WorldWideScience

Sample records for boulders

  1. EXPLOITATION OF GRANITE BOULDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cotman

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of forming, petrography, features, properties and exploitation of granite boulders are described. The directional drilling and black powder blasting is the succesful method in exploitation of granite boulders (boulder technology (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. Boulder Magnetic Observatory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are vector and scalar component values of the Earth's magnetic field for 2004 recorded at the Boulder Magnetic Observatory in Colorado. Vector values are...

  3. Probability of Boulders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1997-01-01

    To collect background information for formulating a description of the expected soil properties along the tunnel line, in 1987 Storebælt initiated a statistical investigation of the occurrence and size of boulders in the Great Belt area. The data for the boulder size distribution were obtained by...... data collection part of the investigation was made on the basis of geological expert advice (Gunnar Larsen, Århus) by the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI).The statistical data analysis combined with stochastic modeling based on geometry and sound wave diffraction theory gave a point estimate and a...

  4. 76 FR 8359 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... kilowattmonth (kWmonth), and the proposed composite rate is 22.16 mills/kWh. \\1\\ 75 FR 57912. \\2\\ 133 FERC ] 62... Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE...) is proposing an adjustment to the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP) electric service base charge and...

  5. Do Cement Boulders Mimic Natural Boulders for Macro-Invertebrates in the Southern Caspian Sea?

    OpenAIRE

    Pourjomeh, Fatemeh; Shokri, Mohammad Reza; Kiabi, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    The macro-invertebrates on natural (rock) and artificial (cement) boulders were compared along the southern Caspian Sea and the effect of structural features of boulders (i.e. orientation, facing, surface complexity, the degree of exposure to the wave action) on macro-invertebrate communities were investigated. Ten locations with rock walls in the southern Caspian Sea were investigated in which the isolated boulders of natural and artificial types with similar dimensions were haphazardly ...

  6. 78 FR 7775 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    .... \\1\\ 75 FR 57912 (September 23, 2010). \\2\\ 133 FERC ] 62,229. The proposed BCP electric service base... in power rate adjustments (10 CFR part 903) were published on September 18, 1985 (50 FR 87835... Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE....

  7. 77 FR 2533 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... composite rate is 20.45 mills/kWh. \\1\\ 75 FR 57912 (Sept. 23, 2010). \\2\\ 133 FERC ] 62,229. The proposed BCP... 18, 1985 (50 FR 87835). Availability of Information All brochures, studies, comments, letters... Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE....

  8. Relocalising disaster risk reduction in Boulder, Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Kelman, I.; Karnes, E.

    2007-01-01

    Relocalisation aims to return communities to a more local basis from their current, relatively centralised and transport-dependent systems, in sectors such as food, energy, and manufacturing. Disaster risk reduction can also be relocalised, in line with practices which involve local residents in disaster-related activities, pre-disaster such as mitigation and prevention and post-disaster such as response and recovery, rather than relying on post-event external assistance. Boulder Valley, Colo...

  9. The distribution and source of boulders on asteroid 4179 Toutatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Ji, Jianghui; Huang, Jiangchuan; Marchi, Simone; Li, Yuan; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2016-01-01

    Boulders are ubiquitous on the surfaces of asteroids and their spatial and size distributions provide information for the geological evolution and collisional history of parent bodies. We identify more than 200 boulders on near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis based on images obtained by Chang'e-2 flyby. The cumulative boulder size frequency distribution (SFD) gives a power-index of -4.4 +/- 0.1, which is clearly steeper than those of boulders on Itokawa and Eros, indicating much high degree of fragmentation. Correlation analyses with craters suggest that most boulders cannot solely be produced as products of cratering, but are probably survived fragments from the parent body of Toutatis, accreted after its breakup. Similar to Itokawa, Toutatis probably has a rubble-pile structure, but owns a different preservation state of boulders.

  10. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Boulder ZED Design Build - Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Boulder, Colorado, that scored HERS 38 without PV and 0 with PV. This 2,504 ft2 custom home has advanced framed walls, superior insulation a ground-source heat pump, ERV, and triple-pane windows.

  11. Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory Data Management Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Fey, Jeri; Anderson, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    This Data Management Plan (DMP) was created using the DMPTool. It describes all data collected as part of the the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) project, which focuses on research in the Boulder Creek watershed. The project is hosted at the Institute or Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR), University of Colorado at Boulder, USA.The goal for the Boulder Creek CZO is to create and collect meaningful and interesting research of the Earth’s critical zone by making this diverse dat...

  12. Wake patterns behind boulders in the rings of Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flow of charged dust around an electrically charged boulder moving through an environment thought to be typical of planatery rings is studied. As the boulder moves through the ring dust it will excite a V-shaped Mach cone pattern of a form and complexity which varies significantly with boulder size, relative velocity between the boulder and the dust, and with dust plasma conditions. Parameters relevant to the Saturnian ring system are used to compute examples which demonstrate the change in Mach cone patterns with the relevant parameters. Shortcomings of the model are discussed and ways to improve the calculations of Mach cone patterns are pointed out

  13. Local late Amazonian boulder breakdown and denudation rate on Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.; Hauber, E.; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Inactive fan surfaces become smoother and develop desert pavement over time by weathering and erosion. We use this mechanism to estimate late Amazonian boulder breakdown and surface denudation rates on a young (∼1.25 Ma) (Schon et al., 2009) fan on Mars. This is done by comparing boulder size and su

  14. Small asteroids - rubble piles or boulders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alan W.

    2013-10-01

    modeling of asteroid rotations and size-frequency distributions to consider a strength model with a fairly abrupt transition from rubble pile to boulder rather than slowly varying or constant strength.

  15. Boulder Dislodgement by Tsunamis and Storms: Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In the past, boulder dislodgement by tsunami and storm waves has been approached with a simple threshold approach in which a boulder was moved if the sum of the acting forces on the boulder is larger than zero. The impulse theory taught us, however, that this criterion is not enough to explain particle dislodgement. We employ an adapted version of the Newton's Second Law of Motion (NSLM) in order to consider the essence of the impulse theory which is that the sum of the forces has to exceed a certain threshold for a certain period of time. Furthermore, a classical assumption is to consider linear waves. However, when waves travel toward the shore, they alter due to non-linear processes. We employ the TRIADS model to quantify that change and how it impacts boulder dislodgement. We present our results of the coupled model (adapted NSLM and TRIADS model). The results project a more complex picture of boulder transport by storms and tsunami. The following question arises: What information do we actually invert, and what does it tell us about the causative event?

  16. Small-Scale Spatial Variability of Ozone in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanes, L. N.; Sadighi, K.; Casey, J. G.; Collier, A. M.; Hannigan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Surface ozone (O3) can pose several health risks to humans, such as an increased number of and intensity of asthma attacks. Considering this, it is important that ozone levels are monitored. While municipal air quality monitors are present in cities like Boulder, Colorado, these monitors often only consider regional analysis, neglecting the variability of compounds, such as ozone or carbon monoxide, over smaller distances. Small-scale (approximately 1 kilometer) spatial variability in ozone is important because humans experience these small scales on a daily basis. Using low-cost, next-generation air quality monitors ("pods") developed at the University of Colorado-Boulder, we assessed small-scale spatial variability of surface ozone in Boulder, Colorado. This was done by placing clusters of 4-5 pods within approximately 1 kilometer of each other at specific sites in the city of Boulder. We collected data at two sites: one on the University of Colorado-Boulder campus (i.e., an urban site) and one outside of the city (i.e., a rural site). Pods were left in their positions for one to two weeks allowing for observation of ozone trends. As expected the typical diurnal trend was observed; however, further analysis revealed differences between these daily trends. Data collected by the pods allows for better understanding of small-scale spatial variability of surface ozone and how this may be driven by nearby sources.

  17. Local late Amazonian boulder breakdown and denudation rate on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Tjalling; Hauber, Ernst; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

    2013-07-01

    Inactive fan surfaces become smoother and develop desert pavement over time by weathering and erosion. We use this mechanism to estimate late Amazonian boulder breakdown and surface denudation rates on a young (˜1.25 Ma) (Schon et al., 2009) fan on Mars. This is done by comparing boulder size and surface relief between lobes of different ages. The boulder breakdown rate is 3.5 m/Myr, surface smoothing (denudation) rate is approximated as 0.89 m/Myr. These rates exceed previous estimates for the Amazonian by orders of magnitude. We attribute this to locality, high initial smoothing rates after morphological activity and obliquity and eccentricity-driven variation in the availability of (metastable) liquid water, which acts as a catalyst for weathering during these periods. The results have major implications for process interpretation of Martian landforms, as they imply that typical small-scale morphology may be subdued within <1 Myr.

  18. Boulder Dislodgment Reloaded: New insights from boulder transport and dislodgement by tsunamis and storms from three-dimensional numerical simulations with GPUSPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R.; Zainali, A.

    2014-12-01

    Boulders can be found on many coastlines around the globe. They are generally thought to be moved either during coastal storms or tsunamis because they are too heavy to be moved by more common marine or coastal processes. To understand storm and tsunami risk at given coastline, the event histories of both events need to be separated to produce a robust event statistics for quantitative risk analyses. Because boulders are most likely only moved by coastal storms or tsunamis, they are very suitable to produce the data basis for such event statistics. Boulder transport problem has been approached by comparing the driving with resisting forces acting on a boulder. However, we argue that this approach is not sufficient because the comparison of resisting and driving forces only constitutes boulder motion, but not for boulder dislodgment. Boulder motion means that the boulder starts to move out of its pocket. However, this motion does not guarantee that the boulder will reach the critical dislodgment position. Boulder dislodgment is a necessary condition to identify whether or not a boulder has moved. For boulder dislodgement, an equation of motion is needed, and that equation is Newtons Second Law of Motion (NSL). We perform fully coupled three-dimensional numerical simulation of boulders moved by waves where the boulders move according to NSL. Our numerical simulations are the first of their kind applied to tsunami and storm boulder motion. They show how storm and tsunami waves interact with boulders in a more realistic physical setting, and highlight the importance of submergence. Based on our simulations we perform a dimensional analysis that identifies the Froude number as important parameter, which can be considered large only in the front of tsunami waves, but small in the rest of tsunami wave and also generally small in storm waves. From a general point of view, our results indicate that the boulder transport problem is more complex than recently considered, and

  19. Erratic boulders in Switzerland, a geological and cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Erratic boulders are stones transported over quite long distances by glaciers and that differ from the type of rock upon which they rely. They range from the size of pebbles to large boulders weighing several thousand tons. Erratic boulders are significant geosites (Reynard, 2004) for several reasons. (1) First, they are indicators of former glacier extensions by marking glaciers' path, size and volume. In Switzerland, they allowed mapping the extension of large Alpine glaciers (the Rhine and Rhone glaciers, in particular) and their retreat stages (e.g. the Monthey erratic boulders that mark an important lateglacial stage of the Rhone glacier). Crystalline erratic boulders along the Jura range (limestone mountains) were used to map the altitude reached by the Rhone glacier during the two last glaciations. Precise mapping of crystalline and limestone boulders distribution also enabled mapping local Jura glaciers' recurrences after the Rhone glacier retreat. (2) During the last decades, several erratic boulders were used for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating, which allowed impressive advances in palaeoclimatic research. (3) Erratic blocks have also an ecological interest by the fact that they "have transported" specific habitats in areas far away from their origin (e.g. acid crystalline rocks and soils in limestone areas such as in the Jura). For all these reasons, several erratic boulders were classified in the inventory of Swiss geosites. Erratic boulders also have a significant cultural value (Lugon et al., 2006). (1) The Glacier Garden in Lucerne was discovered in 1872. It comprises various surfaces of "roches moutonnées", potholes and large erratic blocks that document the presence of the Reuss glacier. Considered as a natural monument it is now one of the most famous touristic attraction of Lucerne and Central Switzerland. (2) The Pierre Bergère stone, situated in Salvan (Mont-Blanc massif, South-western Switzerland), is the place where future Nobel Prize

  20. Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission: Robotic Boulder Capture Option Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Belbin, Scott P.; Reeves, David M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Naasz, Bo J.; Abell, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying an option for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) that would capture a multi-ton boulder (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (is approximately 100+ meter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cislunar space for subsequent human and robotic exploration. This alternative mission approach, designated the Robotic Boulder Capture Option (Option B), has been investigated to determine the mission feasibility and identify potential differences from the initial ARRM concept of capturing an entire small NEA (4-10 meters in size), which has been designated the Small Asteroid Capture Option (Option A). Compared to the initial ARRM concept, Option B allows for centimeter-level characterization over an entire large NEA, the certainty of target NEA composition type, the ability to select the boulder that is captured, numerous opportunities for mission enhancements to support science objectives, additional experience operating at a low-gravity planetary body including extended surface contact, and the ability to demonstrate future planetary defense strategies on a hazardous-size NEA. Option B can leverage precursor missions and existing Agency capabilities to help ensure mission success by targeting wellcharacterized asteroids and can accommodate uncertain programmatic schedules by tailoring the return mass.

  1. Untangling boulder dislodgement in storms and tsunamis: Is it possible with simple theories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R.; Diplas, P.

    2015-03-01

    Boulders can move during storms and tsunamis. It is difficult to find a simple method to distinguish boulders moved by tsunami waves from those moved during storms in the field. In this contribution, we explore boulder dislodgement by storm and tsunami waves by solving an adapted version of Newton's Second Law of Motion in polar coordinates and defining a critical position for boulder dislodgement. We find that the boulder dislodgement is not only a function of the causative wave, but also of the roughness in the vicinity of the boulder and the slope angle. We employ the amplitude of storm and tsunami waves to dislodge boulders of given masses to evaluate if boulder dislodgement in storms can be untangled from boulder transport in tsunamis. As the main result of our numerical experiments, we find a significant difference between storm and tsunami waves to dislodge the same boulder for large masses and large roughness values. This allows us to conclude that simple theories are applicable to answer the questions asked in the title, but we argue only if they contain a critical dislodgement condition like the one presented here.

  2. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Taddeucci, P E

    2013-03-29

    The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project (BCH) was purchased by the City of Boulder, CO (the city) in 2001. Project facilities were originally constructed in 1910 and upgraded in the 1930s and 1940s. By 2009, the two 10 MW turbine/generators had reached or were nearing the end of their useful lives. One generator had grounded out and was beyond repair, reducing plant capacity to 10 MW. The remaining 10 MW unit was expected to fail at any time. When the BCH power plant was originally constructed, a sizeable water supply was available for the sole purpose of hydroelectric power generation. Between 1950 and 2001, that water supply had gradually been converted to municipal water supply by the city. By 2001, the water available for hydroelectric power generation at BCH could not support even one 10 MW unit. Boulder lacked the financial resources to modernize the facilities, and Boulder anticipated that when the single, operational historical unit failed, the project would cease operation. In 2009, the City of Boulder applied for and received a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant for $1.18 million toward a total estimated project cost of $5.155 million to modernize BCH. The federal funding allowed Boulder to move forward with plant modifications that would ensure BCH would continue operation. Federal funding was made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Boulder determined that a single 5 MW turbine/generator would be the most appropriate capacity, given the reduced water supply to the plant. Average annual BCH generation with the old 10 MW unit had been about 8,500 MW-hr, whereas annual generation with a new, efficient turbine could average 11,000 to 12,000 MW-hr. The incremental change in annual generation represents a 30% increase in generation over pre-project conditions. The old turbine/generator was a single nozzle Pelton turbine with a 5-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 82%. The new unit is a

  3. NASA's asteroid redirect mission: Robotic boulder capture option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.

    2014-07-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar-electric-propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (˜4--10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (˜1--5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (˜100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well-characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU_3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense.

  4. Layers and Boulders in Crater Wall, Nepenthes Mensae Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Peering down into craters offers Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) scientists an opportunity to examine one of the few landforms that Mars shares in common with the other planets and moons of our Solar System.The picture on the left (above) is a MOC context frame taken at the same time as the MOC high resolution image on the right. The white box on the left shows the location of the high resolution view. The high resolution image was targeted on a 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide impact crater on the floor of a larger crater in the Nepenthes Mensae region (near 3oS, 239oW). The context image is about 115 km (71 mi) across, the high-resolution image is 3 km (1.9 mi) across, and both are illuminated from the left/lower left.The 3 km diameter crater in the MOC image on the right is three times wider than the famous Meteor Crater in northern Arizona, USA. The high resolution image shows many small windblown drifts or dunes in the low areas both within the crater and outside on the surrounding terrain. Some portions of the crater's walls exhibit outcrops of bare, layered rock. Large boulders have been dislodged from the walls and have tumbled down the slopes to the crater floor. Many of these boulders are bigger than school buses and automobiles.

  5. 75 FR 45657 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the control of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human remains... this notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by the University of Colorado...

  6. 75 FR 28647 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human... this notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of Colorado...

  7. 75 FR 26988 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human... this notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of Colorado...

  8. 75 FR 77898 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the ] University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human... made by University of Colorado Museum professional staff in consultation with representatives of...

  9. 75 FR 45655 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the control of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human remains.... A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by the University of Colorado...

  10. Size-frequency distribution of boulders ≥10 m on comet 103P/Hartley 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Lucchetti, Alice; Bertini, Ivano; Marzari, Francesco; A'Hearn, Michael F.; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Lazzarin, Monica; Naletto, Giampiero; Barbieri, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We derive the size-frequency distribution of boulders on comet 103P/Hartley 2, which are computed from the images taken by the Deep Impact/HRI-V imaging system. We indicate the possible physical processes that lead to these boulder size distributions. Methods: We used images acquired by the High Resolution Imager-Visible CCD camera on 4 November 2010. Boulders ≥10 m were identified and manually extracted from the datasets with the software ArcGIS. We derived the global size-frequency distribution of the illuminated side of the comet (~50%) and identified the power-law indexes characterizing the two lobes of 103P. The three-pixel sampling detection, together with the shadowing of the surface, enables unequivocally detection of boulders scattered all over the illuminated surface. Results: We identify 332 boulders ≥10 m on the imaged surface of the comet, with a global number density of nearly 140/km2 and a cumulative size-frequency distribution represented by a power law with index of -2.7 ± 0.2. The two lobes of 103P show similar indexes, i.e., -2.7 ± 0.2 for the bigger lobe (called L1) and -2.6+ 0.2/-0.5 for the smaller lobe (called L2). The similar power-law indexes and similar maximum boulder sizes derived for the two lobes both point toward a similar fracturing/disintegration phenomena of the boulders as well as similar lifting processes that may occur in L1 and L2. The difference in the number of boulders per km2 between L1 and L2 suggests that the more diffuse H2O sublimation on L1 produce twice the boulders per km2 with respect to those produced on L2 (primary activity CO2 driven). The 103P comet has a lower global power-law index (-2.7 vs. -3.6) with respect to 67P. The global differences between the two comets' activities, coupled with a completely different surface geomorphology, make 103P hardly comparable to 67P. A shape distribution analysis of boulders ≥30 m performed on 103P suggests that the cometary boulders show more elongated shapes

  11. Boulders on asteroid Toutatis as observed by Chang'e-2

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yun; Huang, Jiangchuan; Marchi, Simone; Li, Yuan; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2015-01-01

    Boulders are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of small rocky bodies in the inner solar system and their spatial and size distributions give insight into the geological evolution and collisional history of the parent bodies. Using images acquired by the Chang'e-2 spacecraft, more than 200 boulders have been identified over the imaged area of the near-Earth asteroid Toutatis. The cumulative boulder size frequency distribution (SFD) shows a steep slope of -4.4 $\\pm$ 0.1, which is indicative of a high degree of fragmentation. Similar to Itokawa, Toutatis probably has a rubble-pile structure, as most boulders on its surface cannot solely be explained by impact cratering. The significantly steeper slope for Toutatis' boulder SFD compared to Itokawa may imply a different preservation state or diverse formation scenarios. In addition, the cumulative crater SFD has been used to estimate a surface crater retention age of approximately 1.6 $\\pm$ 0.3 Gyr.

  12. Boulder Capture System Design Options for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission Alternate Approach Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbin, Scott P.; Merrill, Raymond G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a boulder acquisition and asteroid surface interaction electromechanical concept developed for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) option to capture a free standing boulder on the surface of a 100 m or larger Near Earth Asteroid (NEA). It details the down select process and ranking of potential boulder capture methods, the evolution of a simple yet elegant articulating spaceframe, and ongoing risk reduction and concept refinement efforts. The capture system configuration leverages the spaceframe, heritage manipulators, and a new microspine technology to enable the ARRM boulder capture. While at the NEA it enables attenuation of terminal descent velocity, ascent to escape velocity, boulder collection and restraint. After departure from the NEA it enables, robotic inspection, sample caching, and crew Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA).

  13. Geomorphological control on boulder transport and coastal erosion before, during and after an extreme extra-tropical cyclone

    OpenAIRE

    Naylor, Larissa A.; Stephenson, Wayne J.; Smith, Helen C.M.; Way, Oliver; Mendelssohn, James; Cowley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Extreme wave events in coastal zones are principal drivers of geomorphic change. Evidence of boulder entrainment and erosional impact during storms is increasing. However, there is currently poor time coupling between pre- and post-storm measurements of coastal boulder deposits. Importantly there are no data reporting shore platform erosion, boulder entrainment and/or boulder transport during storm events – rock coast dynamics during storm events are currently unexplored. Here, we use high-re...

  14. Measured and Inferred Bedrock Faults in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (frifaultu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital line representation of measured and inferred bedrock faults in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin, Colorado. This file was created as...

  15. Evaluation of a Multifamily Retrofit in Climate Zone 5, Boulder, Colorado (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-11-01

    In 2009, a 37-unit apartment complex located in Boulder, Colorado, underwent an energy retrofit to comply with Boulder SmartRegs Ordinance, a mandate that requires all rental properties to meet certain energy efficiency standards by 2018. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, worked with city planners and building owners to evaluate this program and recently completed a case study evaluating the effectiveness of a collection of retrofit measures.

  16. Indoor air quality in Latino homes in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Luis E.; Champion, Wyatt M.; Li, Ning; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2014-08-01

    Indoor concentrations of airborne pollutants can be several times higher than those found outdoors, often due to poor ventilation, overcrowding, and the contribution of indoor sources within a home. Americans spend most of their time indoors where exposure to poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can result in diminished respiratory and cardiovascular health. This study measured the indoor air quality in 30 homes of a low-income Latino community in Boulder, Colorado during the summer of 2012. Participants were administered a survey, which included questions on their health conditions and indoor air pollution sources like cigarette smoke, heating fuel, and building materials. Twenty-four hour samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from the indoor air were collected in each home; ambient PM2.5 samples were collected each day as well. Concurrent air samples were collected onto 47 mm Teflo and Tissuquartz filter at each location. Teflo filters were analyzed gravimetrically to measure PM2.5 and their extracts were used to determine levels of proteins and endotoxins in the fine fraction. The Tissuquartz filters were analyzed for elemental and organic carbon content (EC/OC). Results indicated that the indoor air contained higher concentrations of PM2.5 than the ambient air, and that the levels of OC were much higher than EC in both indoor and outdoor samples. This community showed no smoking in their homes and kept furry pets indoors at very low rates; therefore, cooking is likely the primary source of indoor PM. For responders with significant exposure to PM, it appeared to be primarily from occupational environments or childhood exposure abroad. Our findings indicate that for immigrant communities such as this, it is important to consider not only their housing conditions but also the relevant prior exposures when conducting health assessments.

  17. Shallow Geophysical Exploration of the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befus, K. M.; Kelsay, T.; Sheehan, A. F.; Leopold, M.

    2009-12-01

    We use minimally invasive shallow geophysical techniques to image the structure of the critical zone from surface to bedrock (0-20 m) throughout three catchments within the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BcCZO). Shallow seismic refraction (SSR), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) provide three complementary methods for determining the physical characteristics of the shallow subsurface. A total of 10 km of SSR surveys were collected in Summer 2009 using a hammer source and 24-channel seismograph. The SSR data were modeled using both the time-term method and travel-time tomography. Results of the SSR surveys provide a pseudo-3D network of critical zone compressional wave velocity (Vp) structure within each catchment. Select SSR lines follow each of the ERT and GPR lines investigated providing an essential supplement for interpretation and view of layering within the critical zone. The evolution of each catchment within the BcCZO contain signals of both erosion and weathering dependent upon the large-scale geomorphic processes down to the microbial weathering of mineral grains. The geophysical approach describes the arena for the small-scale processes while also providing a quantitative description of the critical zone structure at an instant in time. We use these tools to establish a three-dimensional model of critical zone architecture within three catchments with significantly different recent and continuing geomorphic forcings: fluvial rejuvenation, long-term quiescent erosion and glaciation. We find bedrock Vp greater than 2500 m/s, regolith Vp generally less than 450 m/s and various gradients of weathered bedrock ranging from Vp of 700-2000 m/s if present. Significant topography and irregular bedrock surfaces contribute additional complexity to the critical zone architecture in each location. Once developed this model will guide investigations of critical zone processes from landscape to hydrologic modeling and

  18. Fifty Years of Space Weather Forecasting from Boulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    The first official space weather forecast was issued by the Space Disturbances Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, in 1965, ushering in an era of operational prediction that continues to this day. Today, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) charters the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) as one of the nine National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to provide the nation's official watches, warnings, and alerts of space weather phenomena. SWPC is now integral to national and international efforts to predict space weather events, from the common and mild, to the rare and extreme, that can impact critical technological infrastructure. In 2012, the Strategic National Risk Assessment included extreme space weather events as low-to-medium probability phenomena that could, unlike any other meteorogical phenomena, have an impact on the government's ability to function. Recognizing this, the White House chartered the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) to produce the first comprehensive national strategy for the prediction, mitigation, and response to an extreme space weather event. The implementation of the National Strategy is ongoing with NOAA, its partners, and stakeholders concentrating on the goal of improving our ability to observe, model, and predict the onset and severity of space weather events. In addition, work continues with the research community to improve our understanding of the physical mechanisms - on the Sun, in the heliosphere, and in the Earth's magnetic field and upper atmosphere - of space weather as well as the effects on critical infrastructure such as electrical power transmission systems. In fifty years, people will hopefully look back at the history of operational space weather prediction and credit our efforts today with solidifying the necessary developments in observational systems, full-physics models of the entire Sun-Earth system, and tools for predicting the impacts to infrastructure to protect

  19. Boulder accumulations related to extreme wave events on the eastern coast of Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolchi, S.; Furlani, S.; Antonioli, F.; Baldassini, N.; Causon Deguara, J.; Devoto, S.; Di Stefano, A.; Evans, J.; Gambin, T.; Gauci, R.; Mastronuzzi, G.; Monaco, C.; Scicchitano, G.

    2015-10-01

    The accumulation of large boulders related to waves generated either by tsunamis or extreme storm events has been observed in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Along the NE and E low-lying rocky coasts of Malta tens of large boulder deposits have been surveyed, measured and mapped. These boulders have been detached and moved from the seafloor and lowest parts of the coast by the action of sea waves. In the Sicily-Malta channel, heavy storms are common and originate from the NE and NW winds. Conversely, few severe earthquakes and tsunamis are recorded in historical documents to have hit the Maltese archipelago, originated by seismicity activity related mainly to the Malta Escarpment, the Sicily Channel Rift Zone and the Hellenic Arc. We present a multi-disciplinary study, which aims to define the characteristics of the boulder accumulations along the eastern coast of Malta, in order to assess the coastal geo-hazard implications triggered by the sheer ability of extreme waves to detach and move large rocky blocks inland. The wave heights required to transport coastal boulders were calculated using various hydrodynamic equations. Particular attention was devoted to the quantification of the input parameters required in the workings of these equations. The axis sizes of blocks were measured with 3-D digital photogrammetric techniques and their densities were obtained throughout the use of a N-type Schmidt Hammer. Moreover, AMS ages were obtained from selected marine organisms encrusted on some of the boulders in various coastal sites. The combination of the results obtained by hydrodynamic equations and the radiocarbon dating suggests that the majority of the boulders has been detached and moved by intense storm waves. Nonetheless, it is possible that some of them may have been transported by tsunami.

  20. Directed random-walk model for boulder clustering in step-pool streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Step-pool streams are boulder-bedded channels displaying a characteristic stair-step longitudinal profile. Steep steps are formed from clusters of boulders that can span the entire width of the channel, while the intervening pools are flatter sections containing smaller clasts. The formation of steps confers additional stability to boulders, which often remain stationary even when bed shear stresses are significantly higher than the predicted initiation of motion criterion. Researchers have attempted to model step-pools as traditional bed forms resulting from strong interactions between the flow field and the river bed. A recent alternative hypothesis is that steps are the result of “jamming”, a phase transition that occurs in granular flows in chutes when the grain size becomes a significant fraction of the chute width. Here we examine the formation of steps using a stochastic model for boulder movement and deposition, focusing on the self-organization that arises from grain-grain interactions. Downstream motion of boulders is treated as a directed random walk, with the channel walls acting as reflecting boundaries. Probability for deposition of individual boulders increases when they come in contact with other boulders and also with channel banks. We demonstrate that this simple model successfully reproduces much of the boulder-clustering behavior observed in natural and experimental streams. Channel-spanning 'steps' arise naturally as a result of local grain interactions, and the frequency of step formation increases rapidly with decreasing channel width below the critical jamming width of ten grain diameters. In the large width limit steps cannot form; however, boulder clustering still occurs. The formation and break-up of grain clusters produces highly intermittent sediment transport rates over a wide range of scales. Our results suggest that step formation is a consequence of generic grain clustering dynamics in a confined space, and does not depend

  1. Block and boulder transport in Eastern Samar (Philippines) during Supertyphoon Haiyan

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, S. M.; Engel, M.; Brill, D.; Cuadra, C.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Santiago, J.; Suarez, J. K.; Reyes, M.; Brückner, H.

    2015-12-01

    Fields of dislodged boulders and blocks record catastrophic coastal flooding during strong storms or tsunamis and play a pivotal role in coastal hazard assessment. Along the rocky carbonate coast of Eastern Samar (Philippines) we documented longshore transport of a block of 180 t and boulders (up to 23.5 t) shifted upslope to elevations of up to 10 m above mean lower low water level during Supertyphoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013. Initiation-of-motion approaches indicate that boulder dislocation occurred with flow velocities of 8.9-9.6 m s-1, which significantly exceeds depth-averaged flow velocities of a local coupled hydrodynamic and wave model (Delft3D) of the typhoon with a maximum < 1.5 m s-1. These results, in combination with recently published phase-resolving wave models, support the hypothesis that infragravity waves induced by the typhoon were responsible for the remarkable flooding pattern in Eastern Samar, which are not resolved in phase-averaged storm surge models. Our findings show that tsunamis and hydrodynamic conditions induced by tropical cyclones may shift boulders of similar size and, therefore, demand a careful re-evaluation of storm-related transport where it, based on the boulder's sheer size, has previously been ascribed to tsunamis.

  2. A note of caution on the use of boulders for exposure dating of depositional surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Silke; Hetzel, Ralf; Kuhlmann, Jan; Mingorance, Francisco; Ramos, Victor A.

    2011-02-01

    Exposure dating of boulders has been widely applied to determine the age of depositional surfaces under the assumption that the pre-depositional nuclide component in most boulders is negligible. Here we present a case study on fluvial terraces at the active mountain front of the eastern Andes, where this assumption is clearly invalid, because sandstone boulders (n = 13) from terraces at two sites contain a highly variable inherited 10Be component and have apparent 10Be ages that exceed the age of the respective surface by up to ~ 90 ka. Likewise, boulders from active stream channels (n = 5) contain a substantial inherited 10Be component, equivalent to 5-48 ka of exposure. The age of the fluvial terraces is well determined by two approaches that allow to correct for the pre-depositional nuclide component: 10Be dating of amalgamated pebbles and 10Be depth profiles on sand samples. At site 1, three terraces have 10Be ages of 3-5 ka (T2), 11-13 ka (T3), and 16-20 ka (T4), which are consistent with the terrace stratigraphy. The age of terrace T3 is confirmed by a calibrated 14 C age of 12.61 ± 0.20 ka BP obtained from a wood sample. At site 2, terrace T3 has a 10Be age of 13-16 ka. The average inherited 10Be concentration of sand grains - determined from depth profiles and stream sediments - is small and equivalent to 1-3 ka of exposure. In contrast, the mean inheritance of pebbles and boulders is higher and equivalent to exposure times of ~ 10 ka and ~ 30 ka, respectively. These differences in the pre-depositional nuclide component are related to the different provenance and transport history of sand, pebbles, and boulders. The sand is derived from rapidly eroding Miocene sediments exposed near the mountain front, whereas the pebbles and boulders originate from Triassic sandstones in the internal part of the fold-and-thrust belt. On their way to the mountain front, boulders and pebbles were temporarily stored and irradiated in alluvial fans that are currently reworked

  3. Evaluation of Boulder, CO, SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Vijayakumar, G.

    2012-04-01

    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE's Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  4. Evaluation of Boulder, CO,SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Vijayakumar, G. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE’s Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  5. Boulder accumulations related to extreme wave events on the eastern coast of Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolchi, Sara; Furlani, Stefano; Antonioli, Fabrizio; Baldassini, Niccoló; Causon Deguara, Joanna; Devoto, Stefano; Di Stefano, Agata; Evans, Julian; Gambin, Timothy; Gauci, Ritienne; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Monaco, Carmelo; Scicchitano, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    The accumulation of large boulders related to waves generated by either tsunamis or extreme storm events have been observed in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Along the eastern low-lying rocky coasts of Malta, five sites with large boulder deposits have been investigated, measured and mapped. These boulders have been detached and moved from the nearshore and the lowest parts of the coast by sea wave action. In the Sicily-Malta channel, heavy storms are common and originate from the NE and NW winds. Conversely, few tsunamis have been recorded in historical documents to have reached the Maltese archipelago. We present a multi-disciplinary study, which aims to define the characteristics of these boulder accumulations, in order to assess the coastal geo-hazard implications triggered by the sheer ability of extreme waves to detach and move large rocky blocks inland. The wave heights required to transport 77 coastal boulders were calculated using various hydrodynamic equations. Particular attention was given to the quantification of the input parameters required in the workings of these equations, such as size, density and distance from the coast. In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages were determined from selected samples of marine organisms encrusted on some of the coastal boulders. The combination of the results obtained both by the hydrodynamic equations, which provided values comparable with those observed and measured during the storms, and radiocarbon dating suggests that the majority of the boulders have been detached and moved by intense storm waves. These boulders testify to the existence of a real hazard for the coasts of Malta, i.e. that of very high storm waves, which, during exceptional storms, are able to detach large blocks of volumes exceeding 10 m3 from the coastal edge and the nearshore bottom, and also to transport them inland. Nevertheless, the occurrence of one or more tsunami events cannot be ruled out, since

  6. Discrete Element Method Simulation of a Boulder Extraction From an Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchitsky, Anton K.; Johnson, Jerome B.; Reeves, David M.; Wilkinson, Allen

    2014-01-01

    The force required to pull 7t and 40t polyhedral boulders from the surface of an asteroid is simulated using the discrete element method considering the effects of microgravity, regolith cohesion and boulder acceleration. The connection between particle surface energy and regolith cohesion is estimated by simulating a cohesion sample tearing test. An optimal constant acceleration is found where the peak net force from inertia and cohesion is a minimum. Peak pulling forces can be further reduced by using linear and quadratic acceleration functions with up to a 40% reduction in force for quadratic acceleration.

  7. Microfossils in the Ordovician erratic boulders from South-western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nõlvak, J.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitinozoans, ostracods and acritarchs found in four glacially transported limestone boulders from the south-western coast of Finland have been studied in order to test the usefulness of these microfossil groups in age determinations. Also rare specimens of conodonts, inarticulated brachiopods and foraminifers were found. Baltic limestone (or Östersjö limestone was the most problematic, because only fossils with calcitic or phosphatic shells are preserved. It is concluded that the boulders identified correlate with the Uhaku and Rakvere stages of the Middle Ordovician.

  8. Astronaut Charles Duke examines surface of boulder at North Ray crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, examines the surface of a large boulder at North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut John W. Young, commander. Note the chest-mounted 70mm Hasselblad camera.

  9. 75 FR 47488 - FM Table of Allotments, Boulder Town, Levan, Mount Pleasant, and Richfield, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... proposed transmitter site was unavailable due to its location in a national forest. See 71 FR 29886 (May 24..., Report and Order, 71 FR 76208 (December 20, 2006). The CDBS will reflect Channel 229C at Mount Pleasant... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments, Boulder Town, Levan, Mount Pleasant, and Richfield,...

  10. 76 FR 14063 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... affiliated with the human remains and associated funerary objects may contact the University of...

  11. 76 FR 62839 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... contact the University of Colorado Museum. Disposition of the human remains to the Indian tribes...

  12. 75 FR 42771 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the University of Colorado Museum... assessment of the human remains was made by the University of Colorado Museum professional staff...

  13. 75 FR 57290 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the University of Colorado Museum... assessment of the human remains was made by the University of Colorado Museum professional staff...

  14. 76 FR 62833 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... contact the University of Colorado Museum. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary...

  15. Aswan site on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Morphology, boulder evolution, and spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Oklay, Nilda; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Giacomini, Lorenza; Massironi, Matteo; Bertini, Ivano; El-Maarry, M. R.; Marzari, Francesco; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Höfner, Sebastian; Lee, Jui-Chi; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Groussin, Olivier; Naletto, Giampiero; Lazzarin, Monica; Barbieri, Cesare; Sierks, Holger; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; Keller, Horst U.; Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Barucci, Maria A.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Cremonese, Gabriele; Da Deppo, Vania; Davidsson, Björn; De Cecco, Mariolino; Debei, Stefano; Ferri, Francesca; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulle, Marco; Güttler, Carsten; Gutierrez, Pedro J.; Hviid, Stubbe F.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jorda, Laurent; Knollenberg, Jörg; Kramm, J.-Rainer; Küppers, Michael; Kürt, Ekkehard; Lara, Luisa M.; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Lopez Moreno, Jose J.; Magrin, Sara; Michalik, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Thomas, Nicholas; Tubiana, Cecilia

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We provide a detailed morphological analysis of the Aswan site on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). We derive the size-frequency distribution of boulders ≥2 m and correlate this distribution with the gravitational slopes for the first time on a comet. We perform the spectral analysis of this region to understand if possible surface variegation is related to thedifferent surface textures observable on the different units. Methods: We used two OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) image data sets acquired on September 19 and 22, 2014, with a scale of 0.5 m/px. Gravitational slopes derived from the 3D shape model of 67P were used to identify and interpret the different units of the site. By means of the high-resolution NAC data sets, boulders ≥2.0 m can be unambiguously identified and extracted using the software ArcGIS. Coregistered and photometrically corrected color cubes were used to perform the spectral analyses, and we retrieved the spectral properties of the Aswan units. Results: The high-resolution morphological map of the Aswan site (0.68 km2) shows that this site is characterized by four different units: fine-particle deposits located on layered terrains, gravitational accumulation deposits, taluses, and the outcropping layered terrain. Multiple lineaments are identified on the Aswan cliff, such as fractures, exposed layered outcrops, niches, and terraces. Close to the terrace margin, several arched features observed in plan view suggest that the margin progressively retreats as a result of erosion. The size-frequency of boulders ≥2 m in the entire study area has a power-law index of -3.9 +0.2/-0.3 (1499 boulders ≥2 m/km2), suggesting that the Aswan site is mainly dominated by gravitational events triggered by sublimation and/or thermal insolation weathering causing regressive erosion. The boulder size-frequency distribution versus gravitational slopes indicates that when higher gravitational slope terrains are considered, only boulders ≤10 m

  16. Origin of John's Stone: A quartzitic boulder from the site of the 1908 Tunguska (Siberia) explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatti, Enrico; Breger, Dee; Di Rocco, Tommaso; Franchi, Fulvio; Gasperini, Luca; Polonia, Alina; Anfinogenov, John; Anfinogenova, Yana

    2015-09-01

    An exotic meter-size quartzitic boulder known as John's Stone was found by John Anfinogenov in 1972 buried in permafrost close to the epicenter of the 1908 Tunguska blast in a region of Siberia dominated by Permian-Triassic Siberian Trap basalts. The boulder is made almost entirely of well-cemented quartz grains, mostly around 100 μm in size; it contains zones with coarser or finer grain sizes. Rare zircon and rutile crystals are scattered within the quartz matrix. Quartz is often dissected by strain lamellae. The rock contains abundant scattered internal vugs rimmed by euhedral quartz crystals. We cannot exclude that John's Stone is a fragment of a Permian granite-derived sandstone unit. However, based on structure, mineralogy and chemistry the quartzitic boulder may have originated due to silica deposition from hydrothermal solutions that had reacted with basaltic rocks. Anfinogenov et␣al. (Anfinogenov, J. et␣al. [2014]. Icarus 243, 139-147) interpreted features observed in the permafrost at the base of the boulder as indicating it impacted from above, suggesting the boulder may be a meteorite, possibly of martian origin, given the reported presence on Mars of silica-rich deposits. Triple oxygen isotope ratios determined on two samples of the quartzite reveal a terrestrial rather than a martian meteorites composition. Oxygen isotope data suggest also that the precipitation of SiO2 could have occurred in equilibrium with hydrothermal water (δ18Ow ≈ -19.5‰) at the temperature of about 50 °C. The thermal event that generated the quartzite may be related either to the century-old Tunguska Event, or, more probably, to Permian-Triassic Siberian Traps magmatism, although an extraterrestrial origin cannot be completely ruled out.

  17. Spatial heterogeneity of temperature across alpine boulder fields in New South Wales, Australia: multilevel modelling of drivers of microhabitat climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haijing; Paull, David; Rayburg, Scott

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the spatial heterogeneity of temperatures across a region is significant for identification and protection of potential microhabitats for species conservation. However, this task is proving difficult because multiple factors drive the temperatures of microhabitats and their effect differs at different scales. In the Australian alpine region, boulder field habitats have been identified as important refugia for a range of small mammals. Vegetation cover and elevation have been found to drive thermal buffering at the level of single sampling sites within boulder fields, whereas the aspect and inclination of slopes have been found to affect thermal buffering at the level of clusters of boulder fields. But how the rock structure (number of rock layers, rock size and cavity of boulders) influences microclimate of boulder fields remains an open question. We used a multilevel modelling approach to detect the factors driving microhabitat temperatures in different seasons at different spatial scales in an Australian alpine region. We found that significant temperature differences existed within and between clusters of boulder fields in different seasons. Besides elevation and vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size also exerts important influences on extreme temperatures at the site (i.e. single boulder field) scale. Topographical variables such as slope gradient and elevation influenced minimum temperatures at the boulder field cluster scale. Variations in boulder field temperatures were significant at fine scales, with variations in minimum temperatures exceeding those of maximum temperatures. We suggest that variations in slope gradient and elevation, interacting with vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size can lead to fine-grained thermal variability, which potentially provides refugia for species at microsites, even when regional climatic conditions become less suitable for their survival.

  18. Spatial heterogeneity of temperature across alpine boulder fields in New South Wales, Australia: multilevel modelling of drivers of microhabitat climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haijing; Paull, David; Rayburg, Scott

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the spatial heterogeneity of temperatures across a region is significant for identification and protection of potential microhabitats for species conservation. However, this task is proving difficult because multiple factors drive the temperatures of microhabitats and their effect differs at different scales. In the Australian alpine region, boulder field habitats have been identified as important refugia for a range of small mammals. Vegetation cover and elevation have been found to drive thermal buffering at the level of single sampling sites within boulder fields, whereas the aspect and inclination of slopes have been found to affect thermal buffering at the level of clusters of boulder fields. But how the rock structure (number of rock layers, rock size and cavity of boulders) influences microclimate of boulder fields remains an open question. We used a multilevel modelling approach to detect the factors driving microhabitat temperatures in different seasons at different spatial scales in an Australian alpine region. We found that significant temperature differences existed within and between clusters of boulder fields in different seasons. Besides elevation and vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size also exerts important influences on extreme temperatures at the site (i.e. single boulder field) scale. Topographical variables such as slope gradient and elevation influenced minimum temperatures at the boulder field cluster scale. Variations in boulder field temperatures were significant at fine scales, with variations in minimum temperatures exceeding those of maximum temperatures. We suggest that variations in slope gradient and elevation, interacting with vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size can lead to fine-grained thermal variability, which potentially provides refugia for species at microsites, even when regional climatic conditions become less suitable for their survival. PMID:26511483

  19. A NEW FINDING ON THE OCCURRENCE OF GOLDEN GECKO (CALODACTYLODES AUREUS IN THE ROCK BOULDERS NEAR VELLORE TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.RAJASEKHAR

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Golden geckos (Calodactylodes aureus are reported for the first time in the rock boulders nearVellore Town ,North Arcot district of Tamilnadu,India . Vellore Town is surrounded by smallhillocks with huge boulders. Those hillocks which are elevated at 50 to 100 meters are locations.A survey was made within fifteen kilometers radius towards east of Vellore town .Surprisinglygolden geckos are observed in these locations contrary to the habitat described earlier .Hence thereport emphasizes that golden geckos can also be seen in dry ,drought and high temperaturezones where huge rock boulders are present and not only in the mountains of high altitudes withhigh rainfall and humidity.

  20. Podnikatelská plán pro založení boulder centra

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zabývá sestavením podnikatelského záměru pro založení Boulder Centra v Brně. Jde o horolezeckou stěnu spojenou s možností posezení. Na základě ekonomických analýz je sestaven podnikatelský plán, který určuje šanci a podmínky realizace daného projektu. The Master Thesis deals with a business plan for setting up a Boulder Centre in Brno. The centre will comprise of a gym for rock climbing and a bar. The bussines plan is based on economic analyses and determines the conditi...

  1. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall impacted by an experimental boulder

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D; Qian, H.

    2016-01-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of damaged elements due to debris flow events in China. Therefore, it is difficult to quantitatively estimate the vulnerable elements suffered by debris flows. This paper is devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete walls impacted by debris flows. An experimental boulder (an iron sphere) was applied to be the substitute of debris flow since it can produce similar shape impulse load on elements as ...

  2. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver...

  3. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of a Multifamily Retrofit in Climate Zone 5, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    In 2009, a 37-unit apartment complex located in Boulder, Colorado, underwent an energy retrofit to comply with Boulder SmartRegs Ordinance, a mandate that requires all rental properties to meet certain energy efficiency standards by 2018. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, worked with city planners and building owners to evaluate this program and recently completed a case study evaluating the effectiveness of a collection of retrofit measures.

  4. Boulders moved by the 29 September 2009 Tsunami: Flow-Speed Estimates at Taga, Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert; Fritz, Hermann

    2010-05-01

    On September 29, 2009 at 17:48:10 UTC (local time: UTC-11), an Mw ≈8.1 earthquake struck about 200 km S of the main Samoan Islands chain and 200 km E of Tonga's Niua Group. This is the most significant earthquake on the northern bend of the Tonga trench since 1917. At Taga, boulders of different sizes were observed; their distribution on the surface did not shore any recognizable pattern. It should be noted that the term 'boulder' in here is not applied to an indicated grain size, but to describe particles that have a size that cannot be neglected compared to the water depth. Taga village is located on south-central Savai'i Island, Samoa. The tsunami flooding reached about 180 m inundation and about 6m maximum runup . The tsunami waves were able to turn a empty water tank upside down and destroyed a house attached to a swimming pool. The flow depth reached 4 m marked by roof damage. In order to achieve estimates of the flow speed from the boulders on the surface, a few assumptions need to be made. Even though these assumptions simplify the physical problem almost to the level of the spherical cow, and yet they do not violate basic physics. Also, the initiation of motion is not considered, which is complex due to the necessary three-dimensional description of the turbulent flow field and shear-stress distribution around the boulder. Furthermore, the bedding and roughness in vicinity of the boulder is of pivotal importance for the initiation of motion. The first assumption is that the Froude number can be used to scale between the flow depth and the flow speed. The Froude number is the ratio of the flow speed and square root of gravity times the flow depth. It is classically used to evaluate the influence of inertia on a flow system and for scaling of gravity driven flows. The second assumption is that the boulders are spherical with varying bulk density. The last assumption is that the Rouse number can be employed to retrieve information on the transport mode. The

  5. Accretion of Cometary Nuclei in the Solar Nebula: Boulders, Not Pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Paul R.; A'Hearn, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Comets are the most primitive bodies in the solar system. They retain a largely unprocessed record of conditions in the primordial solar nebula 4.56 Gyr ago, including the initial accretion of dust and ice particles into macroscopic bodies. Current accretion theory suggests that ice and dust aggregates grew to pebble (cm) sizes before streaming instabilities and gravitational collapse brought these pebble swarms together as km-sized (or larger) bodies. Recent imaging of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the Rosetta OSIRIS camera team has revealed the existence of “goose bump” terrain on the nucleus surface and lining the interior walls of large, ~200 m diameter and 180 m deep cylindrical pits. These pits are believed to be sinkholes, formed when near-surface materials collapse into voids within the nucleus, revealing the fresh comet interior on the walls of the pits. The goose bump terrain consists of 3-4 m diameter “boulders” randomly stacked one on top of another. We propose that these boulders, likely with an icy-conglomerate composition, are the basic building blocks of cometary nuclei. This is the first observational confirmation of current accretion theories, with the caveat that rather than pebbles, the preferred size range is 3-4 m boulders for objects formed in the giant planets region of the solar system. The presence of icy grains beyond the solar nebula snow-line and the large heliocentric range of the giant planets region likely contribute to the formation of these larger boulders, before they are incorporated into cometary nuclei. This work was supported by NASA through the U.S. Rosetta Project.

  6. Astronaut John Young looks over a boulder at Station no. 13 during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, looks over a large boulder at Station No. 13 during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This was the site of the permanently shadowed soil sample which was taken from a hole extending under overhanging rock. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this photograph. Concerning Young's reaching under the big rock, Duke remarked: 'You do that in west Texas and you get a rattlesnake!'

  7. A story about estimation of a random field of boulders from incomplete seismic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2005-01-01

    Belt. The surprisingly simple results from the analysis of the data from this separate measuring program are reported in a companion paper. Based on the revealed geographical universality of the joint dimension distribution it is anticipated that the same distribution is applicable for the till...... deposits along the tunnel line. By use of this important distribution information and of the observed homogeneity of the seismic point source field together with the physical properties of diffraction it became possible to make the wanted prediction. During the excavation the found boulders were counted...

  8. Quantitative Morphologic Analysis of Boulder Shape and Surface Texture to Infer Environmental History: A Case Study of Rock Breakdown at the Ephrata Fan, Channeled Scabland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Viles, Heather A.; Bourke, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Boulder morphology reflects both lithology and climate and is dictated by the combined effects of erosion, transport, and weathering. At present, morphologic information at the boulder scale is underutilized as a recorder of environmental processes, partly because of the lack of a systematic quantitative parameter set for reporting and comparing data sets. We develop such a parameter set, incorporating a range of measures of boulder form and surface texture. We use standard shape metrics measured in the field and fractal and morphometric classification methods borrowed from landscape analysis and applied to laser-scanned molds. The parameter set was pilot tested on three populations of basalt boulders with distinct breakdown histories in the Channeled Scabland, Washington: (1) basalt outcrop talus; (2) flood-transported boulders recently excavated from a quarry; and (3) flood-transported boulders, extensively weathered in situ on the Ephrata Fan surface. Size and shape data were found to distinguish between flood-transported and untransported boulders. Size and edge angles (approximately 120 degrees) of flood-transported boulders suggest removal by preferential fracturing along preexisting columnar joints, and curvature data indicate rounding relative to outcrop boulders. Surface textural data show that boulders which have been exposed at the surface are significantly rougher than those buried by fan sediments. Past signatures diagnostic of flood transport still persist on surface boulders, despite ongoing overprinting by processes in the present breakdown environment through roughening and fracturing in situ. Further use of this quantitative boulder parameter set at other terrestrial and planetary sites will aid in cataloging and understanding morphologic signatures of environmental processes.

