughly 0.25 meters to a few meters in their pre-atmospheric diameter because of the 85-95% atmospheric loss. The relative rarity of showers seems to indicate that most meteoroids that survive to produce meteorites in this size range are fairly strong and coherent. Not surprisingly, irons and stony-irons are the strongest class which is consistent with the overwhelmingly high production of Earth's smallest impact craters by iron meteorites. Carbonaceous chondrites are by far the weakest and most fracture-prone meteorite class with 70% of the

  1. Spatial heterogeneity of temperature across alpine boulder fields in New South Wales, Australia: multilevel modelling of drivers of microhabitat climate (United States)

    Shi, Haijing; Paull, David; Rayburg, Scott


    Understanding the spatial heterogeneity of temperatures across a region is significant for identification and protection of potential microhabitats for species conservation. However, this task is proving difficult because multiple factors drive the temperatures of microhabitats and their effect differs at different scales. In the Australian alpine region, boulder field habitats have been identified as important refugia for a range of small mammals. Vegetation cover and elevation have been found to drive thermal buffering at the level of single sampling sites within boulder fields, whereas the aspect and inclination of slopes have been found to affect thermal buffering at the level of clusters of boulder fields. But how the rock structure (number of rock layers, rock size and cavity of boulders) influences microclimate of boulder fields remains an open question. We used a multilevel modelling approach to detect the factors driving microhabitat temperatures in different seasons at different spatial scales in an Australian alpine region. We found that significant temperature differences existed within and between clusters of boulder fields in different seasons. Besides elevation and vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size also exerts important influences on extreme temperatures at the site (i.e. single boulder field) scale. Topographical variables such as slope gradient and elevation influenced minimum temperatures at the boulder field cluster scale. Variations in boulder field temperatures were significant at fine scales, with variations in minimum temperatures exceeding those of maximum temperatures. We suggest that variations in slope gradient and elevation, interacting with vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size can lead to fine-grained thermal variability, which potentially provides refugia for species at microsites, even when regional climatic conditions become less suitable for their survival.

  2. Synthesis of petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic data for the Boulder batholith, southwest Montana (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Lund, Karen


    The Late Cretaceous Boulder batholith in southwest Montana consists of the Butte Granite and a group of associated smaller intrusions emplaced into Mesoproterozoic to Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and into the Late Cretaceous Elkhorn Mountains Volcanics. The Boulder batholith is dominated by the voluminous Butte Granite, which is surrounded by as many as a dozen individually named, peripheral intrusions. These granodiorite, monzogranite, and minor syenogranite intrusions contain varying abundances of plagioclase, alkali feldspar, quartz, biotite, hornblende, rare clinopyroxene, and opaque oxide minerals. Mafic, intermediate, and felsic subsets of the Boulder batholith intrusions are defined principally on the basis of color index. Most Boulder batholith plutons have inequigranular to seriate textures although several are porphyritic and some are granophyric (and locally miarolitic). Most of these plutons are medium grained but several of the more felsic and granophyric intrusions are fine grained. Petrographic characteristics, especially relative abundances of constituent minerals, are distinctive and foster reasonably unambiguous identification of individual intrusions. Seventeen samples from plutons of the Boulder batholith were dated by SHRIMP (Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe) zircon U-Pb geochronology. Three samples of the Butte Granite show that this large pluton may be composite, having formed during two episodes of magmatism at about 76.7 ± 0.5 Ma (2 samples) and 74.7 ± 0.6 million years ago (Ma) (1 sample). However, petrographic and chemical data are inconsistent with the Butte Granite consisting of separate, compositionally distinct intrusions. Accordingly, solidification of magma represented by the Butte Granite appears to have spanned about 2 million year (m.y.). The remaining Boulder batholith plutons were emplaced during a 6-10 m.y. span (81.7 ± 1.4 Ma to 73.7 ± 0.6 Ma). The compositional characteristics of these plutons are similar to those

  3. Manual Hydraulic Boulder Removal Machine%手动液压巨石移除机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁圆; 韩娜; 陈超


    在断电和没有大型工程机械的情况下,为了清除阻挡道路的巨石,利用液压缸推力大的原理,提出一种手动多自由度液压巨石移除机。该机器有多个自由度,利用其前后加长杆,方便推移距山体1~5m的巨石,该机器可广泛应用于地震等自然灾害的破障救援中。%In the cases of power failure and no large-scale construction machinery,a manual multi-DOF hydraulic boulder remov-al machine was envisioned to clear the boulders blocking road,applying the theory that hydraulic cylinder had a large thrust. Since the machine has more than one DOF,its front and rear extension rods can be used to remove boulders away from mountain 1~5 m. The machine can be widely used in barrier-breaking rescue in earthquakes and other natural disasters.

  4. First evidence of accumulation of mega boulders on the Mediterranean rocky coast of Provence (southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vella


    Full Text Available An accumulation of boulders was recently discovered along the rocky coast of the Gulf of Fos located in Provence, in an area exposed to a south-westerly wave regime. The coast around this locality forms the western extremity of the calcareous Nerthe range between Marseille and the Rhône Delta. Several mega blocks are scattered to a distance of 30 m behind the coast line. The largest block (33.5 tonnes has been transported about 39 m inland, up to about 2 m a.s.l. On the Mediterranean coast, the origin of such blocks is often attributed to tsunami-generated waves, but in the case examined here, although the origin is unclear, the differences in surface state between boulders indicates several events generated by south-westerly storms. Radiocarbon dating on several different shells collected from seven different boulders yields a wide dispersion of ages ranging from 4000 BP to the Modern Period. The differences in surface appearance, as well as the differences of fauna conservation and surface coloration, in some cases in a very fresh state, along with the dispersion of radiocarbon ages, suggest that historic storm events have affected these megablocks.

  5. First evidence of accumulation of mega boulders on the Mediterranean rocky coast of Provence (southern France) (United States)

    Vella, C.; Demory, F.; Canut, V.; Dussouillez, P.; Fleury, T. J.


    An accumulation of boulders was recently discovered along the rocky coast of the Gulf of Fos located in Provence, in an area exposed to a south-westerly wave regime. The coast around this locality forms the western extremity of the calcareous Nerthe range between Marseille and the Rhône Delta. Several mega blocks are scattered to a distance of 30 m behind the coast line. The largest block (33.5 tonnes) has been transported about 39 m inland, up to about 2 m a.s.l. On the Mediterranean coast, the origin of such blocks is often attributed to tsunami-generated waves, but in the case examined here, although the origin is unclear, the differences in surface state between boulders indicates several events generated by south-westerly storms. Radiocarbon dating on several different shells collected from seven different boulders yields a wide dispersion of ages ranging from 4000 BP to the Modern Period. The differences in surface appearance, as well as the differences of fauna conservation and surface coloration, in some cases in a very fresh state, along with the dispersion of radiocarbon ages, suggest that historic storm events have affected these megablocks.

  6. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  7. Documentation of dislocated boulders and monitoring of coastal sites in western Greece by terrestrial laser scanning and dense image matching (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Curdt, Constanze; Röbke, Björn; Vött, Andreas; Bareth, Georg


    Dislocated boulders are one evidence of high-energy coastal inundation by tsunamis and storms. The accurate determination of the mass and the lateral areas of these boulders are important input parameters for wave transport equations, which calculate the necessary wave height and velocity for dislocation. Several studies have revealed that these boulder parameters are not easy to estimate by simply measuring the axes of a boulder, as their morphology is mostly complex. In addition, there is an ongoing debate, how tsunami and storm impacts are distinguishable by wave transport equations. Therefore, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as dense image matching from the ground and by an unmanned aerial system (UAS) have been used to accurately document dislocated boulders. In addition, several different coastal sites in western Greece were monitored since 2009 in order to distinguish gradual changes. This specific region is characterized by a high seismic and tsunami hazard risk, due to the nearby plate boundaries. In addition, severe storms during winter time can considerably alter the coasts. The 3D data, gathered by the different methods, was used to derive 3D models of the boulders and enabled the calculation of the volume of each boulder and the corresponding lateral areas as well. The mass of the boulders was achieved by the incorporation of density values. Likewise, the accurate position, orientation and distance to the sea were measured. High-resolution digital elevation models (2.5D) of each site were compared to each other in order to determine changes. For all measurements, marked base points were used for RTK-GPS and tachymetric measurements. Thus, all data is georeferenced and comparable over the observed years. The results of the field campaigns show that the dislocated boulders can be accurately documented and monitored. Their volume and the lateral areas are considerably smaller than estimations by axes measurements. The new data shows reduced wave

  8. Multi-hole seismic modeling in 3-D space and cross-hole seismic tomography analysis for boulder detection (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Liu, Jiangping; Wang, Jing; Zong, Yuquan; Yu, Mingyu


    A boulder stone, a common geological feature in south China, is referred to the remnant of a granite body which has been unevenly weathered. Undetected boulders could adversely impact the schedule and safety of subway construction when using tunnel boring machine (TBM) method. Therefore, boulder detection has always been a key issue demanded to be solved before the construction. Nowadays, cross-hole seismic tomography is a high resolution technique capable of boulder detection, however, the method can only solve for velocity in a 2-D slice between two wells, and the size and central position of the boulder are generally difficult to be accurately obtained. In this paper, the authors conduct a multi-hole wave field simulation and characteristic analysis of a boulder model based on the 3-D elastic wave staggered-grid finite difference theory, and also a 2-D imaging analysis based on first arrival travel time. The results indicate that (1) full wave field records could be obtained from multi-hole seismic wave simulations. Simulation results describe that the seismic wave propagation pattern in cross-hole high-velocity spherical geological bodies is more detailed and can serve as a basis for the wave field analysis. (2) When a cross-hole seismic section cuts through the boulder, the proposed method provides satisfactory cross-hole tomography results; however, when the section is closely positioned to the boulder, such high-velocity object in the 3-D space would impact on the surrounding wave field. The received diffracted wave interferes with the primary wave and in consequence the picked first arrival travel time is not derived from the profile, which results in a false appearance of high-velocity geology features. Finally, the results of 2-D analysis in 3-D modeling space are comparatively analyzed with the physical model test vis-a-vis the effect of high velocity body on the seismic tomographic measurements.

  9. UTLS water vapor trends as observed by the Boulder balloon series (United States)

    Kunz, A.; Mueller, R.; Homonnai, V.; Janosi, I. M.; Rohrer, F.; Spelten, N.; Hurst, D. F.; Forster, P.


    Thirty years of high resolution balloon-borne measurements over Boulder, Colorado, are used to investigate the water vapor trend in the tropopause region. This analysis extents already existing Boulder sonde trend statistics, usually focusing on altitudes above 16km, to lower altitudes in the UTLS. This is achieved using two new concepts: 1) Trends are presented in a tropopause (TP) referenced coordinate system from -2km below to 10km above the TP. 2) The sonde profiles are characterized according to tropical and midlatitude TP heights, since the sonde location at 40°N is affected by dynamics and seasonality of the local jet stream. A data selection according to branches with z_TP>14km (B1) and z_TPwater vapor reservoirs. An analysis based on these concepts reduces the dynamically-induced water vapor variability at the TP and allows trend studies in the UTLS. The analysis shows that trends in branch B1 have a better significance -2 to 4km around the TP compared with trends in branch B2. At higher altitudes trends are comparable with published trends, suggesting that a TP based trend calculation is not necessary there. Nevertheless, a decrease in water vapor beginning in 2001 is not visible in both branches between -2 to 4km around the TP. At higher altitudes, this decrease is flattened for the two branches compared with a third branch (B3) with TP heights between 12 and 14km. Branch B3 is characterized by a sharp slope of TP heights across the jet stream. We discuss the hypothesis that the decrease in water vapor beginning in 2001 above Boulder may also be linked with dynamics above the jet stream. These results are also revealed by HALOE based analyses. Using radiative transfer calculations based on a fixed dynamical heating assumption we will study the possible impact of observed water vapor trends around the TP on radiative forcing of surface temperatures.

  10. Quantitative Morphologic Analysis of Boulder Shape and Surface Texture to Infer Environmental History: A Case Study of Rock Breakdown at the Ephrata Fan, Channeled Scabland, Washington (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Viles, Heather A.; Bourke, Mary C.


    Boulder morphology reflects both lithology and climate and is dictated by the combined effects of erosion, transport, and weathering. At present, morphologic information at the boulder scale is underutilized as a recorder of environmental processes, partly because of the lack of a systematic quantitative parameter set for reporting and comparing data sets. We develop such a parameter set, incorporating a range of measures of boulder form and surface texture. We use standard shape metrics measured in the field and fractal and morphometric classification methods borrowed from landscape analysis and applied to laser-scanned molds. The parameter set was pilot tested on three populations of basalt boulders with distinct breakdown histories in the Channeled Scabland, Washington: (1) basalt outcrop talus; (2) flood-transported boulders recently excavated from a quarry; and (3) flood-transported boulders, extensively weathered in situ on the Ephrata Fan surface. Size and shape data were found to distinguish between flood-transported and untransported boulders. Size and edge angles (approximately 120 degrees) of flood-transported boulders suggest removal by preferential fracturing along preexisting columnar joints, and curvature data indicate rounding relative to outcrop boulders. Surface textural data show that boulders which have been exposed at the surface are significantly rougher than those buried by fan sediments. Past signatures diagnostic of flood transport still persist on surface boulders, despite ongoing overprinting by processes in the present breakdown environment through roughening and fracturing in situ. Further use of this quantitative boulder parameter set at other terrestrial and planetary sites will aid in cataloging and understanding morphologic signatures of environmental processes.

  11. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, G.V. [United States Geological Survey , Anchorage, AK (United States); Mann, D.H. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Institute of Arctic Biology; Short, J.W. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Fisheries Laboratory


    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by 'oil mousse', which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulder. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. (author)

  12. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, J. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)


    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In this project, the Building America CARB team evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  13. Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hetch Hetchy Pump Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, L; Kato, T; Van Hattem, M


    The purpose of this biological assessment is to review the proposed Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project in sufficient detail to determine to what extent the proposed action may affect any of the threatened, endangered, proposed, or sensitive species and designated or proposed critical habitats listed below. In addition, the following information is provided to comply with statutory requirements to use the best scientific and commercial information available when assessing the risks posed to listed and/or proposed species and designated and/or proposed critical habitat by proposed federal actions. This biological assessment is prepared in accordance with legal requirements set forth under regulations implementing Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (50 CFR 402; 16 U.S.C 1536 (c)). It is our desire for the Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project to receive incidental take coverage for listed species and critical habitat within the greater project area by means of amending the previous formal Section 7 consultation (1-1-04-F-0086) conducted a few hundred meters downstream by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 2002. All conservation measures, terms and conditions, and reporting requirements from the previous Biological Opinion (1-1-04-F-0086) have been adopted for this Biological Assessment and/or amendment.

  14. Survival Times of Meter-Sized Rock Boulders on the Surface of Airless Bodies (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Horz, F.; Ramsley, K.


    This study considers the survival times of meter-sized rock boulders on the surfaces of several airless bodies. As the starting point, we employ estimates of the survival times of such boulders on the surface of the Moon by[1], then discuss the role of destruction due to day-night temperature cycling, consider the meteorite bombardment environment on the considered bodies in terms of projectile flux and velocities and finally estimate the survival times. Survival times of meter-sized rocks on lunar surface: The survival times of hand specimen-sized rocks exposed to the lunar surface environment were estimated based on experiments modeling the destruction of rocks by meteorite impacts, combined with measurements of the lunar surface meteorite flux, (e.g.,[2]). For estimations of the survival times of meter-sized lunar boulders, [1] suggested a different approach based on analysis of the spatial density of boulders on the rims of small lunar craters of known absolute age. It was found that for a few million years, only a small fraction of the boulders ejected by cratering process are destroyed, for several tens of million years approx.50% are destroyed, and for 200-300 Ma, 90 to 99% are destroyed. Following [2] and other works, [1] considered that the rocks are mostly destroyed by meteorite impacts. Destruction of rocks by thermal-stress. However, high diurnal temperature variations on the surface of the Moon and other airless bodies imply that thermal stresses may also be a cause of surface rock destruction. Delbo et al. [3] interpreted the observed presence of fine debris on the surface of small asteroids as due to thermal surface cycling. They stated that because of the very low gravity on the surface of these bodies, ejecta from meteorite impacts should leave the body, so formation there of fine debris has to be due to thermal cycling. Based on experiments on heating-cooling of cm-scale pieces of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites and theoretical modeling of

  15. Geochemical studies of the White Breccia Boulders at North Ray Crater, Descartes region of the lunar highlands (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Lum, R. K. L.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Philpotts, J. A.; Winzer, S. R.


    The samples of the White Breccia Boulders obtained during the Apollo 16 mission and investigated in the reported study include an anorthositic breccia (67415), a dark matrix breccia (67435), a light matrix breccia (67455), and a large clast of dark matrix breccia (67475) taken from the 67455 boulder. The chemical analyses of bulk samples of the samples are listed in a table. A graph shows the lithophile trace element abundances. Another graph indicates the variation of Sm with Al2O3 content for samples from the White Breccia Boulders. The North Ray Crater breccias are found to be in general slightly more aluminous than breccias from the other stations at the Apollo 16 site. Analyses of eight Apollo 16 breccias cited in the literature range from 25% to 35% Al2O3. However, the North Ray Crater breccias are more clearly distinct from the other Apollo 16 breccias in their contents of lithophile trace elements.

  16. Assessment of the Effect of Blast Hole Diameter on the Number of Oversize Boulders Using ANN Model (United States)

    Dhekne, Prakash; Pradhan, Manoj; Jade, Ravi Krishnarao


    Now-a-days, blasts are planned using large diameter blast holes. The loading density (kg/m) and subsequently the energy available for the breakage of the rockmass increase with the diameter. The in-hole velocity of detonation (VoD) of non-ideal explosive also boosts up with the increase in diameter till the optimum diameter is reached. The increase in the energy content and in-hole VoD cause a sizable effect on the rock fragmentation. The effect can be assessed by counting the number of oversize boulders. This paper explains as to how the technique of artificial neural network modeling was used to predict the number of oversize boulders resulting from ANFO and SME blasts with blast holes of different diameters. The results from ANFO blasts indicated that there was no significant variation in the number of oversize boulders with the diameter whereas a perceptible variation was noticed in case of SME blasts with the change in the diameter. The change in the number of oversize boulders in ANFO blasts was negligible because mean energy factor remained almost same even when the diameter of the blast holes was altered. The decrease in the number of oversize boulders in SME blasts was on account of increase in mean energy factor when the blast hole diameter was increased. The increase in the in-hole VoD due to increase in the diameter of the hole was not found to have an effect on the generation of oversize boulders as this increase was not substantial both in SME and ANFO blasts.

  17. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of microbial mud mound derived boulders from gravity-flow polymictic megabreccias (Visean, SW Spain) (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, M.; Moreno-González, I.; Mas, R.; Reitner, J.


    The Upper Visean outcrops from the Guadiato Valley (Córdoba, SW Spain) provide a well-preserved record of the mud mound factory, which was developed in a mainly siliciclastic synorogenic foreland basin during the oblique sinistral collision of two terranes (Ossa Morena and Central Iberian blocks). The first onset of mud mound development has been recorded as microbial mud mound-derived boulders in polymictic megabreccias as result of strong tectonic activity. The Upper Visean record from the Mississippian central band at Guadiato Valley starts with lower heterolithic units (up to 180 m thick) and shows two major tectonically-controlled cycles: a fining upwards interval (FU) followed by a coarsening upwards interval (CU). These cycles are linked to two active margins with gravelly fan delta development and different source areas. Mud mound-derived boulders occur in the CU interval and are formed by peloidal primary and secondary (reworked) automicrites and allomicrites, showing a diverse faunal and floral assemblage, although never as the main skeletal framebuilders. However, the observed coeval richness in sponges (lyssacinose hexactinellids and non-lithistid demosponges) and the diverse calcareous algae assemblage in mud mound derived boulders are not common in other Visean buildups. The growth cavities display changes in the geopetal relationships between fillings and the secondary cavities containing sand to gravel fillings reflecting a complex pre-boulder and mud mound derived boulder history. Detailed mapping, sampling, stratigraphic and microfacial analyses have allowed the reconstruction of the mud mounds sedimentary environment prior to the collapse, transport and emplacement as boulders with polymictic gravels.

  18. Survival times of meter-sized rock boulders on the surface of airless bodies (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Horz, F.; Ramsley, K.


    Rock boulders are typical features of the surfaces of many airless bodies, so the possibility of estimating their potential survival times may provide insights into the rates of surface-modification processes. As an opening point of this study we employ estimates of the survival times of meter-sized boulders on the surface of the Moon based on analysis of the spatial density of boulders on the rims of small lunar craters of known absolute age (Basilevsky et al., 2013), and apply them, with necessary corrections, to boulders on other bodies. In this approach the major factor of rock destruction is considered to be impacts of meteorites. However another factor of the rock destruction, thermal fatigue due to day-night cycling, does exist and it was claimed by Delbo et al. (2014) as being more important than meteorite impacts. They concluded this on the basis of known presence of fine material on the surface of small asteroids, claiming that due to extremely low gravity on those bodies, the products of meteorite bombardment should leave these bodies, and thus their presence indicates that the process of thermal fatigue should be much more effective there. Delbo et al. (2014) made laboratory experiments on heating-cooling centimeter-sized samples of chondrites and, applying some assumptions and theoretical modeling concluded that, for example, at 1 AU distance from the Sun, the lifetime of 10 cm rock fragments on asteroids with period of rotation from 2.2 to 6 h should be only ~103 to 104 years (that is ~3.5×106 to 1.5×107 thermal cycles) and the larger the rock, the faster it should be destroyed. In response to those conclusions we assessed the results of earlier laboratory experiments, which show that only a part of comminuted material produced by high-velocity impacts into solid rocks is ejected from the crater while another part is not ejected but stays exposed on the target surface and is present in its subsurface. This means that the presence of

  19. Boulder Deposits on the Southern Spanish Atlantic Coast: Possible Evidence for the 1755 AD Lisbon Tsunami?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Kelletat


    Full Text Available Field evidence of visible tsunami impacts in Europe is scarce. This research focused on an analysis of large littoral debris and accompanying geomorphic features and their rela- tionship to a tsunami event at Cabo de Trafalgar, located on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast. Relative dating of weathering features as well as minor bioconstructive forms in the littoral zone suggest the Lisbon tsunami of 1755 AD as the event responsible for the large deposits described. This tsunami had run up heights of more than 19 m and was generated at the Gorringe Bank, located 500 km west off the Cape. Tsunami deposits at Cabo de Tra- falgar are the first boulder deposits identified on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast and are located approximately 250 km southeast of the Algarve coast (Portugal, where other geo- morphic evidence for the Lisbon tsunami has been reported.

  20. Using lunar boulders to distinguish primary from distant secondary impact craters (United States)

    Bart, Gwendolyn D.; Melosh, H. J.


    A high-resolution study of 18 lunar craters, including both primary and distant secondary craters, shows that the secondary craters produce larger ejecta fragments at a given crater size than do the primary craters. The maximum boulder diameter (B) increases with crater size (D) according to the power law B = KD 2/3; for primary craters, when B and D are in meters, K is 0.29, whereas for secondary craters, we find that K is 0.46 (60% larger). Next we show that impact fracture theory predicts that secondary craters, because of their lower impact velocity, will produce larger ejecta fragments than primary craters. This result provides an opportunity for distinguishing between primary and secondary craters in high resolution planetary images. The ability to identify distant secondary craters will help constrain primary production rates of small craters and improve surface age determination of small areas based on small crater counts.

  1. Ozone Diurnal Variation in the PBL at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory During Summer 2014 (United States)

    Newchurch, M.; Alvarez, R. J. _II, II; Brewer, A.; Brown, S. S.; Carrion, W.; Delgado, R.; De Young, R.; Huang, G.; Johnson, B.; Kuang, S.; Langford, A. O.; Lundquist, J. K.; McGee, T. J.; Pliutau, D.; Senff, C. J.; Sullivan, J. T.; Sumnicht, G. K.; Twigg, L.; Wang, L.


    We investigate the diurnal variation of PBL ozone at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in July 2014 using multiple observations, including three ozone DIALs, several wind Doppler lidars, free-launched and tethered ozonesondes, and in-situ measurements on the BAO tower. Three mobile lidars from the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar NETwork (TOLNET) provide high spatial and temporal ozone profiles from near surface to the top of the troposphere. The combination of multiple observations will provide detailed structure of the diurnal variation of ozone. This ozone information will help the satellite and modeling communities to study the character of lower tropospheric ozone for the improvements of satellite retrieval and air-quality models. In addition, a Large-Eddy Simulation model will calculate ozone in the mixed layer to explain the processes responsible for the observations.

  2. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Williamson, J.


    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In NREL's report titled 'Assessing and Improving the Accuracy of Energy Analysis of Residential Buildings,' researchers propose a method for improving the accuracy of residential energy analysis methods. A key step in this process involves the comparisons of predicted versus metered energy use and savings. In support of this research need, CARB evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. In this study, CARB seeks to improve the accuracy of modeling software while assessing retrofit measures to specifically determine which are most effective for large multifamily complexes in the cold climate region. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  3. Bouldering: an alternative strategy to long-vertical climbing in root-climbing hortensias. (United States)

    Granados Mendoza, Carolina; Isnard, Sandrine; Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Rowe, Nick P; Van Acker, Joris; Goetghebeur, Paul; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie


    In the Neotropics, the genus Hydrangea of the popular ornamental hortensia family is represented by climbing species that strongly cling to their support surface by means of adhesive roots closely positioned along specialized anchoring stems. These root-climbing hortensia species belong to the nearly exclusive American Hydrangea section Cornidia and generally are long lianescent climbers that mostly flower and fructify high in the host tree canopy. The Mexican species Hydrangea seemannii, however, encompasses not only long lianescent climbers of large vertical rock walls and coniferous trees, but also short 'shrub-like' climbers on small rounded boulders. To investigate growth form plasticity in root-climbing hortensia species, we tested the hypothesis that support variability (e.g. differences in size and shape) promotes plastic responses observable at the mechanical, structural and anatomical level. Stem bending properties, architectural axis categorization, tissue organization and wood density were compared between boulder and long-vertical tree-climbers of H. seemannii. For comparison, the mechanical patterns of a closely related, strictly long-vertical tree-climbing species were investigated. Hydrangea seemannii has fine-tuned morphological, mechanical and anatomical responses to support variability suggesting the presence of two alternative root-climbing strategies that are optimized for their particular environmental conditions. Our results suggest that variation of some stem anatomical traits provides a buffering effect that regulates the mechanical and hydraulic demands of two distinct plant architectures. The adaptive value of observed plastic responses and the importance of considering growth form plasticity in evolutionary and conservation studies are discussed.

  4. Multi-method attribution analysis of extreme precipitation in Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    Eden, Jonathan M.; Wolter, Klaus; Otto, Friederike E. L.; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan


    Understanding and attributing the characteristics of extreme events that lead to societal impacts is a key challenge in climate science. Detailed analysis of individual case studies is particularly important in assessing how anthropogenic climate change is changing the likelihood of extreme events and their associated risk at relevant spatial scales. Here, we conduct a comprehensive multi-method attribution analysis of the heavy precipitation that led to widespread flooding in Boulder, Colorado in September 2013. We provide clarification on the source regions of moisture associated with this event in order to highlight the difficulty of separating dynamic and thermodynamic contributions. Using extreme value analysis of, first of all, historical observations, we then assess the influence of anthropogenic climate change on the overall likelihood of one- and five-day precipitation events across the Boulder area. The same analysis is extended to the output of two general circulation model ensembles. By combining the results of different methods we deduce an increase in the likelihood of extreme one-day precipitation but of a smaller magnitude than what would be expected in a warming world according to the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. For five-day extremes, we are unable to detect a change in likelihood. Our results demonstrate the benefits of a multi-method approach to making robust statements about the anthropogenic influence on changes in the overall likelihood of such an event irrespective of its cause. We note that, in this example, drawing conclusions solely on the basis of thermodynamics would have overestimated the increase in risk.

  5. Collection Assessment in Response to Changing Curricula: An Analysis of the Biotechnology Resources at the University of Colorado at Boulder (United States)

    Wiersma, Gabrielle


    Increasing demand for biotechnology and biomedical resources prompted the Engineering Library at the University of Colorado at Boulder (UCB) to complete a collection assessment of the journals, books, and other resources provided by the University Libraries. This paper presents a variety of methods for evaluating library collections and describes…

  6. A Case Study on Environmental Perspectives of Boulderers and Access Issues at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve (United States)

    Thompson, Jeremy; Davidson, Justin; Hutson, Garrett


    Currently, there are concerns about access restrictions to bouldering, a form of rock climbing, and other outdoor activities practiced at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve located near Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. The Niagara Parks Commission is currently in the process of exploring ways to balance protection of the natural area with sustainable…

  7. 75 FR 19966 - Boulder Canyon Project-Post-2017 Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power... (United States)


    ... comment period regarding the application of the Energy Planning and Management Program (Program) Power... Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project--Post-2017 Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION:...

  8. Boulder Valley Schools Teen Parenting Program: An Exemplary Vocational Education Program Serving a Population with Special Needs. (United States)

    Coyle-Williams, Maureen; Wermuth, Tom


    The Boulder Valley (Colorado) Teen Parenting Program is designed to meet the educational and vocational needs of pregnant or parenting adolescents. It focuses on the following goals: (1) decreasing the dropout rate of teen parents; (2) improving the health and well-being of children born to teen parents; (3) decreasing repeat pregnancies of teen…

  9. University of Colorado at Boulder: Energy and Climate Revolving Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series (United States)

    Caine, Rebecca


    The University of Colorado at Boulder's student run Environmental Center leads the campus' sustainability efforts. The Center created the Energy and Climate Revolving Fund (ECRF) in 2007 to finance energy-efficiency upgrades. The ECRF functions as a source of funding for project loans and provides a method of financing projects that seeks to save…

  10. The global size-frequency distribution of boulders > 7 m on Comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko (United States)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Baptiste Vincent, Jean; Lee, Jui-Chi; Ip, Wing-Huen; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Bertini, Ivano; Massironi, Matteo; Simioni, Emanuele; Barbieri, Cesare; Cremonese, Gabriele; Marzari, Francesco; Naletto, Giampiero; Giacomini, Lorenza; Jorda, Laurent; Thomas, Nicholas; Pommerol, Antoine; Kueppers, Michael; Moissl, Richard; Besse, Sebastien; Sierks, Holger


    After a ten years journey through the Solar System, the ESA Rosetta spacecraft reached on 6 August 2014 its primary target, the Jupiter family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, hereafter 67P. During the approaching phase, several images of the nucleus of comet 67P, captured by the OSIRIS scientific imaging camera, have been taken to study its structure, activity and the surface morphology. The close distance between spacecraft and comet, and the high resolution of our images, provided a unique opportunity to study features which could not have been detected before on other comets, but yet hold key parameters to derive the physical properties of the surface. We made use of the images acquired by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera, NAC, on 5 and 6 August 2014 in order to study the statistical size-frequency distribution and the morphological properties of both clustered and isolated roundish structures ("boulders") scattered all over the currently illuminated side of the comet (70% of the total surface). Such dataset has been taken at a distance ranging between 131.45 and 109.76 km far from the comet center and the scale of these images (2.44 - 2.03 m/px) is such that boulders ≥ 7 m can be unequivocally identified and extracted. These images are the last ones where the entire comet is 2048 x 2048 pixels full frame and they cover a complete comet rotation (12.4 h), hence providing the possibility to derive a global size-frequency distribution statistics of the presently illuminated surface of 67P. A total amount of 3526 boulders has been identified on the surface of the comet: i) 2218 belonging to the big lobe, body, ii) 1115 boulders are located on the small lobe, head, while iii) 213 boulders belong to the transition region between the two lobes, called the neck. Here, global cumulative size-frequency distributions of boulders per square km are presented, together with specific and localized areas distributions. Moreover we indicate the different formation processes

  11. Nanoscale Compositional Relations in Lunar Rock Patina: Deciphering Sources for Patina Components on an Apollo 17 Station 6 Boulder (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.


    Space weathering on the Moon and other airless bodies modifies the surfaces of regolith grains as well as the space-exposed surfaces of larger rocks and boulders. As space weathering witness plates, rocks and boulders are distinguished from regolith grains based on their ability to persist as physically intact substrates over longer time scales before being disaggregated by impact processes. Because lunar surfaces, including exposed rocks, quickly develop an optically thick layer of patina, it is important to understand the compositional relationship between patinas and their underlying rock substrates, particularly to support remote-sensing of rocky lunar terrains. Based on analytical TEM techniques, supported by focused ion beam (FIB) cross-sectioning, we have begun to systematize the multi-layer microstructural complexity of patinas on rock samples with a range of space exposure histories. Our on-going work has particularly focused on lunar rock 76015, both because it has a long (approx. 22 my) exposure history, and because its surface was exposed to patina development approximately 1 m off the regolith surface on a boulder in the Apollo 17 Station 6 boulder field. Potential sources for the 76015 patina therefore include impact-melted and vaporized material derived from the local rock substrate, as well as from the mix of large boulders and regolith in the Station 6 area. While similar, there are differences in the mineralogy and chemistry of the rocks and regolith at Station 6. We were interested to see if these, or other sources, could be distinguished in the average composition, as well as the compositional nanostratigraphy of the 76015 patina. To date we have acquired a total of 9 TEM FIB cross-sections from the 76015 patina, giving us reasonable confidence of being able to arrive at an integrated average for the patina major element composition based on analytical TEM methods.

  12. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structure of the Floridan aquifer system near "Boulder Zone" deep wells in Miami-Dade County, Florida (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, acquired, processed, and interpreted seismic-reflection data near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields to determine if geologic factors may contribute to the upward migration of injected effluent into that upper part of the Floridan aquifer system designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as an underground source of drinking water. The depth of the Boulder Zone at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields ranges from about 2,750 to 3,300 feet below land surface (ft bls), whereas overlying permeable zones used as alternative drinking water supply range in depth from about 825 to 1,580 ft bls at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structures imaged on seismic-reflection profiles created for the study describe the part of the Floridan aquifer system overlying and within the Boulder Zone. Features of the Floridan aquifer system underlying the Boulder Zone were not studied because seismic-reflection profiles acquired near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields lacked adequate resolution at such depths.

  13. Erratic boulder trains and cosmogenic exposure dating of former glacial limits: A case-study from Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America (United States)

    Darvill, Christopher; Stokes, Chris; Bentley, Mike


    Erratic Boulder Trains (EBTs) are a spectacular yet poorly-understood glacial geomorphological feature. These linear clusters of glacial erratic boulders help to illustrate the flow-lines of former glaciers by pin-pointing the parent rock from which they have originated and are often used as targets for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating. Consequently, there is a need to understand their geomorphological significance to improve ice-sheet reconstructions and provide important contextual information for dating studies. The EBTs in Tierra del Fuego are some of the finest examples of this feature in the world, and this paper presents the first comprehensive mapping and physical assessment of four boulder trains. Unlike most other examples, they were deposited laterally rather than medially and are tightly clustered, presenting linear features only a few kilometres long that contain hundreds to thousands of huge boulders (often >8 m in diameter). The size and angularity of the boulders strongly supports the hypothesis that they were deposited as a supraglacial rock avalanche. The boulders have been the subject of previous cosmogenic dating, which have yielded anomalously young ages from deposits thought to be hundreds of thousands of years old. Analysis of weathering proxies shows little difference between boulder trains thought to be of radically different ages, with important implications for the timing of glaciations and potentially contradicting previous age constraints on glacial limits in the region.

  14. Observations on Ventifacts and Wind-Polished Boulders in Pleistocene Coversands, Ice-Marginal New Jersey (United States)

    Demitroff, M. N.


    The nature of New Jersey Pine Barrens' paleoenvironment biome has been problematic. The region's Pleistocene environment has been interpreted as cool and moist, with boreal forest. A competing interpretation envisioned cold, dry, semidesert conditions. Pebble- to boulder-sized ventifacts with a wide suite of erosional forms provide evidence for strong Pleistocene wind action, which occurred when the land was sparsely vegetated allowing an abundance of abradants to be easily entrained and transported. Although commonplace, ventifact presence and utility in paleoenvironmental reconstruction is ignored. Most ventifacts occur on upland surfaces and attest to stability in this part of the region's otherwise low-relief landscape, and their subsequent disarrangement provides clues to geomorphic processes and landscape evolution. Ventifacts progressed downslope along upper valley-side slopes largely by gravitational mass movement, particularly under periglacial conditions. Development of eolian features such as pavement einkante, scallops, and weathering pit modification can evolve only where sustained wind velocities are very high and sand sources are abundant. Pine Barrens ventifacts provide evidence that desert-like conditions prevailed. Some ventifact surfaces are covered with a silica glaze or an iron-enriched metal film, or both, indicating multiple episodes of wind abrasion. Coating study holds much promise for future dating and climate reconstruction investigations.

  15. Corrosion investigations, Tracy Red Bluff, California, and Boulder City, Nevada, ehv direct current tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backstrom, T.E.


    Evaluation of corrosion on buried metalwork, by the introduction of large direct currents into the ground, was studied during ehv dc transmission investigations in the Tracy-Red Bluff, California and the Boulder City, Nevada areas. Tests made on two types of electrodes showed that ehv dc ground return at test current levels would: (1) promote serious corrosion of buried metalwork within approximately 1/2-mile radius of the electrode with a ground mat electrode and mild corrosion with a deep-well electrode; (2) promote negligible-to-serious corrosion of buried pipelines within 1/2 to 3 mile radius of either a ground mat or deep-well electrode, depending on (a) distance of the pipelines from the electrode, (b) geometry of the two electrode-pipeline systems, and (c) horizontal extent of the pipelines; (3) impress negligible-to-mild corrosion of buried pipelines beyond a 3-mile radius of the electrode depending upon geometry of the electrode-pipeline system. Results show normal corrosion prevention techniques will be adequate to prevent corrosion of buried metalwork, if electrode is properly located. Use of ground return for only 8 to 24 hours per year on the ehv intertie, although with currents 2 to 3 times higher than test currents, will cause stray current damage of only a fraction of that expected with continuous operations.

  16. Rehabilitation and flood management planning in a steep, boulder-bedded stream. (United States)

    Caruso, Brian S; Downs, Peter W


    This study demonstrates the integration of rehabilitation and flood management planning in a steep, boulder-bedded stream in a coastal urban catchment on the South Island of New Zealand. The Water of Leith, the primary stream flowing through the city of Dunedin, is used as a case study. The catchment is steep, with a short time of concentration and rapid hydrologic response, and the lower stream reaches are highly channelized with floodplain encroachment, a high potential for debris flows, significant flood risks, and severely degraded aquatic habitat. Because the objectives for rehabilitation and flood management in urban catchments are often conflicting, a number of types of analyses at both the catchment and the reach scales and careful planning with stakeholder consultation were needed for successful rehabilitation efforts. This included modeling and analysis of catchment hydrology, fluvial geomorphologic assessment, analysis of water quality and aquatic ecology, hydraulic modeling and flood risk evaluation, detailed feasibility studies, and preliminary design to optimize multiple rehabilitation and flood management objectives. The study showed that all of these analyses were needed for integrated rehabilitation and flood management and that some incremental improvements in stream ecological health, aesthetics, and public recreational opportunities could be achieved in this challenging environment. These methods should be considered in a range of types of stream rehabilitation projects.

  17. Fast Lemons and Sour Boulders: Testing Crossmodal Correspondences Using an Internet-Based Testing Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods


    Full Text Available According to a popular family of hypotheses, crossmodal matches between distinct features hold because they correspond to the same polarity on several conceptual dimensions (such as active–passive, good–bad, etc. that can be identified using the semantic differential technique. The main problem here resides in turning this hypothesis into testable empirical predictions. In the present study, we outline a series of plausible consequences of the hypothesis and test a variety of well-established and previously untested crossmodal correspondences by means of a novel internet-based testing methodology. The results highlight that the semantic hypothesis cannot easily explain differences in the prevalence of crossmodal associations built on the same semantic pattern (fast lemons, slow prunes, sour boulders, heavy red; furthermore, the semantic hypothesis only minimally predicts what happens when the semantic dimensions and polarities that are supposed to drive such crossmodal associations are made more salient (e.g., by adding emotional cues that ought to make the good/bad dimension more salient; finally, the semantic hypothesis does not explain why reliable matches are no longer observed once intramodal dimensions with congruent connotations are presented (e.g., visually presented shapes and colour do not appear to correspond.

  18. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: A Robotic Boulder Capture Option for Science, Human Exploration, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense (United States)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.


    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar electric propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (4 - 10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (1 - 5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well- characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense. Science: The RBC option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting

  19. North American Regional Security: A Trilateral Framework. By Richard J. Kilroy, Jr., Abelardo Rodriquez Sumano, and Todd S. Hataley, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Stewart-Ingersoll


    Full Text Available North American Regional Security: A Trilateral Framework. By Richard J. Kilroy, Jr., Abelardo Rodriquez Sumano, and Todd S. Hataley, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press, 2013. ISBN 978-1-58826-854-9.

  20. Characteristics and hydrodynamic interpretation of storm-emplaced cliff-top boulder ridges on Inishmore, Aran Islands, Ireland (United States)

    Zentner, D. B.; Cox, R.


