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Sample records for boulder colorado 3-6

  1. The Boulder Creek Batholith, Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Dolores J.

    1980-01-01

    The Boulder Creek batholith is the best known of several large Precambrian batholiths of similar rock composition that crop out across central Colorado. The rocks in the batholith belong to the calc-alkaline series and range in composition from granodiorite through quartz diorite (tonalite) to gneissic aplite. Two rock types dominate': the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, the major rock unit, and a more leucocratic and slightly younger unit herein named Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite. Besides mafic inclusions, which occur mainly in hornblende-bearing phases of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, there are cogenetic older and younger lenses, dikes, and small plutons of hornblende diorite, hornblendite, gabbro, and pyroxenite. Pyroxenite is not found in the batholith. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite in the batholith represents essentially two contemporaneous magmas, a northern body occurring in the Gold Hill and Boulder quadrangles and a larger southern body exposed in the Blackhawk and the greater parts of the Tungsten and Eldorado Springs quadrangles. The two bodies are chemically and mineralogically distinct. The northern body is richer in CaO and poorer in K2O, is more mafic, and has a larger percentage of plagioclase than the southern body. A crude sequence of rock types occurs from west to east in the batholith accompanied by a change in plagioclase composition from calcic plagioclase on the west to sodic on the east. Ore minerals tend to decrease, and the ratio potassium feldspar:plagioclase increases inward from the western contact of the batholith, indicating that the Boulder Creek batholith is similar to granodiorite batholiths the world over. Emplacement of the Boulder Creek batholith was contemporaneous with plastic deformation and high-grade regional metamorphism that folded the country rock and the batholith contact along west-northwest and north-northwest axes. Also, smaller satellitic granodiorite bodies tend to conform to the trends of foliation and fold axes in

  2. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Boulder ZED Design Build - Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Boulder, Colorado, that scored HERS 38 without PV and 0 with PV. This 2,504 ft2 custom home has advanced framed walls, superior insulation a ground-source heat pump, ERV, and triple-pane windows.

  3. 75 FR 77898 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the ] University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human... CFR 10.11(d). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum,...

  4. 75 FR 28647 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Tribe, Crow Tribe, Fort Belknap Indian Community, and Three Affiliated Tribes (73 FR 8359-8360, February... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the possession of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The...

  5. 75 FR 45657 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains in the control of the University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human remains... notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of...

  6. 76 FR 43715 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... University of Colorado Museum. ] Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary objects to...

  7. 76 FR 43713 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... contact the University of Colorado Museum. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary...

  8. 76 FR 43719 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO. The human remains were removed from near Laguna, Cibola County, NM. This... removed from Maxson site number 121, a rock fall near Laguna, Cibola County, NM, by Asa Maxson,...

  9. 75 FR 52015 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the University of Colorado Museum... determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that...

  10. Indoor air quality in Latino homes in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Luis E.; Champion, Wyatt M.; Li, Ning; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2014-08-01

    Indoor concentrations of airborne pollutants can be several times higher than those found outdoors, often due to poor ventilation, overcrowding, and the contribution of indoor sources within a home. Americans spend most of their time indoors where exposure to poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can result in diminished respiratory and cardiovascular health. This study measured the indoor air quality in 30 homes of a low-income Latino community in Boulder, Colorado during the summer of 2012. Participants were administered a survey, which included questions on their health conditions and indoor air pollution sources like cigarette smoke, heating fuel, and building materials. Twenty-four hour samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from the indoor air were collected in each home; ambient PM2.5 samples were collected each day as well. Concurrent air samples were collected onto 47 mm Teflo and Tissuquartz filter at each location. Teflo filters were analyzed gravimetrically to measure PM2.5 and their extracts were used to determine levels of proteins and endotoxins in the fine fraction. The Tissuquartz filters were analyzed for elemental and organic carbon content (EC/OC). Results indicated that the indoor air contained higher concentrations of PM2.5 than the ambient air, and that the levels of OC were much higher than EC in both indoor and outdoor samples. This community showed no smoking in their homes and kept furry pets indoors at very low rates; therefore, cooking is likely the primary source of indoor PM. For responders with significant exposure to PM, it appeared to be primarily from occupational environments or childhood exposure abroad. Our findings indicate that for immigrant communities such as this, it is important to consider not only their housing conditions but also the relevant prior exposures when conducting health assessments.