  9. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, J. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-11-01

    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In this project, the Building America CARB team evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  10. Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hetch Hetchy Pump Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, L; Kato, T; Van Hattem, M

    2007-06-28

    The purpose of this biological assessment is to review the proposed Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project in sufficient detail to determine to what extent the proposed action may affect any of the threatened, endangered, proposed, or sensitive species and designated or proposed critical habitats listed below. In addition, the following information is provided to comply with statutory requirements to use the best scientific and commercial information available when assessing the risks posed to listed and/or proposed species and designated and/or proposed critical habitat by proposed federal actions. This biological assessment is prepared in accordance with legal requirements set forth under regulations implementing Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (50 CFR 402; 16 U.S.C 1536 (c)). It is our desire for the Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project to receive incidental take coverage for listed species and critical habitat within the greater project area by means of amending the previous formal Section 7 consultation (1-1-04-F-0086) conducted a few hundred meters downstream by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 2002. All conservation measures, terms and conditions, and reporting requirements from the previous Biological Opinion (1-1-04-F-0086) have been adopted for this Biological Assessment and/or amendment.

  11. Geochemical studies of the White Breccia Boulders at North Ray Crater, Descartes region of the lunar highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Lum, R. K. L.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Philpotts, J. A.; Winzer, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    The samples of the White Breccia Boulders obtained during the Apollo 16 mission and investigated in the reported study include an anorthositic breccia (67415), a dark matrix breccia (67435), a light matrix breccia (67455), and a large clast of dark matrix breccia (67475) taken from the 67455 boulder. The chemical analyses of bulk samples of the samples are listed in a table. A graph shows the lithophile trace element abundances. Another graph indicates the variation of Sm with Al2O3 content for samples from the White Breccia Boulders. The North Ray Crater breccias are found to be in general slightly more aluminous than breccias from the other stations at the Apollo 16 site. Analyses of eight Apollo 16 breccias cited in the literature range from 25% to 35% Al2O3. However, the North Ray Crater breccias are more clearly distinct from the other Apollo 16 breccias in their contents of lithophile trace elements.

  12. Assessment of the Effect of Blast Hole Diameter on the Number of Oversize Boulders Using ANN Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhekne, Prakash; Pradhan, Manoj; Jade, Ravi Krishnarao

    2016-04-01

    Now-a-days, blasts are planned using large diameter blast holes. The loading density (kg/m) and subsequently the energy available for the breakage of the rockmass increase with the diameter. The in-hole velocity of detonation (VoD) of non-ideal explosive also boosts up with the increase in diameter till the optimum diameter is reached. The increase in the energy content and in-hole VoD cause a sizable effect on the rock fragmentation. The effect can be assessed by counting the number of oversize boulders. This paper explains as to how the technique of artificial neural network modeling was used to predict the number of oversize boulders resulting from ANFO and SME blasts with blast holes of different diameters. The results from ANFO blasts indicated that there was no significant variation in the number of oversize boulders with the diameter whereas a perceptible variation was noticed in case of SME blasts with the change in the diameter. The change in the number of oversize boulders in ANFO blasts was negligible because mean energy factor remained almost same even when the diameter of the blast holes was altered. The decrease in the number of oversize boulders in SME blasts was on account of increase in mean energy factor when the blast hole diameter was increased. The increase in the in-hole VoD due to increase in the diameter of the hole was not found to have an effect on the generation of oversize boulders as this increase was not substantial both in SME and ANFO blasts.

  13. Survival times of meter-sized rock boulders on the surface of airless bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Horz, F.; Ramsley, K.

    2015-11-01

    Rock boulders are typical features of the surfaces of many airless bodies, so the possibility of estimating their potential survival times may provide insights into the rates of surface-modification processes. As an opening point of this study we employ estimates of the survival times of meter-sized boulders on the surface of the Moon based on analysis of the spatial density of boulders on the rims of small lunar craters of known absolute age (Basilevsky et al., 2013), and apply them, with necessary corrections, to boulders on other bodies. In this approach the major factor of rock destruction is considered to be impacts of meteorites. However another factor of the rock destruction, thermal fatigue due to day-night cycling, does exist and it was claimed by Delbo et al. (2014) as being more important than meteorite impacts. They concluded this on the basis of known presence of fine material on the surface of small asteroids, claiming that due to extremely low gravity on those bodies, the products of meteorite bombardment should leave these bodies, and thus their presence indicates that the process of thermal fatigue should be much more effective there. Delbo et al. (2014) made laboratory experiments on heating-cooling centimeter-sized samples of chondrites and, applying some assumptions and theoretical modeling concluded that, for example, at 1 AU distance from the Sun, the lifetime of 10 cm rock fragments on asteroids with period of rotation from 2.2 to 6 h should be only ~103 to 104 years (that is ~3.5×106 to 1.5×107 thermal cycles) and the larger the rock, the faster it should be destroyed. In response to those conclusions we assessed the results of earlier laboratory experiments, which show that only a part of comminuted material produced by high-velocity impacts into solid rocks is ejected from the crater while another part is not ejected but stays exposed on the target surface and is present in its subsurface. This means that the presence of

  14. Boulder Moves Ahead: An Evaluation of the English as a Second Language Tutorial Program of the Boulder Valley Public Schools, During Its First Year of Operation: 1975-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Charles

    The evaluation of the first year of the English as a Second Language Tutorial Program of Boulder Valley Public Schools included on-site observations, interviews with coordinators and teachers, a linguistic evaluation of each student (elementary and secondary levels), a classroom teacher's questionnaire, a parents' questionnaire, and a tutor's…

  15. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning. Volume 3A. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: South Boulder Creek Park Project, Sand and Gravel Operations, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L R; Perry, A O; LaFevers, J R

    1977-02-01

    This case study details reclamation planning for the Flatiron Companies' South Boulder Creek Park Project in Boulder, Colorado. The site contains a deposit of high-quality sand and gravel considered to be one of the best and largest known deposits of aggregate materials in the Front Range area. The aggregate deposit is located in a highly visible site just off the Denver-Boulder Turnpike at the entrance to the city from Denver, and adjacent to a residential portion of the city. In order to make maximum use of pre-mining planning, as a tool for resolving a conflict over the company's proposed operation, an extensive cooperative planning effort was initiated. This included the preparation of an environmental impact assessment, numerous public hearings, operating and reclamation plan review by city authorities, annexation of the site to the city, and the granting of a scenic easement on the property to the city for the development of a regional recreation park. A suite of contractual agreements was worked out among Flatiron Companies, the City of Boulder, the Colorado Open Lands Foundation, and the Federal Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. The purpose of this case study is to allow the planner to gain insight into the procedures, possibilities, and constraints involved in premining planning in a cooperative situation.

  16. A successful borehole drilled by cryogenic drilling in an arid, unconsolidated soil with boulders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, P.; Simon, R.D.; Cooper, G.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1997-07-01

    An 80 foot deep borehole was drilled using a novel cryogenic drilling method. The freeze while drilling technique stabilizes the borehole wall while drilling by using conventional air rotary methods but with low temperature nitrogen gas (as cold as {minus}196 C) as the drilling fluid. The location of the field test was a semi-arid alluvial unconsolidated sedimentary formation at the Aerojet, Inc. site in Rancho Cordova, California. The geology was a sandy soil matrix containing cobbles and boulders. The test goal was to drill to 100 feet (30 m), but the test was terminated at 80 feet due to a failure of the swivel shaft and drill bit resulting from the very rough drilling conditions. No safety, technical, or operational problems were encountered that could prevent cryogenic drilling from becoming a standard technique for drilling in unstable near-surface formations.

  17. Boulder Deposits on the Southern Spanish Atlantic Coast: Possible Evidence for the 1755 AD Lisbon Tsunami?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Kelletat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Field evidence of visible tsunami impacts in Europe is scarce. This research focused on an analysis of large littoral debris and accompanying geomorphic features and their rela- tionship to a tsunami event at Cabo de Trafalgar, located on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast. Relative dating of weathering features as well as minor bioconstructive forms in the littoral zone suggest the Lisbon tsunami of 1755 AD as the event responsible for the large deposits described. This tsunami had run up heights of more than 19 m and was generated at the Gorringe Bank, located 500 km west off the Cape. Tsunami deposits at Cabo de Tra- falgar are the first boulder deposits identified on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast and are located approximately 250 km southeast of the Algarve coast (Portugal, where other geo- morphic evidence for the Lisbon tsunami has been reported.

  18. ATS6 radio beacon electron content measurements at Boulder, July 1974--May 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine monitoring of the plasmaspheric content was a primary objective of the ATS6 Radio Beacon Experiment (RBE) and this set critical requirements on transmitter and receiver stabilities. The satellite transmitted linearly polarized signals on carrier frequencies of 40.016, 140.056, and 360.144 MHz, with modulations of 100.04 kHz and 1.004 MHz. This provided coarse and fine scales of measurements so that the cycle ambiguity in the phase measurements of both Faraday rotation and group delay could be resolved. This report summarizes 140 MHz data recorded at the Boulder, Colorado, ground station (40.13 degrees N, 105.24 degrees W) while ATS6 was positioned above 94 degrees west longitude, between July 1974 and May 1975. The satellite appeared at an azimuth of 163 degrees, elevation 42 degrees, with the projection of the ray path near the ground. All data were digitally recorded once per second

  19. Taxonomic and behavioral components of faunal comparisons over time: The bees of Boulder County past and present (Colorado, USA) (Hymenoptera: Anthophila)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historical and recent studies of Boulder County, Colorado (USA) bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) illustrate the potential and the pitfalls of using comparative collection data to evaluate faunal composition and change over time. A compilation of bee records from Boulder Co., CO (USA) (Scott et al., 2...

  20. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In NREL's report titled 'Assessing and Improving the Accuracy of Energy Analysis of Residential Buildings,' researchers propose a method for improving the accuracy of residential energy analysis methods. A key step in this process involves the comparisons of predicted versus metered energy use and savings. In support of this research need, CARB evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. In this study, CARB seeks to improve the accuracy of modeling software while assessing retrofit measures to specifically determine which are most effective for large multifamily complexes in the cold climate region. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  1. Multi-method attribution analysis of extreme precipitation in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Jonathan; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Otto, Friederike

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and attributing the characteristics of extreme events that lead to societal impacts is a key challenge in climate science. Detailed analysis of individual case studies is particularly important in assessing how anthropogenic climate change is changing the likelihood of extreme events and their associated risk at relevant spatial scales. While climate model simulations provide an important basis for such analysis, reliable assessment of long term changes in extreme events is limited by models' inherent errors and biases. Here, we conduct a comprehensive multi-method attribution analysis of the heavy precipitation that led to widespread flooding in Boulder, Colorado in September 2013. Using extreme value analysis of, first of all, historical observations, we assess the influence of anthropogenic climate change on the likelihood of one- and five-day precipitation events across the Boulder area. The same analysis is extended to the output of a 16-member coupled model ensemble, following rigorous evaluation of the model skill in representing the processes responsible for extreme precipitation events in this region. Preliminary analysis using both observation- and model-based methods suggests that an event of this magnitude is around 20% more likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Recently, emphasis has been placed on the importance of model evaluation and bias correction in attribution studies. Further analysis will thus focus on sophisticated bias correction and downscaling techniques and their potential added value for application in attribution analysis. We also highlight the benefit of a multi-method approach in addressing event-specific attribution questions, particularly with regard to the quantification of uncertainty.

  2. 33 CFR 165.T11-281 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV. 165.T11-281 Section 165.T11-281 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS...

  3. A Case Study on Environmental Perspectives of Boulderers and Access Issues at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeremy; Davidson, Justin; Hutson, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there are concerns about access restrictions to bouldering, a form of rock climbing, and other outdoor activities practiced at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve located near Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. The Niagara Parks Commission is currently in the process of exploring ways to balance protection of the natural area with sustainable…

  4. Expanded Systematic Prospection To Discover The Original Of Uranium Mineral Boulders In Sector II Tanah Merah Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Result of the previous prospections at Tanah Merah area by CEA-BATAN (1977) and by Djawadi et al (1990) has found the existence of U-bearing monazite boulders, those being found in the intercalation between quarzite and metasilt area. This current systematic prospection is done based on the data of the previous prospection above and intends to get knowledge about the origin of those boulders. This research consists of topographic mapping, emanometric radiometric, and structural element measurements. The results show that the area is located on the NW flank of subhorizontal NE-SW synform which is cut by strike slip faults in various direction, as a dextral sinistral tear faults, and NE-SW normal faults with SE block downthrown. Emanometric and radio-metric anomalous zones and the dispersion of the boulders area parallel and follow the WNW - ESE fractures Zones. Finally, it can be concluded that U-bearing monazite boulders come from veins in the WNW-ESE fractures

  5. Increasing the Harvest: How the University of Colorado Boulder Replaced Alumni Association Dues with a Student Fee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peglar, Tori

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the University of Colorado Boulder Alumni Association moved under the university's umbrella after the alumni members had spent 11 years under the CU Foundation. But there were two major catches. First, the chancellor wanted them to eliminate their membership dues, as he felt they competed with the annual fund. Second, he could only make up…

  6. Boulder aprons indicate long-term gradual and non-catastrophic evolution of cliffed escarpments, Stołowe Mts, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszyński, Filip; Migoń, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Caprock-crowned escarpments are characteristic geomorphic features of the sandstone tableland of the Stołowe Mountains (SW Poland). Their mid- and lower slopes truncate weaker sedimentary formations but are littered with sandstone boulders of various size, often more than 5 m long, which form nearly continuous aprons. A model of escarpment retreat by rock fall has been widely accepted in literature but in the Stołowe Mountains it has never been tested against field evidence; in addition no rock fall events except one minor fall in 1921 have been recorded in historical times. In this paper we erected five hypotheses of how escarpments may have evolved through time to result in widespread boulder presence on the slopes. Mapping boulder extent and slope morphology, run-out distance simulations using Conefall software, and rock strength determinations using the Schmidt hammer carried out on boulders along eight representative slope profiles provide data about characteristics of the boulder covers. Systematic decrease in intact rock strength with an increasing distance from the sandstone cliffs suggests that the boulder aprons are diachronic and record long-term retreat of escarpments. There exists no conclusive evidence of widespread boulder downslope movement, although in a few localities shallow landslides have rafted boulders far away from the cliff lines. Modelling exercise shows that the actual extent of boulders is 2-3 times bigger than suggested by Conefall predictions. These findings, coupled with observations along the cliff lines themselves, lead us to propose a model of free face in situ disintegration as the most likely hypothesis to explain block detachment and release from rock faces. As cliff lines recede and the slope surface below is lowered, remnant boulders occupy a position increasingly further away from escarpment rims, but experience little actual movement. This model complements the existing models of tableland evolution which tend to emphasize

  7. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: A Robotic Boulder Capture Option for Science, Human Exploration, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar electric propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (4 - 10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (1 - 5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well- characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense. Science: The RBC option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting

  8. Arecibo and Goldstone radar evidence for boulders on near-Earth asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, L.; Nolan, M.; Brozovic, M.; Taylor, P.; Busch, M.; Howell, E.; Margot, J.; Giorgini, J.; Springmann, A.; Naidu, S.; Magri, C.; Shepard, M.

    2014-07-01

    plausible interpretation for these particular observations is that the bright pixels are echoes from surface and near-surface boulders, which have been seen on each of the three near-Earth asteroids imaged by spacecraft: (433) Eros (NEAR-Shoemaker), (25143) Itokawa (Hayabusa), and (4179) Toutatis (Chang'e 2). These asteroids have also been imaged by radar, but the resolutions and/or signal-to-noise ratios were insufficient to reveal possible boulders. Bright spots were not evident in radar images of Toutatis obtained between 1992-2008, but following an upgrade in Goldstone's finest resolution from 19 to 4 m/pixel in 2010, a modest number of spots became visible in Goldstone images of Toutatis obtained in 2012. The prevalence of small radar bright spots on numerous NEAs establishes that features consistent with boulders can be detected in delay-Doppler radar images of particularly high-SNR targets and that these features are relatively common on near-Earth asteroid surfaces.

  9. Erratic boulder trains and cosmogenic exposure dating of former glacial limits: A case-study from Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvill, Christopher; Stokes, Chris; Bentley, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Erratic Boulder Trains (EBTs) are a spectacular yet poorly-understood glacial geomorphological feature. These linear clusters of glacial erratic boulders help to illustrate the flow-lines of former glaciers by pin-pointing the parent rock from which they have originated and are often used as targets for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating. Consequently, there is a need to understand their geomorphological significance to improve ice-sheet reconstructions and provide important contextual information for dating studies. The EBTs in Tierra del Fuego are some of the finest examples of this feature in the world, and this paper presents the first comprehensive mapping and physical assessment of four boulder trains. Unlike most other examples, they were deposited laterally rather than medially and are tightly clustered, presenting linear features only a few kilometres long that contain hundreds to thousands of huge boulders (often >8 m in diameter). The size and angularity of the boulders strongly supports the hypothesis that they were deposited as a supraglacial rock avalanche. The boulders have been the subject of previous cosmogenic dating, which have yielded anomalously young ages from deposits thought to be hundreds of thousands of years old. Analysis of weathering proxies shows little difference between boulder trains thought to be of radically different ages, with important implications for the timing of glaciations and potentially contradicting previous age constraints on glacial limits in the region.

  10. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall impacted by an experimental boulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D.; Qian, H.

    2016-02-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of damaged elements due to debris flow events in China. Therefore, it is difficult to quantitatively estimate the vulnerable elements suffered by debris flows. This paper is devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete walls impacted by debris flows. An experimental boulder (an iron sphere) was applied to be the substitute of debris flow since it can produce similar shape impulse load on elements as debris flow. Several walls made of brick and concrete were constructed in prototype dimensions to physically simulate the damaged structures in debris flows. The maximum impact force was measured, and the damage conditions of the elements (including cracks and displacements) were collected, described and compared. The failure criterion of brick and concrete wall was proposed with reference to the structure characteristics as well as the damage pattern caused by debris flows. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall was finally established based on fuzzy mathematics and the proposed failure criterion. Momentum, maximum impact force and maximum impact bending moment were compared to be the best candidate for disaster intensity index. The results show that the maximum impact bending moment seems to be most suitable for the disaster intensity index in establishing vulnerability curve and formula.

  11. Field evaluation of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model near boulders for habitat calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddle, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic models are now widely used in aquatic habitat studies. To test the sensitivity of calculated habitat outcomes to limitations of such a model and of typical field data, bathmetry, depth and velocity data were collected for three discharges in the vicinity of two large boulders in the South Platte River (Colorado) and used in the River2D model. Simulated depth and velocity were compared with observed values at 204 locations and the differences in habitat numbers produced by observed and simulated conditions were calculated. The bulk of the differences between simulated and observed depth and velocity values were found to lie within the likely error of measurement. However, the effect of flow simulation outliers on potential habitat outcomes must be considered when using 2D models for habitat simulation. Furthermore, the shape of the habitat suitability relation can influence the effects of simulation errors. Habitat relations with steep slopes in the velocity ranges found in similar study areas are expected to be sensitive to the magnitude of error found here. Comparison of habitat values derived from simulated and observed depth and velocity revealed a small tendency to under-predict habitat values.

  12. Field evaluation of a two-dimensinal hydrodynamic model near boulders for habitat calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddle, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic models are now widely used in aquatic habitat studies. To test the sensitivity of calculated habitat outcomes to limitations of such a model and of typical field data, bathymetry, depth and velocity data were collected for three discharges in the vicinity of two large boulders in the South Platte River (Colorado) and used in the River2D model. Simulated depth and velocity were compared with observed values at 204 locations and the differences in habitat numbers produced by observed and simulated conditions were calculated. The bulk of the differences between simulated and observed depth and velocity values were found to lie within the likely error of measurement. However, the effect of flow simulation outliers on potential habitat outcomes must be considered when using 2D models for habitat simulation. Furthermore, the shape of the habitat suitability relation can influence the effects of simulation errors. Habitat relations with steep slopes in the velocity ranges found in similar study areas are expected to be sensitive to the magnitude of error found here. Comparison of habitat values derived from simulated and observed depth and velocity revealed a small tendency to under-predict habitat values.

  13. Flatiron-Erie 115kV transmission line project, Larimer, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to uprate its existing 115-kV Flatiron-Erie transmission line. The line is located in Larimer, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colorado, and passes through the City of Longmont. The line connects Flatiron Substation and several of the substations supplying Longmont. It is a single circuit 115-kV line, 31.5 miles long, and was built in 1950-51 on a 75-foot wide right-of-way (ROW) using wood H-frame structures. Western proposes to build 27 new structures along the line, to replace or modify 45 of the existing structures and to remote 11 of them. Many of these additions and changes would involve structures that are approximately 5 to 15 feet taller than the existing ones. The existing conductors and ground wires would remain in place. The purpose of these actions would be to allow the power carrying capability of the line to be increased and to replace deteriorating/structural members. Western would be the sole participant in the proposed project. This report gives an analysis of the study area environment and the development of alternative routes. An assessment is presented of the impacts of the primary alternative routes. The environmental consequences of this project are addressed

  14. Stable isotopic records of bleaching and endolithic algae blooms in the skeleton of the boulder forming coral Montastraea faveolata

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, A.C.; Carilli, J. E.; Norris, R. D.; Charles, C. D.; Deheyn, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    Within boulder forming corals, fixation of dissolved inorganic carbon is performed by symbiotic dinoflagellates within the coral tissue and, to a lesser extent, endolithic algae within the coral skeleton. Endolithic algae produce distinctive green bands in the coral skeleton, and their origin may be related to periods of coral bleaching due to complete loss of dinoflagellate symbionts or “paling” in which symbiont populations are patchily reduced in coral tissue. Stable carbon isotopes were a...

  15. Potential for timing high-energy marine inundation events in the recent geological past through age-dating of reef boulders in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Etienne, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    Transported coastal boulders have increasingly come to represent a valuable element of investigations within the broader framework of multi-proxy approaches applied to coastal hazard studies. Through a case study on Taveuni Island in Fiji, this paper outlines some approaches and hindrances to effective timing of prehistorical high-energy marine inundation events (storms and tsunamis) on tropical coastlines from the evidence of reef-platform carbonate boulders. Various sources of errors are outlined that investigators must consider when attempting to use carbonate boulder ages as a surrogate for timing past events. On Taveuni, uranium : thorium dates with a high level of precision (1-7 years) suggest that major inundation events have a return period of approximately 40-45 years since 1650 AD. Of particular importance, considerably different age dates are provided by coral samples sourced from the top and bottom (i.e. opposite faces) of individual boulders, so highlighting interpretation biases that must be avoided.

  16. A Re-Evaluation of the Relativistic Redshift on Frequency Standards at NIST, Boulder, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, N. K.; Weiss, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Primary frequency standards that realize the definition of the second based on the Caesium (Cs) atom are used to steer International Atomic Time. According to the theory of relativity, their frequency should be adjusted to that at which these would operate, if located on the geoid. Current best standards for the current definition of the second are approaching uncertainties of one part in 1016. Optical frequency standards however are now reaching uncertainties of few parts in 1018 and are expected to lead to a new definition of the second. Their performance requires centimetre-level geoid accuracy, in order to calculate accurately the redshift frequency offset necessary for their inter-comparison. We re-evaluated the relativistic redshift of the frequency standards at NIST in Boulder, Colorado, USA, based on a recent precise GPS survey of several benchmarks on the roof of the building where these are housed, and on global and local geoid models supported by data from the GRACE and GOCE missions, including EGM2008, USGG2009, and USGG2012. We also evaluated the redshift offset based on the published NAVD88 geopotential number of the levelling benchmark Q407, after estimating the bias of the NAVD88 datum at our specific location. We present and discuss the results that we obtained using different methods, and provide our current estimate of the redshift offset and of its accuracy, considering the main error sources contributing to the total error budget. We compare our current estimates to those published by Pavlis and Weiss in 2003, using the data and models that were available at that time. We also discuss the prospects of using inter-connected ultra-precise frequency standards for the direct determination of geoid height differences, which may provide in the not-too-distant future an alternative approach for the establishment of vertical datums and the independent verification of the accuracy of global and local geoid models.

  17. Boulders, biology and buildings: Why weathering is vital to geomorphology (Ralph Alger Bagnold Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viles, Heather A.

    2015-04-01

    Weathering is vital to geomorphology in three main senses. First, it is vital in the sense of being a fundamental and near-ubiquitous earth surface process without which landscapes would not develop, and which also provides a key link between geomorphology and the broader Earth system. Second, weathering is vital in the sense that, as it is heavily influenced by biotic processes, it demonstrates the importance of life to geomorphology and vice versa. In particular, weathering illustrates the many cross-linkages between microbial ecosystems and geomorphology. Finally, it is vital in the sense that weathering provides an important practical application of geomorphological knowledge. Geomorphologists in recent years have contributed much in terms of improving understanding the deterioration of rocks, stone and other materials in heritage sites and the built environment. This knowledge has also had direct implications for heritage conservation. This lecture reviews recent research on each of these three themes and on their linkages, and sets an integrated research agenda for the future. Weathering as a key process underpinning geomorphology and Earth system science has been the subject of much recent conceptual and empirical research. In particular, conceptual research advances have involved improving conceptualisation of scale issues and process synergies, and understanding weathering in terms of non-linear dynamical systems. Empirical advances have included the development of larger datasets on weathering rates, and the application of a wide range of non-destructive and remote sensing techniques to quantify weathering morphologies on boulder and rock surfaces. In recent years, understanding of the complex linkages between ecology and geomorphology (sometimes called biogeomorphology) has advanced particularly strongly in terms of weathering. For example, the influences of disturbance on biota and weathering have been conceptualised and investigated empirically in a

  18. Economic Impacts from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program: Using Property-Assessed Clean Energy Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, M.; Cliburn, J. K.; Coughlin, J.

    2011-04-01

    This report examines the economic impacts (including job creation) from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program (CSLP), an example of Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing. The CSLP was the first test of PACE financing on a multi-jurisdictional level (involving individual cities as well as the county government). It was also the first PACE program to comprehensively address energy efficiency measures and renewable energy, and it was the first funded by a public offering of both taxable and tax-exempt bonds.

  19. Collaboration Between Environmental Water Chemistry Students and Hazardous Waste Treatment Specialists on the University of Colorado-Boulder Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Colorado-Boulder is one of a few universities in the country that has a licensed Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility (TSDF) for hazardous waste on campus. This facility, located on the bottom floor of the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) building, allows CU to more economically treat hazardous waste by enabling treatment specialists on staff to safely collect and organize the hazardous waste generated on campus. Hazardous waste is anything that contains a regulated chemical or compound and most chemicals used in engineering labs (e.g., acids, solvents, metal solutions) fall into this category. The EH&S staff is able to treat close almost 33% of the waste from campus and the rest is packed for off-site treatment at various places all over the country for disposal (e.g., Sauget, IL, Port Aurthor, TX). The CU-Boulder campus produced over 50 tons of hazardous waste in 2010 costing over $300,000 in off-campus expenses. The EH&S staff assigns one of over 50 codes to the waste which will determine if the waste can be treated on campus of must be shipped off campus to be disposed of. If the waste can be treated on campus, it will undergo one of three processes: 1) neutralization, 2) UV-ozone oxidation, or 3) ion exchange. If the waste is acidic but contains no heavy metals, the acid is neutralized with sodium hydroxide (a base) and can be disposed "down the drain" to the Boulder Wastewater Treatment Plant. If the waste contains organic compounds and no metals, a UV-ozone oxidation system is used to break down the organic compounds. Silver from photography wastewater can be removed using ion exchange columns. Undergraduate and graduate students worked with the hazardous waste treatment facility at the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) building on the CU-Boulder campus during the fall of 2011 and fall of 2012. Early in the semester, students receive a tour of the three batch treatment processes the facility is equipped with. Later in the

  20. Methodical comparison of neutron depth probes and long-term soil moisture measurements on loess, sandy loess, and boulder clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three measuring instruments were tested: 0.05 mCi Cf-252, 100 mCi Am-241/Be, 500 mCi Am-241/Be. The advantages - measurement in undisturbed soil profiles, large depths of measurement, reproducibility of measurements in the same place over several years - and the disadvantages - radiation protection, resolution, variations of measured volume in dependence of moisture, background influences etc. - have been critically checked by experiment. In addition, annual soil moisture curves have been measured over two years by parallel use of the free probes on a loess, sandy loess, and boulder clay site. The results were compared and discussed with a view to the soil water dynamics of these sites. (orig./HP)

  1. Captive propagation, reproductive biology, and early life history of Etheostoma wapiti (Boulder Darter), E. vulneratum (Wounded Darter), and E. maculatum (Spotted Darter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Crystal L.; Rakes, Patrick L.; Shute, John R.; Welsh, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive biology and early life-history data are important for understanding the ecology of fishes. In 2008, we conducted captive propagation studies on 3 species of darters of the subgenus Nothonotus: Etheostoma wapiti (Boulder Darter), E. vulneratum (Wounded Darter), and E. maculatum (Spotted Darter). The length of spawning period and associated range of water temperatures for the Wounded Darter exceeded that of the Spotted Darter and Boulder Darter. The mean number of eggs produced per female was lowest for Boulder Darter and highest in the Wounded Darter. The Boulder Darter had the highest percent of eggs hatched, the lowest percent larval to juvenile stage survivorship, and the lowest mean number of juveniles produced per female. Egg diameters at deposition and prior to hatch were smallest for the Spotted Darter. If reproductive biology and early lifehistory information from captive fishes represent that of wild populations, then the data obtained during this study are relevant to development and implementation of conservation and management plans for these closely related darter species.

  2. Results of the Boulder Consultation: The Beginnings of a Technical Assistance Program for the Office of Environmental Education/USOE/HEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Office of Environmental Education.

    In December 1977, the Office of Environmental Education (OEE) brought its fiscal year '77 grant recipients together in Boulder, Colorado, for a technical assistance consultation. The technical assistance responsibilities of OEE are mandated by the Environmental Education Act. Until this consultation, OEE had been giving its technical assistance on…

  3. Paleoclimate Reconstruction during the 17th to 18th Century Using Fossil Coral Tsunami Boulders from Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyus, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Seki, A.; Kawakubo, Y.; Araoka, D.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Little Ice Age (LIA) which lasted during approximately 1450 to 1850 (e.g. Grove, 1988) is known as naturally occurring climate fluctuation, so knowing LIA in detail is necessary to improve climate models. Instrumental records can only extend back to about 100 years in many areas, thus paleoclimate records are reconstructed using proxies in tree rings, sediments and so force. However there are differences in reconstructed timings and magnitudes of LIA occurred in each area (Overpack et al., 1997), and most of the records are based mainly on terrestrial proxies such as tree ring records, whereas only limited numbers of marine records are available (Mann et al., 2008). Coral skeletal climatology is a useful tool to reconstruct marine paleoclimate records in tropics and subtropics. Hermatypic corals, Porites spp. have aragonite skeletons and they have annual bands, which are suitable to reconstruct high-resolution paleoclimate in seasonal scale by measuring chemical compositions. Skeletal Sr/Ca ratio in Porites spp. has been widely used as a reliable proxy of SST (Sea Surface Temperature). However, corals grow for approximately several decades to 200 years, hence it is difficult to reconstruct LIA paleoclimate using living corals. Cobb et al. (2003) used fossil corals casted on shore by storms to reconstruct millennial scale paleoclimate. There are fossil coral boulders in the eastern coast of Ishigaki Island, Ryukyus, Japan. These fossil coral boulders were casted on shore by paleo Tsunami events, thus they are called "Tsunami boulders" (Araoka et al., 2010). Fossil corals used by Cobb et al. have 30-90-year records while some large Tsunami boulders have multi-centennial continuous records. In this study, we reconstruct paleo SST using the Tsunami boulder from Ishigaki Island. The boulder has 185 years of annual banding. U-series dating shows the boulder was moved on shore at Meiwa earthquake in 1771. We measure Sr/Ca ratio using LA-HR-ICPMS (Laser Ablation High

  4. The effect of variable discharge on the inorganic chemistry downstream of a waste water treatment plant, Boulder Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antweiler, R. C.; Writer, J. H.; Murphy, S. F.

    2012-12-01

    Researchers investigating the effect of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent on streams often assume that the magnitude of this effect is constant over time. However, discharge of WWTP effluent frequently follows a distinctive diel pattern. WWTP effluent discharge into Boulder Creek, Colorado, for example, varies by almost 200% over the course of a day. Due to this variation, downstream concentrations of chloride, boron and gadolinium (commonly used "conservative tracers") exhibit major changes over a 24-hour period. In order to determine how effluent discharge variability affects stream chemistry, we performed an evaluation of discharge and inorganic chemistry of the City of Boulder's WWTP and Boulder Creek upstream and downstream of the WWTP (representing a 5.4-km reach). Sodium bromide and Rhodamine WT were used to confirm that the same parcel of water was sampled as it moved downstream. The behavior of inorganic constituents fell into three distinct categories, showing conservative behavior, in-stream loss, or in-stream gain. Accounting for variable effluent discharge, the following inorganic constituents behaved conservatively: Cl, SO4, HCO3, F, B, Ba, Ca, Gd, K, Mg, Rb, Co, Cu, Mo, NO3, P and PO4, Sb, SiO2, Sr and Zn. Inorganic compounds which showed evidence of in-stream loss were Bi, Cr, Cs, Ga, Ge, Hg, Se, and Sn. For these elements, the typical pattern was an almost immediate loss: by the time the water had traveled to the first downstream sampling site, 2.3-km below the WWTP, in-stream reactions appeared to have ceased, and a constant flux was observed at all subsequent sites. We speculate that the near-immediate rates represent precipitation and/or adsorption caused by the change in pH and temperature of the mixing zone. Inorganic constituents that showed evidence of in-stream gain were: Al, As, Cd, Fe, I, Li, Mn, Nb, Pb, Re, Th, U, V, W, and all the rare-earth elements (except Gd). As with the in-stream loss group, most of the reactions occurred

  5. High Spatial Resolution 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology of Impact Melt Breccias from Apollo 17 Boulders at Stations 2, 6, and 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, C. M.; Hodges, K. V.; Jolliff, B. L.; Van Soest, M. C.; Wartho, J. A.; Weirich, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Several boulders located at the bases of the North and South Massifs were among the primary field targets of the Apollo 17 mission to the Taurus-Littrow Valley on the Moon [1]. Some boulders are polylithologic, including Boulder 1 at Station 2 and the boulders at Stations 6 and 7. These boulders were the subjects of consortium studies [2, 3] that included 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to determine the ages of distinct lithologies within each boulder [e.g., 4-6]. We report new 40Ar/39Ar data for the impact melt breccias 72255, 76315, 77075, and 77135 obtained using the UV laser ablation microprobe (UVLAMP) methods of [7]. For 72255, we obtained a preliminary isochron date ca. 3814 Ma from 22 melt analyses, which is younger than published plateau dates (e.g., 3951-3835 Ma [4, 8]). Fifteen melt analyses of 76315 yield a preliminary isochron date ca. 3850 Ma, younger than the 3900 ± 16 Ma date reported by [8]. Melt analyses of 77075 yield preliminary dates between ca. 3797-3584 Ma, possibly reflecting partial loss of 40Ar. In this case, the oldest date may provide a minimum age for the formation of melt in 77075. Finally, the UVLAMP dates for the 77135 melt range from 3810-3361 Ma and corresponding Ca/K ratios range from ca. 100-6. Electron microprobe analyses of small (ca. 10s of microns wide) pockets of K-rich materials show that both K-rich glass and K-feldspar are present. The UVLAMP dates for 77135 likely reflect spatially variable 40Ar loss, consistent with published step heating results [e.g., 6]. References: [1] Schmitt (1973) Science, 182, 681-690. [2] Ryder (1993). Catalog of Apollo 17 Rocks: Volume 1 - Stations 2 and 3 (South Massif). LPI. [3] Ryder (1993). Catalog of Apollo 17 Rocks: Volume 4 - North Massif. LPI. [4] Leich et al. (1975) The Moon, 14, 407-444. [5] Cadogan & Turner (1976). LPSC, 7, 2267-2285. [6] Stettler et al. (1978). LPSC, 9, 1113-1115. [7] Mercer et al. (2015) Sci. Adv., 1, e1400050. [8] Dalrymple & Ryder (1996). JGR, 101, 26069-26084.

  6. Flash Flood Risks and Warning Decisions: A Mental Models Study of Forecasters, Public Officials, and Media Broadcasters in Boulder, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Bostrom, Ann; Lazo, Jeffrey K; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-11-01

    Timely warning communication and decision making are critical for reducing harm from flash flooding. To help understand and improve extreme weather risk communication and management, this study uses a mental models research approach to investigate the flash flood warning system and its risk decision context. Data were collected in the Boulder, Colorado area from mental models interviews with forecasters, public officials, and media broadcasters, who each make important interacting decisions in the warning system, and from a group modeling session with forecasters. Analysis of the data informed development of a decision-focused model of the flash flood warning system that integrates the professionals' perspectives. Comparative analysis of individual and group data with this model characterizes how these professionals conceptualize flash flood risks and associated uncertainty; create and disseminate flash flood warning information; and perceive how warning information is (and should be) used in their own and others' decisions. The analysis indicates that warning system functioning would benefit from professionals developing a clearer, shared understanding of flash flood risks and the warning system, across their areas of expertise and job roles. Given the challenges in risk communication and decision making for complex, rapidly evolving hazards such as flash floods, another priority is development of improved warning content to help members of the public protect themselves when needed. Also important is professional communication with members of the public about allocation of responsibilities for managing flash flood risks, as well as improved system-wide management of uncertainty in decisions. PMID:25988286

  7. Distribution and stability of potential salmonid spawning gravels in steep boulder-bed streams of the eastern Sierra Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in small hydroelectric development (< 5 MW) has recently focused attention on steep streams and the resident trout populations they contain. High-gradient boulder-bed streams have been the sites of relatively few studies of salmonid spawning habitat, although they have geomorphic and hydraulic characteristics - and therefore gravel distributions - that are quite different from the more commonly described lower-gradient channels. The authors documented gravel distribution in seven high-gradient stream reaches in the eastern Sierra Nevada. Gravels occurred only in locations characterized by relatively low shear stress; they formed small pockets in sites of low divergence and larger deposits upstream of natural hydraulic controls. In 1986 (a wet year), all tracer gravels placed in gravel pockets at nine sites on four streams were completely swept away, and substantial scour, fill, and other channel changes occurred at many sites. In 1987 (a dry year), tracer gravels and the channel cross sections were generally stable. Periodic mobility of gravel may explain why brown trout Salmo trutta are more abundant than rainbow trout Oncorhychus mykiss in the study reaches, where high flows occur every May and June during snowmelt. Brown trout are fall spawners, and their fry emerge long before the high snowmelt flows, whereas rainbow trout are spring spawners whose eggs are in the gravel, and thus vulnerable to scour, during snowmelt flows

  8. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 86-157-1678, Stag Dental Clinic, Boulder, Colorado. [Nitrous oxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    Employees of the Stag Dental Clinic, Boulder, Colorado requested an evaluation of nitrous oxide exposure during dental procedures. Direct reading measurements taken in the dental operatory immediately after nitrous oxide was administered showed levels exceeding 1000 parts per million (ppm) in the breathing zone of the dentist and his assistant. The levels remained high throughout the 1-hour procedure. The level of nitrous oxide in the hallway outside the operatory was 300 ppm and that in the adjacent operatory, 150 ppm (background). General-room air in the operatory in use was 800 ppm nitrous oxide. Levels of nitrous oxide decreased to 50 ppm 1.5 hours after the gas was turned off. The current NIOSH recommended time weighted average is 25 ppm. The author concludes that a health hazard existed at the dental office due to high exposures of nitrous oxide. It was recommended that a scavenging system should be installed. Recommendations also include routine maintenance on anesthetic and suction equipment, a follow-up evaluation after the exhaust systems have been in place, advising all dentists and other personnel in the clinic of the adverse health effects due to nitrous oxide, and use of more dilution ventilation.

  9. Effects of Controllable Blasting Variables on Number of Boulders Generated after Blasting in Ratcon and NSCE Quarries, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abiodun Ismail LAWAL; Akande Jide Muili

    2013-01-01

    The research work examines the effects of controllable blasting variables on number of boulders generated after blasting. The objective of the research was achieved through collection of data related to blasting which are drill hole depth, drill hole diameter, burden, spacing, average charge per hole, and specific charge. The collected data were analysed statistically using both Microsoft Excel Software and SPSS Software. The result of the analysis reveals that all the input controllable blas...

  10. Stable isotopic records of bleaching and endolithic algae blooms in the skeleton of the boulder forming coral Montastraea faveolata

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, A.C.; Carilli, J. E.; Norris, R. D.; Charles, C. D.; Deheyn, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    Within boulder forming corals, fixation of dissolved inorganic carbon is performed by symbiotic dinoflagellates within the coral tissue and, to a lesser extent, endolithic algae within the coral skeleton. Endolithic algae produce distinctive green bands in the coral skeleton, and their origin may be related to periods of coral bleaching due to complete loss of dinoflagellate symbionts or ‘‘paling’’ in which symbiont populations are patchily reduced in coral tissue. Stable carbon isotopes were...

  11. Geomorphology and weathering characteristics of erratic boulder trains on Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America: Implications for dating of glacial deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvill, Christopher M.; Bentley, Michael J.; Stokes, Chris R.

    2015-01-01

    Erratic boulder trains (EBTs) are a useful glacial geomorphological feature because they reveal former ice flow trajectories and can be targeted for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating. However, understanding how they are transported and deposited is important because this has implications for palaeoglaciological reconstructions and the pre-exposure and/or erosion of the boulders. In this study, we review previous work on EBTs, which indicates that they may form subglacially or supraglacially but that large angular boulders transported long distances generally reflect supraglacial transport. We then report detailed observations of EBTs from Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America, where their characteristics provide a useful framework for the interpretation of previously published cosmogenic nuclide exposure dates. We present the first comprehensive map of the EBTs and analyse their spatial distribution, size, and physical appearance. Results suggest that they were produced by one or more supraglacial rock avalanches in the Cordillera Darwin and were then transported supraglacially for 100 s of kilometres before being deposited. Rock surface weathering analysis shows no significant difference in the weathering characteristics of a sequence of EBTs, previously hypothesized to be of significantly different age (i.e., different glacial cycles). We interpret this to indicate that the EBTs are much closer in age than previous work has implied. This emphasises the importance of understanding EBT formation when using them for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating.

  12. Effects of Controllable Blasting Variables on Number of Boulders Generated after Blasting in Ratcon and NSCE Quarries, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Ismail LAWAL

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research work examines the effects of controllable blasting variables on number of boulders generated after blasting. The objective of the research was achieved through collection of data related to blasting which are drill hole depth, drill hole diameter, burden, spacing, average charge per hole, and specific charge. The collected data were analysed statistically using both Microsoft Excel Software and SPSS Software. The result of the analysis reveals that all the input controllable blasting variables which are drill hole diameter (X1, drill hole depth (X2, hole spacing (X3, burden (X4, average charge per hole (X5, specific charge(X6 that participated as independent variables in the models are found to be significant and the R2 values obtained from the graph show a very strong correlation between the number of boulders generated after blasting and the input variables except that of drill hole diameter which shows a very weak correlation. The equation generated using the SPSS could be used to determine number of boulders generated after blasting.

  13. Trends and variability of midlatitude stratospheric water vapour deduced from the re-evaluated Boulder balloon series and HALOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scherer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an updated trend analysis of water vapour in the lower midlatitude stratosphere from the Boulder balloon-borne NOAA frostpoint hygrometer measurements and from the Halogen Occulation Experiment (HALOE. Two corrections for instrumental bias are applied to homogenise the frostpoint data series, and a quality assessment of all soundings after 1991 is presented. Linear trend estimates based on the corrected data for the period 1980–2000 are up to 40% lower than previously reported. Vertically resolved trends and variability are calculated with a multi regression analysis including the quasi-biennal oscillation and equivalent latitude as explanatory variables. In the range of 380 to 640 K potential temperature (≈14 to 25 km, the frostpoint data from 1981 to 2006 show positive linear trends between 0.3±0.3 and 0.7±0.1%/yr. The same dataset shows trends between −0.2±0.3 and 1.0±0.3%/yr for the period 1992 to 2005. HALOE data over the same time period suggest negative trends ranging from −1.1±0.2 to −0.1±0.1%/yr. In the lower stratosphere, a rapid drop of water vapour is observed in 2000/2001 with little change since. At higher altitudes, the transition is more gradual, with slowly decreasing concentrations between 2001 and 2007. This pattern is consistent with a change induced by a drop of water concentrations at entry into the stratosphere. Previously noted differences in trends and variability between frostpoint and HALOE remain for the homogenised data. Due to uncertainties in reanalysis temperatures and stratospheric transport combined with uncertainties in observations, no quantitative inference about changes of water entering the stratosphere in the tropics could be made with the mid latitude measurements analysed here.

  14. Comparison of modeled NmE with NmE measured by the Boulder ionosonde near the spring equinox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Anatoli; Pavlova, Nadezhda

    We present a comparison of the E-layer peak electron number densities, NmE, measured by the Boulder ionosonde during geomagnetically quiet conditions on 10 April 1996 at low solar activity, 2 April 1993 and 9 April 1978 during moderate solar activity conditions, and 10 April 1991 at high solar activity with numerical theoretical model calculations of NmE. Based on this comparison, the modified EUVAC model solar flux is necessary to increase by a factor of 2 at moderate and high solar activity in the wavelength range of 3.2-7.0 nm. If O (+) ( (4) S), O (+) ( (2) D), O (+) ( (2) P), and N (+) ions are not calculated, the value of NmE is decreased up to a factor of 1.12 at solar minimum and up to a factor of 1.23 for the moderate and high solar activity conditions. The production of N _{2} (+) ions by photoelectron-impact ionization of N _{2} increases the value of NmE up to a factor of 1.18 at low solar activity and up to a factor of 1.33 for the moderate and high solar activity levels. The increase in NmE due to the production of O _{2} (+) ions by photoelectron-impact ionization of O _{2} does not exceed 4 percent. A difference between the calculated electron, T _{e}, and neutral, T _{n}, temperatures is less than 1, 4, 20, 70, and 145 K at 105, 110, 120, 130, and 140 km altitude, respectively. Changes in NmE caused by this difference between T _{e} and T _{n} are negligible.

  15. Comparison of NmE measured by the boulder ionosonde with model predictions near the spring equinox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. V.; Pavlova, N. M.

    2013-09-01

    We present a comparison of the E-layer peak electron number densities, NmE, measured by the Boulder ionosonde during geomagnetically quiet conditions on 10 April 1996 at low solar activity, 2 April 1993 and 9 April 1978 during moderate solar activity conditions, and 10 April 1991 at high solar activity with numerical theoretical model calculations of NmE. Based on this comparison, the EUVAC model solar flux is necessary to increase by a factor of 2 at moderate and high solar activity in the wavelength range of 3.2-7.0 nm. If O+(4S), O+(2D), O+(2P), and N+ ions are not calculated, the value of NmE is decreased up to a factor of 1.12 at solar minimum and up to a factor of 1.23 for the moderate and high solar activity conditions. The production of N2+ ions by photoelectron-impact ionization of N2 increases the value of NmE up to a factor of 1.18 at low solar activity and up to a factor of 1.33 for the moderate and high solar activity levels. The increase in NmE due to the production of O2+ ions by photoelectron-impact ionization of O2 does not exceed 4%. A difference between the calculated electron, Te, and neutral, Tn, temperatures is less than 1, 4, 20, 70, and 145 K at 105, 110, 120, 130, and 140 km altitude, respectively. Changes in NmE caused by this difference between Te and Tn are negligible.

  16. Periglacial Slope Deposits and Saprolites Controlling Water Discharge. Examples From the Bavarian Forest, Germany and Boulder Creek (CZO), Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, J.; Huerkamp, K.; Voelkel, J.; Leopold, M.

    2008-12-01

    investigations in the Colorado Front Range at Boulder.

  17. Lagrangian sampling of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2005--Hydrological and chemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Gray, James L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Taylor, Howard E.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents methods and data for a Lagrangian sampling investigation into chemical loading and in-stream attenuation of inorganic and organic contaminants in two wastewater treatment-plant effluent-dominated streams: Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa. Water-quality sampling was timed to coincide with low-flow conditions when dilution of the wastewater treatment-plant effluent by stream water was at a minimum. Sample-collection times corresponded to estimated travel times (based on tracer tests) to allow the same "parcel" of water to reach downstream sampling locations. The water-quality data are linked directly to stream discharge using flow- and depth-integrated composite sampling protocols. A range of chemical analyses was made for nutrients, carbon, major elements, trace elements, biological components, acidic and neutral organic wastewater compounds, antibiotic compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, steroid and steroidal-hormone compounds, and pesticide compounds. Physical measurements were made for field conditions, stream discharge, and time-of-travel studies. Two Lagrangian water samplings were conducted in each stream, one in the summer of 2003 and the other in the spring of 2005. Water samples were collected from five sites in Boulder Creek: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, and three downstream sites. Fourmile Creek had seven sampling sites: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, four downstream sites, and a tributary. At each site, stream discharge was measured, and equal width-integrated composite water samples were collected and split for subsequent chemical, physical, and biological analyses. During the summer of 2003 sampling, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant consisted of 36 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from the respective wastewater treatment plant was 81 percent effluent. During the spring of 2005

  18. 中深孔爆破大块产生的原因分析及降低大块率的技术措施%Analysis on Causes of Producing Boulder in Medium-length Hole Blasting and the Technical Measures for Redueine Boulder Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿贵刚; 池恩安; 刘凤钱

    2011-01-01

    In medium - length hole blasting, fragment size is affected primarily not only by terrain landform, physical properties of rock,but also by borehole pattern parameters and unit explo- sive consumption. For ecumenical blasting design and working, boulder yield is very big because of the fixed borehole pattern parameters and unit explosive consumption for a certain blasting area. This paper analyzed the reasons of producing boulder, and presents technical measures to reduce boulder yield, such as dynamically adjusting borehole pattern parameters, unit explosive consumption and charge density.%在中深孔爆破工程中,影响爆破块度的主要因素既有爆破区域的地形地貌、岩石的物理特性,还有爆破孔网参数、炸药单耗的选取等,而在一般的爆破技术设计和施工中,由于针对某一爆破区域的爆破孔网参数和炸药单耗是固定的,爆破后大块率较高。分析了大块产生的原因,提出在设计和施工中动态调整爆破孔网参数、炸药单耗、装药密度以降低大块率的技术措施。

  19. Characterizing aquatic health using salmonid mortality, physiology, and biomass estimates in streams with elevated concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in the Boulder River Watershed, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A.M.; Skaar, D.; Nimick, D.A.; MacConnell, E.; Hogstrand, C.

    2003-01-01

    Abandoned tailings and mine adits are located throughout the Boulder River watershed in Montana. In this watershed, all species of fish are absent from some tributary reaches near mine sources: however, populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontitalis, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and cut-throat trout O. clarki are found further downstream. Multiple methods must be used to investigate the effects of metals released by past mining activity because the effects on aquatic life may range in severity, depending on the proximity of mine sources. Therefore, we used three types of effects - those on fish population levels (as measured by survival), those on biomass and density, and those at the level of the individual (as measured by increases in metallothionein, products of lipid peroxidation, and increases in concentrations of tissue metals) - to assess the aquatic health of the Boulder River watershed. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the water column were associated with increased mortality of trout at sites located near mine waste sources. The hypertrophy (swelling), degeneration (dying), and necrosis of epithelial cells observed in the gills support our conclusion that the cause of death was related to metals in the water column. At a site further downstream (lower Cataract Creek), we observed impaired health of resident trout, as well as effects on biomass and density (measured as decreases in the kilograms of trout per hectare and the number per 300 m) and effects at the individual level, including increases in metallothionein, products of lipid peroxidation, and tissue concentrations of metals.