    Dramatic boulder ridges are widespread on cliff-top platforms of Ireland's Aran Islands, emplaced by storm waves at elevations up to 50 m. In places the ridges have overridden 19th-century field walls, and recent movement of large blocks is attested to by modern debris--including nylon ropes, aerosol cans, and plastic bottles--pinned under megaclasts of up to 40 tons. Large waves are common off Ireland's west coast, as revealed by the short records available from recently-deployed buoy systems. The Irish Marine Weather Buoy Network measured wave heights (≥10 m on 29 days between 2001 and 2007, and waves up to 18 m high were recorded in December 2007. Blocks quarried by such waves from the upper few m of the cliffs are transported inland to form semi-continuous boulder ridges parallel to the coastline, which therefore offer a record of hydrodynamics during high-energy wave events. On Inishmore, boulder ridges occur at elevations up to 28 m, separated from the cliff edge by wave-scoured platforms 1-70 m wide. The ridges consist of imbricated, highly angular slabs, ranging from small gravel to 5 m megaclasts. They are 1-4.6 m high, 10-48 m wide (Ripple Index 5-17), and strongly asymmetric, with steep narrow stoss faces (10- 35°), and long gentle lee slopes (<14°). With increasing cliff height, ridges are smaller, narrower, made of smaller blocks, and sit closer to the edge; but ridges 20 m wide and 2 m high, with half-ton clasts, occur as high as 28 m OD. The deposits are moderately to well sorted, predominantly unimodal, and fine skewed. Median clast size ranges from fine to coarse boulders (0.5-2 m). Clasts show strong seaward imbrication on both stoss and lee sides (dipping up to 85° with average 25°). "Blowout" features on the lee sides, with boulders imbricated radially around central depressions of 1-2 m diameter, suggest turbulent flow separation, as does the common occurrence of 1-3 smaller secondary ridges landward of the main crest. The uniformity of

  1. Modelling boulder impacts on deformable layers: role of rolling and toppling (United States)

    Dattola, Giuseppe; Crosta, Giovanni; di Prisco, Claudio


    Rockfalls are apparently simple processes where few or no blocks interactions occur. Nevertheless, the extreme variability in the type of interactions between falling block and ground surface or material make the modelling of this phenomenon extremely complicated. To model the trajectories followed by a block falling along a slope it is crucial the adoption of laws capable of simulating the changes in block energy content due to impacts. The numerical simulation of impacts is thus fundamental for modelling block trajectories, assessing the risk associated with rockfall events and for designing sheltering structures. In this work, an extension of the hybrid model BIMPAM (di Prisco and Vecchiotti, 2006) in which block rotation is taken into account by adding another degree of freedom, is illustrated. The rheological model is developed assuming a lumped mass method. The additional kinematics variable enables the model not only to follow a more realistic trajectory but also to take into account additional dissipative mechanisms, which, in absence of the rotation, are absolutely neglected. These mechanisms are the block toppling and rolling. In this contribution, these mechanisms are modelled by the macro-element concept, and the delayed plasticity theory introducing two plastic sliders whose behaviors are described via two elasto-plastic constitutive laws. In order to illustrate the potentiality of this new version of the model a numerical parametric analysis, concerning in-clined trajectories on horizontal strata, is illustrated. The numerical results demonstrate that, in this new model version, the dissipated energy is increased and that during the impact a boulder spin originates, even in case the initial motion of the block is purely translational. This is opening a new set of possibilities and applications for rock fall modelling.

  2. Spectral structure of 5 year time series of horizontal wind speed at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (United States)

    Kang, Song-Lak; Won, Hoonill


    We investigate the spectral structures of 5 year, 1 min time series of horizontal wind speeds at 100 and 10 m heights at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory tower located in the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, USA. In the full-scale spectra, the diurnal spectral peak, which is usually insignificant at a coastal or offshore site, is the most significant at both heights. The spectrum is enhanced on the low-frequency side of the diurnal peak during winter, but on the high-frequency side during summer, which indicates frequent synoptic weather events during winter supplanted by mesoscale events during summer. In terms of the spectral density in the spectral gap of Van der Hoven (1957), separating boundary layer turbulence from the synoptic-scale fluctuations, at a frequency between 10-4 and 10-3 Hz, we rank the daily time series at 100 m height and sample the summer top and winter bottom 10 percentile cases. The winter cases of the reduced spectral density in the gap region present the f-3 spectrum (f is frequency) and negatively skewed velocity increment distributions, which are the signatures of enstrophy (the integral of squared vorticity) cascade of turbulent two-dimensional (2-D) flows. In contrast, the summer cases of the enhanced spectral density present the f-5/3 spectrum and positively skewed velocity increment distributions, which are the signatures of upscale energy cascade of 2-D flows. In these mesoscale events that fill up the gap, the turbulence intensity-wind speed relationship is very sensitive to the choice of the averaging period.

  3. Comparison of Ozone Retrievals from the Pandora Spectrometer System and Dobson Spectrophotometer in Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    Herman, J.; Evans, R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; McConville, G.


    A comparison of retrieved total column ozone (TCO) amounts between the Pandora #34 spectrometer system and the Dobson #061 spectrophotometer from direct-sun observations was performed on the roof of the Boulder, Colorado, NOAA building. This paper, part of an ongoing study, covers a 1-year period starting on 17 December 2013. Both the standard Dobson and Pandora TCO retrievals required a correction, TCO(sub corr) = TCO (1 + C(T)), using a monthly varying effective ozone temperature, T(sub E), derived from a temperature and ozone profile climatology. The correction is used to remove a seasonal difference caused by using a fixed temperature in each retrieval algorithm. The respective corrections C(T(sub E)) are C(sub Pandora) = 0.00333(T(sub E) - 225) and C(sub Dobson) = -0.0013(T(sub E) - 226.7) per degree K. After the applied corrections removed most of the seasonal retrieval dependence on ozone temperature, TCO agreement between the instruments was within 1% for clear-sky conditions. For clear-sky observations, both co-located instruments tracked the day-to-day variation in total column ozone amounts with a correlation of r(exp 2) = 0.97 and an average offset of 1.1 +/- 5.8 DU. In addition, the Pandora TCO data showed 0.3% annual average agreement with satellite overpass data from AURA/OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and 1% annual average offset with Suomi-NPP/OMPS (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership, the nadir viewing portion of the Ozone Mapper Profiler Suite).

  4. Collaboration Between Environmental Water Chemistry Students and Hazardous Waste Treatment Specialists on the University of Colorado-Boulder Campus (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.


    The University of Colorado-Boulder is one of a few universities in the country that has a licensed Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility (TSDF) for hazardous waste on campus. This facility, located on the bottom floor of the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) building, allows CU to more economically treat hazardous waste by enabling treatment specialists on staff to safely collect and organize the hazardous waste generated on campus. Hazardous waste is anything that contains a regulated chemical or compound and most chemicals used in engineering labs (e.g., acids, solvents, metal solutions) fall into this category. The EH&S staff is able to treat close almost 33% of the waste from campus and the rest is packed for off-site treatment at various places all over the country for disposal (e.g., Sauget, IL, Port Aurthor, TX). The CU-Boulder campus produced over 50 tons of hazardous waste in 2010 costing over $300,000 in off-campus expenses. The EH&S staff assigns one of over 50 codes to the waste which will determine if the waste can be treated on campus of must be shipped off campus to be disposed of. If the waste can be treated on campus, it will undergo one of three processes: 1) neutralization, 2) UV-ozone oxidation, or 3) ion exchange. If the waste is acidic but contains no heavy metals, the acid is neutralized with sodium hydroxide (a base) and can be disposed "down the drain" to the Boulder Wastewater Treatment Plant. If the waste contains organic compounds and no metals, a UV-ozone oxidation system is used to break down the organic compounds. Silver from photography wastewater can be removed using ion exchange columns. Undergraduate and graduate students worked with the hazardous waste treatment facility at the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) building on the CU-Boulder campus during the fall of 2011 and fall of 2012. Early in the semester, students receive a tour of the three batch treatment processes the facility is equipped with. Later in the

  5. Economic Impacts from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program: Using Property-Assessed Clean Energy Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, M.; Cliburn, J. K.; Coughlin, J.


    This report examines the economic impacts (including job creation) from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program (CSLP), an example of Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing. The CSLP was the first test of PACE financing on a multi-jurisdictional level (involving individual cities as well as the county government). It was also the first PACE program to comprehensively address energy efficiency measures and renewable energy, and it was the first funded by a public offering of both taxable and tax-exempt bonds.

  6. The southern hemisphere of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Analysis of the preperihelion size-frequency distribution of boulders ≥7 m (United States)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Lucchetti, Alice; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Oklay, Nilda; El-Maarry, Mohamed R.; Bertini, Ivano; Naletto, Giampiero; Lazzarin, Monica; Massironi, Matteo; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; Keller, Horst U.; Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Barucci, Maria A.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Boudreault, Steve; Cremonese, Gabriele; Da Deppo, Vania; Davidsson, Björn; Debei, Stefano; De Cecco, Mariolino; Deller, Jakob; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulle, Marco; Gicquel, Adeline; Groussin, Olivier; Gutierrez, Pedro J.; Güttler, Carsten; Hofmann, Marc; Höfner, Sebastian; Hviid, Stubbe F.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jorda, Laurent; Knollenberg, Jörg; Kramm, J.-Rainer; Kührt, Ekkehard; Küppers, Michael; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Lara, Luisa M.; Lee, Jui-Chi; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Lopez Moreno, Jose J.; Marzari, Francesco; Michalik, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Thomas, Nicholas; Toth, Imre; Tubiana, Cecilia


    Aims: We calculate the size-frequency distribution of the boulders on the southern hemisphere of comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P), which was in shadow before the end of April 2015. We compare the new results with those derived from the northern hemisphere and equatorial regions of 67P, highlighting the possible physical processes that lead to these boulder size distributions. Methods: We used images acquired by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) on 2 May 2015 at a distance of 125 km from the nucleus. The scale of this dataset is 2.3 m/px; the high resolution of the images, coupled with the favorable observation phase angle of 62°, provided the possibility to unambiguously identify boulders ≥7 m on the surface of 67P and to manually extract them with the software ArcGIS. We derived the size-frequency distribution of the illuminated southern hemisphere. Results: We found a power-law index of -3.6 ± 0.2 for the boulders on the southern hemisphere with a diameter range of 7-35 m. The power-law index is equal to the one previously found on northern and equatorial regions of 67P, suggesting that similar boulder formation processes occur in both hemispheres. The power-law index is related to gravitational events triggered by sublimation and/or thermal fracturing causing regressive erosion. In addition, the presence of a larger number of boulders per km2 in the southern hemisphere, which is a factor of 3 higher with respect to the northern hemisphere, suggests that the southernmost terrains of 67P are affected by a stronger thermal fracturing and sublimating activity, hence possibly causing larger regressive erosion and gravitational events.



    Paterniani, JES; da Silva, MJM; Ribeiro, TAP; Barbosa, M.


    The objective of this study was the comparison between two filtration systems, being one composed of a boulder pre-filter followed by a slow filter with sand as filtration media and a non-woven synthetic fabric in the upper part, and the other one composed of a boulder pre-filter followed by a slow filter with sand as filtration media and granular activated charcoal and a non-woven synthetic fabric in the upper part, for the purification of household effluents treated in cultivated beds, to b...

  8. Control of Precambrian basement deformation zones on emplacement of the Laramide Boulder batholith and Butte mining district, Montana, United States (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; O'Neill, J. Michael


    What are the roles of deep Precambrian basement deformation zones in the localization of subsequent shallow-crustal deformation zones and magmas? The Paleoproterozoic Great Falls tectonic zone and its included Boulder batholith (Montana, United States) provide an opportunity to examine the importance of inherited deformation fabrics in batholith emplacement and the localization of magmatic-hydrothermal mineral deposits. Northeast-trending deformation fabrics predominate in the Great Falls tectonic zone, which formed during the suturing of Paleoproterozoic and Archean cratonic masses approximately 1,800 mega-annum (Ma). Subsequent Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic deformation fabrics trend northwest. Following Paleozoic through Early Cretaceous sedimentation, a Late Cretaceous fold-and-thrust belt with associated strike-slip faulting developed across the region, wherein some Proterozoic faults localized thrust faulting, while others were reactivated as strike-slip faults. The 81- to 76-Ma Boulder batholith was emplaced along the reactivated central Paleoproterozoic suture in the Great Falls tectonic zone. Early-stage Boulder batholith plutons were emplaced concurrent with east-directed thrust faulting and localized primarily by northwest-trending strike-slip and related faults. The late-stage Butte Quartz Monzonite pluton was localized in a northeast-trending pull-apart structure that formed behind the active thrust front and is axially symmetric across the underlying northeast-striking Paleoproterozoic fault zone, interpreted as a crustal suture. The modeling of potential-field geophysical data indicates that pull-apart?stage magmas fed into the structure through two funnel-shaped zones beneath the batholith. Renewed magmatic activity in the southern feeder from 66 to 64 Ma led to the formation of two small porphyry-style copper-molybdenum deposits and ensuing world-class polymetallic copper- and silver-bearing veins in the Butte mining district. Vein orientations

  9. Exerting Power in a Landscape Management Controversy: A case study of the proposed Penguin Parade at Boulder Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Foster


    Full Text Available Managing the future of places that are esteemed for both their cultural and natural heritage values is becoming increasingly contentious. This paper examines the spatialised strategies of two groups attempting to influence planning decisions over the fate of ten vernacular buildings in Boulder Bay, Christchurch, and their possible replacement by an eco-tourism proposal. Both groups' strategies include deploying global policy initiatives such as the IUCN Red List and the ICOMOS Charter, however, they diverge significantly over how the local landscape is portrayed. Those looking to preserve the baches, unsurprisingly emphasise local memory and the historical character of the place, while those proposing tourism development downplay many of the impacts of the proposal.

  10. Coastal vulnerability to typhoon inundation in the Bay of Bangkok, Thailand? Evidence from carbonate boulder deposits on Ko Larn island (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Jankaew, Kruawun; Dunne, Kieran


    At the head of the Gulf of Thailand, the subsiding Chao Phraya delta and adjacent low-lying coastlines surrounding the Bay of Bangkok are at risk of coastal flooding. Although a significant marine inundation event has not been experienced in historical times, this work identifies coastal depositional evidence for high-energy waves in the past. On Ko Larn island in eastern Bay of Bangkok, numerous coastal carbonate boulders (CCBs) were discovered at elevations up to 4+ m above sea level, the largest weighing over 1.3 tonnes. For the majority of CCBs, their karstified appearance bears testimony to long periods of immobility since original deposition, whilst their geomorphic settings on coastal slopes of coarse blocky talus is helpful in recognising lifting (saltation) as the probable mode of wave transport. In the absence of local tsunamigenic potential, these CCBs are considered to be prehistoric typhoon deposits, presumably sourced from fringing coral reefs by high-energy wave action. Application of existing hydrodynamic flow transport equations reveals that 4.7 m/s and 7.1 m/s are the minimum flow velocities required to transport 50% and 100% of the measured CCBs, respectively. Such values are consistent with cyclone-impacted coastlines studied elsewhere in the tropical Asia-Pacific region. Overall, the evidence of elevated carbonate boulder deposits on Ko Larn implies that typhoons before the modern record may have entered the Bay of Bangkok. The recurrence of a similar event in future would have the potential to cause damaging marine inundation on surrounding low-lying coastlines.

  11. Captive propagation, reproductive biology, and early life history of Etheostoma wapiti (Boulder Darter), E. vulneratum (Wounded Darter), and E. maculatum (Spotted Darter) (United States)

    Ruble, Crystal L.; Rakes, Patrick L.; Shute, John R.; Welsh, Stuart


    Reproductive biology and early life-history data are important for understanding the ecology of fishes. In 2008, we conducted captive propagation studies on 3 species of darters of the subgenus Nothonotus: Etheostoma wapiti (Boulder Darter), E. vulneratum (Wounded Darter), and E. maculatum (Spotted Darter). The length of spawning period and associated range of water temperatures for the Wounded Darter exceeded that of the Spotted Darter and Boulder Darter. The mean number of eggs produced per female was lowest for Boulder Darter and highest in the Wounded Darter. The Boulder Darter had the highest percent of eggs hatched, the lowest percent larval to juvenile stage survivorship, and the lowest mean number of juveniles produced per female. Egg diameters at deposition and prior to hatch were smallest for the Spotted Darter. If reproductive biology and early lifehistory information from captive fishes represent that of wild populations, then the data obtained during this study are relevant to development and implementation of conservation and management plans for these closely related darter species.

  12. A Lateglacial to late Holocene glacial chronology for the Cairngorm Mountains (Scotland): effects of boulder inheritance and snow shielding on age distributions. (United States)

    Kirkbride, Martin; Everest, Jez; Benn, Doug


    It is thought that British glaciers disappeared after the Younger Dryas Stadial (YDS, 12.9 - 11.7 k yr). We present cosmogenic 10Be ages of cirque moraines in the Cairngorm Mountains which include two Lateglacial advances, a speculative early Holocene advance, and a late Holocene moraine probably deposited by a Little Ice Age glacier ( 17th - 18th century AD). One cirque (CLE) contains evidence of a YDS advance peaking at c. 12.3 k yr, and a probable Little Ice Age (LIA) advance dated to cirque (CLW) has an outer moraine dated to between 15.3 and 12.0 k yr. An inner moraine, conventionally regarded as YDS in age, yields 10Be ages of 11.5 to 8.3 k yr (Lal/Stone time-dependent production model). The putative YDS moraines are well dated in cirque CLE, but appear too "young" in CLW. We consider how snow-shielding and boulder recycling may have affected age distributions. If these ages are minima from a YDS moraine, snow-shielding and delayed deposition from debris-covered ice may explain low 10Be concentrations, but this does not explain why similar adjustments are not needed in the neighbouring cirque. Alternatively, ages may be maxima from an early Holocene moraine which incorporated existing boulders. The LIA moraine in CLE contains a high proportion of inherited boulders, but the YDS moraine here contains few. Therefore the proportion of inherited boulders is estimated to be a function of the ratio of debris production during the glacial period and debris production during the preceding paraglacial period. The ratio describes the likelihood of sampling an inherited boulder if the geomorphological history is understood. By this reasoning, an alternative interpretation of the "YDS" moraine in CLW is that an early Holocene glacier (speculatively, the 8.2 k event?) incorporated post-YDS paraglacial rock fall debris.

  13. The effect of variable discharge on the inorganic chemistry downstream of a waste water treatment plant, Boulder Creek, Colorado (United States)

    Antweiler, R. C.; Writer, J. H.; Murphy, S. F.


    Researchers investigating the effect of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent on streams often assume that the magnitude of this effect is constant over time. However, discharge of WWTP effluent frequently follows a distinctive diel pattern. WWTP effluent discharge into Boulder Creek, Colorado, for example, varies by almost 200% over the course of a day. Due to this variation, downstream concentrations of chloride, boron and gadolinium (commonly used "conservative tracers") exhibit major changes over a 24-hour period. In order to determine how effluent discharge variability affects stream chemistry, we performed an evaluation of discharge and inorganic chemistry of the City of Boulder's WWTP and Boulder Creek upstream and downstream of the WWTP (representing a 5.4-km reach). Sodium bromide and Rhodamine WT were used to confirm that the same parcel of water was sampled as it moved downstream. The behavior of inorganic constituents fell into three distinct categories, showing conservative behavior, in-stream loss, or in-stream gain. Accounting for variable effluent discharge, the following inorganic constituents behaved conservatively: Cl, SO4, HCO3, F, B, Ba, Ca, Gd, K, Mg, Rb, Co, Cu, Mo, NO3, P and PO4, Sb, SiO2, Sr and Zn. Inorganic compounds which showed evidence of in-stream loss were Bi, Cr, Cs, Ga, Ge, Hg, Se, and Sn. For these elements, the typical pattern was an almost immediate loss: by the time the water had traveled to the first downstream sampling site, 2.3-km below the WWTP, in-stream reactions appeared to have ceased, and a constant flux was observed at all subsequent sites. We speculate that the near-immediate rates represent precipitation and/or adsorption caused by the change in pH and temperature of the mixing zone. Inorganic constituents that showed evidence of in-stream gain were: Al, As, Cd, Fe, I, Li, Mn, Nb, Pb, Re, Th, U, V, W, and all the rare-earth elements (except Gd). As with the in-stream loss group, most of the reactions occurred

  14. High Spatial Resolution 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology of Impact Melt Breccias from Apollo 17 Boulders at Stations 2, 6, and 7 (United States)

    Mercer, C. M.; Hodges, K. V.; Jolliff, B. L.; Van Soest, M. C.; Wartho, J. A.; Weirich, J. R.


    Several boulders located at the bases of the North and South Massifs were among the primary field targets of the Apollo 17 mission to the Taurus-Littrow Valley on the Moon [1]. Some boulders are polylithologic, including Boulder 1 at Station 2 and the boulders at Stations 6 and 7. These boulders were the subjects of consortium studies [2, 3] that included 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to determine the ages of distinct lithologies within each boulder [e.g., 4-6]. We report new 40Ar/39Ar data for the impact melt breccias 72255, 76315, 77075, and 77135 obtained using the UV laser ablation microprobe (UVLAMP) methods of [7]. For 72255, we obtained a preliminary isochron date ca. 3814 Ma from 22 melt analyses, which is younger than published plateau dates (e.g., 3951-3835 Ma [4, 8]). Fifteen melt analyses of 76315 yield a preliminary isochron date ca. 3850 Ma, younger than the 3900 ± 16 Ma date reported by [8]. Melt analyses of 77075 yield preliminary dates between ca. 3797-3584 Ma, possibly reflecting partial loss of 40Ar. In this case, the oldest date may provide a minimum age for the formation of melt in 77075. Finally, the UVLAMP dates for the 77135 melt range from 3810-3361 Ma and corresponding Ca/K ratios range from ca. 100-6. Electron microprobe analyses of small (ca. 10s of microns wide) pockets of K-rich materials show that both K-rich glass and K-feldspar are present. The UVLAMP dates for 77135 likely reflect spatially variable 40Ar loss, consistent with published step heating results [e.g., 6]. References: [1] Schmitt (1973) Science, 182, 681-690. [2] Ryder (1993). Catalog of Apollo 17 Rocks: Volume 1 - Stations 2 and 3 (South Massif). LPI. [3] Ryder (1993). Catalog of Apollo 17 Rocks: Volume 4 - North Massif. LPI. [4] Leich et al. (1975) The Moon, 14, 407-444. [5] Cadogan & Turner (1976). LPSC, 7, 2267-2285. [6] Stettler et al. (1978). LPSC, 9, 1113-1115. [7] Mercer et al. (2015) Sci. Adv., 1, e1400050. [8] Dalrymple & Ryder (1996). JGR, 101, 26069-26084.

  15. Geology of the area adjacent to the Free Enterprise uranium-silver Mine, Boulder District, Jefferson County, Montana (United States)

    Roberts, W.A.; Gude, A.J.


    Uranium minerals.occur in pods associated with cryptocrystalline silica, silver minerals, and scattered sulfide mineral grains in a hydrothermal vein that cuts quartz monzonite and alaskite at the Free Enterprise mine, 2 miles west of Boulder, Mont. The Free Enterprise vein is one of many silicified reef-like structures in this area, most of which trend about N. 60° E. The cryptocrystalline silica zones of the area are lenticular and are bordered by an altered zone where quartz monzonite is the wall rock. No alteration was noticed where alaskite is adjacent to silica zones. No uranium minerals were observed at the surface, but radioactivity anomalies were noted at 57 outcrops. Underground mining has shown that leaching by downward percolating waters has removed most of the uranium from the near-surface part of the Free Enterprise vein and probably has enriched slightly, parts of the vein and the adjacent wall rock from the bottom of the leached zone to the ground-water level. It is possible that other veins that show low to moderate radioactivity at the surface may contain significant concentrations of uranium minerals at relatively shallow depth. The quartz monzonite appears to be a more favorable host rock for the cryptocrystalline silica and associated uranium minerals than the alaskite. The alaskite occurs as vertical_dikes plug-like masses, and as irregularly shaped, gently dipping masses that are believed to have been intruded into open fractures formed during the cooling of the quartz monzonite.

  16. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 86-157-1678, Stag Dental Clinic, Boulder, Colorado. [Nitrous oxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, B.J.


    Employees of the Stag Dental Clinic, Boulder, Colorado requested an evaluation of nitrous oxide exposure during dental procedures. Direct reading measurements taken in the dental operatory immediately after nitrous oxide was administered showed levels exceeding 1000 parts per million (ppm) in the breathing zone of the dentist and his assistant. The levels remained high throughout the 1-hour procedure. The level of nitrous oxide in the hallway outside the operatory was 300 ppm and that in the adjacent operatory, 150 ppm (background). General-room air in the operatory in use was 800 ppm nitrous oxide. Levels of nitrous oxide decreased to 50 ppm 1.5 hours after the gas was turned off. The current NIOSH recommended time weighted average is 25 ppm. The author concludes that a health hazard existed at the dental office due to high exposures of nitrous oxide. It was recommended that a scavenging system should be installed. Recommendations also include routine maintenance on anesthetic and suction equipment, a follow-up evaluation after the exhaust systems have been in place, advising all dentists and other personnel in the clinic of the adverse health effects due to nitrous oxide, and use of more dilution ventilation.

  17. Water-quality trends for selected sites in the Boulder River and Tenmile Creek watersheds, Montana, based on data collected during water years 1997-2013 (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Clark, Melanie L.; Cleasby, Thomas E.; Barnhart, Elliott P.


    In the Boulder River and Tenmile Creek watersheds in southwestern Montana, there was intensive mining during a 40-year period after the discovery of gold in the early 1860s. Potential effects from the historic mining activities include acid-mine drainage and elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements from mining remnants such as waste rock and tailing piles. In support of remediation efforts, water-quality monitoring by the U.S. Geological Survey began in 1997 in the Boulder River and Tenmile Creek watersheds and has continued to present (2014). The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, investigated temporal trends in water quality at 13 sites, including 2 adit (or mine entrance) sites and 11 stream sites. The primary purpose of this report is to present results of trend analysis of specific conductance, selected trace-elements (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, and arsenic), and suspended sediment for the 13 sites.

  18. Geomorphology and weathering characteristics of erratic boulder trains on Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America: Implications for dating of glacial deposits (United States)

    Darvill, Christopher M.; Bentley, Michael J.; Stokes, Chris R.


    Erratic boulder trains (EBTs) are a useful glacial geomorphological feature because they reveal former ice flow trajectories and can be targeted for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating. However, understanding how they are transported and deposited is important because this has implications for palaeoglaciological reconstructions and the pre-exposure and/or erosion of the boulders. In this study, we review previous work on EBTs, which indicates that they may form subglacially or supraglacially but that large angular boulders transported long distances generally reflect supraglacial transport. We then report detailed observations of EBTs from Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America, where their characteristics provide a useful framework for the interpretation of previously published cosmogenic nuclide exposure dates. We present the first comprehensive map of the EBTs and analyse their spatial distribution, size, and physical appearance. Results suggest that they were produced by one or more supraglacial rock avalanches in the Cordillera Darwin and were then transported supraglacially for 100 s of kilometres before being deposited. Rock surface weathering analysis shows no significant difference in the weathering characteristics of a sequence of EBTs, previously hypothesized to be of significantly different age (i.e., different glacial cycles). We interpret this to indicate that the EBTs are much closer in age than previous work has implied. This emphasises the importance of understanding EBT formation when using them for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating.

  19. Integrating Infrastructure-Relevant Climate Projections into City Planning: Learning from Boulder CO, Austin TX and Washington DC (United States)

    Stoner, A. M. K.; Hayhoe, K.


    Over the coming century, climate change has the potential to impact infrastructure in many different ways, particularly in population-dense areas that depend on transportation and built environments. Many of these impacts may occur via changes in the frequency and magnitude of extremes: high and low temperature, heat waves, precipitation, coastal flooding, and storm events. Having a better idea of how the climate might change locally, both within the near future as well as toward the end of the century, can give city planners and engineers guidance when designing new structures and when repairing and fortifying existing components of buildings, bridges, highways, sewers, ports, etc. However, the type of event and the amount of damages that may be incurred are often highly specific to a given location. Over the last 10 years, we have worked with a broad range of cities, states, non-profit organizations, and federal agencies to integrate climate projections into ongoing resiliency, sustainability, and management processes. Drawing on that experience, we describe the broad steps in assimilating climate information into existing decision-making frameworks relevant to most applications, as well as highlighting many of the unique aspects of these analyses using examples from our most recent work with three very different cities - Austin TX, Boulder CO and Washington DC. From initial conversations with local experts to identify relevant thresholds to final integration of projected changes into the planning processes of these cities, these case studies highlight the utility of including future climate projections into infrastructure planning, the challenges to doing so, and the over-arching importance of communication and interaction between infrastructure experts, engineers, and scientists.

  20. Trends and variability of midlatitude stratospheric water vapour deduced from the re-evaluated Boulder balloon series and HALOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scherer


    Full Text Available This paper presents an updated trend analysis of water vapour in the lower midlatitude stratosphere from the Boulder balloon-borne NOAA frostpoint hygrometer measurements and from the Halogen Occulation Experiment (HALOE. Two corrections for instrumental bias are applied to homogenise the frostpoint data series, and a quality assessment of all soundings after 1991 is presented. Linear trend estimates based on the corrected data for the period 1980–2000 are up to 40% lower than previously reported. Vertically resolved trends and variability are calculated with a multi regression analysis including the quasi-biennal oscillation and equivalent latitude as explanatory variables. In the range of 380 to 640 K potential temperature (≈14 to 25 km, the frostpoint data from 1981 to 2006 show positive linear trends between 0.3±0.3 and 0.7±0.1%/yr. The same dataset shows trends between −0.2±0.3 and 1.0±0.3%/yr for the period 1992 to 2005. HALOE data over the same time period suggest negative trends ranging from −1.1±0.2 to −0.1±0.1%/yr. In the lower stratosphere, a rapid drop of water vapour is observed in 2000/2001 with little change since. At higher altitudes, the transition is more gradual, with slowly decreasing concentrations between 2001 and 2007. This pattern is consistent with a change induced by a drop of water concentrations at entry into the stratosphere. Previously noted differences in trends and variability between frostpoint and HALOE remain for the homogenised data. Due to uncertainties in reanalysis temperatures and stratospheric transport combined with uncertainties in observations, no quantitative inference about changes of water entering the stratosphere in the tropics could be made with the mid latitude measurements analysed here.

  1. Spatial patterns of mobile regolith thickness and meteoric 10Be in the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory, Front Range, Colorado (United States)

    Shea, N.; Ouimet, W. B.; Dethier, D. P.; Bierman, P. R.; Rood, D. H.


    The Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BcCZO) aims to understand the history, architecture and evolution of hillslopes found within the diverse topography and climate regimes of the Colorado Front Range. This information is crucial for testing and developing models of hillslope evolution, giving especial consideration to the production and downslope transport of mobile regolith on the hillslopes. Here, we present the results of a systematic study aiming to document spatial patterns of mobile regolith thickness and meteoric Beryllium-10 (10Be) concentrations in the Gordon Gulch basin of the BcCZO. Gordon Gulch lies within the unglaciated portion of the Colorado Front Range and is thought to be an artifact of long-term steady state evolution. The basin is characterized by mixed bedrock-soil mantled hillslopes, with intermittent bedrock outcrops (tors) on ~10% of slopes. It is currently unclear how the hillslopes of Gordon Gulch have evolved given the variable rock type and strength (i.e., fracture spacing), gradients (steep slopes in lower basin compared to gradual in the upper), and hillslope aspects (north versus south facing hillslopes, with varying tree types and soil moisture for frost cracking and heaving) that exist within the basin. Furthermore, climate data suggest that the current climate regime (relatively warm) is representative of only 20% of the last 65 ka. Mobile regolith thickness measurements provide a snapshot of hillslope evolution in the basin given these controls, and meteoric 10Be can used to constrain residence times and trace mobile regolith transport. We measure mobile regolith thickness as the depth to immobile weathered bedrock and/or saprolite. Preliminary analysis of over 200 soil pits reveals a high degree of variability in mobile regolith thickness. In general, the mobile regolith cover is thinner on the south facing slopes than the north facing and a general thickening of mobile regolith occurs on steeper slopes, especially along

  2. A coordinated study of 1-h gravity wave propagating from Logan to Boulder using two Na Doppler lidars and a temperature mapper (United States)

    Lu, X.; Chen, C.; Zhao, J.; Huang, W.; Chu, X.; Cullens, C. Y.; Yuan, T.; Pautet, P. D.; Zhao, Y.; Taylor, M. J.


    Vertical winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere can be obtained with good accuracy and precision with the STAR sodium (Na) lidar system at Boulder (40.1°N, 105.2°W), CO, after its receiving efficiency has been substantially improved by an order of magnitude. A remarkable gravity wave signature with a period of ˜1h is the most prominent feature shown in the vertical wind on Nov 27, 2013 at Boulder. Similar wave signatures are also present in the temperature and Na density variations. From the USU lidar and the temperature mapper, the gravity wave oscillation with a period of ˜1h is also observed in the temperature and horizontal winds at Logan (41.7°N, 111.8°W), Utah. By combining the observations from these two stations, we determine the vertical wavelength is about 25 km and horizontal wavelength is about 327 km. This wave is propagating from Logan to Boulder with an elevation angle of 4.4° and an azimuth angle of 133°. The wave amplitudes in vertical wind, horizontal winds and temperature are provided and their ratios are in good agreement with the gravity wave polarization relation. This coordinated study has uniquely provided 3-D information and magnitude of the 1-h gravity wave, which has a great potential to be the seed of TIDs, affecting the ionospheric variabilities. Using the ray-tracing model, we find that the wave source is above 10 km. It is likely generated by the geostrophic adjustment of the jet stream, whose orientation is consistent with the horizontal propagation direction of the wave.

  3. A coordinated study of 1 h mesoscale gravity waves propagating from Logan to Boulder with CRRL Na Doppler lidars and temperature mapper (United States)

    Lu, Xian; Chen, Cao; Huang, Wentao; Smith, John A.; Chu, Xinzhao; Yuan, Tao; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Taylor, Mike J.; Gong, Jie; Cullens, Chihoko Y.


    We present the first coordinated study using two lidars at two separate locations to characterize a 1 h mesoscale gravity wave event in the mesopause region. The simultaneous observations were made with the Student Training and Atmospheric Research (STAR) Na Doppler lidar at Boulder, CO, and the Utah State University Na Doppler lidar and temperature mapper at Logan, UT, on 27 November 2013. The high precision possessed by the STAR lidar enabled these waves to be detected in vertical wind. The mean wave amplitudes are ~0.44 m/s in vertical wind and ~1% in relative temperature at altitudes of 82-107 km. Those in the zonal and meridional winds are 6.1 and 5.2 m/s averaged from 84 to 99 km. The horizontal and vertical wavelengths inferred from the mapper and lidars are ~219 ± 4 and 16.0 ± 0.3 km, respectively. The intrinsic period is ~1.3 h for the airglow layer, Doppler shifted by a mean wind of ~17 m/s. The wave packet propagates from Logan to Boulder with an azimuth angle of ~135° clockwise from north and an elevation angle of ~ 3° from the horizon. The observed phase difference between the two locations can be explained by the traveling time of the 1 h wave from Logan to Boulder, which is about ~2.4 h. The wave polarization relations are examined through the simultaneous quantifications of the three wind components and temperature. This study has developed a systematic methodology for fully characterizing mesoscale gravity waves, inspecting their intrinsic properties and validating the derivation of horizontal wave structures by applying multiple instruments from coordinated stations.

  4. How do people perceive, understand, and anticipate responding to flash flood risks and warnings? Results from a public survey in Boulder, Colorado, USA (United States)

    Morss, Rebecca E.; Mulder, Kelsey J.; Lazo, Jeffrey K.; Demuth, Julie L.


    This study investigates flash flood forecast and warning communication, interpretation, and decision making, using data from a survey of 418 members of the public in Boulder, Colorado, USA. Respondents to the public survey varied in their perceptions and understandings of flash flood risks in Boulder, and some had misconceptions about flash flood risks, such as the safety of crossing fast-flowing water. About 6% of respondents indicated consistent reversals of US watch-warning alert terminology. However, more in-depth analysis illustrates the multi-dimensional, situationally dependent meanings of flash flood alerts, as well as the importance of evaluating interpretation and use of warning information along with alert terminology. Some public respondents estimated low likelihoods of flash flooding given a flash flood warning; these were associated with lower anticipated likelihood of taking protective action given a warning. Protective action intentions were also lower among respondents who had less trust in flash flood warnings, those who had not made prior preparations for flash flooding, and those who believed themselves to be safer from flash flooding. Additional analysis, using open-ended survey questions about responses to warnings, elucidates the complex, contextual nature of protective decision making during flash flood threats. These findings suggest that warnings can play an important role not only by notifying people that there is a threat and helping motivate people to take protective action, but also by helping people evaluate what actions to take given their situation.

  5. Analysis and treatment of quality problem of boulder in foundation pile project%基桩遇孤石质量问题的分析与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    基于地基与基础等强置换、地基压力扩散原理及复合地基理论,以孤石加固法、结构加固法、复合地基与基础加固法及等强补桩法比较,分析了某建筑主体结构已施工基桩遇孤石的承载力、沉降量不能全部满足要求的处理方案,探讨复合地基加固法和等强补桩法的应用。提高土层压缩模量是复合地基加固的重要途径,合理、有效地确定地基处理范围是复合地基加固的重要环节。%Based on the equal strength displacement theory of foundation and foundation, ground pressure diffusion principle and the theory of composite foundation, comparisons of boulder reinforcement method, the structure reinforcement method, composite foundation and pile foundation reinforcement method and equal strength reinforcement method were made.The treatment plan for bearing capacity and settle-ment under requirements due to boulder encountered in a foundation pile which main structure has been built was analyzed.Application of composite foundation reinforcement method and equal strength pile reinforcement method were discussed.Improvement of the soil compres-sion modulus is the important way of compound foundation reinforcement, reasonable and effective determination of the scope of the founda-tion treatment is an important part of the composite foundation reinforcement.

  6. 球状孤石在探地雷达探测成果中的表现特征%The performance characteristic of spherical boulder in the georadar detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成禹; 林毅鹏; 林超群; 刘汗青


    花岗岩风化壳中分布的孤石对工程建设有较大的危害,较准确地探明孤石的大小及分布具有重要的实际意义。笔者采用现场实测和数值模拟相结合的方法对球状孤石在探地雷达探测成果中的表现特征进行了研究。结果表明:雷达波在孤石处出现了明显的孤形反射,反射弧的张开宽度随孤石直径、埋深的的增加而增大;雷达波中孤石顶点处反射弧的曲率半径与孤石直径近似呈线性关系,与孤石埋深近似呈二次多项式关系。所得结论对孤石分布地区探地雷达探测成果的正确解释有一定的指导作用。%The boulder distributed in granite weathering crust has great harm on the engineering construction. Accurately determine the size and distribution of boulder has important practical significance. In this paper, by adopting the combination of field measurement and numerical simulation method to study the performance characteristic of spherical boulder in the georadar detection. The following conclusions are drawn:There is an obvious of radar wave in the boulder reflection. The open width of reflex is increase with the boulder diameter and the buried depth. In radar wave ,the radius of curvature of vertices has approximate linear relationship with the boulder di⁃ameter. And has Quadratic polynomial relationship with the buried depth. The conclusions obtained in this paper have a certain guiding role on analyzing georadar detection results about boulder.

  7. Changes in population structure and body dimensions of two xanthid crabs: A long-term study in a single boulder-shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Warburg


    Full Text Available Two xanthid crab species were studied during 29 months over a period of 14 years between 1986 and 1999 all in exactly the same boulder shore. One of the crab species studied was the xanthid, Eriphia verrucosa (Forskall, 1775 with 60 specimens, the other species, Xantho poressa (Olivi, 1792, with 155 specimens. A significant change in numbers of both males and females of E. verrucosa was noticeable between 1986 and 1996 with a marked drop in numbers between these years. In 1997 male numbers increased again to almosttheir previous numbers in the population during 1986. The population of X. poressa declined significantly towards the end of the study period. Numbers of both genders peaked in spring and again, in summer. There was generally a decline in numbers of both crab species during autumn and winter. Thus, the average capture during the seasons was highest in spring for males of both E. verrucosa, and X. poressa. The body dimensions: mass, carapace length (CL and width (CW were measured in both xanthids. The aim of this long-term study was to determine whether temporal changes in the population structure and allometric changes in the dimensions of these crabs took place. Only such long-term observations could reveal these changes in population.

  8. Incorporation of island-arc rocks into a Caribbean subduction channel: Geochemical constraints from eclogite boulders and greenschist rocks, Guajira region, Colombia (United States)

    Weber, M.; Cardona, A.; Altenberger, U.; Garcia-Casco, A.; Valencia, V.; Tobón, M.; Zapata, S.


    Characterization of the protoliths of a subduction-accretion complex can provide major insights into the dynamics of the subduction channel. Geochemistry of eclogites found as boulders in a Tertiary conglomerate from the Guajira Peninsula, Colombia, indicate that these rocks are mainly metamorphosed basalts. A negative Nb-anomaly and flat to enriched REE patterns suggest that the eclogite protoliths evolved in a subduction related tectonic setting, with island arc affinities. The geochemical characteristics are similar to low-grade greenschists from the nearby Etpana Formation, which is interpreted as part of a Cretaceous intra-oceanic arc. This further supports evidence that the deposition and metamorphism of these units record the ongoing Late Cretaceous continental subduction of the South American margin beneath the advancing Caribbean arc. This gave way to an arc-continent collision between the Caribbean and the South American plates. Arc-rocks were incorporated into the subduction channel and the accretionary wedge, either though influx of tectonically eroded arc material (subduction erosion) or incorporation into the accretionary wedge during arc-continent collision.

  9. Hillslope lowering rates and mobile-regolith residence times from in situ and meteoric 10Be analysis: Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory, Colorado (United States)

    Foster, M. A.; Anderson, R. S.; Wyshnytzky, C.; Ouimet, W. B.; Dethier, D. P.


    Mobile regolith is produced as weathered saprolite is entrained into the mobile layer. The rate of mobile-regolith production and its residence time on hillslopes shapes the topography and evolution of hillslopes. We calculate the production rate of mobile regolith and the mobile-regolith residence times on active hillslopes in Gordon Gulch, within the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (CZO), Colorado. We find mobile-regolith production rates (average 3.1 cm/ka) and residence times (average 10-20 ka) derived from both in situand meteoric methods agree. Lowering-rates derived from our study are also comparable to basin-averaged denudation rates for small basins in the Colorado Front Range (Dethier and Lazarus, 2006). In this study, we have measured both in situ and meteoric 10Be in saprolite and mobile regolith separately. We find that, on average, two-thirds of in situ 10Be is produced within saprolite, and that at least one-tenth of the meteoric 10Be inventories are stored in saprolite. In the case of in situ 10Be, this simply reflects the exponential fall-off in production rates through a thin mobile-regolith cover. In the case of meteoric 10Be, our calculations suggest that >40% of the meteoric 10Be deposition occurs within the saprolite. Most studies that utilize 10Be report residence times and soil-production rates based on concentrations in either the mobile regolith or saprolite; therefore, our 10Be data highlight the importance of clearly identifying mobile and immobile portions of the regolith, constraining its 10Be inventory, and use of consistent terminology for the mobile-layer.

  10. Save the Boulders Beach Penguins (United States)

    Sheerer, Katherine; Schnittka, Christine


    Maybe it's the peculiar way they walk or their cute little suits, but students of all ages are drawn to penguins. To meet younger students' curiosity, the authors adapted a middle-school level, penguin-themed curriculum unit called Save the Penguins (Schnittka, Bell, and Richards 2010) for third-grade students. The students loved learning about…


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  12. Concentrations of metals in water, sediment, biofilm, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish in the boulder river watershed, Montana, and the role of colloids in metal uptake (United States)

    Farag, A.M.; Nimick, D.A.; Kimball, B.A.; Church, S.E.; Harper, D.D.; Brumbaugh, W.G.


    To characterize the partitioning of metals in a stream ecosystem, concentrations of trace metals including As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in water, colloids, sediment, biofilm (also referred to as aufwuchs), macroinvertebrates, and fish collected from the Boulder River watershed, Montana. Median concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in water throughout the watershed exceeded the U.S. EPA acute and chronic criteria for protection of aquatic life. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in sediment were sufficient in the tributaries to cause invertebrate toxicity. The concentrations of As, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in invertebrates from lower Cataract Creek (63, 339, 59, 34, and 2,410 ??g/g dry wt, respectively) were greater than the concentrations in invertebrates from the Clark Fork River watershed, Montana (19, 174, 2.3, 15, and 648 ??g/g, respectively), that were associated with reduced survival, growth, and health of cutthroat trout fed diets composed of those invertebrates. Colloids and biofilm seem to play a critical role in the pathway of metals into the food chain and concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in these two components are significantly correlated. We suggest that transfer of metals associated with Fe colloids to biological components of biofilm is an important pathway where metals associated with abiotic components are first available to biotic components. The significant correlations suggest that Cd, Cu, and Zn may move independently to biota (biofilm, invertebrates, or fish tissues) from water and sediment. The possibility exists that Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations increase in fish tissues as a result of direct contact with water and sediment and indirect exposure through the food chain. However, uptake through the food chain to fish may be more important for As. Although As concentrations in colloids and biofilm were significantly correlated with As water concentrations, As concentrations in fish tissues were not correlated with water. The pathway for


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕延武; 顾兆炎; 许冰; A.Aldahan; G.Possnert


    宇宙成因核素可用于河流阶地测年,然而保存于阶地面上的漂砾暴露年龄是否能代表其形成年代还缺乏深入研究.应用宇宙成因核素10Be对怒江丙中洛河段第三级阶地上的花岗岩漂砾进行测年研究,结果显示继承性组分可以忽略,而风化侵蚀将对其暴露年龄产生较大影响.基于采集自第三级阶地保存较好的基岩中石英脉样品,应用有效暴露年龄、暴露时间与风化速率间的关系图解出花岗岩漂砾的风化速率为0.3cm/ka,并据此得到第三级阶地的形成年代大约为 150~203 ka.%Fluvial terraces are common in the Nujiang River valley,while the third level is widest and mostly distributed. There are five level terraces at Bingzhongluo(28°01'N,98°37'E) ,where located southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, Yunnan, China. The third and the forth level terraces are covered with reddish-brown soil, indicating a long history of the terraces. Many granite boulders are spread out on the surface of the first, second and third level terraces, whose exposure ages could represent the terrace formation time. Three granite boulders were taken as samples at the posterior margin of the third terrace of the Nujiang River at Bingzhongluo(Fig. la and lc). The diameters of all boulders are large (>2m)and partly buried in soil layers. Sample NJ2-1 was collected from one granite boulder(about 2. 3m)on floodplain, which is used to estimate the inheritance. Sample BZL43 was chiseled about 1. 5cm from the surface of a quartz vein,which insets a sandy slate of the third terrace at downstream about 2km. The quartz purification, 10Be extraction,and BeO preparation,were done in the Cosmogenic Nuclide Laboratory at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The 10e/9Be ratio was measured by AMS facility at the Tandem Laboratory of Uppsala University in Sweden. The "Be concentrations (Table 1) show that the 10Be concentration of sample BZL43 is

  14. Neoarchean orogenic, magmatic and hydrothermal events in the Kalgoorlie-Kambalda area, Western Australia: constraints on gold mineralization in the Boulder Lefroy-Golden Mile fault system (United States)

    Mueller, Andreas G.; Hagemann, Steffen G.; McNaughton, Neal J.


    The Boulder Lefroy-Golden Mile (BLF-GMF) fault system is the most intensely mineralized structure (>2150 t Au to 2015) in the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. The fault system links the Kalgoorlie and Kambalda mining districts in the Eastern Goldfields Province, a continental-margin orogen subdivided into the western Kalgoorlie ensialic rift and the eastern Kurnalpi volcanic arc. After rifting, the 2.73-2.66 Ga greenstone-greywacke succession in the Kalgoorlie-Kambalda area underwent five phases of orogenic deformation, predominantly during ENE-WSW shortening: D1 upright folding at ca. 2680 Ma, D2 sinistral strike-slip faulting at 2678-2663 Ma, D3 folding of late conglomerate-turbidite successions at 2665-2655 Ma, D4 dextral strike-slip faulting at 2655-2640 Ma and D5 east-northeast-striking normal faulting. Regional prehnite-pumpellyite to greenschist facies burial metamorphism took place during D1 and D3 crustal thickening, and amphibolite facies aureoles formed around granite batholiths during and after D3 at 400 ± 100 MPa pressure. The D2 BLF offsets D1 folds by 12 km SW-side south and contains a porphyry dyke (2676 ± 7 Ma) boudinaged by transtensional oblique-slip along a line pitching 21° southeast. The BLF is linked by transverse D2 thrusts to other sinistral faults recording strike-slip until 2663 ± 7 Ma. Late D2 strike-slip movement alternated with early D3 shortening. D3 thrusts accommodated strain in fault blocks of rigid mafic-ultramafic volcanic rocks consolidated during D1, while the sedimentary rocks in D3 synclines were foliated at high strain. Biotite-sericite alteration and gold-pyrite mineralization in the BLF-GMF system took place at 11 ± 4 km burial depth in faults active during D2 and D3. The Golden Mile (1708 t Au) and other deposits are associated with stocks and dykes of high-Mg monzodiorite-tonalite porphyry, part of a late-orogenic (2665-2645 Ma) mantle-derived suite of adakitic affinity. Hornblende and apatite compositions

  15. Analysis of U-Pb, O, Hf, and trace elements of horizontally oriented outer and inner zones of zircons from the Boulder batholith, Montana (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J. N.; Lund, K.; Du Bray, E. A.; Wooden, J. L.; Kozdon, R.; Kita, N.; Valley, J. W.; Kamenov, G. D.; Mueller, P. A.


    The Late Cretaceous Boulder batholith, southwestern MT, is composed of the Butte Granite and at least a dozen smaller granodiorite to syenogranite plutons. These plutons (81-73 Ma) were dated by zircon U-Pb geochronology using the SHRIMP. Typically for SIMS analysis of igneous zircon, the analytical spot is located midway between core and rim on an area that displays fine oscillatory zoning, thus sampling a ~25-30 µm area of vertically oriented zones to a depth of 1-2 µm. For this study, preliminary LA-ICP-MS analysis of Hf isotopes in zircons from several plutons suggested that some grains show significant variation (>5 ɛHf units) between inner and outer zones. This finding instigated a detailed investigation in which data for multiple isotopic systems (U-Pb, trace elements, O, and Hf ) were collected from horizontally oriented zones. Zircons were mounted in epoxy but not ground or polished. Reflected light, profilometer, and CL images were used to select homogeneous crystal faces. The outermost parts of 12-15 grains each from 12 plutons were analyzed consecutively for O and U-Pb isotope ratios, and trace element concentrations using an ion microprobe. The grains were then ground to half-thickness and O, U-Pb, and trace elements were measured at the centers of previously analyzed grains. The final step was Hf isotopic analysis by LA-ICP-MS which ablated a hole completely through the remaining half-grains. Although measurements of these isotopes from the outsides and insides of selected zircons is a limited form of depth-profiling, it enables acquisition of a very large, more precise data set than typical depth profiling. For all samples, U-Pb ages of zircon from interior and exterior zones are not resolvably different at ± 1% (2-sigma). However, in several samples a few outliers were identified, suggesting that interior parts in some grains formed later, during or after growth of the exterior parts of other grains. Thus, zircon growth was not an episodic

  16. Application of Seismic Method in Detection of Weathered-granite Boulders%花岗岩风化残留体地震法探测应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洋; 党如姣; 朱培民; 杨克斯; 范俊


    Weathered granite residual usually causes enormous risks to the shield tunneling in urban Metro construction. Therefore, detection must be carried out in advance along the tunnel alignment, so as to ensure the successful driving of shield through the formation with granite boulders. Compared to the traditional drilling method, seismic method has obvious advantages such as less environmental interference, high efficiency, wide coverage and low cost. In the paper, the applicability of common seismic detection methods is studied on the basis of the characteristics of granite formation and urban environment in south China. Conclusion is drawn that the shallow seismic reflection method is effective in boulder detection and that the detection accuracy can be improved by S-wave detection. The paper can provide reference for the detection of boulders in future works.%花岗岩风化残留体会给城市地铁盾构施工带来极大的风险,为保证盾构在存在残留体的地层中顺利掘进,需提前探测出其在隧道沿线的分布情况。较之传统的钻探探测方法,地震法探测具有环境干扰小、效率高、覆盖范围广且成本低廉的优势。文章针对南方地区花岗岩地层特征及城区环境特点,对目前常用地震探测方法的适用性进行了试验研究,认为浅层地震反射法对于孤石探测是行之有效的,采用横波探测可以提高探测准确度。所得出的结论可供以后孤石探测工作参考借鉴。

  17. The Physical Experiment Research in Laboratory of Cross-hole Electric Resistivity Tomography for Detecting Boulders%探测孤石高阻体的跨孔电阻率CT水槽物理模拟实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊超; 师学明; 万方方; 徐子东


    采用重庆奔腾数控技术研究所的WDJD-3型多功能数字直流激电仪,在电法实验室水槽内布设了探测孤石高阻体的跨孔电阻率CT法观测系统,进行了物理模型实验。物理模拟实验采用多种观测装置(二极、三极和四极装置),对采集到的数据进行反演成像,得到如下结论:①二极装置电阻率CT反演成像结果不能反映出高阻体的位置与大小;②三极装置CT反演成像结果能较好反映孤石高阻体的位置与大小;③四极装置电阻率CT反演成像也能反映出孤石高阻体的位置与规模,效果与三极装置基本相同。物理模拟实验结果表明:三极或四极装置的跨孔电阻率CT法可用于探测高阻体,它具有采集方式灵活、数据稳定可靠、成像结果直观清晰的优点。基于物理模拟实验的结果,采用电阻率CT法对地铁盾构隧道洞身范围内的孤石高阻体探测具有一定的指导意义。对孤石体的三维电阻率CT法物理模拟实验正在进一步研究中。%Using the WDJD-3 multi-functional digital DC instrument produced by Chongqing Bunting Digital Control Technical Institute, we design the observing system of cross-hole resistivity tomography to detect boulders in the laboratory, and take series of physical simulation experiments. Many arrays(cross-hole pole-pole, pole-bipole and bipole-bipole) are used in physical simulation experiments. The collected data is inversed by RES2DINV software and we get the following conclusions:(1) imaging results of pole-pole can’t reflect the position and size of high resistance body; (2) both imaging results of pole-dipole and dipole-dipole in standalone mode can clearly reflect the position and size of the high resistance body. The results of physical simulation experiments indicate that cross-hole resistivity tomography can be used to detect high-impedance body. The survey method is flexible acquisition, obtaining stable and reliable data


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄真萍; 周成峰; 曹洁梅


    随着高密度电法温纳装置在实际工程中的广泛应用,其探测深度的研究也显得十分重要.本文在详细分析了探测深度的各种影响因素后,对温纳装置探测深度基本理论进行了深入研究,得出了温纳装置探测深度跟误差扰动、异常体半径、异常体相对电阻率和电极距四个重要因素之间的关系.研究结果表明,温纳装置的探测深度是随误差扰动的增大而减少的,是随异常体半径的增大而呈非线性增大的.相对电阻率在1附近时探测深度最小,但增大到一定程度后,探测深度基本稳定,没有大的变化.当其它因素保持不变时,探测深度是随着电极距的增大而增大,但增大到一定范围后,探测深度反而会变小.最后结合理论分析与工程实际,通过对温纳装置探测孤石深度的数值模拟,提出了增加温纳装置探测孤石深度的正确方法.%Nowadays, the Wenner device of high-density electrical method has been used more and more widely in engineering. It is very significant to study its detecting depth of boulders in ground. This paper analyzes the factors influencing the detecting depth in detail. It studies the basic theory to the Wenner device in depth and then gets the relationship between the detecting depth and the four primary factors including agitation error, abnormal body radius , relative resistivity of abnormal body and electrode spacing. The research results show that, the detecting depth of Wenner device decreases with the increase of agitation error and increases nonlinearly with the increase of abnormal body radius. When the relative resistivity value is about one, the detecting depth is minimized. But when it increases to a certain value, the detecting depth does almost not change. When other factors are unchanged, the detecting depth increases with the increase of electrode spacing, which will reduce if the electrode spacing has exceedingly increased. Finally, by combining

  19. Early precambrian asteroid impact-triggered tsunami: excavated seabed, debris flows, exotic boulders, and turbulence features associated with 3.47-2.47 Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew Y


    Pioneering studies of Precambrian impact fallout units and associated tsunami deposits in the Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, by B.M. Simonson and S.W. Hassler, document a range of tsunami deposits associated with impact fallout units whose impact connection is identified by associated microtektites and microkrystites (condensation spherules). The impact connection of these particles is demonstrated by iridium anomalies, unique platinum group elements patterns, and Ni-rich mineral phases. Densely packed tsunami-transported fragments and boulders overlie microkrystite units of the >2629 +/- 5 Ma top Jeerinah Impact Layer (JIL). Tsunami events closely follow spherule settling associated with the 2561 +/- 8 Ma Spherule Marker Bed SMB-1 and SMB-2 impact events, Bee Gorge Member, Wittenoom Formation. The two impact cycles are separated by a stratigraphically consistent silicified black siltstone, representing a "Quiet Interval." The SMB turbidites display turbulence eddies, climbing ripples, conglomerate pockets, slumps, and waterlogged sediment deformation features. Consequences of tsunami in the probably contemporaneous Carawine Dolomite (Pb-Pb carbonate ages of approximately 2.56-2.54 Ga), eastern Hamersley Basin, include sub-autochthonous below-wave base excavation and megabrecciation of sea floor substrata, resulting in a unique 10-30-m-thick spherule-bearing megabreccia marker mapped over a nearly 100-km north-south strike distance in the east Hamersley Basin. The field relations suggest a pretsunami settling of the bulk of the spherules. Tsunami wave effects include: (1). dispersal of the spherule-rich soft upper sea floor sediments as a subaqueous mud cloud and (2). excavation of consolidated substrata below the soft sediment zone. Excavation and megabrecciation included injection of liquefied spherule-bearing microbreccia into dilated fractures in the disrupted underlying carbonates. Near-perfect preservation of the spherules within the

  20. 78 FR 48670 - Boulder Canyon Project (United States)


    ... repayment, and interest expense. Western's power repayment study (PRS) allocates the projected annual... Information about this Base Charge and Rate adjustment, including the PRS, comments, letters, memorandums, and... associated with the project. Each fiscal year, Western prepares a PRS for the BCP to update actual...

  1. 77 FR 48151 - Boulder Canyon Project (United States)


    ..., and interest expense. Western's power repayment study (PRS) allocates the projected annual revenue... about this Base Charge and Rate adjustment, including PRS, comments, letters, memorandums, and other..., Western prepares a PRS for the BCP to update actual revenues and expenses including interest, estimates...

  2. Solar Imagery - Composites - Full Sun Drawings - Boulder (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Synoptic Analysis Drawings, also known as Neutral Line (NL) drawings, are produced each day by space weather forecaster at the NOAA National Weather Service (NWS)...

  3. 77 FR 2533 - Boulder Canyon Project (United States)


    ... public comment forum will be held at the Desert Southwest Customer Service Regional Office, located at... Darrick Moe, Regional Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration... (602) 605-2490, attention: Jack Murray. Western will post information about the rate processes on...

  4. 76 FR 8359 - Boulder Canyon Project (United States)


    ... forum and public comment forum will be held at the Desert Southwest Customer Service Regional Office... sent to Darrick Moe, Regional Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power... to (602) 605-2490, Attention: Jack Murray. Western will post information about the rate processes...

  5. 76 FR 56430 - Boulder Canyon Project (United States)


    ... rates. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Jack Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer... agreement when it was executed in 1995 was to eliminate the need for Reclamation to seek Federal... expectation was that once the by-pass bridge was completed, costs would decrease. Response:...

  6. Proposed Construction of Boulder Seismic Station Monitoring Sites, Boulder, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment (United States)


    nevadensis 1 Idaho Fescue Festuca idahoensis 2 Indian Rice Grass Oryzopsis hymenoides 1 Needle-and-Thread Grass Stipa comata 1 Blue Wild Rye ...detailed in Table 2-2. Table 2-2. Proposed Reclamation Seed Mix Seed Mixture Scientific Name lbs/acre Great Basin Wild Rye Elymus cinereus 0.5...Bluebunch Wheatgrass Agropyron spicatum 2 Mountain Timothy Phleum alpinum 1 Squirrel Tail Grass (Bottle Brush) Stianion hystrix 1 Nevada Bluegrass Poa

  7. 南水北调中线邯邢渠段泥砾开挖料填筑利用试验%Testing and Research on Filling and Usage of Excavated Material-Boulder Clay in Handan-Xingtai Section of the First Phase of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张同颖; 贾文利


    南水北调中线一期工程总干渠邯邢渠段分布着范围较广的泥砾层。经技术经济分析比较,本渠段采用泥砾作为填筑土料。因此围绕泥砾开挖料的压实性能、抗渗性能和强度性能等三个关键指标,采用现场试验与室内试验相结合的方法进行系列试验,获取了合理的施工工艺和检验方法,最终达到了充分利用开挖泥砾料填筑渠堤(弃料量<5%),减少取土场和弃土场征地,降低工程造价,保证正常的工程施工进度的目标。同时,总结、检验试验成果在工程建设中的应用效果,完善泥砾开挖料在工程填筑中的应用工艺,为工程建设领域同类条件下的泥砾施工提供参考依据。%AwiderangeofboulderclaydistributesinthecanalfromHandantoXingtai,whichisapartofMainChannelofthefirst-phaseMiddle LineoftheSouth-NorthWaterDiversionProject.Bytechnicalandeconomicanalysisandcomparison,theboulderclayisusedinHandan-Xingtai section as soil filler. Based on the three indicators-compactability, impermeability and strength performance of excavated boulder clay, combining fieldandlaboratorytests,wehaveobtainedreasonableconstructiontechnologyandtestmethodstoreachthefullusageofexcavatedboulderclay infillingcanalembankment( thequantityofdiscardingmaterialislessthan5percent),toreducethelandexpropriationforborrowareaand spoil ground, to decrease project cost and to ensure the target of normal construction technology. Meanwhile, the summary and the application effects for testing results in engineering construction are made to improve the applied technology of excavated boulder clay in project filling, which can provide the reference to the boulder clay engineering construction under the similar condition.

  8. Testing Wetland Delineation Indicators in New England Boulder Fields (United States)


    determined using Munsell Soil Color Charts (Gretag/ Macbeth 2000). A summary of the soil profile for each well is included in Table 2. The bottom few inches...New York: New York Botanical Garden. Gretag/ Macbeth . 2000. Munsell® color. New Windsor, NY: Gretag/ Macbeth . Haeberli, W., L. King, and A. Flotron

  9. Characterization of Boulders Ejected from Small Impact Craters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, G.D.; Melosh, H.J.; Strom, R.G.


    When an asteroid or comet impacts the surface of a solid body, some of the surface material is often ejected from the crater in the form of blocks. We are characterizing the size and location of such blocks around craters on the Moon and Mars. The lunar craters were observed in Lunar Orbiter III ima

  10. 77 FR 64333 - Relocation of Transmission Lines for the U.S. 93 Boulder City Bypass Project, Boulder County, NV... (United States)


    ... the western end of the Hoover Dam Bypass project near the Hacienda Hotel and Casino. Western Area... in the project, contact Ms. Linda Hughes, Environmental Division Manager, Desert Southwest Customer... needs are satisfied and, with this notice, is adopting the Project EIS for its participation in...

  11. Pré-filtração em pedregulho e filtração lenta com areia, manta não tecida e carvão ativado para polimento de efluentes domésticos tratados em leitos cultivados Pré-filtration in boulder and slow sand filtration with non-woven synthetic layers and granulated vegetal coal to improve quality in wastewater treated by constructed wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. S. Paterniani


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo comparar sistemas de filtragem, composto de pré-filtro de pedregulho seguido de filtro lento com o meio filtrante areia e no topo manta sintética não tecida e pré-filtro de pedregulho seguido de filtro lento com meio filtrante areia e carvão ativado granular e no topo manta sintética não tecida, para polimento de efluentes domésticos tratados em leitos cultivados, visando à aplicação na fertirrigação. Na comparação dos sistemas de filtragem, avaliou-se a eficiência de remoção dos parâmetros: sólidos em suspensão, turbidez, cor aparente, demanda química de oxigênio, oxigênio dissolvido, ferro, manganês, coliformes totais e E. coli. Os dois sistemas operavam 24 horas por dia, com a mesma taxa de aplicação, tratando uma vazão total final de 1,5 m³ dia-1, sendo que a taxa de aplicação para a unidade de pré-filtração era, em média, de 8,4 m³ m-2 dia-1 e para cada uma das unidades de filtração lenta era, em media, de 2,7 m³ m-2 dia-1. As unidades de pré-filtração e filtração lenta mostraram-se eficientes na redução das concentrações de sólidos suspensos, turbidez, cor aparente e DQO, como polimento de esgotos domésticos previamente tratados. O uso de carvão ativado granular, em combinação com areia, proporcionou ao filtro lento maior eficiência na remoção de sólidos suspensos, cor, turbidez, coliformes totais e E. Coli., sem com isso aumentar a perda de carga inicial. Existe a possibilidade de utilização dos efluentes para a prática da fertirrigação, sendo necessário o processo de desinfecção ou não, dependendo da cultura e o sistema de irrigação utilizado.The objective of this study was the comparison between two filtration systems, being one composed of a boulder pre-filter followed by a slow filter with sand as filtration media and a non-woven synthetic fabric in the upper part, and the other one composed of a boulder pre-filter followed by a

  12. 76 FR 62839 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... staff in consultation with representatives of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians... Hopland Rancheria, California; Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel, California; Inaja Band of Diegueno Mission... of Diegueno Mission Indians of California; Santa Rosa Band of Cahuilla Indians; Santa Rosa...

  13. 75 FR 57912 - Boulder Canyon Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-150 (United States)


    ... Reclamation's post September 11, 2001, security costs be adjusted upward or downward with regard to the CPI. Since the CPI applicable to this budget declined, a corresponding decline in the security costs should... projected security non- reimbursable costs has been incorporated into the final total for the ``Post...

  14. Acoustic Travel-Time Tomography of the Atmosphere at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (United States)


    many outdoor and indoor acoustic tomography experiments have been performed by scientists from the University of Leipzig , Germany, e.g., see [3, outdoor [3] and indoor [4] acoustic tomography experiments carried out by scientists from the University of Leipzig . The results obtained showed...Ilmenauer Fass (Technical Report, Leipzig Institute of Meteorology, Leipzig ). 5. Ostashev, V. E., A. Bedard, S. N. Vecherin, D. K. Wilson, 2009

  15. Stretched exponential relaxation of viscous remanence and magnetic dating of erratic boulders (United States)

    Sato, T.; Nakamura, N.; Nagahama, H.; Minoura, K.


    Viscous remanence continuously increases with the duration of reorientation of rocks, and the remanence gets partially overprinted in rocks parallel to the Earth's magnetic field. This overprinted viscous remanence is unblocked at a certain temperature that enables the estimation of the time required for the rock to acquire the magnetism, by assuming the exponential law of Néel's single-domain theory. However, previous results of dating the rocks by the exponential law have shown older ages than radiometric or cosmogenic exposure ages. Néel's exponential decay law is applicable to a system whose magnetic grains have an identical relaxation time. However, in real systems, the expected behavior is not usually observed because relaxation times vary for individual grains. Moreover, the variation of viscous remanence with the logarithmic law for a distribution of relaxation times is predicted to be concave downward. Here we found that the stretched exponential law, exp{-(t/τ)1 - n} with 0 ≤ n radiometric age.

  16. 75 FR 42771 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... removed from 5ME449, Roth Cave site, Mesa County, CO, with the landowner's permission by a field crew under the direction of Lister and Dick. Roth Cave was on property owned by J.D. Roth and located north..., stratigraphy, and the associated funerary object/burial context. Roth Cave site dates archeologically to...

  17. Linkages between denitrification and dissolved organicmatter quality, Boulder Creek watershed, Colorado (United States)

    Barnes, Rebecca T.; Smith, Richard L.; Aiken, George R.


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) fuels the majority of in-stream microbial processes, including the removal of nitrate via denitrification. However, little is known about how the chemical composition of DOM influences denitrification rates. Water and sediment samples were collected across an ecosystem gradient, spanning the alpine to plains, in central Colorado to determine whether the chemical composition of DOM was related to denitrification rates. Laboratory bioassays measured denitrification potentials using the acetylene block technique and carbon mineralization via aerobic bioassays, while organic matter characteristics were evaluated using spectroscopic and fractionation methods. Denitrification potentials under ambient and elevated nitrate concentrations were strongly correlated with aerobic respiration rates and the percent mineralized carbon, suggesting that information about the aerobic metabolism of a system can provide valuable insight regarding the ability of the system to additionally reduce nitrate. Multiple linear regressions (MLR) revealed that under elevated nitrate concentrations denitrification potentials were positively related to the presence of protein-like fluorophores and negatively related to more aromatic and oxidized fractions of the DOM pool. Using MLR, the chemical composition of DOM, carbon, and nitrate concentrations explained 70% and 78% of the observed variability in denitrification potential under elevated and ambient nitrate conditions, respectively. Thus, it seems likely that DOM optical properties could help to improve predictions of nitrate removal in the environment. Finally, fluorescence measurements revealed that bacteria used both protein and humic-like organic molecules during denitrification providing further evidence that larger, more aromatic molecules are not necessarily recalcitrant in the environment.

  18. Topical Meeting on Laser Techniques for Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, 8-10 March 1982, Boulder, Colorado. (United States)


    mainly results from two-photon resonance three photon Ionization In the Na2 molecule. *Centre d’Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Service do Physique ...Conversion Processes In Hydrogen, Y. Gontier and The first observations of non-resonant, anti-Stokes Raman M. Trahin, Service de Physique des Atomes at...Excited States In Molecules, Jacques Lukasik, Stephen C. Wallace* and William R. Greent, Laboratoire d’Optique Quantique du Centre Na- tional de /a

  19. 76 FR 93 - Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships (SURF) NIST Gaithersburg and Boulder Programs... (United States)


    ... Program applications, paper and electronic, must be received no later than 5 p.m. Mountain Standard Time..., teaching, or testing. These regulations also do not apply to obtaining animal materials from...

  20. 78 FR 79436 - Boulder Canyon Project-Post-2017 Resource Pool (United States)


    ... disadvantage of the ``States,'' i.e., Arizona, California, and Nevada. Response: Western is not selectively implementing Section 5 of the BCPA to the disadvantage of the states. Section 5 grants the Secretary broad... representative load data from applicants when available and allow applicants to supplement such load data...

  1. Contractors Meeting in Propulsion Held in Boulder Colorado on June 10- 14, 1991 (United States)


    6448U 21000 Brookpark Road (202)767-4935 Cleveland OH 44135 AV297-4935 (216)433-2857 Dr Mohammad Samimy Dr G S Samuelsen Ohio State University Department...2521 La Jolla CA 92093 (619) 534-4284 Dr Emil Pfender Dr John Renie Department of Mechanical Engrg Department of Mechanical and I 125 Mechanical

  2. 76 FR 14063 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ..., Curator of Anthropology, University of Colorado Museum, in care of Jan Bernstein, NAGPRA Consultant, Bernstein & Associates, 1041 Lafayette St., Denver, CO 80218, telephone (303) 894-0648. SUPPLEMENTARY... of Jan Bernstein, NAGPRA Consultant, Bernstein & Associates, 1041 Lafayette St., Denver, CO...

  3. Enhanced TIFF Sidescan-Sonar Mosaic of Boulder Basin - Lake Mead, Nevada: Geographic Coordinates (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  4. Enhanced Sidescan-Sonar Mosaic of Boulder Basin - Lake Mead, Nevada: Geographic Coordinates (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  5. 76 FR 62833 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ...) were found in the museum collection. The human remains have been identified as Jornada Mogollon based... remains have been identified as Mogollon- most likely Jornada Mogollon- based on the material culture... collection. The human remains have been identified as Jornada Mogollon based on the provenience. No...

  6. EOS Aura Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation MOWG Meeting @ LASP (Boulder, CO) April 13, 2016 (United States)

    Guit, William J.; Fisher, Dominic


    Presentation reflects EOS Aura mission status, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage, orbit maintenance maneuvers, conjunction assessment events, orbital parameters trends and predictions.

  7. H07880: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pt. St. Albans to Boulder Pt., Alaska, 1950-12-31 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  8. Bouldering : an alternative strategy to long-vertical climbing in root-climbing hortensias


    Granados Mendoza, Carolina; Isnard, Sandrine; Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Goetghebeur, Paul; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie


    International audience; In the Neotropics, the genus Hydrangea of the popular ornamental hortensia family is represented by climbing species that strongly cling to their support sur-face by means of adhesive roots closely positioned along specialized anchoring stems. These root-climbing hortensia species belong to the nearly exclusive American Hydrangea section Cornidia and generally are long lianescent climbers that mostly flower and fructify high in the host tree canopy. The Mexican species...

  9. 77 FR 65681 - Boulder Canyon Project-Post-2017 Resource Pool (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western... Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of proposed marketing criteria. SUMMARY: The Western Area Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is seeking...

  10. 75 FR 57290 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... Reservation, Nevada and Utah; Crow Tribe of Montana; Death Valley Timbi-Sha Shoshone Band of California... individual human remains at the time of death or later as part of the death rite or ceremony. Lastly... Indian Reservation, Arizona, wrote letters or signed the disposition agreement in support of the...

  11. 75 FR 52019 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    .... Much of this work occurred either within or close to present-day Dinosaur National Monument. However... property owner. Mantle's private land holdings were later added to Dinosaur National Monument. There is...

  12. 75 FR 45655 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ..., which excavated the site in 1948 (test), 1949, 1952, and 1956, or by Dr. Robinson, Paleontology Curator.... The human remains were found in the Paleontology section of the museum during re-analysis...

  13. The fluidity of boulder debris flows is affected by fine sediment in the pore water (United States)

    Hotta, Norifumi; Kaneko, Takahiro; Iwata, Tomoyuki; Nishimoto, Haruo


    Basic equations for debris flows are frequently derived using the simple assumption of monogranular particles. However, actual debris flows include a great diversity of grain sizes, resulting in inherent features such as inverse grading, particle size segregation, and liquefaction of fine sediment. The liquefaction of fine sediment affects the fluidity of debris flows, although the behavior and influence of fine sediment in debris flows have not been examined sufficiently. This study used flume tests to detect the effect of fine sediment on the characteristics of laboratory debris flows consisting of particles with two diameters: one diameter was fixed at a large particle size, while the small diameters were varied with the experimental conditions. From the experiments, the greatest sediment concentration and flow depth were observed in the debris flows mixed with finer sediment, indicating increased flow resistance. Then, the experimental friction coefficient was compared with the theoretical friction coefficient derived by substituting the experimental values into the constitutive equations for debris flow. The theoretical friction coefficient was obtained from two models with different fine-sediment treatments: one assuming that all of the fine sediments were solid particles and the other that the particles consisted of a fluid phase involving pore water liquefaction. A discriminant index was introduced to clarify which contribution from the two models could better explain the experimental results. The comparison of the friction coefficients detected a fully liquefied state for the finest particle mixture with sediment. However, even with the same particle size, the debris flows could be regarded as a liquefied state, a solid state, or a partially liquefied transition state depending on the experimental conditions other than the sediment particle size. These results infer that the liquefaction of fine sediment in debris flows was induced not only by the geometric conditions that allowed small particles to be stored in the interstitial space of large particles but also by the flow conditions: i.e., "fine sediment" and "coarse grain" in the debris flows of mixed particle sizes can be defined according to the kinematic conditions.

  14. Complex Flow: Workshop Report; January 17-18, 2012, University of Colorado, Boulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Department of Energy's Wind Program organized a two-day workshop designed to examine complex wind flow into and out of the wind farm environment and the resulting impacts on the mechanical workings of individual wind turbines. An improved understanding of these processes will subsequently drive down the risk involved for wind energy developers, financiers, and owner/operators, thus driving down the cost of energy.

  15. Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference (37th) Held at Boulder, Colorado on 9-12 October 1984. Program and Abstracts. (United States)


    and J.M. Wadehra, AFWAL/APL, Wright- Ellena, IREQ,/arennes, Quebec, Canada Patterson AFB A-2 MOBILITY OF POSITIVE IONS IN SF6 B-6 DEVELOPMENT OF A...KINETIC INVESTIGATION OF STREAMER DEVELOPMENT: E.E. Kunhardt, Polytechnic Nea Uited TechnoLgy Inst. of New York, and Y. Tzeng, Auburn L. Newman...and 1.5 inches, respectively and a length of 4 inches. The gas flow was varied between 25 and 200 cm3s-1. The ion mobility evaluated from the current

  16. International Conference on Coordination Chemistry (23rd) Held at Boulder, Colorado on 29 July - 3 August 1984. Abstracts of Paper. (United States)


    OPO oxidation. Math- anol solutions of GPO. containing these salts. absorb molecular oxy- eyi under ambient conditions, leading to the formtion of DAP...atographic stationary phases for the separation of oxygen from nitrogen at ream temperature. Stable metal elates that carry oxygen reveraibly at ambient ...NAIL CASTILLO and LIAD RAMDIRZ Depertmento ds Quimica y General. Farcultad do Quimica . Univeraida4 de Sevilla.Spain. Zntroduction In recent years

  17. Reconstruction of paleo-tsunami disasters : Evidence from radiometric dating of massive Porites coral boulders in Southern Ryukyu Islands


    Araoka, Daisuke


    報告番号: ; 学位授与年月日: 2011-03-24 ; 学位の種別: 修士 ; 学位の種類: 修士(環境学) ; 学位記番号: 修創域第3873号 ; 研究科・専攻: 新領域創成科学研究科環境学研究系自然環境学専攻

  18. Modified Level III Preacquisition Environmental Contaminants Survey for Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Jefferson and Boulder Counties, Colorado (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is one of several important historical documents associated with remediation activities at the Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge. The Rocky Flats National...

  19. 78 FR 5776 - University of Colorado Boulder, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for Duty... (United States)


    ... measure the electromagnetic near-field of optical antennas, plasmonics in metals and semiconductors... antenna, which is used to automatically follow the load variation in real time and make the antenna system... uniformity in order to achieve Free-Electron Laser (FEL) saturation. In addition to meeting...

  20. Recruitment issues when primary care population clusters are used in randomised controlled clinical trials: climbing mountains or pushing boulders uphill? (United States)

    Hoddinott, Pat; Britten, Jane; Harrild, Kirsten; Godden, David J


    Cluster randomised controlled trials for health promotion, education, public health or organisational change interventions are becoming increasingly common to inform evidence-based policy. However, there is little published methodological evidence on recruitment strategies for primary care population clusters. In this paper, we discuss how choosing which population cluster to randomise can impact on the practicalities of recruitment in primary care. We describe strategies developed through our experiences of recruiting primary care organisations to participate in a national randomised controlled trial of a policy to provide community breastfeeding groups for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers, the BIG (Breastfeeding in Groups) trial. We propose an iterative qualitative approach to recruitment; collecting data generated through the recruitment process, identifying themes and using the constant comparative method of analysis. This can assist in developing successful recruitment strategies and contrasts with the standardised approach commonly used when recruiting individuals to participate in randomised controlled trials. Recruiting primary care population clusters to participate in trials is currently an uphill battle in Britain. It is a complex process, which can benefit from applying qualitative methods to inform trial design and recruitment strategy. Recruitment could be facilitated if health service managers were committed to supporting peer reviewed, funded and ethics committee approved research at national level.

  1. Artificial Intelligence in Maintenance: Proceedings of the Joint Services Workshop Held at Boulder, Colorado on 4-6 October 1983. (United States)


    design and diagnosis are being challenged by the spectre of massively automated involution, building complex systems whose reliability and...functions are conducted with minimum reliance on human intervention." 331 In terms of utopia ATE, the test system should be such where the test

  2. 75 FR 9107 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Federal Volatility Control Program in the Denver-Boulder... (United States)


    ... Examples of potentially regulated entities codes \\a\\ Petroleum Refineries 324110 Gasoline Marketers and... between products that would exacerbate this problem. This would likely result in more 9.0 RVP fuel being... about the emission increases associated with providing this relief, even if the enforcement...

  3. Unenhanced TIFF Sidescan-Sonar Mosaic of Boulder Basin - Lake Mead, Nevada: Geographic Coordinates (BBASIN_UNGEOG.TIF) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  4. International Conference on Multiphoton Processes (4th) Held in Boulder, Colorado on July 13-17, 1987: Program and Abstracts. (United States)


    P.O. Box 1663, MS E526, Los Alamos, NM 87545 505/667-7649 Anne L*Nuillier, DPHG-PAS, CEN Saclay 91191, Gifsun Yvette France 91191 (1) 69082113 Albert NF...Theory of Double Optical Resonance: Collisional Broadening and Doppler Effects on ac Stark Splitting* Albert M. F. Lau Sandia National Laboratories...Phys. Rev. Lett., 53, 2234 (1984). J. Boulmer, P. Camus , and P. Pillet, JOSA B (to be published, May, 1987). SJ. Bokor, R.R. Freeman, and W.E. Cooke

  5. BBASIN_UNGEOG.TIF - Unenhanced TIFF Sidescan-Sonar Mosaic of Boulder Basin - Lake Mead, Nevada: Geographic Coordinates (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  6. 77 FR 64847 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Adams, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colo. (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF... persons to file trail use/rail banking requests. Under Section 8(d) of the National Trail Systems Act, 16 U.S.C. 1247(d), trail use/rail banking is voluntary and can only be implemented if an...

  7. Army Research Office and Air Force Office of Scientific Research Contractors’ Meeting in Chemical Propulsion Held in Boulder, Colorado on June 11-13, 2007 (United States)


    experiments and predictions based on the models permits ranking the latter. Comparative sensitivity analysis is then used to identify the most...computational fluid mechanics ( CFD ), laser diagnostics, and . I•lk high-speed instrumentation have not been applied to this challenge until recently. CFD ...Tube 1 Figure 8. Multitube detonation driven ejector experimental setup. Progress in exhaust relaxation processes includes nozzle

  8. Transactions of the Army Conference on Applied Mathematics and Computing (6th) Held in Boulder, Colorado on 31 May - 3 June 1988 (United States)


    differentiable in an open convex set D r R1. Assume that there exists x - c R" such that F(xo)=0. J(x*) is nonlinear, and J(x) is Lipschitz continuous...theorem 5 hold, and assume the addition that each Ai (x *) is nonsingular, and that each Ai(x) is Lipschitz continuous in an open neighborhood...The nonuniqueness of the logarithm of complex ei genvalues and the requirements of the complicated computations of eigenvectors and associated and/or

  9. Late pleistocene aggradation and degradation of the lower colorado river: Perspectives from the Cottonwood area and other reconnaissance below Boulder Canyon (United States)

    Lundstrom, S.C.; Mahan, S.A.; Paces, J.B.; Hudson, M.R.; House, P.K.; Malmon, D.V.; Blair, J.L.; Howard, K.A.


    Where the lower Colorado River traverses the Basin and Range Province below the Grand Canyon, significant late Pleistocene aggradation and subsequent degrada tion of the river are indicated by luminescence, paleomagnetic, and U-series data and stratigraphy. Aggradational, finely bedded reddish mud, clay, and silt are underlain and overlain by cross-bedded to plane-bedded fine sand and silt. That sequence is commonly disconformably overlain by up to 15 m of coarse sand, rounded exotic gravel, and angular, locally derived gravel. Luminescence dates on the fine sediments range from ca. 40 ka to 70 ka, considering collective uncertainties. A section of fine grained sediments over a vertical range of 15 m shows normal polarity magnetization and little apparent secular variation beyond dispersion that can be explained by com paction. Aggradation on large local tributaries such as Las Vegas Wash appears to have been coeval with that of the Colorado River. The upper limits of erosional rem nants of the sequence define a steeper grade above the historical river, and these late Pleistocene deposits are greater than 100 m above the modern river north of 35??N. Ter race gravels inset below the upper limit of the aggradational sequence yield 230Th dates that range from ca. 32 ka to 60 ka and indicate that degradation of the river system in this area closely followed aggradation. The thick sequence of rhythmically bedded mud and silt possibly indicates set tings that were ponded laterally between valley slopes and levees of the aggrading river. Potential driving mechanisms for such aggradation and degradation include sediment-yield response to climate change, drought, fire, vegetation-ecosystem dynam ics, glaciation, paleofloods, groundwater discharge, and building and destruction of natural dams produced by volcanism and landslides. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  10. Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1981. Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (13th). Held in Boulder, Colorado on 17-18 November 1981 (United States)


    L6J. Musal also modeled the pulse fluence, F ’ at which the plastic yield threshold (slip) is reached asy _ 5 (2/Z)3/2 nY,( KPC )Y,tY, Fy -Ř -3- 2(1...1 v E X 10- 6 , psi Y x 10 3 , psi ( KPC ?" w-s’> cm 2 °K R,b @492 nm LITy’ oK C T m, oK Al Ag Au 23.1 19.2 14.2 0.34 0.37 0.42...nonequil i bri urn ca rri er gene rat ion predomi nates, we determined the dependence of their concentration on the input intensity. Figure 3 shows

  11. Physical Characterization of ~2-meter Diameter Near-Earth Asteroid 2015 TC25: A possible boulder from E-type Asteroid (44) Nysa

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Vishnu; Bottke, William F; Thirouin, Audrey; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G; Kelley, Michael S; Ryan, William; Cloutis, Edward A; Tegler, Stephen C; Ryan, Eileen V; Taylor, Patrick A; Richardson, James E; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Corre, Lucille Le


    Small near-Earth asteroids (>20 meters) are interesting because they are progenitors for meteorites in our terrestrial collection. Crucial to our understanding of the effectiveness of our atmosphere in filtering low-strength impactors is the physical characteristics of these small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). In the past, characterization of small NEAs has been a challenge because of the difficulty in detecting them prior to close Earth flyby. In this study we physically characterized the 2-meter diameter near-Earth asteroid 2015 TC25 using ground-based optical, near-infrared and radar assets during a close flyby of the Earth (distance 69,000 miles) in Oct. 2015. Our observations suggest that its surface composition is similar to aubrites, a rare class of high albedo differentiated meteorites. Aubrites make up only 0.14 % of all know meteorites in our terrestrial meteorite collection. 2015 TC25 is also a very fast rotator with a rotation period of 133 seconds. We compared spectral and dynamical properties of ...