  20. Deep crescentic features caused by subglacial boulder point pressure on jointed rock; an example from Virkisjökull, SE Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbendam, M.; Bradwell, T.; Everest, J.

    2012-04-01

    A variety of subglacially formed, erosional crescentic features (e.g. crescentic gouges, lunate fractures) have been widely reported on deglaciated bedrock surfaces. They are characterised by a conchoidal fracture that dips in the same direction as the palaeo-ice flow direction, and a steeper fracture that faces against the ice flow. They are generally interpreted as being formed by point pressure exerted by large boulders entrained in basal ice. They are significant in that they record palaeo-ice flow even if shallower glacial striae are obliterated by post-glacial weathering [1, 2, 3]. This contribution reports on deep scallop-shaped, crescentic depressions observed on abraded surfaces of roche moutonnées and whalebacks recently (depressions at Virkisjökull are cut into smoothed, abraded surfaces festooned with abundant glacial striae. Differences with previously reported crescentic features are: • The scallop-shaped depressions are considerably deeper (5-20 cm); • The steep fracture facing ice flow coincides in all cases with a pre-existing joint that cuts the entire whaleback. The steep joints developed thus before the conchoidal fracture, whilst in reported crescentic features they develop after the conchoidal fracture. We suggest the following formation mechanism. A boulder encased in basal ice exerts continuous pressure on its contact point as it moves across the ice-bedrock contact. This sets up a stress field in the bedrock that does not necessarily exceed the intact rock strength (other crescentic features are rare to absent at Virkisjökull). However, as the stress field migrates (with the transported boulder) and encounters a subvertical, pre-existing joint, stress concentrations build up that do exceed the intact rock strength, resulting in a new (conchoidal) fracture, 'spalling' off a thick, scallop-shaped fragment. The significance of the deep scallop-shaped crescentic depressions is that: • in common with other crescentic features they

  1. Natural and Anthropogenic Controls on the Ecosystem Services Provided by Dissolved Organic Matter: A Case Study of the Boulder Creek Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, R. S.; McKnight, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) performs a number of vital functions in aquatic ecosystems, playing a substantial role in carbon and nitrogen cycles and the bioavailability of metals as well as generally affecting water chemistry. Additionally, it is considered the main cause of the the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts during water treatment processes. Because DOM is vital for ecosystem functioning, but potentially problematic for some direct human uses of water, it proves a complex case study for the application of the ecosystem services framework. To add to the complexity, human behavior can affect the amount and composition of DOM in water. Increasing concentrations of DOM have been observed in many areas of Northern Europe and North America. Hypotheses which have been suggested to explain these increased concentrations include changing land use, thawing peatlands, increased nitrogen deposition, and a lessening of acid rain, a particularly interesting idea because it would be an unintended consequence of a policy designed to protect other ecosystem functions. This multi-year study investigates DOM in the Boulder Creek Watershed in Colorado to better understand seasonal cycling of DOM and the link between DOM in the river and organic matter in the catchment, which is a substantial DOM source. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to analyze the chemical character of the DOM in an attempt to elucidate the watershed processes driving changes in DOM concentration. Because flow in Boulder Creek is partially controlled by Barker dam and reservoir, this study site provides an opportunity to investigate both natural DOM cycling and the impact of an anthropogenic influence. By better understanding DOM cycling and the ecosystem services it provides, we can better predict how DOM dynamics may shift in the future and be prepared to adjust our behavior and water treatment processes accordingly.

  2. Coral boulders, gravel tongues and sand sheets: Features of coastal accretion and sediment nourishment by Cyclone Tomas (March 2010) on Taveuni Island, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Samuel; Terry, James P.

    2012-11-01

    Tropical Cyclone (TC) Tomas in March 2010 was a category-4 storm that struck the northern and eastern islands of Fiji in the southwest Pacific, with the coast of Taveuni Island in particular experiencing a significant surge and high waves as the eye passed within 30 km. Post-storm field investigations of the coastal geomorphic impacts concentrated on an area in central Taveuni (S16°50' 179°52'W) where protected fringing reefs and coastlines form part of the Bouma National Heritage Park (BNHP). Here, a range of cyclone constructional imprints were found to have supplemented existing coastal sediments. Fresh coral boulders strewn across reef platforms indicate that TC Tomas had sufficient power to deliver new coral blocks, but that this material comprises a relatively minor component (20%) of pre-existing boulder fields. Comparison between the dimensions of fresh (max. 4.9 m3) and older blocks (max. > 40 m3) reveals that unknown earlier events (storms or tsunamis) produced much larger debris, and therefore presumably generated much stronger flow velocities across the fringing reefs than TC Tomas. Analysis of calcarenite slabs quarried from in situ beachrock exposures was particularly useful for calculating storm-surge flow velocities at the shoreline, giving mean values of 3.4 and 1.9 m/s for run-up and backwash, respectively. Several elongate tongues (max. length 75 m) of fresh coral gravel were also constructed perpendicular to the reef crest. A conceptual model of debris accretion based on wave refraction across a crescent-shaped reef front is developed to explain their formation, but which does not rely on the simultaneous existence of a reef-parallel rubble rampart. Overall, the patchy and discontinuous nature of cyclogenic accretionary features across reef, beach and back-beach locations indicates the potential challenges for identification and interpretation of palaeo-cyclone events within the sedimentary record on affected coastlines in the South Pacific

  3. Sedimentology of granite boulder conglomerates and associated clastics in the onshore section of the late Mesozoic Pletmos Basin (Western Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordy, Emese M.; America, Travis

    2016-07-01

    Along the southern margin of South Africa, intermountain rift successions, which comprise unusually large, rounded granite boulders and other coarse clastics, reveal an important geological history about the mid-Mesozoic extensional tectonics that lead to the break-up of Gondwana. These strata, mapped as part of the Mid to Upper Jurassic Enon Formation, allow the assessment of the nature, intensity and mode of sediment transport in onshore section of the Pletmos Basin, which is one of the late Mesozoic basins in southern Africa. Based on sedimentary facies analysis, palaeocurrent measurements and semi-quantitative palaeohydraulic calculations, the results suggest that the abundant coarse sediment was deposited by debris-flows and stream-flow floods on a proximal alluvial fan with high gradient alluvial channels. The floods were intense with mean flow velocity of ∼6 m3/s and peak discharge of ∼450 m3/s. While the role of climate in the sedimentation dynamics remains unknown, syn-sedimentary rift tectonics were likely significant and caused, north of the major boundary fault, the unroofing and denudation of the uplifted mountainous source areas, including the Late Ediacaran-Cambrian Maalgaten Granite Suite and the Siluro-Ordovician Table Mountain Group (Cape Supergroup).

  4. Concentrations of metals in water, sediment, biofilm, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish in the boulder river watershed, Montana, and the role of colloids in metal uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A.M.; Nimick, D.A.; Kimball, B.A.; Church, S.E.; Harper, D.D.; Brumbaugh, W.G.

    2007-01-01

    To characterize the partitioning of metals in a stream ecosystem, concentrations of trace metals including As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in water, colloids, sediment, biofilm (also referred to as aufwuchs), macroinvertebrates, and fish collected from the Boulder River watershed, Montana. Median concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in water throughout the watershed exceeded the U.S. EPA acute and chronic criteria for protection of aquatic life. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in sediment were sufficient in the tributaries to cause invertebrate toxicity. The concentrations of As, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in invertebrates from lower Cataract Creek (63, 339, 59, 34, and 2,410 ??g/g dry wt, respectively) were greater than the concentrations in invertebrates from the Clark Fork River watershed, Montana (19, 174, 2.3, 15, and 648 ??g/g, respectively), that were associated with reduced survival, growth, and health of cutthroat trout fed diets composed of those invertebrates. Colloids and biofilm seem to play a critical role in the pathway of metals into the food chain and concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in these two components are significantly correlated. We suggest that transfer of metals associated with Fe colloids to biological components of biofilm is an important pathway where metals associated with abiotic components are first available to biotic components. The significant correlations suggest that Cd, Cu, and Zn may move independently to biota (biofilm, invertebrates, or fish tissues) from water and sediment. The possibility exists that Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations increase in fish tissues as a result of direct contact with water and sediment and indirect exposure through the food chain. However, uptake through the food chain to fish may be more important for As. Although As concentrations in colloids and biofilm were significantly correlated with As water concentrations, As concentrations in fish tissues were not correlated with water. The pathway for

  5. Irrigated agriculture is an important risk factor for West Nile virus disease in the hyperendemic Larimer-Boulder-Weld area of north central Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Barker, Christopher M; Moore, Chester G; Pape, W John; Winters, Anna M; Cheronis, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    This study focused on two West Nile virus (WNV) disease outbreak years, 2003 and 2007, and included a three-county area (Larimer, Boulder, and Weld) in North Central Colorado that is hyperendemic for WNV disease. We used epidemiological data for reported WNV disease cases at the census tract scale to: (1) elucidate whether WNV disease incidence differs between census tracts classified as having high versus lower human population density (based on a threshold value of 580 persons/km2) and (2) determine associations between WNV disease incidence and habitat types suitable as development sites for the larval stage of Culex mosquito vectors. WNV disease incidence was significantly elevated in census tracts with lower human population density, compared with those with high density of human population, in both 2003 (median per census tract of 223 and 143 cases per 100,000 population, respectively) and 2007 (median per census tract of 46 and 19 cases per 100,000 population). This is most likely related, in large part, to greater percentages of coverage in less densely populated census tracts by habitats suitable as development sites for Culex larvae (open water, developed open space, pasture/hay, cultivated crops, woody wetlands, and emergent herbaceous wetlands) and, especially, for the subset of these habitats made up by irrigated agricultural land (pasture/hay and cultivated crops) that presumably serve as major producers of the locally most important vector of WNV to humans: Culex tarsalis. A series of analyses produced significant positive associations between greater coverage of or shorter distance to irrigated agricultural land and elevated WNV disease incidence. As an exercise to produce data with potential to inform spatial implementation schemes for prevention and control measures within the study area, we mapped the spatial patterns, by census tract, of WNV disease incidence in 2003 and 2007 as well as the locations of census tracts that had either low (75th

  6. Tunnel boring machine collision with an ancient boulder beach during the excavation of the Barcelona city subway L10 line: a case of adverse geology and resulting engineering solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Filbà, Marta; Salvany Duran, Josep Maria; Jubany, Jordi; Carrasco, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a layer of hard boulders up to 1 m in size within the soft sediments of the Holocene Llobregat delta in the SW of Barcelona city caused the damage and stoppage of the EPB-type tunnel boring machine that excavated the subway L10 line. This layer constitutes a detrital deposit of exceptionally large grain size developed in the base of the delta. It originated as an alluvial fan in the northern margin of the delta during the last fall of the Mediterranean Sea level, at the end o...

  7. Solar Imagery - Composites - Full Sun Drawings - Boulder

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Synoptic Analysis Drawings, also known as Neutral Line (NL) drawings, are produced each day by space weather forecaster at the NOAA National Weather Service (NWS)...

  8. 78 FR 48670 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... determining the Base Charge and Rates: 1. A Federal Register notice was published on February 4, 2013 (78 FR... (50 FR 37835), and 18 CFR part 300. Department of Energy procedures were followed by Western in..., 1987 ] (57 FR 43154), and the BCPIA, the rates are reviewed annually and adjusted upward or downward...

  9. 77 FR 48151 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... and Rates: 1. A Federal Register notice was published on January 18, 2012 (77 FR 2533), announcing the... adjustments are located at 10 CFR part 903, effective September 18, 1985 (50 FR 37835), and 18 CFR part 300..., 2012 (77 FR 2533). Under Delegation Order Nos. 00-037.00 and 00-001.00C, and in compliance with 10...

  10. 76 FR 56430 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... parties in determining the Rates: 1. A Federal Register notice was published on February 14, 2011 (76 FR... September 18, 1985 (50 FR 37835), and 18 CFR part 300. DOE procedures were followed by Western in developing... FR 8359). Under Delegation Order Nos. 00-037.00 and 00-001.00C, and in compliance with 10 CFR...

  11. Sisyphus’s Boulder:An Interpretation of Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Rong-rong

    2014-01-01

    People use their freedom to choose a proper work, while the work selects appropriate people. To some extent, people interact with the outside through work. Work has mutual effect on internal challenge of a person and the external change of the world.

  12. 77 FR 64333 - Relocation of Transmission Lines for the U.S. 93 Boulder City Bypass Project, Boulder County, NV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... for the Project EIS (FHWA-NV-EIS-00-02-F; April 2005; 76 FR 34073). Western was a cooperating agency... needs are satisfied and, with this notice, is adopting the Project EIS for its participation in the... the western end of the Hoover Dam Bypass project near the Hacienda Hotel and Casino. Western...

  13. Pré-filtração em pedregulho e filtração lenta com areia, manta não tecida e carvão ativado para polimento de efluentes domésticos tratados em leitos cultivados Pré-filtration in boulder and slow sand filtration with non-woven synthetic layers and granulated vegetal coal to improve quality in wastewater treated by constructed wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. S. Paterniani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo comparar sistemas de filtragem, composto de pré-filtro de pedregulho seguido de filtro lento com o meio filtrante areia e no topo manta sintética não tecida e pré-filtro de pedregulho seguido de filtro lento com meio filtrante areia e carvão ativado granular e no topo manta sintética não tecida, para polimento de efluentes domésticos tratados em leitos cultivados, visando à aplicação na fertirrigação. Na comparação dos sistemas de filtragem, avaliou-se a eficiência de remoção dos parâmetros: sólidos em suspensão, turbidez, cor aparente, demanda química de oxigênio, oxigênio dissolvido, ferro, manganês, coliformes totais e E. coli. Os dois sistemas operavam 24 horas por dia, com a mesma taxa de aplicação, tratando uma vazão total final de 1,5 m³ dia-1, sendo que a taxa de aplicação para a unidade de pré-filtração era, em média, de 8,4 m³ m-2 dia-1 e para cada uma das unidades de filtração lenta era, em media, de 2,7 m³ m-2 dia-1. As unidades de pré-filtração e filtração lenta mostraram-se eficientes na redução das concentrações de sólidos suspensos, turbidez, cor aparente e DQO, como polimento de esgotos domésticos previamente tratados. O uso de carvão ativado granular, em combinação com areia, proporcionou ao filtro lento maior eficiência na remoção de sólidos suspensos, cor, turbidez, coliformes totais e E. Coli., sem com isso aumentar a perda de carga inicial. Existe a possibilidade de utilização dos efluentes para a prática da fertirrigação, sendo necessário o processo de desinfecção ou não, dependendo da cultura e o sistema de irrigação utilizado.The objective of this study was the comparison between two filtration systems, being one composed of a boulder pre-filter followed by a slow filter with sand as filtration media and a non-woven synthetic fabric in the upper part, and the other one composed of a boulder pre-filter followed by a

  14. 75 FR 69433 - City of Boulder, CO; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Regulatory Commission's (Commission) regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47879), the Office of... features: (1) The Barker Reservoir; (2) the Barker Dam; (3) the outlet structure; (4) the concrete tunnel... action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. A copy of the EA is attached to...

  15. Seismic Reflection - Focusing on Muting Jacquelyn Daves University of Colorado - Boulder SAGE 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daves, J.

    2014-12-01

    The SAGE 2014 survey was conducted directly west of the Santo Domingo Pueblo, along Borrego Canyon Road. This survey is a continuation of the SAGE 2010 and 2011 investigations. The survey was aimed to locate a previously mapped fault running orthogonal to the road. The SAGE 2014 seismic line ran 5.6 km long with 20 meter geophone spacing. 8-80 Hz sweeps were utilized with 10 s sweeps and 4 s of listening. Once the data was converted into the proper file type, preprocesses was conducted. After the preprocessing was complete, various processing methods were used to obtain the final Common Midpoint (CMP) stack. Two CMP stacks were created-one containing the muting method and one without. The ideal result would be to interpret stratigraphic structures and potential faults. The Rio Grande Rift is a Cenozoic continental rift zone that extends approximately 1000 km from Leadville, Colorado to west Texas and Chihuahua, Mexico. The Northern most extent of the rift separates the Great Plains from the Colorado Plateau. The rift consists of a series of interconnected grabbens that lie in an asymmetric pattern (Baldridge, 1989). Basins involved with this rifting are a distinct features along with faults that bound one or both sides. SAGE has been investigating these for over a decade to interpolate the complex structures. By examining Borrego Canyon, we were able to add to the investigation. Various geophysical methods were utilized to study Borrego Canyon. AMT, MT, TEM, gravity, seismic reflection and seismic refraction were individually used to understand the subsurface and were subsequently integrated together in order to have a full spectrum of subsurface depths. Each method has unique processing steps and are critical in order to analyze the gathered data. As such, this paper will focus on processing seismic reflection with an emphasis on muting. Each technique used in processing the SAGE 2014 seismic reflection data will be explained. Next, this paper will validate muting in seismic reflection processing and demonstrate its importance in obtaining an accurate and visually pleasing final product. With the final product, a brief geological interpretation of the subsurface can be conducted. An explanation of the poor data and the lack of reflections will be given.

  16. Acoustic Noise Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine in Boulder, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roadman, J.; Huskey, A.

    2013-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of an acoustic noise test that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted on the SWIFT wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 11: Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques, IEC 61400-11 Ed.2.1, 2006-11. However, because the SWIFT is a small turbine, as defined by IEC, NREL used 10-second averages instead of 60-second averages and utilized binning by wind speed instead of regression analysis.

  17. Enhanced TIFF Sidescan-Sonar Mosaic of Boulder Basin - Lake Mead, Nevada: Geographic Coordinates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  18. Enhanced Sidescan-Sonar Mosaic of Boulder Basin - Lake Mead, Nevada: Geographic Coordinates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  19. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z[sup 0] with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs.

  20. The thermal emission from boulders on (25143) Itokawa and general implications for the YORP effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševeček, P.; Brož, M.; Čapek, David; Ďurech, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 450, č. 2 (2015), s. 2104-2115. ISSN 0035-8711 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-01308S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/10/0537 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : numerical methods * minor planets * asteroid (25143) Itokawa Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.107, year: 2014

  1. EOS Aura Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation MOWG Meeting @ LASP (Boulder, CO) April 13, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, William J.; Fisher, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Presentation reflects EOS Aura mission status, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage, orbit maintenance maneuvers, conjunction assessment events, orbital parameters trends and predictions.

  2. Linkages between denitrification and dissolved organic matter quality, Boulder Creek watershed, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rebecca T.; Smith, Richard L.; Aiken, George R.

    2012-03-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) fuels the majority of in-stream microbial processes, including the removal of nitrate via denitrification. However, little is known about how the chemical composition of DOM influences denitrification rates. Water and sediment samples were collected across an ecosystem gradient, spanning the alpine to plains, in central Colorado to determine whether the chemical composition of DOM was related to denitrification rates. Laboratory bioassays measured denitrification potentials using the acetylene block technique and carbon mineralization via aerobic bioassays, while organic matter characteristics were evaluated using spectroscopic and fractionation methods. Denitrification potentials under ambient and elevated nitrate concentrations were strongly correlated with aerobic respiration rates and the percent mineralized carbon, suggesting that information about the aerobic metabolism of a system can provide valuable insight regarding the ability of the system to additionally reduce nitrate. Multiple linear regressions (MLR) revealed that under elevated nitrate concentrations denitrification potentials were positively related to the presence of protein-like fluorophores and negatively related to more aromatic and oxidized fractions of the DOM pool. Using MLR, the chemical composition of DOM, carbon, and nitrate concentrations explained 70% and 78% of the observed variability in denitrification potential under elevated and ambient nitrate conditions, respectively. Thus, it seems likely that DOM optical properties could help to improve predictions of nitrate removal in the environment. Finally, fluorescence measurements revealed that bacteria used both protein and humic-like organic molecules during denitrification providing further evidence that larger, more aromatic molecules are not necessarily recalcitrant in the environment.

  3. Aqueous stability of gadolinium in surface waters receiving sewage treatment plant effluent Boulder Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, P.L.; Taylor, H.E.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Barber, L.B.

    2005-01-01

    In many surface waters, sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent is a substantial source of both regulated and unregulated contaminants, including a suite of complex organic compounds derived from household chemicals, pharmaceutical, and industrial and medical byproducts. In addition, STP effluents in some urban areas have also been shown to have a positive gadolinium (Gd) anomaly in the rare earth element (REE) pattern, with the Gd derived from its use in medical facilities. REE concentrations are relatively easy to measure compared to many organic wastewater compounds and may provide a more widely utilized tracer of STP effluents. To evaluate whether sewage treatment plant-associated Gd is a useful tracer of treatment plant effluent, an investigation of the occurrence, fate, and transport of rare earth elements was undertaken. The rare earth element patterns of four of five STP effluents sampled display positive Gd anomalies. The one site that did not have a Gd anomaly serves a small community, population 1200, with no medical facilities. Biosolids from a large metropolitan STP are not enriched in Gd even though the effluent is, suggesting that a substantial fraction of Gd remains in the aqueous phase through routine treatment plant operation. To evaluate whether STP-derived Gd persists in the fluvial environment, a 14-km study reach downstream of an STP was sampled. Gadolinium anomalies were present at all five downstream sites, but the magnitude of the anomaly decreased. Effluent from STPs is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic constituents, and to better understand the chemical interactions and their effect on REEs, the aqueous speciation was modeled using comprehensive chemical analyses of water samples collected downstream of STP input. These calculations suggest that the REEs will likely remain dissolved because phosphate and carbonate complexes dominate over free REE ions. This study supports the application of Gd anomalies as a useful tracer of urban wastewater.

  4. Health hazard evaluation determination report no. 78-14-476, Gerico, Inc. , Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, B.J.

    1978-03-01

    An investigation to evaluate the exposures to aluminum oxide and other oil mist produced by hot wire cutting of polypropylene webbing has been made. The subject manufacturer makes backpacks for carrying infants, folding baby strollers, and folding baby beds. These items are made from tubular aluminum and polypropylene webbing. During this evaluation, workers that were monitored included those working in cutting, sewing, riveting and handling and aluminum tubing. All workers were monitored in the areas where the aluminum tubing was being sewed, cut, riveted, and handled. Sound level measurements were taken throughout this area. Each worker was interviewed, and questions were directed at work history and specific medical complaints. All breathing zone air samples were collected on filters using vacuum pumps operated at 1.5 liters per minute. A health hazard did not exist to either aluminum oxide or oil mist at the time of the evaluation. High noise levels were observed in numerous areas of the plant.

  5. 76 FR 93 - Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships (SURF) NIST Gaithersburg and Boulder Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... conduct stem cell research adopt the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell... compliance, NIST will support and conduct research using only human embryonic stem cell lines that have been... previous Executive Orders and Presidential statements regarding the use of human embryonic stem cells...

  6. 77 FR 19177 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Jefferson Ranger District, Montana, Boulder River Salvage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ...-commercially thin Douglas-fir and burn slash on 8,212 acres within 102 units. Approximately 210 miles of...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Jefferson Ranger...

  7. 76 FR 59770 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Boulder County, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... raised by a party or by the Board's Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent.... OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by September 30, 2011. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room 1100, Surface Transportation Board, Washington, DC...

  8. 76 FR 2579 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... the timing of the construction. Immediate action is necessary to ensure the safety of commercial...

  9. 75 FR 13232 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... ensure the public's safety. Background and Purpose Vegas Tunnel Construction will be...

  10. 77 FR 35671 - Conformed Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for the Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Federal Register (49 FR 50582) on December 28, 1984. These 2012 Conformed Criteria establish general marketing principles for power generated at ] Federal projects under the marketing jurisdiction of Western's..., 1987. On December 28, 1984, Western published the 1984 Conformed Criteria (49 FR 50582) to...

  11. Complex Flow: Workshop Report; January 17-18, 2012, University of Colorado, Boulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Wind Program organized a two-day workshop designed to examine complex wind flow into and out of the wind farm environment and the resulting impacts on the mechanical workings of individual wind turbines. An improved understanding of these processes will subsequently drive down the risk involved for wind energy developers, financiers, and owner/operators, thus driving down the cost of energy.

  12. Receptivity to Library Involvement in Scientific Data Curation: A Case Study at the University of Colorado Boulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Kathryn; Losoff, Barbara; Maness, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly libraries are expected to play a role in scientific data curation initiatives, i.e., "the management and preservation of digital data over the long-term." This case study offers a novel approach for identifying researchers who are receptive toward library involvement in data curation. The authors interviewed researchers at the…

  13. BBASIN_UNGEOG.TIF - Unenhanced TIFF Sidescan-Sonar Mosaic of Boulder Basin - Lake Mead, Nevada: Geographic Coordinates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  14. Modified Level III Preacquisition Environmental Contaminants Survey for Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Jefferson and Boulder Counties, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is one of several important historical documents associated with remediation activities at the Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge. The Rocky Flats National...

  15. The outcome of protoplanetary dust growth: pebbles, boulders, or planetesimals? I. Mapping the zoo of laboratory collision experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Güttler, Carsten; Zsom, Andras; Ormel, Chris W; Dullemond, Cornelis P

    2009-01-01

    The growth processes from protoplanetary dust to planetesimals are not fully understood. Laboratory experiments and theoretical models have shown that collisions among the dust aggregates can lead to sticking, bouncing, and fragmentation. However, no systematic study on the collisional outcome of protoplanetary dust has been performed so far so that a physical model of the dust evolution in protoplanetary disks is still missing. We intend to map the parameter space for the collisional interaction of arbitrarily porous dust aggregates. This parameter space encompasses the dust-aggregate masses, their porosities and the collision velocity. With such a complete mapping of the collisional outcomes of protoplanetary dust aggregates, it will be possible to follow the collisional evolution of dust in a protoplanetary disk environment. We use literature data, perform own laboratory experiments, and apply simple physical models to get a complete picture of the collisional interaction of protoplanetary dust aggregates....

  16. 75 FR 21037 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Non-Competitive (Direct) Sales of Public Lands, Boulder County, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ..., Royal Gorge Field Office, 3028 East Main Street, Canon City, Colorado 81212. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Transaction Facilitation Act (FLTFA), Public Law 106-248, enacted on July 25, 2000. FLTFA provides for the use... Building Contractors, c/o Duane Kraft. Federal law requires purchasers to be: Citizens of the United...

  17. Mass and Spin Measurement Techniques (for the Large Hadron Collider):. Lectures Given at TASI 2011, Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Christopher G.

    2013-12-01

    For TASI 2011, I was asked to give a series of lectures on "Mass and Spin Measurement Techniques" with relevance to the Large Hadron Collider. This document provides a written record of those lectures - or more precisely of what I said while giving the lectures - warts and all. It is provided as my contribution to the proceedings primarily for the benefit of those who heard the lectures first hand and may wish to refer back to them. What it is not is a scientific paper or a teaching resource. Though lecture slides may be prepared in advance, what is actually said in a lecture is usually extemporaneous, may be partial, can be influenced by audience reaction, and may not even make sense without a visual record of the concomitant gesticulations of the lecturer. More worryingly, some of the statements made may be down-right false, if the lecturer's tongue is in a twist. Accordingly, these proceedings are provided without warranty of any kind - not least in respect of accuracy or impartiality. The lectures were intended to engage the audience and get them thinking about a number of topics that they had not seen before. They were not expected to be the sort of sombre or well-balanced overview of the field that one might hope to achive in a review. These proceedings are provided to jog the memory of those who saw the lectures first hand, and for little other purpose. Footnotes, where they appear, indicate text/thoughts I have added during the editing process that were not voiced during the lectures themselves. Copies of the lecture slides are inserted at approximately the locations they would have become visible in the lectures.

  18. The ancient sun: Fossil record in the earth, moon and meteorites; Proceedings of the Conference, Boulder, CO, October 16-19, 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, R. O. (Editor); Eddy, J. A.; Merrill, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    Papers are presented concerning theories of solar variability and their consequences for luminosity, particle emission and magnetic field changes within the past 4.5 billion years, and on the records of such solar behavior in lunar, meteoritic and terrestrial materials. Specific topics include the neutrino luminosity of the sun, the relation of sunspots to the terrestrial climate of the past 100 years, solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays, the historical record of solar activity, C-14 variations in terrestrial and marine reservoirs, and solar particle fluxes as indicated by track, thermoluminescence and solar wind measurements in lunar rocks. Attention is also given to the spin-down of the solar interior through circulation currents and fluid instabilities, grain surface exposure models in planetary regoliths, rare gases in the solar wind, nitrogen isotopic variations in the lunar regolith, the influence of solar UV radiation on climate, and the pre-main sequence evolution of the sun and evidence of the primordial solar wind in the electromagnetic induction heating of the asteroids and moon.

  19. Sport labor migration, globalization and dual-career : case study of international student-athletes in University of Colorado at Boulder

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmi, Veera

    2014-01-01

    Sport, education, labor migration and globalization are all current areas of research worldwide. The U.S. has a unique system of making the dual-career option possible by having the college sport league organized by the non-profit association National Collegiate Athletic Association. The labor migration has increased in the past years. The primary research question in this study is, in which ways sport labor migration, globalization and dual-career are illustrated in the case study school ...

  20. Workshop review: Management of data collected in GRAMP (Gulf Region Atmospheric Measurement Program). Held in Boulder, Colorado on July 22-24, 1991. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demolition and subsequent burning of the Kuwait oil fires was a senseless act of destruction that has threatened public health, damaged the environment, and may possibly cause short or longer term changes in regional and global climate. Many nations responded to this disaster by offering aid and by rushing teams into the affected area to make measurements that would assess the impact of the fires. The following report summarizes a workshop that was held July 24-26, 1991 at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to discuss a plan to gather all the atmospheric measurements that are being made in the Gulf region and make them available for general dissemination. The workshop was initiated by the World Meteorological Organization and co-sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Organization

  1. 78 FR 12714 - Intermountain Region, Payette National Forest, New Meadows Ranger District, Idaho; Lost Creek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... District, Idaho; Lost Creek-Boulder Creek Landscape Restoration Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... Creek-Boulder Creek Landscape Restoration Project. The Lost Creek- Boulder Creek Landscape Restoration... action alternative is selected, the Responsible Official will determine what design features,...

  2. Modélisation en champ proche de l’interaction entre sol et bloc rocheux

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lingran

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of boulder trajectory and the design of protection structures are particularly two main interests of rockfall engineering. The prediction of boulder trajectory largely depends on the bouncing of the boulder, and the design of protection structures, such as embankments, are closely related to the impact force on the boulder.Based on this background, the thesis deals with the interaction between a boulder and a granular medium as well as the bouncing of a boulder on a granular me...

  3. Book Review of "Being Brown in Dixie: Race, Ethnicity, and Latino Immigration in the New South" 2011. Boulder, Colorado: FirstForumPress, by Cameron D. Lippard and Charles A. Gallagher, eds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Madsen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Moving with the prospect of employment in the US, there has been an influx of migrants from Latin America since the 1990s that has introduced many populations in the South to unfamiliar neighbors. Consequently, a dimension has been added to the long-existing racial turmoil between whites and blacks in these southern states: a "brown" dimension.

  4. STUDY ON REDUCTION OF TOE ROCKS AND BOULDERS IN BENCH BLASTING IN THE KARST FORMATION BAUXITE%减少喀斯特岩层铝土矿台阶爆破根底和大块的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈寿如; 毛晖; 张劲松; 赵坤

    2003-01-01

    喀斯特岩层铝土矿的主要特点是岩溶洞、岩溶水多,裂隙发育,岩层和泥层相夹等,这些特点使露天台阶爆破中出现较多的根底和大块.试验中通过采取一系列技术措施,如空气间隔装药、合适的孔网参数、孔底起爆、增加炸药密度及改进药包包装等,取得了良好的爆破效果.文中介绍了试验方法及试验结果的分析.

  5. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data listing release for the Three Forks Basin, Spanish Peaks, and Boulder River areas for the Bozeman NTMS quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-six additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totals of 531 water and 1275 sediment samples were collected from 1275 stream and spring locations. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). All sediments were analyzed for uranium by DNC. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements (Al, Sb, Ba, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, Fe, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, K, Rb, Sn, Sc, Na, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, V, Yb, and Zn), by x-ray fluorescence for 13 elements (As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni, Nb, Se, Ag, Sn, W, and Zr), and by arc-source emission spectrography for Li and Be. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million

  6. 78 FR 20334 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... index.php/alabama/ Gulf Shores, P.O. West 1st Street, baldwin/. Box 299, Gulf Gulf Shores, AL Shores, AL..., Mayor, Broadway Street, index.php/colorado/ City of Boulder, Boulder, CO 80302. boulder/. P.O. Box 791... and index.php/colorado/ 0863P). Jefferson County Zoning, 100 jefferson-5/. Board of Jefferson...

  7. The isotopic composition of ore lead of the Creede mining district and vicinity, San Juan Mountains, Colorado: Text of a talk presented at the San Juan Mountains symposium to honor Thomas A. Steven; Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, May 2, 1987, Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, N.K.; Barton, P.B.; Bethke, P.M.; Doe, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    Galenas from the major Creede veins and their northern extensions are remarkably homogeneous in Pb-isotopic composition and are too radiogenic to have been derived from any magma comparable in composition to the principal volcanic rocks. This pattern was identified by Doe et al. in 1979 who proposed that the lead was derived from the Precambrian basement. The homogeneity of the ore leads, however, requires a uniform reservoir; an unlikely prospect for lead from the Precambrian basement. We report on 16 new analyses of geographically and paragenetically dispersed galenas from the Creede district and other areas as far as 11 km to the north. The lead values range from 18.972 to 19.060 for 206Pb/204Pb, from 15.591 to 15.671 for 207Pb/204Pb, and from 37.781 to 37.921 for 208Pb/204Pb. These ranges overlap those previously reported for the main ore zone.

  8. The multitudinous creativity of the contemporary capitalisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț Bârliba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Creative Capitalism, Multitudinous Creativity, Radicalities and Alterities, Edited by Giuseppe Cocco and Barbara Szaniecki, Lexington Books, Lanham. Boulder. New York. London, 2015, 269p.

  9. RADIONUCLIDE DISPERSION RATES BY AEOLIAN, FLUVIAL, AND POROUS MEDIA TRANSPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Walton; P. Goodell; C. Brashears; D. French; A. Kelts

    2005-07-11

    Radionuclide transport was measured from high grade uranium ore boulders near the Nopal I Site, Chihuahua, Mexico. High grade uranium ore boulders were left behind after removal of a uranium ore stockpile at the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). During the 25 years when the boulder was present, radionuclides were released and transported by sheetflow during precipitation events, wind blown resuspension, and infiltration into the unsaturated zone. In this study, one of the boulders was removed, followed by grid sampling of the surrounding area. Measured gamma radiation levels in three dimensions were used to derive separate dispersion rates by the three transport mechanisms.

  10. Implications of volcanic erratics in Quaternary deposits of North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby; Larsen, Ole

    1982-01-01

    Erratic boulders, petrographically similar to the volcanics exposed around Kap Washington, are found on islands and along the coast much further to the east. Isotopic measurements on two such boulders show that these volcanic rocks are of the same age as the Kap Washington volcanics. The regional...

  11. 33 CFR 151.66 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage in the Great Lakes and other navigable waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Carriers Association (LCA) track lines; and (2) Along 056.25° LCA track line between due east of Poverty... Lakeshores; except that discharges are allowed: (1) Along 013.5° LCA track line between 45° N and Boulder Reef, and along 022.5° LCA track running 23.25 miles between Boulder Reef and the charted position...

  12. Creating a Culture of General Education Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Erwin J.; Campos, Francisca C.; Buxton, Ralph W.

    2008-01-01

    Many people know the myth of Sisyphus, the ancient king who committed an offense against the gods and was condemned for an eternity to roll a boulder unsuccessfully to the top of a steep hill. Each time he reached the summit, the boulder, of its own weight, would roll back to the bottom, whereupon Sisyphus would have to begin laboriously rolling…

  13. Using MM5 to Predict Hazardous Situations for Power Supply

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eben, Kryštof; Juruš, Pavel; Keder, J.; Vyorálková, Inka; Pelikán, Emil

    Boulder : NCAR, 2003, s. 52-55. [PSU/NCAR Mesoscale Model User's Workshop /13./. Boulder (US), 10.06.2003-11.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/02/1488 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : numerical weather prediction * decission support systems * risk assesment

  14. Intercity Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Shanghai Xbreaker Sports FactoryShanghai Tongji University Xbreaker Sports Factory is the ultimate indoor sports gymnasium.Established in September 2001, the gymnasium has a bouldering area, a park and lounge. It is the perfect game venue or professional training center for bouldering, skateboarding, rollerskating, and trick cycling.Courses are taught by professional

  15. Wind input data for urban dispersion modeling - activities of working group 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kastner-Kline, P.; Rotach, M.; Batchvarova, E.; Berkowicz, R.; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    Boulder : XX, 2000, s. 55-67. [Third Symposium on the Urban Environment . Boulder (US), 13.08.2000-16.08.2000] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 715.10 Keywords : urban * air pollution * wind Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  16. 75 FR 11942 - In the Matter of U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28...) Completing extensive, successful decontamination of the NIST- Boulder facility; (2) Designating a new... deletion of all specifically licensed radionuclides currently listed on the NIST-Boulder NRC license...

  17. Pré-filtração em pedregulho e filtração lenta com areia, manta não tecida e carvão ativado para polimento de efluentes domésticos tratados em leitos cultivados Pré-filtration in boulder and slow sand filtration with non-woven synthetic layers and granulated vegetal coal to improve quality in wastewater treated by constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    José E. S. Paterniani; Marcelo J. M. da Silva; Tulio A. P. Ribeiro; Melina Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo comparar sistemas de filtragem, composto de pré-filtro de pedregulho seguido de filtro lento com o meio filtrante areia e no topo manta sintética não tecida e pré-filtro de pedregulho seguido de filtro lento com meio filtrante areia e carvão ativado granular e no topo manta sintética não tecida, para polimento de efluentes domésticos tratados em leitos cultivados, visando à aplicação na fertirrigação. Na comparação dos sistemas de filtragem, avaliou-se a...

  18. A coagulation-fragmentation model for the turbulent growth and destruction of preplanetesimals

    CERN Document Server

    Johansen, Anders; Dullemond, Cornelis; Klahr, Hubert; Henning, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To treat the problem of growing protoplanetary disc solids across the meter barrier, we consider a very simplied two-component coagulation-fragmentation model that consists of macroscopic boulders and smaller dust grains, the latter being the result of catastrophic collisions between the boulders. Boulders in turn increase their radii by sweeping up the dust fragments. An analytical solution to the dynamical equations predicts that growth by coagulation-fragmentation can be efficient and allow agglomeration of 10-meter-sized objects within the time-scale of the radial drift. These results are supported by computer simulations of the motion of boulders and fragments in 3-D time-dependent magnetorotational turbulence. Allowing however the fragments to diffuse freely out of the sedimentary layer of boulders reduces the density of both boulders and fragments in the mid-plane, and thus also the growth of the boulder radius, drastically. The reason is that the turbulent diffusion time-scale is so much shorter than ...

  19. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition. Volume 2: Mechanics of rolling sphere-soil slope interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, H. J.; Mitchell, J. K.

    1971-01-01

    The soil deformation mode under the action of a rolling sphere (boulder) was determined, and a theory based on actual soil failure mechanism was developed which provides a remote reconnaissance technique for study of soil conditions using boulder track observations. The failure mechanism was investigated by using models and by testing an instrumented spherical wheel. The wheel was specifically designed to measure contact pressure, but it also provided information on the failure mechanism. Further tests included rolling some 200 spheres down sand slopes. Films were taken of the rolling spheres, and the tracks were measured. Implications of the results and reevaluation of the lunar boulder tracks are discussed.

  20. Solubilities of solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic heterocycles in pressurized hot water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal

    Boulder, CO: National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305, USA, 2006 - (Friend, D.; Frenkel, M.; Muzny, C.; Hardin, G.). s. 641-642 [International Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics /19./. THERMO International 2006. 30.07.2006-04.08.2006, Boulder, CO] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031301; GA AV ČR KJB400310504; GA ČR GA203/05/2106 Keywords : aqueous solubility * pressurized hot water * polycyclic aromatic compounds Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  1. On identifying parent plutonic rocks from lunar breccia and soil fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Lindstrom, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Breccia fragments expected from a well-studied boulder of Stillwater anorthosite have been modeled to test the ability to identify parental rock types from examination of breccia and soil fragments. Depending on their size, the boulder fragments give distributions that suggest mixtures of rock types, including monominerallic anorthosite with subordinant amounts of more gabbroic anorthosite, anorthosite, and gabbro for small fragments. The distribution of FeO in samples of lunar ferroan anorthosite (FAN) indicates that FAN has a heterogeneous distribution of mafic minerals like the boulder.

  2. 75 FR 10526 - In the Matter of Mr. Lawrence E. Grimm; Order Prohibiting Involvement in NRC-Licensed Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28... Quantum Physics Laboratories at the NIST-Boulder facility were issued a key to the project...

  3. Aerosol backscattering profiles of CO2 wavelengths: the NOAA data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NOAA's data base for aerosol backscattering at lambda = 10.6 μm since May 1981, Boulder, Colorado, is presented together with seasonally averaged profiles and statistical analyses. Studies of the El Chichon event are included

  4. Depth to Coal Mining in the Colorado Front Range (frimndpthu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the depth to (overburden above) abandoned underground coal mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  5. Unusual features caused by lightning impact in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, P.; Abrahamsen, N.; Rasmussen, T.

    2006-01-01

    that a strong electric current indeed traversed the boulder. A few years later a second lightning impacted on a mountaintop close to the first impact. The second lightning left a trail on the rock surface covered by a thin layer of glass. The glass displays spectacular colours ranging from metallic blue, to red......   Two lightning impacts are described from an area near the Inland Ice in West Greenland. The first lightning blasted an outcrop of metacherts. It subsequently split into two branches, which traversed rock outcrops and boulders, leaving behind two white almost straight lines, 30 m and 14 m long...... respectively, where all lichens and plants were burned away. On the white lines the upper few millimetres of the traversed boulders were melted to a glass which subsequently peeled off by thermal expansion to leave a rough surface. Magnetic investigation of an amphibolite boulder found on the white line showed...

  6. 75 FR 8947 - M. Catherine Higgins; Analysis of the Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... is punitive. The order provisions are similar to those in other orders naming individuals. For a... punitive: Ms. Higgins cannot possibly do her job to the fullest extent for Boulder Valley if she is...

  7. Late Devonian glaciation in Gondwana: Global lacunae, emergent carbonate banks, and Lowstand eutrophication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Isaacson, P. E.; Grader, G.; Hladil, Jindřich; Kalvoda, J.; Shen, J.

    Boulder : Geological Society of America , 1999. s. A-424. [ Geological Society of America Annual 1999 Meeting,Session Stratigraphy and Basin Analysis,Sequence /184./. 25.10.1999-28.10.1999, Denver] Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  8. Developing and Implementing a Marketing Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalmon, Byron G.

    1987-01-01

    A program focusing on recruitment of new freshmen at the University of Colorado at Boulder illustrates some major planning considerations in the development, implementation, and evaluation of a marketing plan. (MSE)

  9. ROE Absolute Sea Level Changes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This raster dataset represents changes in absolute sea level along U.S. coasts from 1993 to 2014. Data were provided by the University of Colorado at Boulder (2015)...

  10. Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge Land Protection Plan for Section 16 Acquisition

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is located 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado on the borders of Boulder, Broomfield, and Jefferson Counties and...

  11. Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc. (BNS) proposes to develop an Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectral Polarimeter (E-O IFTSP). The polarimetric system is...

  12. Geomagnetic Observatory Annual Means Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) / World Data Center, Boulder maintains an active database of...

  13. A Conversation on "Cage-Busting Leadership": Manager Editor Angela Pascopella Speaks with Author Frederick M. Hess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascopella, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Recalling the myth of Sisyphus repeatedly pushing the same boulder up a mountain in his new book, author and educator Frederick M. Hess explains how the K12 education leadership is faltering, and how it can rise above.

  14. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  15. Coherent Optical Transceiver using Circular Polarization-Based Balanced Mixing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boulder Nonlinear Systems (BNS) proposes to use its electro-optic component and subsystem expertise to transition a patented heterodyne detection scheme previously...

  16. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  17. Conservation of geo- and -biodiversity in Lithuania: are there conflicts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga

    2014-05-01

    Lithuanian surface is sculptured by more than five glaciers, which retreated c. 10 000 years ago. After the ice sheets melted in Lithuania, Latvia and Poland, and other neighbouring countries, they left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields. Hundreds of single boulders and boulder fields are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and other countries and are variably protected. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Rapid weather changes in Lithuania cause the weathering of erratic boulders. However, the fastest erosion is by overgrowing cryptogams: lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, algae, cyanobacteria and bryophytes. Lichens are among the first colonizers of rock surfaces, and their impact on stonework heritage is rather well documented. Hard rocks (e.g. granites) are weathering considerably slower than soft or relatively soft sandstones, dolomites or marbles; however serious impact is visible on stones with inscriptions, drawings and open surfaces of the protected nature monuments. Lichens gradually cover whole boulder surfaces obscuring their geological value and contributing to the surface weathering in Lithuania and neighbouring countries where numerous protected stony nature monuments occur. The 73 of the 723 species of lichenized and allied fungi in Lithuania are confined to hard acid rocks. Eight of these acid rock-dwelling species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them have high threat category or are thought to be extinct now. There is no conservation conflict between the red-listed saxicolous lichens and their substrate where the species are confined to wild boulder meadows. Here lichens and their boulder substrate suffer from excessive growth and overshadowing from surrounding vascular plants, also from pollution which change stone surface properties and induce encroachment of more aggressive species than the usual slow-growing acid rock

  18. Digital Collections Are a Sprint, Not a Marathon: Adapting Scrum Project Management Techniques to Library Digital Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Dulock, Michael; Long, Holley

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a case study in which a small team from the digital initiatives group and metadata services department at the University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder) Libraries conducted a pilot of the Scrum project management framework. The pilot team organized digital initiatives work into short, fixed intervals called sprints—a key component of Scrum. Over a year of working in the modified framework yielded significant improvements to digital collection work, including increased ...

  19. Review: Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty, and Sorrow (2009 Buchbesprechung: Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty, and Sorrow (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bierschenk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph: Pierre Englebert (2009, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty, and Sorrow, Boulder, Co. & London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, ISBN: 978-1-58826-646-0 (Hardcover / 978-1-58826-623-1 (Paperback, 310 pages. Besprechung der Monographie: Pierre Englebert (2009, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty, and Sorrow, Boulder, Co. & London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, ISBN: 978-1-58826-646-0 (Hardcover / 978-1-58826-623-1 (Paperback, 310 Seiten.

  20. Surface Tension of Supercooled Water Down to -21°C Measured within a Horizontal Capillary Tube

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinš, Václav; Hošek, Jan; Hykl, Jiří; Hrubý, Jan

    Boulder Colorado: National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2015. PaperID 2611. [Symposium on Thermophysical Properties /19./. 21.06.2015-26.06.2015, Boulder Colorado] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG13056; GA ČR GJ15-07129Y Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : capillary tube * horizontal measurement * supercooled water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics http://thermosymposium.nist.gov/pdf/Abstract_2611.pdf ; http://thermosymposium.nist.gov/program.html

  1. A City for All Citizens: Integrating Children and Youth from Marginalized Populations into City Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Willem van Vliet; Debra Flanders Cushing; Louise Chawla; Mara Mintzer; Victoria Derr

    2013-01-01

    Socially just, intergenerational urban spaces should not only accommodate children and adolescents, but engage them as participants in the planning and design of welcoming spaces. With this goal, city agencies in Boulder, Colorado, the Boulder Valley School District, the Children, Youth and Environments Center at the University of Colorado, and a number of community organizations have been working in partnership to integrate young people’s ideas and concerns into the redesign of parks and civ...

  2. Natural hazards, disasters and human kind: Whither ecosystem management?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    oceanic forces. One year later (January 2006), the boulder wall at Pondicherry city is widened (Figure 2), and the one at Nagapattinam port was rebuilt in concrete (Figure 3), at a higher cost, and as a taller and longer fortification (Mascarenhas... not affect the city coast, except for mild overwash; Bottom: The sea wall, now with large boulders, has been extended about 30 meters sea ward for no reason whatsoever (January 2006) (Photos: A. Mascarenhas and S. Jayakumar, NIO, Goa...

  3. Experimental Investigations of the Properties of Supercooled Water: Surface Tension and Density at Moderate Pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubý, Jan; Vinš, Václav; Peukert, Pavel; Hykl, Jiří

    Boulder Colorado: National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2015. PaperID 2887. [Symposium on Thermophysical Properties /19./. 21.06.2015-26.06.2015, Boulder Colorado] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG13056 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : density * experiment * supercooled state Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics http://thermosymposium.nist.gov/pdf/Abstract_2887.pdf ; http://thermosymposium.nist.gov/program.html

  4. Natural hazards mapping of mega sea waves on the NW coast of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torab, Magdy; Dalal, Nora

    2015-12-01

    Some boulder fields were deposited by the sea waves during winter storms or by paleo tsunami mega waves and most of these boulders were uprooted from the marine platform and distributed within 90 m of the shoreline, are found up to 4 m above present mean sea level. The objective of this work is defining systematic characterisation of the high-energy depositional contexts working by storms or paleo tsunami deposit, and to reconstruct the history of mega block deposition along the study area, depends upon extensive field surveying and geomorphic mapping by using GIS and GPS techniques as well as statistical analysis of boulders in order to determine both extreme events using the significant wave height and period of maximum observed storms and historical tsunamis along the study area, as well as geomorphic hazard mapping and samples dating. The results show that both possible processes (storm and tsunami waves) can deposit these boulders, it attested at Alexandria for example by the archaeological excavations and historical sources. Tsunami waves and storms cause the displacement of huge boulders from sea bottom and submersible marine terraces (platforms) to the beach due to its major power and ability of carving and graving it is also capable of pulling other boulders from the land and redeposit it on the beach or coastline.

  5. Surface-exposure ages of Front Range moraines that may have formed during the Younger Dryas, 8.2 cal ka, and Little Ice Age events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.; Madole, R.; Kubik, P.; McDonald, R.

    2007-01-01

    Surface-exposure (10Be) ages have been obtained on boulders from three post-Pinedale end-moraine complexes in the Front Range, Colorado. Boulder rounding appears related to the cirque-to-moraine transport distance at each site with subrounded boulders being typical of the 2-km-long Chicago Lakes Glacier, subangular boulders being typical of the 1-km-long Butler Gulch Glacier, and angular boulders being typical of the few-hundred-m-long Isabelle Glacier. Surface-exposure ages of angular boulders from the Isabelle Glacier moraine, which formed during the Little Ice Age (LIA) according to previous lichenometric dating, indicate cosmogenic inheritance values ranging from 0 to ???3.0 10Be ka.11Surface-exposure ages in this paper are labeled 10Be; radiocarbon ages are labeled 14C ka, calendar and calibrated radiocarbon ages are labeled cal ka, and layer-based ice-core ages are labeled ka. 14C ages, calibrated 14C ages, and ice core ages are given relative to AD 1950, whereas 10Be ages are given relative to the sampling date. Radiocarbon ages were calibrated using CALIB 5.01 and the INTCAL04 data base Stuiver et al. (2005). Ages estimated using CALIB 5.01 are shown in terms of their 1-sigma range. Subangular boulders from the Butler Gulch end moraine yielded surface-exposure ages ranging from 5 to 10.2 10Be ka. We suggest that this moraine was deposited during the 8.2 cal ka event, which has been associated with outburst floods from Lake Agassiz and Lake Ojibway, and that the large age range associated with the Butler Gulch end moraine is caused by cosmogenic shielding of and(or) spalling from boulders that have ages in the younger part of the range and by cosmogenic inheritance in boulders that have ages in the older part of the range. The surface-exposure ages of eight of nine subrounded boulders from the Chicago Lakes area fall within the 13.0-11.7 10Be ka age range, and appear to have been deposited during the Younger Dryas interval. The general lack of inheritance in

  6. Crater Boguslawsky on the moon: Geological structure and an estimate of the degree of rockiness of the floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Karachevtseva, I. P.; Kokhanov, A. A.; Head, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The paper considers the results of a study of the geological structure of the floor of the crater Boguslawsky selected as a primary target for the Luna-Glob mission. The deplanate floor of the crater is covered by the material ejected from remote craters and the crater Boguslawsky-D on the eastern inner slope of the crater Boguslawsky. It is highly probable that the sampling of the crater Boguslawsky-D ejecta will provide the unique possibility to detect and analyze the material that predates the formation of the largest and most ancient currently known basin on the Moon—the South Pole-Aitken basin. The rockiness degree of the Boguslawsky crater floor has been estimated from the radar data and the manual boulder counts in the superresolution images (0.5 m/pixel obtained with the Narrow Angle Camera from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter). Comparison of the radar data to the results of the photo-geological analysis shows that the main contributor to the radar signal is the rock debris located in the subsurface layer sounded by radar (1-1.5 m), while there are practically no boulders on the surface. The two most rocky regions on the crater Boguslawsky floor are associated with the relatively fresh impact craters 300-400 m in diameter. The spatial density of boulders near the craters suggests that one of them is 30-50 Myr older than the other. For both of these craters, the spatial density of boulders drops with the distance from their rims. The rate of the decrease in the boulder spatial density is the same for both craters, which points to the constant-in-time intensity of the fragmentation of boulders. The size distribution of boulders versus the distance from a rim of the older crater is approximated by the curve with a slope of-0.02, while the curve slope for the younger crater is-0.05. The gentler curve slope for the older crater is obviously connected with the equalization of sizes of the rock debris with time. The size-frequency distribution of all rock

  7. Preliminary Cosmogenic Nuclide Chronology of Late Pleistocene Missoula Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbas, A.; Clark, J.; Clark, P. U.; Caffey, M. W.; Woodruff, T. E.; Baker, V. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Missoula floods had the largest known peak flood discharges of fresh water known from the geologic record. Multiple floods are believed to have originated from the failure of the Purcell trench ice lobe, which dammed glacial Lake Missoula. The flood waters traveled westward creating the Channeled Scabland region, a spectacular complex of anastomosing channels, coulees, cataracts, loess islands, rock basins, broad gravel deposits, and immense gravel bars in east-central Washington State. Several important questions about the Missoula floods and the formation of the Channeled Scabland remain, primarily due to the few geochronological constraints on their timing. Attempts to date the duration of the multiple floods have produced a wide range of ages (13-19 ka from land deposits and 13-31 ka from marine cores), but few of these directly constrain the age of the major flood landscape elements. Here we present 14 new in situ cosmogenic 10Be ages from quartz-bearing boulders deposited at four sites in eastern Washington. Wallula Gap is a narrow constriction along the Columbia River between Oregon and Washington. Hydraulic damming of floodwater at Wallula Gap created glacial Lake Lewis. Surface exposure ages on large boulders found at over 300 m elevation above the river at this site will date the largest flood events. The Wenatchee region represents the most northwestern area influenced by flooding. Dates from this area will determine when flooding occurred after the retreat of the Okanogan lobe. We sampled boulders from the lower Pangborn Bar, ice-rafted boulders north of Wenatchee, and boulders from a flood bar on the Columbia River north of Wenatchee. A boulder from the Mattawa Fan was sampled to assess the last time a megaflood came through the Sentinel Gap. Finally, in order to constrain the last debris dam failure at the southern end of the Upper Grand Coulee, we sampled flood boulders deposited on the Ephrata Fan.

  8. Terrestrial cosmogenic surface exposure dating of glacial and associated landforms in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range of central Nevada and along the northeastern flank of the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnousky, Steven G.; Briggs, Richard W.; Caffee, Marc W.; Ryerson, F. J.; Finkel, Robert C.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2016-09-01

    Deposits near Lamoille in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range of central Nevada and at Woodfords on the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada each record two distinct glacial advances. We compare independent assessments of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) surface exposure ages for glacial deposits that we have determined to those obtained by others at the two sites. At each site, TCN ages of boulders on moraines of the younger advance are between 15 and 30 ka and may be associated with marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 2. At Woodfords, TCN ages of boulders on the moraine of the older advance are younger than ~ 60 ka and possibly formed during MIS 4, whereas boulders on the correlative outwash surface show ages approaching 140 ka (~ MIS 6). The TCN ages of boulders on older glacial moraine at Woodfords thus appear to severely underestimate the true age of the glacial advance responsible for the deposit. The same is possibly true at Lamoille where clasts sampled from the moraine of the oldest advance have ages ranging between 20 and 40 ka with a single outlier age of ~ 80 ka. The underestimations are attributed to the degradation and denudation of older moraine crests. Noting that boulder ages on the older advances at each site overlap significantly with MIS 2. We speculate that erosion of the older moraines has been episodic, with a pulse of denudation accompanying the inception of MIS 2 glaciation.

  9. Evaluation of the 210Po method at the Midwest uranium deposit, northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical profiles of 210Po in soils near the Midwest uranium deposit and an associated surficial radioactive sandstone boulder train in northern Saskatchewan show a high 210Po background in air-dried forest litter (24 pCi/g) and Ah horizon soil (11 pCi/g) relative to lower soil horizons (210Po signal from the radioactive boulders in the near-surface soil horizons. Only in the Bf and C horizons can the existence of the radioactive boulders be inferred from 210Po determinations. For comparative purposes profiles for 226Ra, U, Ni, and other trace elements are also presented. Escape of most of the Rn from near surface soils into the atmosphere, homogenization and decay of Rn, and precipitation of decay products back onto surface soils satisfactorily explain the field observations discussed here. Compared to the highly anomalous 222Rn signal in soil gases over this boulder train the 210Po contrast is very weak and is of little use for prospecting for this type of boulder train. The relatively high 210Po background in surficial materials relative to lower soil horizons dictates that great care be taken with the 210Po method; the deepest possible horizons should be sampled. (orig.)

  10. Preliminary study on the erratic exposure ages of Grove Mountains, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guangwei; Liu Xiaohan; Huang Feixin; Kong Ping; Fink David; Wei Lijie; Fang Aimin

    2009-01-01

    The first study of erratic boulder exposure ages in the Grove Mountains, interior Antarctica, indicates the two erratic boulders (060131-1 and 060131-2, collected from a typical nunataks, Zakharoff Ridge in the Grove Mountains) have 10Be minimum exposure ages of 1.24±0.11 Ma, 1.37±0.12 Ma, and 26Al ages of 0.90±0.12 Ma,0.44±0.04 Ma, respectively. Meanwhile, another erratic boulder sample 060131-4, coming from vicinal ice surface, has 10Be and 26Al minimum exposure ages of 0.47±0.3 Ma and 0.44±0.04 Ma, respectively. The exposure ages of the three erratic boulders are nearly similar to the bedrocks with the similar elevation. Thus, using the technique of in situ produced terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides, the ice sheet evolution histories in the Grove Mountains reflected by erratic boulder and bedrock exposure ages are basically consistent.

  11. Obliquity dependence of the tangential YORP

    CERN Document Server

    Ševeček, P; Scheeres, D J; Krugly, Yu N

    2016-01-01

    Context. Tangential YORP is a thermophysical effect that can alter the rotation rate of asteroids and is distinct from the "normal" YORP effect, but to date has only been studied for asteroids with zero obliquity. Aims. The tangential YORP force produced by spherical boulders on the surface of an asteroid with an arbitrary obliquity is studied. Methods. A finite element method is used to simulate heat conductivity inside a boulder, to find the recoil force experienced by it. Then an ellipsoidal asteroid uniformly covered by such boulders is considered and the torque is numerically integrated over its surface. Results. Tangential YORP is found to operate on non-zero obliquities and decreases by a factor of 2 for increasing obliquity.

  12. METER-SIZED MOONLET POPULATION IN SATURN'S C RING AND CASSINI DIVISION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillie, Kevin; Colwell, Joshua E. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Esposito, Larry W. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder, 392 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0392 (United States); Lewis, Mark C., E-mail: kevin.baillie@cea.fr [Department of Computer Science, Trinity University, One Trinity Place, San Antonio, TX 78212-7200 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Stellar occultations observed by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph reveal the presence of transparent holes a few meters to a few tens of meters in radial extent in otherwise optically thick regions of the C ring and the Cassini Division. We attribute the holes to gravitational disturbances generated by a population of {approx}10 m boulders in the rings that is intermediate in size between the background ring particle size distribution and the previously observed {approx}100 m propeller moonlets in the A ring. The size distribution of these boulders is described by a shallower power-law than the one that describes the ring particle size distribution. The number and size distribution of these boulders could be explained by limited accretion processes deep within Saturn's Roche zone.

  13. Catastrophic-flood Features in Swedish Lapland as a Terrestrial Analog for Martian Channel Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbacher, L. A.; Rhodes, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    Catastrophic flooding associated with deglaciation created unusual landscapes in several areas of northern Sweden. These areas in Swedish Lapland are distinguished by the large grain-size material that forms them. The presence of boulders at both Viking landing sites suggests the relevance of this analog. The Baldakatj area of Swedish Lapland offers terrestrial analogs for erosional remnants on Mars. Although the Baldakatj features are an order of magnitude or more smaller than the Martian forms, they created in boulder-rich till that may be a good approximation of the near-surface material on Mars. The Baldakatj area also includes other landforms that could reasonably be expected to occur with the Martian outflow channels, including boulder deltas, large transported blocks, and large-scale bedforms.

  14. Hydrate Model for CCS Relevant Gases Compatible with Highly Accurate Equations of State- II. Results and Implementation in TREND 2.0

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jäger, A.; Vinš, Václav; Span, R.; Hrubý, Jan

    Boulder Colorado: National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2015. PaperID 2658. [Symposium on Thermophysical Properties /19./. 21.06.2015-26.06.2015, Boulder Colorado] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14466 Grant ostatní: Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100761201 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : gas hydrates * carbon capture and storage * model ling Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics http://thermosymposium.nist.gov/pdf/Abstract_2658.pdf ; http://thermosymposium.nist.gov/program.html

  15. Hydrate Model for CCS Relevant Gases Compatible with Highly Accurate Equations of State I. Parameter Study and Model Fitting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinš, Václav; Jäger, A.; Hrubý, Jan; Span, R.

    Boulder Colorado: National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2015. PaperID 2868. [Symposium on Thermophysical Properties /19./. 21.06.2015-26.06.2015, Boulder Colorado] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14466 Grant ostatní: Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100761201 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : gas hydrates * carbon capture and storage * modelling Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics http://thermosymposium.nist.gov/pdf/Abstract_2868.pdf ; http://thermosymposium.nist.gov/program.html

  16. Ice transport directions and distances as a tool for ore exploration in glaciated regions - a compilation in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlenius, G. S.; Ladenberger, A.:L.; Lax, K. L.

    2009-04-01

    The complex information from SGU database has been used to evaluate ice transport directions and distances in Sweden. Till geochemistry, boulder counting and glacial striae have been applied to detect source rocks and mineralization in various regions of the country. The preliminary ice transport distances have been estimated in one region in middle Sweden (Bergslagen) and in two regions in northern Sweden (Västerbotten and Norbotten). Boulder dispersal trains have been recognized, classified based on lithology and morphology after which the maximum ice transport distance has been evaluated. In most areas the transport is short, up to 2-3 km. In Bergslagen, Cu-Zn and W mineralization can be traced in boulders from c. 300 m to c. 7 km. In Västerbotten, the transport distances range from 400 m to 3 km for sulphide mineralization. In Norbotten, a majority of known Ni mineralization can be detected in boulders located between 0.5 and 3 km. The source bedrock can be found based on outcrop record, ice direction indicators, presence of geophysical anomalies and glacial morphological landforms. The morphological information may, however, provide contradicting information when compared with independent ice direction indicators such as striae on the bedrock. During the latest glaciation an ice divide existed in northern Sweden which complicates the detection of source rocks. Till geochemistry provides information about local and regional anomalies, however quality of information depends on the methodology (e.g. sampling density) and the grid used, which sometimes is larger then the largest boulder train observed in the studied area. On the other hand, application of boulder trains can be difficult in areas with long transport distances. While boulder trains provide exact information about the mineralization, the till geochemistry carries uncertainty about exact ore type. Geochemical anomalies can be both very local or widely spread out, e.g. in southwestern Sweden

  17. Time needed for first lichen colonization of terminal moraines in the Tröllaskagi peninsula (North Iceland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Nuria; Palacios, David; Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn

    2015-04-01

    The Tröllaskagi peninsula is located in Central North Iceland. The peninsula belong to the Tertiary basaltic areas in Iceland and is characterised by numerous glacially eroded valleys and fjords. The altitude ranges from sea level to 1500 m. Around 150 glaciers, debris covered glaciers and clean glaciers exist in the cirques of the Tröllaskagi peninsula. Lichenometric techniques were applied to date moraines formed by some of these glaciers, especially from 1970-90, establishing growth rates for some species, e.g. 0.5 mm/year for Rizocarpon geographicum. However there is no information available on how long the lichens take to colonize the boulders in a moraine once it has become detached from the retreating glacier. The aim of this paper is to observe how long it takes for the boulders on the moraines to be colonized by lichens in the Tröllaskagi peninsula, where the separation date of a moraine from the retreating glacier tongue is known. Two case studies were used. The first was the surging glacier Búrfellsjökull, in the Búrfelllsdalur valley, an affluent of the Svarfaðardalur valley. The Búrfellsjökull glacier surged in 2001-2004 and the glacial terminus advanced 150-240 m, overrunnig a moraine formed around 1955 and formed a new moraine. About 2-3 years after the surge termination in 2004 the glacial terminus was already retreating and had left the moraine isolated (Brynjólfsson et al. 2012). The other case is the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier, in the Gljúlfurárdalur valley, an affluent of the Skíðadalur valley. It can be seen from the series of aerial photographs that the glacier terminus advanced during the 1990s until the year 2000. In 2004 the glacial terminus was already retreating and had separated from a small moraine formed during the previous advance. Thus, two different glaciers halted and formed one moraine each which they separated from almost similar time. During the detailed field work carried out in August 2014 on both moraines

  18. Guiding Design: Exposing Librarian and Student Mental Models of Research Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkinson, Caroline; Alexander, Stephanie; Hicks, Alison; Kahn, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    This article details an open card sort study administered to undergraduate students, graduate students, and librarians at the University of Colorado at Boulder in order to reveal perceptions of library research guides. The study identifies user group preferences for organization and content of research guides, as well as themes emerging from the…

  19. Gender Disparities in Second-Semester College Physics: The Incremental Effects of a "Smog of Bias"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2010-01-01

    Our previous research [Kost et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 5, 010101 (2009)] examined gender differences in the first-semester, introductory physics class at the University of Colorado at Boulder. We found that: (1) there were gender differences in several aspects of the course, including conceptual survey performance, (2) these…

  20. Multigrid Method for Polarized Radiative Transfer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpán, Jiří

    San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2006 - (Casini, R.; Lites, B.), s. 148-154. (ASP Conference Series. 358). ISBN 978-1-58381-292-1. [Solar Polarization Workshop /4./. Boulder (US), 19.09.2005-23.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : polarization * radiative transfer * sun Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  1. Geochemical characteristics of basement target rocks, suevitic glasses from the Eyreville B drill core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, and three bediasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skála, Roman; Langenhorst, F.; Deutsch, A.

    Boulder: Geological Society of America, 2009, s. 435-445. (Special papers of the Geological Society of America). ISBN 978-0-8137-2458-4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Chesapeake Bay impact crater * Eyreville B core hole * impact glasses * bediasites * tektites * geochemistry Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  2. Mass Wasting on the Moon: Implications for Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, A. L.; Weber, R. C.; Yanites, B.; Schmerr, N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Seismicity estimates play an important role in creating regional geological characterizations, which are useful for understanding a planet's formation and evolution, and of key importance to site selection for landed missions. Here we investigate the regional effects of lunar seismicity with the goal of determining whether surface features such as landslides and boulder trails on the Moon are triggered by fault motion.

  3. Adventure Recreation: Coming Soon to Your Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Marta; Schlatter, Barbara E.; Hurd, Amy R.

    2007-01-01

    Adventure recreation activities like mountain biking, bouldering, and kayaking used to require considerable travel to unique locations. This is changing, however, as the new trend emerges in the United State of providing adventure recreation experiences in cities and towns, such as New York City and Golden, Colorado. This article highlights…

  4. Yet Another Fish Tale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalasz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Last month the "Rocky Mountain News" reported that a survey by an emeritus professor at University of Colorado Boulder found that only 23 of 825 faculty members on the campus were registered Republicans. But on his "New York Times" blog, Stanley Fish brushed off the survey's significance from a familiarly Fishian stance. A faculty's political…

  5. The Three-Continent, 24-Hour Help Desk: An Academic First?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Describes Follow the Sun, a computer help-desk service that takes advantage of time differences around the world to permit four universities (University of Colorado Boulder, Australia's Macquarie and Newcastle universities, and the London School of Economics) to share services and provide 24-hour support to users. (EV)

  6. 给我的词句评分……

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海民

    1998-01-01

    A computer program that analyses word usage can do just as good a job of gradingessays as an experienced human marker. "l’m not ready to claim it’s fooproof, but Iam ready to claim that it’s approximtely as foolproof as a human," says Thomashandauer, a cognitive scientist at the University of Colorado at Boulder, who led the

  7. Estimation du risque collisionnel entre une sonde spatiale cométaire et un fragment du noyau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvoivres, Emmanuel; Klinger, Jürgen; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal

    2000-03-01

    Several comets will be approached by space probes during the two next decades. The presence of a fragment of the nucleus in the coma is a real danger. We have estimated the probability of presence of a boulder in the inner coma, using a model for the dynamics of fragments. Specific recommandations are deduced in order to reduce the risk of a collision.

  8. Lunar Roving Vehicle parked in lunar depression on slope of Stone Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Lunar Roving Vehicle appears to be parked in a deep lunar depression on the slope of Stone Mountain in this photograph of the lunar scene at Station no. 4, taken during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. A sample collection bag is in the right foreground. Note field of small boulders at upper right.

  9. EFFECT OF SECONDARY EFFLUENTS ON EUTROPHICATION IN LAS VEGAS BAY, LAKE MEAD, NEVADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eutrophication potential of Lake Mead, with primary emphasis on Las Vegas Bay, was determined with Selenastrum capricornutum. Nutrient limitation profiles were determined for three sampling stations in Las Vegas Bay and one in Boulder Basin. After heavy metals were chelated w...

  10. Geo(Im)pulse: An investigation into the genesis of an erratic (retro) eclogite block from Haren, Groningen, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendoen, J.; Roermund, H.L.M. van

    2007-01-01

    In boulder clays and glacial deposit sands, exposed in the northern part of the Netherlands, erratic blocks of (ultra)high pressure (UHP)metamorphic rocks may be found that originate from the Baltic Shield (Scandinavia). The occurrence of (U)HP metamorphic rocks in Scandinaviais limited to: (1) isol

  11. The Lodin Elv Formation; a Plio-Pleistocene occurrence in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyling-Hanssen, Rolf W.; Funder, Svend Visby; Petersen, Kaj Strand

    1983-01-01

    Greenland, is described and minted the Lodin El\\' Formation. The sedimentary sequence consists of sorted sand and silt ovcrlain by diamicton containing erratic boulders. Both units contain ill siw molluscs and foraminiferal assemblages. The sediments occur as an erosional remnant of local...

  12. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  13. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  14. 2014 CESM Tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Marika

    2014-08-11

    The 2014 annual tutorial for the Community Earth System Model (CESM) was held on August 11-August 15, 2014 at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, CO. It included lectures and practical sessions on numerous aspects of the CESM model. The proceedings submitted here include a description of the tutorial.

  15. Holocene glacial history of the west Greenland Ice Sheet inferred from cosmogenic exposure ages and threshold lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Kjaer, K. H.; Colding, Sune Oluf;

    2011-01-01

    . Boulder samples from the highest peaks demonstrate that the ice was warm-based whereas bedrock samples often contain an inherited signal. These results may have implications for other studies in Greenland, which have inferred thin LGM ice based on 10Be ages of bedrock samples. The threshold lakes are used...

  16. Facies characteristics of the basal part of the Talchir Formation, Talchir Basin, India – depositional history revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prabir Dasgupta; Rishiraj Sahoo

    2007-02-01

    The lowest unit of the Talchir Formation of Talchir Basin, Orissa, was described by pioneer workers as the 'basal oulder bed'. In an attempt to explain the co-existence of gravel and clay, materials of contrasting hydraulic properties, a probable situation resembling the effects of the action of ground-ice enabled boulders to be carried down by sluggish currents resulting in an intermixture of large boulders and fine mud was conceived. Misinterpretation of this conclusion led to a general tendency to describe the 'basal boulder bed' as 'glacial tillite'. However, the unit described as 'basal boulder bed is actually represented by a matrix rich conglomerate with pockets of normally graded silty clay. The present study reveals that the depositional imprints preserved in this part of the sedimentary succession indicate emplacement of successive debris flows generated through remobilization of pre-existing unconsolidated sediments. Small pockets of fine-grained turbidites presumably deposited from the entrained turbidity currents associated with the debris flows suggest the composite character of the debris flow deposit.

  17. 15 CFR 265.41 - Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gambling. 265.41 Section 265.41..., GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.41 Gambling. No... gambling devices, the conduct of lotteries or pools, or in the selling or purchasing of numbers tickets,...

  18. Chicxulub impact ejecta deposits in southern Quintana Roo, Mexico, and central Belize

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pope, K. O.; Ocampo, A.; Fischer, A. G.; Vega, F. J.; Ames, D. E.; King, D. T. Jr.; Fouke, B. W.; Wachtman, R. J.; Kletetschka, Günther

    Colo: Geological Society of America; Boulder, 2005 - (Kenkmann, T.; Horz, F.; Deutsch, A.), s. 171-190. (Special Paper - Geological Society of America. 384). ISBN 0-8137-2384-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Chicxulubu crater * impact ejecta * Mexico * Belize Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  19. Using Participatory and Service Design to Identify Emerging Needs and Perceptions of Library Services among Science and Engineering Researchers Based at a Satellite Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew; Kuglitsch, Rebecca; Bresnahan, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study used participatory and service design methods to identify emerging research needs and existing perceptions of library services among science and engineering faculty, post-graduate, and graduate student researchers based at a satellite campus at the University of Colorado Boulder. These methods, and the results of the study, allowed us…

  20. More Diamagnetism Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conery, Chris; Goodrich, L. F.; Stauffer, T. C.

    2003-02-01

    Inspired by, among others, Charles Sawicki's description of an inexpensive diamagnetic levitation apparatus, we built two such devices for classroom use and for educational outreach at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo. With a slightly different setup, the same demonstration can be done horizontally on an overhead projector.

  1. 78 FR 28838 - Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2013, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4... Boumansour, Hamilton Street Hydro, LLC, 1401 Walnut Street, Suite 301, Boulder, CO 80302; phone: (303)...

  2. The Art of Playground Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammatt, Heather

    2002-01-01

    Makes the case for integrating artistic expression into park and playground landscape design to create recreational areas with a more holistic look. The Foothills Community Park in Boulder, Colorado, is used to illustrate the use of artistic expression that preserves and celebrates the natural elements while creating a sense of community identity…

  3. 10 CFR 904.6 - Charge for capacity and firm energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charge for capacity and firm energy. 904.6 Section 904.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.6 Charge for capacity and firm energy. The charge for Capacity...

  4. Proposal 1114.11.2956B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degrand, Thomas [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The Theoretical Advanced Study Institute was held at the University of Colorado, Boulder, during June 1 - 26, 2015. The topic was "New Frontiers in Fields and Strings." The organizers were Professors Joseph Polchinski (KITP Santa Barbara) and Pedro Vieira (Perimeter Institute). Sixty one students heard sixty two lectures by sixteen lecturers. A Proceedings is in press.

  5. Calibrating several key lunar stratigraphic units representing 4 b.y of lunar history within Schrödinger basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    O'Sullivan, K.; Kohout, Tomáš; Thaisen, K. G.; Kring, D. A.

    Boulder : Geological Society of America , 2011 - (Ambrose, W. A.; Williams, D. A.), s. 117-127 ISBN 978-0-8137-2477-5. - (Special Paper of the Geological Society of America . 477) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : basin * impact structure * lithology * lunar crust * mare basalt * Moon * pyroclastic deposit * stratigraphy * upper mantle Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  6. First results of geothermal investigations, Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Eyreville core holes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heidinger, P.; Wilhelm, H.; Popov, Y.; Šafanda, Jan; Burkhardt, H.; Mayr, S.

    Boulder : The Geological Society of America , 2009 - (Gohn, G.), s. 931-940 ISBN 978-0-8137-2458-4. - (Special paper. 458) R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Chesapeake Bay * impact structure * deep borehole * temperature log * geothermal model Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  7. Crete and the Minoan Terranes: Age constraints from U-Pb dating of detrital zircons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zulauf, G.; Romano, S. S.; Dörr, W.; Fiala, Jiří

    Colorado : Boulder, 2007 - (Linnemann, U.), s. 401-411 ISBN 978-0-8137-2423-2. - (Special papers- Geological Society of America . 423) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Crete * Minoan terranes * peri-Gondwanan terranes * U-Pb-TIMS * Gondwana * detrital zircons Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  8. Structural evolution of the Prague synform (Czech Republic) during Silurian times: An AMS, rock magnetism, and palomagnetic study of the Svatý Jan pod Skalou dikes. Consequences for the nappes emplacement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aifa, T.; Pruner, Petr; Chadima, Martin; Štorch, Petr

    Colorado : Boulder, 2007 - (Linnemann, U.), s. 249-265 ISBN 978-0-8137-2423-2. - (Special papers- Geological Society of America . 423) R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013406 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : magnetic properies * dikes * Variscan orogen * stress * rheic * AMS * magnetization * Variscan orogen Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  9. Colo. Regents Reject Promotion of Erotic-Literature Scholar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin

    1994-01-01

    The Board of Governors of the University of Colorado at Boulder has turned down the promotion of an associate professor of English who specializes in study of erotic literature and obscenity. Critics call the ruling a breech of both academic freedom and faculty governance. (MSE)

  10. Combining Wind Plant Control With Systems Engineering (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, P.; Ning, A.; Gebraad, P.; Dykes, K.

    2015-02-01

    This presentation was given at the third Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop in Boulder, Colorado, and focused on wind plant controls research, combined optimization, a case study on the Princess Amalia Wind Park, results from the case study, and future work.

  11. GeoScape: An Instructional Rock Garden for Inquiry-Based Cooperative Learning Exercises in Introductory Geology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Gary J.; Thompson, J. Robert; Johnson, Wayne M.; Kadel, Steve D.; Nelson, Pamela J.; Hall-Wallace, Michelle; Butler, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    GeoScape is a landscape design consisting of colored gravel, strategically placed flagstone and boulders, and two vertical features that simulate the geology of fictitious regions. Employs "hands-on", inquiry-based, and cooperative learning techniques to help students develop problem solving and critical thinking skills. Explains the construction,…

  12. The Physical and the Virtual: The Relationship between Library as Place and Electronic Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Jennifer; Maness, Jack M.

    2010-01-01

    A statistical analysis of responses to a LibQUAL+™ survey at the University of Colorado at Boulder (UCB) was conducted to investigate factors related to patrons' satisfaction with electronic collections. It was found that a respondent's discipline was not related to his or her satisfaction with the Libraries' electronic collection, nor was the…

  13. On the formation of compact planetary systems via concurrent core accretion and migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Gavin A. L.; Nelson, Richard P.

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of planet formation N-body simulations based on a comprehensive physical model that includes planetary mass growth through mutual embryo collisions and planetesimal/boulder accretion, viscous disc evolution, planetary migration and gas accretion on to planetary cores. The main aim of this study is to determine which set of model parameters leads to the formation of planetary systems that are similar to the compact low-mass multiplanet systems that have been discovered by radial velocity surveys and the Kepler mission. We vary the initial disc mass, solids-to-gas ratio and the sizes of the boulders/planetesimals, and for a restricted volume of the parameter space we find that compact systems containing terrestrial planets, super-Earths and Neptune-like bodies arise as natural outcomes of the simulations. Disc models with low values of the solids-to-gas ratio can only form short-period super-Earths and Neptunes when small planetesimals/boulders provide the main source of accretion, since the mobility of these bodies is required to overcome the local isolation masses for growing embryos. The existence of short-period super-Earths around low-metallicity stars provides strong evidence that small, mobile bodies (planetesimals, boulders or pebbles) played a central role in the formation of the observed planets.

  14. RMHS Modeling of Solar Prominences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heinzel, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1171, - (2010), s. 331-338. ISSN 1551-7616. [Recent directions in astrophysical quantitative spectroscopy and radiation hydrodynamics. Boulder, 30.03.2009-03.04.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : radiative transfer * magnetohydrodynamics * stellar atmospheres Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  15. Ames Air Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Roger Z.

    2015-01-01

    This is an informal presentation presented to the University of Colorado, Boulder Bioastronautics group seminar. It highlights the key focal areas of the Air Revitalization Group research over the past year, including progress on the CO2 Removal and Compression System, testing of CDRA drying bed configurations, and adsorption research.

  16. 43 CFR 431.6 - Power generation estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power generation estimates. 431.6 Section... BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.6 Power generation estimates. Reclamation shall submit annually on or before April 15 to Western and Contractors, an estimated annual operation schedule for...

  17. The Skyline TEAMS Model: A Longitudinal Look at the Impacts of K-12 Engineering on Perception, Preparation and Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarske, Malinda S.; Yowell, Janet L.; Ringer, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Jacquelyn F.; Quiñones, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the longitudinal impacts of a partnership between the University of Colorado Boulder's K-12 Engineering Education initiative and the St. Vrain Valley School District. Together, university and high school educators created a replicable pre-college engineering model in a nine-school feeder system, which serves many Colorado…

  18. Zero Waste: A Realistic Sustainability Program for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumpert, Kary; Dietz, Cyndra

    2012-01-01

    Eco-Cycle, one of the nation's oldest and largest nonprofit recycling organizations, has coordinated recycling services and environmental education programs for the two Boulder area public school districts (80 schools) since 1987. In 2005, Eco-Cycle launched the Green Star Schools program in four pilot elementary schools with the goal of moving…

  19. Educational Transformation in Upper-Division Physics: The Science Education Initiative Model, Outcomes, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Stephanie V.; Wilcox, Bethany; Caballero, Marcos D.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Pollock, Steven J.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the need for a scalable, institutionally supported model of educational change, the Science Education Initiative (SEI) was created as an experiment in transforming course materials and faculty practices at two institutions--University of Colorado Boulder (CU) and University of British Columbia. We find that this departmentally…

  20. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, D. [Boulder Country Pollution Prevention Program, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Casa de la Esperanza: A Case Study of Service Coordination at Work in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquiz, Maria E.; Hernandez, Carlota Loya

    This chapter describes how a federally funded farmworker housing facility in northern Colorado--Casa de la Esperanza--has changed the lives of migrant students and their families. The history of migrant workers in Colorado is described, as well as the struggle to construct a permanent farmworker housing facility. Casa was built in Boulder County,…

  2. 78 FR 43901 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... 010125 04-8094P). David Miller, 9th Street, www.bakeraecom.c Mayor, City of Southeast, om/index.php... Street, om/index.php/ Thornton, 9500 Thornton, CO colorado/adams/. Civic Center 80241. Drive, Thornton.../index.php/ 0273P). County Board of 13th Street, colorado/boulder/ Commissioners, Suite 203, . P.O....

  3. Mineral X, a new thalcusite homologue from the Ilimaussaq complex, south Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Karup-Møller, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Mineral X is assumed to be a new member of the thalcusite homologous series with the structural formula TlCu2NS2N+1 with N=1.5. It was found in loose ussingite-analcime boulders on the Taseq slope towards the Narsaq Elv in the northern part of the Ilímaussaq complex in South Greenland in associat...

  4. Mineral X, a new thalcusite homologue from the Ilimaussaq complex, South Greenland Contribution to the mineralogy of Ilimaussaq, no. 144

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.

    2011-01-01

    Mineral X is assumed to be a new member of the thalcusite homologous series with the structural formula TlCu2NS2N+1 with N=1.5. It was found in loose ussingite-analcime boulders on the Taseq slope towards the Narsaq Elv in the northern part of the Ilimaussaq complex in South Greenland in associat...

  5. What I Think I May Have Learned--Reflections on 50 Years of Teaching: An Interview with Michael Wertheimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Kurt D.

    2006-01-01

    Kurt Michael is an associate professor in the Department of Psychology at Appalachian State University (ASU) where he teaches history and systems of psychology, abnormal psychology, child psychopathology, and interventions for children and adolescents. He received his BA (cum laude) from the University of Colorado at Boulder and his MS and PhD in…

  6. Glaciology and the Ice Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Albert V.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the beginning of glaciology; (2) origin of erratic boulders, meteorites, volcanic explosions, floods, and drift; (3) ice age hypothesis in Europe and the United States; (4) development of glacial theory; (5) and a unified explanation of glacial events. A bibliography of classical research on glaciology is included. (BC)

  7. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 300 - National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Privileges Walpole MA Cannon Engineering Corp. (CEC) Bridgewater C MA Charles-George Reclamation Landfill... County CO Marshall Landfill Boulder County C,S CO Nelson Tunnel/Commodore Waste Rock Creede CO Standard... Coraopolis PA Brown's Battery Breaking Shoemakersville PA Butler Mine Tunnel Pittston PA Butz...

  8. 78 FR 14836 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Members of SGIP 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ..., Boulder, CO; Ameren Services, St. Louis, MO; CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, Houston, TX; New York... Center (PSERC), Tempe, AZ; Samsung Telecommunications America, Richardson, TX; EnerNOC, Inc., Boston, MA... Public Service Company, Phoenix, AZ; Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers, Washington,...

  9. Fossils in Late Cretaceous to early Palaeocene flint nodules embedded in pleistocene glaciofluvial sediments near Fukov (Děčín District, Northern Bohemia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, R.; Kaše, J.; Kvaček, J.; Zágoršek, K.; Kočí, T.; Žítt, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 68, 3/4 (2012), s. 119-131. ISSN 0036-5343 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Erratic boulders * Flint * Glaciofluvial sediments * Late Cretaceous * Northern Bohemia * Palaeocene * Pleistocene glaciation * Taphocoenosis Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.nm.cz/publikace/archiv.php?id=4&rok=68&kcislu=3-4&f_=Zobrazit

  10. Creating Access to Invisible Special Collections: Using Participatory Management to Reduce a Backlog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, M. Winslow; Hollis, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries used participatory management to reduce a special collections backlog. Without an increase in budget or staffing, technical and public services departments designed a pilot project to redeploy internal human resources in a collaborative manner. The process of backlog management is discussed.

  11. ASCOT meteorological towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K.P.

    1991-09-01

    During the winter of 1991, LLNL participated in a series of field experiments near the Rocky Flats Plant south of Boulder, Colorado. These experiments were made in conjunction with the winter validation studies being managed by Rocky Flats personnel. This is a review of the tethersonde data taken during the period of January 28, 1991 through February 8, 1991.

  12. CONTOUR SELECTION FOR VOIDS OF REAL WOVEN COMPOSITE STRUCTURE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salačová, J.; Lédl, Vít

    Bromfield, Colorado : Boulder Colorado, 2006 - (Hui, D.), s. 20-21 - (ICCE). [INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE on COMPOSITES/NANO ENGINEERING/14th./. Bromfield, Colorado (US), 02.07.2007-08.07.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : void * woven * composite * searching Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  13. 76 FR 50423 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This interim rule involves no policies..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 65.4 0 2. The tables..., City of Simi County Star. Valley, 2929 Tapo Canyon Road, Simi Valley, CA 93063. Colorado: Boulder...

  14. Defining the worst case scenario for the Makran Subduction Zone: the 1008 AD tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Goesta

    2016-04-01

    The Makran Subduction Zone is located within the Arabian Sea (Northern Indian Ocean) and marks the boundary between the Arabian and the Eurasian plate. The sinistral strike-slip Sonne fault separates the subduction zone in an eastern and western segment. The convergence rate is about 40 mm/yr and slightly faster in the east than in the west. The seismicity is low in general and the few documented seismic events are concentrated in the eastern segment. No seismic activity is known from the western segment in historic times. The hazard potential is enigmatic as the only documented and recorded tsunamigenic earthquake (MW 8.1) within the subduction zone occurred in Nov 1945. However, thermal modelling suggests a wide potential seismogenic zone, apparently capable of generating very significant (>MW 8.5) tsunamigenic earthquakes. Furthermore, submarine slumping is another tsunami trigger which has to be taken into account. We used the modelling results as a hypothesis and mapped extreme wave event deposits along the coastline of Oman, bordering the Arabian Sea. We were able to document extensive boulder fields along rocky parts of the coastline. These boulders are decorated with marine sessile organism such as e.g oysters or barnacles testifying for an intertidal setting of the boulder prior to dislocation. The organism remains were used for radiocarbon dating assuming that the death of the organism was related to the relocation of the boulder. Storm-induced boulder movement is possible as the coastline is subject to infrequent tropical cyclone impact. However, boulder movement was not observed during the strongest storm on record in 2007. The dating exercise revealed a cluster of dates around 1000 AD, coinciding with a potential earthquake event known from a historic Persian text dating to the year 1008 AD. Archaeological evidence, mainly pottery artefacts found along the sea shore near the capital area Muscat/Oman also indicate a catastrophic event which may be

  15. A field test of the relative influence of sediment flux and grain size in determining bedrock river channel slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klier, R. E.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    Interpreting spatial patterns in rates of fluvial incision from river channel elevation long profile data requires an assumption that tectonic uplift rate governs river channel slope. However, application of the most mechanistically explicit description of river incision (the saltation abrasion model of Sklar and Dietrich) suggests that sediment flux and sediment grain size, not rock uplift rate, control river channel slopes in many settings. Because it is usually difficult to independently constrain sediment supply, tectonic interpretations of river elevation long profiles are necessarily uncertain. Here we exploit a natural experiment in Boulder Creek, a 30 km2 drainage in the Santa Cruz Mountains, CA USA in order to isolate the effect of sediment supply (flux and grain size) on river channel slope in an actively uplifting landscape along a restraining bend in the San Andreas Fault. A single prominent knickpoint exists near the midpoint of Boulder Creek, separating a 5.6 km long region of low slope(~0.8%) from a steeper(~2.5%) 3.5 km reach along the lower portion of the channel . Mapping and field observations reveal that this knickpoint does not coincide with any lithologic or tectonic boundaries; the channel cuts weak sedimentary rock for it length. In addition, longer wavelength changes in rates of rock uplift due to the bend in the San Andreas fault near Boulder Creek are negligible over the relative small size of Boulder Creek's catchment. Instead the knickpoint coincides with the location of the first tributary that taps a source of resistant, granitic sediment that is not found in the upstream reaches of Boulder Creek. Field observations indicate that coarse granitic bedload is sourced by debris flows and introduced by a series of tributaries draining into the steep lower reaches of Boulder Creek. The knickpoint marks a transition in median grain size from ~2cm just upstream of the knickpoint to ~16cm at the bottom of the Boulder Creek. Additionally

  16. Geosites of Lithuania as an environment for dwelling of specific biota: geo- and biodiversity interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga; Jukoniene, Ilona; Prigodina Lukosiene, Ingrida

    2016-04-01

    Surface of Lithuania and surrounding countries is sculptured by five glaciations, which left behind morainic tills and melt water deposits, modified by erosion and later used for agriculture or overgrown by wild meadows or forests. The glaciations also left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields that are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and surrounding countries. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Though sparse, but of high scientific value, Devonian, Permian, Triassic and Jurassic outcrops and quarries of Lithuania are variably protected. Quaternary scientists attempted to use single erratic boulders, their fields and abundances in tills to imply glacier dynamics. Some erratics came from known localities in Scandinavia and are called indicator boulders because they show the source and directions of ice sheet movements. Huge single boulders (e.g. 7 m long and 6 m high Puntukas, Anyksciai Regional Park) and wild boulder fields are natural monuments and attractive sites for visitors. Outcrops and quarries of Devonian dolomites and gypsium, Permian limestones and Jurassic sandstones widely used for a scientific research are parts of the protected geo-diversity in the Venta and Birzai regional parks, N and NW Lithuania. On the other hand, a large part of the c. 700 species of lichenized and allied fungi and of c. 500 bryophytes known in Lithuania are confined to natural or semi-natural (quarries) rocky habitats. Eight rock-dwelling lichen and nine bryophyte species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them are known from 1-2 localities or are thought to be extinct now. Besides, the recent investigations of dolomite quarries revealed them to be habitats for 7 bryophyte, 8 lichenized and lichenicolous species, previously unknown for Lithuania. One new lichenicolous species was discovered (Khodosovtsev et al., 2012). Some of the newfinds are rare or absent

  17. Modeling of U-series Radionuclide Transport Through Soil at Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekar, K. E.; Goodell, P. C.; Walton, J. C.; Anthony, E. Y.; Ren, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located at Pena Blanca in Chihuahua, Mexico. Mining of high-grade uranium ore occurred in the early 1980s, with the ore stockpiled nearby. The stockpile was mostly cleared in the 1990s; however, some of the high-grade boulders have remained there, creating localized sources of radioactivity for a period of 25-30 years. This provides a unique opportunity to study radionuclide transport, because the study area did not have any uranium contamination predating the stockpile in the 1980s. One high-grade boulder was selected for study based upon its shape, location, and high activity. The presumed drip-line off of the boulder was marked, samples from the boulder surface were taken, and then the boulder was moved several feet away. Soil samples were taken from directly beneath the boulder, around the drip-line, and down slope. Eight of these samples were collected in a vertical profile directly beneath the boulder. Visible flakes of boulder material were removed from the surficial soil samples, because they would have higher concentrations of U-series radionuclides and cause the activities in the soil samples to be excessively high. The vertical sampling profile used 2-inch thicknesses for each sample. The soil samples were packaged into thin plastic containers to minimize the attenuation and to standardize sample geometry, and then they were analyzed by gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Ge(Li) detector for Th-234, Pa-234, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pb-210. The raw counts were corrected for self-attenuation and normalized using BL-5, a uranium standard from Beaverlodge, Saskatchewan. BL-5 allowed the counts obtained on the Ge(Li) to be referenced to a known concentration or activity, which was then applied to the soil unknowns for a reliable calculation of their concentrations. Gamma ray spectra of five soil samples from the vertical profile exhibit decreasing activities with increasing depth for the selected radionuclides

  18. Styles of early diagenesis and the preservation potential of onshore tsunami deposits-A re-survey of Isla Mocha, Central Chile, 2 years after the February 27, 2010, Maule tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlburg, Heinrich; Spiske, Michaela

    2015-08-01

    The style of early diagenesis and preservation of onshore tsunami deposits are poorly constrained. Only tsunami surveys and subsequent re-surveys can fill this information gap. Here we present the results of a first re-survey in 2012 on Isla Mocha following the original survey in 2010 in the wake of the February 27, 2010, Maule earthquake and tsunami in central Chile. As a result of this tsunami, a large number of boulders consisting of clay-rich fine sandstones representing the Miocene age bedrock of the island had been transferred from the tidal to shallow subtidal zone onto the coastal plain. Coarse clastic sediment mixtures of pebbles, granules, and sand entrained at coastal plain terraces and transported up to the maximum runup position c. 600 m from the coast by the inflow had been left behind as extensive backflow blankets on the lower coastal plain. In 2012, vegetation had covered the 2010 tsunami deposits. Sediment beyond 200 m from the coast had been removed by a combination of surface processes and grazing cattle. Grain-size distributions of the preserved sediment show an increase of the sand fraction at the expense of the coarser grain sizes. Boulders show patterns resembling mud cracks on the surface and evidence of disintegration into smaller fragments and sand. Veneers of dried algae documenting the derivation of the boulders from the tidal zones had flaked off partly or completely from most rock surfaces. At the northern, wind-facing coast of the island, a c. 130 m long and 1.2 m high beach ridge had accumulated, most likely from reworked tsunami sediment. Boulders deposited by tsunamis are commonly assigned a high preservation potential. We demonstrate for the first time that such boulders may in fact disintegrate rapidly and disappear from the record over short geological time scales, given a lithology susceptible to weathering. The degree of modification to the lsla Mocha tsunami boulders and deposits strongly questions the applicability of

  19. Fractal Structure of Debris Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; LIU Jingjing; HU Kaiheng; CHEN Xiaoqing

    2007-01-01

    One of the most remarkable characteristics of debris flow is the competence for supporting boulders on the surface of flow, which strongly suggests that there should be some structure in the fluid body. This paper analyzed the grain compositions from various samples of debris flows and then revealed the fractal structure. Specifically, the fractality holds in three domains that can be respectively identified as the slurry, matrix, and the coarse content. Furthermore, the matrix fractal, which distinguishes debris flow from other kinds of flows, involves a hierarchical structure in the sense that it might contain ever increasing grains while the total range of grain size increases. It provides a possible mechanism for the boulder suspension.

  20. The shapes of fragments in hypervelocity impact experiments ranging from cratering to catastrophic disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michikami, T.; Hagermann, A.; Kadokawa, T.; Yoshida, A.; Shimada, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Tsuchiyama, A.

    2015-12-01

    Laboratory impact experiments have found that the shapes of impact fragments as defined by axes a, b and c, these being the maximum dimensions of the fragment in three mutually orthogonal planes (a ≥ b ≥ c) are distributed around mean values of the axial ratios b/a ~0.7 and c/a ~0.5, i.e., corresponding to a : b: c in the simple proportion 2: √2: 1. The shape distributions of some boulders on asteroid Eros, the small- and fast-rotating asteroids (diameter 8 m) on asteroid Itokawa. The mean value of c/a of these boulders is 0.46, which is similar to the value for catastrophic disruption. This implies that the parent body of Itokawa could have experienced a catastrophic disruption.

  1. Effect of secondary effluents on eutrophication in Las Vegas Bay, Lake Mead, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J.C.; Miller, W.E.; Merwin, E.

    1986-01-01

    The eutrophication potential of Lake Mead, with primary emphasis on Las Vegas Bay, was determined with Selenastrum capricornutum. Nutrient limitation profiles were determined for three sampling stations in Las Vegas Bay and one in Boulder Basin. After heavy metals were chelated with EDTA, P was identified as the primary limiting nutrient with N the secondary limiting nutrient for S. capricornutum. Productivity potential was highest in upper Las Vegas Bay near the sewage inflow. Toward the mouth of the bay and in Boulder Basin, progressively lower potentials were defined. Productivity potential could not be predicted from the filtered samples because the nutrients bound up in the indigenous biomass remained on the filters. Autoclaving followed by filtration prior to assay enabled S. capricornutum to produce yields relative to the productivity observed in the lake.

  2. Quantifying rockfall risk on roads in the Port Hills, Christchurch, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrader, Stefan; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-04-01

    The Canterbury earthquake sequence starting on 22 September 2010 triggered widespread mass movements in the Port Hills area of Christchurch, the largest agglomeration of New Zealand's South Island. The MW 6.2 Christchurch earthquake of 22 February 2011 in particular generated the largest ground motions ever recorded in New Zealand and as a result initiated several thousands of rockfalls. Over 6,000 boulders were released and mapped shortly after the event. The risk from rockfall to residents in the Port Hills was quantitatively assessed by the regulatory authorities in order to develop an adjusted land zoning policy. Apart from damaging residential buildings many of these boulders also hit several road sections across the Port Hills. Due to the inherent differences between identifying hazard and risk to people in static structures and in moving objects, a recently carried out risk assessment of rockfall was limited to exposed properties. However, given the importance of local road infrastructure for commuter traffic, local risk management strategies would clearly benefit from quantifying the threat of boulders endangering traffic lines. For this study, existing datasets describing the hazard including recently estimated frequency-magnitude bands for earthquakes and non-seismic triggering events, boulder production rates, boulder size distribution and associated run-out distances, were used. These data were provided by the Christchurch City Council's (CCC) GIS web service. A digital layer of the local road network as well as a detailed dataset of traffic counts was used for GIS analysis, and the probability of individuals being hit by boulders was calculated for each road segment that intersects one or more rockfall hazard zones. Finally, risk was computed. The method applied follows a state-of-the-art approach in risk assessment which is generally based on the risk equation defining risk as the probability of occurrence of an event times the expected loss. More

  3. Investigation of the geology of the low-level radioactive waste burial site at Drigg, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geology of the low-level solid radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg, Cumbria has been investigated on the basis of a number of shallow excavations and 35 boreholes. The glacial sequence varies from 10 to 42 m in thickness and ranges from coarse sands and gravels to compact boulder clays. These overlie an irregular surface of St Bees Sandstone which probably contains a deep-erosion channel. The site is underlain by at least one boulder clay horizon. Clays restrict the direct downward movement of surface infiltration into the deeper permeable sands and gravels considered to be in hydraulic continuity with the St Bees Sandstone, but give rise to perched water tables in which lateral flow may occur. The streams which traverse the site are potentially influent throughout their length and may lose water to sand and peat deposits where these exist in the south-western part of the site. (author)

  4. Shortwave Hyperspectral Observations During MAGIC Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, P. J. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States); Marshak, A. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States); Yang, W. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign was initiated to improve our understanding of low-level marine clouds that have a significant influence on the Earth’s climate. The campaign was conducted using an ARM mobile facility deployed on a commercial ship traveling between Honolulu, Hawaii, and Los Angeles, California, from October 2012 to September 2013. The solar spectral flux radiometer (SSFR) was deployed on July 6, 2013, through the end of the campaign. The SSFR was calibrated and installed by Warren Gore of NASA Ames Research Center, and the data is and will be analyzed by Drs. Alexander Marshak and Weidong Yang of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Dr. Samuel LeBlanc of NASA Ames Research Center, Dr. Sebastian Schmidt of the University of Colorado-Boulder, and Dr. Patrick McBride of Atmospheric & Space Technology Research Associates in Boulder, Colorado.

  5. Tunguska cosmic body of 1908: is it from planet Mars?

    CERN Document Server

    Anfinogenov, John; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Anfinogenova, Yana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to discover remnants of the 1908 Tunguska meteorite. Main objective of the field studies was identification of exotic rocks, furrows, and penetration funnels reported by the first eyewitnesses, residents of the area with severe forest destruction. Main methods included decoding of aerial survey photographs, systematic survey of the epicenter area of the Tunguska explosion, exploratory excavations of the objects of interest, reconstruction studies of exotic boulder by using its splinters, mineralogical and spectral analysis of specimens, experimental attempt of plasma-induced reproduction of the fusion crust on specimen. The authors present results on discovery of penetration funnel-like structures; exotic boulder (known as John's Stone)) with its shear-fractured splinters and fresh furrow in the permafrost; several splinters with glassy coatings; evidence of high-speed John's Stone deceleration in the permafrost; and clear consistency in geometry of spacial arrangements of all splinte...

  6. Special Education Students Improve Academic Performance through Problem-Based Learning and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Kintsch, A.