  12. Proceedings of the International Electronic Circuit Packaging Symposium (3rd) on Advances in Electronic Circuit Packaging Held at Boulder, Colorado on 15-17 August 1962. Volume 3, (United States)


    Charles Mason, Raytheon Co., Bedford, Mass.) How did the value engineer optimize the electrical circuit diagram? A. On our staff at Martin-Baltimore...Electronics 351 8. J. Holahan and B. Kovit, "Electronic Components," Space Aeronautics, December 1960. 9. "Microminiature Components and Packaging Techniques

  13. Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983. Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (15th). Held in Boulder, Colorado on 14-16 November 1983 (United States)


    plastic deformation, the apparent elastic limit or the yield strength is a suitable strength parameter. It is to be noted that yield strength is a...conservative approximation of the apparent elastic limit . Other material strength parameters that one may use are the modulus of rupture or flexural

  14. Physical Characterization of ˜2 M Diameter Near-Earth Asteroid 2015 TC25: A Possible Boulder from E-type Asteroid (44) Nysa (United States)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.; Bottke, William F.; Thirouin, Audrey; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Kelley, Michael S.; Ryan, William; Cloutis, Edward A.; Tegler, Stephen C.; Ryan, Eileen V.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Richardson, James E.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Le Corre, Lucille


    Small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) (differentiated meteorites. Aubrites make up only 0.14% of all known meteorites in our terrestrial meteorite collection. 2015 TC25 is also a very fast rotator with a period of 133 ± 6 s. We combined the spectral and dynamical properties of 2015 TC25 and found the best candidate source body in the inner main belt to be the 70 km diameter E-type asteroid (44) Nysa. We attribute the difference in spectral slope between the two objects to the lack of regolith on the surface of 2015 TC25. Using the albedo of E-type asteroids (50%-60%) we refine the diameter of 2015 TC25 to 2 m, making it one of the smallest NEAs ever to be characterized.

  15. Solution of the Artificial Neuron Network to General Scouring in the Boulder Riverbed%漂石河床一般冲刷的人工神经网络解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文超; 文雨松



  16. Ferroelectrics Volume 121 Numbers 1-4, 1991. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals (3rd) Held in Boulder, Colorado on 23-28 June 1991. Part 1 (United States)


    discussed. The design of molecules having a zig-zag shape for superior chiral dopants are suggested. INTRODUCTION With increasing interest in the to thank the Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia of Spain for financial support. REFERENCES Previous papers in the series include: a) D. M. Walba...American institute of Physics and similar manuals. Metric units are preferred. Reffrencee and Notes are indicated in the text by superior numbers: the

  17. Ferroelectrics Volume 122 Numbers 1-4 1991. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals (3rd) Held in Boulder, Colorado on 23-28 June, 1991, Part 2 (United States)


    another could not be made ready in time for inclusion in these volumes. Such papers will be published in future issues of Ferroelectrics either as...Fot6nica - ETSI Telecomunicaci6n Ciudad Universitaria , 28040 Madrid Spain ABSTRACT An accurate description of spectral and angular optical

  18. Book Review of "Being Brown in Dixie: Race, Ethnicity, and Latino Immigration in the New South" 2011. Boulder, Colorado: FirstForumPress, by Cameron D. Lippard and Charles A. Gallagher, eds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Madsen


    Full Text Available Moving with the prospect of employment in the US, there has been an influx of migrants from Latin America since the 1990s that has introduced many populations in the South to unfamiliar neighbors. Consequently, a dimension has been added to the long-existing racial turmoil between whites and blacks in these southern states: a "brown" dimension.

  19. Lasers Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1985. Proceedings of the Symposium on Optical Materials for High-Power Lasers (17th) Held in Boulder, Colorado on October 28-30, 1985 (United States)


    Richard C. Cordi , and William J. McCreary Influence of Deposition and Post Deposition Conditions on Laser Induced * Damage in Electron Beam Evaporated...crystals are several times more thermal shock resistant than glasses. .. " While this is a plus , crystalline materials of high optical quality and...threshold for pitch lap polished, Pyrex lap polished, and hybrid pitch plus Pyrex polished was measured at / 2, 156 ±2.1 m 16.31 ± 3.11J/cm2 , 15.62

  20. 10 CFR 904.3 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... Marketing § 904.3 Definitions. The following terms wherever used herein shall have the following meanings... last day of any calendar month. (b) Boulder City Area Projects shall mean the Boulder Canyon...

  1. 78 FR 20334 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations (United States)


    ... index.php/alabama/ Gulf Shores, P.O. West 1st Street, baldwin/. Box 299, Gulf Gulf Shores, AL Shores, AL..., Mayor, Broadway Street, index.php/colorado/ City of Boulder, Boulder, CO 80302. boulder/. P.O. Box 791... and index.php/colorado/ 0863P). Jefferson County Zoning, 100 jefferson-5/. Board of Jefferson...

  2. The isotopic composition of ore lead of the Creede mining district and vicinity, San Juan Mountains, Colorado: Text of a talk presented at the San Juan Mountains symposium to honor Thomas A. Steven; Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, May 2, 1987, Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    Foley, N.K.; Barton, P.B.; Bethke, P.M.; Doe, B.R.


    Galenas from the major Creede veins and their northern extensions are remarkably homogeneous in Pb-isotopic composition and are too radiogenic to have been derived from any magma comparable in composition to the principal volcanic rocks. This pattern was identified by Doe et al. in 1979 who proposed that the lead was derived from the Precambrian basement. The homogeneity of the ore leads, however, requires a uniform reservoir; an unlikely prospect for lead from the Precambrian basement. We report on 16 new analyses of geographically and paragenetically dispersed galenas from the Creede district and other areas as far as 11 km to the north. The lead values range from 18.972 to 19.060 for 206Pb/204Pb, from 15.591 to 15.671 for 207Pb/204Pb, and from 37.781 to 37.921 for 208Pb/204Pb. These ranges overlap those previously reported for the main ore zone.

  3. Scattering of a legged robot in a heterogeneous granular terrain (United States)

    Qian, Feifei; Goldman, Daniel


    Many granular substrates are composed of particulates of varying size, from fine sand to pebbles and boulders. Ambulatory locomotion on such heterogeneous substrates is complicated in part due to fluctuations introduced by heterogeneities. To discover principles of movement in such substrates, we developed an automated system, the ``Systematic Creation of Arbitrary Terrain and Testing of Exploratory Robots'' (SCATTER), to create heterogeneous granular substrates of varying properties such as compaction, inclination, obstacle shape/size/distribution and obstacle mobility within the substrate. We investigate how the presence of a single ``boulder'' affects the locomotion of a 6-legged robot (15cm, 150g). The robot's trajectory is straight before boulder interaction, and is scattered to an angle after the interaction. Surprisingly, the interactions with the boulder can lead to both negative and positive scattering angles-an effective attraction and repulsion between the robot and the boulder. The scattering pattern depends sensitively on the leg-boulder contact position and the boulder mobility within the fine sand. However, the scattering pattern dependence upon contact position on the boulder is insensitive to boulder shape (created using 3D printing), orientation and roughness. This work is funded by DARPA Young Faculty Award and Army Research Laboratory (ARL).

  4. The multitudinous creativity of the contemporary capitalisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț Bârliba


    Full Text Available Creative Capitalism, Multitudinous Creativity, Radicalities and Alterities, Edited by Giuseppe Cocco and Barbara Szaniecki, Lexington Books, Lanham. Boulder. New York. London, 2015, 269p.

  5. The functionalist's body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Rupert


    Full Text Available Interview with professor Robert D Rupert (Department of Philosophy, University of Colorado at Boulder; School of Philosophy, Psychology, and Language Sciences, The University of Edinburgh.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Walton; P. Goodell; C. Brashears; D. French; A. Kelts


    Radionuclide transport was measured from high grade uranium ore boulders near the Nopal I Site, Chihuahua, Mexico. High grade uranium ore boulders were left behind after removal of a uranium ore stockpile at the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). During the 25 years when the boulder was present, radionuclides were released and transported by sheetflow during precipitation events, wind blown resuspension, and infiltration into the unsaturated zone. In this study, one of the boulders was removed, followed by grid sampling of the surrounding area. Measured gamma radiation levels in three dimensions were used to derive separate dispersion rates by the three transport mechanisms.

  7. An Endochronic Plasticity Theory for Concrete. (United States)


    Strain Curves for Concrete Under Multiaxial Load His- tories," CEAE Department, Univ. of Colo., Boulder. 18. Stankowski, T., and K. H. Gerstle (1983...T. (1983), "Concrete Under Multiaxial Load Histories," M. S. Thesis, CEAE Department, University of Colorado, Boulder. 31. Valanis, K. C., and C. F

  8. Endochronic Plasticity (United States)


    Axial Load Histories." CEAE Dept. University of Colorado. Boulder. Colorado (1983). I £ 1-12 2. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE THEORY 2.1 Basic...Gerstle and H. Y. Ko. "Stress-Strain Curves for Concrete Under Multiaxial Load Histories." CEAE Department. University of Colorado. Boulder. (1983

  9. Creating a Culture of General Education Assessment (United States)

    Wong, Erwin J.; Campos, Francisca C.; Buxton, Ralph W.


    Many people know the myth of Sisyphus, the ancient king who committed an offense against the gods and was condemned for an eternity to roll a boulder unsuccessfully to the top of a steep hill. Each time he reached the summit, the boulder, of its own weight, would roll back to the bottom, whereupon Sisyphus would have to begin laboriously rolling…

  10. Afghan Tortoise, Korean Hare: Advising in Hard and Soft Cultures (United States)


    trajectory of US foreign policy and would likely weaken the deterrent effect of current policy on future adversaries and lead to a much more limited...100 Ralph H. Magnus and Eden Naby, Afghanistan: Mullah, Marx, and Mujahid (Boulder, CO...Honolulu: East-West Center Press, 1968. Magnus , Ralph H. and Eden Naby. Afghanistan: Mullah, Marx, and Mujahid. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998

  11. Collaborative Research: Effects of Stability, Canopies, and Non-Stationarity on Dispersion in the Stable Boundary Layer (United States)


    not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. University of Colorado - Boulder 3100 Marine...the Stable Boundary Layer Jeffrey C. Weil Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado , Boulder, Colorado Edward...modeled CWIC from the LPDM-PT (line) can be compared with Prairie Grass observations (points

  12. 10 CFR 904.5 - Revenue requirements. (United States)


    ... PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.5 Revenue requirements. (a) Western shall collect all electric service... Boulder City Act of 1958 (72 Stat. 1726), as shown on the books of accounts of Reclamation as of May 31... of the Boulder City Act of 1958, shall be the power contract period beginning June 1, 1987,...

  13. Implications of volcanic erratics in Quaternary deposits of North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby; Larsen, Ole


    Erratic boulders, petrographically similar to the volcanics exposed around Kap Washington, are found on islands and along the coast much further to the east. Isotopic measurements on two such boulders show that these volcanic rocks are of the same age as the Kap Washington volcanics. The regional...

  14. Intercity Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Shanghai Xbreaker Sports FactoryShanghai Tongji University Xbreaker Sports Factory is the ultimate indoor sports gymnasium.Established in September 2001, the gymnasium has a bouldering area, a park and lounge. It is the perfect game venue or professional training center for bouldering, skateboarding, rollerskating, and trick cycling.Courses are taught by professional

  15. Development of a New Operational Air Pollution Forecast System on Regional and Urban Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.


    Proceedings of the Millennium NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held May 15-19 in Boulder, Colorado.......Proceedings of the Millennium NATO/CCMS International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application, held May 15-19 in Boulder, Colorado....

  16. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition. Volume 2: Mechanics of rolling sphere-soil slope interaction (United States)

    Hovland, H. J.; Mitchell, J. K.


    The soil deformation mode under the action of a rolling sphere (boulder) was determined, and a theory based on actual soil failure mechanism was developed which provides a remote reconnaissance technique for study of soil conditions using boulder track observations. The failure mechanism was investigated by using models and by testing an instrumented spherical wheel. The wheel was specifically designed to measure contact pressure, but it also provided information on the failure mechanism. Further tests included rolling some 200 spheres down sand slopes. Films were taken of the rolling spheres, and the tracks were measured. Implications of the results and reevaluation of the lunar boulder tracks are discussed.

  17. Coherent Optical Transceiver using Circular Polarization-Based Balanced Mixing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boulder Nonlinear Systems (BNS) proposes to use its electro-optic component and subsystem expertise to transition a patented heterodyne detection scheme previously...

  18. 76 FR 48884 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ODVA, Inc. (United States)


    ... Automation LLC, Hebron, KY; Welding Technology Corp., Carol Stream, IL; Micro Motion, Inc., Boulder, CO..., REPUBLIC OF KOREA, have been added as parties to this venture. Also, Applied Robotics, Inc., Glenville,...

  19. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel


    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  20. Geomagnetic Observatory Annual Means Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) / World Data Center, Boulder maintains an active database of...

  1. 76 FR 14682 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits (United States)


    ... effort may be used in the future to assist with recovery and reintroduction efforts. Applicant: Homosassa... Tennessee. Applicant: Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Apopka, Florida, TE-32394A. Applicant... authorization to take (nonlethally) boulder darters (Etheostoma wapiti) and cracking pearlymussels...

  2. Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge Land Protection Plan for Section 16 Acquisition (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is located 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado on the borders of Boulder, Broomfield, and Jefferson Counties and...

  3. 76 FR 76184 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance (United States)


    ...,274 OmniVision Technologies Boulder, CO July 8, 2010. Inc., Optics Division. 80,311 Verizon Business... Scranton, PA July 27, 2010. America Corporation, Global Trade Operations Import Letter, etc....

  4. Good Days on the Trail, 1938-1942: Film Footage of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This film documents student hiking trips conducted by the University of Colorado at Boulder in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA during the summers of 1938-1942....

  5. Ohio State University Symposium (45th) on Molecular Spectroscopy Held in Columbus, Ohio on 11-15 Jun 1990 (United States)


    Colorado, 80303; J. ORTIGOSO, R. ESCRIBANO, Instituto de Estructura de al Materia, Consejo Superior a~. Investigacionos Cientificas, Serrano 119, 28006...Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO 80303. Address of Ortigoso and Escribano: Instituto de Estructura de al Materia, Consejo Superior de investigaciones

  6. Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc. (BNS) proposes to develop an Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter (E-O IFTSP). The polarimetric system is...

  7. Conservation of geo- and -biodiversity in Lithuania: are there conflicts? (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga


    Lithuanian surface is sculptured by more than five glaciers, which retreated c. 10 000 years ago. After the ice sheets melted in Lithuania, Latvia and Poland, and other neighbouring countries, they left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields. Hundreds of single boulders and boulder fields are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and other countries and are variably protected. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Rapid weather changes in Lithuania cause the weathering of erratic boulders. However, the fastest erosion is by overgrowing cryptogams: lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, algae, cyanobacteria and bryophytes. Lichens are among the first colonizers of rock surfaces, and their impact on stonework heritage is rather well documented. Hard rocks (e.g. granites) are weathering considerably slower than soft or relatively soft sandstones, dolomites or marbles; however serious impact is visible on stones with inscriptions, drawings and open surfaces of the protected nature monuments. Lichens gradually cover whole boulder surfaces obscuring their geological value and contributing to the surface weathering in Lithuania and neighbouring countries where numerous protected stony nature monuments occur. The 73 of the 723 species of lichenized and allied fungi in Lithuania are confined to hard acid rocks. Eight of these acid rock-dwelling species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them have high threat category or are thought to be extinct now. There is no conservation conflict between the red-listed saxicolous lichens and their substrate where the species are confined to wild boulder meadows. Here lichens and their boulder substrate suffer from excessive growth and overshadowing from surrounding vascular plants, also from pollution which change stone surface properties and induce encroachment of more aggressive species than the usual slow-growing acid rock

  8. Legislative Action: The Possibility of Instant Retrenchment. (United States)

    Jedamus, Paul


    Planning models developed at the University of Colorado, Boulder and resulting strategies for coping with legislated retrenchment are presented. Several areas for course of action are examined: contingency planning, planning for flexibility and enhancing real productivity. (LC)

  9. 78 FR 70581 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance (United States)


    .... 83,064 IBM Corporation, Global Business Boulder, CO...... September 6, 2012. Services, Application... sales of the workers' firm; or (B) A loss of business by the workers' firm with the firm described...

  10. The Table Mountain Field Site (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  11. Depth to Coal Mining in the Colorado Front Range (frimndpthu) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the depth to (overburden above) abandoned underground coal mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  12. Healthlines | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... risk of damaging friendships, hurting family, or losing jobs. What is it about addiction that makes people ... the study's lead author, Kenneth Wright Jr., PhD, professor of integrative physiology at CU-Boulder. "And when ...

  13. Developing and Implementing a Marketing Plan. (United States)

    McCalmon, Byron G.


    A program focusing on recruitment of new freshmen at the University of Colorado at Boulder illustrates some major planning considerations in the development, implementation, and evaluation of a marketing plan. (MSE)

  14. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.


    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  15. A Platform for Multilingual Research in Spoken Dialogue Systems (United States)


    Boulder; Boulder, CO, 80309, USA § Universidad de las Americas; 72820 Santa Catarina Martir; Puebla , Mexico *Center for Spoken Language Understanding (CSLU...research, it is necessary to develop use at the Universidad de las Americas in Puebla available, usable, and powerful tools and corpora to (UDLA). In...OGI and UDLA, the Universidad de las displaying, labeling, and manipulating speech. The Americas, Puebla . The collaboration aimed to establish Toolkit

  16. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Carmel Dam (Inventory Number N.Y. 100), Lower Hudson River Basin, Putnam County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report, (United States)


    proposed dam will rest is (clay, sand, gravel, boulders, granite, shale , slate, limestone, etc.) .. ... . A . --m..--tr ......composing 13...clay, sand, gravel, boulders, S granite, shale , sl.te, lim estone, etc...Civil En.,inoor JEPui .Lf... E-wigs CARNiI 5.3312 SumoIVIGION PLANNING SANITATION DAM DESIGN CONST’RUCTION ROY BURGESS 5eaLIFICATION4a PRFESIONAL BLDG

  17. Review: Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty, and Sorrow (2009 Buchbesprechung: Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty, and Sorrow (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bierschenk


    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Pierre Englebert (2009, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty, and Sorrow, Boulder, Co. & London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, ISBN: 978-1-58826-646-0 (Hardcover / 978-1-58826-623-1 (Paperback, 310 pages. Besprechung der Monographie: Pierre Englebert (2009, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty, and Sorrow, Boulder, Co. & London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, ISBN: 978-1-58826-646-0 (Hardcover / 978-1-58826-623-1 (Paperback, 310 Seiten.

  18. Rethinking National Security (United States)


    1989. (U 162 .H29 1989) Hanrieder. Wolfram F., ed. Global Peace and Security: Trend# and Challone . Boulder: Westvlew, 1987. (JX 1952 .G0538 1987...41. Haley. P. Iduard. and Jack Merritt. Nuclear Itratefl, &M Cotl. sA hs Lalut. Boulder: Uestview, 19868. (U 263 .1765 1988) Halloran. Bernard F.., Stanford University, 1987. (UA 23 .W38934 1987) Weinberg, Alvin Martin, and Jack N. Barkenbus. Stratojlc Defenses adn AM Con New York: Paragon

  19. Evidence of flash floods in Precambrian gravel dominated ephemeral river deposits (United States)

    Long, Darrel G. F.


    Fluvial strata at the base of the Whyte Inlet Formation on Baffin Island, to the west of Sikosak Bay, are predominantly boulder and cobble bearing large pebble conglomerates of braided fluvial origin. Local development of narrow sinuous channels, possibly within the thalwegs of an initially braided bedrock confined system, is indicated by the presence of lateral accretion surfaces, some of which host isolated sub-vertically oriented boulders. These larger boulders were probably emplaced during exceptional flood events involving either hyper-concentrated flows or dilute debris flows, with velocities in the order of 2.2 m/s. Isolated ridges of boulders and cobbles are perched on the upper parts of lateral accretion surfaces in mixed sandy-gravelly fluvial intervals. These boulder berms developed down stream from channel bends or bedrock constrictions in response to flow expansion during flash floods, with estimated peak discharge of about 1.4 m/s. Associated sandstones on lateral accretion surfaces show evidence of deposition under both upper and lower flow conditions. Similar boulder and cobble berms of this type are known from modern ephemeral and highly seasonal fluvial systems in a wide range of climatic settings, and are a clear indication that highly variable to catastrophic discharge events affected the rivers responsible for deposition of these conglomerates.

  20. Water-quality effects on Baker Lake of recent volcanic activity at Mount Baker, Washington (United States)

    Bortleson, Gilbert Carl; Wilson, Reed T.; Foxworthy, B.L.


    Increased volcanic activity on Mount Baker, which began in March 1975, represents the greatest known activity of a Cascade Range volcano since eruptions at Lassen Peak, Calif. during 1914-17. Emissions of dust and increased emanations of steam, other gases, and heat from the Sherman Crater area of the mountain focused attention on the possibility of hazardous events, including lava flows, pyroclastic eruptions, avalanches, and mudflows. However, the greatest undesirable natural results that have been observed after one year of the increased activity are an increase in local atmospheric pollution and a decrease in the quality of some local water resources, including Baker Lake. Baker Lake, a hydropower reservoir behind Upper Baker Dam, supports a valuable fishery resource and also is used for recreation. The lake's feedwater is from Baker River and many smaller streams, some of which, like Boulder Creek, drain parts of Mount Baker. Boulder Creek receives water from Sherman Crater, and its channel is a likely route for avalanches or mudflows that might originate in the crater area. Boulder Creek drains only about 5 percent of the total drainage area of Baker Lake, but during 1975 carried sizeable but variable loads of acid and dissolved minerals into the lake. Sulfurous gases and the fumarole dust from Sherman Crater are the main sources for these materials, which are brought into upper Boulder Creek by meltwater from the crater. In September 1973, before the increased volcanic activity, Boulder Creek near the lake had a pH of 6.0-6.6; after the increase the pH ranged as low as about 3.5. Most nearby streams had pH values near 7. On April 29, in Boulder Creek the dissolved sulfate concentration was 6 to 29 times greater than in nearby creeks or in Baker River; total iron was 18-53 times greater than in nearby creeks; and other major dissolved constituents generally 2 to 7 times greater than in the other streams. The short-term effects on Baker Lake of the acidic

  1. Extreme Ground-Motion Rockfall Deposits on the Nevada Test Site (United States)

    Whitney, J. W.; Buckingham, S. E.; Magner, J. E.; Finkel, R. C.; Brune, J. N.; von Seggern, D.; Honke, J. S.


    In order to detect the evidence of extreme ground motion in the past, we have begun to catalog geomorphic characteristics that distinguish slope deposits strongly influenced by extreme ground motion from deposits primarily influenced by climate processes. Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) of yields between 200 kilotons and 1.3 megatons were conducted under Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test site from 1962 to 1992. The primary surface effects from these tests were surface cracks, triggered earthquakes, offsets on pre-existing faults, and changes in land surface topography. Rockfall and rock spall were observed along cliffs after a few nuclear tests; however, few observations of accumulations of shattered rock were documented. A large volume of rockfall located along a 1.5-km¬-long cliff of welded ash-flow tuff resulted from extreme ground motions from two nearby UNEs. In 1968 UNE Rickey released maximum ground motions of 500 cm/s peak ground velocity (PGV) at the closest cliff face and PGV decreased to about 300 cm/s at the north end of the cliff. Large boulders with 1-3-m average diameters were shaken loose from fracture planes and cooling joints to form a stack of jumbled boulders at the base of the cliff. Very few large boulders rolled to the base of the hillslope. Subsequently, in 1976, UNE Pool induced 300-350 cm/s PGV along the same cliff. A significant volume of rock, also released along fractures and joints, was added to the coarse boulder colluvium shaken loose in 1968. Ground motion from Pool also rearranged the hillslope boulders from UNE Rickey, but did not cause many boulders to roll downslope. Extreme ground motions from these two UNEs resulted in 1.5-3.0 m of physical erosion to the cliff face. Rockfall from less welded ash-flow tuff units situated above and below the cliff produced significantly less boulder colluvium. Our observations indicate that boulder size and rockfall volume from a cliff or ridge crest due to extreme ground motion are

  2. Natural hazards at the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP) (southern Turkey): Tsunami evidence (United States)

    Ogretmen, Nazik; Cosentino, Domenico; Gliozzi, Elsa; Cipollari, Paola; Radeff, Giuditta; Yıldırım, Cengiz


    In regions that are located in steep, orogenic plateau margins, such as the coastal area of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP) southern margin, natural hazard studies related to active tectonics and events that are triggered by active tectonics (e.g., earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis) are very essential in the context of preventing possible damages. This work herein, represents some evidence of the tsunami hazard along the coast between Aydıncık and Narlıkuyu, in southern Turkey. The work is based on a study on out-of-place beachrock-slab boulder acummulation in Aydıncık district, which were transported onshore by sliding process, and on out-of-place more rounded boulders that were transported by saltation process in Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık districts. The presence of intertidal organisms (e.g., lithophaga boring, balanids, oysters, etc.) encrusting the boulders of both localities shows that those boulders were carried onland from a marine environment. According to their dimensions and weight, in agreement with out-of-place boulders from areas surely affected by tsunamis, those out-of-place boulders here are interpreted as due to tsunami waves. The tsunamites in the Aydıncık area are located on beachrock slabs. They are platty and some of those blocks are embricated and oriented perpendicular to the shoreline (NE-SW direction). Those boulders have been interpreted as transported by sliding process, in relation with the coastal morphology and the boulder geometry, which means that to move those boulders the energy of the tsunami not necessarily should have been as high as in saltation or rolling transport processes. On the contrary, in Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık localities, the boulders are well-rounded and ellipsoidal shaped, suggesting that they were transported by rolling and/or saltation mode rather than by sliding. To carry onland the tsunami boulders observed in the Narlıkuyu and Yeşilovacık districts, which in the Yeşilovacık area they are

  3. Age assessment and implications of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland, based on Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) (United States)

    Wilson, Peter; Matthews, John A.


    Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) was applied to a variety of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms composed of coarse rock debris on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland. Landform ages were determined using a linear high-precision age-calibration curve, derived from young and old control surfaces of known age on the same rock type. The SHD ages represent maximum estimates of the time elapsed since the boulders stabilised and the landforms became inactive. Most ages are also minimum estimates for the start of landform development because older boulders are buried beneath the sampled surface boulders. Ages and 95% confidence intervals obtained for blockfield, boulder lobes and talus indicate these features were likely active during several of the early Holocene cold events evidenced in Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment records. Activity ceased at different times ~ 9-7 ka BP. These landforms are the first indication of a geomorphological response to early Holocene cooling in the oceanic mountains of Ireland. Late Holocene ages, obtained for rock-slope failure run-out debris and debris cone boulders, overlap with shifts to cooler and/or wetter conditions, including the Little Ice Age. Geomorphological impacts associated with these changes in climate have not previously been recorded in the Irish uplands. The SHD results indicate that previously implied timings for the stabilisation of some accumulations of coarse rock debris on mountain slopes are in need of revision.

  4. Integrated Solar Power Converters: Wafer-Level Sub-Module Integrated DC/DC Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Solar ADEPT Project: CU-Boulder is developing advanced power conversion components that can be integrated into individual solar panels to improve energy yields. The solar energy that is absorbed and collected by a solar panel is converted into useable energy for the grid through an electronic component called an inverter. Many large, conventional solar energy systems use one, central inverter to convert energy. CU-Boulder is integrating smaller, microinverters into individual solar panels to improve the efficiency of energy collection. The University’s microinverters rely on electrical components that direct energy at high speeds and ensure that minimal energy is lost during the conversion process—improving the overall efficiency of the power conversion process. CU-Boulder is designing its power conversion devices for use on any type of solar panel.

  5. Debris-flow deposits and watershed erosion rates near southern Death Valley, CA, United States (United States)

    Schmidt, K.M.; Menges, C.M.; ,


    Debris flows from the steep, granitic hillslopes of the Kingston Range, CA are commensurate in age with nearby fluvial deposits. Quaternary chronostratigraphic differentiation of debris-flow deposits is based upon time-dependent characteristics such as relative boulder strength, derived from Schmidt Hammer measurements, degree of surface desert varnish, pedogenesis, and vertical separation. Rock strength is highest for Holocene-aged boulders and decreases for Pleistocene-aged boulders weathering to grus. Volumes of age-stratified debris-flow deposits, constrained by deposit thickness above bedrock, GPS surveys, and geologic mapping, are greatest for Pleistocene deposits. Shallow landslide susceptibility, derived from a topographically based GIS model, in conjunction with deposit volumes produces watershed-scale erosion rates of ???2-47 mm ka-1, with time-averaged Holocene rates exceeding Pleistocene rates. ?? 2003 Millpress.

  6. Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs

    CERN Document Server

    Johansen, Anders; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Klahr, Hubert; Henning, Thomas; Youdin, Andrew


    The initial stages of planet formation in circumstellar gas discs proceed via dust grains that collide and build up larger and larger bodies (Safronov 1969). How this process continues from metre-sized boulders to kilometre-scale planetesimals is a major unsolved problem (Dominik et al. 2007): boulders stick together poorly (Benz 2000), and spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits due to a head wind from the slower rotating gas (Weidenschilling 1977). Gravitational collapse of the solid component has been suggested to overcome this barrier (Safronov 1969, Goldreich & Ward 1973, Youdin & Shu 2002). Even low levels of turbulence, however, inhibit sedimentation of solids to a sufficiently dense midplane layer (Weidenschilling & Cuzzi 1993, Dominik et al. 2007), but turbulence must be present to explain observed gas accretion in protostellar discs (Hartmann 1998). Here we report the discovery of efficient gravitational collapse of boulders in locally overdense regions in the midplane. The bou...

  7. Constraining the age of rock art by dating a rockfall event using sediment and rock-surface luminescence dating techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapot, Melissa; Sohbati, Reza; Murray, A.S.


    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is used to determine the age of a rockfall event that removed part of the pictograph figures at the Great Gallery rock art panel in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, USA. Analyses from the outer millimeter of the buried surface of a rockfall boulder and quar...... rock art with a controversial and unknown origin.......Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is used to determine the age of a rockfall event that removed part of the pictograph figures at the Great Gallery rock art panel in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, USA. Analyses from the outer millimeter of the buried surface of a rockfall boulder and quartz...

  8. Unusual features caused by lightning impact in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, P.; Abrahamsen, N.; Rasmussen, T.


       Two lightning impacts are described from an area near the Inland Ice in West Greenland. The first lightning blasted an outcrop of metacherts. It subsequently split into two branches, which traversed rock outcrops and boulders, leaving behind two white almost straight lines, 30 m and 14 m long...... that a strong electric current indeed traversed the boulder. A few years later a second lightning impacted on a mountaintop close to the first impact. The second lightning left a trail on the rock surface covered by a thin layer of glass. The glass displays spectacular colours ranging from metallic blue, to red...

  9. Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian new thalamid sponges from northern Calabria (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Senowbari-Daryan


    Full Text Available Two new “sphinctozoan” sponges, Calabrisiphonella labyrinthica nov. gen., nov. sp. and Calabrispongia globosa nov. gen., nov. sp., are described from reef boulders derived from Triassic dolomites (“Dolomia principale“ of the Argentino valley in Northern Calabria (Southern Italy. Calabrisiphonella is an Amblysiphonella-type sponge characterized by having a complicated canal system (labyrinth-like within the chamber walls. The structure of Calabrispongia is similar to some Paleozoic or Jurassic "Stromatoporoidea“, which are attributed to the sponges. The systemtic position of both sponges, described here, is discussed. The age of the sponge-bearing reefs represented in the boulders is Norian-Rhaetian.

  10. Brief communication "Does the Eltanin asteroid tsunami provide an alternative explanation for the Australian megatsunami hypothesis?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dominey-Howes


    Full Text Available The Australian megatsunami hypothesis has been developed over two decades. It charts repeated inundation of the South East Australian coast during the Holocene by bolide impact megatsunamis. The most enigmatic evidence for these proposed events are high elevation cliff-top boulders. There is however an absence of known sources for these megatsunamis, and as such we question whether the researchers may have the correct mechanism but the wrong events. Given the low denudation rates of this passive, intraplate environment, we suggest that boulder emplacement may have been solely the result of the much older Eltanin asteroid tsunami about 2.5 Ma ago.

  11. Size Sorting on the Rubble-Pile Asteroid Itokawa (United States)

    Shinbrot, Troy; Sabuwala, Tapan; Siu, Theo; Vivar Lazo, Miguel; Chakraborty, Pinaki


    Photographs of the asteroid Itokawa reveal unexpectedly strong size segregation between lowlands populated almost entirely by small pebbles and highlands consisting of larger boulders. We propose that this segregation may be caused by a simple and unexplored effect: pebbles accreting onto the asteroid rebound from boulders, but sink into pebbly regions. By number, overwhelmingly more particles on Itokawa are pebbles, and collisions involving these pebbles must unavoidably cause pebbly regions to grow. We carry out experiments and simulations that demonstrate that this mechanism of size sorting based on simple counting of grains produces strong lateral segregation that reliably obeys an analytic formula.

  12. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Held in Boston, Massachusetts on 4-6 December 1991. Low Temperature (LT) GaAs and Related Materials. Volume 241. (United States)


    this, session chairs played a key role. In addition, they had major responsibility for the refereeing of the manuscripts. They were: M. Delany F.W...11. A.E. Schmitz, L.D. Nguyen, A.S. Brown and R.A. Metzger, DRC Abstracts, Boulder, CO.(1991). 12. M.Y. Frankel, J.F. Whitaker, G.A. Mourou, F.W...A.E. Schmitz, L.D. Nguyen, A.S. Brown, and R.A. Metzger, 1991 DRC , Boulder, CO. 15. J.F. Jensen, W.E. Stanchina, R.A. Metzger, D.B. Rensch, R.F. Lohr

  13. Desarrollo de una aplicación para la escalada y oferta de servicios web


    Fernández Seco, Daniel


    El autor de este proyecto es miembro reciente de la asociación SoloBoulder, dedicada a la modalidad de escalada boulder, noticias y actualidad, contenido multimedia, promoción de un equipo de escaladores y defensa de valores medioambientales en la montaña. El principal canal de distribución de contenidos es una página web existente previa a este proyecto. La asociación ha detectado una escasez y mala calidad de recursos en internet en cuanto a guías de zonas donde poder practicar el boulde...

  14. Support from the Army Research Office to be Used Towards Student Travel Fellowships for the National Radio Science Meetings in January 2010, 2011, and 2012 (United States)


    Kraft , Vladimir Leuski Center for Environmental Technology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 08:40 F1-2 BEAM-EFFICIENCY EXTRACTION...13:40 GH1-2 SATURATION EFFECTS IN THE VLF SCATTERING OFF HF HEATED IONOSPHERE Nikolai G. Lehtinen*1, Timothy F. Bell1, Umran S. Inan1,2 1Stanford...KOVAC, J. M. J1-3 KOVITZ, J. B3-2 KOVITZ, J. M. B8-4 KOZLOV, S. I. F7-9 KRAFT , D. F1-1 KRALL, J. G2-2 KRALL, J. F. G2-4 KRISHNAN, S. KB2-3 KUBIK

  15. The petroglyphs of Dowzdaghi, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kazempur


    Full Text Available This paper deals with recording and interpreting a complex of petroglyphs at Dowzdaghi in the northern part of Iranian Azerbaijan in Northwestern Iran. The assemblage can be divided into four sub-assemblages; the designs and images depicted on the surfaces of isolated boulders usually constitute a panel and sometimes individual motifs and inscriptions. The investigations have revealed more than 400 carved and scratched drawings on rock boulders on Mt. Dowzdaghi. The main themes include anthropomorphic figures, animals (ibex, with long elaborated curved horn, deer, dog, horse, bull, ram, fox, snake, alligator, and hedgehog, hunting scenes, Arabic and Persian inscriptions, and symbolic designs.

  16. Time needed for first lichen colonization of terminal moraines in the Tröllaskagi peninsula (North Iceland) (United States)

    Andres, Nuria; Palacios, David; Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn


    The Tröllaskagi peninsula is located in Central North Iceland. The peninsula belong to the Tertiary basaltic areas in Iceland and is characterised by numerous glacially eroded valleys and fjords. The altitude ranges from sea level to 1500 m. Around 150 glaciers, debris covered glaciers and clean glaciers exist in the cirques of the Tröllaskagi peninsula. Lichenometric techniques were applied to date moraines formed by some of these glaciers, especially from 1970-90, establishing growth rates for some species, e.g. 0.5 mm/year for Rizocarpon geographicum. However there is no information available on how long the lichens take to colonize the boulders in a moraine once it has become detached from the retreating glacier. The aim of this paper is to observe how long it takes for the boulders on the moraines to be colonized by lichens in the Tröllaskagi peninsula, where the separation date of a moraine from the retreating glacier tongue is known. Two case studies were used. The first was the surging glacier Búrfellsjökull, in the Búrfelllsdalur valley, an affluent of the Svarfaðardalur valley. The Búrfellsjökull glacier surged in 2001-2004 and the glacial terminus advanced 150-240 m, overrunnig a moraine formed around 1955 and formed a new moraine. About 2-3 years after the surge termination in 2004 the glacial terminus was already retreating and had left the moraine isolated (Brynjólfsson et al. 2012). The other case is the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier, in the Gljúlfurárdalur valley, an affluent of the Skíðadalur valley. It can be seen from the series of aerial photographs that the glacier terminus advanced during the 1990s until the year 2000. In 2004 the glacial terminus was already retreating and had separated from a small moraine formed during the previous advance. Thus, two different glaciers halted and formed one moraine each which they separated from almost similar time. During the detailed field work carried out in August 2014 on both moraines

  17. Modeling temperature and stress in rocks exposed to the sun (United States)

    Hallet, B.; Mackenzie, P.; Shi, J.; Eppes, M. C.


    The potential contribution of solar-driven thermal cycling to the progressive breakdown of surface rocks on the Earth and other planets is recognized but under studied. To shed light on this contribution we have launched a collaborative study integrating modern instrumental and numerical approaches to define surface temperatures, stresses, strains, and microfracture activity in exposed boulders, and to shed light on the thermo-mechanical response of boulders to diurnal solar exposure. The instrumental portion of our study is conducted by M. Eppes and coworkers who have monitored the surface and environmental conditions of two ~30 cm dia. granite boulders (one in North Carolina, one in New Mexico) in the field for one and tow years, respectively. Each boulder is instrumented with 8 thermocouples, 8 strain gauges, a surface moisture sensor and 6 acoustic emission (AE) sensors to monitor microfracture activity continuously and to locate it within 2.5 cm. Herein, we focus on the numerical modeling. Using a commercially available finite element program, MSC.Marc®2008r1, we have developed an adaptable, realistic thermo-mechanical model to investigate quantitatively the temporal and spatial distributions of both temperature and stress throughout a boulder. The model accounts for the effects of latitude and season (length of day and the sun's path relative to the object), atmospheric damping (reduction of solar radiation when traveling through the Earth's atmosphere), radiative interaction between the boulder and its surrounding soil, secondary heat exchange of the rock with air, and transient heat conduction in both rock and soil. Using representative thermal and elastic rock properties, as well as realistic representations of the size, shape and orientation of a boulder instrumented in the field in North Carolina, the model is validated by comparison with direct measurements of temperature and strain on the surface of one boulder exposed to the sun. Using the validated

  18. Gender Disparities in Second-Semester College Physics: The Incremental Effects of a "Smog of Bias" (United States)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.


    Our previous research [Kost et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 5, 010101 (2009)] examined gender differences in the first-semester, introductory physics class at the University of Colorado at Boulder. We found that: (1) there were gender differences in several aspects of the course, including conceptual survey performance, (2) these…

  19. 15 CFR 265.41 - Gambling. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gambling. 265.41 Section 265.41..., GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.41 Gambling. No... gambling devices, the conduct of lotteries or pools, or in the selling or purchasing of numbers tickets,...

  20. Estimating ground water discharge by hydrograph separation. (United States)

    Hannula, Steven R; Esposito, Kenneth J; Chermak, John A; Runnells, Donald D; Keith, David C; Hall, Larry E


    Iron Mountain is located in the West Shasta Mining District in California. An investigation of the generation of acid rock drainage and metals loading to Boulder Creek at Iron Mountain was conducted. As part of that investigation, a hydrograph separation technique was used to determine the contribution of ground water to total flow in Boulder Creek. During high-flow storm events in the winter months, peak flow in Boulder Creek can exceed 22.7 m3/sec, and comprises surface runoff, interflow, and ground water discharge. A hydrograph separation technique was used to estimate ground water discharge into Boulder Creek during high-flow conditions. Total ground water discharge to the creek approaches 0.31 m3/sec during the high-flow season. The hydrograph separation technique combined with an extensive field data set provided reasonable estimates of ground water discharge. These estimates are useful for other investigations, such as determining a corresponding metals load from the metal-rich ground water found at Iron Mountain and thus contributing to remedial alternatives.

  1. The Art of Playground Design. (United States)

    Hammatt, Heather


    Makes the case for integrating artistic expression into park and playground landscape design to create recreational areas with a more holistic look. The Foothills Community Park in Boulder, Colorado, is used to illustrate the use of artistic expression that preserves and celebrates the natural elements while creating a sense of community identity…

  2. Media, Think Tanks, and Educational Research (United States)

    Yettick, Holly


    The Bunkum Awards are a sort of beauty contest for ugly people. Bestowed by the National Education Policy Center housed at the University of Colorado at Boulder, they reward the most "nonsensical, confusing, and disingenuous" studies of education published each year. Contestants are drawn from reports critiqued by the Think Tank Review…

  3. Think Tank Critics Plant a Stake in Policy World (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.


    After five years of providing critical reviews of education-related reports by nonacademic think tanks, education professors Alex Molnar and Kevin G. Welner hope to expand their own reach with a new, broader research center. The new National Education Policy Center, based at Welner's academic home, the University of Colorado at Boulder, will…

  4. Errors in second moments estimated from monostatic Doppler sodar winds. II. Application to field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaynor, J. E.; Kristensen, Leif


    For pt.I see ibid., vol.3, no.3, p.523-8 (1986). The authors use the theoretical results presented in part I to correct turbulence parameters derived from monostatic sodar wind measurements in an attempt to improve the statistical comparisons with the sonic anemometers on the Boulder Atmospheric ...

  5. Power Pack: U.S. Intervention in the Dominican Republic, 1965-1966 (Leavenworth Papers, Number 15) (United States)


    dictatorship. As these groups made clear, the regime could not be toppled unless the dictator himself were assassinated. "If you recall Dracula ," one...Rabe, Eisenhower, 157. 14. The " Dracula " statement is quoted in Harold Molineu, U.S. Policy Toward Latin America: From Regionalism to Globalism (Boulder

  6. 40 CFR 81.306 - Colorado. (United States)


    ...) Remainder of County Gilpin County Jefferson County (part) Remainder of County State AQCR 4 (Remainder of... Boulder County (part) Rocky Mtn. National Park Only Clear Creek County Gilpin County State AQCR 11... 03 (remainder of) Unclassifiable/Attainment Clear Creek County Gilpin County State AQCR...