    2003-12-01

    Boulder High School Special Education students work in teams on donated wireless computers to solve problems created by global climate change. Their text is Richard Somerville's The Forgiving Air. They utilize Wheeling Jesuit University's remote sensing web site and private computer bulletin board. Their central source for problem-based learning (PBL) is www.cotf.edu, NASA's Classroom of the Future Global Change web site. As a result, students not only improve their abilities to write, read, do math and research, speak, and work as team members, they also improve self-esteem, resilience, and willingness to take more challenging classes. Two special education students passed AP exams, Calculus and U.S. Government, last spring and Jay Matthews of Newsweek rates Boulder High as 201st of the nation's top 1000 high schools.

  7. Gravitational slopes, geomorphology, and material strengths of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from OSIRIS observations

    CERN Document Server

    Groussin, O; Auger, A -T; Kührt, E; Gaskell, R; Capanna, C; Scholten, F; Preusker, F; Lamy, P; Hviid, S; Knollenberg, J; Keller, U; Huettig, C; Sierks, H; Barbieri, C; Rodrigo, R; Koschny, D; Rickman, H; Hearn, M F A; Agarwal, J; Barucci, M A; Bertaux, J -L; Bertini, I; Boudreault, S; Cremonese, G; Da Deppo, V; Davidsson, B; Debei, S; De Cecco, M; El-Maarry, M R; Fornasier, S; Fulle, M; Gutiérrez, P J; Güttler, C; Ip, W -H; Kramm, J -R; Küppers, M; Lazzarin, M; Lara, L M; Moreno, J J Lopez; Marchi, S; Marzari, F; Massironi, M; Michalik, H; Naletto, G; Oklay, N; Pommerol, A; Pajola, M; Thomas, N; Toth, I; Tubiana, C; Vincent, J -B

    2015-01-01

    We study the link between gravitational slopes and the surface morphology on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and provide constraints on the mechanical properties of the cometary material. We computed the gravitational slopes for five regions on the nucleus that are representative of the different morphologies observed on the surface, using two shape models computed from OSIRIS images by the stereo-photoclinometry (SPC) and stereo-photogrammetry (SPG) techniques. We estimated the tensile, shear, and compressive strengths using different surface morphologies and mechanical considerations. The different regions show a similar general pattern in terms of the relation between gravitational slopes and terrain morphology: i) low-slope terrains (0-20 deg) are covered by a fine material and contain a few large ($>$10 m) and isolated boulders, ii) intermediate-slope terrains (20-45 deg) are mainly fallen consolidated materials and debris fields, with numerous intermediate-size boulders from $<$1 m to ...

  8. The Process of Transforming an Advanced Lab Course: Goals, Curriculum, and Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Zwickl, Benjamin M; Lewandowski, H J

    2012-01-01

    A thoughtful approach to designing and improving labs, particularly at the advanced level, is critical for the effective preparation of physics majors for professional work in industry or graduate school. With that in mind, physics education researchers in partnership with the physics faculty at the University of Colorado Boulder have overhauled the senior-level Advanced Physics Lab course. The transformation followed a three part process of establishing learning goals, designing curricula that align with the goals, and assessment. Similar efforts have been carried out in physics lecture courses at the University of Colorado Boulder, but this is the first systematic research-based revision of one of our laboratory courses. The outcomes of this effort include a set of learning goals, a suite of new lab-skill activities and transformed optics labs, and a set of assessments specifically tailored for a laboratory environment. While the particular selection of advanced lab experiments varies widely between institu...

  9. Early lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A new method (Shaw, 1974) for investigating paleointensity (the ancient magnetic field) was applied to three subsamples of a single, 1-m homogeneous clast from a recrystallized boulder of lunar breccia. Several dating methods established 4 billion years as the age of boulder assembly. Results indicate that the strength of the ambient magnetic field at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon was about 0.4 oersted at 4 billion years ago. Values as high as 1.2 oersted have been reported (Collison et al., 1973). The required fields are approximately 10,000 times greater than present interplanetary or solar flare fields. It is suggested that this large field could have arisen from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri sun.

  10. Application of terrestrial laser scanning for coastal geomorphologic research questions in western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Curdt, Constanze; Tilly, Nora; Ntageretzis, Konstantin; Aasen, Helge; Vött, Andreas; Bareth, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Coasts are areas of permanent change, influenced by gradual changes and sudden impacts. In particular, western Greece is a tectonically active region, due to the nearby plate boundary of the Hellenic Arc. The region has suffered from numerous earthquakes and tsunamis during prehistoric and historic times and is thus characterized by a high seismic and tsunami hazard risk. Additionally, strong winter storms may reach considerable dimensions. In this study, terrestrial laser scanning was applied for (i) annual change detection at seven coastal areas of western Greece for three years (2009-2011) and (ii) accurate parameter detection of large boulders, dislocated by high-energy wave impacts. The Riegl LMS-Z420i laser scanner was used in combination with a precise DGPS system (Topcon HiPer Pro) for all surveys. Each scan position and a further target were recorded for georeferencing and merging of the point clouds. (i) For the annual detection of changes, reference points for the base station of the DGPS system were marked. High-resolution digital elevation models (HRDEM) were generated from each dataset of the different years and are compared to each other, resulting in mass balances. (ii) 3D-models of dislocated boulders were reconstructed and parameters (e.g. volume in combination with density measurements, distance and height above present sea-level) were derived for the solution of wave transport equations, which estimate the minimum wave height or velocity that is necessary for boulder movement. (i) Our results show that annual changes are detectable by multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning. In general, volumetric changes and affected areas are quantifiable and maps of changes can be established. On exposed beach areas, bigger changes were detectable, where seagrass and sand is eroded and gravel accumulated. In opposite, only minor changes for elevated areas are derived. Dislocated boulders on several sites showed no movement. At coastal areas with a high

  11. THE PROBLEMS OF IDENTIFICATION OF THE NEO-PLEISTOCENE GLACIAL MEGA-FLOOD DEPOSITS IN THE ALTAI MOUNTAINS REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Zol’nikov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Similarities and differences of glacial megaflood deposits and deposits of other genetic types of Gorny Altai are considered in the paper. Diluvial sedimentary complex includes (from bottom to top: debris flow facies of boulder-pebbles with giant boulders; floodplain facies of parallel laminated sands and gruss, fluvial cross-bedded pebbles facies, suspension facies of sands and silts; mud flow facies, facies secondary-dammed lake is thin parallel-laminated silts and sands. The deposits of different genetic types may appear similar in facies, textural and structural characteristics, but the geological structure and sedimentary facies architecture of the sediment complexes of various origins (the number of co-observed lithotypes and geologic nature of their relationship have a specific and recognizable.

  12. Assessing Student Learning in Middle-Division Classical Mechanics/Math Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, Marcos D

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and validated assessments of introductory physics have been instrumental in driving curricular and pedagogical reforms that lead to improved student learning. As part of an effort to systematically improve our sophomore-level Classical Mechanics and Math Methods course (CM 1) at CU Boulder, we are developing a tool to assess student learning of CM 1 concepts in the upper-division. The Colorado Classical Mechanics/Math Methods Instrument (CCMI) builds on faculty-consensus learning goals and systematic observations of student difficulties. The result is a 9-question open-ended post-test that probes student learning in the first half of a two-semester classical mechanics / math methods sequence. In this paper, we describe the design and development of this instrument, its validation, and measurements made in classes at CU Boulder.

  13. Assessing Learning Outcomes in Middle-Division Classical Mechanics: The Colorado Classical Mechanics/Math Methods Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, Marcos D; Turnbull, Anna M; Pepper, Rachel E; Pollock, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Reliable and validated assessments of introductory physics have been instrumental in driving curricular and pedagogical reforms that lead to improved student learning. As part of an effort to systematically improve our sophomore-level Classical Mechanics and Math Methods course (CM 1) at CU Boulder, we have developed a tool to assess student learning of CM 1 concepts in the upper-division. The Colorado Classical Mechanics/Math Methods Instrument (CCMI) builds on faculty consensus learning goals and systematic observations of student difficulties. The result is a 9-question open-ended post-test that probes student learning in the first half of a two-semester classical mechanics / math methods sequence. In this paper, we describe the design and development of this instrument, its validation, and measurements made in classes at CU Boulder and elsewhere.

  14. A City for All Citizens: Integrating Children and Youth from Marginalized Populations into City Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Van Vliet

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Socially just, intergenerational urban spaces should not only accommodate children and adolescents, but engage them as participants in the planning and design of welcoming spaces. With this goal, city agencies in Boulder, Colorado, the Boulder Valley School District, the Children, Youth and Environments Center at the University of Colorado, and a number of community organizations have been working in partnership to integrate young people’s ideas and concerns into the redesign of parks and civic areas and the identification of issues for city planning. Underlying their work is a commitment to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and children’s rights to active citizenship from a young age. This paper describes approaches used to engage with young people and methods of participation, and reflects on lessons learned about how to most effectively involve youth from underrepresented populations and embed diverse youth voices into the culture of city planning.

  15. Rain-Induced Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    2006-01-01

    Several times a week I walk by a metal chair that is fastened to a flat concrete slab at an outdoor bus stop here in Boulder. One day I noticed on the concrete a nice shadow image of the woven metal seat of the chair (Fig. 1). The seat and back of the chair are formed from 3.8-cm wide strips of metal spaced 3.8 cm apart. The seat is about 39 cm…

  16. The impact of global warming on the tropical Pacific ocean and El Nino

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Collins, M.; An, S.; Cai, W.; Ganachaud, A.; Guilyardi, E.; Jin, F.F.; Jochum, M.; Lengaigne, M.; Power, S.; Timmermann, A.; Vecchi, G.; Wittenberg, A.

    pour le Developpement BP A5, 98848 Noumea, New Caledonia, 5IPSL/LOCEAN, Paris, France and NCAS–Climate, University of Reading, UK, 6Department of Meteorology, SOEST, University of Hawaii, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA, 7National Center... for Atmospheric Research, Oceanography Section, Room 415, 1850, Table Mesa Drive, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA, 8Physical Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004, India and IPSL/LOCEAN, Paris, France and NCAS...

  17. Software Innovations Speed Scientific Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    To help reduce the time needed to analyze data from missions like those studying the Sun, Goddard Space Flight Center awarded SBIR funding to Tech-X Corporation of Boulder, Colorado. That work led to commercial technologies that help scientists accelerate their data analysis tasks. Thanks to its NASA work, the company doubled its number of headquarters employees to 70 and generated about $190,000 in revenue from its NASA-derived products.

  18. Situated Questions and Answers: Responding to Library Users with QR Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, Alison; Sinkinson, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This study employs the case study approach to examine a QR code pilot implemented at the University of Colorado at Boulder (CUB) Libraries in Fall 2010 using Microsoft Tag. Through observations and experiences gathered during the pilot, the study seeks to identify effective implementation strategies while also revealing benefits and challenges to be considered when managing similar QR code projects in academic library settings. The findings support continued investigation of QR codes to respo...

  19. Gender disparities in second-semester college physics: The incremental effects of a “smog of bias”

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren E. Kost-Smith; Steven J. Pollock; Noah D. Finkelstein

    2010-01-01

    Our previous research [Kost et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 5, 010101 (2009)] examined gender differences in the first-semester, introductory physics class at the University of Colorado at Boulder. We found that: (1) there were gender differences in several aspects of the course, including conceptual survey performance, (2) these differences persisted despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, and (3) the post-test gender differences could largely be attributed to difference...

  20. MARINE CONGLOMERATE AND REEF MEGACLASTS AT MAURITUS ISLAND: Evidences of a tsunami generated by a flank collapse of the PITON DE LA Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island?

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, R.; Kelfoun, K.; T. Giachetti

    2014-01-01

    Tsunamis related to volcano flank collapse are typically a high-magnitude, low frequency hazard for which evaluation and mitigation are difficult to address. In this short communication, we present field evidences of a large tsunami along the southern coast of Mauritius Island ca. 4400 years ago. Tsunami deposits described include both marine conglomerates and coral boulders up to 90 m3 (> 100 tons). The most probable origin of the tsunami is a flank collapse of Piton de la Fournaise volcano,...

  1. Ophioglossum vulgatum L. in de bossen van de IJsselmeerpolders

    OpenAIRE

    Bremer, P

    1988-01-01

    In the Netherlands Ophioglossum vulgatum occurs in a wide variety of habitats, like dune slacks, wetlands, unfertilized grassy pastures and pits. Records from woodlands were scarce. After the reclamation of the IJsselmeer polders thousands of acres have been planted with trees; in these woodlands Ophioglossum has been recorded at 11 localities, mostly growing under a canopy of Ash, on calcareous soils consisting of fine sand, boulder clay or clay.

  2. Spatio-temporal distribution patterns of the invasive macroalga Sargassum muticum within a Danish Sargassum-bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M. S.; Wernberg, T.; Stæhr, P. A.;

    2006-01-01

    Sargassum muticum was first observed in Scandinavia in Limfjorden (Denmark) in 1984, where it is now the most abundant and conspicuous macroalga. Despite the ecological importance of Sargassum, few studies have described seasonal patterns within Scandinavian Sargassum beds. We quantified the dyna...... sediment stress limits Sargasum in shallow waters, and the presence of stable boulder substratum facilitate Sargassum. Competition for space from other macroalgae and herbivory are probably of minor importance....

  3. Astronaut John Young photographed collecting lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples near North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Young is using the lunar surface rake and a set of tongs. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked in the field of large boulders in the background.

  4. Integrated Path Detection of Co2 and CH4 Using a Waveform Driven Electro-Optic Single Sideband Laser Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gerd; Maxwell, Stephen; Plusquellic, David

    2016-06-01

    Integrated path concentrations of ambient levels of carbon dioxide and methane have been measured during nighttime periods at NIST, Boulder (CO, USA), using a ground-based, eyesafe laser system. In this contribution, we describe the transmitter and receiver system, demonstrate measurements of CO2 and CH4 in comparison with an in situ point sensor measurement using a commercial cavity ring-down instrument, and demonstrate a speckle noise reduction method.

  5. Virtual Machine Language Controls Remote Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center worked with Blue Sun Enterprises, based in Boulder, Colorado, to enhance the company's virtual machine language (VML) to control the instruments on the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatiles Extraction mission. Now the NASA-improved VML is available for crewed and uncrewed spacecraft, and has potential applications on remote systems such as weather balloons, unmanned aerial vehicles, and submarines.

  6. Solar Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Bob

    2011-04-27

    The Department of Energy, Golden Field Office, awarded a grant to the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF) on August 1, 2005 to develop a solar and renewable energy information center. The Solar Technology Center (STC) is to be developed in two phases, with Phase I consisting of all activities necessary to determine feasibility of the project, including design and engineering, identification of land access issues and permitting necessary to determine project viability without permanently disturbing the project site, and completion of a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Assessment. Phase II is the installation of infrastructure and related structures, which leads to commencement of operations of the STC. The STC is located in the Boulder City designated 3,000-acre Eldorado Valley Energy Zone, approximately 15 miles southwest of downtown Boulder City and fronting on Eldorado Valley Drive. The 33-acre vacant parcel has been leased to the Nevada Test Site Development Corporation (NTSDC) by Boulder City to accommodate a planned facility that will be synergistic with present and planned energy projects in the Zone. The parcel will be developed by the UNLVRF. The NTSDC is the economic development arm of the UNLVRF. UNLVRF will be the entity responsible for overseeing the lease and the development project to assure compliance with the lease stipulations established by Boulder City. The STC will be operated and maintained by University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) and its Center for Energy Research (UNLV-CER). Land parcels in the Eldorado Valley Energy Zone near the 33-acre lease are committed to the construction and operation of an electrical grid connected solar energy production facility. Other projects supporting renewable and solar technologies have been developed within the energy zone, with several more developments in the horizon.

  7. Selective Road Hazard Message Dissemination Protocol for VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, M A; Sheila Anand

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a Selective Road Hazard Message Dissemination Protocol (SRHMDP) for delivering road hazard information to vehicles travelling on highways. Road hazards could include information relating to road blocks, tree fall, boulders on road and other obstacles. This paper proposes the use of Road Side Units (RSUs) and Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication to selectively deliver hazard information to vehicles travelling towards the hazard location. Vehicle encountering the hazard wi...

  8. Ionospheric data available on CD-ROM and on NDADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information is provided on two CD-ROMs (for PCs) with ionospheric data: the ionosonde CD issued by NGDC/WDC-A-STP/NOAA/Boulder and the Atmosphere Explorer CD produced by NSSDC/WDC-A-R and S/NASA/Greenbelt. We also briefly describe the ionospheric/thermospheric data available through NSSDC's automated mail retrieval system (NDADS) and explain the procedure for obtaining NDADS data. (author). 3 figs

  9. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    OpenAIRE

    Eglė Baltmiškytė; Kęstutis Dučinskas

    2013-01-01

    Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential) are built to estima...

  10. [Pion-nucleus interactions and nucleon transfer reactions primarily at LAMPF, TRIUMF, and IUCF]: Technical progress report, [October 1, 1986-October 1, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes work carried out between October 1, 1986 and October 1, 1987 in the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Department of Physics at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Other efforts in the laboratory, such as development of an R.F. cavity for an advanced hadron facility accelerator, beam pickoff devices, a buncher for the LAMPF proton beam, and the US-Brazil Cooperative Science Program are described

  11. Erosion of mountain plateaus along Sognefjord, Norway, constrained by cosmogenic nuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David Lundbek; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou;

    instead to a significant impact of glacial and periglacial erosion processes on the long-term development of the low-relief surfaces (Egholm et al. 2015). Here, we present a large new dataset of in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in bedrock and boulders from the high, flat summit surfaces along....... Earth Surface Dynamics 3(4), 463-482, 2015....

  12. New approaches for the management of bipolar disorder: role of sublingual asenapine in the treatment of mania

    OpenAIRE

    Warren CG; Dubovsky SL

    2013-01-01

    Calvert G Warren,1 Steven L Dubovsky1,21Department of Psychiatry, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA; 2Departments of Psychiatry and Medicine, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USAAbstract: Bipolar disorder is a prevalent disorder that tends to become progressive without treatment and with inadequate treatment. Second generation (atypical) antipsychotic drugs have increasingly been used as adjunctive treatment or monotherapy for mania, but they have the potential for...

  13. Cosmogenic 3He concentrations in ancient flood deposits from the Coombs Hills, northern Dry Valleys, East Antarctica: interpreting exposure ages and erosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison, H. R.; Phillips, W. M.; Stuart, F. M.; Sugden, D. E.

    2005-01-01

    In situ produced cosmogenic 3He analyses provide independent support for the model of a stable, hyper-arid polar climate persisting in East Antarctica since the mid-Miocene and provide quantitative constraints on long-term rates of erosion within the Dry Valleys. In the Coombs Hills area, a series of cobble-size boulders form mega-ripples with wavelengths of approximately 50 m. Their topographic position and association with features characteristic of scabland, such as stripped, corrugated bedrock surfaces, indicate the boulders were deposited by subglacial floodwaters. Such outburst flooding could only have occurred during overriding of the northern Dry Valleys by a greatly expanded East Antarctic ice sheet. Timing of the overriding episode has been previously assigned to 14.8 to 13.6 Ma by correlation with volcanic ash deposits dated by 40Ar/39Ar in the Asgard Range of the Dry Valleys. Cosmogenic 3He concentrations in clinopyroxene from Ferrar dolerite boulders are consistent with 8.6 to 10.4 Ma exposure, calculated using scaling factors appropriate for Antarctica and assuming zero erosion. These are among the oldest surface exposure dates yet measured on Earth, but are not however consistent with the 40Ar/39Ar chronology used to define the age of the landscape due to unconstrained levels of erosion. Erosion rates of 0.03-0.06 m Ma-1 are necessary to have produced the measured boulder exposure age if they were deposited at 14.8 Ma. These are less than half the steady-state erosion rate derived from cosmogenic 3He in the nearby bedrock surfaces (0.17 m Ma-1) and testify to the extreme stability of the landscape.

  14. School Choice Policies in the Political Spectacle

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Miller-Kahn; Mary Lee Smith

    2001-01-01

    This article presents research on school choice. It takes the case of a school district in Boulder, Colorado, through the decade of the 1990s and shows how interest groups took advantage of federal, state, and district policies meant to promote school choice and molded them into a system of schools that met individualistic interests rather than the common good. Extensive interviewing and analysis of documents and media reports served as sources of evidence. The authors argue that district off...

  15. Creating Thunder: The Western Rain-Making Process

    OpenAIRE

    Parkman, E. Breck

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines thunder, and its association with native Californian rain-making traditions. Although the discussion considers all of native California, it is focused primarily on the northern part of the state. Two related hypotheses are advanced herein. First, it is proposed that native Californian rain-makers accomplished their tasks by ritually creating one or more aspects of the storm (i.e., thunder, cloud, wind, or rain). Second, it is proposed that some pitted boulders represent pe...

  16. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  17. STRESS RISK FACTORS AND STRESS-RELATED PATHOLOGY: NEUROPLASTICITY, EPIGENETICS AND ENDOPHENOTYPES

    OpenAIRE

    Radley, Jason J.; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Jacobson, Lauren; Heydendael, Willem; Yehuda, Rachel; Herman, James P.

    2011-01-01

    This review highlights a symposium on stress risk factors and stress susceptibility, presented at the Neurobiology of Stress workshop in Boulder, Colorado, June 2010. This symposium addressed factors linking stress plasticity and reactivity to stress pathology in animal models and in humans. Dr. Jason Radley discussed studies demonstrating prefrontal cortical neuroplasticity and prefrontal control of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function in rat, highlighting emerging evidence for...

  18. Built Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsyth, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinclair, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The market currently encourages BWT deployment before the technology is ready for full-scale commercialization. To address this issue, industry stakeholders convened a Rooftop and Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the National Wind Technology Center, located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. This report summarizes the workshop.

  19. Processing at the Speed of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) are critical elements in optical processing systems used for imaging, displaying, data storage, communications, and other applications. By taking advantage of the natural properties of light beams, the devices process information at speeds unattainable by human operators and most machines, with high-resolution results.Boulder Nonlinear Systems, Inc., is one of the world s foremost SLM manufacturers. Applications of this technology are briefly described.

  20. Considerations for Informed Pursuit of Zero Waste: Lessons from Two Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Thangavelu, Jennifer Anne

    2013-01-01

    Starting in the early 2000s, a number of U.S. communities have adopted "zero waste" commitments to reduce waste as much as possible through recycling, composting, and other means. Little in-depth information exists about the impetus for or efficacy of these efforts. The author sought to build knowledge on the topic by conducting case studies of two communities: the zero waste efforts of Boulder, Colorado, and the Zero Waste Zones established in Atlanta. The two cases presented an interesting ...

  1. Modélisation par la méthode des éléments discrets d'impacts de blocs rocheux sur structures de protection type merlons

    OpenAIRE

    Plassiard, Jean-Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Reinforced embankments against rock fall impacts are empirically designed. The discrete element method is used to improve this type of constructions that suffers from failure and large deformation during an impact. Principal mechanical characteristics from the literature are used for a calibration phase with simulation of triaxial tests. After this, dynamic behaviour is calibrated by simulating boulder impacts on a layer of soil as fill. This model of soil is used to simulate impacts on an em...

  2. Three Corner Sat Constellation - Arizona State University; Management; Electrical Power System; Structures, Mechanisms, Thermal, and Radiation; Attitude / Orbit Determination and Control; ASU Micropropulsion Experiment; and Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Underhill, B.; Friedman, A.; Wong, J.; Reed, H.; Hansen, E; Colaprete, A.; Rodier, D.; Horan, S.; Anderson, B

    1999-01-01

    Part of the AFOSRlDARPAINASA GSFC University Nanosatellite Program, this project is a joint effort among Arizona State University (ASU), University of Colorado at Boulder (CU), and New Mexico State University (NMSU). Aptly named Three Comer Sat (3ASat), our proposed constellation of three identical nanosatellites will demonstrate stereo imaging, virtual formation operations, cellular-phone communications, and innovative command and data handling. In addition, each University has the opportuni...

  3. Geology and Otters

    OpenAIRE

    Yoxon P.

    2000-01-01

    Eight years research by IOSF into otter distribution on Skye has explored the relationship between geology and otter numbers to explain the differences in population density around the coast of Skye. 60% of the coastline was covered during this time. The Torridon sandstones support a higher density of otters than the Tertiary intrusives, because the sandstone is characterised by more freshwater pools, a gently sloping shoreline with a boulder intertidal zone and native woodland adjacent to th...

  4. Delivering and Incentivizing Data Management Education to Geoscience Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, S. L.; Johnson, A. M.; Hauser, T.

    2015-12-01

    Good data management practices are imperative for all researchers who want to ensure the usability of their research data. For geoscientists, this is particularly important due to the vast amount of data collected as part of field work, model studies, or other efforts. While many geoscientists want to ensure their data is appropriately maintained, they are generally not trained in good data management, which, realistically, has a much lower priority in the "publish or perish" cycle of research. Many scientists learn programming or advanced computational and data skills during the process of developing their research. With the amount of digital data being collected in the sciences increasing, and the interest federal funding agencies are taking in ensuring data collected is well maintained, there is pressure to quickly and properly educate and train geoscientists on its management. At the University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder), Research Data Services (RDS) has developed several educational and outreach activities centered at training researchers and students in ways to properly manage their data, including "boot camps", workshops, individual consultations, and seminars with topics of interest to the CU-Boulder community. Part of this effort is centered at incentivizing the researcher to learn these tools and practices despite their busy schedule. Much of this incentive has come through small grant competitions at the university level. The two competitions most relevant are a new "Best Digital Data Management Plan" competition, awarding unrestricted funds to the best plan submitted in each of five categories, and an added data management plan requirement to an existing faculty competition. This presentation will focus on examples of user outreach and educational opportunities given to researchers at CU-Boulder, incentives given to the researchers to participate, and assessment of the impact of these activities.

  5. Mineral and geochemical characterization of a leptic aluandic soil and a thapto aluandic-ferralsol developed on trachytes in Mount Bambouto (Cameroon volcanic line)

    OpenAIRE

    Tematio, P.; Fritsch, Emmanuel; Hodson, M E; LUCAS, Y.; Bitom, D.; Bilong, P.

    2009-01-01

    Mineral and geochemical investigations were carried out on soil samples and fresh rock (trachytes) from two selected soil profiles (TM profile on leptic aluandic soils and TL profile on thapto aluandic-ferralsols) from Mount Bambouto to better understand geochemical processes and mineral paragenesis involved in the development of soils in this environment. In TM profile, the hydrated halloysites and goethite occur in the weathered saprolite boulders of BC horizon while dehydrated halloysite, ...

  6. Experimental Program Final Technical Progress Report: 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Edward R. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO

    2014-09-12

    This is the final technical report of the grant DE-FG02-04ER41301 to the University of Colorado at Boulder entitled "Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics" and describes the results of our funded activities during the period 15 February 2007 to 30 September 2012. These activities were primarily carried out at Fermilab, RHIC, and the German lab DESY. Significant advances in these experiments were carried out by members of the Colorado group and are described in detail.

  7. Moving toward change: Institutionalizing reform through implementation of the Learning Assistant model and Open Source Tutorials

    OpenAIRE

    Renee Michelle Goertzen; Eric Brewe1,2; Laird H. Kramer; Leanne Wells1; David Jones

    2011-01-01

    Florida International University has undergone a reform in the introductory physics classes by focusing on the laboratory component of these classes. We present results from the secondary implementation of two research-based instructional strategies: the implementation of the Learning Assistant model as developed by the University of Colorado at Boulder and the Open Source Tutorial curriculum developed at the University of Maryland, College Park. We examine the results of the Force Concept In...

  8. A New U.S.-U.S.S.R. Seismological Program

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, J; Brune, J. N.; Bodin, P. A.; Gomberg, J. S.; Carrel, D. M.; K. F. Priestley; Chavez, D. E.; Walter, W. R.; Archambeau, C. B.; Cochran, T. B.; Nersesov, I. L.; Gokhberg, M. B.; Stolyrov, O. A.; Daragen, S. K.; Tarassov, N. D.

    1987-01-01

    On July 9, 1986, a team of researchers from the University of California, San Diego; University of Nevada, Reno; and the University of Colorado, Boulder established the first of three seismic stations to be located in the vicinity of the Soviet nuclear test site in eastern Kazakhstan (KTS) (see cover). Under an agreement reached between the Soviet Academy of Sciences and the Natural Resources Defense Council, a nonprofit U.S. environmental organization, these stations, which are configured to...

  9. Categories, morphological features, and slang in the graffiti of a United States Western University

    OpenAIRE

    Breva Claramonte, Manuel; García Alonso, José Ignacio

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we delineate some aspects of the language of graffiti from a corpus (250 pages) gathered in the Spring of 1991 at the Campus of the University of Colorado in Boulder. Our purpose is to examine the language of graffiti going beyond a simple grouping of inscriptions. This paper includes an outline of the social significance and categories of wall and desk top inscriptions. It covers the peculiar and idiosyncratic spellings observable in graffiti. It discusses abbre...

  10. Commissioning and first results of the ELI-beamlines LIDT test station

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kramer, Daniel; Barros, R.; Medřík, Tomáš; Hřebíček, Jan; Peceli, Davorin; Ďurák, Michal; Kozlová, Michaela; Rus, Bedřich

    Bellingham : SPIE, 2013 - (Exarhos, G.; Gruzdev, V.; Menapace, J.; Ristau, D.; Soileau, M.) ISBN 978-0-8194-9753-6. ISSN 0277-786X. - (Proceedings of SPIE. 8885). [Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials. Boulder (US), 22.09.2013-25.09.2013] Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diagnostics * lasers * sensors * particle beams * particles * electrons * silicon carbide Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  11. Police Department Personnel Stress Resilience Training: An Institutional Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weltman, Gershon; Lamon, Jonathan; Freedy, Elan; Chartrand, Donald

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to test the impact in law enforcement personnel of an innovative self-regulation and resilience building program delivered via an iPad (Apple Inc, Cupertino, California) app and personal mentoring. The Stress Resilience Training System (SRTS) app includes training on stress and its effects, HRV coherence biofeedback, a series of HeartMath self-regulation techniques (The Institute of HeartMath, Boulder Creek, California), and HRV-controlled games. The stres...

  12. 范思哲:奢华一生的传奇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓力源

    2008-01-01

    @@ She's known for her platinum blonde hair.her extravagant boulder-sized jewels.and her lavish parties-but above all else.she is known as the sister of maior Italian designer Gianni Versace.and reigning head of the Versace fashion empire.Donatella Versace has moved from the background to the limelight,flawlessly carwing on her older brother's legacy.

  13. Is it possible to quantify pebble abrasion and velocity in rivers using terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides ?

    OpenAIRE

    Carretier, Sébastien; Regard, V.

    2011-01-01

    Attrition rates and mean transport velocities of coarse fluvial sediments averaged over long periods of time (>> 100 a) are yet to be fully quantified. A knowledge of long-term transport rates would allow us to predict the response of fluvial systems to changes in external conditions, while determining clast attrition rates would improve our understanding of fluvial abrasion processes. The concentration of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCNs) in boulders can be modified during river transpo...

  14. Initial Results from the Experimental Measurement Campaign (XMC) for Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) Instrument Assessment (XPIA) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, W. A.; Choukulkar, A.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Lundquist, J.; Iungo, V.; Newsom, R.; Delgado, R.

    2016-06-01

    The Experimental Measurement Campaign (XMC) for Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) Instrument Assessment (XPIA) is a DOE funded study to develop and validate methods of making three dimensional measurements of wind fields. These techniques are of interest to study wind farm inflows and wake flows using remote sensing instrumentation. The portion of the experiment described in this presentation utilizes observations from multiple Doppler wind lidars, soundings, and an instrumented 300m tower, the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in Erie, Colorado.

  15. Initial Results from the Experimental Measurement Campaign (XMC for Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL Instrument Assessment (XPIA Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewer W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Experimental Measurement Campaign (XMC for Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL Instrument Assessment (XPIA is a DOE funded study to develop and validate methods of making three dimensional measurements of wind fields. These techniques are of interest to study wind farm inflows and wake flows using remote sensing instrumentation. The portion of the experiment described in this presentation utilizes observations from multiple Doppler wind lidars, soundings, and an instrumented 300m tower, the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO in Erie, Colorado.

  16. Fundamentals of LHC Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Experiments on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN represent our furthest excursion yet along the energy frontier of particle physics. The goal of probing physical processes at the TeV energy scale puts strict requirements on the performance of accelerator and experiment, dictating the awe-inspiring dimensions of both. These notes, based on a set of five lectures given at the 2010 Theoretical Advanced Studies Institute in Boulder, Colorado, not only review the physics considered as part of the ...

  17. First attempt to use a remotely operated vehicle to observe soniferous fish behavior in the Gulf of Maine, Western Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney A. ROUNTREE, Francis JUANES

    2010-01-01

    Underwater sound and video observations were made at noon, sunset, and midnight in sand, gravel, and boulder habitat in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, Gulf of Maine, USA in October 2001 using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Seventeen species of fish and squid were observed with clear habitat and time differences. Observations of feeding behavior, disturbance behavior, and both interspecific and intraspecific interactions provided numerous opportunities for potential sound p...

  18. Borehole core recovered from the Late Carboniferous to early Permian Fitzroy tillite and Port Sussex formations, Falkland Islands : geological background and sample details

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, P

    2011-01-01

    Within the Palaeozoic sedimentary succession of the Falkland Islands the Fitzroy Tillite Formation is the local representative of glacigenic strata deposited widely across Gondwana during Late Carboniferous glaciation. In West Falkland, a terrestrial lithofacies contains a wide range of erratic pebbles, cobbles and boulders; in East Falkland a glaciomarine diamictite contains fewer and generally smaller clasts from a more restricted lithological range. At the top of the East Falkland successi...

  19. The potential impact of changes in lower stratospheric water vapour on stratospheric temperatures over the past 30 years

    OpenAIRE

    Maycock, A. C.; Joshi, M. M.; Shine, K P; Davis, S M; Rosenlof, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the potential contribution of observed changes in lower stratospheric water vapour to stratospheric temperature variations over the past three decades using a comprehensive global climate model (GCM). Three case studies are considered. In the first, the net increase in stratospheric water vapour (SWV) from 1980–2010 (derived from the Boulder frost-point hygrometer record using the gross assumption that this is globally representative) is estimated to have cooled the lo...

  20. Vertical structure of stratospheric water vapour trends derived from merged satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    Hegglin, M. I.; D. A. Plummer; Shepherd, T. G.; Scinocca, J. F.; Anderson, J.; Froidevaux, L.; Funke, B.; Hurst, D; Rozanov, A.; Urban, J.; Von Clarmann, T.; Walker, K. A.; Wang, H. J.; Tegtmeier, S.; Weigel, K

    2014-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapour is a powerful greenhouse gas. The longest available record from balloon observations over Boulder, Colorado, USA shows increases in stratospheric water vapour concentrations that cannot be fully explained by observed changes in the main drivers, tropical tropopause temperatures and methane. Satellite observations could help resolve the issue, but constructing a reliable long-term data record from individual short satellite records is challenging. Here we present an ...

  1. Revision of the supposed Triassic, in fact Silurian genus Triadophyllum Weissermel, 1925 (Anthozoa, Rugosa)

    OpenAIRE

    D. Weyer

    2007-01-01

    The only existing type specimen of Triadophyllum posthumum Weissermel, 1925 is not a Middle Triassic (middle Anisian, Pelsonian) Scleractinia, but a Silurian Rugosa collected from a Pleistocene erratic boulder of Baltoscandian origin. First serial cross sections demonstrate a synonymy of Triadophyllum Weissermel, 1925 with the worldwide distributed ahermatypic genus Palaeocyathus Foerste, 1888 (including also Enterolasma Simpson, 1900) known from Llandoverian/Wenlockian – Eifelian times. The ...

  2. Optical coating on laser crystals for HiPER project

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehla, Jindřich; Pokorný, Pavel; Lazar, Josef

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2011, 81900Q:1-4. ISBN 978-0-8194-8823-7. [2011 Laser Damage - Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers /43./. Boulder (US), 18.09.2011-21.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN311610701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : interference coatings * thin layers * HiPER * laser crystals * fusion Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  3. Characterization of the Abydos region through OSIRIS high-resolution images in support of CIVA measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, A.; Cremonese, G.; Jorda, L.; Poulet, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Pajola, M.; La Forgia, F.; Massironi, M.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Oklay, N.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Keller, H. U.; Agarwal, J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Güttler, C.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Knollenberg, J.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Thomas, N.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2016-01-01

    Context. On 12 November 2014, the European mission Rosetta delivered the Philae lander on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). After the first touchdown, the lander bounced three times before finally landing at a site named Abydos. Aims: We provide a morphologically detailed analysis of the Abydos landing site to support Philae's measurements and to give context for the interpretation of the images coming from the Comet Infrared and Visible Analyser (CIVA) camera system onboard the lander. Methods: We used images acquired by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) on 6 December 2014 to perform the analysis of the Abydos landing site, which provided the geomorphological map, the gravitational slope map, the size-frequency distribution of the boulders. We also computed the albedo and spectral reddening maps. Results: The morphological analysis of the region could suggest that Philae is located on a primordial terrain. The Abydos site is surrounded by two layered and fractured outcrops and presents a 0.02 km2 talus deposit rich in boulders. The boulder size frequency distribution gives a cumulative power-law index of -4.0 + 0.3/-0.4, which is correlated with gravitational events triggered by sublimation and/or thermal fracturing causing regressive erosion. The average value of the albedo is 5.8% at λ1 = 480.7 nm and 7.4% at λ2 = 649.2 nm, which is similar to the global albedos derived by OSIRIS and CIVA, respectively.

  4. Extreme Sensitivity of the YORP Effect to Small-Scale Topography

    CERN Document Server

    Statler, Thomas S

    2009-01-01

    Radiation recoil (YORP) torques are shown to be extremely sensitive to small-scale surface topography. Starting from simulated objects representative of the near-Earth object population, random realizations of three types of small-scale topography are added: Gaussian surface fluctuations, craters, and boulders. For each, the resulting expected relative errors in the spin and obliquity components of the YORP torque are computed. Gaussian power produces errors of order 100% if observations constrain the surface to a spherical harmonic order l < 10. A single crater with diameter roughly half the object's mean radius, placed at random locations, results in errors of several tens of percent. Boulders create torque errors roughly 3 times larger than do craters of the same diameter. A single boulder comparable to Yoshinodai on 25143 Itokawa, moved by as little as twice its own diameter, can alter the magnitude of the torque by factors of several, and change the sign of its spin component at all obliquities. A YOR...

  5. Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, David M.; Abell, Paul A.; Asphaug, Erik; Abreu, Neyda M.; Bell, James F.; Bottke, William F.; Britt, Daniel T.; Campins, Humberto; Chodas, Paul W.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Fries, Marc D.; Gertsch, Leslie S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Hartzell, Christine M.; Hendrix, Amanda R.; Nuth, Joseph A.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Sercel, Joel C.; Takir, Driss; Zacny, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST) was a two-month effort, chartered by NASA, to provide timely inputs for mission requirement formulation in support of the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) Requirements Closure Technical Interchange Meeting held December 15-16, 2015, to assist in developing an initial list of potential mission investigations, and to provide input on potential hosted payloads and partnerships. The FAST explored several aspects of potential science benefits and knowledge gain from the ARM. Expertise from the science, engineering, and technology communities was represented in exploring lines of inquiry related to key characteristics of the ARRM reference target asteroid (2008 EV5) for engineering design purposes. Specific areas of interest included target origin, spatial distribution and size of boulders, surface geotechnical properties, boulder physical properties, and considerations for boulder handling, crew safety, and containment. In order to increase knowledge gain potential from the mission, opportunities for partnerships and accompanying payloads were also investigated. Potential investigations could be conducted to reduce mission risks and increase knowledge return in the areas of science, planetary defense, asteroid resources and in-situ resource utilization, and capability and technology demonstrations. This report represents the FASTâ€"TM"s final product for the ARM.

  6. "Know What to Do If You Encounter a Flash Flood": Mental Models Analysis for Improving Flash Flood Risk Communication and Public Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazrus, Heather; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how people view flash flood risks can help improve risk communication, ultimately improving outcomes. This article analyzes data from 26 mental models interviews about flash floods with members of the public in Boulder, Colorado, to understand their perspectives on flash flood risks and mitigation. The analysis includes a comparison between public and professional perspectives by referencing a companion mental models study of Boulder-area professionals. A mental models approach can help to diagnose what people already know about flash flood risks and responses, as well as any critical gaps in their knowledge that might be addressed through improved risk communication. A few public interviewees mentioned most of the key concepts discussed by professionals as important for flash flood warning decision making. However, most interviewees exhibited some incomplete understandings and misconceptions about aspects of flash flood development and exposure, effects, or mitigation that may lead to ineffective warning decisions when a flash flood threatens. These include important misunderstandings about the rapid evolution of flash floods, the speed of water in flash floods, the locations and times that pose the greatest flash flood risk in Boulder, the value of situational awareness and environmental cues, and the most appropriate responses when a flash flood threatens. The findings point to recommendations for ways to improve risk communication, over the long term and when an event threatens, to help people quickly recognize and understand threats, obtain needed information, and make informed decisions in complex, rapidly evolving extreme weather events such as flash floods. PMID:26369521

  7. Mechanic of Granular Materials (MGM) Investigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Key persornel in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment are Mark Lankton (Program Manager at University Colorado at Boulder), Susan Batiste (research assistance, UCB), and Stein Sture (principal investigator). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  8. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Sourcing the megalithic stones of Nan Madol : an XRF study of architectural basalt stone from Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan Madol is a massive 81 hectare prehistoric administrative and ceremonial complex made up of 93 constructed islets on the high volcanic island of Pohnpei. Built between Ad 900 and 1650 over earlier settlement remains along the southern coast of Temwen Island within the fringing reef, the site is noted for its distinctive use of columnar basalt and large boulders. XRF analysis presented here suggests the site's builders favoured columnar basalt from the island's main shield building stage (7-8 mya) over post-shield material. Boulders incorporated in the architecture are primarily from post-shield stage Temwen Island but supplemented by some main shield boulders from mainland Pohnpei. Preliminary findings further suggest that there were shifts in the relative frequency of quarries used to construct different structures. These shifts could relate to exhaustion of accessible stone from specific sources or perhaps changing preferences for stone from different sources due to social or political imperatives. (author). 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Long-term shoreline retreat rates on Whidbey Island, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Heather E.; Swanson, Terry W.; Stone, John O.

    2012-09-01

    Long-term retreat rates of Puget Sound's unconsolidated sediment shorelines have been difficult to quantify, and little systematic research has been completed to constrain retreat in this area. We put forward a new application of cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating to assess long-term shoreline retreat on Whidbey Island, WA by dating lag boulders exposed on the shore platform as the shoreline erodes. Production of 10Be in shoreline boulders is modulated by both tidal submergence and topographic shielding from the retreating bluff. By modeling the combined effect of these variables on 10Be production, the timing of exposure can be determined and used to calculate long-term (103-104 yr) bluff retreat rates. In rare cases, retreat rates are underestimated due to inherited 10Be. Within the study area, average retreat rates ranged between 0 and 8 cm yr- 1. Our results demonstrate the utility of cosmogenic nuclides for determining long-term shoreline retreat rates in areas with thick sediment cover, where large numbers of samples can be collected, and where the pre-depositional history of the boulders is uncomplicated.

  11. Possible occultation by Pluto from US East Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2012-06-01

    We have been asked to help disseminate the news of a possible occultation by Pluto visible to observers on the US East coast. Although the AAVSO does not ordinarily issue announcements of upcoming occultations, in this case the object is Pluto and the NASA New Horizons mission (http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/newhorizons/main/index.html) will be visiting Pluto in 2015. The information below has been supplied by Dr. Leslie Young (Southwest Research Institute), who is coordinating this observing campaign on Pluto. Dr. Young is also Deputy Project Scientist for the New Horizons mission. ALERT: Possible Pluto occultation Wednesday night (2012/06/14 03:28 UT) from US East coast. CONTACT: Leslie Young (layoung@boulder.swri.edu; work: 303-546-6057; skype: drpluto). Also see our planning pages in progress at http://wiki.boulder.swri.edu/mediawiki/index.php/2012-06-14_Pluto_occultation. Pluto's thin, nitrogen atmosphere is in vapor-pressure equilibrium with the surface ice, and changes seasonally. We've seen it double since 1988, and now we measure its pressure once or twice a year. The technique we use is stellar occultation, when a star passes behind Pluto's atmosphere. The atmosphere defocuses the starlight. By the timing of the fading of the star, we measure the pressure and temperature in Pluto's atmosphere at ~10 km resolution. MORE INFORMATION: See http://wiki.boulder.swri.edu/mediawiki/index.php/2012-06-14_Pluto_occultation.

  12. Fish endocrine disruption responses to a major wastewater treatment facility upgrade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B; Vajda, Alan M; Douville, Chris; Norris, David O; Writer, Jeffery H

    2012-02-21

    The urban-water cycle modifies natural stream hydrology, and domestic and commercial activities increase the burden of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol, that can disrupt endocrine system function in aquatic organisms. This paper presents a series of integrated chemical and biological investigations into the occurrence, fate, and effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the City of Boulder Colorado's WWTF and Boulder Creek, the receiving stream. Results are presented showing the effects of a full-scale upgrade of the WWTF (that treats 0.6 m(3) s(-1) of sewage) from a trickling filter/solids contact process to an activated sludge process on the removal of endocrine-disrupting compounds and other contaminants (including nutrients, boron, bismuth, gadolinium, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) through each major treatment unit. Corresponding impacts of pre- and postupgrade effluent chemistry on fish reproductive end points were evaluated using on-site, continuous-flow experiments, in which male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 28 days to upstream Boulder Creek water and WWTF effluent under controlled conditions. The upgrade of the WWTF resulted in improved removal efficiency for many endocrine-disrupting chemicals, particularly 17β-estradiol and estrone, and fish exposed to the postupgrade effluent indicated reduction in endocrine disruption relative to preupgrade conditions. PMID:22300164

  13. Energy dissipation of rockfalls by coppice structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciabocco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop elements to improve understanding of the behaviour of a coppice in relation to the phenomenon of falling boulders. The first section proposes an amendment to the equation for calculating the index which describes the probability of impact between a rock and plants in managed coppice forests. A study was carried out, using models to calculate the kinetic energy of a falling boulder along a slope considering the kinetic energy dissipated during the impact with the structure of forest plants managed by coppice. The output of the simulation models were then compared with the real dynamics of falling boulders in field tests using digital video.

    It emerged from an analysis of the results of this comparison that a modification to the 1989 Gsteiger equation was required, in order to calculate the "Average Distance between Contacts" (ADC. To this purpose, the concept of "Structure of Interception", proposed in this paper, was developed, valid as a first approach for describing the differences in the spatial distribution of stems between coppice and forest. This study also aims to provide suggestions for forestry management, in order to maintain or increase the protective capacity of a coppice managed with conventional techniques for the area studied, modifying the dendrometric characteristics.

  14. Preliminary Results of Tectonic Geomorphology Investigation of the Northern Cyprus coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Cengiz; Tüysüz, Okan; Melnick, Daniel; Damla Altınbaş, Cevza; Zeynel Öztürk, Muhammed; Oruç Baykara, Mehmet; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-04-01

    Cyprus, an island located in the Eastern Mediterranean region, is a part of subduction zone that defines the plate boundary at the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau. The presence of uplifted marine terraces, wave-cut notches, surface ruptures and tsunami deposits are pieces of evidence of subduction related active deformation in the northern part of the island. To understand timing, mode and rate of deformation, we conducted high-resolution geomorphic mapping of marine terraces and levelling of wave-cut notches by using drone and DGPS. Tsunami boulders and boulder trains reaching up to 5-6 meters were discovered and surface rupture of an earthquake strechting from offshore to onshore was mapped for the first time with this study. Coral fossils were collected from marine terraces and tsunami boulders for age determinations by U-Th and 14C dating techniques, respectively. U-Th dating results indicate 144±12 (2s) ka for the MIS5e terrace at 40 m above sea level and 14C ages show the late Holocene (<4.5 ka) coseismic deformation. Here we will present tectonic implicatios from temporal and spatial distribution of marine terraces and wave-cut notches along the northern Cyprus. This study is supported by the Istanbul Technical University Research Found (Project no: 37548).

  15. Linear Covariance Analysis For Proximity Operations Around Asteroid 2008 EV5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cinnamon A.; Bhatt, Sagar; Woffinden, David; Strube, Matthew; D'Souza, Christopher; DeWeese, Keith

    2015-01-01

    The NASA initiative to collect an asteroid the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) is currently investigating the option of retrieving a boulder off an asteroid, demonstrating planetary defense with an enhanced gravity tractor technique and returning it to a lunar orbit. Techniques for accomplishing this are being investigated by the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSOO) and NASA GSFC in colloboration with JPL, NASA, JSC, LaRC, and Draper Laboratories Inc. Two critical phases of the mission are the descent to the boulder and the Enhanced Gravity Tractor-enhanced gravity tractor demonstration. A linear covariance analysis was done for these phases to assess the feasibility of these concepts with the proposed design of the sensor and actuaor suite of the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). The sensor suite for this analysis will include a wide field of view camera, Lidar, and a MMU. The proposed asteroid of interest is currently the C-type asteroid 2008 EV5, a carbonaceous chondrite that is of high interest to the scientific community. This paper will present an overview of the analysis discuss sensor and actuator models and address the feasibility of descending to the boulder within the requirements as the feasibility of maintaining the halo orbit in order to demonstrate the Enhanced Gravity Tractor-enhanced gravity tractory technique.

  16. Radon and helium surveys of the Midwest and McClean uranium deposit environments, northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1980 and 1981 field seasons a number of geochemical surveys were carried out over the Midwest and McClean U deposits, Athabasca-Wollaston area, northern Saskatchewan. The studies on the dispersion of Rn, He and other trace elements over the deposits were carried out as part of an integrated multidisciplinary pilot project involving the NEA/IAEA, Geological Survey of Canada, Sasakatchewan Geological Survey, Saskatchewan Research Council and private industry. The main thrust of the He-Rn investigations was directed at soil gases and ground waters. The main ore zones of both deposits lie nearly 200 m below the surface. The Midwest deposit is characterized by surficial radioactive boulders containing U and Ni minerals at ore grade. This boulder train is displaced from the deposit in the direction of glaciation but is well defined and gives rise to sharp Rn anomalies in soil gases. The weathering of these boulders has been postulated as the source of the regional geochemical anomaly of South McMahon Lake (better known as ''Midwest Lake'') under which the main ore zone lies. No such geological and geochemical features exist at McClean Lake

  17. On the formation of compact planetary systems via concurrent core accretion and migration

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, Gavin A L

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of planet formation N-body simulations based on a comprehensive physical model that includes planetary mass growth through mutual embryo collisions and planetesimal/boulder accretion, viscous disc evolution, planetary migration and gas accretion onto planetary cores. The main aim of this study is to determine which set of model parameters leads to the formation of planetary systems that are similar to the compact low mass multi-planet systems that have been discovered by radial velocity surveys and the Kepler mission. We vary the initial disc mass, solids-to-gas ratio and the sizes of the boulders/planetesimals, and for a restricted volume of the parameter space we find that compact systems containing terrestrial planets, super-Earths and Neptune-like bodies arise as natural outcomes of the simulations. Disc models with low values of the solids-to-gas ratio can only form short-period super-Earths and Neptunes when small planetesimals/boulders provide the main source of accretion, since ...

  18. In-situ stressing of rock: Observation of Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) magnetic signals and ion emissions detected prior to failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleier, T. E.; Freund, F. T.; Dahlgren, R.; Dunson, C.