  7. Itokawa: a case for ballistic segregation (United States)

    Shinbrot, Troy; Sabawula, Tapan; Siu, Theo; Vivar Lazo, Miguel; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    Recent photographs of the asteroid Itokawa have revealed strong separation between regions populated almost entirely by small pebbles and other regions consisting only of larger boulders. This size separation has been attributed to the Brazil Nut Effect (BNE), however we point out here that the BNE depends on conditions such as isotropic gravity, parallel sidewalls and periodic vertical shaking that are wholly absent on asteroids. On the other hand, surface areas of boulders and pebbles appear to be comparable on Itokawa, and in this situation it follows that the asteroid must have suffered many orders of magnitude more collisions with pebbles than with boulders. We observe that a pebble will tend to bounce off of a boulder but will sink into a sea of similar pebbles, and so we predict that seas of pebbles must grow on such asteroids. We carry out experiments and simulations to evaluate this and related predictions, and we demonstrate that this new mechanism of segregation based on simple counting of grains can produce the strong separation of sizes reported. Support provided by NSF Grant 1404792.

  8. Itokawa is not Brazil: granular segregation on asteroids (United States)

    Shinbrot, Troy; Chakraborty, Pinaki; Sabuwala, Tapan


    Recent photographs of the asteroid Itokawa have revealed strong separation between regions populated almost entirely by sand and other regions consisting only of larger boulders. This size separation has been attributed to the Brazil Nut Effect (BNE), however we point out here that the BNE depends on conditions such as isotropic gravity, parallel sidewalls and periodic vertical shaking that are wholly absent on asteroids. On the other hand, surface areas of boulders and sand appear to be comparable on Itokawa, and in this situation it follows that the asteroid must have suffered many orders of magnitude more collisions with sand particles than with boulders. We observe that a sand particle will tend to bounce off of a boulder but will sink into a sea of similar sand particles, and so we predict that sand seas must grow on such asteroids. We carry out experiments and simulations to evaluate this and related predictions, and we demonstrate that this new mechanism of segregation based on simple counting of grains can produce the strong separation of sizes reported.

  9. Military Adaptation in War (United States)


    on com- manders in war is the loneliness of command. In his brilliant memoirs Ulysses S. Grant best caught the nature of the problem. In 1861, given...tation plan on German logistics during the Normandy campaign, see Russell A. Hart, Clash of Arms, How the Allies Won in Normandy (Boulder, CO, 2001), pp

  10. A Safer Future. Reducing the Impacts of Natural Disasters (United States)


    BRADLEY, City of Los-Angeles, California KENNETH W. POTER ,;Univcrsity of Wisconsin, Madison LLOYD S. CLUFF, Pacific Gas & Electric Company, San E.L...Boulder. Co~ln.: Wisvicu, l’res. Ericksn. N.). 1986. Crcmuic Flood DMixtei? Arri Zealind Nulty. R.). S.A, 11olicens. J.M.-I lollowAy. E.J. Kaiscr. D

  11. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  12. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  13. 43 CFR 431.7 - Administration and management of the Colorado River Dam Fund. (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration and management of the..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPLACEMENT AT THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.7 Administration and management of the Colorado River Dam Fund. Reclamation is responsible for the repayment of the Project...

  14. 15 CFR 265.34 - Conformity with posted signs. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conformity with posted signs. 265.34 Section 265.34 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL..., GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.34 Conformity...

  15. What I Think I May Have Learned--Reflections on 50 Years of Teaching: An Interview with Michael Wertheimer (United States)

    Michael, Kurt D.


    Kurt Michael is an associate professor in the Department of Psychology at Appalachian State University (ASU) where he teaches history and systems of psychology, abnormal psychology, child psychopathology, and interventions for children and adolescents. He received his BA (cum laude) from the University of Colorado at Boulder and his MS and PhD in…

  16. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall be entitled to such Excess Capacity to integrate the operation of the Boulder City Area Projects and...

  17. Analysis of the Decision and Verification Stockmarket Tasks Using Additive Stage Process Methods. (United States)


    58224 2 3700 TCHTWiTTGH Stop 32 Sheppard AFB, TX 76311 Marines Other DoD H. William Greenup 12 Defense Technical Information Center Education Advisor...Psychology Campus Box 346 Dr. Erik McWilliams University of Colorado Science Education Dev. and Research Boulder, CO 80309 National Science Foundation

  18. Final Report for Contract N00014-78-C-0022 for the Period 1 October 1977-30 September 1980. (United States)


    AZ 58224 Alexandria, VA 22333 2 3700 TCHTW/TTGH Stop 32 Sheppard AFB, TX 76311 1 Jack A. Thorp, Maj., USAF Life Sciences Directorate AFOSR Bolling...OF COLORADO 1 Dr. Erik McWilliams BOULDER, CO 80309 Science Education Dev. and Research National Science Foundation 1 Dr. Steven E. Poltrock

  19. Spatial Selectivity in Visual Search. (United States)


    Technical Director AFHRL(OT) Williams AFB, AZ 58224 2 3700 TCHTW/TTGH Stop 32 Sheppard AFB, TX 76311 1 Jack A. Thorp, Maj., USAF Life Sciences...Boulder, CO 80302 Dr. Erik McWilliams Science Education Dev. and Research 1 DR. PETER POLSON National Science Foundation DEPT. OF PSYCHOLOGY

  20. The Future of Testing: A Research Agenda for Cognitive Psychology and Psychometrics. (United States)


    EISENHOWER AVENUE Williams AFB, AZ 58224 ALEXANDRIA, VA 22333 2 3700 TCHTW/TTGH Stop 32 1 Dr. Michael Kaplan Sheppard AFB, TX 76311 U.S. ARMY RESEARCH...OF COLORADO BOULDER, CO 80309 Dr. Erik McWilliams Science Education Dev. and Research 1 Dr. Steven E. Poltrock National Science Foundation Department

  1. Strategies for Abstracting Main Ideas from Simple Technical Prose. (United States)


    Corps Patters AFOSR Code lOOM Bolling AFB, DC 20112 Office of Naval Reseprch 800 K. Quincy St. 2 3700 TCHT/TTGH Stop 32 Arlington, VA 22217 Sheppard AFB...PETER POLSON Dr. Erik McWilliams DEPT. OF PSYCHOLOGY Science Education Dev. and Research UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO National Science Foundation BOULDER, CO

  2. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, D. [Boulder Country Pollution Prevention Program, Boulder, CO (United States)


    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Single Stage Rocket Technology (SSRT) DC-X Test Program Environmental Assessment (United States)


    boulders and scarps (4500-6000 ft) flowers May to September Family - Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Grayish white giant hyssop Pl On rocky slopes and in...pines (6600 ft) Supreme sage T Shaded ledges and cracks among Salvia summa rocks on steep limestone canyon slopes (5000 ft) Family - Loasaceae Gypsum

  4. Tropical storm off Myanmar coast sweeps reefs in Ritchie's Archipelago, Andaman

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnan, P.; Grinson-George, G.; Vikas, N.; Titus-Immanuel, T.; Goutham-Bharathi, M.P.; Anand, A.; VinodKumar, K.; SenthilKumar, S.

    chesterfieldensis was scarred; Tubastrea micrantha had bleached and most colonies had died (Fig. 2g) and the table coral, Acropora hya- cinthus was found to be flipped over. At Minerva Ledge several boulder corals (Porites spp.) were bro- ken off at their bases...

  5. Zero Waste: A Realistic Sustainability Program for Schools (United States)

    Schumpert, Kary; Dietz, Cyndra


    Eco-Cycle, one of the nation's oldest and largest nonprofit recycling organizations, has coordinated recycling services and environmental education programs for the two Boulder area public school districts (80 schools) since 1987. In 2005, Eco-Cycle launched the Green Star Schools program in four pilot elementary schools with the goal of moving…

  6. Addendum to Site Assessment and Feasibility of a New Operations Base on the Greenland Ice Sheet: Addendum to Preliminary Report (United States)


    nical monitors were Pat Haggerty and Renee Crain, NSF-PLR. The work was performed by Matthew Bigl (Engineering Resources Branch, Jared Oren, Chief...CRREL TN-15-2 8 References Abdalati, W. 2008. Greenland Ice Sheet Melt Characteristics Derived from Passive Microwave Data, 1979-2007. Boulder

  7. Hydrogeologic Data of the Denver Basin, Colorado. Colorado Water Conservation Board Basic Data Report Number 15 (United States)


    sand: Overburden . 60 60 Sand and sandy snale 1 241 Topsoil and sand. . . 10 - 0 Dawson Formation (lower part): Shale. hard, blue. . . 245 ruviers ...upper part): Clay . 25 .50 Louviers Alluviums Shale. brown ,.... 17 55 ruviers Alluviums Boulders. sand, and Sandstone v-ater-bearinqj 21 𔄀 Gravel

  8. Defense and Development in Africa: Annotated Bibliography. (United States)


    Lexington Books, 1981. Arlinghaus, Bruce E., Military Development in Africa, Boulder: Westview Press, 1984. Arrighi , Giovanni, "International Corporations...Labor Aristocracies, and Economic Development in Tropical Africa," in G. Arrighi and J. Saul (eds.), Essays on the Political Economy of Africa, Monthly

  9. Strategic Challenges for Counterinsurgency and the Global War on Terrorism (United States)

    2006-09-01 ?SelectedCountry=CHN&CCODE=CHN&CNA ME=China& PTYPE =CP;Internet, accessed November 20, 2004. 3. Energy Information...Review of World Energy." 11. Chu-Yuan Cheng, Behind the Tiananmen Massacre: Social Political, and Economic Ferment in China, Boulder, CO, 1990, p. 13

  10. Telecommuting to Work: Using Technology to Work at Home. (United States)

    Luce, Richard E.; Hartman, Susan


    Describes experience of Boulder Public Library, where management and support personnel established pre-experiment baseline data for comparison with quantitative and qualitative results of experiment to determine the impact of telecommuting (work-at-home) on worker productivity. Background, methodology, equipment enhancements, and data analysis are…

  11. Educational Transformation in Upper-Division Physics: The Science Education Initiative Model, Outcomes, and Lessons Learned (United States)

    Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Wilcox, Bethany; Caballero, Marcos D.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Pollock, Steven J.; Wieman, Carl E.


    In response to the need for a scalable, institutionally supported model of educational change, the Science Education Initiative (SEI) was created as an experiment in transforming course materials and faculty practices at two institutions--University of Colorado Boulder (CU) and University of British Columbia. We find that this departmentally…

  12. 15 CFR 265.39 - Weapons and explosives. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 265.39 Section..., GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.39 Weapons and... dangerous or deadly weapons or materials, or explosives, either openly or concealed, without the...

  13. 77 FR 11573 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)


    ...; they were received through police seizures or private citizens in Arapaho, Boulder, Delta, Dolores..., at minimum, two individuals were transferred to History Colorado by the Dolores County, CO, Sheriff's... Dolores County, CO. The exact origin of the remains is unknown. Osteological analysis determined that...

  14. The Fundamental Issues Study within the British BMD Review (United States)


    two years before.5 Moreover, this interpretation was confirmed at Oxford in the Spring of 1992 by Roald Sagdeev, who through the middle ’eighties...and Ralph C. Hassig in Young Wang Kihl (ed.), Korea and the world: beyond the Cold War, Westview Press, Boulder, 1994, Chapter 13 ’North Korea’s

  15. 10 CFR 904.6 - Charge for capacity and firm energy. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charge for capacity and firm energy. 904.6 Section 904.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.6 Charge for capacity and firm energy. The charge for Capacity...

  16. Shared Savings Contracting for Reducing Energy Costs of Defense Facilities. (United States)


    Chesapeake Avenue 1030 V. Third Avenue 1727 Atwood Towson , MD 21204 Columbus, OR 43212 Loangeat, CO 80501 The KCE Group E9e1rbe Associates Inc...Chambeau Road 1000 Crescent Avenue, ,.E. Boulder, CO 80302 Fort Wayne , IN 46801 Atlanta, GA 30309 Ssmyn-D’elia, Architects Shiffman & Tietjeo CoLsulting

  17. The Caribbean Basin: U.S. Strategy and Security Challenges in the 21st Century (United States)


    Maingot , The United States and the Caribbean,(Colorado: Westview Press, 1994) p. 228 2 Jorge Beruff and Humberto Muniz, Ed.,Security Problems and...Century. Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1989. Maingot , Anthony P. The United States and the Caribbean. Boulder: Westview. 1994. National

  18. Yet Another Fish Tale? (United States)

    Lalasz, Robert


    Last month the "Rocky Mountain News" reported that a survey by an emeritus professor at University of Colorado Boulder found that only 23 of 825 faculty members on the campus were registered Republicans. But on his "New York Times" blog, Stanley Fish brushed off the survey's significance from a familiarly Fishian stance. A faculty's political…

  19. Assessing a New Approach to Class-Based Affirmative Action (United States)

    Gaertner, Matthew N.


    In November, 2008, Colorado and Nebraska voted on amendments that sought to end race-based affirmative action at public universities. In anticipation of the vote, Colorado's flagship public institution--The University of Colorado at Boulder (CU)--explored statistical approaches to support class-based affirmative action. This paper details CU's…

  20. GeoScape: An Instructional Rock Garden for Inquiry-Based Cooperative Learning Exercises in Introductory Geology Courses. (United States)

    Calderone, Gary J.; Thompson, J. Robert; Johnson, Wayne M.; Kadel, Steve D.; Nelson, Pamela J.; Hall-Wallace, Michelle; Butler, Robert F.


    GeoScape is a landscape design consisting of colored gravel, strategically placed flagstone and boulders, and two vertical features that simulate the geology of fictitious regions. Employs "hands-on", inquiry-based, and cooperative learning techniques to help students develop problem solving and critical thinking skills. Explains the construction,…

  1. Seismic-Acoustic Active Range Monitoring for Characterizing Low-Order Ordnance Detonation (United States)


    The artillery fire included both air-disbursed para- chute munitions and high-explosive ground impact rounds. Figure 4. Artillery used in...Between 7 and 28 m deep, the sediments are mostly gravel with some sug- gestions of boulders. From 28 to over 65 m deep, the sediments are pre

  2. Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Vol. 341: Expedition reports Southern Alaska margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jaeger, J.M.; Gulick, S.P.S.; LeVay, L.J.; Asahi, H; Bahlburg, H; Belanger, C.L.; Berbel, G.B.B; Childress, L.B; Cowan, E.A; Drab, L.; Forwick, M.; Fukumura, A.; Ge, S.; Gupta, S.M.; et. al.

    sorted glacigenic sediments ranging from mud to boulders, accumulating at a rate of at least 1 km/m.y. Slope Site U1419 is slightly west of the Bering Trough mouth and also has exceptional Late Pleistocene sedimentation rates (~3 km/m.y.). The complete...

  3. Teaching to the Minds of Boys (United States)

    King, Kelley; Gurian, Michael


    Using brain-based research, Douglass Elementary School in Boulder, Colorado, looked at the natural assets that both girls and boys bring to school and realized that its classrooms were generally a better fit for the verbal-emotive, sit-still, take-notes, listen-carefully, multitasking girl. Teachers tended to see the natural assets that boys bring…

  4. Detection of High Altitude Aircraft Wake Vortices Using Infrared Doppler Lidar: An Assessment (United States)


    velocity distribution ( Tipler , 1987:69). The velocity distribution in ont. direction, say the x-direction, is a i Gaussian distribution with standard...Coherent Laser Radar, Report #CTI-TR-8903. Contract OF33615-88-C-1756. Boulder, CO: Coherent Technologies, Inc., Octo- ber 1989. Tipler , Paul A

  5. 给我的词句评分……

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A computer program that analyses word usage can do just as good a job of gradingessays as an experienced human marker. "l’m not ready to claim it’s fooproof, but Iam ready to claim that it’s approximtely as foolproof as a human," says Thomashandauer, a cognitive scientist at the University of Colorado at Boulder, who led the

  6. 10 CFR 904.7 - Base charge. (United States)


    ... ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power... component shall be made during outages which cause significant reductions in capacity as provided by the... deficiency in Firm Energy pursuant to section 105(a)(2) of the Hoover Power Plant Act (43 U.S.C....

  7. The Institutionalization of Drug Trafficking Organizations: Comparing Colombia and Brazil (United States)


    128; and Celso Amorim, Comando Vermelho: A Historia Secreta do Crime Organizado (Rio de Janeiro: Editora Record, 1993). 44 As a side observation...America, by Sonia Alvarez, Evelina Dagnino and Arturo Escobar, 1–32. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998. Amorim, Celso. Comando Vermelho: A Historia

  8. Glacial geology of the West Tensleep Drainage Basin, Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burggraf, G.B.


    The glacial deposits of the West Tensleep Basin in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming are mapped and a relative chromology established. The deposits are correlated with the regional model as defined in the Wind River Mountains. A statistical analysis is performed on the density and weathering characteristics of the surficial boulders to determine their validity as indicators of relative age. (ACR)

  9. The Physical and the Virtual: The Relationship between Library as Place and Electronic Collections (United States)

    Gerke, Jennifer; Maness, Jack M.


    A statistical analysis of responses to a LibQUAL+™ survey at the University of Colorado at Boulder (UCB) was conducted to investigate factors related to patrons' satisfaction with electronic collections. It was found that a respondent's discipline was not related to his or her satisfaction with the Libraries' electronic collection, nor was the…

  10. Casa de la Esperanza: A Case Study of Service Coordination at Work in Colorado. (United States)

    Franquiz, Maria E.; Hernandez, Carlota Loya

    This chapter describes how a federally funded farmworker housing facility in northern Colorado--Casa de la Esperanza--has changed the lives of migrant students and their families. The history of migrant workers in Colorado is described, as well as the struggle to construct a permanent farmworker housing facility. Casa was built in Boulder County,…

  11. Monitoring of Fluvial Transport in the Mountain River Bed Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning (United States)

    Jozkow, G.; Borkowski, A.; Kasprzak, M.


    The fluvial transport is the surface process that has a strong impact on the topography changes, especially in mountain areas. Traditional hydrological measurements usually give a good understanding of the river flow, however, the information of the bedload movement in the rivers is still insufficient. In particular, there is limited knowledge about the movement of the largest clasts, i.e. boulders. This investigation addresses mentioned issues by employing Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) to monitor annual changes of the mountain river bed. The vertical changes were estimated based on the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of difference (DoD) while transported boulders were identified based on the distances between point clouds and RGB-coloured points. Combined RGB point clouds allowed also to measure 3D displacements of boulders. The results showed that the highest dynamic of the fluvial process occurred between years 2012-2013. Obtained DoD clearly indicated alternating zones of erosion and deposition of the sediment finer fractions in the local sedimentary traps. The horizontal displacement of the rock material in the river bed showed high complexity resulting in the displacement of large boulders (major axis about 0.8 m) for the distance up to 2.3 m.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jozkow


    Full Text Available The fluvial transport is the surface process that has a strong impact on the topography changes, especially in mountain areas. Traditional hydrological measurements usually give a good understanding of the river flow, however, the information of the bedload movement in the rivers is still insufficient. In particular, there is limited knowledge about the movement of the largest clasts, i.e. boulders. This investigation addresses mentioned issues by employing Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS to monitor annual changes of the mountain river bed. The vertical changes were estimated based on the Digital Elevation Model (DEM of difference (DoD while transported boulders were identified based on the distances between point clouds and RGB-coloured points. Combined RGB point clouds allowed also to measure 3D displacements of boulders. The results showed that the highest dynamic of the fluvial process occurred between years 2012-2013. Obtained DoD clearly indicated alternating zones of erosion and deposition of the sediment finer fractions in the local sedimentary traps. The horizontal displacement of the rock material in the river bed showed high complexity resulting in the displacement of large boulders (major axis about 0.8 m for the distance up to 2.3 m.

  13. Theoretical Advanced Study Institute: 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGrand, Thomas [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    The Theoretical Advanced Study Institute was held at the University of Colorado, Boulder, during June 2-27, 2014. The topic was "Journeys through the Precision Frontier: Amplitudes for Colliders." The organizers were Professors Lance Dixon (SLAC) and Frank Petriello (Northwestern and Argonne). There were fifty one students. Nineteen lecturers gave sixty seventy five minute lectures. A Proceedings was published.

  14. Dredging: Key Link in the Strategic National Defense (United States)


    Ravenhill and Donald Rothchild, Politics and Society in Contempori.rv Africa. (Boulder, CO: Lynne Riehner Publishers, 1992), 279. 91nternational...Navigation Improvements on the Pacific Coast. Washington: Institute for Water Resources, 1983. Beeman & Associates. 1988. Detailed Study of Dredged Material...Land Disposal Alternatives. Ogden Beeman & Associates, Inc., Portland, Oregon. Beeman & Associates. 1990. Investigation of Dredged Material

  15. A Scattering Model for Detection of Tunnels Using Video Pulse Radar Systems. (United States)


    obtained if a general underground radar system design is to be achieved. In a previous report (91 we have discussed the means of obtaining the propagation...Detector," U. S. Patent 3,967,282, June 29, 1976. [2) J. D. Young, "A Transient Underground Radar for Buried Pipe Location," USNC/URSI Meeting, Boulder

  16. Using Participatory and Service Design to Identify Emerging Needs and Perceptions of Library Services among Science and Engineering Researchers Based at a Satellite Campus (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew; Kuglitsch, Rebecca; Bresnahan, Megan


    This study used participatory and service design methods to identify emerging research needs and existing perceptions of library services among science and engineering faculty, post-graduate, and graduate student researchers based at a satellite campus at the University of Colorado Boulder. These methods, and the results of the study, allowed us…

  17. Offpost Operable Unit Endangerment Assessment/Feasibility Study. Volume 1. Introduction (United States)


    merits of remedial alternativos . Although there are inherent uncertainties in the groundwater model, this is a tool being used by the FS and predicted...J-intrc 0306111092 1-26 MIA1 1104 WEL 0CO. BOULDER CO. 25 85 LAOe JEFFERSON CO.7 A~ ROCK I MOUNTI ADAMS CO. DENVER CO. - -- ARAPAHOE CO. 17

  18. Research Techniques in Wave Propagation and Scattering. Program and Abstracts of Workshop/Symposium held at the Ohio State University on 18-21 October 1982. (United States)


    Colorado Boulder, CO 80309 F.J. Sabina Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas 04510 Mexico, D.F. Diffraction of elastic...EXPANSIONS APPLIED TO -. DIFFRACTION OF ELASTIC WAVES S.K. Vatta, Univeu,,a o6 Colouado F.J. Sabina, In6titto de Inve.tigacione. en Matematica ., Mexico 10:20

  19. Limits of Freedom: The Ward Churchill Case (United States)

    O'Nell, Robert M.


    The University of Colorado's Ward Churchill is but the latest in a long line of professors whose volatile statements have created controversy for themselves and their universities. Specific personnel matters in the case have been meticulously addressed in Boulder, but several larger questions have been curiously neglected. One might well ask, for…

  20. 33 CFR 110.127 - Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona. (United States)


    ... points, excluding a 50-foot-wide fairway, extending easterly from the launching ramp, as established by... connecting the following points, excluding a 200-foot-wide fairway, extending easterly from the launching..., extending easterly from the launching ramp at Boulder Beach and a 600-foot-wide fairway,...

  1. Conducting the Softer Side of Counterinsurgency (United States)


    14 Chalmers Johnson, Revolutionary Change (Stanford: Standford University Press, 1982) 55. 7 incompetent, weak...Peacebuilding: A Field Guide (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publisher, 2001). 24 and Procedures (TTPs), and personal experiences . The Center for Army Lessons...difficulties of conducting “war at the graduate level”55. From my own experience as a company commander in Iraq, as well as other officers’ articles

  2. Meeting report : fungal its workshop (october 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bates, Scott T; Ahrendt, Steven; Bik, Holly M; Bruns, Thomas D; Caporaso, J Gregory; Cole, James; Dwan, Michael; Fierer, Noah; Gu, Dai; Houston, Shawn; Knight, Rob; Leff, Jon; Lewis, Christopher; Maestre, Juan P; McDonald, Daniel; Nilsson, R Henrik; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Robert, Vincent; Schoch, Conrad; Scott, James; Taylor, D Lee; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Stajich, Jason E


    This report summarizes a meeting held in Boulder, CO USA (19-20 October 2012) on fungal community analyses using ultra-high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The meeting was organized as a two-day workshop, with the prima

  3. A New Approach to Learning Disability Programs in Post-Secondary Education. (United States)

    Fischer, Laura Stavisky; Page, Homer

    The report describes a program directed toward the full integration of students with learning disabilities (LD) into the regular academic program of the University of Colorado at Boulder. The program features a diagnostic prescriptive model in which results of formal and informal testing are shared with students to help them develop an…

  4. Can the Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force be Used Successfully as an Instrument of Nation Building in Trinidad and Tobago (United States)


    Penang and Melaka as a single crown colony and Singapore, because of its strategic importance, as a separate crown colony.Ř ’ The Malay rulers were...Development, edited by Howard J. Wiarda and Harvey F. Kline. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, Inc., 1990. PERIODICALS, ARTICLES AND JOURNALS Central Intelligence

  5. Facies characteristics of the basal part of the Talchir Formation, Talchir Basin, India – depositional history revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prabir Dasgupta; Rishiraj Sahoo


    The lowest unit of the Talchir Formation of Talchir Basin, Orissa, was described by pioneer workers as the 'basal oulder bed'. In an attempt to explain the co-existence of gravel and clay, materials of contrasting hydraulic properties, a probable situation resembling the effects of the action of ground-ice enabled boulders to be carried down by sluggish currents resulting in an intermixture of large boulders and fine mud was conceived. Misinterpretation of this conclusion led to a general tendency to describe the 'basal boulder bed' as 'glacial tillite'. However, the unit described as 'basal boulder bed is actually represented by a matrix rich conglomerate with pockets of normally graded silty clay. The present study reveals that the depositional imprints preserved in this part of the sedimentary succession indicate emplacement of successive debris flows generated through remobilization of pre-existing unconsolidated sediments. Small pockets of fine-grained turbidites presumably deposited from the entrained turbidity currents associated with the debris flows suggest the composite character of the debris flow deposit.

  6. Displaced Islamic Identities: Language, Time and Space in Post 9/11 America (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Susanne


    This dissertation examines how women in the Muslim Student Association (MSA) at the University of Colorado at Boulder respond to the negative stereotypes of Islam and Muslims that have proliferated since 9/11. The media's positioning of Muslim women as "backwards" and "un-American" compels MSA women to construct an…

  7. Maximizing the Stability of an Ensemble of Clocks (United States)


    of tests created by Marsaglia [28] are applied to a 24MB file containing uniform random numbers generated in matlab. The steps to test the generator...Symposium., Boulder, CO, 1982. [28] G. Marsaglia , “Diehard battery of tests of randomness, The Marsaglia random number CDROM”, Department of

  8. Media, Think Tanks, and Educational Research (United States)

    Yettick, Holly


    The Bunkum Awards are a sort of beauty contest for ugly people. Bestowed by the National Education Policy Center housed at the University of Colorado at Boulder, they reward the most "nonsensical, confusing, and disingenuous" studies of education published each year. Contestants are drawn from reports critiqued by the Think Tank Review Project, a…

  9. 78 FR 43901 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations (United States)


    ... 010125 04-8094P). David Miller, 9th Street, www.bakeraecom.c Mayor, City of Southeast, om/index.php... Street, om/index.php/ Thornton, 9500 Thornton, CO colorado/adams/. Civic Center 80241. Drive, Thornton.../index.php/ 0273P). County Board of 13th Street, colorado/boulder/ Commissioners, Suite 203, . P.O....

  10. 2014 CESM Tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Marika


    The 2014 annual tutorial for the Community Earth System Model (CESM) was held on August 11-August 15, 2014 at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, CO. It included lectures and practical sessions on numerous aspects of the CESM model. The proceedings submitted here include a description of the tutorial.

  11. Defining the worst case scenario for the Makran Subduction Zone: the 1008 AD tsunami (United States)

    Hoffmann, Goesta


    The Makran Subduction Zone is located within the Arabian Sea (Northern Indian Ocean) and marks the boundary between the Arabian and the Eurasian plate. The sinistral strike-slip Sonne fault separates the subduction zone in an eastern and western segment. The convergence rate is about 40 mm/yr and slightly faster in the east than in the west. The seismicity is low in general and the few documented seismic events are concentrated in the eastern segment. No seismic activity is known from the western segment in historic times. The hazard potential is enigmatic as the only documented and recorded tsunamigenic earthquake (MW 8.1) within the subduction zone occurred in Nov 1945. However, thermal modelling suggests a wide potential seismogenic zone, apparently capable of generating very significant (>MW 8.5) tsunamigenic earthquakes. Furthermore, submarine slumping is another tsunami trigger which has to be taken into account. We used the modelling results as a hypothesis and mapped extreme wave event deposits along the coastline of Oman, bordering the Arabian Sea. We were able to document extensive boulder fields along rocky parts of the coastline. These boulders are decorated with marine sessile organism such as e.g oysters or barnacles testifying for an intertidal setting of the boulder prior to dislocation. The organism remains were used for radiocarbon dating assuming that the death of the organism was related to the relocation of the boulder. Storm-induced boulder movement is possible as the coastline is subject to infrequent tropical cyclone impact. However, boulder movement was not observed during the strongest storm on record in 2007. The dating exercise revealed a cluster of dates around 1000 AD, coinciding with a potential earthquake event known from a historic Persian text dating to the year 1008 AD. Archaeological evidence, mainly pottery artefacts found along the sea shore near the capital area Muscat/Oman also indicate a catastrophic event which may be

  12. Geosites of Lithuania as an environment for dwelling of specific biota: geo- and biodiversity interactions (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga; Jukoniene, Ilona; Prigodina Lukosiene, Ingrida


    Surface of Lithuania and surrounding countries is sculptured by five glaciations, which left behind morainic tills and melt water deposits, modified by erosion and later used for agriculture or overgrown by wild meadows or forests. The glaciations also left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields that are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and surrounding countries. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Though sparse, but of high scientific value, Devonian, Permian, Triassic and Jurassic outcrops and quarries of Lithuania are variably protected. Quaternary scientists attempted to use single erratic boulders, their fields and abundances in tills to imply glacier dynamics. Some erratics came from known localities in Scandinavia and are called indicator boulders because they show the source and directions of ice sheet movements. Huge single boulders (e.g. 7 m long and 6 m high Puntukas, Anyksciai Regional Park) and wild boulder fields are natural monuments and attractive sites for visitors. Outcrops and quarries of Devonian dolomites and gypsium, Permian limestones and Jurassic sandstones widely used for a scientific research are parts of the protected geo-diversity in the Venta and Birzai regional parks, N and NW Lithuania. On the other hand, a large part of the c. 700 species of lichenized and allied fungi and of c. 500 bryophytes known in Lithuania are confined to natural or semi-natural (quarries) rocky habitats. Eight rock-dwelling lichen and nine bryophyte species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them are known from 1-2 localities or are thought to be extinct now. Besides, the recent investigations of dolomite quarries revealed them to be habitats for 7 bryophyte, 8 lichenized and lichenicolous species, previously unknown for Lithuania. One new lichenicolous species was discovered (Khodosovtsev et al., 2012). Some of the newfinds are rare or absent

  13. Geologic evidence for a tsunami source along the trench northeast of Puerto Rico (United States)

    Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Feuillet, N.; Fuentes, Z.; Robert, H.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.; jennifer, W.


    Coral boulders of medieval age at Anegada, British Virgin Islands, calibrated to local geologic effects of far-field tsunamis and hurricanes, provide tangible evidence for the generation of a tsunami by faulting along the eastern Puerto Rico Trench. SETTING: Anegada is 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench and 200 km east-northeast of San Juan. It is fringed on the north and east by a coral reef 100-1200 m offshore; founded on Pleistocene carbonate with a cemented cap; rimmed on much of its perimeter by sandy Holocene beach ridges; and bermed with coral-rubble on a rocky stretch of its north shore. CORAL BOULDERS: Scores of coral heads up to 2 m in diameter were moved across the north shore in medieval time. Some crossed the line of the modern storm berm, continued over a limestone rise 4 m above sea level, and came to rest on lower ground hundreds of meters farther south. Others traversed beach ridges, and two of these boulders are now 1.5 km from the fringing reef. Most of the boulders are Diploria strigosa, an endemic of reef flanks. Some retain enough of their originally rounded, dimpled shape to have been deposited live. The likely time of emplacement of freshly dislodged, still-living heads is AD 1200-1450. This range is based on radiocarbon dating of outer growth bands of 18 heads from 5 separate areas. The youngest of the ages is 890±25 14C yr BP, and the ΔR assumed is 0 to -200 14C yr. CALIBRATION TO A FAR-FIELD TSUNAMI: Deposits dated to 1650-1800 at Anegada represent either the largest known far-field tsunami in the Caribbean (1755 Lisbon) or some other tsunami or unusual storm that surpassed the Lisbon tsunami in its local geologic effects. The water cut or freshened breaches in north-shore beach ridges and poured into a marine pond, where it moved limestone boulders and laid down a sheet of sand and shell that extends as much as 1.5 km inland [refs 1-4]. Many of the limestone boulders were probably inherited from the higher, earlier overwash that

  14. Rockfall-induced impact force causing a debris flow on a volcanoclastic soil slope: a case study in southern Italy (United States)

    Budetta, P.


    On 10 January 2003, a rockfall of approximately 10 m3 affected a cliff some 25 m high located along the northern slopes of Mt. St. Angelo (Nocera Inferiore, province of Salerno) in the southern Italian region of Campania. The impact of boulders on the lower sector of the slope, along which detrital-pyroclastic soils outcrop, triggered a small channelled debris flow of about 500 m3. Fortunately, no damage nor victims resulted from the landslide. Several marks of the impacts were observed at the cliff toe and outside the collapsed area, and the volumes of some fallen boulders were subsequently measured. By means of in-situ surveys, it was possible to reconstruct the cliff's geo-structural layout in detail. A rockfall back-analysis was subsequently performed along seven critical profiles of the entire slope (surface area of about 4000 m2). The results of this numerical modelling using the lumped-mass method were then used to map the kinetic iso-energy curves. In the triggering area of the debris flow, for a falling boulder of 1 m3, the mean kinetic energy was estimated at 120 kJ, this value being equivalent to an impact force, on an inclined surface, of some 800 kN. After landing, due to the locally high slope gradient (about 45°), and low angle of trajectory at impact (about 23°), some boulders slid down the slope as far as the endpoints. The maximum depth of penetration into the ground by a sliding block was estimated at about 16 cm. Very likely, owing to the high impact force of boulders on the saturated soil slope outcropping at the cliff base, the debris flow was triggered under undrained loading conditions. Initial failure was characterized by a translational slide involving a limited, almost elliptical area where the pyroclastic cover shows greater thickness in comparison with the surrounding areas.

  15. Modeling of U-series Radionuclide Transport Through Soil at Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico (United States)

    Pekar, K. E.; Goodell, P. C.; Walton, J. C.; Anthony, E. Y.; Ren, M.


    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located at Pena Blanca in Chihuahua, Mexico. Mining of high-grade uranium ore occurred in the early 1980s, with the ore stockpiled nearby. The stockpile was mostly cleared in the 1990s; however, some of the high-grade boulders have remained there, creating localized sources of radioactivity for a period of 25-30 years. This provides a unique opportunity to study radionuclide transport, because the study area did not have any uranium contamination predating the stockpile in the 1980s. One high-grade boulder was selected for study based upon its shape, location, and high activity. The presumed drip-line off of the boulder was marked, samples from the boulder surface were taken, and then the boulder was moved several feet away. Soil samples were taken from directly beneath the boulder, around the drip-line, and down slope. Eight of these samples were collected in a vertical profile directly beneath the boulder. Visible flakes of boulder material were removed from the surficial soil samples, because they would have higher concentrations of U-series radionuclides and cause the activities in the soil samples to be excessively high. The vertical sampling profile used 2-inch thicknesses for each sample. The soil samples were packaged into thin plastic containers to minimize the attenuation and to standardize sample geometry, and then they were analyzed by gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Ge(Li) detector for Th-234, Pa-234, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pb-210. The raw counts were corrected for self-attenuation and normalized using BL-5, a uranium standard from Beaverlodge, Saskatchewan. BL-5 allowed the counts obtained on the Ge(Li) to be referenced to a known concentration or activity, which was then applied to the soil unknowns for a reliable calculation of their concentrations. Gamma ray spectra of five soil samples from the vertical profile exhibit decreasing activities with increasing depth for the selected radionuclides

  16. Spatial Mapping of NEO 2008 EV5 Using Small Satellite Formation Flying and Steresoscopic Technology (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan; Singh Derewa, Chrishma


    NASA is currently developing the first-ever robotic Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) to the near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 with the objective to capture a multi-ton boulder from the asteroids surface and use its mass to redirect its parent into a CIS lunar orbit where astronauts will study its physical and chemical composition.A critical step towards achieving this mission is to effectively map the target asteroid, identify the candidate boulder for retrieval and characterize its critical parameters. Currently, ARRM utilizes a laser altimeter to characterize the height of the boulders and mapping for final autonomous control of the capture. The proposed Lava-Kusha mission provides the increased of stereoscopic imaging and mapping, not only the Earthward side of the asteroid which has been observed for possible landing sites, but mapping the whole asteroid. LKM will enhance the fidelity of the data collected by the laser altimeter and gather improved topographic data for future Orion missions to 2008 EV5 once in cis lunar space.LKM consists of two low cost small satellites (6U) as a part of the ARRM. They will launch with ARRM as an integrated part of the system. Once at the target, this formation of pathfinder satellites will image the mission critical boulder to ensure the system design can support its removal. LKM will conduct a series of flybys prior to ARRM's rendezvous. LKMs stereoscopic cameras will provide detailed surveys of the boulder's terrain and environment to ensure ARRM can operate safely, reach the location and interface with the boulder. The LKM attitude control and cold gas propulsion system will enable formation maintenance maneuvers for global mapping of asteroid 2008 EV5 at an altitude of 100 km to a high-spatial resolution imaging altitude of 5 km.LKM will demonstrate formation flying in deep space and the reliability of stereoscopic cameras to precisely identify a specific target and provide physical characterization of an asteroid. An

  17. A City for All Citizens: Integrating Children and Youth from Marginalized Populations into City Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Van Vliet


    Full Text Available Socially just, intergenerational urban spaces should not only accommodate children and adolescents, but engage them as participants in the planning and design of welcoming spaces. With this goal, city agencies in Boulder, Colorado, the Boulder Valley School District, the Children, Youth and Environments Center at the University of Colorado, and a number of community organizations have been working in partnership to integrate young people’s ideas and concerns into the redesign of parks and civic areas and the identification of issues for city planning. Underlying their work is a commitment to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and children’s rights to active citizenship from a young age. This paper describes approaches used to engage with young people and methods of participation, and reflects on lessons learned about how to most effectively involve youth from underrepresented populations and embed diverse youth voices into the culture of city planning.

  18. Age of overwash and rate of relative sea-level rise inferred from detrital heads and microatolls of medieval corals at Anegada, British Virgin Islands (United States)

    Jennifer, W.; Feuillet, N.; Robert, H.; Brian, A.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Deschamps, P.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.; Fuentes, Z.


    Coral boulders deposited on Anegada, an island 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench, record overwash dated to AD 1200-1450 and relative sea-level changes that preceded it. Composed largely of Pleistocene limestone, Anegada is less than 8 m above sea level and is fringed on the north and east by a coral reef where Atlantic Ocean waves break. The lowest parts of the island were washed over from the north in AD 1650-1800, as judged from landforms and deposits reported previously (doi:10.1007/s11069-010-9622-6). The coral boulders indicate overwash of higher elevation and earlier age. The boulders were apparently torn from the adjacent reef by a tsunami of nearby origin, as inferred in companion abstracts on geology and modeling. We found the corals scattered in five areas inland from the north shore. Two of the areas show solitary coral heads 1500 m from the reef. The boulders are more numerous in the three other areas, where they are up to 500-700 m from the reef and up to 4 m above sea level. Some were transported over beach ridges or through breaches cut into them. Others are hundreds of meters inland from a modern storm berm. Most rest on the Pleistocene limestone. Many are overturned. Most are broken but few are whole. The largest measured diameter is 2 m and the greatest measured height is 1 m. Most of the boulders are of the brain coral Diploria strigosa, but smaller Porites asteroides and Montastrea annularis are also present. Some of the D. strigosa retain the rounded shape typical of living heads and are dimpled with holes perhaps left by feather-duster worms. The preservation of these features suggests that many of the boulders came ashore alive. We avoided dating a head that shows field evidence for death before transport; an erosional surface cuts across its youngest growth bands and is covered with the remains of encrusting marine organisms. Among the 18 coral boulders dated, 13 form a young group with ages in the range 890±25 to 1020±25 14C yr BP

  19. The deep accumulation of 10Be at Utsira, southwestern Norway: Implications for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating in peripheral ice sheet landscapes (United States)

    Briner, Jason P.; Goehring, Brent M.; Mangerud, Jan; Svendsen, John Inge


    Cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating is a widely used method for constraining past ice sheet histories. We scrutinize a recently published data set of cosmogenic 10Be data from erratic boulders in Norway used to constrain the deglaciation of the western Scandinavian Ice Sheet to 20 ka. Our model of the 10Be inventory in glacial surfaces leads us to conclude that the chronology may be afflicted by the deep subsurface accumulation of 10Be during long-lasting ice-free periods that resulted in 10Be ages >10% too old. We suggest that the majority of the dated erratic boulders contain a uniform level of inherited muon-produced 10Be and were derived from bedrock depths >2.5 m and most likely ~4 m. The implication of our finding is that for landscapes that experience long ice-free periods between brief maximum glacial phases, glacial erosion of >5 m is required to remove detectable traces of inherited 10Be.

  20. 3rd Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Louie, Berverly; McCarthy, Sandy


    Cryocoolers 3 documents the output of the Third Cryocooler Conference, held at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado, on September 17-18, 1984. About 140 people from 10 countries attended the conference representing industry, government, and academia. A total of 26 papers were presented orally at the conference and all appear in written form in the proceedings. The focus of this conference was on small cryocoolers in the temperature range of 4 - 80 K. Mechanical and nonmechanical types are discussed in the various papers. Applications of these small cryocoolers include the cooling of infrared detectors, cryopumps, small superconducting devices and magnets, and electronic devices. The conference proceedings reproduced here was published by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado as NBS Special Publication #698.

  1. Spatio-temporal distribution patterns of the invasive macroalga Sargassum muticum within a Danish Sargassum-bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M. S.; Wernberg, T.; Stæhr, P. A.;


    in macroalgal abundance and assemblage structure were observed in this depth interval; the mean cover of Sargassum varied from ca. 5% (autumn and winter) to 25% (mid-summer). In comparison, encrusting algae had high and relatively stable covers throughout the year (ca. 20%). Other perennial macroalgae had low...... mean covers (spring bloom, filamentous algae had low covers throughout the year. Within this relatively uniform bed, Sargassum abundance was positively related to boulders >10 cm in diameter and species richness was negatively...... and sediment stress limits Sargasum in shallow waters, and the presence of stable boulder substratum facilitate Sargassum. Competition for space from other macroalgae and herbivory are probably of minor importance....