    2009-12-01

    Blocks of igneous rocks such as anorthosite and granite, subjected at one end to uniaxial stress in the laboratory, have been shown to emit infrared (IR) light, electrical currents, magnetic disturbances, and air ions (Freund, F. T. et al, JASTP, 71, 2009). Field experiments are performed by slowly applying stress to a large boulder of about 7 t of weathered granite in the Sierra Nevada foothills near Bass Lake, Ca. In situ monitoring of the induced signals is performed by a QuakeFinder QF-1005 two-axis induction magnetometer (QuakeFinder QF-1005), a pair of air ion counters (Alpha Lab AIC), and a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer (Bruker EM27). The boulder is prepared by drilling four 5 cm diameter holes into the rock 100 cm deep, in a linear array along the centerline of the boulder. Any debris and water are blown out of the boreholes with compressed air, and the rock is given time to dry and relax from drilling-induced stresses. The holes are then filled with a grout that expands upon curing, creating an exponentially increasing radial pressure of up to 5 x 10^3 t/m2. The magnetometers are placed within 0.3 m from the base, on the north and south sides of the boulder, and record signals at 50 sps. The Ion counters are positioned about 1m apart, 10cm above the boulder, and recorded at 50 sps on a max scale of 2000 x 10^6 ions/cc/sec. The spectrometer is equipped with a 20 cm reflective telescope and collects the IR emission from a safe distance at a rate of one 4-16 µm spectrum every 30 sec. After recording baseline data, the grout is mixed with water and poured into the holes and all signals are monitored continuously until the experiment is terminated after rock failure. The magnetometer and ion data show significant pre-fracture activity when compared to the pre-stressed, quiescent state. These signals are then compared with field measurements taken 2 km from the Oct. 30, 2007 M5.4 Alum Rock, Ca. earthquake (Bleier, T.E, et al, NHESS, 9, 1

  19. U-Series Disequilibria in Soils, Pena Blanca Natural Analog, Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nopal I uranium deposit located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico. The deposit was mined in the early 1980s, and ore was stockpiled close by. This stockpile area was cleared and is now referred to as the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). Some of the high-grade boulders from the site rolled downhill when it was cleared in the 1990s. For this study soil samples were collected from the alluvium surrounding and underlying one of these boulders. A bulk sample of the boulder was also collected. Because the Prior High Grade Stockpile had no ore prior to the 1980s a maximum residence time for the boulder is about 25 years, this also means that the soil was at background as well. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radionuclides from ore to the soil. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected include 210Pb, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, 214Pb, and 214Bi. Peak areas for each isotope are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Canberra Ge (Li) detector and GENIE 2000 software. The boulder sample is close to secular equilibrium when compared to the standard BL-5 (Beaver Lodge Uraninite from Canada). Results for the soils, however, indicate that some daughter/parent pairs are in secular disequilibrium. These daughter/parent (D/P) ratios include 230Th/234U, which is greater than unity, 226Ra/230Th, which is also greater than unity, and 210Pb/214Bi, which is less than unity. The gamma-ray spectrum for organic material lacks 230Th peaks, but contains 234U and 226Ra, indicating that plants preferentially incorporate 226Ra. Our results, combined with previous studies require multistage history of mobilization of the uranium series radionuclides. Earlier studies at the ore zone could limit the time span for mobilization only to a few thousand years. The contribution of this study is that the short residence time of the

  20. U-Sries Disequilibra in Soils, Pena Blanca Natural Analog, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. French; E. Anthony; P. Goodell

    2006-03-16

    The Nopal I uranium deposit located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico. The deposit was mined in the early 1980s, and ore was stockpiled close by. This stockpile area was cleared and is now referred to as the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). Some of the high-grade boulders from the site rolled downhill when it was cleared in the 1990s. For this study soil samples were collected from the alluvium surrounding and underlying one of these boulders. A bulk sample of the boulder was also collected. Because the Prior High Grade Stockpile had no ore prior to the 1980s a maximum residence time for the boulder is about 25 years, this also means that the soil was at background as well. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radionuclides from ore to the soil. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected include {sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, and {sup 214}Bi. Peak areas for each isotope are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy with a Canberra Ge (Li) detector and GENIE 2000 software. The boulder sample is close to secular equilibrium when compared to the standard BL-5 (Beaver Lodge Uraninite from Canada). Results for the soils, however, indicate that some daughter/parent pairs are in secular disequilibrium. These daughter/parent (D/P) ratios include {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U, which is greater than unity, {sup 226}Ra/{sup 230}Th, which is also greater than unity, and {sup 210}Pb/{sup 214}Bi, which is less than unity. The gamma-ray spectrum for organic material lacks {sup 230}Th peaks, but contains {sup 234}U and {sup 226}Ra, indicating that plants preferentially incorporate {sup 226}Ra. Our results, combined with previous studies require multistage history of mobilization of the uranium series radionuclides. Earlier studies at the ore zone could limit the time span for mobilization only

  1. Transient thermal envelope for rovers and sample collecting devices on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, P. B.; Parzinger, S.; Haarmann, R.; Walter, U.

    2015-03-01

    The requirements for the design of rovers and sample collecting devices for the Moon are driven by the harsh and diverse thermal lunar environment. Local lunar surface temperatures are governed by boulders and craters. The present work quantifies the changes in solar and infrared heat fluxes q˙Sol and q˙IR impinging on a rover or a sample collecting device, on the surface of the Moon, by combining lunar surface models, spacecraft and manipulator models, and transient thermal calculations. The interaction between a rover, boulders, and craters was simulated for three solar elevation angles (θ = 2°, 10°, and 90°), resembling lunar surface temperatures of Treg = 170, 248, and 392 K, respectively. Infrared and solar heat fluxes for paths in the vicinity of a single boulder, a field of five boulders, and a single crater were compared to a path on an unobstructed surface. The same heat fluxes were applied to closed and open sample collecting devices to investigate the temperature development of the transported regolith sample. The results show how total received infrared heat on a rover may increase by up to 331%, over the course of a transit in front of sunlit boulders compared to the same transit over an unobstructed plane. Temporary this leads to a 12-fold increased infrared heat flux at closest distance to the obstacle. A transit through a small bowl shaped crater on the other hand may decrease total received solar heat by as much as 86%. Relative as well as absolute influence of surface features on received heat fluxes increases significantly towards smaller solar elevation angles. The temperature of pristine samples, transported in closed or open sample collecting devices, increase from 120 to 150 K within 1 to 1.3 h if exposed to direct solar illumination and infrared heat. Protection from solar illumination yields in 8-fold and 5-fold increased transport times for closed and open sample devices, respectively. Closed sample transporters dampen short exposure

  2. Holocene history of North Ice Cap, northwestern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, L. B.; Kelly, M. A.; Osterberg, E. C.; Axford, Y.; Bigl, M.; Roy, E. P.; Thompson, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    Although much research has focused on the past extents of the Greenland Ice Sheet, less is known about the smaller ice caps on Greenland and how they have evolved over time. These small ice caps respond sensitively to summer temperatures and, to a lesser extent, winter precipitation, and provide valuable information about climatic conditions along the Greenland Ice Sheet margins. Here, we investigate the Holocene history of North Ice Cap (76°55'N 68°00'W), located in the Nunatarssuaq region near Thule, northwest Greenland. Our results are based on glacial geomorphic mapping, 10Be dating, and analyses of sediment cores from a glacially fed lake. Fresh, unweathered and unvegetated boulders comprise moraines and drift that mark an extent of North Ice Cap ~25 m outboard of the present ice margin. It is likely that these deposits were formed during late Holocene time and we are currently employing 10Be surface exposure dating to examine this hypothesis. Just outboard of the fresh moraines and drift, boulders and bedrock show significant weathering and are covered with lichen. Based on glacial geomorphic mapping and detailed site investigations, including stone counts, we suggest that the weathered boulders and bedrock were once covered by erosive Greenland Ice Sheet flow from southeast to northwest over the Nunatarssuaq region. Five 10Be ages from the more weathered landscape only 100-200 m outboard of the modern North Ice Cap margin are 52 and 53 ka (bedrock) and 16, 23, and 31 ka (boulders). These ages indicate that recent ice cover has likely been cold-based and non-erosive, failing to remove inherited cosmogenic nuclides from previous periods of exposure, although the youngest boulder may provide a maximum limiting deglaciation age. Sediment cores collected from Delta Sø, a glacially-fed lake ~1.5 km outside of the modern North Ice Cap margin, contain 130 cm of finely laminated sediments overlying coarse sands and glacial till. Radiocarbon ages from just above

  3. Consideration of geomorphological uncertainties with terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND): combining Schmidt-hammer and 10Be dating, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    As the importance of glaciers as key indicators of global change has increased during recent years, investigating Holocene glaciers chronologies has gained higher attention accordingly. One reason is the need for a better understanding of the climate - glacier relationship. Comparative studies play a major role in this field of research owing to the natural diversity of glacier behaviour. Detailed Holocene glacier chronologies are, furthermore, necessary to verify and eventually adjust glacier models indispensable for many attempts to predict future glacier changes. The Southern Alps of New Zealand are one of the few key study areas on the Southern Hemisphere where, in general, evidence is still sparse compared to its Northern counterpart. Improvement and reassessment of the Late Holocene glacier chronology in this region is, therefore, an important goal of current research. Recently, terrestrial (in situ) cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating has been increasingly applied to Holocene moraines in New Zealand and elsewhere. In the context of numerical ("absolute") dating techniques, terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND) seems to have been established as an alternative to the previously dominating radiocarbon (14C) dating of organic material (plant remains, organic-rich soil layers etc.) buried beneath or within moraines. Precision and time resolution achieved by the newest laboratory standards and procedures (Schaefer et al. 2009) is truly a milestone and will promote future attempts of TCND in any comparable context. Maybe, TCND has the potential to at least partially replace radiocarbon (14C) dating in its dominating role for the "absolute" dating of Holocene glacial deposits. By contrast, field sampling for TCND often lacks appropriate consideration of geomorphological uncertainties. Whereas much effort is made with the high precision results achieved in the laboratory, the choice of boulders sampled on Holocene moraines is often purely made

  4. Taking Advantage of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) Popularity to Enhance Student/Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    For a student group on campus, "the public" can refer to other students on campus or citizens from the community (including children, parents, teenagers, professionals, tradespeople, older people, and others). All of these groups have something to offer that can enrich the experiences of a student group. Our group focuses on science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in K-12 schools, university courses, and outreach activities with the general public. We will discuss the experiences of "All Things STEM" on the University of Colorado-Boulder campus and outreach in Boulder and Weld County, CO. Our experiences include (1) tours and events that offer an opportunity for student/public interaction, (2) grant requests and projects that involve community outreach, and (3) organizing conferences and events with campus/public engagement. Since our group is STEM-oriented, tours of water treatment plants, recycling centers, and science museums are a great way to create connections. Our most successful campus/public tour is our annual tour of the Valmont Station coal power plant near Boulder. We solicit students from all over campus and Boulder public groups with the goal to form a diverse and intimate 8 person group (students, school teachers, mechanics, hotel managers, etc.) that takes a 1.5 hr tour of the plant guided by the Chief Engineer. This includes a 20 minute sit-down discussion of anything the group wants to talk about including energy policy, plant history, recent failures, coal versus other fuels, and environmental issues. The tour concludes with each member placing a welding shield over their face and looking at the flames in the middle of the boiler, a little excitement that adds to the connections the group forms with each other. We have received over 11,000 to work with local K-12 schools and CU-Boulder undergraduate and graduate classes to develop a platform to help students learn and explain water quality concepts in a more practical manner

  5. Topographic measurement on Uranium mineralization area Jumbang I sector West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Jumbang I river area and around has been found the U mineralization as outcrops and boulders. This U mineralization commonly north west-south east direction with radiometry 10,000 - 15,000 c/s. Topographic measurement activity in this area to be done decide topography expression and location of U mineralization outcrops and boulders and significant geographic phenomenon in the base map. The method in this activity are closely polygon measurement, fasted open polygon and situation with systematic method (10 x 20 m) . The result of topography map, scale 1 : 1,000, wide 0.6 km2, bounded by coordinate in the northern X=21,693.467, Y=24,767.322, in the southern X=22,100.036, Y=23,693.521, in the eastern X=22,347.301, Y=24,173.263, and in the western X=21,380.144, Y=23,430.213. Measured elevation rotation from the lowest 385 m in coordinate X=22,160.299, Y=23,780.038 in the down stream of Jumbang I, river and the highest 705 m at coordinate X=21,387.413, Y=24,320.516 in the northern hill. Work area is the slope of hill with north west-south east direction, angle of slope 22 - 125 % or step to very steep hill category. On a geographic, outcrops and radioactive boulders situated in the river valley and slope of hill at elevation 425 m to 500 m in the south western Jumbang I river and 430 m-525 m in the northeastern Jumbang I river, follow the contour pattern which north west - south east direction, so can interpreted U mineralization (favourable zone) commonly as steep - very steep slope which parallel to the hill or Jumbang I river (north west -south east)

  6. The Importance of Ammonia for Winter Haze Formation in Two Oil and Gas Production Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, J. L., Jr.; Li, Y.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Sullivan, A.; Day, D.; Archuleta, C.; Tigges, M.; Sewell, H. J.; Prenni, A. J.; Schichtel, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Fine particle ammonium nitrate formation results from the atmospheric reaction of gaseous ammonia and nitric acid. This reaction is most important in winter when low temperatures thermodynamically enhance particle formation. Nitrogen oxides emissions from oil and gas operations partially react in the atmosphere to form nitric acid. The availability of atmospheric ammonia plays an important role in determining whether the nitric acid formed results in wintertime ammonium nitrate formation. Here we contrast situations in two important U.S. oil and gas production regions. Measurements of ammonia, nitric acid, ammonium nitrate and other species were made from 2007 to present near Boulder, Wyoming and in winters 2013 and 2014 in western North Dakota. The Boulder, Wyoming site is close to the large Jonah and Pinedale Anticline gas fields. Field sites at the north unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park and Fort Union are situated in the large Bakken Formation oil and gas production region. Wintertime formation of nitric acid and ammonium nitrate, together comprising nitrogen in the +5 oxidation state (N(V)), was observed in both locations. Concentrations of N(V), however, are generally much lower at Boulder, WY than in the Bakken. An even bigger difference is seen in fine particle ammonium nitrate concentrations; limited regional ammonia is available in western Wyoming to react with nitric acid, leaving a portion of the nitric acid trapped in the gas phase. Higher concentrations of ammonia are observed in the Bakken where they support formation of much higher concentrations of ammonium nitrate. Comparison of these two regions clearly indicates the importance of understanding both local NOx emissions and regional concentrations of ammonia in predicting source impacts on formation of fine particles and haze.

  7. Bulk velocity measurements by video analysis of dye tracer in a macro-rough channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steep mountain rivers have hydraulic and morphodynamic characteristics that hinder velocity measurements. The high spatial variability of hydraulic parameters, such as water depth (WD), river width and flow velocity, makes the choice of a representative cross-section to measure the velocity in detail challenging. Additionally, sediment transport and rapidly changing bed morphology exclude the utilization of standard and often intrusive velocity measurement techniques. The limited technical choices are further reduced in the presence of macro-roughness elements, such as large, relatively immobile boulders. Tracer tracking techniques are among the few reliable methods that can be used under these conditions to evaluate the mean flow velocity. However, most tracer tracking techniques calculate bulk flow velocities between two or more fixed cross-sections. In the presence of intense sediment transport resulting in an important temporal variability of the bed morphology, dead water zones may appear in the few selected measurement sections. Thus a technique based on the analysis of an entire channel reach is needed in this study. A dye tracer measurement technique in which a single camcorder visualizes a long flume reach is described and developed. This allows us to overcome the problem of the presence of dead water zones. To validate this video analysis technique, velocity measurements were carried out on a laboratory flume simulating a torrent, with a relatively gentle slope of 1.97% and without sediment transport, using several commonly used velocity measurement instruments. In the absence of boulders, salt injections, WD and ultrasonic velocity profiler measurements were carried out, along with dye injection technique. When boulders were present, dye tracer technique was validated only by comparison with salt tracer. Several video analysis techniques used to infer velocities were developed and compared, showing that dye tracking is a valid technique for bulk velocity

  8. Logistical Support for the Installation of the Plate Boundary Observatory GPS and Borehole Strainmeter Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnik, C.; Austin, K.; Coyle, B.; Dittmann, T.; Feaux, K.; Friesen, B.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Pauk, B.; Walls, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, is designed to study the three- dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. To meet these goals, UNAVCO will install 880 continuous GPS stations, 103 borehole strainmeter stations, 28 tiltmeters, and five laser strainmeters by October 2008. Such a broad network presents significant logisitical challenges, including moving supplies, equipment, and personnel around 6 million square kilometers, and this requires accurate tracking and careful planning. The PBO logistics chain includes the PBO headquarters at UNAVCO in Boulder, Colorado and five regional offices in the continental United States and Alaska, served by dozens of suppliers spread across the globe. These offices are responsible for building and maintaining sites in their region. Most equipment and supplies first arrive in Boulder, where they are tagged and entered into a UNAVCO-wide equipment database, assembled and quality checked as necessary, and sent on to the appropriate regional office. Larger items which are costly to store and ship from Boulder, such as batteries or long sections of stainless steel pipe and bar required for monuments, are shipped directly from the supplier to each region as needed. These supplies and equipment are also tracked through the ordering, delivery, installation, and maintenance cycle via Earned Value Management techniques which allow us to meet NSF and other Federal procurement rules. Early prototypes and assembly configurations aid the development of material and supply budgets. A thorough understanding of Federal procurement rules at project start up is critical as the project moves forward.

  9. Field measurements confirm that hillslope sediment size varies with elevation and geomorphic process regime at Inyo Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetti, J. R.; Sklar, L. S.; Leclere, S.

    2015-12-01

    Correlating the spatial variation of hillslope sediment grain size with geomorphic process regimes is essential for understanding feedbacks between sediment production on hillslopes and channel processes. At our field site at Inyo Creek, California, an elevation gradient in the size of sediment produced on hillslopes has been quantified using cosmogenic nuclides and detrital thermochronometry with samples collected at the outlet. Here we report field measurements of surface sediment size from hillslopes within the catchment, which validate those findings. Specifically, we use multiple field methods to measure hillslope grain size distributions, and correlate size variations with geomorphic process regimes across an elevation gradient. We select sampling sites from maps of predicted grain size created by overlaying landscape attributes in GIS to delineate geomorphic landscape units (GLUs). Geomorphic process regimes include bare bedrock, angle of repose slopes of talus, landslide deposits and soil mantled convex hillslopes. We use tape transects and point counts to quantify size distributions of regolith covered slopes. We also analyze photographs using The Digital Grain Size Project software, and for sediments too small to be resolved in photos we collect bulk samples for sieve analysis in the lab. To measure joint spacing, and infer the initial size distribution of rock fragments produced by bare bedrock, we use combine photographs with measurements made with tape transects, and aerial photographs for inaccessible areas. Our findings indicate that higher elevation slopes do indeed supply coarser sediment. Lower elevations have bimodal size distributions composed of sand with scattered boulders, while at higher elevations, slopes are composed a unimodal distribution of gravel, cobbles, and boulders. While boulder density does not vary significantly with elevation, we find a highly significant linear increase in the fraction of gravel and cobble-sized particles with

  10. Fragment shapes in impact experiments ranging from cratering to catastrophic disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michikami, Tatsuhiro; Hagermann, Axel; Kadokawa, Tokiyuki; Yoshida, Akifumi; Shimada, Akira; Hasegawa, Sunao; Tsuchiyama, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory impact experiments have found that impact fragments tend to be elongated. Their shapes, as defined by axes a, b and c, these being the maximum dimensions of the fragment in three mutually orthogonal planes (a ⩾ b ⩾ c), are distributed around mean values of the axial ratios b/a ∼ 0.7 and c/a ∼ 0.5. This corresponds to a:b:c in the simple proportion 2:√2:1. The shape distributions of some boulders on Asteroid Eros, the small- and fast-rotating asteroids (diameter <200 m and rotation period <1 h), and asteroids in young families, are similar to those of laboratory fragments created in catastrophic disruptions. Catastrophic disruption is, however, a process that is different from impact cratering. In order to systematically investigate the shapes of fragments in the range from impact cratering to catastrophic disruption, impact experiments for basalt targets 5-15 cm in size were performed. A total of 28 impact experiments were carried out by firing a spherical nylon projectile (diameter 7.14 mm) perpendicularly into the target surface at velocities of 1.60-7.13 km/s. More than 12,700 fragments with b ⩾ 4 mm generated in the impact experiments were measured. We found that the mean value of c/a in each impact decreases with decreasing impact energy per unit target mass. For instance, the mean value of c/a in an impact cratering event is nearly 0.2, which is considerably smaller than c/a in a catastrophic disruption (∼0.5). The data presented here can provide important evidence to interpret the shapes of asteroids and boulders on asteroid surfaces, and can constrain current interpretations of asteroid formation. As an example, by applying our experimental results to the boulder shapes on Asteroid Itokawa's surface, we can infer that Itokawa's parent body must have experienced a catastrophic disruption.

  11. Lunar Crater Interiors with High Circular Polarization Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, C. M.; Campbell, B. A.; Morgan, G.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed 12.6-cm Earth-based radar images of the Moon to search for older craters (pre-Copernican) that display high values of the circular polarization ratio (CPR) on their interior walls. These craters have highly eroded rims and ejecta, indicating that there must be a source exposed within the crater interior that is continuously creating a rougher surface. Of particular interest are craters between 10-25 km in diameter that occur in smooth plains in the highlands, where competent layers are not expected as they are for the mare. After identifying these high-CPR interiors in pre-Copernican craters, we studied LROC NAC and Kaguya TC images to search for possible albedo and layering on crater interior walls that might signal the presence of anomalous material. Our results indicate that high-CPR craters generally have boulder fields clustered around their upper interior walls. We divide the high-CPR craters into three types: (1) craters on the layered mare lava flows; (2) craters in the highlands that correlate to mapped locations of smooth plains; and (3) craters on the highlands that are not associated with smooth plains. Most of the high-CPR craters in the highlands are associated with Eratosthenian-period craters, and most of these are also on smooth plains, indicating that impact melt sheets are a likely source for the boulders exposed on their interior walls. Statistical analyses will be performed after incorporating multiple lunar datasets into GIS to quantify these preliminary interpretations. Figure 1. Example of high-CPR crater Zagut A located on smooth plains in the highlands. LROC images showing boulders on (a) northern crater interior wall and (b) southern crater interior wall. (c) Stronlgy enhanced values of CPR are observed for the interior of Zagut A.

  12. Bulk velocity measurements by video analysis of dye tracer in a macro-rough channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, T.; Franca, M. J.; Schleiss, A. J.

    2014-03-01

    Steep mountain rivers have hydraulic and morphodynamic characteristics that hinder velocity measurements. The high spatial variability of hydraulic parameters, such as water depth (WD), river width and flow velocity, makes the choice of a representative cross-section to measure the velocity in detail challenging. Additionally, sediment transport and rapidly changing bed morphology exclude the utilization of standard and often intrusive velocity measurement techniques. The limited technical choices are further reduced in the presence of macro-roughness elements, such as large, relatively immobile boulders. Tracer tracking techniques are among the few reliable methods that can be used under these conditions to evaluate the mean flow velocity. However, most tracer tracking techniques calculate bulk flow velocities between two or more fixed cross-sections. In the presence of intense sediment transport resulting in an important temporal variability of the bed morphology, dead water zones may appear in the few selected measurement sections. Thus a technique based on the analysis of an entire channel reach is needed in this study. A dye tracer measurement technique in which a single camcorder visualizes a long flume reach is described and developed. This allows us to overcome the problem of the presence of dead water zones. To validate this video analysis technique, velocity measurements were carried out on a laboratory flume simulating a torrent, with a relatively gentle slope of 1.97% and without sediment transport, using several commonly used velocity measurement instruments. In the absence of boulders, salt injections, WD and ultrasonic velocity profiler measurements were carried out, along with dye injection technique. When boulders were present, dye tracer technique was validated only by comparison with salt tracer. Several video analysis techniques used to infer velocities were developed and compared, showing that dye tracking is a valid technique for bulk velocity

  13. Application of two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models to complex ecological stream flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Diplas, Panayiotis

    2008-01-01

    SummaryComplex flow patterns generated by irregular channel topography, such as boulders, submerged large woody debris, riprap and spur dikes, provide unique habitat for many aquatic organisms. Numerical modeling of the flow structures surrounding these obstructions is challenging, yet it represents an important tool for aquatic habitat assessment. In this study, the ability of two- (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics models to reproduce these localized complex flow features is examined. The 3-D model is validated with laboratory data obtained from the literature for the case of a flow around a hemisphere under emergent and submerged conditions. The performance of the 2-D and 3-D models is then evaluated by comparing the numerical results with field measurements of flow around several boulders located at a reach of the Smith River, a regulated mountainous stream, obtained at base and peak flows. Close agreement between measured values and the velocity profiles predicted by the two models is obtained outside the wakes behind the hemisphere and boulders. However, the results suggest that in the vicinity of these obstructions the 3-D model is better suited for reproducing the circulation flow behavior at both low and high discharges. Application of the 2-D and 3-D models to meso-scale stream flows of ecological significance is furthermore demonstrated by using a recently developed spatial hydraulic metric to quantify flow complexity surrounding a number of brown trout spawning sites. It is concluded that the 3-D model can provide a much more accurate description of the heterogeneous velocity patterns favored by many aquatic species over a broad range of flows, especially under deep flow conditions when the various obstructions are submerged. Issues pertaining to selection of appropriate models for a variety of flow regimes and potential implication of the 3-D model on the development of better habitat suitability criteria are discussed. The

  14. An Overview of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) as a capability demonstration for future human exploration, including use of high-power solar electric propulsion, which allows for the efficient movement of large masses through deep space. The ARM will also demonstrate the capability to conduct proximity operations with natural space objects and crewed operations beyond the security of quick Earth return. The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), currently in formulation, will visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, conduct a demonstration of a slow push planetary defense technique, and redirect the multi-ton boulder into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts aboard an Orion spacecraft will dock with the robotic vehicle to explore the boulder and return samples to Earth. The ARM is part of NASA's plan to advance technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. The ARM and subsequent availability of the asteroidal material in cis-lunar space, provide significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). NASA established the Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST), comprised of scientists, engineers, and technologists, which supported ARRM mission requirements formulation, answered specific questions concerning potential target asteroid physical properties, and produced a publically available report. The ARM Investigation Team is being organized to support ARM implementation and execution. NASA is also open to collaboration with its international partners and welcomes further discussions. An overview of the ARM robotic and crewed segments, including mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, and a discussion

  15. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM): Exploration of a Former Binary NEA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) as a capability demonstration for future human exploration, including use of high-power solar electric propulsion, which allows for the efficient movement of large masses through deep space. The ARM will also demonstrate the capability to conduct proximity operations with natural space objects and crewed operations beyond the security of quick Earth return. The Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), currently in formulation, will visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, conduct a demonstration of a slow push planetary defense technique, and redirect the multi-ton boulder into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts aboard an Orion spacecraft will dock with the robotic vehicle to explore the boulder and return samples to Earth. The ARM is part of NASA's plan to advance technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. The ARM and subsequent availability of the asteroidal material in cis-lunar space, provide significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The current reference target for the ARM is NEA (341843) 2008 EV5, which may have been the primary body of a former binary system (Busch et al., 2011; Tardivel et al., 2016). The ARRM will perform several close proximity operations to investigate the NEA and map its surface. A detailed investigation of this object may allow a better understanding of binary NEA physical characteristics and the possible outcomes for their evolution. An overview of the ARM robotic and crewed segments, including mission operations, and a discussion of potential opportunities for participation with the ARM will be provided in this presentation.

  16. GAMMA-RAY CHARACTERIZATION OF THE U-SERIES INTERMEDIATE DAUGHTERS FROM SOIL SAMPLES AT THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOG, CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. French; E.Y. Anthony; P.C. Goodell

    2005-07-18

    The Pena Blanca natural analog is located in the Sierra Pena Blanca, approximately 50 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The Sierra Pena Blanca is composed mainly of ash-flow tuffs, and the uranium in the region is contained in the brecciated zones of these tuffs. The Pena Blanca site is considered a natural analog to the proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository because they share similar characteristics of structure, volcanic lithology, tectonic activity, and hydrologic regime. One of the mineralized zones, the Nopal I deposit, was mined in the early 1980s and the ore was stockpiled close to the mine. This stockpile area has subsequently been cleared and is referred to as the prior high-grade stockpile (PHGS) site. Soil surrounding boulders of high-grade ore associated with the PHGS site have been sampled. The purpose of this study is to characterize the transport of uranium series radioisotopes from the boulder to the soil during the past 25 years. Transport is characterized by determining the activities of individual radionuclides and daughter to parent ratios. The daughter to parent ratios are used to establish whether the samples are in secular equilibrium. Activities are determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Isotopes of the uranium series decay chain detected by gamma-ray spectroscopy include {sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, and {sup 234}Pa. Preliminary results indicate that some daughter to parent pairs appear to be in secular disequilibrium. Thorium is in excess relative to uranium, and radium is in excess relative to thorium. A deficiency appears to exist for {sup 210}Pb relative to {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb. If these results are borne out by further analysis, they would suggest transport of nuclides from the high-grade boulder into its surroundings, followed by continued leaching of uranium and lead from the environment.

  17. Constraining Landscape History and Glacial Erosivity Using Paired Cosmogenic Nuclides in Upernavik, Northwest Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Lee B.; Bierman, Paul R.; Graly, Joseph A.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2013-01-01

    High-latitude landscape evolution processes have the potential to preserve old, relict surfaces through burial by cold-based, nonerosive glacial ice. To investigate landscape history and age in the high Arctic, we analyzed in situ cosmogenic Be(sup 10) and Al (sup 26) in 33 rocks from Upernavik, northwest Greenland. We sampled adjacent bedrock-boulder pairs along a 100 km transect at elevations up to 1000 m above sea level. Bedrock samples gave significantly older apparent exposure ages than corresponding boulder samples, and minimum limiting ages increased with elevation. Two-isotope calculations Al(sup26)/B(sup 10) on 20 of the 33 samples yielded minimum limiting exposure durations up to 112 k.y., minimum limiting burial durations up to 900 k.y., and minimum limiting total histories up to 990 k.y. The prevalence of BE(sup 10) and Al(sup 26) inherited from previous periods of exposure, especially in bedrock samples at high elevation, indicates that these areas record long and complex surface exposure histories, including significant periods of burial with little subglacial erosion. The long total histories suggest that these high elevation surfaces were largely preserved beneath cold-based, nonerosive ice or snowfields for at least the latter half of the Quaternary. Because of high concentrations of inherited nuclides, only the six youngest boulder samples appear to record the timing of ice retreat. These six samples suggest deglaciation of the Upernavik coast at 11.3 +/- 0.5 ka (average +/- 1 standard deviation). There is no difference in deglaciation age along the 100 km sample transect, indicating that the ice-marginal position retreated rapidly at rates of approx.120 m yr(sup-1).

  18. Rock and Roll at the Apollo 17 Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2016-06-01

    Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan and Harrison H. (Jack) Schmitt collected 243 pounds (110 kg) of rock and regolith samples during 22 hours working on the lunar surface during the Apollo 17 mission in December 1972, while Astronaut Ronald Evans orbited in the command module. The field observations, audio descriptions, and photographs coupled with orbital data and detailed, laboratory analyses of Apollo samples provided unprecedented information about the Moon and its geologic history. The Apollo samples continue to inspire new questions and answers about the Moon. Debra Hurwitz and David Kring (Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute; Hurwitz now at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) were particularly interested in solving the mystery of where the boulders came from at the base of the North Massif (station 6) and at the base of the South Massif (station 2) from which Apollo 17 astronauts collected samples of impact melt breccias. The breccias were unequivocally formed by impact processes, but forty years of analyses had not yet determined unambiguously which impact event was responsible. Was it the basin-forming event of the landing site's neighbor Serenitatis (possibly Nectarian age); the larger, nearby Imbrium basin (Imbrian age and one of the last large basins to form); a combination of these impacts or an impact event older or younger than all of the above. Tracking down the origin of the boulders would ideally unravel details of the formation age of the breccias and, ultimately, help with the historical record of basin formation on the Moon. Hurwitz and Kring verified the boulders rolled down from massif walls - Apollo 17 impact melt breccias originated in massif material, not from the Sculptured Hills, an overlying geologic unit. But the relative geologic context is easier to explain than the absolute age, at least until some discrepancies are resolved in existing Ar-Ar and U-Pb radiometric ages of the Apollo 17

  19. Delay/Disruption Tolerance Networking (DTN) Implementation and Utilization Options on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Mark; Pitts, Robert Lee; Gifford, Kevin K.; Jenkins, Andrew; Kuzminsky, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration and nearing final assembly. With its maturity and diverse payloads onboard, the opportunity exists to extend the orbital lab into a facility to exercise and demonstrate Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN). DTN is an end-to-end network service providing communications through environments characterized by intermittent connectivity, variable delays, high bit error rates, asymmetric links and simplex links. The DTN protocols, also known as bundle protocols, provide a store-and-forward capability to accommodate end-to-end network services. Key capabilities of the bundling protocols include: the Ability to cope with intermittent connectivity, the Ability to take advantage of scheduled and opportunistic connectivity (in addition to always up connectivity), Custody Transfer, and end-to-end security. Colorado University at Boulder and the Huntsville Operational Support Center (HOSC) have been developing a DTN capability utilizing the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload resources onboard the ISS, at the Boulder Payload Operations Center (POC) and at the HOSC. The DTN capability is in parallel with and is designed to augment current capabilities. The architecture consists of DTN endpoint nodes on the ISS and at the Boulder POC, and a DTN node at the HOSC. The DTN network is composed of two implementations; the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) and the open source DTN2 implementation. This paper presents the architecture, implementation, and lessons learned. By being able to handle the types of environments described above, the DTN technology will be instrumental in extending networks into deep space to support future missions to other planets and other solar system points of interest. Thus, this paper also discusses how this technology will be applicable to these types of deep space exploration missions.

  20. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 1, Oregon, 1985 Annual and Final Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Ken

    1986-10-01

    The Hot Springs Fork of the Collawash River is a major sub-drainage in the Clackamas River drainage. Emphasis species for natural production are spring chinook, coho salmon, and winter steelhead. Increased natural production appears limited by a lack of quality rearing habitat. Habitat complexity over approximately 70% of accessible area to anadromous fish has been reduced over the last 40 years by numerous factors. Natural passage barriers limit anadromous fish access to over 7 miles of high quality habitat. In the first year of a multi-year effort to improve fish habitat in the Hot Springs Fork drainage, passage enhancement on two tributaries and channel rehabilitation on one of those tributaries was completed. Three waterfalls on Nohorn Creek were evaluated and passage improved on the uppermost waterfall to provide steelhead full access to 2.4 miles of good quality habitat. The work was completed in October 1985 and involved blasting three jump pools and two holding pools into the waterfall. On Pansy Creek, four potential passage barriers were evaluated and passage improvement work conducted on two logjams and one waterfall. Minor modifications were made to a waterfall to increase flow into a side channel which allows passage around the waterfall. Channel rehabilitation efforts on Pansy Creek (RM 0.0 to 0.3) to increase low flow pool rearing habitat and spawning habitat including blasting five pools into areas of bedrock substrate and using a track-mounted backhoe to construct instream structures. On site materials were used to construct three log sills, three boulder berms, a boulder flow deflector, and five log and boulder structures. Also, an alcove was excavated to provide overwinter rearing habitat. Pre-project monitoring consisting of physical and biological data collection was completed in the project area.

  1. Origin of the local structures at the Philae landing site and possible implications on the formation and evolution of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, F.; Lucchetti, A.; Bibring, J.-P.; Carter, J.; Gondet, B.; Jorda, L.; Langevin, Y.; Pilorget, C.; Capanna, C.; Cremonese, G.

    2016-08-01

    In situ images of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus acquired by the CIVA cameras on-board PHILAE revealed a rough landscape dominated by consolidated materials (Bibring et al. 2015). These data provide a unique view to constrain the past and present conditions prevailing at the surface of the comet. A quantitative analysis of microscopic structures (fractures and pebbles) is derived using a manual extraction from the images. Fractures/cracks are rather ubiquitous at various spatial scales with network and size (from sub-cm to 10 cm) well correlated to the texture of the landscape. The pebble size distributions are derived and compared to the size distribution of other cometary materials. The nature of the landscape is then discussed in relation to endogenic and exogenic processes of surface modification. The block seen in CIVA#1 is interpreted to be close-ups of fractured boulder/cliff belonging to the boulder field identified from the orbit near Abydos, this boulder field being itself the result of gravitational regressive erosion due to sublimation. The observed fractures are best explained by thermal insolation leading to thermal fatigue and/or to loss of volatile materials. This surficial fragmentation (up to > 10 cm length) could generate macroscopic erosion that is also visible at larger scale from the orbit. There is at least an intriguing possibility that the pebbles are remnants of primordial accretion processes. We thus speculate that the Abydos landscape could be in favour of pebble accretion model instead of runaway coagulation model with a formation location in the outer region of the Solar System.

  2. The Matariki Stone of Rapanui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

  3. Life on the front lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hern, W M

    1994-01-01

    Warren Hern's reminiscences about his experiences as medical director of the Boulder (Colorado) Abortion Clinic and as an abortion provider in private practice provide support for his statement, "Every doctor in America who does abortions lives under a death threat." Shortly after the clinic was opened, a group of anti-abortion physicians pressured the Boulder County Medical Society to pass a resolution declaring the clinic a "clear and present danger" that should be shut down by local health boards. As the only freestanding abortion clinic in the state in the mid-1970's, the Boulder center was targeted by the Right-to-Life Committee picketers and Dr. Hern was harassed in his home and in public. When Dr. Hern left the clinic a year later to establish a private practice specializing in pregnancy termination, the picketers followed. After release of a textbook he prepared on abortion practice, the publisher was deluged with hate mail and threats of boycott, leading them to withdraw the text from its list. Violent attacks on abortion clinics accelerated after Reagan's election and bullets were fired into Hern's waiting room. Randall Terry, national head of Operation Rescue, prayed for Hern's death at a rally in front of his clinic. By the time Dr. David Gunn was assassinated by an anti-abortionist in March 1993, there had been over 1285 acts of violence against abortion facilities and more than 100 facilities had been completely destroyed. The transgression for which Dr. Gunn was murdered was that he sought to save the lives and futures of countless women and support their right to become full participants in society. PMID:8186726

  4. Polarimeter Arrays with Comprehensive Frequency Coverage for the Next Generation of Precision Microwave Background Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austermann, Jason Edward; Beall, James; Becker, Dan; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Duff, Shannon; gao, jiansong; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent; li, dale; McKenney, Christopher; Ullom, Joel; van lanen, jeffrey; Vissers, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Spectral resolution at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths is now understood to be crucially important in precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Recent results from the Planck and BICEP/KECK experiments have established that measurements of the CMB polarization signal is limited, in part, by polarized foreground emission. In particular, polarized emission from galactic dust has been found to dominate and obscure potential signals of cosmic inflation, even in regions of the sky specifically identified as having relatively low galactic emission. Current and future experiments aim to address foreground contamination by conducting high-sensitivity observations with broad spectral coverage that will allow for differentiation within the measured signal between foreground sources of polarization and that of the CMB, which each have distinct spectral characteristics. To efficiently achieve these goals within a limited focal plane area, NIST-Boulder has developed multi-band TES-based polarimeters that simultaneously measure multiple spectral bands in each of two orthogonal polarizations. This acts to both increase pixel sensitivity through an increased total bandwidth, as well as providing broad spectral information for differentiation of emission sources. Here, we describe recent achievements and ongoing efforts at NIST-Boulder in the development of millimeter and sub-millimeter detector and focal plane technologies for future experiments, including the stage-IV CMB experiment, CMB-S4. NIST-Boulder provides critical cryogenic components to a large number of current and in-development CMB experiments. Recent milestones include the fielding of the first broadband multi-chroic mm-wave polarimeters in the ACTPol experiment, multi-band array fabrication on large-format 150 mm wafers, and development of matching 150 mm silicon platelet feedhorn arrays. We also review several related development efforts in detector, optical coupling, and readout technologies

  5. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Southern Nevada Region: Potential for Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, B. J.; Metcalf, R. V.; Berry, D.; McLaurin, B.; Kent, D.; Januch, J.; Goossens, D.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring fibrous actinolite, winchite, magnesioriebeckite, richterite, magnesiohornblende, and erionite have been found in rock, soil, and dust in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The areas containing naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) include urban areas (e.g. Boulder City) and rural areas where people routinely enjoy outdoor activities including horseback riding, running, hiking, bicycling, and off-road-vehicle (ORV) recreation. A recent study showing mesothelioma in young people and women suggests some form of environmental exposure. Rock, soil, dust and clothing were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); additional rock samples were analyzed using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EPMA); additional soil samples were analyzed using PLM (polarizing light microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) using the Fluidized Bed Asbestos Segregator preparation method. Winds have transported and mixed the Ca-amphiboles, which are primarily from Nevada, with the Na-amphiboles that are primarily from northwestern Arizona. Erionite, which has not previously been reported in this area, was a common soil component found in 5 of 6 samples. The erionite source has not yet been determined. Winds have transported the amphibole and erionite particles into the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area - an ORV recreation area located 35 km north of Boulder City that otherwise would not be geologically predicted to contain fibrous amphiboles. In Boulder City, wind directions are primarily bimodal N-NE and S-SW with the strongest winds in the spring coming from the S-SW. The arid climate in this part of the Mojave Desert greatly increases the potential for wind erosion and human exposures. These results suggest that the entire Las Vegas Basin has, at times, received these particles through wind transport. Because the most likely human exposure pathway is through inhalation of dust, the Las Vegas

  6. Geologic Signatures of the September 2009 South Pacific Tsunami (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, B. M.; Buckley, M. L.; Etienne, S.; Strotz, L. C.; Chague-Goff, C.; Wilson, K.; Goff, J. R.; Dudley, W. C.; Sale, F.

    2009-12-01

    The September 29th 2009 tsunami caused widespread destruction along the shorelines of Samoa in the South Pacific. Preliminary measurements indicate maximum runup values of around 12 m (average ~3-6 m) and shore-normal inundation distances of up to ~ 400m. Geological field reconnaissance studies were conducted within three weeks of the event in order to document the erosion, transport, and deposition of sediment by the tsunami. Types of data collected included: a) general morphology and characteristics of the coast, b) tsunami water level measurements (inundation, flow depth and direction, and wave height, c) surficial and subsurface sediment samples, d) topographic mapping, and e) boulder size and location measurements. Where available for transport, mud, sand, and gravel size material was moved by the tsunami and formed distinct sedimentary deposits. Four main sedimentary deposits were identified: 1) Gravel deposits that typically occurred as either isolated coral boulders derived from the adjacent reef system and deposited on the lower beach face, or, fields of basalt boulders derived from coastal engineering structures and deposited inland on the coastal plain. In both cases the boulders were found either on the surface or partially buried by sand. Patchy accumulations of staghorn corals (Acropora sp?) occurred along some shorelines, presumably where there was a nearby reef source. 2) Sand deposits that ranged from very thin patches (clusters of the green alga Halimeda were incorporated in sand deposits. The sand appeared to be derived from the reef flats, beaches, and in some cases erosion of the land surface (i.e. from sandy soil). 3) Organic debris of over 10 cm thickness found further inland (at the forest edge) in topographic lows. 4) Surface mud deposits ranged from thin mud drapes (< 1 cm thick) to multi-layered, thick (4+ cm) mud caps that showed pronounced desiccation cracks two weeks after the tsunami. Documenting the geologic characteristics of recent

  7. Neighborhood Network: a method for inducing and sustaining citizen participation in low technology recycling. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    Information presented in this report supports the conclusion that the Neighborhood Network has indeed successfully increased the level of recycling participation on Boulder's curbside pickup program through the recruitment of block leaders. Our data also suggest that the impact of block leader activity is relatively long-lasting - that is, the number of block leaders and percent participation continued to increase after we ended our recruitment and coordinating activity. The absolute number of block leaders and hence participation levels did not increase as much as anticipated.

  8. Eelgrass fairy rings: sulfide as inhibiting agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Jens; Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Pedersen, Mia Østergaard; Pedersen, Ole; Holmer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Distinct ‘fairy rings’ consisting of narrow fringes of eelgrass (Zostera marina l.) expand radially over a bottom of chalk plates outside the calcium carbon- ate cliffs of the island of Møn, Denmark. We conducted a survey to evaluate possible explanations for the formation of the rings and, more...... expanded over the bare chalk plates. On the inner side, shoots were smaller, had lower absolute and specific leaf growth, shoot density was lower and the sediment eroded leaving the bare chalk with scattered boulders behind. Sediment organic matter and nutrients and tissue nutrient contents were not...

  9. Congressional Science Fellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, Catherine

    2005-09-01

    Josh Trapani has been selected to serve as AGU's 2005-2006 Congressional Science Fellow. Trapani is a paleontologist who most recently studied the genetic basis of tooth development in fish as a postdoctoral fellow in the Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department at the University of Colorado, in Boulder. ``By studying the complexity of genetic differences between species of fish with different dentition patterns, we are able to begin to determine the evolutionary processes-chiefly selection and constraint-responsible for the evolution and maintenance of these differences over geologic time,'' He noted.

  10. Venezuela’s Bolivarian Revolution as Seen through Foreign Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Parker

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available – The Enduring Legacy. Oil, Culture and Society in Venezuela, by Miguel Tinker Salas. Durham/London: Duke University Press, 2009. – Rethinking Venezuelan Politics. Class, Conflict and the Chávez Phenomenon, by Steve Ellner. Boulder/London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2008. – Changing Venezuela by Taking Power. The History and Policies of the Chávez Government, by Gregory Wilpert. London/New York: Verso, 2007. – The Real Venezuela. Making Socialism in the 21st Century, by Iain Bruce. London: Pluto Press, 2008. – Democracy and Revolution. Latin America and Socialism Today, by D.L. Raby. London/Ann Arbor: Pluto Press, 2006.

  11. Video modeling for children with dual diagnosis of deafness or hard of hearing and autism spectrum disorder to promote peer interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Amy

    2014-11-01

    This article describes an intervention program offered at the University of Colorado Boulder that supports peer interaction among young children with autism spectrum disorders and their typical peers using a multicomponent approach, including video modeling. Characteristics of autism that may interfere with the development of peer interaction in young children will be discussed. Components of the approach will be described and the evidence base for the application of these components examined in regards to children with autism and for the potential application to children with the dual diagnosis of autism and deafness or hard of hearing. PMID:25321857

  12. Investigating the resetting of OSL signals in rock surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew S.; Jain, Mayank;

    2011-01-01

    signals in grains and slices from five different cobbles/boulders collected from a modern beach is investigated. All the rock surfaces are presumed to have been exposed to daylight for a prolonged period of time (weeks to years). Feldspar was identified as the preferred dosimeter because quartz extracts...... found to be responsible for the large scattered doses from grains, nor did the inevitable contribution from Na-feldspar to the signal from solid slices explain the improved reproducibility in the slices. By modelling the increase of luminescence signal with distance into the rock surface, attenuation...

  13. Radiometers Optimize Local Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Radiometrics Corporation, headquartered in Boulder, Colorado, engaged in Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements with Glenn Research Center that resulted in a pencil-beam radiometer designed to detect supercooled liquid along flight paths -- a prime indicator of dangerous icing conditions. The company has brought to market a modular radiometer that resulted from the SBIR work. Radiometrics' radiometers are used around the world as key tools for detecting icing conditions near airports and for the prediction of weather conditions like fog and convective storms, which are known to produce hail, strong winds, flash floods, and tornadoes. They are also employed for oceanographic research and soil moisture studies.

  14. Nuclear Physics Laboratory technical progress report, [August 15, 1991--October 1, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes work carried out between August 15, 1991 and October 1, 1992 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contracts DE-FG02-86ER-40269 and DE-FG02-87ER-40335 with the United States Department of Energy. These contracts support experimental and theoretical work in intermediate energy nuclear physics. The experimental program is very broadly based; it includes pion-nucleon and pion-nucleus studies at Los Alamos and TRIUMF inelastic pion scattering and charge exchange reactions at LAMPF, kaon-nucleus scattering at the AGS, and nucleon charge exchange at LAMPF/NTOF

  15. Cliffs at Gruchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Downward from Gruchy, past its wind-wrenched elm,The path drops under pastures to a cliffWhere outcrop boulder-stones glint blue and iron,Breaking above great sweeps of sea and sky.Below the rocks, rowing in close to shoreThe fishermen, no bigger than the gullsThat turn above them crying at their catch,Glide over green and lavender to sand.Outside the scene, a higher, flatter rockProvided the perspective for these stonesThat point toward the horizon’s shining line,Insight’s limitless limit bo...

  16. Late Holocene Palaeotsunami Events Archived along the Gujarat Coast, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Drasti; Primowala, Siddharth; Bhatt, Nishith; Bhatt, Nilesh

    2016-04-01

    Gujarat state is situated in the western most part of India and has the longest coastline of 1600 km facing the Arabian Sea. Historically the coastline has been affected by tsunami waves with the latest one being the 1945 Makran tsunami which had run up height of 11 m along the Gulf of Kachchh coastline. From all over the world, several scientists recognized boulders/megaclasts, presence of mud intraclasts in sand layers and abrupt sand layers between clayey layers as the geological signatures of palaeotsunami deposits. As Gujarat coastline comprise of both rocky coastline of Saurashtra and sandy Coastline of Kachchh, providing a fascinating scenario to study palaeotsunami deposits of varied textural sizes. We studied the rocky coastline of south-western Saurashtra (i.e. From Navibander to Mangrol) and observed the presence of boulder deposits, scattered above the high tide line upto tens of meters inland. Using various physical parameters and numerical models it was estimated that a tsunami wave of 3.5 m wave height had detached and mobilized these boulders to their inland final position. Using optical dating technique, the age of deposition of the dune on which those boulders were lying was estimated to be 3.4 ± 0.23 ka. This suggests the tsunami event took place sometime during the last 3.4 ka. Similarly at the Mundra coastline of Kachchh, a shallow trench of about 2 m was dug at an elevation of 2m from high tide line. This sequence shows a typical tidal flat sedimentation comprising silty - clayey layers (unit-1 to unit 7). However unit 6 and unit 4 were sandy in nature and supported their deposition in form of a high energy marine flooding event. Geochemical analysis of this sequence showed decrease in concentration of major and trace elements at unit 4 and unit 6. Based on sedimentology and geochemical signatures we suggest that the Unit-4 was deposited on account of a storm surge as it showed seaward dipping mega ripples ~ a characteristic feature of strong

  17. Biological and ecological aspects of Xantusia sanchezi, an endangered lizard in an oak forest in the state of Jalisco, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Cruz-Sáenz; David Lazcano

    2012-01-01

    Xantusia sanchezi is an endangered species that is endemic to Mexico and is known only from the states of Jalisco and Zacatecas.We studied a population from a locality known as Huaxtla, in the municipality of Zapopan in the state of Jalisco. Sampling was conducted over a period of 7 months in an area of 1.5 hectares of grassland and oak forest with boulders. Collected data included: body measurements (total length, snout-vent length, tail length, head length, head width, head height, femur le...