  2. Early lunar magnetism (United States)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.


    A new method (Shaw, 1974) for investigating paleointensity (the ancient magnetic field) was applied to three subsamples of a single, 1-m homogeneous clast from a recrystallized boulder of lunar breccia. Several dating methods established 4 billion years as the age of boulder assembly. Results indicate that the strength of the ambient magnetic field at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon was about 0.4 oersted at 4 billion years ago. Values as high as 1.2 oersted have been reported (Collison et al., 1973). The required fields are approximately 10,000 times greater than present interplanetary or solar flare fields. It is suggested that this large field could have arisen from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri sun.

  3. Bottom currents and shelf sediments, southwest of Britain (United States)

    Hamilton, D.; Sommerville, J. H.; Stanford, P. N.


    The shelf sediments southwest of Britain range from large boulders to muddy fine sands. The large boulders, which occur in patches, were probably dropped from icebergs. A reworked basal bed forms an extensive pavement over which well to very well sorted medium to fine sands are transported, whilst muddy sediments occur between sandbanks. Measurements of boundary layer currents show that the threshold friction velocities for the sands are exceeded by maximum tidal flows over most of the area. Repeated selective entrainment by tidal currents, in a virtually closed sediment system, is proposed as the mechanism for the formation of these very well sorted mobile sands, which have a mean size close to that of the most easily entrained grains and size frequency distributions approaching log-normality.

  4. Special Education Students Improve Academic Performance through Problem-Based Learning and Technology (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Kintsch, A.


    Boulder High School Special Education students work in teams on donated wireless computers to solve problems created by global climate change. Their text is Richard Somerville's The Forgiving Air. They utilize Wheeling Jesuit University's remote sensing web site and private computer bulletin board. Their central source for problem-based learning (PBL) is, NASA's Classroom of the Future Global Change web site. As a result, students not only improve their abilities to write, read, do math and research, speak, and work as team members, they also improve self-esteem, resilience, and willingness to take more challenging classes. Two special education students passed AP exams, Calculus and U.S. Government, last spring and Jay Matthews of Newsweek rates Boulder High as 201st of the nation's top 1000 high schools.

  5. Shortwave Hyperspectral Observations During MAGIC Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, P. J. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States); Marshak, A. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States); Yang, W. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States)


    The Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign was initiated to improve our understanding of low-level marine clouds that have a significant influence on the Earth’s climate. The campaign was conducted using an ARM mobile facility deployed on a commercial ship traveling between Honolulu, Hawaii, and Los Angeles, California, from October 2012 to September 2013. The solar spectral flux radiometer (SSFR) was deployed on July 6, 2013, through the end of the campaign. The SSFR was calibrated and installed by Warren Gore of NASA Ames Research Center, and the data is and will be analyzed by Drs. Alexander Marshak and Weidong Yang of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Dr. Samuel LeBlanc of NASA Ames Research Center, Dr. Sebastian Schmidt of the University of Colorado-Boulder, and Dr. Patrick McBride of Atmospheric & Space Technology Research Associates in Boulder, Colorado.

  6. Gravitational slopes, geomorphology, and material strengths of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from OSIRIS observations

    CERN Document Server

    Groussin, O; Auger, A -T; Kührt, E; Gaskell, R; Capanna, C; Scholten, F; Preusker, F; Lamy, P; Hviid, S; Knollenberg, J; Keller, U; Huettig, C; Sierks, H; Barbieri, C; Rodrigo, R; Koschny, D; Rickman, H; Hearn, M F A; Agarwal, J; Barucci, M A; Bertaux, J -L; Bertini, I; Boudreault, S; Cremonese, G; Da Deppo, V; Davidsson, B; Debei, S; De Cecco, M; El-Maarry, M R; Fornasier, S; Fulle, M; Gutiérrez, P J; Güttler, C; Ip, W -H; Kramm, J -R; Küppers, M; Lazzarin, M; Lara, L M; Moreno, J J Lopez; Marchi, S; Marzari, F; Massironi, M; Michalik, H; Naletto, G; Oklay, N; Pommerol, A; Pajola, M; Thomas, N; Toth, I; Tubiana, C; Vincent, J -B


    We study the link between gravitational slopes and the surface morphology on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and provide constraints on the mechanical properties of the cometary material. We computed the gravitational slopes for five regions on the nucleus that are representative of the different morphologies observed on the surface, using two shape models computed from OSIRIS images by the stereo-photoclinometry (SPC) and stereo-photogrammetry (SPG) techniques. We estimated the tensile, shear, and compressive strengths using different surface morphologies and mechanical considerations. The different regions show a similar general pattern in terms of the relation between gravitational slopes and terrain morphology: i) low-slope terrains (0-20 deg) are covered by a fine material and contain a few large ($>$10 m) and isolated boulders, ii) intermediate-slope terrains (20-45 deg) are mainly fallen consolidated materials and debris fields, with numerous intermediate-size boulders from $<$1 m to ...

  7. The Process of Transforming an Advanced Lab Course: Goals, Curriculum, and Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Zwickl, Benjamin M; Lewandowski, H J


    A thoughtful approach to designing and improving labs, particularly at the advanced level, is critical for the effective preparation of physics majors for professional work in industry or graduate school. With that in mind, physics education researchers in partnership with the physics faculty at the University of Colorado Boulder have overhauled the senior-level Advanced Physics Lab course. The transformation followed a three part process of establishing learning goals, designing curricula that align with the goals, and assessment. Similar efforts have been carried out in physics lecture courses at the University of Colorado Boulder, but this is the first systematic research-based revision of one of our laboratory courses. The outcomes of this effort include a set of learning goals, a suite of new lab-skill activities and transformed optics labs, and a set of assessments specifically tailored for a laboratory environment. While the particular selection of advanced lab experiments varies widely between institu...

  8. Fractal Structure of Debris Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; LIU Jingjing; HU Kaiheng; CHEN Xiaoqing


    One of the most remarkable characteristics of debris flow is the competence for supporting boulders on the surface of flow, which strongly suggests that there should be some structure in the fluid body. This paper analyzed the grain compositions from various samples of debris flows and then revealed the fractal structure. Specifically, the fractality holds in three domains that can be respectively identified as the slurry, matrix, and the coarse content. Furthermore, the matrix fractal, which distinguishes debris flow from other kinds of flows, involves a hierarchical structure in the sense that it might contain ever increasing grains while the total range of grain size increases. It provides a possible mechanism for the boulder suspension.

  9. Conference on Refrigeration for Cryogenic Sensors and Electronic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, D B; McCarthy, S E; Cryogenic Refrigeration Conference; International Cryocooler Conference; Cryocoolers 1


    This proceedings documents the output of a meeting of refrigeration specialists held at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, CO, on October 6 and 7, 1980. Building on an earlier invitation-only meeting in 1977, the purpose of this first open meeting was to discuss progress in the development of refrigeration systems to cool cryogenic sensors and electronic systems in the temperature range below 20 K and with required cooling capacities below 10 W. The meeting was jointly sponsored by the International Institute of Refrigeration - Commission A1/2, the Office of Naval Research, the Naval Research Laboratory, the Cryogenic Engineering Conference, and the National Bureau of Standards. This first open cryocooler conference consisted of 23 papers presented by representatives of industry, government, and academia. The conference proceedings reproduced here was published by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado as NBS Special Publication #607. Subsequent meetings would become known as the Intern...

  10. Assessing Learning Outcomes in Middle-Division Classical Mechanics: The Colorado Classical Mechanics/Math Methods Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, Marcos D; Turnbull, Anna M; Pepper, Rachel E; Pollock, Steven J


    Reliable and validated assessments of introductory physics have been instrumental in driving curricular and pedagogical reforms that lead to improved student learning. As part of an effort to systematically improve our sophomore-level Classical Mechanics and Math Methods course (CM 1) at CU Boulder, we have developed a tool to assess student learning of CM 1 concepts in the upper-division. The Colorado Classical Mechanics/Math Methods Instrument (CCMI) builds on faculty consensus learning goals and systematic observations of student difficulties. The result is a 9-question open-ended post-test that probes student learning in the first half of a two-semester classical mechanics / math methods sequence. In this paper, we describe the design and development of this instrument, its validation, and measurements made in classes at CU Boulder and elsewhere.

  11. Digital Collections Are a Sprint, Not a Marathon: Adapting Scrum Project Management Techniques to Library Digital Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dulock


    Full Text Available This article describes a case study in which a small team from the digital initiatives group and metadata services department at the University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder Libraries conducted a pilot of the Scrum project management framework. The pilot team organized digital initiatives work into short, fixed intervals called sprints—a key component of Scrum. Over a year of working in the modified framework yielded significant improvements to digital collection work, including increased production of digital objects and surrogate records, accelerated publication of digital collections, and an increase in the number of concurrent projects. Adoption of sprints has improved communication and cooperation among participants, reinforced teamwork, and enhanced their ability to adapt to shifting priorities.

  12. Application of terrestrial laser scanning for coastal geomorphologic research questions in western Greece (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Curdt, Constanze; Tilly, Nora; Ntageretzis, Konstantin; Aasen, Helge; Vött, Andreas; Bareth, Georg


    Coasts are areas of permanent change, influenced by gradual changes and sudden impacts. In particular, western Greece is a tectonically active region, due to the nearby plate boundary of the Hellenic Arc. The region has suffered from numerous earthquakes and tsunamis during prehistoric and historic times and is thus characterized by a high seismic and tsunami hazard risk. Additionally, strong winter storms may reach considerable dimensions. In this study, terrestrial laser scanning was applied for (i) annual change detection at seven coastal areas of western Greece for three years (2009-2011) and (ii) accurate parameter detection of large boulders, dislocated by high-energy wave impacts. The Riegl LMS-Z420i laser scanner was used in combination with a precise DGPS system (Topcon HiPer Pro) for all surveys. Each scan position and a further target were recorded for georeferencing and merging of the point clouds. (i) For the annual detection of changes, reference points for the base station of the DGPS system were marked. High-resolution digital elevation models (HRDEM) were generated from each dataset of the different years and are compared to each other, resulting in mass balances. (ii) 3D-models of dislocated boulders were reconstructed and parameters (e.g. volume in combination with density measurements, distance and height above present sea-level) were derived for the solution of wave transport equations, which estimate the minimum wave height or velocity that is necessary for boulder movement. (i) Our results show that annual changes are detectable by multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning. In general, volumetric changes and affected areas are quantifiable and maps of changes can be established. On exposed beach areas, bigger changes were detectable, where seagrass and sand is eroded and gravel accumulated. In opposite, only minor changes for elevated areas are derived. Dislocated boulders on several sites showed no movement. At coastal areas with a high

  13. Stability and scour development of bed material on crossbar block ramps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario OerteLa; DanieLB Bung


    Block ramps are ecologically oriented drop structures with adequate energy dissipation and partially moderate flow velocities. A special case is given with crossbar block ramps, where the upstream and downstream level difference is reduced by a series of basins. To prevent the total structure from failing, the stability of single boulders within the crossbars and the bed material in between must be guaranteed. The present paper addresses the stability of bed material and scour development for various flow regimes. Any bed material erosion may affect the stability of the crossbar boulders, which in turn can result in major damages of the ramp. Therefore new design approaches are developed to choose an appropriate bed material size and to avoid failures of crossbar block ramp structures.

  14. Building, using, and maximizing the impact of concept inventories in the biological sciences: report on a National Science Foundation sponsored conference on the construction of concept inventories in the biological sciences. (United States)

    Garvin-Doxas, Kathy; Klymkowsky, Michael; Elrod, Susan


    The meeting "Conceptual Assessment in the Biological Sciences" was held March 3-4, 2007, in Boulder, Colorado. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation and hosted by University of Colorado, Boulder's Biology Concept Inventory Team, the meeting drew together 21 participants from 13 institutions, all of whom had received National Science Foundation funding for biology education. Topics of interest included Introductory Biology, Genetics, Evolution, Ecology, and the Nature of Science. The goal of the meeting was to organize and leverage current efforts to develop concept inventories for each of these topics. These diagnostic tools are inspired by the success of the Force Concept Inventory, developed by the community of physics educators to identify student misconceptions about Newtonian mechanics. By working together, participants hope to lessen the risk that groups might develop competing rather than complementary inventories.

  15. First observations in a high rocky-shore community after the Erika oil spill (December 1999, Brittany, France). (United States)

    Le Hir, Maryvonne; Hily, Christian


    The high mediolittoral rocky-shore community on the island of Groix (Brittany, France), was studied for the year immediately following the Erika oil spill (12/12/1999). The macrofaunal assemblages of three habitats (exposed bedrock, crevices, boulders) under three situations (non-impacted, impacted and not washed, impacted and washed) were monitored monthly. The assemblage of each habitat showed specific responses to the impacts and initiated various patterns of succession: the bed rock assemblage changed in terms of abundance but no species-richness variations occurred; in the crevices richness variations occurred both in the disappearance of some species and the immigration of opportunistic ones; the boulder assemblage lost many species and remained unstructured one year after the oil spill. These first results of this most recent oil spill in Europe, raised the question of the relative importance of habitat-species and species interactions on the community structure.

  16. Tunguska cosmic body of 1908: is it from planet Mars?

    CERN Document Server

    Anfinogenov, John; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Anfinogenova, Yana


    The aim of the study was to discover remnants of the 1908 Tunguska meteorite. Main objective of the field studies was identification of exotic rocks, furrows, and penetration funnels reported by the first eyewitnesses, residents of the area with severe forest destruction. Main methods included decoding of aerial survey photographs, systematic survey of the epicenter area of the Tunguska explosion, exploratory excavations of the objects of interest, reconstruction studies of exotic boulder by using its splinters, mineralogical and spectral analysis of specimens, experimental attempt of plasma-induced reproduction of the fusion crust on specimen. The authors present results on discovery of penetration funnel-like structures; exotic boulder (known as John's Stone)) with its shear-fractured splinters and fresh furrow in the permafrost; several splinters with glassy coatings; evidence of high-speed John's Stone deceleration in the permafrost; and clear consistency in geometry of spacial arrangements of all splinte...

  17. Assessing Student Learning in Middle-Division Classical Mechanics/Math Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, Marcos D


    Reliable and validated assessments of introductory physics have been instrumental in driving curricular and pedagogical reforms that lead to improved student learning. As part of an effort to systematically improve our sophomore-level Classical Mechanics and Math Methods course (CM 1) at CU Boulder, we are developing a tool to assess student learning of CM 1 concepts in the upper-division. The Colorado Classical Mechanics/Math Methods Instrument (CCMI) builds on faculty-consensus learning goals and systematic observations of student difficulties. The result is a 9-question open-ended post-test that probes student learning in the first half of a two-semester classical mechanics / math methods sequence. In this paper, we describe the design and development of this instrument, its validation, and measurements made in classes at CU Boulder.

  18. Proceedings: USA-CERL Technology Transfer (T2) Workshop Held in Urbana, Illinois on December 15-16 1986. (United States)


    forth in Army Regulation (AR) 70-57 and the Stevenson -Wydler Act of 1980. Publication of these proceedings was an initiative of the USA-CERL Commander and...Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1979. U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Committee on Science and Technology, Stevenson -Wydler Technology...Composting latrines are large chambers in which wastes and organic bulking agents are "’’ i placed for biological and physical breakdown into humus -like

  19. The Al-Hiraak Movement in Yemen: A Study of the Implications of Federalization on a Secession Movement (United States)


    REPORT DATE (DD- MM -YYYY) 12-04-2014 2. REPORT TYPE SAMS Monograph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JAN 2014 – DEC 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a...16 Victoria Clark, Yemen: Dancing on the Heads of Snakes (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010), 141. 7...Boulder: Westview Press, 1991. Clark, Victoria. Yemen: Dancing on the Heads of Snakes. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010. Dahlgren, Susanne

  20. The Influence of Key International Actors (U.S.-E.U.) and Kemalists on Turkey’s Attitude Toward its Kurdish Minority (United States)


    October 12, 2007). 148 Noam Chomsky , forward to The Kurds in Turkey: EU Accession and Human Rights by Kerim Yildiz (London: Pluto Press, 2005), 21... Noam Chomsky has noted that, in the 1990s, there were only a few reports and some op-eds by representatives of international human rights...174 Noam Chomsky & Gilbert Achcar, Perilous Power: The Middle East and U.S. Foreign Policy (Boulder: Paradigm

  1. Experimental Program Final Technical Progress Report: 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Edward R. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO


    This is the final technical report of the grant DE-FG02-04ER41301 to the University of Colorado at Boulder entitled "Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics" and describes the results of our funded activities during the period 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012. These activities were primarily carried out at Fermilab, RHIC, and the German lab DESY. Significant advances in these experiments were carried out by members of the Colorado group and are described in detail.

  2. Verification and Validation of Rural Propagation in the Sage 2.0 Simulation (United States)


    of SLAD’s SLV mission are supported by S4: Electronic Warfare (including communications systems), Information Operations/Information Warfare, and...quick turnaround analyses of Electronic Warfare/Communications events during field tests. For the verified and validated usage described in this...Barsis A. Transmission loss predictions for tropospheric communication circuits. Boulder (CO): Dept of Commerce (US); 1965. Report No.: NBS Technical

  3. GaN Nanowire Functionalized with Atomic Layer Deposition Techniques for Enhanced Immobilization of Biomolecules (United States)


    Rourke,§ K. A. Bertness,§ S. M. George,‡ Y. C. Lee,†, ) and W. Tan*,†,^ †Department of Mechanical Engineering, and ‡Department of Chemistry and... Cardiology , University of Colorado at Denver, Aurora, Colorado Received August 20, 2010. Revised Manuscript Received September 27, 2010 We report the... Chemistry and Biochemistry,Boulder,CO,80309 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10

  4. Leveraging the Trinity: A Clausewitzian Framework for Genocide Prevention (United States)


    Destructiveness.” Journal of Social Issues 46, no. 1 (Spring1990 1990): 48-55. SocINDEX with Full Text, EBSCOhost (accessed 7 February 2014). 49Helen... EBSCOhost (accessed 31 March 2014). David A. Hamburg, Preventing Genocide: Practical Steps Toward Early Detection and Effective Action (Boulder, CO...Theory, and Extreme Destructiveness.” Journal Of Social Issues 46, no. 1 (Spring1990): 47-64. SocINDEX with Full Text, EBSCOhost (accessed 7 February

  5. Balance of Power in Central and Southwest Asia (United States)


    with the Beacon, 1961 [19391), 340. Turkic speaking peoples in those countries as well as Turkey. 2. Fernand Braudel , The Mediterranean and the...and Robert L. Canfield. Braudel , Fernand . The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean Boulder: Westview, 1989. World in the Age of Philip 11. Volume I. New...are means of overcoming the social we might understand the conditions that are giving barrier of distance. "Distance," said Braudel , "is the events

  6. Combat Policing: The Application of Selected Law Enforcement Techniques to Enhance Infantry Operations (United States)


    from the soda cans filled with plastic explosives he encountered in February 2004, during the early months of the insurgency. The IEDs of December...scratches on bullet fragments found by both Marines and surgeons , and iris scans obtained at checkpoints are all elements of intelligence data which can...Police in War: Fighting Insurgency, Terrorism and Violent Crime. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., 2010. Blaine, Barney B. “ Mexican Drug

  7. Virtual Machine Language Controls Remote Devices (United States)


    Kennedy Space Center worked with Blue Sun Enterprises, based in Boulder, Colorado, to enhance the company's virtual machine language (VML) to control the instruments on the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatiles Extraction mission. Now the NASA-improved VML is available for crewed and uncrewed spacecraft, and has potential applications on remote systems such as weather balloons, unmanned aerial vehicles, and submarines.

  8. Geologic setting of the apollo 14 samples (United States)

    Swann, G.A.; Trask, N.J.; Hait, M.H.; Sutton, R.L.


    The apollo 14 lunar module landed in a region of the lunar highlands that is part of a widespread blanket of ejecta surrounding the Mare Imbrium basin. Samples were collected from the regolith developed on a nearly level plain, a ridge 100 meters high, and a blacky ejecta deposit around a young crater. Large boulders in the vicinity of the landing site are coherent fragmental rocks as are some of the returned samples.

  9. Training Knowledge and Skills for the Networked Battlefield (United States)


    decompositions. 2. Important Results The task decomposition adopted for the MURI builds on taxonomies like the Roth (1992) taxonomy of abilities...Colorado, Boulder, Center for Research on Training. Roth , J. T. (1992). Reliability and validity assessment of a taxonomy for predicting relative...presented at the joint meeting of the Experimental Psychology Society and the Psychonomic Society, Edinburgh, Scotland . Fierman, D. M., & Healy, A. F

  10. 2015 Liquid Crystals Gordon Research Conference and Gordon Research Seminar (United States)


    sensor applications and (viii) lyotropic phases, including colloidal and chromonic systems. These topics will encompass low molecular David Walba (University of Colorado Boulder, USA) "Liquid Crystal- Based Organic Semiconductors" 8:40 pm - 8:50 pm Discussion 8:50 pm - 9:20 pm...Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal) "Joule-Heating Effect: A New Route to PDLCs Memory Removal" 9:55 am - 10

  11. Coral reef fish assemblages of coralline and granitic habitats of Curieuse Marine National Park


    Pittman, S.J.


    Curieuse Marine National Park encompasses a diverse range of shallow water marine and brackish habitats including coralline fringing reefs, granitic boulder reefs, deep patch reefs, algal flats, seagrass meadows, intertidal rocky shore, sandy beach and mangrove habitat. Many of these shallow water habitats support an abundance of varied marine life, which in turn supports a burgeoning interest from tourist divers and snorkellers. Curieuse Marine National Park includes Curieuse Island and t...

  12. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration (United States)


    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  13. Effect of an On-Sight Lead on the Physiological and Psychological Responses to Rock Climbing


    Nick Draper; Jones, Glenys A.; Simon Fryer; Chris Hodgson; Gavin Blackwell


    Rock climbing is a multi-discipline activity that encompasses forms such as bouldering, top roping and lead climbing on natural and artificial climbing surfaces. A major focus of research has been explanation of physiological functioning. More recent research indicates that anxiety levels are elevated for less experienced climbers and in response to lead climbing ascents. Research regarding the demands of rock climbing has placed a lesser focus on the interaction of psychological and physiolo...

  14. Restoration of a temperate reef: Effects on the fish community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Stenberg, Claus; Dahl, Karsten


    The extraction of large boulders from coastal reefs for construction of harbours and coastal protection has led to habitat degradation for local fish populations through the destruction of cavernous reefs and changes in macroalgal cover resulting from a loss of substrate. The temperate reef at Læsø....... The findings highlight the importance of reef habitats for fish communities and the need for their protection...

  15. The Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting (11th) Held at Tucson, Arizona on June 18-22, 1989: Abstracts (United States)


    ALLEVIATE DISUSE OSTEOPOROSIS IN NICE. S. J. Simske, H. Wachtel, M. Luttges, and L. Stodieck. Bioserve Space Technologies Center, University of Colorado...Boulder, CO 80309. Tail-suspended mice develop a form of disuse osteoporosis in their long bones similar to that studied extensively in tail...progress had not been made the patients were referred for physiotherapy . Each assessment included the recording of pain, range of movement, and a

  16. Are Carnivores Universally Good Sentinels of Plague?


    Brinkerhoff, R. Jory; Collinge, Sharon K.; Bai, Ying; Ray, Chris


    Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a flea-borne disease that primarily affects rodents but has been detected in over 200 mammal species worldwide. Mammalian carnivores are routinely surveyed as sentinels of local plague activity, since they can present antibodies to Y. pestis infection but show few clinical signs. In Boulder County, Colorado, USA, plague epizootic events are episodic and occur in black-tailed prairie dogs. Enzootic hosts are unidentified as are plagu...

  17. Supernumerary rainbows (United States)

    Sawicki, Mikolaj; Sawicki, Pawel


    Late in the afternoon of July 19, 1999, we were able to photograph some very unusual rainbows in the sky over Boulder, Colorado. The picture here shows a primary rainbow, a fainter secondary bow above it, and several pastel-shaded rainbows inside the primary one. While we think we counted as many as four concurrent rainbows in that afternoon, only three of them show up in developed prints.

  18. United States Air Force Academy Annual Research Report: July 2003 to June 2004 (United States)


    processing of visual images for weapons development; laser bioeffects, the study of cell damage resulting from exposure to lasers; and spatial...Center Director: Lt Col Tim Lawrence, ti mothy. lawrence~u usafa.aft ill I Website: wwwv .usafia.a f.imil/ dfats research/index.htm The Space Systems...and Dr. Tom Giddings (University or Colorado, Boulder) has been investigating changes in cellular lipids and lipid signaling in cells exposed to pulsed

  19. Modification of Current Feedback Strategies: A Text Synthesis Approach. (United States)


    f c o lorad I Technic Report No. 127 This research was aponsored byiwtut ot Cogniive Science The Air Force Office of Scienlbc Uriverulty of Cooado...SYNTHESIS APPROACH(UA COLORADO ANIA AT BOXLDEN INST OF COONITXE SCIENCE P LANGEB ET AL MAN 84 N6 SIID AORT-408 FS-304 / /0 N EA-1216 OIIATOh E CR E...ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK( UNIT NUMIERS Institute of Cognitive Science University of Colorado 61103F Boulder, CO 80309

  20. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium Annual Report for 1987. Volume 7. Part A. Time Oriented Problem Solving (United States)


    Medicine, ed. Peter Szolovits, AAAS Select Symposium 51, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. Peirce , Charles S. (1958) Collected Papers of Charles Sanders ...philosophy of science to look at explanation as the process of finding the best hypothesis which logically entails the thing to be explained [ Peirce 58].3...3Eventuafly Peirce abandoned the notion of abduction [Hacking 83]. 7A-D- 20 Charniak’s framework is much less "cautious" than our own. If several

  1. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado, Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R., ed.


    OAK-B135 The results and progress of research funded by DOE grant number DOE-FG03-95ER40913 at the University of Colorado at Boulder is described. Includes work performed at the HERMES experiment at DESY to study the quark structure of the nucleon and the hadronization process in nuclei, as well as hadronic reactions studied at LAMPF, KEK, and Fermilab.

  2. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Atmospheric Ozone: Its Variation and Human Influences, Aldeia das Acoteias, Algarve, Portugal, October 1-13, 1979, (United States)


    studies ( Piaget , 1971) or more directly measurements (Danielson and Mohnen, 1977) from airplanes have shown that strong intrusions predominantly occur n...Umkehr evaluation tech- nique, NCAR, Boulder, 1964. Piaget , A., Utilisation de l’ozone atmosph~rique comme traceur des 6changes entre la troposphere...due to ozone absorp- tion, J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 513-515, 1973. Louis, Jean -Francois, A two-dimensional transport model of the atmosphere, PhD thesis

  3. State Capacity and Resistance in Afghanistan (United States)


    22 See for example: Bhabani Sen Gupta, Afghanistan: Politics, Economics and Society. (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1986); Milan ...shura who oversaw the government’s administration and the local foot soldiers who implemented the Taliban’s harsh edicts to offer a form of local...extensive intelligence and patronage networks as a means of both keeping informed, but in also promulgating edicts that sought to direct the totality of

  4. The Strategic Implications of Culture: A Historical Analysis of China’s Culture and Implications for US Policy (United States)


    7. 5 Ibid. 6 Fairbank, China: A New History, 18. 7 Yosef Lapid and Friedrich Kratochwil, eds., The Return of Culture and Identity in International...Relations Theory (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1996), 30. 8 Latourette, 400. 9 Yosef Lapid and Friedrich Kratochwil, eds., The Return of...Johnston, Alastair. Cultural Realism: Strategic Culture and Grand Strategy in Chinese History. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995. Lapid

  5. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex National Database (United States)


    behavioral disorders, and cancer as these problems relate to individuals with TSC, as well as to the general population. A mechanism by which the above...DOB:_________ LI Clubbing of digits LI Other (list) PULMONAR Y LABS/STUDIES (Provide most current lab values for all that apply.-) Date of most...Present. Director, Product Management; Genomica Corp., Boulder, Colorado; 2000-2001. Director, Informatics; Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah

  6. The Accuracy of Intelligence Assessment: Bias, Perception, and Judgement in Analysis and Decision (United States)


    Decision Mgking: The Influence of Cognition (Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1986), p. 126. Cottam quotes Jerome S. Bruner , "On Perceptual Readiness," in...Jeremy M. Anglin and Jerome S. Bruner , eds., Beyond the Information Given; Studies in the Psychology of Knowing (New York: W.W. Norton, 1973), p. 29. 28...Jeremy M. and Bruner , Jerome S., eds. Beyond the Information Given; Studies in the Psychology of Knowing. New York: W.W. Norton, 1973. Aspin, Les

  7. Chinese Oil Dependence: Opportunities and Challenges (United States)


    CCO D E=CH N& CNAM E=China& PTYPE =CP>; Internet; accessed 20 November 2004. 3Energy Information Agency, "China Country Analysis Brief," July 2004...Social Political, and Economic Ferment in China. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1990. China Defense Today. "The Peoples Liberation Army Air Force...Data Profiles." August 2004. Available from < external/CPProfile.asp?SelectedCountry=CHN&CCODE=CHN&CNAM E=China& PTYPE = CP

  8. Perturbative String Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ooguri, H; Ooguri, Hirosi; Yin, Zheng


    These lecture notes are based on a course on string theories given by Hirosi Ooguri in the first week of TASI 96 Summer School at Boulder, Colorado. It is an introductory course designed to provide students with minimum knowledge before they attend more advanced courses on non-perturbative aspects of string theories in the School. The course consists of five lectures: 1. Bosonic String, 2. Toroidal Compactifications, 3. Superstrings, 4. Heterotic Strings, and 5. Orbifold Compactifications.

  9. Subfilter Scale Fluxes in the Marine Surface Layer (United States)


    Subfilter Scale Fluxes in the Marine Surface Layer Peter P. Sullivan National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, CO 80307-3000 Phone... layer research is to identify and quantify coupling mechanisms that connect the atmospheric boundary layer and surface waves. Large-eddy simulation...Ocean Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (OHATS), specifically directed at the measurement of SFS variables in the marine surface layer in the presence

  10. Landslide in Coprates (United States)


    15 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the distal (far) end of a landslide deposit in Coprates Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Large boulders, the size of buildings, occur on the landslide surface. This October 2004 picture is located near 15.3oS, 54.6oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  11. Sedimentological analyses of martian gullies: The subsurface as the key to the surface (United States)

    de Haas, Tjalling; Ventra, Dario; Hauber, Ernst; Conway, Susan J.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.


    Gullies are among the youngest landforms formed by liquid water on Mars, and therefore of critical importance in resolving the planets most recent hydrologic and climatic history. Water-free sediment flows, debris flows and fluvial flows have all been identified in gullies. These processes require very different amounts of liquid water, and therefore their relative contribution to gully-formation is of key importance for climatic inferences. We show that many gullies dominantly formed by debris flows, based on sedimentological analysis of outcrops in gully-fans in 51 HiRISE images widely distributed over the southern midlatitudes. The great majority (96%) of outcrop exposures in gully-fans fed by catchments which mainly comprise bedrock and thus host boulders, contain sedimentological evidence for debris-flow formation. These exposures contain many randomly distributed large boulders (>1 m) suspended in a finer matrix and in some cases lens-shaped and truncated layering. Such diagnostic features are rare in gully-fan exposures mainly fed by catchments comprising abundant latitude dependent mantle deposits (LDM; a smooth, often meters-thick deposit consisting mainly of ice and dust), wherein boulders are largely absent. These LDM-fed gullies may have formed by fine-grained debris flows, but this cannot be determined from outcrop sedimentology alone because of the lack of boulders in these systems. The fan surface morphology, in contrast to the subsurface, is dominated by secondary, post-depositional, processes, mainly weathering, wind erosion, and ice-dust mantling. These processes have removed or severely reworked the original, primary, debris-flow morphology over time. This explains the controversy between previously published morphometric analyses implying debris-flow formation and observations of gully-fan surfaces, which are often interpreted as the product of fluvial flows because of the absence of surficial debris-flow morphology. The inferred debris

  12. Evaluative Testing of the Bent Canyon Stage Station on the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado (United States)


    Boulder. Chapman, J. A., J. G. Hockman and W. R. Edwards 1982 Cottontails: Sylvilagus floridanus and Allies. In Wild Mammals of North America: Biology ...Smith, R. L. 1980 Ecology and Field Biology . Harper and Row, New York. South, S. 1978 Exploring Analytical Technique. In Historical Archaeology: 1 of • ACC# " EXCAVATON LEVEL FORM Fort Carson-Pifion Canyon Maneuver Site Proj ect . Stage 7 Site ,L-131 75 Unit Z X•o ALevel Screen size 4

  13. Identification of Tower Wake Distortions Using Sonic Anemometer and Lidar Measurements


    McCaffrey, Katherine; Quelet, Paul; Choukulkar, Aditya; Wilczak, James M.; Wolfe, Daniel E.; Oncley, Steven; Brewer, Alan; Debnath, Mithu; Ashton, Ryan; Iungo, G. Valerio; Lundquist, Julie K.


    The eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) field campaign took place in March through May 2015 at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, utilizing its 300-meter meteorological tower, instrumented with two sonic anemometers mounted on opposite sides of the tower at six heights. This allowed for at least one sonic anemometer at each level to be upstream of the tower at all times, and for identification of the times when a sonic anemometer is in the wake of the tow...

  14. [Studies in intermediate energy nuclear physics]. Technical progress report, [October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, R.J.


    This report summarizes work carried out between October 1, 1992 and September 30, 1993 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder. The experimental program in intermediate-energy nuclear physics is very broadly based; it includes pion-nucleon and pion-nucleus studies at LAMPF and TRIUMF, kaon-nucleus scattering at the AGS, and equipment development for experiments at the next generation of accelerator facilities.

  15. Information Transfer in Soviet Science and Engineering: A Study of Documentary Channels (United States)


    Advancement of Slavic Studies , Columbus, Ohio, 1976, and Yakov M. Rabkin, ’"Naukovedeniye’: The Study of Scientific Research in the Soviet Union...tekhnicheskaya informatsiya, Series 1, No. 10, 1977. Lubrano, Linda L., Soviet Sociology of Science, American Association for the Advancement of Slavic ... Studies , Columbus, Ohio, 1976. Lubrano, Linda L., and Susan Gross Solomon (eds.), The Social Context of Soviet Science, Westview Press, Boulder, Colo

  16. Processing at the Speed of Light (United States)


    Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) are critical elements in optical processing systems used for imaging, displaying, data storage, communications, and other applications. By taking advantage of the natural properties of light beams, the devices process information at speeds unattainable by human operators and most machines, with high-resolution results.Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc., is one of the world s foremost SLM manufacturers. Applications of this technology are briefly described.

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper Sixty Eight, Who is Managing Knowledge? The Implications for Knowledge Production and Management of Global Strategic Alliances in Knowledge-Dependent Industries (United States)


    Tacit knowledge is of- ten embodied in " ... a set of rules which are not known as such to the person following them" ( Polanyi , 1962, p. 49). Since...Alic et. ah, 1992 Branscomb, 1993; Nelson and Winter, 1982 Pinelli, Kennedy, Barclay, and Bishop, 1997 and Polanyi , 1962; 1976, for additional dis...nology, Labour and Investment in the Automobile and Components Industries. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Hoffmann, S., C.P. Kindleberger, L. Wylie, J.R

  18. Proposal 1114.11.2956B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degrand, Thomas [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    The Theoretical Advanced Study Institute was held at the University of Colorado, Boulder, during June 1 - 26, 2015. The topic was "New Frontiers in Fields and Strings." Topics included many discussions of entanglement entropy, the conformal bootstrap, AdS/CFT techniques and applications, cosmology, and the black hole information problem. The organizers were Professors Joseph Polchinski (KITP Santa Barbara) and Pedro Vieira (Perimeter Institute). Sixty-one students heard sixty-two lectures by sixteen lecturers. A Proceedings is in press.

  19. Scientific and Engineering Studies; Spectral Estimation. (United States)


    1111.25 I1tl 1.4 11.6 ,1> S t cientific and Engineering SStudies Compiled 1977 Spectral ,T1 .G Estimation - JUL 1 A A. H. Nuttall PUBLISHED BY NAVAL...malfunc- tioning equipment or human errors In reading or recording, for example. Also, some data values can be missing as a result of equipment being...1973. 9. R. H. Jones, "Autoregressive Spectrum Estimation," Third Conference on Probability and Statistics in Atmospheric Science , Boulder, Colo., 19

  20. Software Innovations Speed Scientific Computing (United States)


    To help reduce the time needed to analyze data from missions like those studying the Sun, Goddard Space Flight Center awarded SBIR funding to Tech-X Corporation of Boulder, Colorado. That work led to commercial technologies that help scientists accelerate their data analysis tasks. Thanks to its NASA work, the company doubled its number of headquarters employees to 70 and generated about $190,000 in revenue from its NASA-derived products.

  1. Multiple processes regulate long-term population dynamics of sea urchins on Mediterranean rocky reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Hereu

    Full Text Available We annually monitored the abundance and size structure of herbivorous sea urchin populations (Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula inside and outside a marine reserve in the Northwestern Mediterranean on two distinct habitats (boulders and vertical walls over a period of 20 years, with the aim of analyzing changes at different temporal scales in relation to biotic and abiotic drivers. P. lividus exhibited significant variability in density over time on boulder bottoms but not on vertical walls, and temporal trends were not significantly different between the protection levels. Differences in densities were caused primarily by variance in recruitment, which was less pronounced inside the MPA and was correlated with adult density, indicating density-dependent recruitment under high predation pressure, as well as some positive feedback mechanisms that may facilitate higher urchin abundances despite higher predator abundance. Populations within the reserve were less variable in abundance and did not exhibit the hyper-abundances observed outside the reserve, suggesting that predation effects maybe more subtle than simply lowering the numbers of urchins in reserves. A. lixula densities were an order of magnitude lower than P. lividus densities and varied within sites and over time on boulder bottoms but did not differ between protection levels. In December 2008, an exceptionally violent storm reduced sea urchin densities drastically (by 50% to 80% on boulder substrates, resulting in the lowest values observed over the entire study period, which remained at that level for at least two years (up to the present. Our results also showed great variability in the biological and physical processes acting at different temporal scales. This study highlights the need for appropriate temporal scales for studies to fully understand ecosystem functioning, the concepts of which are fundamental to successful conservation and management.

  2. Acquisition of Ice Thickness and Ice Surface Characteristics In the Seasonal Ice Zone by CULPIS-X During the US Coast Guards Arctic Domain Awareness Program (United States)


    Characteristics In the Seasonal Ice Zone by CULPIS-X During the US Coast Guard’s Arctic Domain Awareness Program PI: Mark A. Tschudi University of...1-0233 LONG-TERM GOALS • Teaming with the Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys (SIZRS) campaign (J. Morrison, Univ . Washington; PI) to... University of Colorado-Boulder student team, led by PI M. Tschudi, to fit into a USCG C-130 flare tube and operate in an autonomous mode. The package

  3. Chronology of Tropical Glaciation from Cosmogenic Dating (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Farber, D. L.; Seltzer, G. O.; Finkel, R. C.; Rodbell, D. T.


    Moraines from multiple glaciations dating back more than a million years are preserved in deglaciated valleys bordering the Junin Plain in the Peruvian Andes. We have used cosmogenic dating (10Be) of boulders on moraines in Alcacocha Valley (S 11° 03', W 75° 58', elev. ~4100-4800 m) to identify deposits ranging in age from the last glaciation (~12-33 ka) to >1.5 Ma. This may be the longest and most detailed record of tropical glaciation yet produced. In Alcacocha Valley, lateral moraines of several older glaciations are considerably larger and extend farther downvalley than end moraines of the last glacial maximum. Preservation of the older moraines and of polished surfaces on some old boulders argues for extremely low boulder erosion rates. We estimate a maximum erosion rate of ~0.3 m/Myr, which approaches published rates for Antarctica and suggests that aridity is important in slowing boulder erosion. Our findings are consistent with results from other Andean locations, such as the Cordillera Real in Bolivia, where moraines of older glaciations are also more extensive than those of the last glacial maximum. Tectonics, climate, or a combination of both may have been responsible for the apparent decrease in glacial extent and ice volume in the Junin Plain during the Quaternary. A late Tertiary pulse of tectonism may have resulted in an increase in high-elevation topography in the Junin region, allowing growth of large ice masses. The subsequent trend in decreasing ice volume could have been caused by either a decrease in the area of high-elevation topography through glacial erosion or a decrease in the amplitude of climate variability. These hypotheses could be tested by analyzing the sediment record preserved in the Junin basin.

  4. Distinctions between Tactical and Operational Levels of War -- Are Some More Important Than Others? (United States)


    sequerce ’of act ions?" (5) Final ly, tactics is the art by which small unitt comrmarders apply available cc’- riba =_t power, to achieve victories in_...Press, 1984. Ericksor, John. The Road to Berlin. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1983. Heckstall-Smith, Anthony , D.S.C. Tobruk. The Story of a Anthony G. Powell, Novato: Presidio Press, 1982. Mellenthin, Major General F. W. von. Panzer Battles. Translated by H. Betzler. Edited by L. C. F

  5. Hezbollah: A Charitable Revolution (United States)


    73 Anthony H. Cordesman, "Preliminary "Lessons" of the Israeli-Hizbollah War," Center for Strategic and... riba ) and the prohibition of trading in risk or speculation (gharar).197 Instead of banks making money from interest charges to customers they enter...with I.B. Tauris & Co, 2006. Cobban, Helena. The Making of Modern Lebanon. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press, 1985. Cordesman, Anthony H. "Preliminary

  6. A Guide for Incorporating AdH Modeling Data into ArcGIS (registered trademark) Using a netCDF: A Case Study for the Sacramento River (United States)


    are defined by University Corporation for Atmospheric Research ( UCAR 2013) as “a set of software libraries and machine-independent data formats that...programming (see Appendix for R pseudo code; R Development Core Team 2010; UCAR 2013). Each final output netCDF file contains multi-temporal raster...Boulder, CO. <> University Corporation for Atmospheric Research ( UCAR ). Network Common Data Form

  7. Stones with character : animism, agency and megalithic monuments.


    Scarre, Chris


    Recent studies of megalithic monuments have shown how they incorporate blocks, sometimes taken from different locations, which link the monuments to features of their local landscapes. The slabs were often left unworked, or only minimally shaped, which would have helped preserved the visual resemblance of the stones to the outcrops or boulder fields from which they were derived. The careful selection of megalithic blocks suggests that they incorporated and materialised memories, powers and as...