  18. Erratic blocks in NW Poland - geological heritage, conservation and geotourism promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska-Zabielska, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Big glacial erratic blocks, transported between 20 ka and 14 ka BP from Scandinavia are still present in the fields and forest of the north-western part of Poland. They present mainly magmatic and metamorphic petrographic types. Among them the most important are indicator erratics, which point to a distinct source region in Sweden, Finland or within the Baltic Sea. The largest boulders, sometimes shrouded in legend, have been protected for ages as natural monuments. Others still wait for such an attention. The largest erratic block in Poland ("Trigław") is located in a small town Tychowo (53°55'42″N 16°15'29″E) in the Middle Pomerania. It is a gneiss with no features pointing to a distinct Scandinavian provenance. Its measurements are: height 7,8 m (3,8 m above surface), length 13,7 m, width 9,3 m, volume around 520 m3, weight 1430 tons. The biggest sedimentary boulder, sandstone ("Mszczonowski Głaz"), is located in a Zawada village (51°54`51,1"N 20°27`16,5"E) in the centre of Poland (beyond the scope of the presentation). Its measurements are: height 3 m, length 12 m, width 3 m, volume around 57 m3, weight 160 tons. The presentation shows the biggest and most interesting Scandinavian boulders blocks from north-western part of Poland, their geological heritage and role, that they play in a local geotourism promotion. Apart from their location in situ, the boulders are also available ex situ, i.e. in erratic gardens. These collections of rocks accompany seats of local nature museums or national parks offices. Also other usage of erratics (stony buildings and road/pavements, fences), known for ages, will be presented. Erratic blocks are favorite destinations for tourists who follow geotouristic trails. The most valuable for a geotourism are these geosites, which are equipped in a board informing about the genesis and geologic value of an erratic. The simpler and more intelligible language, the bigger didactic and touristic value of a geosite.

  19. A Staged Reading of the Play: W=S:Transistor Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    A university is offered funding, but only if they'll name a building for William Shockley. William Shockley was an American physicist and inventor who won the Nobel Prize for his work on the transistor, but was infamous for his support of eugenics. What do they do? Join us for a dramatic staged reading of Transistor Shock, a new play by Ivan K. Schuller and Adam J. Smith, performed by the Boulder Ensemble Theatre Company. After the performance, the director, actors, and playwrights will be available for audience discussion.

  20. Development and application of technical soils for ground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the development of technical soils for safety ground disposal of low-level radioactive wastes are considered. Technical grounds on the basis of native ones (boulder and fine-dispersed clays) with mineral additions (andisole, clinoptilolite, bentonite and hematite) were studied depending on change in pH, hydraulic conductivity and characteristics of radionuclide absorption. It is noted that the developed technical grounds introduced under solid base of storage facility and saving it from rain and ground water essentially slow down radionuclide migration trough the storage facility

  1. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Baltmiškytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential are built to estimate the best model fitting for algae quantity prediction. Unknown model parameters are estimated and Bayesian kriging prediction posterior distribution is computed in OpenBUGS modeling environment by using Bayesian spatial statistics methods.

  2. TIROA/NOAA (Television and Infrared Observation Satellite/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) satellites space environment monitor archive tape documentation: 1988 update. Technical memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIROS/NOAA satellite archive tapes containing data obtained with the Medium-Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED), High-Energy Proton and Alpha-Particle Detector (HEPAD), and Total-Energy Detector (TED) are described. Descriptions of the data include orbital and housekeeping details and the information needed to decode and understand the data. Specifications of the data channels are supplied, with the timing information needed to convert the data to usable information. Description of the archive tape format gives the information needed to read the tape and unpack the data. Appendices supply the retrieval routines used by the Space Environment Services Center in Boulder

  3. Wear Analysis of Wind Turbine Gearbox Bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Xu, Hanbing [ORNL; Parten, Randy J [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Geer, Tom [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this effort was to investigate and characterize the nature of surface damage and wear to wind turbine gearbox bearings returned from service in the field. Bearings were supplied for examination by S. Butterfield and J. Johnson of the National Wind Technology Center (NREL), Boulder, Colorado. Studies consisted of visual examination, optical and electron microscopy, dimensional measurements of wear-induced macro-scale and micro-scale features, measurements of macro- and micro-scale hardness, 3D imaging of surface damage, studies of elemental distributions on fracture surfaces, and examinations of polished cross-sections of surfaces under various etched and non-etched conditions.

  4. Characterizing Inflow Conditions Across the Rotor Disk of a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Kelley, N.; Scott, G.; Jager, D.; Schreck, S.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-megawatt utility-scale wind turbines operate in a turbulent, thermally-driven atmosphere where wind speed and air temperature vary with height. Turbines convert the wind's momentum into electrical power, and so changes in the atmosphere across the rotor disk influence the power produced by the turbine. To characterize the inflow into utility scale turbines at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Boulder, Colorado, NREL recently built two 135-meter inflow monitoring towers. This poster introduces the towers and the measurements that are made, showing some of the data obtained in the first few months of operation in 2011.

  5. Critical issues in water and wastewater treatment. Proceedings of the 1994 national conference on environmental engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceedings, Critical Issues in Water and Wastewater, contains short versions of most of the 114 papers presented at the 1994 Specialty Conference on Environmental Engineering held in Boulder, Colorado on July 11 to 13, 1994. These papers are organized into 23 distinct sessions that focus primarily on water treatment, water distribution, and wastewater treatment. Some of the topics discussed concern microbes in drinking water, contaminated groundwater remediation, and the effects of floods on hazardous waste sites. To summarize, this proceedings provides a practical and timely reference for engineers interested in the current state of water and wastewater concerns

  6. SU(3)--Breaking Effects in Axial--Vector Couplings of Octet Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Gensini, P M; Gensini, Paolo M.; Violini, Galileo

    1993-01-01

    Present evidence on baryon axial--vector couplings is reviewed, the main emphasis being on internal consistency between asymmetry and rate data. A complete account of all {\\sl small} terms in the Standard Model description of these latter leads to {\\sl both} consistency {\\sl and} evidence for breaking of flavour SU(3) in the axial couplings of octet baryons. Talk presented at "5th Int. Sympos. on Meson--Nucleon Physics and the Structure of the Nucleon", Boulder, CO, sept. 1993. To be published in $\\pi N$ Newsletter.

  7. In-situ stressing of rock: Observation of infrared emission prior to failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, R.; Freund, F. T.; Momayez, M.; Bleier, T. E.; Dunson, C.; Joggerst, P.; Jones, K.; Wang, S.

    2009-12-01

    Blocks of igneous rocks such as anorthosite and granite subjected at one end to uniaxial stress have been shown to emit a small but distinct excess amount of infrared (IR) light (Freund, F. T., et al, JASTP, 71, 2009). This anomalous IR emission arises from the radiative de-excitation of electron vacancy defects, which, upon stress-activation, flow into the unstressed portion and recombine at the surface. This non-thermal IR emission occurs in the 8 μm to 14 μm wavelength region. Field experiments are performed by slowly stressing large boulders and monitoring the IR emission in situ with a Bruker EM27 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The boulders are prepared by drilling four blind holes into the rock, 50-100 cm deep, in an array roughly parallel to, and behind, the surface from where the IR emission is monitored. Any debris and water is blown out of the boreholes with compressed air, and the rock is given time to dry and relax from drilling-induced stresses. The holes are then filled with grout that expands upon curing, creating an increasing radial pressure of up to 5 × 103 t/m2. The experiments were carried out with two large granite boulders, one of about 30 t of hard (over 150 MPa) granite at the University of Arizona’s Henry "Hank" Grunstedt San Xavier Mining Laboratory, located in the copper mining district near Tucson, AZ and the other of about 7 t of weathered granite in the Sierra Nevada foothills near Oakhurst, CA. The Bruker EM27 FTIR spectrometer equipped with a 20 cm reflective telescope collects the IR emission from a safe distance at a rate of a full 4-16 µm spectrum every 30 sec. After recording baseline data, the grout was mixed with water and poured into the holes as IR emission was monitored continuously until the experiment was terminated after rock failure. The time of failure is noted whenever the first acoustic or visual cues are sensed from the boulder. The IR data shows that after a period of quiescence, pronounced

  8. Frequency comparison of lattice clocks toward the redefinition of the second

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium is the most popular species for optical lattice clocks. Recent reports of the accuracies from Boulder, U.S. and Tokyo reach 10−18 level, which is better than state-of-the-art caesium clocks more than one order of magnitude. While this achievement accelerates the discussion to redefine the second, the agreement of frequencies in separate laboratories is of critical importance. For this context, intercontinental comparison of Sr lattice clocks were demonstrated between Japan and Germany using a satellite-based technique. The frequency difference was consistent with zero with an uncertainty of 1.6 × 10−15

  9. Sediment Transport by Spring Avalanches in the Southern Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, J. M.; Hunziker, M.; Moore, J. R.; Christen, M.

    2010-12-01

    Dense wet-snow avalanches breaking through to the base of the snow pack or overriding snow-free surfaces can entrain basal material and act as important agents of sediment transport in steep Alpine catchments. As part of an ongoing study, we investigated two debris fans in the Matter Valley of southern Switzerland during spring 2009 and 2010, with emphasis on quantifying avalanche sediment transport. Deposited debris ranged from soil parcels and plant material to cobbles and boulders greater than 1 m3. Large boulders were generally angular and fresh with clear signs of recent impacts. The seasonal sediment load transported by avalanches was estimated at one fan by sampling the debris content within a number of representative areas, and then extrapolating the cumulative volume. Results reveal a total transported sediment volume of ~150 m3 in 2009 and ~15 m3 in 2010, which likely reflects varying snowfall and avalanche frequency between years. When distributed over the deposition area on the fan, these results imply an average accumulated sediment thickness of 12 mm in 2009 and 3 mm in 2010. Calculated catchment-wide erosion rates are ~0.1 mm/yr for 2009 and ~0.01 mm/yr for 2010. Cross-sections through avalanche debris revealed that transported sediment generally resides on top of the snow surface. As the avalanches melt, entrained sediment is set down gently, often resulting in precariously balanced boulders and rows of blocks perched on the walls of the fan’s channels. In flat lying areas, snowmelt resulted in sparse sediment deposits with no clear structure or sorting. Observations show that the fan surface is usually protected from erosion by snow and older avalanche deposits, which provide a smooth gliding plane for new events. Within the bedrock gulley adjacent to the fan, and in the avalanche source region above, signs of abrasive wear were evident on exposed bedrock surfaces. These include rounded and scoured bedrock, fresh signs of boulder impacts, and

  10. Cosmogenic 36Cl exposure ages reveal a 9.3 ka BP glacier advance and the Late Weichselian-Early Holocene glacial history of the Drangajökull region, northwest Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Schomacker, Anders; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Keiding, Jakob K.

    2015-10-01

    We present twenty-four new cosmogenic isotope (36Cl) surface exposure ages from erratic boulders, moraine boulders and glacially eroded bedrock that constrain the late Weichselian to Holocene glacial history of the Drangajökull region, northwest Iceland. The results suggest a topographically controlled ice sheet over the Vestfirðir (Westfjords) peninsula during the last glaciation. Cold based non-erosive sectors of the ice sheet covered most of the mountains while fjords and valleys were occupied with erosive, warm-based ice. Old36Cl exposure ages from highlands and mountain plateaux (L8; 76.5 ka and H1; 41.6 ka) in combination with younger erratic boulders (L7; 26.2 and K1-K4; 15.0-13.8 ka) superimposed on such surfaces suggest the presence of non-erosive ice over uplands and plateaux in the Vestfirðir peninsula during the last glaciation. Glacially scoured terrain and erratic boulders yielding younger exposure ages (L1-L6; 11.3-9.1 ka and R1, R6-R7; 10.6-9.4 ka) in the lowland areas indicate that the valleys and fjords of the Vestfirðir peninsula were occupied by warm-based, dynamic ice during the last glaciation. The deglaciation of mountain Leirufjall by 26.2 ka BP suggests that ice thinning and deglaciation of some mountains and plateaux preceded any significant lateral retreat of the ice sheet. Subsequently this initial ice thinning was followed by break-up of the shelf based ice sheet off Vestfirðir about 15 ka BP. Hence, the new exposure ages suggest a stepwise asynchronous deglaciation on land, following the shelf break-up with some valleys and most of the highlands, ice free by 14-15 ka BP. The outermost moraine at the mouth of Leirufjörður is dated to 9.3 ka BP, and we suggest the moraine to be formed by a glacier re-advance in response to a cooler climate forced by the reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at around 9.3 ka BP. A system of moraines proximal to the 9.3 ka moraine in Leirufjörður as well as a 9.4 ka deglaciation age

  11. Ionospheric duct propagation and Pc 1 pulsation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed study of two Pc 1 hydromagnetic emission events observed at Great Whale River, Quebec: Boulder, Colorado; and College, Alaska, indicates that emission energy propagated westward in an ionospheric duct from an extended source region east of Great Whale River with duct velocities ranging from 500 to 2500 km s-1. Sources located using both triangulation direction of arrival and polarization techniques were found to be generally consistent. Autocorrelation measurements of fine structure element spacing within the events show that dispersion increased with longitudinal distance from the source

  12. The DARPA quantum network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The DARPA quantum network is now in initial operational, with six nodes performing quantum cryptography 24x7 across the Boston metro area between our campuses at Harvard University, Boston University, and BBN Technologies. In this talk, we present our recent activities, including the deployment of this network, building our Mark 1 Entangled QKD system, porting BBN QKD protocol software to NIST and Qinetiq freespace systems, performing initial design of a superconducting single photon detector with U. Rochester and NIST Boulder, and implementing a novel Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) protocol for QKD. (author)

  13. Reinventing Democracy in Bolivia and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    – Citizenship in Latin America, by Joseph S. Tulchin and Meg Ruthenburg (eds). Boulder/London: Lynne Rienner, 2006. – Participación política, democracia y movimientos indígenas en los Andes, by Jorge León, et al. La Paz, Lima: PIEB / IFEA / Embajada de Francia en Bolivia, 2005. – El estado del Estado en Bolivia – Informe Nacional sobre Desarrollo Humano 2007, coordinación general George Gray Molina. UNDP / PNUD, Bolivia, 2007. – El Estado de la opinión: los bolivianos, la Constitución y la Co...

  14. Preliminary Examination of Particles Recovered from the Surface of the Asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Ebihara, M.; Kimura, M.; Kitajima, F.; Kotsugi, M.; Ito, S.; Nagao, K.; Nakamura, T.; Naraoka, H.; Noguchi, T.; Okazaki, R.; Uesugi, K.; Uesugi, M.; Yurimoto, H.; Ireland, T. R.; Sandford, S.; Zolensky, M.; Fujimura, A.; Abe, M.; Yada, T.; Mukai, T.; Okada, T.; Ishibashi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Ueno, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Hayabusa spacecraft arrived at S-type Asteroid 25143 Itokawa in November 2006, and reveal astounding features of the small asteroid (535 x 294 x 209 m). Near-infrared spectral shape indicates that the surface of this body has an olivinerich mineral assemblage potentially similar to that of LL5 or LL6 chondrites with different degrees of space weathering. Based on the surface morphological features observed in high-resolution images of Itokawa s surface, two major types of boulders were distinguished: rounded and angular boulders. Rounded boulders seem to be breccias, while angular boulders seem to have severe impact origin. Although the sample collection did not be made by normal operations, it was considered that some amount of samples, probably small particles of regolith, was collected from MUSES-C regio on the Itokawa s surface. The sample capsule was successfully recovered on the earth on June 13, 2010, and was opened at curation facility of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), Sagamihara, Japan. A large number of small particles were found in the sample container. Preliminary analysis with SEM/EDX at the curation facility showed that at least more than 1500 grains were identified as rocky particles, and most of them were judged to be of extraterrestrial origin, and definitely from Asteroid Itokawa. Minerals (olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, high-Ca pyroxene, plagioclase, Fe sulfide, Fe-Ni metal, chromite, Ca phosphate), roughly estimated mode the minerals and rough measurement of the chemical compositions of the silicates show that these particles are roughly similar to LL chondrites. Although their size are mostly less than 10 m, some larger particles of about 100 m or larger were also identified. A part of the sample (probably several tens particles) will be selected by Hayabusa sample curation team and examined preliminary in Japan within one year after the sample recovery in prior to detailed analysis phase. Hayabusa Asteroidal Sample Preliminary

  15. MARINE CONGLOMERATE AND REEF MEGACLASTS AT MAURITUS ISLAND: Evidences of a tsunami generated by a flank collapse of the PITON DE LA Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Paris

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis related to volcano flank collapse are typically a high-magnitude, low frequency hazard for which evaluation and mitigation are difficult to address. In this short communication, we present field evidences of a large tsunami along the southern coast of Mauritius Island ca. 4400 years ago. Tsunami deposits described include both marine conglomerates and coral boulders up to 90 m3 (> 100 tons. The most probable origin of the tsunami is a flank collapse of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Réunion Island.

  16. Security and Development: Critical Reflections on a Conceptual and Political Nexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Sammelrezension: Tschirgi, Neclâ; Lund, Michael S.; Mancini, Francesco (Hrsg.): Security and Development. Searching for Critical Connections. Boulder : Lynne Rienner Publishers 2010 ISBN 978-1-58826-668-2, 449 S. Spear, Joanna; Williams, Paul D. (Hrsg.): Security and Development in Global Politics....... A Critical Comparison. Washington, DC : Georgetown University Press 2012 ISBN 978-1-58901-886-0, 334 S. Amer, Ramses; Swain, Ashok; Öjendal, Joakim (Hrsg.): The Security-Development Nexus. Peace, Conflict and Development. London : Anthem Press 2012 ISBN 978-1-78308-065-6, 228 S....

  17. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Geoffrey [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The use of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) with miniature sensor systems for atmospheric research is an important capability to develop. The Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) project, lead by Dr. Gijs de Boer of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES- a partnership of NOAA and CU-Boulder), is a significant milestone in realizing this new potential. This project has clearly demonstrated that the concept of sUAS utilization is valid, and miniature instrumentation can be used to further our understanding of the atmospheric boundary layer in the arctic.

  18. Tafoni – presenting characteristics of a landform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Ozis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Landforms tafoni and alveoli – shallow caverns formed in boulders and rock faces – are presented in the article, with greater emphasis given on tafoni. Tafoni occur in different climate and rocks types, they are formed by cavernous weathering. In Slovenian geographical literature term tafoni rarely occurs. Exceptions are some examples of describing tafoni as landforms that are similar to another landform – rock shelters. The aim of this article is to present main characteristics of tafoni, introduce some terms that are being related to tafoni, present dilemmas related to existing knowledge of tafoni, and present tafoni’s features that are different from that of rock shelters.

  19. Man with a Hoe

    OpenAIRE

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    He leans on the short handle, knotted oak,Its flat blade pressed on brambled clay and stone.A boulder  shoulders thorns up from the soilWhile oxen plow a far-off pastoral farm. Whose stubble-fires smoke white toward skies in haze.He dominates the land as serf and lord,The subject monarch of his stark domain,His thistle-crown root-bound in freehold earth. Not fallen from some paradise whose cropsTurned golden while he plucked a harp’s ripe strings,He’s come down long hard centuries the same,Ma...

  20. [Intermediate energy nuclear physics]: Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes work carried out between October 1, 1987 and August 1, 1988 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under Contract DE-FG02-86ER40269 with the United States Department of Energy. The contract supports experimental work in intermediate energy nuclear physics. The experimental program is very broadly based, ranging from pion-nucleon studies at TRIUMF, to inelastic pion scattering and charge exchange reactions at LAMPF, to nucleon charge exchange at LAMPF/WNR and to electron scattering at NIKHEF. In addition, a number of other topics related to accelerator physics are described in this report

  1. Reading the Revolution: Where Has the Literature Taken Us in Understanding Cuba?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Kapcia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available – Cuba. A New History, by Richard Gott. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2004. – The Cuban Revolution. Past, Present and Future Perspectives, by Geraldine  Lievesley. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. – People’s Power. Cuba’s Experience with Representative Government, by Peter  Roman. (Updated edition Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford:  Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.  – Cuba. A Revolution in Motion, by Isaac Saney. Black Point, Nova Scotia: Fernwood Books; London: Zed Books, 2003.

  2. Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) - A Science-Oriented, University 3U CubeSat

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, James P.; Woods, Thomas N.; Caspi, Amir; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Moore, Christopher; Jones, Andrew; Kohnert, Rick; Li, Xinlin; Palo, Scott; Solomon, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3-Unit (3U) CubeSat developed at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado, Boulder (CU). Over 40 students contributed to the project with professional mentorship and technical contributions from professors in the Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department at CU and from LASP scientists and engineers. The scientific objective of MinXSS is to study processes in the dynamic Sun, from quiet-Sun to sol...

  3. Clay mineral facies and lateritization in basalts of the southeastern Parana Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen samples from two lateritic profiles, each with five facies, were studied. These profiles occur on the old planation surface of the plateau basalts of the southern part of ParanáBasin, Brazil. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra were used to obtain information about the nature and chemical composition of each weathering facies. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and analyses of clay minerals were performed to detect microcrystalline environmental changes. Both profiles have two major parts: a loose red-clay latosol separated from an underlying mottled clay and an alterite facies; a stone line may or may not be present between the latosol and the underlying units. In both profiles the latosol consists principally of kaolinite, hematite and goethite. Two alterite facies, shaped by differential weathering, are also present in the lower profile: a halloysite–nontronite clayey matrix with a well developed fissure system occurs in the argillaceous alterite and a network of Al–goethite aggregates is typical of the highly porous cortex of the boulder alterite that is found in the stone line and below it. Gibbsite has crystallized in the large pores of porphyritic boulder alterite but is absent in the small pores of the subaphyric boulder alterite. Clay minerals observed in fissures include halloysite associated with goethite and manganese oxides. The basalt has hydrothermal green-clays (mixed layers and trioctahedral smectites) that formed between primary plagioclase, pyroxene and Ti–magnetite crystals while fresh corestones of the boulder alterite have cryptocrystalline iron-rich material. The study of these profiles shows one principal evolutionary trend for clay minerals. This trend is from smectite and mixed layers that form green clays in altered bedrock at the base of the profile to an intermediate association of nontronite and halloysite in the argillaceous

  4. Viewpoint – The Washington Consensus, Chilean Water Monopolization and the Peruvian Draft Water Law of the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Solanes

    2013-06-01

    The managers of two public agencies in Peru were concerned about the impact that the Draft Law was to have on Peruvian public interests, such as agriculture, energy, and water supply and sanitation. They spearheaded a coalition, including United States universities (New Mexico, Colorado at Boulder, California at Davis the Water Directorate of Chile, the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, agricultural water communities in Peru, and the technical offices dealing with water at the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank, to have a critical discussion of the Draft Law. The discussion took several years, at the end of which the Draft was rejected.

  5. Mexico in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Hogenboom

    2003-01-01

    – Mexico’s Politics and Society in Transition, edited by Joseph S. Tulchin and Andrew D. Selee. Boulder/London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003. – México al inicio del siglo XXI: democracia, cuidadanía y desarrollo, edited by Alberto Aziz Nassif. México: CIESAS & Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 2003. – Globalización y alternativas incluyentes para el siglo XXI, edited by Jorge Basave, Alejandro Dabat, Carlos Morera, Miguel Ángel Rivera Ríos & Francisco Rodríguez. México: Instituto de Investigacio...

  6. Phase Change Fabrics Control Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Originally featured in Spinoff in 1997, Outlast Technologies Inc. (formerly Gateway Technologies Inc.) has built its entire product line on microencapsulated phase change materials, developed in Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Johnson Space Center after initial development for the U.S. Air Force. The Boulder, Colorado-based company acquired the exclusive patent rights and now integrates these materials into textiles or onto finished apparel, providing temperature regulation in bedding materials and a full line of apparel for both ordinary and extreme conditions.

  7. Demonstration Restoration Measures in Tributaries of the Vindel River Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Gardeström

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Some ecological restoration projects include elements of trial and error where new measures are repeatedly tried, evaluated, and modified until satisfactory results are achieved. Thereafter, the resulting methods may be applied on larger scales. A difficult step is judging whether developed “best-practice” methods have become reasonably ecologically functional or whether further experimentation “demonstration” methods can lead to yet better results. Here, we use a stream restoration project as a case study for evaluating methods and abiotic effects and outlining stakeholder support for demonstration restoration measures, rather than only using best-practice methods. Our work was located in the Vindel River system, a free-flowing river that is part of the Natura 2000 network. The river was exploited for timber floating from 1850–1976, and rapids in the main channel and tributaries below timberline were channelized to increase timber transport capacity. Several side channels in multi-channeled rapids were blocked and the flow was concentrated to a single channel from which boulders and large wood were removed. Hence, previously heterogeneous environments were replaced by more homogeneous systems with limited habitat for riverine species. The restoration project strives to alleviate the effects of fragmentation and channelization in affected rapids by returning coarse sediment from channel margins to the main channel. However, only smaller, angular sediment is available given blasting of large boulders, and large (old-growth wood is largely absent; therefore, original levels of large boulders and large wood in channels cannot be achieved with standard restoration practices. In 10 demonstration sites, we compensated for this by adding large boulders and large wood (i.e., entire trees from adjacent upland areas to previously best-practice restored reaches and compared their hydraulic characteristics with 10 other best-practice sites. The

  8. New AGU Climate Communication Prize: Call for nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael J.

    2011-08-01

    AGU is pleased to announce the newly launched AGU Climate Communication Prize. This new Union prize, generously funded by Nature's Own, a purveyor of fossils, minerals, and handcrafted jewelry in Boulder, Colo., will honor an AGU member-scientist for the communication of climate science. The prize highlights the importance of promoting scientific literacy, clarity of message, and efforts to foster respect and understanding of science-based values as they relate to the implications of climate change. The prize will be awarded annually and will be presented at AGU's Fall Meeting. It will carry a cash award of $25,000.

  9. On the variability of the Ring effect in the near ultraviolet: understanding the role of aerosols and multiple scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Langford, A. O.; Schofield, R.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; M. L. Melamed; Miller, H. L.; Dutton, E. G.; Solomon, S.

    2007-01-01

    The "filling-in" (FI) of Fraunhofer lines, often referred to as the Ring effect, was examined using measurements of near ultraviolet sunlight scattered from the zenith sky above Boulder, Colorado during July and August 2005. The FI of the 344.1 nm Fe I line was directly determined by comparing direct sun and cloud-free zenith sky spectra recorded on the same day. The results, obtained over solar zenith angles (SZA) from 20° to 70°, are compared to the predictions of ...

  10. On the variability of the Ring effect in the near ultraviolet: understanding the role of aerosols and multiple scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Langford, A. O.; Schofield, R.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; M. L. Melamed; Miller, H. L.; Dutton, E. G.; Solomon, S.

    2007-01-01

    The "filling-in" (FI) of Fraunhofer lines, often referred to as the Ring effect, was examined using measurements of near ultraviolet sunlight scattered from the zenith sky above Boulder, Colorado during July and August 2005. The FI of the 344.1 nm Fe I line was directly determined by comparing direct sun and cloud-free zenith sky spectra recorded on the same day. The results, obtained over solar zenith angles (SZA) from 20° to 70°, are compared to the predictions of a simple...

  11. The Intersection of NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach and Higher Education: A Special Interest Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Smith, D.; Schultz, G.; Bianchi, L.; Blair, W.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents highlights from a group discussion on how the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) education and public outreach (EPO) community could better support undergraduate astronomy education through EPO products and resources - current and future - targeted at the college level. The discussion was organized by the SMD Astrophysics EPO Forum through a Special Interest Group Meeting at the 2010 ASP Annual Meeting in Boulder. Our session took advantage of the simultaneous presence of EPO professionals and the Cosmos in the Classroom participants to seek out diverse perspectives on and experiences in higher education.

  12. Biological and ecological aspects of Xantusia sanchezi, an endangered lizard in an oak forest in the state of Jalisco, Mexico Aspectos biológicos y ecológicos de Xantusia sanchezi, una lagartija en peligro en un bosque de encino en el estado de Jalisco, México

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Cruz-Sáenz; David Lazcano

    2012-01-01

    Xantusia sanchezi is an endangered species that is endemic to Mexico and is known only from the states of Jalisco and Zacatecas. We studied a population from a locality known as Huaxtla, in the municipality of Zapopan in the state of Jalisco. Sampling was conducted over a period of 7 months in an area of 1.5 hectares of grassland and oak forest with boulders. Collected data included: body measurements (total length, snout-vent length, tail length, head length, head width, head height, femur l...

  13. Venezuela’s Bolivarian Revolution as Seen through Foreign Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Dick Parker

    2009-01-01

    – The Enduring Legacy. Oil, Culture and Society in Venezuela, by Miguel Tinker Salas. Durham/London: Duke University Press, 2009. – Rethinking Venezuelan Politics. Class, Conflict and the Chávez Phenomenon, by Steve Ellner. Boulder/London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2008. – Changing Venezuela by Taking Power. The History and Policies of the Chávez Government, by Gregory Wilpert. London/New York: Verso, 2007. – The Real Venezuela. Making Socialism in the 21st Century, by Iain Bruce. London: Plu...

  14. Interplanetary Trajectory Design for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission Alternate Approach Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond Gabriel; Qu, Min; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Englander, Jacob A.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents mission performance analysis methods and results for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) option to capture a free standing boulder on the surface of a 100 m or larger NEA. It details the optimization and design of heliocentric low-thrust trajectories to asteroid targets for the ARRM solar electric propulsion spacecraft. Extensive searches were conducted to determine asteroid targets with large pick-up mass potential and potential observation opportunities. Interplanetary trajectory approximations were developed in method based tools for Itokawa, Bennu, 1999 JU3, and 2008 EV5 and were validated by end-to-end integrated trajectories.

  15. Robotic concepts for operation in barren terrain. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowling, K. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    We have performed a series of studies and configurations for robots that are capable of operating in rough barren terrains. The environments we are targeting are like those of the moon or other planets in the roughness and starkness of the terrains, the loose and hard materials that range from sandy slopes to boulder fields, and the extremes of temperature that are encountered in such places. We present a mission scenario, requirements and then present and evaluate a mechanism design. Additional subsystem issues of power, communication, sensing, and computing are all addressed with respect to these requirements.

  16. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  17. Mathematics Preparation and Success in Introductory College Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avallone, L. M.; Geiger, L. C.; Luebke, A. E.

    2008-12-01

    It is a long-held belief that adequate mathematics preparation is a key to success in introductory college science courses. Indeed, a number of recent studies have tested mathematics "fluency" and compared that to performance in introductory physics or chemistry courses. At the University of Colorado at Boulder, we administered a twenty-question math assessment to incoming first-year students as part of orientation registration. The intent of this tool was to provide information for advising new college students about their readiness for college-level science courses, both those for science majors and those for non-scientists. In this presentation we describe the results of the mathematics assessment for two incoming classes in the College of Arts and Sciences at CU-Boulder (about 9,000 students) and its predictive capabilities for success in introductory science courses. We also analyze student performance in these courses (i.e., course grade) with respect to ACT and/or SAT scores. We will present data on the relative success of students in college science courses both with and without prior college-level mathematics courses as well.

  18. Global-Scale Stellar Dynamos and Wreathes of Magnetism in Rapidly Rotating Suns Without Tachoclines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    When our sun was young it rotated much more rapidly than it currently does. Observations of young, rapidly rotating stars indicate that they possess substantial magnetic activity and strong axisymmetric magnetic fields. We conduct simulations of dynamo action in more rapidly rotating suns with the 3-D MHD anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code to explore the complex coupling between rotation, convection and magnetism. We find that substantial organized global-scale magnetic fields are achieved by dynamo action in these systems. Wreathes of magnetism are built in the midst of the convection zone, coexisting with the intensely turbulent convection. This is a great surprise, as many solar dynamo theories have indicated that a tachocline of penetration and shear at the base of the convection zone is a crucial ingredient for organized dynamo action, whereas these simulations do not include such tachoclines. The dynamos achieved in these rapidly rotating stars can undergo cycles of activity, with fields waxing and waning in strength and even changing polarity. This research was carried out with support by the NASA HelioPhysics Theory program and with additional support for Brown by the NASA GSRP program. This thesis research has been done in collaboration with Matthew K. Browning (CITA, Toronto), Allan Sacha Brun (CEA-Saclay, France), Mark S. Miesch (HAO, Boulder) and Juri Toomre (University of Colorado, Boulder).

  19. Effect of the Location of the Detonation Initiation Point for Bench Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uneven floor and fragmentation play an important role in blasting operations due to the direct effects on the efficiency of hauling and loading. This paper focuses on the influences of initiation position on bench blasting in order to improve blasting effects. The numerical simulations of bench blasting at different initiation points (top, middle, and bottom are implemented based on secondary development of LS-DYNA with a tensile-compressive damage model. The damage spatial distribution characteristics of different initiation points are compared. The outlines of rock foundation and boulder areas are analyzed with the damage threshold of critical breakage that is ascertained by acoustic characteristic of damage rock mass. Results of the numerical simulations demonstrate that different initiation points make a great influence on the stress and energy distribution in blasting process and induce different blasting effects. Middle initiation turns out to be the best initiation to increase the flatness of the floor and decrease the oversize boulder ratio simultaneously, which will increase the damage areas of the bottom and top regions and give a better blasting effect. Field experiment in Baihetan Station was carried out to validate conclusions of numerical simulation. Research could provide a good reference for the improvement of rock blasting.

  20. Basal interstitial water pressure in laboratory debris flows over a rigid bed in an open channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hotta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the interstitial water pressure of debris flows under various conditions gives essential information on the flow stress structure. This study measured the basal interstitial water pressure during debris flow routing experiments in a laboratory flume. Because a sensitive pressure gauge is required to measure the interstitial water pressure in shallow laboratory debris flows, a differential gas pressure gauge with an attached diaphragm was used. Although this system required calibration before and after each experiment, it showed a linear behavior and a sufficiently high temporal resolution for measuring the interstitial water pressure of debris flows. The values of the interstitial water pressure were low. However, an excess of pressure beyond the hydrostatic pressure was observed with increasing sediment particle size. The measured excess pressure corresponded to the theoretical excess interstitial water pressure, derived as a Reynolds stress in the interstitial water of boulder debris flows. Turbulence was thought to induce a strong shear in the interstitial space of sediment particles. The interstitial water pressure in boulder debris flows should be affected by the fine sediment concentration and the phase transition from laminar to turbulent debris flow; this should be the subject of future studies.

  1. Apollo 16 soils - Grain size analyses and petrography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiken, G. H.; Mckay, D. S.; Fruland, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Soils from South Ray Crater, North Ray Crater, and the interray area of Station 10 have a similar provenance, containing breccia fragments of low to medium metamorphic grade and low light/dark lithic fragment ratios; these appear to be characteristic of the Cayley Formation. The primary difference between soils possibly derived from North Ray and South Ray craters is in the agglutinate content. A soil from Stone Mountain (Station 4) is characterized by breccia fragments of medium to high metamorphic grade and a high light/dark lithic fragment ratio; this soil may be derived from the Descartes Formation. Differences between the selenomorphic units, the Descartes and Cayley formations, may be lithologic as well as structural. The mean grain size varies from 84 to 280 microns, and all of the samples are poorly to very poorly sorted. There appears to be a relation between the sorting, grain size, and agglutinate content, with the finer-grained, better sorted soils containing more than 30% agglutinates. 'Shadowed' soils, collected close to large boulders, are similar in all respects to the 'reference' soils collected at least 5 m from the boulders.

  2. The Ordovician ostracodes established by Aurel Krause, Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schallreuter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a revision of the ostracodes described by Aurel Krause at the end of the 19th century from glacial erratic boulders from Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg (Northern Germany has led to taxonomic confusion in the corresponding literature of the 20th century. To attain stability in names, some of Krause's ostracode species have been revised based on the types stored in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, namely Primitia plana, P. plana tuberculata, P. intermedia, P. globifera, Entomis sigma antiquata, Bollia v-scripta, B. granulosa, B. duplex, Strepula lineata, Isochilina canaliculata, Beyrichia dissecta, B. mamillosa, B. signata, and B. bidens. Most species have up to four younger synonyms among species described later from outcrops or borings in Baltoscandia or glacial erratic boulders of Northern Germany and Sweden. Three of Krause's species, which have been considered as nomina dubia by Jaanusson are in fact valid species. Some of Krause's species or of their synonyms are type species. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000015

  3. Electrical tomography and magnetic imaging of Zeida's abandoned mine tailings (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachhab, A.; Dekayir, A.; Benyassine, E. M.; Rouai, M.; Parisot, J. C.; Mathé, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Zeida (Pb-Zn) mine was closed since 1985 and contains huge dams of mine waste deposited without adjustment or remediation. These tailings contain large amount of Pb (3000 ppm) and Zn (140 ppm) expressed mainly as galena, wulfenite and barite. The subsurface of the studied area is constituted mainly by weathered granite coved in some places by Triassic red formations. A geophysical survey was conducted by using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) combined with Magnetic Imagery to explore the subsurface area and understand how the mine waste is interacting with the groundwater. Two-Dimensional ERT revealed the occurrence of rounded structures with high resistivity values corresponding to spherical boulders of weathered granite. Resistivity values within the boulders decrease gradually from the center toward the outer layers. This granite was found to be covered by highly conductive materials from the tailings of the mine reaching a depth extending up to 60 m. Magnetic maps revealed local magnetic anomalies reaching 400 nT due to old buried pipes at the mine site of Zeida. These anomalies correspond to the presence of faults used as pathways to recharge the groundwater reservoir

  4. Application of a Novel Long-Reach Manipulator Concept to Asteroid Redirect Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, William R.; Jones, Thomas C.; King, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    A high priority mission currently being formulated by NASA is to capture all or part of an asteroid and return it to cis-lunar space for examination by an astronaut crew. Two major mission architectures are currently being considered: in the first (Mission Concept A), a spacecraft would rendezvous and capture an entire free flying asteroid (up to 14 meters in diameter), and in the second (Mission Concept B), a spacecraft would rendezvous with a large asteroid (which could include one of the Martian moons) and retrieve a boulder (up to 4 meters in diameter). A critical element of the mission is the system that will capture the asteroid or boulder material, enclose it and secure it for the return flight. This paper describes the design concepts, concept of operations, structural sizing and masses of capture systems that are based on a new and novel Tendon- Actuated Lightweight In-Space MANipulator (TALISMAN) general-purpose robotic system. Features of the TALISMAN system are described and the status of its technology development is summarized. TALISMAN-based asteroid material retrieval system concepts and concepts-of-operations are defined for each asteroid mission architecture. The TALISMAN-based capture systems are shown to dramatically increase operational versatility while reducing mission risk. Total masses of TALISMAN-based systems are presented, reinforcing the mission viability of using a manipulator-based approach for the asteroid redirect mission.

  5. Topological susceptibility with the improved Asqtad action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiral perturbation theory predicts that in quantum chromodynamics light dynamical quarks suppress the topological (instanton) susceptibility. We investigate this suppression through direct numerical simulation using the Asqtad improved lattice fermion action. This action holds promise for carrying out nonperturbative simulations over a range of quark masses for which chiral perturbation theory is expected to converge. To test the effectiveness of the action in capturing instanton physics, we measure the topological susceptibility as a function of quark masses with 2+1 dynamical flavors. Our results, when extrapolated to zero lattice spacing, are consistent with predictions of leading order chiral perturbation theory. Included in our study is a comparison of three methods for analyzing the topological susceptibility: (1) the Boulder hypercubic blocking technique with the Boulder topological charge operator, (2) the more traditional Wilson cooling method with the twisted plaquette topological charge operator and (3) the improved cooling method of de Forcrand, Perez, and Stamatescu and their improved topological charge operator. We show in one comparison at nonzero lattice spacing that the largest difference between methods (1) and (2) can be attributed to the operator, rather than the smoothing method

  6. Climate Literacy from the Plains to the Peaks: Challenges in Teaching Climate in Colorado Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafich, K. A.; Martens, W.; Fletcher, H.; MacFerrin, B.; Morrison, D.; Stone, J.; Collins, M. C.; Chastain, M.; Hager, C.; Duncan, E.; Gay, C. J.; Kurz, J. D.; Manning, C. B.; Graves, B. J.; Bloomfield, L.

    2015-12-01

    Boulder, Colorado is a central hub of climate research and education resources, yet teachers less than two hours away struggle to find relevant climate curriculum and meaningful connections to climate scientists. Learn More About Climate (LMAC), an initiative of the CU-Boulder Office for Outreach and Engagement was created to provide access to the most up-to-date scientific research in a user-friendly way that raises awareness and inspires an informed dialogue about climate change among Coloradans. LMAC produces classroom ready videos highlighting CU climate scientists, offers classroom visits and Skype sessions with scientists, and serves as a hub for the most recent climate news. LMAC recently formed a Teacher Advisory Board made up of eleven K12 teachers from across Colorado spanning rural, suburban, and urban school districts. Given different locations, demographics, and grade levels, each teacher faces different challenges teaching climate. Here we present our work to identify the primary challenges that our teacher advisors have encountered while teaching climate science in their classrooms. Furthermore, we are working to co-create dynamic solutions with the teachers to address these problems using the LMAC platform.

  7. Vertical structure of stratospheric water vapour trends derived from merged satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegglin, M. I.; Plummer, D. A.; Shepherd, T. G.; Scinocca, J. F.; Anderson, J.; Froidevaux, L.; Funke, B.; Hurst, D.; Rozanov, A.; Urban, J.; von Clarmann, T.; Walker, K. A.; Wang, H. J.; Tegtmeier, S.; Weigel, K.

    2014-10-01

    Stratospheric water vapour is a powerful greenhouse gas. The longest available record from balloon observations over Boulder, Colorado, USA shows increases in stratospheric water vapour concentrations that cannot be fully explained by observed changes in the main drivers, tropical tropopause temperatures and methane. Satellite observations could help resolve the issue, but constructing a reliable long-term data record from individual short satellite records is challenging. Here we present an approach to merge satellite data sets with the help of a chemistry-climate model nudged to observed meteorology. We use the models' water vapour as a transfer function between data sets that overcomes issues arising from instrument drift and short overlap periods. In the lower stratosphere, our water vapour record extends back to 1988 and water vapour concentrations largely follow tropical tropopause temperatures. Lower and mid-stratospheric long-term trends are negative, and the trends from Boulder are shown not to be globally representative. In the upper stratosphere, our record extends back to 1986 and shows positive long-term trends. The altitudinal differences in the trends are explained by methane oxidation together with a strengthened lower-stratospheric and a weakened upper-stratospheric circulation inferred by this analysis. Our results call into question previous estimates of surface radiative forcing based on presumed global long-term increases in water vapour concentrations in the lower stratosphere.

  8. Global models of turbulence in protoplanetary disks I. A cylindrical potential on a Cartesian grid and transport of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Lyra, W; Klahr, H; Piskunov, N

    2007-01-01

    We present global 3D MHD simulations of disks of gas and solids, aiming at developing models that can be used to study various scenarios of planet formation and planet-disk interaction in turbulent accretion disks. A second goal is to show that Cartesian codes are comparable to cylindrical and spherical ones in handling the magnetohydrodynamics of the disk simulations, as the disk-in-a-box models presented here develop and sustain MHD turbulence. We investigate the dependence of the magnetorotational instability on disk scale height, finding evidence that the turbulence generated by the magnetorotational instability grows with thermal pressure. The turbulent stresses depend on the thermal pressure obeying a power law of 0.24+/-0.03, compatible with the value of 0.25 found in shearing box calculations. The ratio of stresses decreased with increasing temperature. We also study the dynamics of boulders in the hydromagnetic turbulence. The vertical turbulent diffusion of the embedded boulders is comparable to the...

  9. CT Scans of Soil Specimen Processed in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    CT scans of the spcimens on STS-79 reveal internal cone-shaped features and radial patterns not seen in specimens processed on the ground. The lighter areas are the densest in these images. CT scans produced richly detailed images allowing scientists to build 3D models of the interior of the specimens that can be compared with microscopic examination of thin slices. This view is made from a series of horizontal slices. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: Los Alamos National Laboratory and the University of Colorado at Boulder.

  10. Recent progress in rock magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtillot, Vincent

    Availability of affordable high-performance computers has spurred research into the mathematical modelling of magnetic domain structures, stability of magnetic remanences and their experimental verification. Further, a recently substantially increased amount of observations of magnetic minerals other than magnetite in natural rocks has intitiated studies of their fundamental magnetic properties. To provide a forum for discussion of the latest developments covering these important subjects, two symposia were organized at the XXI General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (Boulder, Colorado, USA, July 2-14, 1995): New Approaches in Rock Magnetism (convened by S.L. Halgedahl and F. Heider) and Properties of minor magnetic minerals (convened by MJ. Dekkers and E. McClelland). In total 62 contributions were presented. This special section of Geophysical Research Letters comprises 19 papers, meeting, hopefully some of the most significant. The four convenors assisted me as associate-editors in preparing this special issue, and I would like to thank them. The time taken by many reviewers is also appreciated. I hope the reader will get a feeling of the excitement that was evident during the Boulder meeting and will find this a useful collection of articles for later use.

  11. CT Scans of Soil Specimen Processed in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    CT scans of the spcimens on STS-79 reveal internal cone-shaped features and radial patterns not seen in specimens processed on the ground. The lighter areas are the densest in these images. CT scans produced richly detailed images allowing scientists to build 3D models of the interior of the specimens that can be compared with microscopic examination of thin slices. This view depict horizontal slices from top to bottom of a flight specimen. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: Los Alamos National Laboratory and the University of Colorado at Boulder.

  12. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The packing of particles can change radically during cyclic loading such as in an earthquake or when shaking a container to compact a powder. A large hole (1) is maintained by the particles sticking to each other. A small, counterclockwise strain (2) collapses the hole, and another large strain (3) forms more new holes which collapse when the strain reverses (4). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (after T.L. Youd, Packing Changes and Liquefaction Susceptibility, Journal of the Geotechnical Engieering Division, 103: GT8,918-922, 1977)(Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center.)(Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  13. An Alluvial Surface Chronology Based on Cosmogenic 36Cl Dating, Ajo Mountains (Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument), Southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Beiling; Phillips, Fred M.; Pohl, Molly M.; Sharma, Pankaj

    1996-01-01

    A chronology of alluvial surfaces on piedmont slopes below the western Ajo Mountains, southern Arizona, has been obtained using cosmogenic 36Cl accumulation and AMS radiocarbon dating. The apparent 36Cl ages of individual boulders range from 520,000 to 13,000 yr, and the 14C ages of organic material in the two young terraces are 2750-2350 and 17,800 cal yr B.P. The sequence of 36Cl ages is consistent with the apparent stratigraphic order, but groupings of similar ages for different surfaces appear to result from repeated reworking of older surfaces associated with the deposition of younger ones. The youngest surface gave a distribution of 36Cl ages about 30,000 yr older than the 14C and soil ages; however, this distribution had 36Cl ages that overlapped with 36Cl ages from active channels and hillslopes. We attribute the older-than-expected exposure ages of sampled boulders to inheritance of 36Cl while residing near the surface during very slow erosion on the mountain front. Our results show that although cosmogenic nuclide accumulation can help establish chronologies for surfaces in piedmont settings, care must be used in evaluating the effects of complex exposure histories.

  14. Long-path atmospheric measurements using dual frequency comb measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Eleanor; Cossel, Kevin; Truong, Gar-Wing; Giorgetta, Fabrizio; Swann, William; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    The dual frequency comb spectrometer is a new tool for performing atmospheric trace gas measurements. This instrument is capable of measuring carbon dioxide, methane, and water with extremely high resolution in the region between 1.5 and 2.1 microns in the near-IR. It combines the high resolution of a laboratory-based FTIR instrument with the portability of a long-path DOAS system. We operate this instrument at path lengths of a few kilometers, thus bridging the spatial resolution of in-situ point sensors and the tens of square kilometer footprints of satellites. This spatial resolution is ideal for measuring greenhouse gas emissions from cities. Here we present initial long-path integrated column measurements of the greenhouse gases water, carbon dioxide, and methane in an urban environment. We present a time series with 5 minute time resolution over a 2 kilometer path in Boulder, Colorado at the urban-rural interface. We validate this data via a comparison with an in-situ greenhouse gas monitor co-located along the measurement path and show that we agree well on the baseline concentration but that we are significantly less sensitive to local point source emission that have high temporal variability, making this instrument ideal for measurements of average city-wide emissions. We additionally present progress towards measurements over an 11 kilometer path over downtown Boulder to measure the diurnal flux of greenhouse gases across the city.

  15. Planetesimal formation in self-gravitating discs -- dust trapping by vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, P G; Rice, W K M

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism through which meter-sized boulders grow to km-sized planetesimals in protoplanetary discs is a subject of active research, since it is critical for planet formation. To avoid spiralling into the protostar due to aerodynamic drag, objects must rapidly grow from cm-sized pebbles, which are tightly coupled to the gas, to large boulders of 1-100m in diameter. It is already well known that over-densities in the gaseous component of the disc provide potential sites for the collection of solids, and that significant density structures in the gaseous component of the disc (e.g., spiral density waves) can trap solids efficiently enough for the solid component of the disc to undergo further gravitational collapse due to their own self-gravity. In this work, we employ the PENCIL CODE to conduct local shearing sheet simulations of massive self-gravitating protoplanetary discs, to study the effect of anticyclonic transient vortices, or eddies, on the evolution of solids in these discs. We find that these typ...

  16. Janet Quinn, RN, PhD. Therapeutic touch and a healing way. Interview by Bonnie Horrigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J

    1996-07-01

    Janet Quinn, RN, PhD, is an associate professor and senior scholar at the Center for Human Caring at the School of Nursing, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, in Denver, Colo. In addition to teaching she conducts research, lectures, writes, and maintains a private practice in Boulder, Colo. She received her PhD in nursing research and theory development from New York University in 1982. Quinn is a member of Sigma Theta Tau, and is active in a diverse group of professional organizations including the American Nurses Association, American Holistic Nurses Association, Association for Holotropic Breathwork International, Association for Transpersonal Psychology, International Society for the Study of Subtle Energy and Energy Medicine, Hakomi Therapy Association, and the Institute of Noetic Sciences. During her career she has received many awards including the Healers Award from the Nurse Healers and Professional Associates (1995); the Edgar S Wilson, MD, Fellowship Award from the International Society for the Study of Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine (1994); and the Holistic Nurse of the Year award from the American Holistic Nurses Association. Alternative Therapies interviewed Dr Quinn at her office in Boulder, Colo. PMID:8795925

  17. Application of OSL and 10Be techniques to the establishment of deglaciation chronology in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deglaciation history of Estonia has been under research for about a century. Despite the great number of publications devoted to this subject and marked improvements in study methods, many problems of topical interest have not been solved yet, especially due to the lack of good direct dating methods. In this paper the suitability of OSL and 10Be dating techniques for establishing accurate deglaciation chronology for Estonia is assessed. Turbidity and water depth, velocity of outwash streams and transport length, possible fast sedimentation at night hours or below the ice, incorporation of older, unbleached particles, and other factors affected the extent of the bleaching of the TL signal in different ways, causing great variability of dates. Surface inclination, height of the surface over ground, snow and vegetation cover, and evolution of water bodies influenced the calculation of reliable exposure ages of objects dated using the 10Be method. It means that age determinations of both glaciofluvial deposits with the OSL method and erratic boulders with the 1Be method are highly problematic, especially for glaciofluvial intertill sediments where the exact genesis of deposits is unknown and for boulders, which have been in the forest, under the waters of proglacial lakes and/or the Baltic Sea, or under snow cover for a long time. (author)

  18. Distribution of manganese between coexisting biotite and hornblende in plutonic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, L.P.; Gottfried, D.; Tilling, R.I.

    1968-01-01

    The distribution of manganese between coexisting biotite and hornblende for 80 mineral pairs from igneous rocks of diverse provenance (including Southern California, Sierra Nevada, Boulder, and Boulder Creek batholiths and the Jemez Mountains volcanics) has been determined by neutron activation analysis. Data on the distribution ratio (Kd = Mnhornblende Mnbiotite) indicate that an equilibrium distribution of Mn is closely approached, though not completely attained, in most samples from plutonic environments. Comparison of Kd values of mineral pairs with bulk chemical composition of host rocks reveals no correlation. Because initial crystallization temperatures vary with rock composition, the lack of correlation of composition with Kd suggests that the equilibrium distribution of Mn between biotite and hornblende reflects exchange at subsolidus temperatures rather than initial crystallization temperatures. The highest Kd values are for volcanic rocks, in which rapid quenching prevents subsolidus redistribution of Mn. For sample pairs from the Southern California and Sierra Nevada batholiths there is a positive correlation of Kd with TiO2 content of biotite. Though the evidence is not compelling, Kd may also correlate with the rate of cooling and/or the presence or absence of sphene in the rock. ?? 1968.

  19. Structure-forming corals and sponges and their use as fish habitat in Bering Sea submarine canyons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Miller

    Full Text Available Continental margins are dynamic, heterogeneous settings that can include canyons, seamounts, and banks. Two of the largest canyons in the world, Zhemchug and Pribilof, cut into the edge of the continental shelf in the southeastern Bering Sea. Here currents and upwelling interact to produce a highly productive area, termed the Green Belt, that supports an abundance of fishes and squids as well as birds and marine mammals. We show that in some areas the floor of these canyons harbors high densities of gorgonian and pennatulacean corals and sponges, likely due to enhanced surface productivity, benthic currents and seafloor topography. Rockfishes, including the commercially important Pacific ocean perch, Sebastes alutus, were associated with corals and sponges as well as with isolated boulders. Sculpins, poachers and pleuronectid flounders were also associated with corals in Pribilof Canyon, where corals were most abundant. Fishes likely use corals and sponges as sources of vertical relief, which may harbor prey as well as provide shelter from predators. Boulders may be equivalent habitat in this regard, but are sparse in the canyons, strongly suggesting that biogenic structure is important fish habitat. Evidence of disturbance to the benthos from fishing activities was observed in these remote canyons. Bottom trawling and other benthic fishing gear has been shown to damage corals and sponges that may be very slow to recover from such disturbance. Regulation of these destructive practices is key to conservation of benthic habitats in these canyons and the ecosystem services they provide.

  20. Structure-forming corals and sponges and their use as fish habitat in Bering Sea submarine canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert J; Hocevar, John; Stone, Robert P; Fedorov, Dmitry V

    2012-01-01

    Continental margins are dynamic, heterogeneous settings that can include canyons, seamounts, and banks. Two of the largest canyons in the world, Zhemchug and Pribilof, cut into the edge of the continental shelf in the southeastern Bering Sea. Here currents and upwelling interact to produce a highly productive area, termed the Green Belt, that supports an abundance of fishes and squids as well as birds and marine mammals. We show that in some areas the floor of these canyons harbors high densities of gorgonian and pennatulacean corals and sponges, likely due to enhanced surface productivity, benthic currents and seafloor topography. Rockfishes, including the commercially important Pacific ocean perch, Sebastes alutus, were associated with corals and sponges as well as with isolated boulders. Sculpins, poachers and pleuronectid flounders were also associated with corals in Pribilof Canyon, where corals were most abundant. Fishes likely use corals and sponges as sources of vertical relief, which may harbor prey as well as provide shelter from predators. Boulders may be equivalent habitat in this regard, but are sparse in the canyons, strongly suggesting that biogenic structure is important fish habitat. Evidence of disturbance to the benthos from fishing activities was observed in these remote canyons. Bottom trawling and other benthic fishing gear has been shown to damage corals and sponges that may be very slow to recover from such disturbance. Regulation of these destructive practices is key to conservation of benthic habitats in these canyons and the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:22470486

  1. Water chemistry of surface waters affected by the Fourmile Canyon wildfire, Colorado, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the Fourmile Canyon fire burned about 23 percent of the Fourmile Creek watershed in Boulder County, Colo. Water-quality sampling of Fourmile Creek began within a month after the wildfire to assess its effects on surface-water chemistry. Water samples were collected from five sites along Fourmile Creek (above, within, and below the burned area) monthly during base flow, twice weekly during snowmelt runoff, and at higher frequencies during storm events. Stream discharge was also monitored. Water-quality samples were collected less frequently from an additional 6 sites on Fourmile Creek, from 11 tributaries or other inputs, and from 3 sites along Boulder Creek. The pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, specific ultraviolet absorbance, total suspended solids, and concentrations (dissolved and total) of major cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium), anions (chloride, sulfate, alkalinity, fluoride, and bromide), nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, and phosphorus), trace metals (aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, mercury, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, rubidium, antimony, selenium, strontium, vanadium, and zinc), and dissolved organic carbon are here reported for 436 samples collected during 2010 and 2011.

  2. Gypsum-hosted endolithic communities of the Lake St. Martin impact structure, Manitoba, Canada: spectroscopic detectability and implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, T.; Ronholm, J.; Berg, B.; Mann, P.; Applin, D.; Stromberg, J.; Sharma, R.; Whyte, L. G.; Cloutis, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that Mars may have once been a habitable environment. Gypsum is targeted in the search for Martian biosignatures because it can host extensive cryptoendolithic communities in extreme terrestrial environments and is widespread on Mars. In this study the viability of using different spectroscopy-based techniques to identify the presence of gypsum endolithic communities was investigated by analysing various cryptoendoliths collected from the Lake St. Martin impact crater (LSM), a Mars analogue site found in Manitoba, Canada. Concurrently, the cryptoendolithic microbial community structure present was also analysed to aid in assigning spectroscopic features to microbial community members. Two main morphologies of endolithic communities were collected from gypsum deposits at LSM: true cryptoendolithic communities and annular deposits on partially buried boulders and cobbles Endolithic communities were found to be visibly present only in gypsum with a high degree of translucency and could occur as deep as 3 cm below the exterior surface. The bacterial community was dominated by a phylum (Chloroflexi) that has not been previously observed in gypsum endoliths. The exterior surfaces of gypsum boulders and cobbles are devoid of spectroscopic features attributable to organic molecules and detectable by reflectance, Raman, or ultraviolet-induced fluorescence spectroscopies. However, exposed interior surfaces show unique endolithic signatures detectable by each spectroscopic technique. This indicates that cryptoendolithic communities can be detected via spectroscopy-based techniques, provided they are either partially or fully exposed and enough photon-target interactions occur to enable detection.

  3. Natural attenuation of heavy oil on a coarse sediment beach : results from Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia, Canada over 35 years following the Arrow oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, E.H. [Polaris Applied Sciences Inc., Bainbridge Island, WA (United States); Prince, R.C. [ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc., Annandale, NJ (United States); Taylor, R.B. [Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

    2008-07-01

    In 1970, the tanker Arrow spilled bunker C oil into Black Duck Cove on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia. The coarse sediment beaches provided an accessible natural laboratory for the study of the long-term fate and persistence of stranded oil in a coastal marine environment. Although the site is well known to the oil spill scientific community, it has not been studied systematically and much remains to be learned regarding the physical and chemical processes that have been ongoing. More information is needed pertaining to the character of the oil residues and the reasons for their persistence. This paper summarized the knowledge that has been acquired collectively over the last 35 years. The focus was primarily on coarse sediments, including cobbles and boulders. All tidal zones at the site have both surface and subsurface oil deposits. The sediments whose pore spaces remain filled with oil are examples of stable oil-sediment deposits. Wave action is slowly eroding these asphalt pavements. Intertidal pore-filled sediments are resistant to physical processes, and sequestered subsurface residues coat the cobble-boulder sediments below the zone of sediment redistribution. The subsurface oils will probably remain until the sediment is disturbed by major storms or by landward barrier migration. Although the surface oil is highly biodegraded, the subsurface oil remains similar to that of the spilled material. It was concluded that subsurface residues will likely remain sequestered and unaltered for the foreseeable future. 26 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. Cosmic ray exposure ages of features and events at the Apollo landing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic ray exposure ages of lunar samples have been used to date surface features related to impact cratering and downslope movement of material. Only when multiple samples related to a feature have the same rare gas exposure age, or when a single sample has the same 81Kr-Kr and track exposure age can a feature be considered reliably dated. Because any single lunar sample is likely to have had a complex history, assignment of ages to features based upon only one determination by any method should be avoided. Based on the above criteria, there are only five well-dated lunar features: Cone Crater (Apollo 14) 26 m.y., North Ray Crater (Apollo 16) 50 m.y., South Ray Crater (Apollo 16) 2 m.y., the emplacement of the Station 6 boulders (Apollo 17) 22 m.y., and the emplacement of the Station 7 boulder (Apollo 17) 28 m.y. Other features are tentatively dated or have limits set on their ages: Bench Crater (Apollo 12) =50 m.y. (Auth.)

  5. 1999 shoreline conditions in the Exxon Valdez oil spill zone in Prince William Sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the studies which were conducted at the time of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound was presented. The Shoreline Ecology Program (SEP) of 1990 and 1991 which assessed the fate and environmental impacts of the spill consisted of two parts, including a non-random sampling program where samples of sediment were taken from worst case sites for infaunal community structure analysis, plus a stratified random sampling (SRS) program of 64 sites to assess the spill affects as a whole. This paper presents the results of more recent studies from 1998 and 1999 which provide updates on the 1991 SEP program for comparative evaluations. Oil was found to persist at some boulder/cobble beaches because of their porous nature and the sheltering effect of the boulders. Residues of weathered oil at these sites were generally at the top of the tide zone in a form and place where threat to biota is minimal. However, the results indicate that natural inter-annual variability is the most consistent signal observed, not the residual effects of the oil spill. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  6. Relative Terrain Imaging Navigation (RETINA) Tool for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cinnamon A.; Van Eepoel, John; Liounis, Andrew; Shoemaker, Michael; DeWeese, Keith; Getzandanner, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the NASA initiative to collect a boulder off of an asteroid and return it to Lunar orbit, the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) and NASA GSFC are developing an on-board relative terrain imaging navigation algorithm for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM). After performing several flybys and dry runs to verify and refine the shape, spin, and gravity models and obtain centimeter level imagery, the spacecraft will descend to the surface of the asteroid to capture a boulder and return it to Lunar Orbit. The algorithm implements Stereophotoclinometry methods to register landmarks with images taken onboard the spacecraft, and use these measurements to estimate the position and orientation of the spacecraft with respect to the asteroid. This paper will present an overview of the ARRM GN&C system and concept of operations as well as a description of the algorithm and its implementation. These techniques will be demonstrated for the descent to the surface of the proposed asteroid of interest, 2008 EV5, and preliminary results will be shown.

  7. Covalently crosslinked diels-alder polymer networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Christopher (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Adzima, Brian J. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Anderson, Benjamin John

    2011-09-01

    This project examines the utility of cycloaddition reactions for the synthesis of polymer networks. Cycloaddition reactions are desirable because they produce no unwanted side reactions or small molecules, allowing for the formation of high molecular weight species and glassy crosslinked networks. Both the Diels-Alder reaction and the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) were studied. Accomplishments include externally triggered healing of a thermoreversible covalent network via self-limited hysteresis heating, the creation of Diels-Alder based photoresists, and the successful photochemical catalysis of CuAAC as an alternative to the use of ascorbic acid for the generation of Cu(I) in click reactions. An analysis of the results reveals that these new methods offer the promise of efficiently creating robust, high molecular weight species and delicate three dimensional structures that incorporate chemical functionality in the patterned material. This work was performed under a Strategic Partnerships LDRD during FY10 and FY11 as part of a Sandia National Laboratories/University of Colorado-Boulder Excellence in Science and Engineering Fellowship awarded to Brian J. Adzima, a graduate student at UC-Boulder. Benjamin J. Anderson (Org. 1833) was the Sandia National Laboratories point-of-contact for this fellowship.

  8. Surface Net Solar Radiation Estimated from Satellite Measurements: Comparisons with Tower Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, H. G.; Cess, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    A parameterization that relates the reflected solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the net solar flux at the surface in terms of only the column water vapor amount and the solar zenith angle was tested against surface observations. Net surface fluxes deduced from coincidental collocated satellite-measured radiances and from measurements from towers in Boulder during summer and near Saskatoon in winter have mean differences of about 2 W/sq m, regardless of whether the sky is clear or cloudy. Furthermore, comparisons between the net fluxes deduced from the parameterization and from surface measurements showed equally good agreement when the data were partitioned into morning and afternoon observations. This is in contrast to results from an empirical clear-sky algorithm that is unable to account adequately for the effects of clouds and that shows, at Boulder, a distinct morning to afternoon variation, which is presumably due to the predominance of different cloud types throughout the day. It is also demonstrated that the parameterization may be applied to irradiances at the top of the atmosphere that have been temporally averaged by using the temporally averaged column water vapor amount and the temporally averaged cosine of the solar zenith angle. The good agreement between the results of the parameterization and surface measurements suggests that the algorithm is a useful tool for a variety of climate studies.

  9. The February 27, 2010 Chile Tsunami - Sedimentology of runup and backflow deposits at Isla Mocha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlburg, H.; Spiske, M.

    2010-12-01

    On February 27, 2010, at 3:34 am local time, an earthquake with Mw 8.8 occurred off the town of Constitución in Central Chile and caused a major tsunami beween Valaparaiso (c. 33°S) and Tirua (c. 38°S). Maximum runup heights of up to 10 m were measured on coastal plains. The cliff coast at Tirua recorded a runup height between 30 m and 40 m. Considering past tsunami events, respective deposits may be the only observable evidence, even though their preservation potential is limited. To understand how tsunami deposits form and how they can be identified in the geological record, it is of paramount importance to undertake detailed studies in the wake of such events. Here we report initial field data of a sedimentological post-tsunami field survey undertaken in Central Chile between March 31 and April 18, 2010. At selected localities we measured detailed topographic profiles including runup heights and inundation distances, and recorded the thickness, distribution and sedimentological features of the respective tsunami deposits, as well as erosional features caused by the tsunami. We found the most instructive and complete sedimentological record of the February 27, 2010 tsunami at the northern tip of Isla Mocha, a small island off the Chilean coast at c. 28.15°S. Runup distances vary between 400 m and 600 m, the flow depth exceeded 3 m at ca. 100 m from the coast. Runup heights reached up to 21 m above sea level. In a rare sedimentological case, deposits of tsunami runup and backwash could be distinguished. The runup phase was mainly documented by fields of boulders extending c. 360 m inland. Boulders had maximum weights of 12 t. They were oriented with their long axis parallel to the coast and the wave front. Algal veneers and barnacles on the boulder faces give evidence of entrainment in intertidal water depths. The boulders are now embedded in mostly structureless coarse shelly sand. These sands were originally entrained during near shore supratidal erosion of

  10. Finding and characterizing candidate targets for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodas, P.

    2014-07-01

    NASA's proposed Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) leverages key on-going activities in Human Exploration and Space Technology to advance NASA's goals in these areas. One primary objective of ARM would be to develop and demonstrate a high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle which would have the capability of moving significant amounts of mass around the solar system. SEP would be a key technology for robust future missions to deep space destinations, possibly including human missions to asteroids or to Mars. ARM would use the SEP vehicle to redirect up to hundreds of tons of material from a near-Earth asteroid into a stable lunar orbit, where a crew flying in an Orion vehicle would rendezvous and dock with it. The crew would perform an extra-vehicular activity (EVA), sample the material, and bring it back to the Earth; follow-on visits would also be possible. Two ARM mission concepts are being studied: one is to go to a small 4-10-meter-diameter asteroid, capture the entire asteroid and guide it into lunar orbit; the other is to go to a large 100-500 meter asteroid, remove a 1-10 meter boulder, and bring the boulder back into lunar orbit. A planetary defense demonstration could be included under either concept. Although some candidate targets are already known for both mission concepts, an observation campaign has been organized to identify more mission candidates. This campaign naturally leverages off of NASA's NEO Observations Program. Enhancements to asteroid search capabilities which will come online soon should increase the discovery rates for ARM candidates and hazardous asteroids alike. For the small-asteroid ARM concept, candidate targets must be smaller than about 12 meters, must follow Earth-like orbits and must naturally approach the Earth closely in the early 2020s, providing the opportunity for a low-velocity capture into the Earth/Moon system. About a dozen candidates are known with absolute magnitudes in the right range and with orbits

  11. The rock avalanche of the Mt. Peron (Eastern Alps, Italy): new insights from 36Cl exposure dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Silvana; Ivy-ochs, Susan; Alfimov, Vasili; Vockenhuber, %Christof; Surian, Nicola; Campedel, Paolo; Rigo, Manuel; Viganò, Alfio; De Zorzi, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    In the Late Pleistocene, in the southern side of the Eastern Alps (Veneto region, Italy), when the glacier tongues retreated from the end moraine system areas towards the Dolomitic region, large rock avalanches took place. In the Belluno Valley, occupied by the Piave river, the left side is represented by the Belluno Prealps range, corresponding to the northern flank of a km-scale WSW-ENE oriented alpine syncline formed by rocks from Late Triassic to Late Tertiary in age. The Mt. Peron, belonging to this mountain range, shows its southern lower slope covered by debris cones with scattered boulders and its higher slope, corresponding to the scarp, made of vertical rock strata. At the foot of Mt. Peron, at a distance varying from 500 to 4500 m, there is a 4.5 km2 fan like area delimited by a perimeter of about 15 km. This is a hilly area of poortly sorted, chaotic deposits composed of heterogeneous debris, sandy and silty gravels, angular blocks and very large boulders of carbonatic rocks up to 20 m in diameter. The average thickness of the deposit was estimated to be 80 m, with maximum of 120 m. According to previous works, the main event occurred during the first phases of deglaciation, between 17,000 and 15,000 years BP. Popular stories narrate about two legendary villages destroyed by a mass of stones rolling down in the valley. This is confirmed by archeological findings in the Piave valley which indicate the presence of almost one pre-historic settlement dating 40000-20000 years a B.P., (i.e. before the Last Glacial Maximum).. Recent 36Cl exposure dating have yielded historical ages for both the boulders at the foot of the Mt Peron and those located a few km far from the main scarp. According to these exposure ages we can not exclude the hypothesis that earthquakes related to the Venetian faults could have played a key role for triggering of the rock avalanche and that the main gravitational event took place in historical times rather than during the

  12. Characterizing the danger of in-channel river hazards using LIDAR and a 2D hydrodynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, M. A.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Despite many injuries and deaths each year worldwide, no analytically rigorous attempt exists to characterize and quantify the dangers to boaters, swimmers, fishermen, and other river enthusiasts. While designed by expert boaters, the International Scale of River Difficulty provides a whitewater classification that uses qualitative descriptions and subjective scoring. The purpose of this study was to develop an objective characterization of in-channel hazard dangers across spatial scales from a single boulder to an entire river segment for application over a wide range of discharges and use in natural hazard assessment and mitigation, recreational boating safety, and river science. A process-based conceptualization of river hazards was developed, and algorithms were programmed in R to quantify the associated dangers. Danger indicators included the passage proximity and reaction time posed to boats and swimmers in a river by three hazards: emergent rocks, submerged rocks, and hydraulic jumps or holes. The testbed river was a 12.2 km mixed bedrock-alluvial section of the upper South Yuba River between Lake Spaulding and Washington, CA in the Sierra Mountains. The segment has a mean slope of 1.63%, with 8 reaches varying from 1.07% to 3.30% slope and several waterfalls. Data inputs to the hazard analysis included sub-decimeter aerial color imagery, airborne LIDAR of the river corridor, bathymetric data, flow inputs, and a stage-discharge relation for the end of the river segment. A key derived data product was the location and configuration of boulders and boulder clusters as these were potential hazards. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling was used to obtain the meter-scale spatial pattern of depth and velocity at discharges ranging from baseflow to modest flood stages. Results were produced for four discharges and included the meter-scale spatial pattern of the passage proximity and reaction time dangers for each of the three hazards investigated. These results

  13. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.; Duhl, T.; Daly, R.

    2012-10-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple (Malus sp.), horse chestnut (Aesculus carnea, "Ft. McNair"), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, "Sunburst"), and hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata, "Pauls Scarlet"). These species constitute ~ 65% of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees) from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10-C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS). Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the post-blooming state for crabapple and honey locust. The results were scaled to the dry mass of leaves and flowers contained in the enclosure. Only flower dry mass was accounted for crabapple emission rates as leaves appeared at the end of the flowering period. Total normalized (30 °C) monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.3 μgC g-1 h-1) than after flowering (1.2 μgC g-1 h-1). The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 μgC g-1 h-1) during the flowering period is of the same

  14. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baghi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple, horse chestnut, honey locust, and hawthorn. These species constitute ~65 % of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10–C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS. Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the vegetative state for crabapple and honey locust. Total normalized (30 °C monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.26 μg Cg−1 h−1 than after flowering (1.23 μg Cg−1 h−1. The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 μg Cg−1 h−1 during the flowering period is of the same order as isoprene emissions from oak trees, which are among the highest BVOC emissions observed from plants to date. These findings illustrate that during the relatively brief springtime flowering period, floral

  15. Is Fish Response related to Velocity and Turbulence Magnitudes? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. A.; Hockley, F. A.; Cable, J.

    2013-12-01

    Riverine fish are subject to heterogeneous velocities and turbulence, and may use this to their advantage by selecting regions which balance energy expenditure for station holding whilst maximising energy gain through feeding opportunities. This study investigated microhabitat selection by guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in terms of the three-dimensional velocity structure generated by idealised boulders in an experimental flume. Velocity and turbulence influenced intra-species variation in swimming behaviour with respect to size, sex and parasite intensity. With increasing body length, fish swam further and more frequently between boulder regions. Larger guppies spent more time in the high velocity and low turbulence region, whereas smaller guppies preferred the low velocity and high shear stress region directly behind the boulders. Male guppies selected the region of low velocity, indicating a possible reduced swimming ability due to hydrodynamic drag imposed by their fins. With increasing parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli) burden, fish preferentially selected the region of moderate velocity which had the lowest bulk measure of turbulence of all regions and was also the most spatially homogeneous velocity and turbulence region. Overall the least amount of time was spent in the recirculation zone which had the highest magnitude of shear stresses and mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio. Shear stresses were a factor of two greater than in the most frequented moderate velocity region, while mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio were six times greater. Indeed the mean longitudinal turbulent scale was 2-6 times greater than the fish length in all regions. While it is impossible to discriminate between these two turbulence parameters (shear stress and turbulent length to fish length ratio) in influencing the fish preference, our study infers that there is a bias towards fish spending more time in a region where both the bulk

  16. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Jody P.

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: increase rainbow trout recruitment, identify rainbow and bull trout spawning tributaries and migration timing, establish baseline data on bull trout redd numbers in tributaries, and improve the rainbow trout population size structure. Six adult rainbow trout were moved to spawning habitat upstream of a potential migration barrier on Caboose Creek, but numbers of redds and age-0 out-migrants did not appear to increase relative to a reference stream. Measurements taken on the Moyie River indicated the gradient is inadequate to deliver suitable flows to a proposed rainbow trout spawning channel. Summer water temperatures measured in the Deep Creek drainage sometimes exceeded 24 C, higher than those reported as suitable for rainbow trout. Radio-tagged rainbow trout were located in Boulder Creek during the spring spawning season, and bull trout were located in the Moyie River and O'Brien Creek, Montana in the fall. Bull trout spawning migration timing was related to increases in Kootenai River flows. Bull trout redd surveys documented 19 redds on Boulder Creek and North and South Callahan creeks. Fall 2002 electrofishing showed that the Kootenai River rainbow trout proportional stock density was 54, higher than prior years when more liberal fishing regulations were in effect. Boulder Creek produces the highest number of age-0 rainbow trout out-migrants upstream of Bonners Ferry, but the survival rate of these out-migrants upon reaching the Kootenai River is unknown. Determining juvenile survival rates and sources of mortality could aid management

  17. Crustacea decapoda da praia rochosa da Ilha do Farol, Matinhos, Paraná: II. Distribuição espacial de densidade das populações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setuko Masunari

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Decapod crustaceans from rocky shore at Farol Isle, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil. II. Spatial distribution of population densities. A study of the spatial distribution of the decapod populations from a rocky shore at Farol Isle, Matinhos, State of Paraná, Brazil (25º51'S, 48º32'W was canied out. In the supralittoral the rocky surface is covered partially by a layer of litter coming from the terrestrial habitats; in the midlittoral boulders and pebbles cover the rocky basin and in the infralittoral, there is a belt of seaweeds. A total of 8 samples were taken by hand, two from each of the following levels: supralittoral (emersion time 8-12 hours, upper midlittoral (4-8, lower midlittoral (0-4 and limit between midlittoral and infralittoral, monthly, from May/1990 to April/1991. The number of species increased from supralittoral (5 to infralittoral (22 and a clear vertical zonation on density was observed according to the emersion time gradient. The supralittoral is characterized by grapsids Armases angustipes (Dana, (1852, Cyclograpsus integer H. Milne Edwards, 1837 and Metasesarma rubripes (Rathbun, 1897 which have terrestrial habits and aerial respiration as a main way in obtaining the oxygen. In the midlittoral, the decapods show three basic types of adaptation against emersion desiccation and thermal stresses: (1 by digging into wet mud among the stones such as Panopeus americanus Saussure, 1857, Panopeus occidentalis Saussure, 1857 and Eurypanopeus abbreviatus Stimpson, 1860, (2 by resting in shady and wet space between the boulders and pebbles or underside of them, like Pachygrapsus transversus (Gibbes, 1850, Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, 1850 and adults of Menippe nodifrons Stimpson, 1859 and (3 by clinging over the soaked filamentous algae layer on the pebbles or bouders surfaces, a strategy observed in small species such as Pilumnus dasypodus Kingsley, 1879, Podochela sp., Petrolisthes galathinus (Bosc, 1801 , Alpheus bouvieri A. Milne

  18. How Can Flood Affect the Real Estate Market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo Rangel, Miguel Angel; Sapač, Klaudija; Brilly, Mitja

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how actual flood events can affect the real estate for different case studies. Therefore, we have analysed the impact for two cases, the first is the flood event which occurred in 2013 in Boulder, Colorado, United States, city that is located in the eastern part of the Rocky Mountains, and the second event was the flood which occurred in 2010 the city of Ljubljana, capital and largest city of Slovenia, that is located between the Alpine and Balkan mountains.. The methodology that was used is comparison of mean prices of real estate, taking into account the flood events which have been chosen in accordance with the available data and previous studies, furthermore for the case study of Ljubljana, Slovenia questionnaires were sent through one civil organization which is actively working in the area (Civil Initiative for Flood Security SW part of Ljubljana). Analysed sales prices during the period 2009-2014 in the case study of Boulder, Colorado, United States showed that the flood event in 2013 did not significantly affect the mean price of real estate within the flooded area, besides prices inside the flood plain tended to stay above the prices outside the floodplain. Nevertheless, we have found that the flood event affected the real estate sector in terms of number of sales, being that after the flood event in 2013 sales decreased 52% regarding the previous years. For the case study of Ljubljana, Slovenia the results were unexpected somehow. In fact we expected that the prices of real estate located within the flooded areas, on average, would be lower than those located outside the flooded areas, and that was what shown in the results, which is actually opposite to what occurred for the case study of Boulder City. However the research showed that the flood event in 2010 did not affect the change in prices of real estate within the flooded areas and the trend was considerable similar to previous years the flood event in 2010

  19. Umbrella structure and channel-wall stoping in the Cambrian St. Roch Formation, Quebec Appalachians: significance for particle support mechanisms and turbulence development in hyper-concentrated sediment gravity flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Reinhard; Fong, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Umbrella structure is a newly recognized sedimentary structure associated with large platy clasts in resedimented boulder-bearing pebble conglomerate with a sandy matrix. It consists of a sand rim that lacks pebbles on parts or the entire underside of platy boulders, whereas on the upper side, pebbles are in direct contact with the boulders. The depositing processes were high- to hyper-concentrated sediment gravity flows in a submarine channel or canyon on the Cambrian continental slope of North America bordering the Iapetus Ocean. The structure occurs predominantly where clasts dip moderately in the down-current direction. Based on the association of the structure with slightly forward dipping slabs, it is proposed that these down-current dipping slabs may have been in the process of counter-clockwise rotation that was aborted and may have generated a pressure shadow on the underside enabling the inrush of fluid and the infiltration of sand into the anomalous low-pressure zone. The structure has implications for particle support mechanisms in high- to hyper-concentrated sedimentary gravity flows, in that it redirects attention to the much debated mechanism of dispersive pressure and alternatives. It provides an observable sediment structure that supports dispersive pressure which so far depended on experimental evidence and theoretical arguments alone. Vrolijk and Southard's (1997) concept of a `laminar sheared layer' is here for the first time interpreted as having an upward-moving `free-surface' layer effect during deposition from hyper-concentrated flows. Channel-wall stoping involves unlithified turbiditic spillover sand in the levee sediment of the canyon wall that was washed out by the upper diluted parts of the high-concentration flows coming down the channel and leaving a niche in the wall that was filled with coarser channel-axis facies by the same flow (or later flows) when its aggradation reached the level of the niche. The contact between turbidite and

  20. Geological research for public outreach and education in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante

    2013-04-01

    exposition at the Museum of Erratic Boulders in NW Lithuania is being rearranged for educational purposes, to show the major rock types and their origins more clearly. A new exhibition is supplemented with computer portals presenting geological processes, geological quizzes, animations etc. Magmatism, metamorphism, sedimentation and other geological processes are demonstrated using erratic boulders brought by glaciers from Scandinavia and northern Russia. A part of the exhibition is devoted to glaciation processes and arrival of ice sheets to Lithuania. Visitors are able to examine large erratic boulder groups in a surrounding park and to enjoy beautiful environment. The exhibition also demonstrates mineral resources of Lithuania, different fossils and stones from a human body. In all cases it was recognised that a lack of geological information limits the use of geology for public outreach. Ongoing scientific research is essential in many places as well as a mediator's job for interpreting the results of highly specialised research results and to adapt them for public consumption.

  1. Structural Design Considerations for a 50 kW-Class Solar Array for NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Yim, John T.; Le, Dzu K.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is planning an Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) to take place in the 2020s. To enable this multi-year mission, a 40 kW class solar electric propulsion (SEP) system powered by an advanced 50 kW class solar array will be required. Powered by the SEP module (SEPM), the ARM vehicle will travel to a large near-Earth asteroid, descend to its surface, capture a multi-metric ton (t) asteroid boulder, ascend from the surface and return to the Earth-moon system to ultimately place the ARM vehicle and its captured asteroid boulder into a stable distant orbit. During the years that follow, astronauts flying in the Orion multipurpose crew vehicle (MPCV) will dock with the ARM vehicle and conduct extra-vehicular activity (EVA) operations to explore and sample the asteroid boulder. This paper will review the top structural design considerations to successfully implement this 50 kW class solar array that must meet unprecedented performance levels. These considerations include beyond state-of-the-art metrics for specific mass, specific volume, deployed area, deployed solar array wing (SAW) keep in zone (KIZ), deployed strength and deployed frequency. Analytical and design results are presented that support definition of stowed KIZ and launch restraint interface definition. An offset boom is defined to meet the deployed SAW KIZ. The resulting parametric impact of the offset boom length on spacecraft moment of inertias and deployed SAW quasistatic and dynamic load cases are also presented. Load cases include ARM spacecraft thruster plume impingement, asteroid surface operations and Orion docking operations which drive the required SAW deployed strength and damping. The authors conclude that to support NASA's ARM power needs, an advanced SAW is required with mass performance better than 125 W/kg, stowed volume better than 40 kW/cu m, a deployed area of 200 sq m (100 sq m for each of two SAWs), a deployed SAW offset distance of nominally 3-4 m, a deployed SAW quasistatic strength

  2. The Geomorphological Evolution of a Landscape in a Tectonically Active Region: the Sennwald Landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksay, Selçuk; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Hippe, Kristina; Graemiger, Lorenz; Vockenhuber, Christof

    2016-04-01

    The Säntis nappe is a fold-and-thrust structure in eastern Switzerland consisting of numerous tectonic discontinuities that make rocks vulnerable to rock failure. The Sennwald landslide is one of those events that occurred due to the failure of Lower Cretaceous Helvetic limestones. This study reveals the surface exposure age of the event in relation to geological and tectonic setting, earthquake frequency of the Central Alps, and regional scale climate/weather influence. Our study comprises detailed mapping of landform features, thin section analysis of landslide boulder lithologies, landslide volume estimation, numerical DAN-3D run-out modelling, and the spatial and temporal relationship of the event. In the Sennwald landslide, 92 million m3 of limestones detached from the south-eastern wall of the Säntis nappe and slid with a maximum travel distance of ~4'500 m and a "fahrboeschung" angle of 15° along the SE-dipping sliding plane almost parallel to the orientation of the bedding plane. Numerical run-out modelling results match the extent and the thickness of landslide deposits as observed in the field. The original bedrock stratigraphy was preserved as geologically the top layer in the bedrock package travelled the farthest and the bottom layer came to rest closest to the release bedrock wall during the landslide. Velocities of maximum 90 m/s were obtained from the numerical run-out modelling. Total Cl and 36Cl were determined at ETH AMS facility with isotope dilution methods defined in the literature (Ivy-Ochs et al., 2004). Surface exposure ages of landslide deposits in the accumulation area are revealed from twelve boulders. The distribution of limestone boulders in the accumulation area, the exposure ages, and the numerical run-out modelling support the hypothesis that the Sennwald landslide was a single catastrophic event. The event is likely to have been triggered by at least light to moderate earthquakes (Mw=4.0-6.0). The historical and the last 40-year

  3. Gaetice depressus (Crustacea, Varunidae): Species profile and its role in organic carbon and nitrogen flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, A'an. J.; Wada, Shigeki; Aoki, Masakazu; Hama, Takeo

    2015-06-01

    Gaetice depressus is one of the most dominant macrozoobenthos species in boulder shores of intertidal coastal ecosystems in Japan. As recorded in previous studies, this species is also considered as having high density and biomass. Consequently, it is thought to be one of the more important species in the organic matter flow of boulder shores, especially through the food web. In this study, some taxonomic problems related to G. depressus were tackled and the autoecology and ecological processes in the intertidal ecosystem of G. depressus, such as organic matter flow, were investigated. Furthermore, in order to clarify the taxonomy description, resolve inconsistencies in the scientific name, and learn about the life history, a literature review was conducted. Seasonal changes in density, morphology pattern and population structure were determined based on the data obtained in Ebisu Island, Japan. Then, the role of G. depressus was determined by estimating the intake and emittance fluxes of organic carbon and nitrogen through ingestion and egestion process in the boulder shores of Ebisu Island. A feeding rate experiment was also conducted in order to estimate the intake flux by using the catch-release-recapture method. Meanwhile, to estimate the emittance flux, a defecation rate experiment was conducted by catching some individuals of G. depressus, and then incubating them in the laboratory. The feeding rate measured by the speed of diet consumption of G. depressus was about 12.6 mg ind-1 h-1. Considering the average density, the intake flux through the feeding process could be estimated as 25.2 mgC m-2 h-1 and 2.6 mgN m-2 h-1. On the other hand, G. depressus egested fecal pellet at the rate of 5.4 mg ind-1 h-1. The average emittance flux through the fecal pellet egesting process is estimated at 5.6 mgC m-2 h-1 and 0.7 mgN m-2 h-1. Therefore, it can be estimated that about 25% of organic matter from diet is egested as fecal pellet, which means that about 75% of the

  4. Carbon isotope fluctuations through the neoproterozoic-lower cambrian Birmania basin, Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paleogeographic reconstruction of the end phase of Neoproterozoic assumes a significance due to the fact that the interactions between the biosphere and the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere during this period of time strongly influenced the evolution of life and initiated a remarkable phase of organic evolution well documented in the rocks of this age (Banerjee and Majumdar, 1999). Time related changes in these carbon reservoirs and processes during the end Proterozoic have played an important role in the evolution of the environment and of life (Des Marais, 1997). Brasier (1992) discussed at length various factors that pushed shallow marine ecosystem of the late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian towards P-limitation and suggested that nitrate fixation, density stratification and massive removal of P in the sediments were responsible for the formation of phosphatic deposits within this time interval. East Gondwana assembly of continents provide fine examples of stratigraphic successions in which the ideas related to oceanic stratification, phosphate deposition, enhanced organic production and carbon isotope fluctuations can be verified and correlated from continent to continent (Banerjee and Majumdar, 1999). The Birmania basin is an oval shaped isolated remnant of the Marwar basin (Neo-proterozoic-Early Palaeozoic) located in the heart of the Thar desert of western Rajasthan, India. It is underlain by Malani Igneous Suite of rocks which range in age from 780 to 680Ma (Rathore et al., 1999).The Birmania basin comprises around 900 metre thick sedimentary sequence of siliciclastic, carbonate and phosphorite facies. These sequences are unconformably overlain by La-thi conglomerate of Jurassic age in north-ern flank of the basin. Global Neoproterozoic glacial activity in the western Rajasthan is also reported and is represented by Pokaran Boulder Bed, few kms away from study area. The Pokaran Boulder Bed overlies the Malani Igneous Suite and is mainly consist of boulders

  5. Survivor Interviews from the Sept. 29, 2009 tsunami on Samoa and American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, B. M.; Dudley, W. C.; Buckley, M. L.; Jaffe, B. E.; Fanolua, S.; Chan Kau, M.

    2009-12-01

    Thirty-one video interviews were carried out on the islands of Tutuila, American Samoa and Upolu, Samoa with survivors of, and responders to, the September 29, 2009 tsunami event. Those interviewed included local residents caught by the waves while attempting to flee to higher ground, those who intentionally ran into the water to save others, individuals who recognized the potential tsunami hazard due to the severity of the earthquake and attempted to warn others, first-responders, aid workers, tourism managers, and others. The frank, often emotional, responses provide unfiltered insight into the level of preparedness of local residents, level of training of first responders, and challenges faced by aid workers. Among the important observations voiced by interviewees were: (1) recent tsunami education briefings and school drills were critical in preventing greater loss of life; (2) those who had not received training about the tsunami hazard were unaware that a tsunami could follow a strong earthquake; (3) first responders were not adequately trained or prepared for the specific impacts of a tsunami; (4) initial medical procedures did not adequately address the levels of bacterial contamination; and (5) survivors, first responders and aid workers suffer from post traumatic stress disorder as a result of the event and its aftermath. Valuable scientific data can also be gained from first-hand accounts. Several interviews describe waves “bending,” “funneling,” and one spoke of the waves coming together as a “monster that jumped up from the channel spitting boulders.” In the village of Fagasa on the north coast of Tutuila, American Samoa, the assumed transport direction of large boulders by scientists was dramatically revised based on first-hand accounts of the original position of the boulders. The single most common message was that hazard education played a key role in saving lives in both Samoa and American Samoa. It is critically important to

  6. The roughness of the Martian surface: A scale dependent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, M. K.; Guinness, E. A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    In the coming decade, several lander missions to Mars are planned (e.g., MESUR Pathfinder, MESUR). One of the dangers facing planners of these missions is the rough topography observed at both Viking Lander sites. Both landing sites are ubiquitously covered with meter-scale boulders. Objects of this size pose obvious threats to soft landers, especially at Mars where the distance from Earth causes prohibitive time lags between the transmission of commands and feedback from the spacecraft. An obvious solution is to scout for a 'smooth' site prior to the landing. However, the best resolutions realizable on current and future missions (i.e., Mars Observer) are on the order of several meters. Even at this scale, boulders of 1-2 meters in size are unresolvable. Additionally, the amount of time and spacecraft resources required to search even a small area of the planet are unrealistic given other mission objectives. An alternative is to determine the 'roughness' of the surface at a subpixel scale using bidirectional reflectance observations. Much larger areas of the planet can be searched, and much of the search can easily be automated. The morphology of the martian plains observed by the Viking Landers is physically simple. The surface is covered with a layer (approximately flat lying) of aeolian sediment from which numerous outcrops of bedrock and boulders protrude. This morphology, while simple, will be difficult to characterize from orbit using traditional bidirectional reflectance models for two reasons. First, modeling the surface as facets with Gaussian or exponential slope distributions is not realistic given the morphology described above. Second, the roughness parameter is an 'average' of the roughness at scales ranging from the wavelength of light being scattered to the pixel size of the observation. Thus, there is no definite scale of roughness that can be extracted from the Hapke roughness parameter. Using the concepts of geometric and boolean models

  7. A closer look at water-related geologic activity on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.; Hansen, C.J.; Delamere, W.A.; Eliason, E.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Keszthelyi, L.; Gulick, V.C.; Kirk, R.L.; Mellon, M.T.; Grant, J. A.; Thomas, N.; Weitz, C.M.; Squyres, S. W.; Bridges, N.T.; Murchie, S.L.; Seelos, F.; Seelos, K.; Okubo, C.H.; Milazzo, M.P.; Tornabene, L.L.; Jaeger, W.L.; Byrne, S.; Russell, P.S.; Griffes, J.L.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Davatzes, A.; Chuang, F.C.; Thomson, B.J.; Fishbaugh, K.E.; Dundas, C.M.; Kolb, K.J.; Banks, M.E.; Wray, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Water has supposedly marked the surface of Mars and produced characteristic landforms. To understand the history of water on Mars, we take a close look at key locations with the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, reaching fine spatial scales of 25 to 32 centimeters per pixel. Boulders ranging up to ???2 meters in diameter are ubiquitous in the middle to high latitudes, which include deposits previously interpreted as fine-grained ocean sediments or dusty snow. Bright gully deposits identify six locations with very recent activity, but these lie on steep (20?? to 35??) slopes where dry mass wasting could occur. Thus, we cannot confirm the reality of ancient oceans or water in active gullies but do see evidence of fluvial modification of geologically recent mid-latitude gullies and equatorial impact craters.

  8. A Comparison of Flare Forecasting Methods, I: Results from the "All-Clear" Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, G; Schrijver, C J; Colak, T; Qahwaji, R; Ashamari, O W; Yuan, Y; Zhang, J; McAteer, R T J; Bloomfield, D S; Higgins, P A; Gallagher, P T; Falconer, D A; Georgoulis, M K; Wheatland, M S; Balch, C; Dunn, T; Wagner, E L

    2016-01-01

    Solar flares produce radiation which can have an almost immediate effect on the near-Earth environment, making it crucial to forecast flares in order to mitigate their negative effects. The number of published approaches to flare forecasting using photospheric magnetic field observations has proliferated, with varying claims about how well each works. Because of the different analysis techniques and data sets used, it is essentially impossible to compare the results from the literature. This problem is exacerbated by the low event rates of large solar flares. The challenges of forecasting rare events have long been recognized in the meteorology community, but have yet to be fully acknowledged by the space weather community. During the interagency workshop on "all clear" forecasts held in Boulder, CO in 2009, the performance of a number of existing algorithms was compared on common data sets, specifically line-of-sight magnetic field and continuum intensity images from MDI, with consistent definitions of what ...

  9. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, Part 1 of 2, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Carl

    1987-03-01

    The tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Idaho, that will be used in conjunction with 1984 and 1985 fish and habitat pre-treatment (baseline) data to evaluate effects of habitat enhancement on the habitat and fish community in Bear Valley Creek overtime. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur in the upper-Salmon River basin. Subproject III involved fish inventories (pre-treatment) in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River, and habitat problem identification on Fivemile and Ramey Creek. Subproject IV involved baseline habitat and fish inventories on the East Fork of the Salmon River, Herd Creek and Big-Boulder Creek. Individual abstracts have been prepared for the four subproject reports. 20 refs., 37 figs., 22 tabs.

  10. Two new species of Parapharyngodon parasites of Sceloporus pyrocephalus, with a key to the species found in Mexico (Nematoda, Pharyngodonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Montes de Oca, Edgar Uriel; Mata-López, Rosario; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Parapharyngodon collected from the intestine of the Mexican boulder spiny lizard Sceloporus pyrocephalus are described. This study increases to 49 the number of valid species assigned to Parapharyngodon worldwide, 11 of them distributed in Mexico. Males of the two new species share the presence of four pairs of caudal papillae, an anterior echinate cloacal lip and the presence of lateral alae; however, both differ from each other in lateral alae extension and echinate cloacal anterior lip morphology. Females of both species have a prebulbar uterus and eggs shell punctuate with pores, characteristics shared with few other species of Parapharyngodon. Both new species differ from other congeneric species in the papillar arrangement, the anterior cloacal lip morphology, the lateral alae extension and total length/spicule ratio. A taxonomic key for the species of Parapharyngodon distributed in Mexico is provided. PMID:27006602

  11. Peer review panel summary report for technical determination of mixed waste incineration off-gas systems for Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Peer Review Panel was convened on September 15-17, 1992 in Boulder, Co. The members of this panel included representatives from DOE, EPA, and DOE contractors along with invited experts in the fields of air pollution control and waste incineration. The primary purpose of this review panel was to make a technical determination of a hold, test and release off gas capture system should be implemented in the proposed RF Pland mixed waste incineration system; or if a state of the art continuous air pollution control and monitoring system should be utilized as the sole off-gas control system. All of the evaluations by the panel were based upon the use of the fluidized bed unit proposed by Rocky Flats and cannot be generalized to other systems

  12. Access to undergraduate research experiences at a large research university

    CERN Document Server

    Hanshaw, S 5; Lewandowski, H J

    2015-01-01

    The American Physical Society recently released a statement calling on all university physics departments to provide or facilitate access to research experiences for all undergraduate students. In response, we investigated the current status of access to undergraduate research at University of Colorado Boulder (CU), a large research institution where the number of undergraduate physics majors outnumber faculty by roughly ten to one. We created and administered two surveys within CU's Physics Department: one probed undergraduate students' familiarity with, and participation in, research; the other probed faculty members' experiences as research mentors to undergraduates. We describe the development of these instruments, our results, and our corresponding evidence-based recommendations for improving local access to undergraduate research experiences. Reflecting on our work, we make several connections to an institutional change framework and note how other universities and colleges might adapt our process.

  13. Correlating students' beliefs about experimental physics with lab course success

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R

    2015-01-01

    Student learning in instructional physics labs is a growing area of research that includes studies exploring students' beliefs and expectations about experimental physics. To directly probe students' epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts both at the University of Colorado Boulder (CU) and nationally, we developed the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). Previous work focused on establishing the accuracy and clarity of the instrument through student interviews and preliminary testing. Ongoing validation efforts include establishing the extent to which student epistemologies as measured by E-CLASS align with other measures of student learning outcomes (e.g., course grades). Here, we report on correlations between final course grades and E-CLASS scores from two semesters of introductory and upper-division lab courses at CU and discuss implications of our findings for the validity of the E-CLASS instrument.

  14. New data on the most ancient early quaternary glaciation in Gornyi Altai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykin, V. S.; Zykina, V. S.; Smolyaninova, L. G.

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this work introduce substantial corrections into the Upper Cenozoic stratigraphy and geological history of Gornyi Altai. They provide evidence for the most ancient Early Pleistocene glaciation in this region. This follows from finds of faceted boulders buried in the Bashkaus Formation. Pale-omagnetic investigations revealed in the latter a wide zone of negative polarity corresponding to the Matuyama Chron in the magnetostratigraphic scale and made it possible to correlate the formation with the Lower Pleistocene in the standard stratigraphic scale. It is shown that global cooling at the beginning of the Quaternary Period stimulated development of glaciation on the southern slope of the Kuraiskii Range exceeding in size its present-day scale.

  15. First International Workshop on Grid Simulator Testing of Wind Turbine Drivetrains: Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V.; Link, H.; McDade, M.; Mander, A.; Fox, J. C.; Rigas, N.

    2013-11-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the First International Workshop on Grid Simulator Testing of Wind Turbine Drivetrains, held from June 13 to 14, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center, located south of Boulder, Colorado. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and cohosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Clemson University under ongoing collaboration via a cooperative research and development agreement. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to discuss the research, testing needs, and state-of-the-art apparatuses involved in grid compliance testing of utility-scale wind turbine generators. This includes both dynamometer testing of wind turbine drivetrains ('ground testing') and field testing grid-connected wind turbines. Four sessions followed by discussions in which all attendees of the workshop were encouraged to participate comprised the workshop.

  16. Klima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Eigil

    2010-01-01

    , efterhånden som oceanmålingerne bliver bedre år for år.« Frem i solen Faktisk har forskellene mellem modellernes fremtidsprojektioner og data været tydelige siden 2005, og allerede i 2006 påpegede meteorologen Roger Pielke Sr. fra University of Colorado at Boulder i USA, at det var noget, som man skulle kigge...... hverken et tegn på, at klimaforskere snyder, eller at vi mennesker ikke har indflydelse på klimaet. Den er et tegn på, at klimaforskning er svær, og at man kommer længst med at være åben omkring sine resultater og tanker. I en interessant e-mailkorrespondance mellem Pielke Sr., Kevin Trenberth og Josh...

  17. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Incommensurate Crystals, Liquid Crystals, and Quasi-Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, N

    1988-01-01

    In this NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop we succeeded in bringing together approximately forty scientists working in the three main areas of structurally incommensurate materials: incommensurate crystals (primarily ferroelectric insulators), incommensurate liquid crystals, and metallic quasi-crystals. Although these three classes of materials are quite distinct, the commonality of the physics of the origin and descrip­ tion of these incommensurate structures is striking and evident in these proceedings. A measure of the success of this conference was the degree to which interaction among the three subgroups occurred; this was facili­ tated by approximately equal amounts of theory and experiment in the papers presented. We thank the University of Colorado for providing pleasant housing and conference facilities at a modest cost, and we are especially grate­ ful to Ann Underwood, who retyped all the manuscripts into camera-ready form. J. F. Scott Boulder, Colorado N. A. Clark v CONTENTS PART I: INCO...

  18. A common-view disciplined oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a common-view disciplined oscillator (CVDO) that locks to a reference time scale through the use of common-view global positioning system (GPS) satellite measurements. The CVDO employs a proportional-integral-derivative controller that obtains near real-time common-view GPS measurements from the internet and provides steering corrections to a local oscillator. A CVDO can be locked to any time scale that makes real-time common-view data available and can serve as a high-accuracy, self-calibrating frequency and time standard. Measurement results are presented where a CVDO is locked to UTC(NIST), the coordinated universal time scale maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado.

  19. Ionospheric modification induced by high-power HF transmitters: a potential for extended range VHF--UHF communications and plasma physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the ionized upper atmosphere of the earth is illuminated by high-power HF radio waves at appropriate frequencies, the temperature of electrons in the ionosphere can be raised substantially. In addition, radio waves with sufficient energy cause parametric instabilities that generate a spectrum of intense plasma waves. Observations of these phenomena have produced new understanding of plasma processes. One consequence of heating and plasma wave generation is that irregularities are formed in the electron distribution which are aligned with the earth's magnetic field. Because of this, a scatterer of large radar cross section is produced, which scatters HF through UHF communication signals over long distance paths, that would not otherwise be normally possible by ionospheric means. Results of radio, radar, communication, and photometric experiments that explored the characteristics of the volume of ionosphere which has been intentionally modified, temporarily, above facilities near Boulder (Platteville), Colo., and at Arecibo, Puerto Rico are summarized

  20. An evaluation of remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2014-01-01

    This evaluation was conducted to assess the potential for using both traditional remote sensing, such as aerial imagery, and emerging remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imaging, as tools for postclosure monitoring of selected hazardous waste sites. Sixteen deleted Superfund (SF) National Priorities List (NPL) sites in Pennsylvania were imaged with a Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Airborne Real-Time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance (ARCHER) sensor between 2009 and 2012. Deleted sites are those sites that have been remediated and removed from the NPL. The imagery was processed to radiance and atmospherically corrected to relative reflectance with standard software routines using the Environment for Visualizing Imagery (ENVI, ITT–VIS, Boulder, Colorado) software. Standard routines for anomaly detection, endmember collection, vegetation stress, and spectral analysis were applied.