  8. United States-South African Relations: The Challenge for AFRICOM (United States)


    line]; available from Jane’; accessed 8 December 2007. 46 Nyirabu, 27-28. 47 Kent Hughes Butts and Paul R. Thomas, The Geopolitics of Southern...Africa: South Africa as a Regional Superpower (Boulder, Colorado, West View Press, 1986)1, 170. 48 Robert S. Chase, Emily B. Hill, and Paul Kennedy...16. 70 Neethling, 59. 71 Helmoed- Romer Heitman, Jane’s, The South African Army Outlines Vision 2020 Force Design Implementation,” (19 September

  9. Surficial geology and distribution of post-impoundment sediment of the western part of Lake Mead based on a sidescan sonar and high-resolution seismic-reflection survey (United States)

    Twichell, David C.; Cross, VeeAnn A.; Rudin, Mark J.; Parolski, Kenneth F.


    Sidescan sonar imagery and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles were collected in Las Vegas Bay and Boulder Basin of Lake Mead to determine the surficial geology as well as the distribution and thickness of sediment that has accumulated in these areas of the lake since the completion of Hoover Dam in 1935 (Gould, 1951). Results indicate that the accumulation of post-impoundment sediment is restricted to the original Colorado River bed which runs down the axis of Boulder Basin from Boulder Canyon to Hoover Dam, and the old Las Vegas Creek bed that bisects Las Vegas Bay. The sediment cover along the original Colorado River bed is continuous and is typically greater than 10-m thick throughout much of its length with the thickness in some areas exceeding 35 meters. The flat-lying nature of the deposits suggests that they are the result of turbidity currents that flow the length of the lake. The sediment cover in Las Vegas Bay is much thinner (rarely exceeding 2 m in thickness) and more discontinuous. The source for these sediments presumably is Las Vegas Wash and a series of other ephemeral washes that empty into this part of the lake. The presence of sediments along the entire length of the Las Vegas Creek bed suggests that turbidity currents probably are active here as well, and that sediment has been transported from these streams at least 10 km down the axis of this valley to where it enters Boulder Basin. Alluvial deposits and rock outcrops are still exposed on large parts of the lake floor.

  10. Complex interplay of physical forcing and Prochlorococcus population in ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Roy, R.; Anil, A.C.

    visualization tool provided by NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA, ( this study to understand the changes in the MLD between early and peak winter monsoon periods. 6    Analysis of satellite chlorophyll a... and temperature Monthly composite images of chlorophyll and sea surface temperature (SST) were prepared using the MODIS ( online visualization tool to understand interannual changes which is developed and maintained...

  11. Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference (43rd) (United States)


    Electric Company Center for Space Research Pittsburgh PA 15235Park, OH 44112 Room 37-261 Cambridge MA 02139 ;tine Charles Paul Chevako SeungJ. Choiarsite d...tyya Meyyappan Richard E. Miers Paul Miller ientific Research Associates Indiana U./Purdue U. at Ft. Wayne Sandia National Labs. ). Box 1058 2101...Ridge IN 37831 Boulder CO 80309-0440 Waltham MA 02254 Larry Piper Leanne Pitchford - Robert K. Porteous Physical Sciences, Inc. CNRS-CPAT University of

  12. NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory long-path OH experiment, Fritz Peak Observatory, Colorado (United States)

    Mount, George H.


    Long path absorption of laser light over a 20.6 km path at Fritz Peak Observatory 17 km west of Boulder is described: elevation 2800 m, average beam height above terrain approximately 250 m, and operational since March 1991. System runs at maximum signal to noise with integration times longer than 64 seconds. Most of the data obtained to date are 15-minute averages due to the lengthy data analysis required.

  13. A Library for Managing Persistent Storage (United States)


    errors occur in the heap library , the routines normally return the value -1. At the same time, a pointer to a more informative error message is left in...A Library for Managing Persistent Storage Dennis Heimbigner CU-CS-3.5 1-86 March 1988 Revisions: April 3, 1987 February .5, 1988 March 9, 1988...Department of Computer Science Campus Box 430 University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0430 The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the

  14. Deciphering the Rising Sun: Navy and Marine Corps Codebreakers, Translators, and Interpreters in the Pacific War (United States)


    novelist Kawabata Yasunari.7 In history, political science, and sociology, too, former language students dominated their nascent fields to the point...sticker flanking Kawabata at a postwar party. Clear in these images is the contrast between the extraordinary talent developed in Boulder and its...Gentlemen of Japan (1953) and Japan: The Fragile Superpower (1975). 7 Before awarding the prize to Kawabata in 1968, the jurists most likely read

  15. Turkey’s Membership in the European Union: Analyzing Potential Benefits and Drawbacks (United States)


    the region. In this context, Turkey is an important country for the EU in terms of its foreign and security policies.14 Likewise, Seda Domaniç...economy.19 Moreover, the EU’s population is getting older, and this 15 Seda Domaniç, “The...European Integration. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publisher, Inc, 2005. 74 Domaniç, Seda . “The Turkish Accession to the European Union: Mutually

  16. Delivering and Incentivizing Data Management Education to Geoscience Researchers (United States)

    Knuth, S. L.; Johnson, A. M.; Hauser, T.


    Good data management practices are imperative for all researchers who want to ensure the usability of their research data. For geoscientists, this is particularly important due to the vast amount of data collected as part of field work, model studies, or other efforts. While many geoscientists want to ensure their data is appropriately maintained, they are generally not trained in good data management, which, realistically, has a much lower priority in the "publish or perish" cycle of research. Many scientists learn programming or advanced computational and data skills during the process of developing their research. With the amount of digital data being collected in the sciences increasing, and the interest federal funding agencies are taking in ensuring data collected is well maintained, there is pressure to quickly and properly educate and train geoscientists on its management. At the University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder), Research Data Services (RDS) has developed several educational and outreach activities centered at training researchers and students in ways to properly manage their data, including "boot camps", workshops, individual consultations, and seminars with topics of interest to the CU-Boulder community. Part of this effort is centered at incentivizing the researcher to learn these tools and practices despite their busy schedule. Much of this incentive has come through small grant competitions at the university level. The two competitions most relevant are a new "Best Digital Data Management Plan" competition, awarding unrestricted funds to the best plan submitted in each of five categories, and an added data management plan requirement to an existing faculty competition. This presentation will focus on examples of user outreach and educational opportunities given to researchers at CU-Boulder, incentives given to the researchers to participate, and assessment of the impact of these activities.

  17. Built Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsyth, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinclair, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The market currently encourages BWT deployment before the technology is ready for full-scale commercialization. To address this issue, industry stakeholders convened a Rooftop and Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the National Wind Technology Center, located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. This report summarizes the workshop.

  18. Russian National Security: Perceptions, Policies, and Prospects (United States)


    As Roman Szporluk observed, “Independent Russia and independent Ukraine in their own ways define 37 themselves through the negation of the Soviet...691. 50. Mikhail Smolin, “’Mein Kampf’ po-Dagestanskii ili protokoli gorskogo mudretsa,” Moskva, no. 11, (1998), 147. 51. Ibid. 52. Roman ...ed. Hanspeter Neuhold, (Boulder: Westview Press, 1992), 144. 16. The term is from the title of the book by Max Jakobson , in which he described the

  19. Discord or "Harmonious Society": China in 2030 (United States)


    Contemporary China [Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., 2003], 30.) 9 consider the Tang as a golden period in their history, as great poetry external pressure that forced it to confront its own validity and continued existence.51 Over the next century, Western expansion caused the...contri- butions to GDP. The needed technological efficiencies to increase TFP will be realized by the expansion of the nonstate sectors and

  20. Ethernet Time Transfer through a U.S. Commercial Optical Telecommunications Network (United States)


    Ethernet Time Transfer through a U.S. Commercial Optical Telecommunications Network M. Weiss, NIST Time and Frequency Division, mweiss... telecommunications and data networks through precision synchronization.” Marc founded and has led WSTS, the Workshop on Sync in Telecom Systems...signals through a telecommunication network. This experiment connects UTC(NIST) in Boulder, Colorado with UTC(USNO) at the Alternate Master Clock at

  1. Reshaping the Army Corps of Engineers’ Workforce (United States)


    Collins, “Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap…and Others Don’t”, (Boulder, CO: Harper Business, 2001) iPhone – ebook , 24-28. 3 Ibid...Job Every Time,” (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2005) iPhone – ebook , 48-50. 35 42 Ibid., 91. 43 Ibid., 91-92. 44 Ibid., 30-31. 45 Ibid., 32

  2. Final Environmental Assessment for a Solar Power System at Davis-Monthan Air Force Tucson, Arizona (United States)


    deposits found in present-day drainageways, and much older deposits located on valley floors and terraces. Evidence of intense periods of volcanism can be...approximately mid-crust to 1.5 kilometers above the valley floor (University of Colorado at Boulder 2005). Most of the soils in the ROI, formed in...of mixed mineralogy, and generally formed in alluvium. Dominant soils have a thermic (mean annual soil temperature is 15 degrees Celsius [°C] or

  3. The Role of Elaborations in Learning a Skill from an Instructional Text: Further Findings. (United States)


    Steven Pinker Physics Department Department of Psychology University of California E10-018 Berkeley, CA 94720 M.I.T. Cambridge, MA 02139 Dr. Lauren...Colorado Alexandria, VA 22311 Department of Psychology Boulder, CO 80309 Lt. Col. (Dr.) David Payne AFHRL Dr. Steven E. Poltrock Brooks AFB, TX 78235 MCC...02238 Box 11A, Yale Station New Haven, CT 06520 Dr. Robert A. Wisher U.S. Army Institute for the Dr. Albert Stevens Behavioral and Social Sciences Bolt

  4. Strategies for Understanding Information Organization in Discourse (United States)


    CA 965C.3 Dr. Stellan OhIsson Dr. Steven Pinker Dr. Lynne Reder University of Pittsburgh, LRC Deparment of Psychology Department of Psychology 3939...LROC P. 0. Box 751 Departent of Psyctology 3939 O’Hara Street Portlano, OR 97207 Boulder, CO 80309 Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Dr. Roy Pea Or. Steven E...College Park. MO 20742 New Haven, CT 06520 Dr. Roger Scank Dr. Lee Shulman Dr. Albert Stevens Comp Sci Dept. Yale University Stanford University Bolt

  5. Intrinsic Information Processing and Energy Dissipation in Stochastic Input-Output Dynamical Systems (United States)


    Sciences Center, UC Davis. Alec Boyd (UCD), review of Mlodinow and Brun, “Relation between the psychological and thermodynamic arrows of time”", 14...Ryan G. James: Assumed post-doctoral research position in Computer Science Department, University of Colorado, Boulder (September 2013-August 2014...Information Theoretic Methods of Time Series Analysis”, March 2014, Machine Learning seminar, Computer Science Department, University of Hawaii, Manoa

  6. Preliminary Results of Tectonic Geomorphology Investigation of the Northern Cyprus coasts (United States)

    Yildirim, Cengiz; Tüysüz, Okan; Melnick, Daniel; Damla Altınbaş, Cevza; Zeynel Öztürk, Muhammed; Oruç Baykara, Mehmet; Shen, Chuan-Chou


    Cyprus, an island located in the Eastern Mediterranean region, is a part of subduction zone that defines the plate boundary at the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau. The presence of uplifted marine terraces, wave-cut notches, surface ruptures and tsunami deposits are pieces of evidence of subduction related active deformation in the northern part of the island. To understand timing, mode and rate of deformation, we conducted high-resolution geomorphic mapping of marine terraces and levelling of wave-cut notches by using drone and DGPS. Tsunami boulders and boulder trains reaching up to 5-6 meters were discovered and surface rupture of an earthquake strechting from offshore to onshore was mapped for the first time with this study. Coral fossils were collected from marine terraces and tsunami boulders for age determinations by U-Th and 14C dating techniques, respectively. U-Th dating results indicate 144±12 (2s) ka for the MIS5e terrace at 40 m above sea level and 14C ages show the late Holocene (Cyprus. This study is supported by the Istanbul Technical University Research Found (Project no: 37548).

  7. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent. (United States)

    Vajda, Alan M; Barber, Larry B; Gray, James L; Lopez, Elena M; Bolden, Ashley M; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Norris, David O


    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17α-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent.

  8. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent (United States)

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.


    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. The influence of aspect on the biological weathering of granites: observations from the Kunlun Mountains, China (United States)

    Hall, Kevin; Arocena, Joselito M.; Boelhouwers, Jan; Liping, Zhu


    Bedrock and boulder weathering in the higher elevation, permafrost areas of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau have usually been ascribed to frost action. For short periods during two summers, an attempt was made to better elucidate weathering processes in this region. A combination of visual observation coupled with rudimentary data regarding removable weathered material from the four cardinal aspects of granite boulders at elevations of 4600-5000 m in the Kunlun Mountains (Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau) showed that there was a distinct aspect influence (south>west>north>east) on weathering. It was also observed that there were aspect-constrained variations in chasmoendolithic communities and for lichen distribution. To further aid understanding, temperature data for the four aspects were collected for several weeks during the summers of 2 years, with data recording at 1-min intervals using ultraresponsive (0.05 s), high precision (0.1 °C), ultrasmall (0.15 mm diameter) thermocouples; humidity data were also collected at the rock face. Based on these data, an attempt is made to evaluate the nature of granite weathering in this region. To better understand what the impact of the lichens/endolithic communities was and how this varies, use is made of XRD and SEM analyses on samples from each aspect. In addition, iron-rich patinas were found on a number of the boulders, and these too were analyzed in an attempt to see their relationship (if any) to the biological action.

  10. Energy dissipation of rockfalls by coppice structures (United States)

    Ciabocco, G.; Boccia, L.; Ripa, M. N.


    The objective of this work is to develop elements to improve understanding of the behaviour of a coppice in relation to the phenomenon of falling boulders. The first section proposes an amendment to the equation for calculating the index which describes the probability of impact between a rock and plants in managed coppice forests. A study was carried out, using models to calculate the kinetic energy of a falling boulder along a slope considering the kinetic energy dissipated during the impact with the structure of forest plants managed by coppice. The output of the simulation models were then compared with the real dynamics of falling boulders in field tests using digital video. It emerged from an analysis of the results of this comparison that a modification to the 1989 Gsteiger equation was required, in order to calculate the "Average Distance between Contacts" (ADC). To this purpose, the concept of "Structure of Interception", proposed in this paper, was developed, valid as a first approach for describing the differences in the spatial distribution of stems between coppice and forest. This study also aims to provide suggestions for forestry management, in order to maintain or increase the protective capacity of a coppice managed with conventional techniques for the area studied, modifying the dendrometric characteristics.

  11. Habitat Modeling in Complex Streams: Comparison of Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Traditional Surveying Techniques for Topographic Surface Generation (United States)

    Hession, W. C.; Kozarek, J. L.; Resop, J. P.


    Accurate stream topography measurement is important for many environmental and ecological applications, such as hydraulic modeling and habitat characterization. Topological surveys are commonly created from point measurements using methods such as total station or global positioning system (GPS) surveying. However, surveying can be time intensive and limited by poor spatial resolution and difficulty in measuring complex morphology such as boulder-filled mountain streams. This can lead to measurement and interpolation errors, which can propagate to model uncertainty. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has the potential to create high resolution, high accuracy topographic maps. Two methods, total station surveying and TLS, were used to measure the topography for an 80-meter forested reach on the Staunton River in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA. The 2,500 surveyed points were directly compared to the TLS point cloud (approximately 9,500,000 points). The total station and TLS datasets were processed to create unique digital elevation models (DEM) of the stream reach. The resulting DEMs were used to evaluate uncertainties in topographic surfaces due to errors in traditional surveying techniques, to evaluate the propagation of uncertainty due to these errors in habitat modeling, and to evaluate the efficacy of utilizing TLS for complex, boulder streams. Comparison of resulting topography of a complex boulder stream using terrestrial laser scanning (grey-scale surfaces) and total station surveying (grid lines).

  12. On the formation of compact planetary systems via concurrent core accretion and migration

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, Gavin A L


    We present the results of planet formation N-body simulations based on a comprehensive physical model that includes planetary mass growth through mutual embryo collisions and planetesimal/boulder accretion, viscous disc evolution, planetary migration and gas accretion onto planetary cores. The main aim of this study is to determine which set of model parameters leads to the formation of planetary systems that are similar to the compact low mass multi-planet systems that have been discovered by radial velocity surveys and the Kepler mission. We vary the initial disc mass, solids-to-gas ratio and the sizes of the boulders/planetesimals, and for a restricted volume of the parameter space we find that compact systems containing terrestrial planets, super-Earths and Neptune-like bodies arise as natural outcomes of the simulations. Disc models with low values of the solids-to-gas ratio can only form short-period super-Earths and Neptunes when small planetesimals/boulders provide the main source of accretion, since ...

  13. Energy dissipation of rockfalls by coppice structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciabocco


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop elements to improve understanding of the behaviour of a coppice in relation to the phenomenon of falling boulders. The first section proposes an amendment to the equation for calculating the index which describes the probability of impact between a rock and plants in managed coppice forests. A study was carried out, using models to calculate the kinetic energy of a falling boulder along a slope considering the kinetic energy dissipated during the impact with the structure of forest plants managed by coppice. The output of the simulation models were then compared with the real dynamics of falling boulders in field tests using digital video.

    It emerged from an analysis of the results of this comparison that a modification to the 1989 Gsteiger equation was required, in order to calculate the "Average Distance between Contacts" (ADC. To this purpose, the concept of "Structure of Interception", proposed in this paper, was developed, valid as a first approach for describing the differences in the spatial distribution of stems between coppice and forest. This study also aims to provide suggestions for forestry management, in order to maintain or increase the protective capacity of a coppice managed with conventional techniques for the area studied, modifying the dendrometric characteristics.

  14. Flood geomorphology of Arthurs Rock Gulch, Colorado: paleoflood history (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Jarrett, Robert D.


    Episodic late Quaternary flooding is recorded by bouldery deposits and slackwater sediments along Arthurs Rock Gulch, an ephemeral stream west of Fort Collins, Colorado. Flood deposits consist of individual granodiorite and pegmatite boulders, boulder bars, and coarse overbank sediment that rest on erosional terrace segments along the channel. We identified evidence for at least five flood in the lower two thirds of the 1.84 km 2 drainage basin. Flood deposits are differentiated by their position above the active channel, weathering characteristics, degree of boulder burial by colluvium, amount of lichen cover, and position with respect to terrace and colluvial deposits. Age estimates for the flood deposits are based on radiocarbon dating, tree-ring analyses, and relative-age criteria from four sites in the basin. At least two floods occurred in the last 300 years; a third flood is at least 5000 years old, but likely younger than 10,000 yr BP; and the two oldest floods occurred at least 40,000 years BP.

  15. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Orient Point, New York (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Guberski, M.R.; Wood, D.A.; Doran, E.F.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CT DEP) are working cooperatively to map and interpret features of the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. This report presents multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar data obtained during NOAA survey H11446, which was conducted in a 12-km2 area in Long Island Sound offshore of Orient Point, NY. In addition, sediment and photographic data from 26 stations obtained during a USGS verification cruise are presented. Overall, the sea floor slopes gently seaward, but topography is more complex in sand-wave and boulder areas, which are evident in the multibeam and sidescan-sonar data from the study area. Sand waves generally have north-south-oriented crests with 10- to 20-m wavelengths. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates eastward net sediment transport in the east and westward net sediment transport in the northern and western parts of the study area. Areas with boulders on the sea floor are typically hummocky and are part of a glacial moraine system. Boulders are typically encrusted with seaweed, sponges, and anemones as shown in the bottom photography.

  16. Asteroid Redirect Mission Proximity Operations for Reference Target Asteroid 2008 EV5 (United States)

    Reeves, David M.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Broschart, Steve B.; Deweese, Keith D.


    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is composed of two segments, the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), and the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM). In March of 2015, NASA selected the Robotic Boulder Capture Option1 as the baseline for the ARRM. This option will capture a multi-ton boulder, (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (greater than approx.100 m diameter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cis-lunar space for subsequent human exploration during the ARCM. Further human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cis-lunar space. In addition, prior to departing the asteroid, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) will perform a demonstration of the Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT) planetary defense technique2. This paper will discuss the proximity operations which have been broken into three phases: Approach and Characterization, Boulder Capture, and Planetary Defense Demonstration. Each of these phases has been analyzed for the ARRM reference target, 2008 EV5, and a detailed baseline operations concept has been developed.

  17. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM0 Flight Hardware in Bench Test (United States)


    Engineering bench system hardware for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is tested on a lab bench at the University of Colorado in Boulder. This is done in a horizontal arrangement to reduce pressure differences so the tests more closely resemble behavior in the microgravity of space. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  18. Simultaneous Observations of Mesoscale Gravity Waves Over the Central US with CRRL Na Doppler Lidars and USU Temperature Mapper (United States)

    Lu, Xian; Chen, Cao; Huang, Wentao; Smith, John A.; Zhao, Jian; Chu, Xinzhao; Yuan, Tao; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Taylor, Mike J.


    We present the first coordinated study of a 1-h mesoscale gravity wave event detected simultaneously by a Na Doppler lidar at Boulder, CO (40.1°N, 105.2°W), and a Na Doppler lidar and an airglow temperature mapper (AMTM) at Logan, UT (41.7°N, 111.8°W) in the mesopause region on 27 Nov. 2013. The vertical and horizontal wavelengths are ~16.0±0.3 and 342.0±10.4 km, corresponding to vertical and horizontal phase speeds of ~4.4±0.1 and 95.0±3.0 m/s, respectively. The wave propagates from Logan to Boulder with an azimuth angle of ~138.1±1.7° clockwise from North. A uniqueness of this study is that the 1-h wave amplitudes on vertical winds have been quantified for the first time by the STAR Na lidar at Boulder. The GW polarization relation between vertical wind and temperature is evaluated. The intrinsic period of the wave is Doppler shifted to ~100 min by a background wind of 40 m/s, which is confirmed by USU lidar wind observations. This study illustrates a great potential of combining multiple instruments to fully characterize mesoscale gravity waves and inspect their intrinsic properties

  19. "Know What to Do If You Encounter a Flash Flood": Mental Models Analysis for Improving Flash Flood Risk Communication and Public Decision Making. (United States)

    Lazrus, Heather; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann


    Understanding how people view flash flood risks can help improve risk communication, ultimately improving outcomes. This article analyzes data from 26 mental models interviews about flash floods with members of the public in Boulder, Colorado, to understand their perspectives on flash flood risks and mitigation. The analysis includes a comparison between public and professional perspectives by referencing a companion mental models study of Boulder-area professionals. A mental models approach can help to diagnose what people already know about flash flood risks and responses, as well as any critical gaps in their knowledge that might be addressed through improved risk communication. A few public interviewees mentioned most of the key concepts discussed by professionals as important for flash flood warning decision making. However, most interviewees exhibited some incomplete understandings and misconceptions about aspects of flash flood development and exposure, effects, or mitigation that may lead to ineffective warning decisions when a flash flood threatens. These include important misunderstandings about the rapid evolution of flash floods, the speed of water in flash floods, the locations and times that pose the greatest flash flood risk in Boulder, the value of situational awareness and environmental cues, and the most appropriate responses when a flash flood threatens. The findings point to recommendations for ways to improve risk communication, over the long term and when an event threatens, to help people quickly recognize and understand threats, obtain needed information, and make informed decisions in complex, rapidly evolving extreme weather events such as flash floods.

  20. Operations of cleanrooms during a forest fire including protocols and monitoring results (United States)

    Matheson, Bruce A.; Egges, Joanne; Pirkey, Michael S.; Lobmeyer, Lynette D.


    Contamination-sensitive space flight hardware is typically built in cleanroom facilities in order to protect the hardware from particle contamination. Forest wildfires near the facilities greatly increase the number of particles and amount of vapors in the ambient outside air. Reasonable questions arise as to whether typical cleanroom facilities can adequately protect the hardware from these adverse environmental conditions. On Monday September 6, 2010 (Labor Day Holiday), a large wildfire ignited near the Boulder, Colorado Campus of Ball Aerospace. The fire was approximately 6 miles from the Boulder City limits. Smoke levels from the fire stayed very high in Boulder for the majority of the week after the fire began. Cleanroom operations were halted temporarily on contamination sensitive hardware, until particulate and non-volatile residue (NVR) sampling could be performed. Immediate monitoring showed little, if any effect on the cleanroom facilities, so programs were allowed to resume work while monitoring continued for several days and beyond in some cases. Little, if any, effect was ever noticed in the monitoring performed.

  1. Cosmogenic Exposure Dating of Paleo-Rockfall Deposits, Christchurch, New Zealand (United States)

    Mackey, B. H.; Quigley, M.


    The 22nd February 2011 MW 6.2 Christchurch earthquake occurred on a previously unrecognized blind thrust fault and generated severe localized vertical ground accelerations (>2 g). Constraining rupture history for such faults is challenging as there is no surface evidence of faulting (e.g., scarps, fault traces) which can be studied directly. However, the earthquake generated a range of secondary effects, including extensive rockfall and cliff collapse at many locations around the Port Hills south of Christchurch, remnants of a Miocene strato-shield volcanic complex. Many of these sites also exhibit pre-historic rockfall deposits. Here we ask whether ancient rockfall deposits can serve as off-fault evidence for paleo-earthquakes, and can be used to constrain the timing of previous episodes of severe shaking? Our site at Rapaki Bay west of Lyttelton is ideally suited for analysis of paleo-rockfall events as it has a prominent 60 m high sub-vertical cliff comprised of stratified lava flows, and a 600-m-long planar fore-slope. The site experienced significant, well-documented rockfall during the 2011 event, and has large (2-10 m diameter), lichen-covered boulders scattered down slope and partially embedded in late Quaternary loess and colluvium. We employ cosmogenic exposure dating of paleo-rockfall boulders to establish the timing of boulder emplacement. The basalt rock contains abundant clinopyroxene (augite) which is able to quantitatively retain cosmogenic 3He. This approach requires constraining the inherited 3He from non-cosmogenic sources, the potential cosmogenic exposure while boulders are on the cliff, and the background erosion rate. The probability distribution of exposure ages from the surface of pre-historically emplaced boulders show significant clustering of ages in the mid Holocene, with a long tail of individual ages out to ~60 ka. Comparison with numerical modeling of a range of rockfall event scenarios reveals the measured age distribution is most

  2. Transient thermal envelope for rovers and sample collecting devices on the Moon (United States)

    Hager, P. B.; Parzinger, S.; Haarmann, R.; Walter, U.


    The requirements for the design of rovers and sample collecting devices for the Moon are driven by the harsh and diverse thermal lunar environment. Local lunar surface temperatures are governed by boulders and craters. The present work quantifies the changes in solar and infrared heat fluxes q˙Sol and q˙IR impinging on a rover or a sample collecting device, on the surface of the Moon, by combining lunar surface models, spacecraft and manipulator models, and transient thermal calculations. The interaction between a rover, boulders, and craters was simulated for three solar elevation angles (θ = 2°, 10°, and 90°), resembling lunar surface temperatures of Treg = 170, 248, and 392 K, respectively. Infrared and solar heat fluxes for paths in the vicinity of a single boulder, a field of five boulders, and a single crater were compared to a path on an unobstructed surface. The same heat fluxes were applied to closed and open sample collecting devices to investigate the temperature development of the transported regolith sample. The results show how total received infrared heat on a rover may increase by up to 331%, over the course of a transit in front of sunlit boulders compared to the same transit over an unobstructed plane. Temporary this leads to a 12-fold increased infrared heat flux at closest distance to the obstacle. A transit through a small bowl shaped crater on the other hand may decrease total received solar heat by as much as 86%. Relative as well as absolute influence of surface features on received heat fluxes increases significantly towards smaller solar elevation angles. The temperature of pristine samples, transported in closed or open sample collecting devices, increase from 120 to 150 K within 1 to 1.3 h if exposed to direct solar illumination and infrared heat. Protection from solar illumination yields in 8-fold and 5-fold increased transport times for closed and open sample devices, respectively. Closed sample transporters dampen short exposure

  3. U-Sries Disequilibra in Soils, Pena Blanca Natural Analog, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. French; E. Anthony; P. Goodell


    The Nopal I uranium deposit located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico. The deposit was mined in the early 1980s, and ore was stockpiled close by. This stockpile area was cleared and is now referred to as the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). Some of the high-grade boulders from the site rolled downhill when it was cleared in the 1990s. For this study soil samples were collected from the alluvium surrounding and underlying one of these boulders. A bulk sample of the boulder was also collected. Because the Prior High Grade Stockpile had no ore prior to the 1980s a maximum residence time for the boulder is about 25 years, this also means that the soil was at background as well. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radionuclides from ore to the soil. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected include {sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, and {sup 214}Bi. Peak areas for each isotope are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Canberra Ge (Li) detector and GENIE 2000 software. The boulder sample is close to secular equilibrium when compared to the standard BL-5 (Beaver Lodge Uraninite from Canada). Results for the soils, however, indicate that some daughter/parent pairs are in secular disequilibrium. These daughter/parent (D/P) ratios include {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U, which is greater than unity, {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th, which is also greater than unity, and {sup 210}Pb/{sup 214}Bi, which is less than unity. The gamma-ray spectrum for organic material lacks {sup 230}Th peaks, but contains {sup 234}U and {sup 226}Ra, indicating that plants preferentially incorporate {sup 226}Ra. Our results, combined with previous studies require multistage history of mobilization of the uranium series radionuclides. Earlier studies at the ore zone could limit the time span for mobilization only

  4. Solar-induced weathering of rocks: integrating instrumental and numerical studies (United States)

    Hallet, B.; Eppes, M. C.; Mackenzie-Helnwein, P.; Warren, K.; McFadden, L.; Gillespie, A.; Putkonen, J.; Swami, S.; Shi, J.


    The contribution of solar-driven thermal cycling to the progressive breakdown of surface rocks on the Earth and other planets is controversial. We introduce a current study of the physical state in boulders that integrates modern instrumental and numerical approaches to quantify the surface temperature, stresses, strains, and microfracture activity in exposed boulders, and to shed light on the processes underlying this form of mechanical weathering. We are monitoring the surface and environmental conditions of two ~30 cm dia. granite boulders (one in North Carolina, one in New Mexico) in the field for ~1 yr each. Each rock is instrumented with 8 thermocouples, 8 strain gauges, a surface moisture sensor and 6 Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors to monitor microfracture activity continuously. These sensors and a full meteorological station, including soil-moisture probes, are combined into a single, remotely accessible system. AE events can be located to within 2.5 cm. We are able 1) to spatially and temporally correlate microcrack growth (AE events) with the rock surface and environmental conditions experienced by the rock, and 2) to validate modeling results. The modeling work addresses two coupled problems: 1) the time-varying thermal regime of rocks exposed to diurnal variations in solar radiation as dictated by latitude, and time of the year, as well as the surface emissivity and thermal properties of the rock and soil, and size and shape of the rock, and 2) the corresponding time-varying stress and strain fields in the rocks using representative elastic properties and realistic rock shape and orientation. AE events tend to occur shortly after sunset (6-9 pm) in the upper portion of the boulder. Most of the events occur in summer and winter months for the NC boulder. The majority occur in bursts of tens to hundreds over periods of a few minutes, and are often associated with environmental factors other than simple diurnal warming and cooling, such as wind gusts, that

  5. Consideration of geomorphological uncertainties with terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND): combining Schmidt-hammer and 10Be dating, Southern Alps, New Zealand (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan


    As the importance of glaciers as key indicators of global change has increased during recent years, investigating Holocene glaciers chronologies has gained higher attention accordingly. One reason is the need for a better understanding of the climate - glacier relationship. Comparative studies play a major role in this field of research owing to the natural diversity of glacier behaviour. Detailed Holocene glacier chronologies are, furthermore, necessary to verify and eventually adjust glacier models indispensable for many attempts to predict future glacier changes. The Southern Alps of New Zealand are one of the few key study areas on the Southern Hemisphere where, in general, evidence is still sparse compared to its Northern counterpart. Improvement and reassessment of the Late Holocene glacier chronology in this region is, therefore, an important goal of current research. Recently, terrestrial (in situ) cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating has been increasingly applied to Holocene moraines in New Zealand and elsewhere. In the context of numerical ("absolute") dating techniques, terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND) seems to have been established as an alternative to the previously dominating radiocarbon (14C) dating of organic material (plant remains, organic-rich soil layers etc.) buried beneath or within moraines. Precision and time resolution achieved by the newest laboratory standards and procedures (Schaefer et al. 2009) is truly a milestone and will promote future attempts of TCND in any comparable context. Maybe, TCND has the potential to at least partially replace radiocarbon (14C) dating in its dominating role for the "absolute" dating of Holocene glacial deposits. By contrast, field sampling for TCND often lacks appropriate consideration of geomorphological uncertainties. Whereas much effort is made with the high precision results achieved in the laboratory, the choice of boulders sampled on Holocene moraines is often purely made

  6. Holocene history of North Ice Cap, northwestern Greenland (United States)

    Corbett, L. B.; Kelly, M. A.; Osterberg, E. C.; Axford, Y.; Bigl, M.; Roy, E. P.; Thompson, J. T.


    Although much research has focused on the past extents of the Greenland Ice Sheet, less is known about the smaller ice caps on Greenland and how they have evolved over time. These small ice caps respond sensitively to summer temperatures and, to a lesser extent, winter precipitation, and provide valuable information about climatic conditions along the Greenland Ice Sheet margins. Here, we investigate the Holocene history of North Ice Cap (76°55'N 68°00'W), located in the Nunatarssuaq region near Thule, northwest Greenland. Our results are based on glacial geomorphic mapping, 10Be dating, and analyses of sediment cores from a glacially fed lake. Fresh, unweathered and unvegetated boulders comprise moraines and drift that mark an extent of North Ice Cap ~25 m outboard of the present ice margin. It is likely that these deposits were formed during late Holocene time and we are currently employing 10Be surface exposure dating to examine this hypothesis. Just outboard of the fresh moraines and drift, boulders and bedrock show significant weathering and are covered with lichen. Based on glacial geomorphic mapping and detailed site investigations, including stone counts, we suggest that the weathered boulders and bedrock were once covered by erosive Greenland Ice Sheet flow from southeast to northwest over the Nunatarssuaq region. Five 10Be ages from the more weathered landscape only 100-200 m outboard of the modern North Ice Cap margin are 52 and 53 ka (bedrock) and 16, 23, and 31 ka (boulders). These ages indicate that recent ice cover has likely been cold-based and non-erosive, failing to remove inherited cosmogenic nuclides from previous periods of exposure, although the youngest boulder may provide a maximum limiting deglaciation age. Sediment cores collected from Delta Sø, a glacially-fed lake ~1.5 km outside of the modern North Ice Cap margin, contain 130 cm of finely laminated sediments overlying coarse sands and glacial till. Radiocarbon ages from just above

  7. Should precise numerical dating overrule glacial geomorphology? (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan


    Numerical age dating techniques, namely different types of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND), have achieved an impressive progress in both laboratory precision and regional calibration models during the past few decades. It is now possible to apply precise TCND even to young landforms like Late Holocene moraines, a task seemed hardly achievable just about 15 years ago. An increasing number of studies provide very precise TCND ages for boulders from Late Holocene moraines enabling related reconstruction of glacier chronologies and the interpretation of these glacial landforms in a palaeoclimatological context. These studies may also solve previous controversies about different ages assigned to moraines obtained by different dating techniques, for example relative-age dating techniques or techniques combining relative-age dating with few fixed points derived from numerical age dating. There are a few cases, for example Mueller Glacier and nearby long debris-covered valley glacier in Aoraki/Mt.Cook National Park (Southern Alps, New Zealand), where the apparent "supremacy" of TCND-ages seem to overrule glacial geomorphological principles. Enabled by a comparatively high number of individual boulders precisely dated by TCND, moraine ridges on those glacier forelands have been primarily clustered on basis of these boulder ages rather than on their corresponding morphological position. To the extreme, segments of a particular moraine complex morphologically and sedimentologically proven to be formed during one event have become split and classified as two separate "moraines" on different parts of the glacier foreland. One ledge of another moraine complex contains 2 TCND-sampled boulders apparently representing two separate "moraines"-clusters of an age difference in the order of 1,500 years. Although recently criticism has been raised regarding the non-contested application of the arithmetic mean for calculation of TCND-ages for individual moraines, this

  8. Rock and Roll at the Apollo 17 Site (United States)

    Martel, L. M. V.


    Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan and Harrison H. (Jack) Schmitt collected 243 pounds (110 kg) of rock and regolith samples during 22 hours working on the lunar surface during the Apollo 17 mission in December 1972, while Astronaut Ronald Evans orbited in the command module. The field observations, audio descriptions, and photographs coupled with orbital data and detailed, laboratory analyses of Apollo samples provided unprecedented information about the Moon and its geologic history. The Apollo samples continue to inspire new questions and answers about the Moon. Debra Hurwitz and David Kring (Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute; Hurwitz now at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) were particularly interested in solving the mystery of where the boulders came from at the base of the North Massif (station 6) and at the base of the South Massif (station 2) from which Apollo 17 astronauts collected samples of impact melt breccias. The breccias were unequivocally formed by impact processes, but forty years of analyses had not yet determined unambiguously which impact event was responsible. Was it the basin-forming event of the landing site's neighbor Serenitatis (possibly Nectarian age); the larger, nearby Imbrium basin (Imbrian age and one of the last large basins to form); a combination of these impacts or an impact event older or younger than all of the above. Tracking down the origin of the boulders would ideally unravel details of the formation age of the breccias and, ultimately, help with the historical record of basin formation on the Moon. Hurwitz and Kring verified the boulders rolled down from massif walls - Apollo 17 impact melt breccias originated in massif material, not from the Sculptured Hills, an overlying geologic unit. But the relative geologic context is easier to explain than the absolute age, at least until some discrepancies are resolved in existing Ar-Ar and U-Pb radiometric ages of the Apollo 17

  9. Constraining Landscape History and Glacial Erosivity Using Paired Cosmogenic Nuclides in Upernavik, Northwest Greenland (United States)

    Corbett, Lee B.; Bierman, Paul R.; Graly, Joseph A.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Rood, Dylan H.


    High-latitude landscape evolution processes have the potential to preserve old, relict surfaces through burial by cold-based, nonerosive glacial ice. To investigate landscape history and age in the high Arctic, we analyzed in situ cosmogenic Be(sup 10) and Al (sup 26) in 33 rocks from Upernavik, northwest Greenland. We sampled adjacent bedrock-boulder pairs along a 100 km transect at elevations up to 1000 m above sea level. Bedrock samples gave significantly older apparent exposure ages than corresponding boulder samples, and minimum limiting ages increased with elevation. Two-isotope calculations Al(sup26)/B(sup 10) on 20 of the 33 samples yielded minimum limiting exposure durations up to 112 k.y., minimum limiting burial durations up to 900 k.y., and minimum limiting total histories up to 990 k.y. The prevalence of BE(sup 10) and Al(sup 26) inherited from previous periods of exposure, especially in bedrock samples at high elevation, indicates that these areas record long and complex surface exposure histories, including significant periods of burial with little subglacial erosion. The long total histories suggest that these high elevation surfaces were largely preserved beneath cold-based, nonerosive ice or snowfields for at least the latter half of the Quaternary. Because of high concentrations of inherited nuclides, only the six youngest boulder samples appear to record the timing of ice retreat. These six samples suggest deglaciation of the Upernavik coast at 11.3 +/- 0.5 ka (average +/- 1 standard deviation). There is no difference in deglaciation age along the 100 km sample transect, indicating that the ice-marginal position retreated rapidly at rates of approx.120 m yr(sup-1).

  10. Enhanced Gravity Tractor Technique for Planetary Defense (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, David M.; Hopkins, Joshua B.; Wade, Darren W.; Tantardini, Marco; Shen, Haijun


    Given sufficient warning time, Earth-impacting asteroids and comets can be deflected with a variety of different "slow push/pull" techniques. The gravity tractor is one technique that uses the gravitational attraction of a rendezvous spacecraft to the impactor and a low-thrust, high-efficiency propulsion system to provide a gradual velocity change and alter its trajectory. An innovation to this technique, known as the Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT), uses mass collected in-situ to augment the mass of the spacecraft, thereby greatly increasing the gravitational force between the objects. The collected material can be a single boulder, multiple boulders, regolith or a combination of different sources. The collected mass would likely range from tens to hundreds of metric tons depending on the size of the impactor and warning time available. Depending on the propulsion system's capability and the mass collected, the EGT approach can reduce the deflection times by a factor of 10 to 50 or more, thus reducing the deflection times of several decades to years or less and overcoming the main criticism of the traditional gravity tractor approach. Additionally, multiple spacecraft can orbit the target in formation to provide the necessary velocity change and further reduce the time needed by the EGT technique to divert hazardous asteroids and comets. The robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) will collect a multi-ton boulder from the surface of a large Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and will provide the first ever demonstration of the EGT technique and validate one method of collecting in-situ mass on an asteroid of hazardous size.

  11. Delay/Disruption Tolerance Networking (DTN) Implementation and Utilization Options on the International Space Station (United States)

    Holbrook, Mark; Pitts, Robert Lee; Gifford, Kevin K.; Jenkins, Andrew; Kuzminsky, Sebastian


    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration and nearing final assembly. With its maturity and diverse payloads onboard, the opportunity exists to extend the orbital lab into a facility to exercise and demonstrate Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN). DTN is an end-to-end network service providing communications through environments characterized by intermittent connectivity, variable delays, high bit error rates, asymmetric links and simplex links. The DTN protocols, also known as bundle protocols, provide a store-and-forward capability to accommodate end-to-end network services. Key capabilities of the bundling protocols include: the Ability to cope with intermittent connectivity, the Ability to take advantage of scheduled and opportunistic connectivity (in addition to always up connectivity), Custody Transfer, and end-to-end security. Colorado University at Boulder and the Huntsville Operational Support Center (HOSC) have been developing a DTN capability utilizing the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload resources onboard the ISS, at the Boulder Payload Operations Center (POC) and at the HOSC. The DTN capability is in parallel with and is designed to augment current capabilities. The architecture consists of DTN endpoint nodes on the ISS and at the Boulder POC, and a DTN node at the HOSC. The DTN network is composed of two implementations; the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) and the open source DTN2 implementation. This paper presents the architecture, implementation, and lessons learned. By being able to handle the types of environments described above, the DTN technology will be instrumental in extending networks into deep space to support future missions to other planets and other solar system points of interest. Thus, this paper also discusses how this technology will be applicable to these types of deep space exploration missions.

  12. Isotopic data for Late Cretaceous intrusions and associated altered and mineralized rocks in the Big Belt Mountains, Montana (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.; Unruh, Daniel M.; Hofstra, Albert H.


    The quartz monzodiorite of Mount Edith and the concentrically zoned intrusive suite of Boulder Baldy constitute the principal Late Cretaceous igneous intrusions hosted by Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of the Newland Formation in the Big Belt Mountains, Montana. These calc-alkaline plutonic masses are manifestations of subduction-related magmatism that prevailed along the western edge of North America during the Cretaceous. Radiogenic isotope data for neodymium, strontium, and lead indicate that the petrogenesis of the associated magmas involved a combination of (1) sources that were compositionally heterogeneous at the scale of the geographically restricted intrusive rocks in the Big Belt Mountains and (2) variable contamination by crustal assimilants also having diverse isotopic compositions. Altered and mineralized rocks temporally, spatially, and genetically related to these intrusions manifest at least two isotopically distinct mineralizing events, both of which involve major inputs from spatially associated Late Cretaceous igneous rocks. Alteration and mineralization of rock associated with the intrusive suite of Boulder Baldy requires a component characterized by significantly more radiogenic strontium than that characteristic of the associated igneous rocks. However, the source of such a component was not identified in the Big Belt Mountains. Similarly, altered and mineralized rocks associated with the quartz monzodiorite of Mount Edith include a component characterized by significantly more radiogenic strontium and lead, particularly as defined by 207Pb/204Pb values. The source of this component appears to be fluids that equilibrated with proximal Newland Formation rocks. Oxygen isotope data for rocks of the intrusive suite of Boulder Baldy are similar to those of subduction-related magmatism that include mantle-derived components; oxygen isotope data for altered and mineralized equivalents are slightly lighter.

  13. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) observations of glacial and periglacial morphologies in the circum-Argyre Planitia highlands, Mars (United States)

    Banks, Maria E.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Baker, Victor R.; Strom, Robert G.; Mellon, Michael T.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Pelletier, Jon D.; Jaeger, Windy L.


    The landscape of the Argyre Planitia and adjoining Charitum and Nereidum Montes in the southern hemisphere of Mars has been heavily modified since formation of the Argyre impact basin. This study examines morphologies in the Argyre region revealed in images acquired by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera and discusses the implications for glacial and periglacial processes. Distinctive features such as large grooves, semicircular embayments in high topography, and streamlined hills are interpreted as glacially eroded grooves, cirques, and whalebacks or roche moutonnée, respectively. Large boulders scattered across the floor of a valley may be ground moraine deposited by ice ablation. Glacial interpretations are supported by the association of these features with other landforms typical of glaciated landscapes such as broad valleys with parabolic cross sections and stepped longitudinal profiles, lobate debris aprons interpreted as remnant debris covered glaciers or rock glaciers, and possible hanging valleys. Aligned boulders observed on slopes may also indicate glacial processes such as fluting. Alternatively, boulders aligned on slopes and organized in clumps and polygonal patterns on flatter surfaces may indicate periglacial processes, perhaps postglaciation, that form patterned ground. At least portions of the Argyre region appear to have been modified by processes of ice accumulation, glacial flow, erosion, sediment deposition, ice stagnation and ablation, and perhaps subsequent periglacial processes. The type of bedrock erosion apparent in images suggests that glaciers were, at times, wet based. The number of superposed craters is consistent with geologically recent glacial activity, but may be due to subsequent modification.

  14. Forearm muscle oxygenation during sustained isometric contractions in rock climbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kodejška


    Full Text Available Background. Bouldering and lead climbing are divergent disciplines of the sport of rock climbing. Bouldering moves are short and powerful, whilst sport climbing is longer and require a greater degree of endurance. Aim. The aim of this study was to compare forearm muscle oxygenation during sustained isometric contraction between lead climbers (LC and boulderers (BO. Methods. Eight BO and twelve LC completed maximal finger flexor strength test and sustained contractions to exhaustion at 60% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Differences between BO and LC in maximal strength, time to exhaustion, force time integral (FTI, and tissue oxygenation (SmO2 were assessed by t-test for independent samples. Results. LC showed significantly lower level of average tissue oxygenation (BO 38.9% SmO2, s = 7.4; LC 28.7% SmO2, s = 7.1 and maximal tissue deoxygenation (BO 25.6% SmO2, s = 8.2; LC 13.5% SmO2, s = 8.5. LC demonstrated significantly lower finger flexor strength (519 N, s = 72 than BO (621 N, s = 142. LC sustained a longer time of contraction (not significantly (BO 52.2 s, s = 11.5; LC 60.6 s, s = 13 and achieved a similar value of FTI (BO 17421 Ns, s = 4291; LO 17476 Ns, s = 5036 in the endurance test. Conclusions. The results showed lower deoxygenation during sustained contraction in BO than LC despite similar FTI, indicating different local metabolic pathways in both groups.

  15. Glacier advances in northeastern Turkey before and during the global Last Glacial Maximum (United States)

    Reber, Regina; Akçar, Naki; Yesilyurt, Serdar; Yavuz, Vural; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Kubik, Peter W.; Schlüchter, Christian


    Our study in the Başyayla Valley in northeastern Anatolia showed evidence of four glacier advances that built terminal and lateral moraines. Surface exposure dating of boulders on these moraines showed that the Maximum Ice Extent (MIE) was asynchronous with the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 22.1 ± 4.3 thousand years; ka). The local MIE took place at least 57.0 ± 3.5 ka ago. The extent of the Başyayla Glacier during this advance is not known exactly because the boulders are only preserved on a lateral moraine. The next advance was prior to 41.5 ± 2.5 ka, and it descended down the valley to approximately 2320 m above sea level (m a.s.l.), with a glacier length of 5.3 km. During the early global LGM, the Başyayla Glacier extended for a distance of 4.9 km down to approx. 2430 m a.s.l. The last recorded advance occurred during the global LGM. This extension was 0.7 km smaller than the local MIE and its terminus reached 2490 m a.s.l. only. The exposure ages of boulders in a retreat position at an altitude of approx. 3045 m a.s.l. indicate that the valley has remained ice-free since the Lateglacial period. Therefore, the Lateglacial extent was limited to the cirque system in the uppermost part of the catchment. Furthermore, Holocene glacier oscillations seem to be either absent or restricted to solifluction in the whole catchment and to rock glacier movements in the southern tributary of the Başyayla Valley system.

  16. Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST) for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Abell, Paul; Reeves, David M.; NASA Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST)


    The Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST) for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) was a two-month effort, chartered by NASA, to provide timely inputs for mission requirement formulation in support of the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) Requirements Closure Technical Interchange Meeting held December 15-16, 2015. Additionally, the FAST was tasked with developing an initial list of potential mission investigations and providing input on potential hosted payloads and partnerships. The FAST explored several aspects of potential science benefits and knowledge gain from the ARM. Expertise from the science, engineering, and technology communities was represented in exploring lines of inquiry related to key characteristics of the ARRM reference target asteroid (2008 EV5) for engineering design purposes. Specific areas of interest included target origin, spatial distribution and size of boulders, surface geotechnical properties, boulder physical properties, and considerations for boulder handling, crew safety, and containment. In order to increase knowledge gain potential from the mission, opportunities for partnerships and accompanying payloads that could be provided by domestic and international partners were also investigated. The ARM FAST final report was publicly released on February 18, 2016 and represents the FAST's final product. The report and associated public comments are being used to support mission requirements formulation and serve as an initial inquiry to the science and engineering communities relating to the characteristics of the ARRM reference target asteroid. This report also provides a suggested list of potential investigations sorted and grouped based on their likely benefit to ARM and potential relevance to NASA science and exploration goals. These potential investigations could be conducted to reduce mission risks and increase knowledge return in the areas of science, planetary defense, asteroid resources and in-situ resource

  17. Weathering Processes and Concentration-Discharge Patterns in Granitic Landscapes of the Critical Zone Network (United States)

    Aguirre, A. A.; Derry, L. A.; Mills, T. J.


    Concentration-discharge relationships for silica in granitic landscapes vary throughout the critical zone network. In the Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico silica concentrations show strong dilution effects (Shanley et al., 2011). At the Boulder Creek CZO the Gordon Gulch catchment shows nearly constant dissolved silica (DSi) concentrations over three orders of magnitude change in discharge (Q). A major question is what controls the range of dilution to chemostatic behavior in catchments with similar lithology. Given that anything but perfect dilution behavior implies an increase in silica flux with increasing Q, we infer that different sources of DSi may be activated at different Q. Tracer data (Ge/Si) indicate that sources of DSi do change with Q in some systems (Kurtz et al., 2011). The CZO sites at Luquillo (LCZO), Boulder (BCCZO), Southern Sierra (SSCZO) and Santa Catalina-Jemez (SCCZO) share similar granitoid bedrock composition. We want to understand how the variation in climate, hydrology and weathering have influenced their regolith development and reach a better understanding of the DSi-Q patterns. Data from the SSCZO and BCCZO sites indicate that these systems have chemostatic C-Q behavior for Si and other major weathering products. However, Ge/Si and Si relationships between sites vary drastically. At the SSCZO Ge/Si ratios are very low, but increase at lower Si concentrations. This behavior is consistent with release of Si from plagioclase weathering and strong control of DGe by clay neoformation. At BCCZO, Ge/Si increases with increasing Si. In Boulder, DSi (as defined operationally by filtering at 0.45 μm) includes transport as colloidal particles that are important under certain hydrologic states. Thus the hydrochemical mechanisms responsible for chemostatic behavior of DSi differ significantly between the two locations despite similar lithologies and climate. Current work in soil and rock samples from BCCZO and SSCZO will help elaborate how mineralogical

  18. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 1, Oregon, 1985 Annual and Final Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Ken


    The Hot Springs Fork of the Collawash River is a major sub-drainage in the Clackamas River drainage. Emphasis species for natural production are spring chinook, coho salmon, and winter steelhead. Increased natural production appears limited by a lack of quality rearing habitat. Habitat complexity over approximately 70% of accessible area to anadromous fish has been reduced over the last 40 years by numerous factors. Natural passage barriers limit anadromous fish access to over 7 miles of high quality habitat. In the first year of a multi-year effort to improve fish habitat in the Hot Springs Fork drainage, passage enhancement on two tributaries and channel rehabilitation on one of those tributaries was completed. Three waterfalls on Nohorn Creek were evaluated and passage improved on the uppermost waterfall to provide steelhead full access to 2.4 miles of good quality habitat. The work was completed in October 1985 and involved blasting three jump pools and two holding pools into the waterfall. On Pansy Creek, four potential passage barriers were evaluated and passage improvement work conducted on two logjams and one waterfall. Minor modifications were made to a waterfall to increase flow into a side channel which allows passage around the waterfall. Channel rehabilitation efforts on Pansy Creek (RM 0.0 to 0.3) to increase low flow pool rearing habitat and spawning habitat including blasting five pools into areas of bedrock substrate and using a track-mounted backhoe to construct instream structures. On site materials were used to construct three log sills, three boulder berms, a boulder flow deflector, and five log and boulder structures. Also, an alcove was excavated to provide overwinter rearing habitat. Pre-project monitoring consisting of physical and biological data collection was completed in the project area.

  19. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments of western Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York (United States)

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Clos, Andrew R.; Parker, Castle E.


    Multibeam-echosounder data, collected during survey H12299 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 162-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York, are used along with sediment samples and bottom photography, collected at 37 stations in this area by the U.S. Geological Survey during cruise 2013-005-FA, to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These data and interpretations provide important base maps for future studies of the sea floor, focused, for example, on benthic ecology and resource management. The features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the glacial history and modern tidal regime. Features include bedforms such as sand waves and megaripples, boulders, a large current-scoured depression, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and areas of modern marine sediment. Sand covers much of the study area and is often in the form of sand waves and megaripples, which indicate environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Boulders and gravelly lag deposits, which indicate environments of erosion or nondeposition, are found off the coast of Gardiners Island and on bathymetric highs, probably marking areas where deposits associated with recessional ice-front positions, the northern flank of the terminal moraine, or coastal-plain sediments covered with basal till are exposed. Bottom photographs and video of boulders show that they are commonly covered with sessile fauna. Strong tidal currents have produced the deep scour depression along the northwestern edge of the study area. The eastern side of this depression is armored with a gravel lag. Sea-floor areas characterized by modern marine sediments appear featureless at the 2-meter resolution of the bathymetry and flat to current rippled in the photography. These modern environments are indicative of sediment sorting and reworking.

  20. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM): Exploration of a Former Binary NEA? (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) as a capability demonstration for future human exploration, including use of high-power solar electric propulsion, which allows for the efficient movement of large masses through deep space. The ARM will also demonstrate the capability to conduct proximity operations with natural space objects and crewed operations beyond the security of quick Earth return. The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), currently in formulation, will visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, conduct a demonstration of a slow push planetary defense technique, and redirect the multi-ton boulder into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts aboard an Orion spacecraft will dock with the robotic vehicle to explore the boulder and return samples to Earth. The ARM is part of NASA's plan to advance technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. The ARM and subsequent availability of the asteroidal material in cis-lunar space, provide significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The current reference target for the ARM is NEA (341843) 2008 EV5, which may have been the primary body of a former binary system (Busch et al., 2011; Tardivel et al., 2016). The ARRM will perform several close proximity operations to investigate the NEA and map its surface. A detailed investigation of this object may allow a better understanding of binary NEA physical characteristics and the possible outcomes for their evolution. An overview of the ARM robotic and crewed segments, including mission operations, and a discussion of potential opportunities for participation with the ARM will be provided in this presentation.

  1. Logistical Support for the Installation of the Plate Boundary Observatory GPS and Borehole Strainmeter Networks (United States)

    Kurnik, C.; Austin, K.; Coyle, B.; Dittmann, T.; Feaux, K.; Friesen, B.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Pauk, B.; Walls, C.


    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, is designed to study the three- dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. To meet these goals, UNAVCO will install 880 continuous GPS stations, 103 borehole strainmeter stations, 28 tiltmeters, and five laser strainmeters by October 2008. Such a broad network presents significant logisitical challenges, including moving supplies, equipment, and personnel around 6 million square kilometers, and this requires accurate tracking and careful planning. The PBO logistics chain includes the PBO headquarters at UNAVCO in Boulder, Colorado and five regional offices in the continental United States and Alaska, served by dozens of suppliers spread across the globe. These offices are responsible for building and maintaining sites in their region. Most equipment and supplies first arrive in Boulder, where they are tagged and entered into a UNAVCO-wide equipment database, assembled and quality checked as necessary, and sent on to the appropriate regional office. Larger items which are costly to store and ship from Boulder, such as batteries or long sections of stainless steel pipe and bar required for monuments, are shipped directly from the supplier to each region as needed. These supplies and equipment are also tracked through the ordering, delivery, installation, and maintenance cycle via Earned Value Management techniques which allow us to meet NSF and other Federal procurement rules. Early prototypes and assembly configurations aid the development of material and supply budgets. A thorough understanding of Federal procurement rules at project start up is critical as the project moves forward.

  2. Evaluating the timing of former glacier expansions in the Tian Shan: A key step towards robust spatial correlations (United States)

    Blomdin, R.; Stroeven, A. P.; Harbor, J. M.; Lifton, N. A.; Heyman, J.; Gribenski, N.; Petrakov, D. A.; Caffee, M. W.; Ivanov, M. N.; Hättestrand, C.; Rogozhina, I.; Usubaliev, R.


    The timing of past glaciation across the Tian Shan provides a proxy for past climate change in this critical area. Correlating glacial stages across the region is difficult but cosmogenic exposure ages have considerable potential. A drawback is the large observed scatter in 10Be surface exposure data. To quantify the robustness of the dating, we compile, recalculate, and perform statistical analyses on sets of 10Be surface exposure ages from 25 moraines, consisting of 114 new and previously published ages. We assess boulder age scatter by dividing boulder groups into quality classes and rejecting boulder groups of poor quality. This allows us to distinguish and correlate robustly dated glacier limits, resulting in a more conservative chronology than advanced in previous publications. Our analysis shows that only one regional glacial stage can be reliably correlated across the Tian Shan, with glacier expansions occurring between 15 and 28 ka during marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 2. However, there are examples of older more extensive indicators of glacial stages between MIS 3 and MIS 6. Paleoglacier extent during MIS 2 was mainly restricted to valley glaciation. Local deviations occur: in the central Kyrgyz Tian Shan paleoglaciers were more extensive and we propose that the topographic context explains this pattern. Correlation between glacial stages prior to late MIS 2 is less reliable, because of the low number of samples and/or the poor resolution of the dating. With the current resolution and spatial coverage of robustly-dated glacier limits we advise that paleoclimatic implications for the Tian Shan glacial chronology beyond MIS 2 are speculative and that continued work toward robust glacial chronologies is needed to resolve questions regarding drivers of past glaciation in the Tian Shan and Central Asia.

  3. Applications of Cosmogenic He-3 and Ne-21 Dating to Glacial Moraines in Antarctica and California (United States)

    Sams, S.; Morgan, D. J.; Balco, G.; Putkonen, J.; Bibby, T.


    The depositional age of moraines can be determined through cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating. These ages are useful in establishing a glacial history of an area and ascribing age constraints to transport processes. Be-10 is the most common nuclide used for exposure dating today, but this method is both expensive and time consuming because it requires analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). He-3 and Ne-21 can be analyzed using noble gas mass spectrometry, which is more cost efficient than AMS and requires less chemical preparation. We collected samples from areas in Moraine Canyon, Antarctica (86.10° S, 157.75° W), which is a dry valley in the Transantarctic Mountains. Dolerite boulders along a transect of recessional moraines were sampled in the typical fashion of using a large piece of the boulder for analysis. Pyroxene minerals have been separated from these samples following the method of Bromley et al. (2014) using hydrofluoric acid. Exposure ages will be calculated from the He-3 concentrations in them. In the Mono Lake area of California, moraines were sampled from Bloody Canyon and McGee Creek sites. Instead of collecting a sample from an individual boulder, we collected approximately 25 granitic pebbles (1-3 cm) from 4-6 sites along the crest of the moraines following the method of Briner (2009). Each suite of pebbles was crushed together, and quartz minerals were separated from the agglomeration of pebbles. Cosmogenic Ne-21 will be measured from these samples to determine their exposure age. From these two field sites, we will use He-3 and Ne-21 to better understand the timing and extent of glaciation in these areas.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. French; E.Y. Anthony; P.C. Goodell


    The Pena Blanca natural analog is located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, approximately 50 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The Sierra Pena Blanca is composed mainly of ash-flow tuffs, and the uranium in the region is contained in the brecciated zones of these tuffs. The Pena Blanca site is considered a natural analog to the proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository because they share similar characteristics of structure, volcanic lithology, tectonic activity, and hydrologic regime. One of the mineralized zones, the Nopal I deposit, was mined in the early 1980s and the ore was stockpiled close to the mine. This stockpile area has subsequently been cleared and is referred to as the prior high-grade stockpile (PHGS) site. Soil surrounding boulders of high-grade ore associated with the PHGS site have been sampled. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radioisotopes from the boulder to the soil during the past 25 years. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. The daughter to parent ratios are used to establish whether the samples are in secular equilibrium. Activities are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected by gamma-ray spectroscopy include {sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, and {sup 234}Pa. Preliminary results indicate that some daughter to parent pairs appear to be in secular disequilibrium. Thorium is in excess relative to uranium, and radium is in excess relative to thorium. A deficiency appears to exist for {sup 210}Pb relative to {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb. If these results are borne out by further analysis, they would suggest transport of nuclides from the high-grade boulder into its surroundings, followed by continued leaching of uranium and lead from the environment.

  5. Tafoni – presenting characteristics of a landform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Ozis


    Full Text Available Landforms tafoni and alveoli – shallow caverns formed in boulders and rock faces – are presented in the article, with greater emphasis given on tafoni. Tafoni occur in different climate and rocks types, they are formed by cavernous weathering. In Slovenian geographical literature term tafoni rarely occurs. Exceptions are some examples of describing tafoni as landforms that are similar to another landform – rock shelters. The aim of this article is to present main characteristics of tafoni, introduce some terms that are being related to tafoni, present dilemmas related to existing knowledge of tafoni, and present tafoni’s features that are different from that of rock shelters.

  6. U.S. Army Attaches and the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939: The Gathering of Technical and Tactical Intelligence (United States)


    MID, RG 165; Fuller to MID, 10 Mar 37, 2657-S-144/130, MID, RG 165. 45Andres Baget Fornells, "Alas Rusas Sobre Espaina," Historia Y Vida 19 (224...Extranjera en la Guerra de Espana (Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1974), 440-448. 54Fuqua to MID, 13 Aug 37, 2657-S-144/62, MID, RG 165; Waite to MID, 4 Feb 37...Whiting, Kenneth R. Soviet Air Power. Boulder, Colorado and London, England, 1985. 136 Articles Baget Fornells, Andres. "Alas Rusas Sobre Espana

  7. Anchors from Goa waters, central west coast of India: Remains of Goa's overseas trade contacts with Arabian countries and Portugal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    lying in between the outcrop of lateritic boulders. The shank has a hole meant for a metal ring, however the ring is missing. The length of the each fluke is 1.10 m. One fluke is exposed and the other is inside the crevices... & SUNDARESH: ANCHORS FROM GOA WATERS, CENTRAL WEST COAST OF INDIA between the nails. However, no iron bands have been provided for fastening the wooden stock. The anchor has an iron ring, which is corroded. Further, a thick coat of yellowish cement...

  8. Best practice for restoration of stone reefs in Denmark (codes of conduct)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Karsten; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Stenberg, Claus;

    This report includes recommendations for all phases of a boulder reef restoration project. The document includes an initial identification of relevant objectives for restoration, public involvement and identifies possible sources of relevant historic information as well as risks to be considered....... A set of specific biological and environmental objectives that can influence the choice of design of the new reef structure is also presented. The report also includes a set of recommendations for the construction phase, requirements for safety navigation when the restoration work is finalized...

  9. Wear Analysis of Wind Turbine Gearbox Bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Xu, Hanbing [ORNL; Parten, Randy J [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Geer, Tom [ORNL


    The objective of this effort was to investigate and characterize the nature of surface damage and wear to wind turbine gearbox bearings returned from service in the field. Bearings were supplied for examination by S. Butterfield and J. Johnson of the National Wind Technology Center (NREL), Boulder, Colorado. Studies consisted of visual examination, optical and electron microscopy, dimensional measurements of wear-induced macro-scale and micro-scale features, measurements of macro- and micro-scale hardness, 3D imaging of surface damage, studies of elemental distributions on fracture surfaces, and examinations of polished cross-sections of surfaces under various etched and non-etched conditions.

  10. Coronal magnetometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jie; Bastian, Timothy


    This volume is a collection of research articles on the subject of the solar corona, and particularly, coronal magnetism. The book was motivated by the Workshop on Coronal Magnetism: Connecting Models to Data and the Corona to the Earth, which was held 21 - 23 May 2012 in Boulder, Colorado, USA. This workshop was attended by approximately 60 researchers. Articles from this meeting are contained in this topical issue, but the topical issue also contains contributions from researchers not present at the workshop. This volume is aimed at researchers and graduate students active in solar physics. Originally published in Solar Physics, Vol. 288, Issue 2, 2013 and Vol. 289, Issue 8, 2014.

  11. Multiple subglacial till deposition: A modern exemplar for Quaternary palaeoglaciology (United States)

    Evans, David J. A.; Roberts, David H.; Evans, Sian C.


    The sedimentology of a vertical succession of alternating beds of massive and fissile diamictons on a þorisjökull plateau icefield outlet foreland is employed to assess the evolution of subglacial traction tills at the margins of active temperate glaciers with deformable substrates, where tills appear to form sub-marginal incrementally thickened wedges that display multiple till emplacement events, potentially of annual scale. Lodged boulders display strong A-axes and surface striae alignments which parallel surface flutings, indicating that fluting construction and till emplacement were related to moulding by consistent glacier flow from the SSW during the Little Ice Age. In contrast, clast macrofabrics at the sub-boulder size, not unlike those reported from other Icelandic tills, are not as strong as would be expected in a subglacially sheared medium, indicating shear strains too low for a steady state strain signature. This separation of fabric data has isolated the strain signatures of the lodgement and deformation components of subglacial traction till, whereby the orientations of the largest, lodged clasts record high cumulative shear strains and those of the sub-boulder sized clasts record greater susceptibility to deformation of their enclosing matrix. This is likely due to the effect of clast collisions in clast rich till and the perturbations set up by the numerous large boulders, consistent with observations on till fabrics in flutings and around lodged clasts. A/B plane macrofabric data display unusually high degrees of isotropy, reflective of the more variable orientations of A/B planes, which are thought to reflect A/B plane susceptibility to dip parallel or anastomosing shear planes. A wide range of clast angularity values reflects the localized input of freshly plucked and hence relatively highly angular blocks to the deforming layer, a characteristic of stepped bedrock profiles beneath the snouts of mountain glaciers. Finally, we hypothesize that

  12. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Ashroe Dam (NJ00023), Delaware River Basin, Branch of Big Flat Brook, Sussex County, New Jersey. Phase I Inspection Report. (United States)


    discharges into the spillway riser. A toe drain ) system which involved 4-inch diameter perforated asbestos-cement pipes and a rock fill toe blanket...repaired by the placement of cobbles and boulders. There appeared to be no warning system in effect. SECTION 5 HYDRAULIC/HYDROLOGIC Available...r* T oLAVE ASI-4FOE 4’,4 625- 1 5LRlCC PO H’ cI.AES i AS AD0’ IPTV ~ S~IA AWVIN SCOUT LIESERVATION AT LAI-E Asl4jzoe ("s7--12z) P-~ATe:P MAY, 1969

  13. A Staged Reading of the Play: W=S:Transistor Shock (United States)


    A university is offered funding, but only if they'll name a building for William Shockley. William Shockley was an American physicist and inventor who won the Nobel Prize for his work on the transistor, but was infamous for his support of eugenics. What do they do? Join us for a dramatic staged reading of Transistor Shock, a new play by Ivan K. Schuller and Adam J. Smith, performed by the Boulder Ensemble Theatre Company. After the performance, the director, actors, and playwrights will be available for audience discussion.

  14. Mexico in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hogenboom


    Full Text Available – Mexico’s Politics and Society in Transition, edited by Joseph S. Tulchin and Andrew D. Selee. Boulder/London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003. – México al inicio del siglo XXI: democracia, cuidadanía y desarrollo, edited by Alberto Aziz Nassif. México: CIESAS & Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 2003. – Globalización y alternativas incluyentes para el siglo XXI, edited by Jorge Basave, Alejandro Dabat, Carlos Morera, Miguel Ángel Rivera Ríos & Francisco Rodríguez. México: Instituto de Investigaciones Económica. UNAM & Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 2002.

  15. The Logistics of Waging War 1982-1993 (United States)


    The U.S. Intervention in Panama Boulder. 1991 3 Hughes, David . "Night Airdrop in Panama Surprises Nonega’s Forces". Aviation Week & Space Technology, 30...January 1. 1990). 5. Bond, David F. "Six F-1i17As Flown in Panama Invasion Air Force Broadens Daytime Operations." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 30...8217 .~~~-- Riyadh- "- Taif Al Ohafra Seea Masirah Khamis Mushait -- Omand Sudan . "-" -Thumrait "Yemen Ethiopia Figure 3. Intratheater C-130 Camel Routes

  16. Microspine Gripping Mechanism for Asteroid Capture (United States)

    Merriam, Ezekiel G.; Berg, Andrew B.; Willig, Andrew; Parness, Aaron; Frey, Tim; Howell, Larry L.


    This paper details the development and early testing of a compliant suspension for a microspine gripper device for asteroid capture or micro-gravity percussive drilling. The microspine gripper architecture is reviewed, and a proposed microspine suspension design is presented and discussed. Prototyping methods are discussed, as well as testing methods and results. A path forward is identified from the results of the testing completed thus far. Key findings include: the microspine concept has been established as a valid architecture and the compliant suspension exhibits the desired stiffness characteristics for good gripping behavior. These developments will aid in developing the capability to grasp irregularly shaped boulders in micro-gravity.

  17. Certification of NIST Room Temperature Low-Energy and High-Energy Charpy Verification Specimens


    Lucon, Enrico; McCowan, Chris N.; Santoyo, Ray L.


    The possibility for NIST to certify Charpy reference specimens for testing at room temperature (21 °C ± 1 °C) instead of −40 °C was investigated by performing 130 room-temperature tests from five low-energy and four high-energy lots of steel on the three master Charpy machines located in Boulder, CO. The statistical analyses performed show that in most cases the variability of results (i.e., the experimental scatter) is reduced when testing at room temperature. For eight out of the nine lots ...

  18. Medicine Wheels of the Great Plains (United States)

    Vogt, David

    Medicine Wheels are unexplained aboriginal boulder configurations found primarily on hilltops and river valley vistas across the northwest Great Plains of North America. Their varied, complex designs have inspired diverse hypotheses concerning their meaning and purpose, including astronomical ones. While initial "observatory" speculations were unfounded, and quests to "decode" these structures remain unfulfilled and possibly misguided, the Medicine Wheels nevertheless represent a uniquely worthwhile case study in archaeoastronomical theory and method. In addition, emerging technologies for data acquisition and analysis pertinent to Medicine Wheels offer prospectively important new sight lines for the future of archaeoastronomy.

  19. Viewpoint – The Washington Consensus, Chilean Water Monopolization and the Peruvian Draft Water Law of the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Solanes


    The managers of two public agencies in Peru were concerned about the impact that the Draft Law was to have on Peruvian public interests, such as agriculture, energy, and water supply and sanitation. They spearheaded a coalition, including United States universities (New Mexico, Colorado at Boulder, California at Davis the Water Directorate of Chile, the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, agricultural water communities in Peru, and the technical offices dealing with water at the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank, to have a critical discussion of the Draft Law. The discussion took several years, at the end of which the Draft was rejected.

  20. The Mexican Military Approaches the 21st Century: Coping with a New World Order (United States)


    34 Proceso, December 9, 1991, pp. 6-10; and Instituto Mexicano de Estudios Politicos AC., Polftica Mexicana, January 17,1992, pp. 1-3. 30. Clark W...Martin Lipset (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1990), pp. 464-465 and 472-474; and Jorge Alberto Lozoya, El Ejercito Mexicano , 3d ed. (Mexico City: Jornadas...15 March 1926. 4. Ley Orgqnica del Ej6rcito y Fuerza Aerea Mexicanos , 18 March 1971. 5. Ley Org~nica del Ejercito y Fuerza Aerea Mexicanos , 8

  1. Critical issues in water and wastewater treatment. Proceedings of the 1994 national conference on environmental engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J.N.; Edwards, M. [eds.] [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering


    This proceedings, Critical Issues in Water and Wastewater, contains short versions of most of the 114 papers presented at the 1994 Specialty Conference on Environmental Engineering held in Boulder, Colorado on July 11 to 13, 1994. These papers are organized into 23 distinct sessions that focus primarily on water treatment, water distribution, and wastewater treatment. Some of the topics discussed concern microbes in drinking water, contaminated groundwater remediation, and the effects of floods on hazardous waste sites. To summarize, this proceedings provides a practical and timely reference for engineers interested in the current state of water and wastewater concerns.

  2. Development of a nursing automated documentation system. (United States)

    Holmes, S B; Fuhrmann, M; Ivancin, L


    As hospital length of stay has decreased and patient acuity has increased, the nurse is confronted daily with the challenge of managing time between patient care and documentation. Documentation of care has consistently been a time-consuming and frustrating part of nursing practice. The nursing shortage has only compounded this problem. St. Joseph's Hospital has creatively begun to facilitate documentation by developing a Nursing Automated Documentation System (NADS) in collaboration with CliniCom, Inc. of Boulder, Colorado. This article documents the development and implementation of the system.

  3. Archaeological Mitigation of AR-102. (United States)


    that there were people present -a i II II -9- I I in the Piedra Lumbre Valley at that time (pre-5500 B.C.). Warren, for example, mentions the use of...question that the quarry was utilized by the inhabitants of the Piedra Lumbre Valley and thus was integrally fj related to the exploitative patterns of the...different levels. Caliche Ideposits on a number of boulders in Area A (Fig. 3) document the erosion of up to 25 cm. of surface soil from this affected slope

  4. Reading the Revolution: Where Has the Literature Taken Us in Understanding Cuba?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Kapcia


    Full Text Available – Cuba. A New History, by Richard Gott. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2004. – The Cuban Revolution. Past, Present and Future Perspectives, by Geraldine  Lievesley. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. – People’s Power. Cuba’s Experience with Representative Government, by Peter  Roman. (Updated edition Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford:  Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.  – Cuba. A Revolution in Motion, by Isaac Saney. Black Point, Nova Scotia: Fernwood Books; London: Zed Books, 2003.

  5. Landslide in Aureum Chaos (United States)


    15 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of a small landslide off of a hillslope in the Aureum Chaos region of Mars. Mass movement occurred from right (the slope) to left (the lobate feature pointed left). Small dark dots in the landslide area are large boulders. This feature is located near 2.6oS, 24.5oW. This picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left.

  6. The Biggest Stick: The Employment of Artillery Units in Counterinsurgency (United States)


    Guerrilla Warfare, trans. by Samuel B. Griffith (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1961), 44-45. 21Ibid., Tables 1-4. At times, Mao‘s works were...Organic Fires?‖ Field Artillery (March-June 2004): 13-18. Beckett , Ian. ―The British Counter-insurgency Campaign in Dhofar, 1965-1975.‖ In...44-85. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1980. Mao Tse-Tung. On Guerrilla Warfare. Translated by Samuel B. Griffith. Chicago: University of Illinois

  7. Rockfall risk evaluation using geotechnical survey, remote sensing data, and GIS: a case study from western Greece (United States)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos; Depountis, Nikolaos; Vagenas, Nikolaos; Kavoura, Katerina; Vlaxaki, Eleni; Kelasidis, George; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos


    In this paper a specific example of the synergistic use of geotechnical survey, remote sensing data and GIS for rockfall risk evaluation is presented. The study area is located in Western Greece. Extensive rockfalls have been recorded along Patras - Ioannina highway just after the cable-stayed bridge of Rio-Antirrio, at Klokova site. The rockfalls include medium- sized limestone boulders with volume up to 1.5m3. A detailed engineering geological survey was conducted including rockmass characterization, laboratory testing and geological - geotechnical mapping. Many Rockfall trajectory simulations were done. Rockfall risk along the road was estimated using spatial analysis in a GIS environment.

  8. New AGU Climate Communication Prize: Call for nominations (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael J.


    AGU is pleased to announce the newly launched AGU Climate Communication Prize. This new Union prize, generously funded by Nature's Own, a purveyor of fossils, minerals, and handcrafted jewelry in Boulder, Colo., will honor an AGU member-scientist for the communication of climate science. The prize highlights the importance of promoting scientific literacy, clarity of message, and efforts to foster respect and understanding of science-based values as they relate to the implications of climate change. The prize will be awarded annually and will be presented at AGU's Fall Meeting. It will carry a cash award of $25,000.

  9. Micro and Macro Mechanics of Fracture in Ceramics. (United States)


    Ceram. Soc. 58 265 (1975). 9. S. Mindess and J. S. Naceau, Amer. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 56 429 ( 1977 ). 10. B. J. Pletka and S. M. Wiederhorn, p. 745 in...on Frac. (ed. 0. M. R. Taplin), Vol. 3, Univ. of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, 1977 , p. 197. 10. R. L. Fullman, Trans. AIME, 197, 447 (1953). 11. C. W...M. Fulrath and J. A. Pask) Westview Press, Boulder, CO ( 1977 ). 6. F. F. Lange, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 59, 336 (1976). 7. S. W. Freiman, G. Y. Onoda

  10. LiDAR-derived snowpack data sets from mixed conifer forests across the Western United States (United States)

    Harpold, A. A.; Guo, Q.; Molotch, N.; Brooks, P. D.; Bales, R.; Fernandez-Diaz, J. C.; Musselman, K. N.; Swetnam, T. L.; Kirchner, P.; Meadows, M. W.; Flanagan, J.; Lucas, R.


    Airborne-based Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) offers the potential to measure snow depth and vegetation structure at high spatial resolution over large extents and thereby increase our ability to quantify snow water resources. Here we present airborne LiDAR data products at four Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) in the Western United States: Jemez River Basin, NM, Boulder Creek Watershed, CO, Kings River Experimental Watershed, CA, and Wolverton Basin, CA. We make publicly available snow depth data products (1 m2 resolution) derived from LiDAR with an estimated accuracy of <30 cm compared to limited in situ snow depth observations.

  11. SU(3)--Breaking Effects in Axial--Vector Couplings of Octet Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Gensini, P M; Gensini, Paolo M.; Violini, Galileo


    Present evidence on baryon axial--vector couplings is reviewed, the main emphasis being on internal consistency between asymmetry and rate data. A complete account of all {\\sl small} terms in the Standard Model description of these latter leads to {\\sl both} consistency {\\sl and} evidence for breaking of flavour SU(3) in the axial couplings of octet baryons. Talk presented at "5th Int. Sympos. on Meson--Nucleon Physics and the Structure of the Nucleon", Boulder, CO, sept. 1993. To be published in $\\pi N$ Newsletter.

  12. Levenberg-Marquardt method with simultaneous calculations of averaging kernels and errors for methane retrieval from IASI spectra (United States)

    Khamatnurova, M. Y.; Gribanov, K. G.


    Levenberg-Marquardt method parameter selection for methane vertical profile retrieval from IASI/METOP spectra is presented. A modified technique for iterative calculation of averaging kernels and a posteriori errors for every spectrum is suggested. Known from literature method is expanded for the case of absence of a priori statistics for methane vertical profiles. Software for massive processing of IASI spectra using is developed. Effect of LM parameter selection on averaging kernel norm and a posteriori errors is illustrated. NCEP reanalysis data provided by ESRL (NOAA, Boulder, USA) were taken as initial guess. Surface temperature, temperature and humidity vertical profiles are retrieved before methane vertical profile retrieval.

  13. Solwind instrument destroyed in test (United States)

    The U.S. Air Force's destruction of one of its own satellites last month ended what had been the longest continuous stream of data from an instrument observing the sun's corona. Satellite P78-1 served as the target in a test of antisatellite (ASAT) weaponry on September 13, 1985. The satellite carried Solwind, a white light coronagraph that observed the solar corona at distances of 3-10 solar radii, according to Robert M. MacQueen, director of the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colo.

  14. Video modeling for children with dual diagnosis of deafness or hard of hearing and autism spectrum disorder to promote peer interaction. (United States)

    Thrasher, Amy


    This article describes an intervention program offered at the University of Colorado Boulder that supports peer interaction among young children with autism spectrum disorders and their typical peers using a multicomponent approach, including video modeling. Characteristics of autism that may interfere with the development of peer interaction in young children will be discussed. Components of the approach will be described and the evidence base for the application of these components examined in regards to children with autism and for the potential application to children with the dual diagnosis of autism and deafness or hard of hearing.

  15. Pretreatment Capabilities and Benefits of Electrocoagulation (United States)


    PRETREATMENT CAPABILITIES AND BENEFITS OF ELECTROCOAGULATION Michael Mickley Mickley & Associates Boulder, Colorado...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pretreatment Capabilities and Benefits of Electrocoagulation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...4 2.1 Background for Electrocoagulation Technology ………………………. 4 2.1.1 Applications ……………………………………………………. 4 2.1.2

  16. Debris Flow Dam Formation in Southeast Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zunlan; WU Jishan; GENG Xueyong


    Glaciers with their deposits abound in the alpine areas of Southeast Tibet. Large debris flows occur frequently from these deposits and form dams that block streams. In this paper, 3 events of large debris flows reported in Peilong Valley located in Southeast Tibet, and which resulted 2 blocking dams resulted, are discussed in details, focusing on the major factors controlling dam formation. The results shows that the first surge group caused by snow and ice avalanches, ice-lake breaks, and large-scale landslides, with a high peak discharge and high velocity, and an abundance of boulders, are most likely to form blocking dams.

  17. MARINE CONGLOMERATE AND REEF MEGACLASTS AT MAURITUS ISLAND: Evidences of a tsunami generated by a flank collapse of the PITON DE LA Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Paris


    Full Text Available Tsunamis related to volcano flank collapse are typically a high-magnitude, low frequency hazard for which evaluation and mitigation are difficult to address. In this short communication, we present field evidences of a large tsunami along the southern coast of Mauritius Island ca. 4400 years ago. Tsunami deposits described include both marine conglomerates and coral boulders up to 90 m3 (> 100 tons. The most probable origin of the tsunami is a flank collapse of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Réunion Island.

  18. Preliminary report on the Clancy Creek area, Jefferson City quadrangle, Jefferson County, Montana (United States)

    Becraft, George E.


    Several radioactivity anomalies and secondary uranium minerals have been found in the Clancy Creek area near the northern margin of the Boulder batholith. These are principally associated with chalcedonic zones that consist of one or more discontinuous stringers and veins of cryptocrystalline silica and fine-grained quartz in silicified quartz monzonite and alaskite.  Uranium ore has been produced at the W. Wilson mine from one of these vein zones, and exploration work is being done on another--the G. Washington-A. Lincoln. Some very fine-grained pyrite and minute quantities of other sulfides have been recognized in deposits of this type.

  19. A Survey of Electric Laser Codes. (United States)


    William F. Bailey (513) 255-2012 RfcD Associates Peter Crowell (S05) 844-3013 Joint Inst, for Lab. Astrophysik L. C. Pitchford (303) 492-8255...Morns (213) 341-9172 Physical Science, inc. Paul Lewi» (617) 933-8500 also Raymond Taylor (617) 546-7798 Rocketdyne E. Wheat ley (213... Pitchford (originator) Organization: to 11/28/BO J.I.L.A. Address:’-1- of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 After 1/1/81-Sandia Laboratories

  20. Oil persistence on beaches in Prince William Sound - a review of SCAT surveys conducted from 1989 to 2002. (United States)

    Taylor, Elliott; Reimer, Doug


    In 2002, 13 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), 39 selected sites in Prince William Sound (PWS) were re-surveyed following established shoreline cleanup assessment team (SCAT) field observation procedures to document surface and sub-surface oiling conditions in shoreline sediments and to compare results with those from previous Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) surveys and other surveys in PWS. The selected sites are locations where EVOS oil persisted in 1992, at the time the Federal and State On-Scene Coordinators determined that the cleanup was complete and that further cleanup activities would provide no net environmental benefit. These sites had been included in a 2001 NOAA survey of shoreline oiling conditions and account for 88% of the sub-surface oil residues (SSO) oil documented by that study. The 2002 field survey found isolated occurrences of residual EVOS surface oil residues (SO) in the form of weathered asphalt pavement at 15 of the 39 sites. This residual SO typically consisted of asphalt in mixed sand/gravel substrate, located within a wave shadow effect created by boulders or bedrock in the upper intertidal to supratidal zone. Residual SO, expressed as a continuous oil cover, was less than 200 m(2) within the approximately 111,120 m(2) surveyed. A total of 1182 pits were dug at locations where SSO residues were present in 1992. Six of the 39 sites and 815 (68%) of the pits contained no residual SSO. Eighty-three percent of pits with SSO residues were found primarily in middle to upper intertidal locations. SSO residues commonly occurred in a discontinuous approximately 3 cm thick band 5-10 cm below the boulder/cobble or pebble/gravel veneer. The SO and SSO occurrences in the 2002 survey closely match the locations where they were found in 1992 and earlier surveys; however, in 2002 residual SSO patches are more discontinuous and thinner than they were in the earlier surveys. These sites are biased toward SSO persistence; those that