  11. Shallow Alluvial Aquifer Ground Water System and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction, Boulder Creek, Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, K. P.; Ge, S.; Crifasi, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Water chemistry in Boulder Creek, Colorado, shows significant variation as the Creek flows through the City of Boulder [Barber et al., 2006]. This variation is partially due to ground water inputs, which are not quantitatively understood. The purpose of this study is (1) to understand ground water movement in a shallow alluvial aquifer system and (2) to assess surface water/ground water interaction. The study area, encompassing an area of 1 mi2, is located at the Sawhill and Walden Ponds area in Boulder. This area was reclaimed by the City of Boulder and Boulder County after gravel mining operations ceased in the 1970's. Consequently, ground water has filled in the numerous gravel pits allowing riparian vegetation regrowth and replanting. An integrated approach is used to examine the shallow ground water and surface water of the study area through field measurements, water table mapping, graphical data analysis, and numerical modeling. Collected field data suggest that lateral heterogeneity exists throughout the unconsolidated sediment. Alluvial hydraulic conductivities range from 1 to 24 ft/day and flow rates range from 0.01 to 2 ft/day. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ground water movement parallels surface topography and does not noticeably vary with season. Recharge via infiltrating precipitation is dependent on evapotranspiration (ET) demands and is influenced by preferential flow paths. During the growing season when ET demand exceeds precipitation rates, there is little recharge; however recharge occurs during cooler months when ET demand is insignificant. Preliminary data suggest that the Boulder Creek is gaining ground water as it traverses the study area. Stream flow influences the water table for distances up to 400 feet. The influence of stream flow is reflected in the zones relatively low total dissolved solids concentration. A modeling study is being conducted to synthesize aquifer test data, ground water levels, and stream flow data. The

  12. 75 FR 26988 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY... Mountain Tribe and the Southern Ute Indian Tribe in an area stretching from southwestern to south...

  13. Collection Assessment in Response to Changing Curricula: An Analysis of the Biotechnology Resources at the University of Colorado at Boulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    Increasing demand for biotechnology and biomedical resources prompted the Engineering Library at the University of Colorado at Boulder (UCB) to complete a collection assessment of the journals, books, and other resources provided by the University Libraries. This paper presents a variety of methods for evaluating library collections and describes…

  14. University of Colorado at Boulder: Energy and Climate Revolving Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The University of Colorado at Boulder's student run Environmental Center leads the campus' sustainability efforts. The Center created the Energy and Climate Revolving Fund (ECRF) in 2007 to finance energy-efficiency upgrades. The ECRF functions as a source of funding for project loans and provides a method of financing projects that seeks to save…

  15. A re-evaluation of the relativistic redshift on frequency standards at NIST, Boulder, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, Nikolaos K.; Weiss, Marc A.

    2017-08-01

    We re-evaluated the relativistic redshift correction applicable to the frequency standards at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Boulder, Colorado, USA, based on a precise GPS survey of three benchmarks on the roof of the building where these standards had been previously housed, and on global and regional geoid models supported by data from the GRACE and GOCE missions, including EGM2008, USGG2009, and USGG2012. We also evaluated the redshift offset based on the published NAVD88 geopotential number of the leveling benchmark Q407 located on the side of Building 1 at NIST, Boulder, Colorado, USA, after estimating the bias of the NAVD88 datum at our specific location. Based on these results, our current best estimate of the relativistic redshift correction, if frequency standards were located at the height of the leveling benchmark Q407 outside the second floor of Building 1, with respect to the EGM2008 geoid whose potential has been estimated to be {{W}0}=62 636 855.69 {{m}2} {{s}-2} , is equal to (-1798.50  ±  0.06)  ×  10-16. The corresponding value, with respect to an equipotential surface defined by the International Astronomical Union’s (IAU) adopted value of {{W}0}=62 636 856.0 {{m}2} {{s}-2} , is (-1798.53  ±  0.06)  ×  10-16. These values are comparable to the value of (-1798.70  ±  0.30)  ×  10-16, estimated by Pavlis and Weiss in 2003, with respect to an equipotential surface defined by {{W}0}=62 636 856.88 {{m}2} {{s}-2} . The minus sign implies that clocks run faster in the laboratory in Boulder than a corresponding clock located on the geoid. Contribution of US government, not subject to Copyright.

  16. Multi-method attribution analysis of extreme precipitation in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Jonathan M.; Wolter, Klaus; Otto, Friederike E. L.; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan

    2016-12-01

    Understanding and attributing the characteristics of extreme events that lead to societal impacts is a key challenge in climate science. Detailed analysis of individual case studies is particularly important in assessing how anthropogenic climate change is changing the likelihood of extreme events and their associated risk at relevant spatial scales. Here, we conduct a comprehensive multi-method attribution analysis of the heavy precipitation that led to widespread flooding in Boulder, Colorado in September 2013. We provide clarification on the source regions of moisture associated with this event in order to highlight the difficulty of separating dynamic and thermodynamic contributions. Using extreme value analysis of, first of all, historical observations, we then assess the influence of anthropogenic climate change on the overall likelihood of one- and five-day precipitation events across the Boulder area. The same analysis is extended to the output of two general circulation model ensembles. By combining the results of different methods we deduce an increase in the likelihood of extreme one-day precipitation but of a smaller magnitude than what would be expected in a warming world according to the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. For five-day extremes, we are unable to detect a change in likelihood. Our results demonstrate the benefits of a multi-method approach to making robust statements about the anthropogenic influence on changes in the overall likelihood of such an event irrespective of its cause. We note that, in this example, drawing conclusions solely on the basis of thermodynamics would have overestimated the increase in risk.

  17. Comparison of Ozone Retrievals from the Pandora Spectrometer System and Dobson Spectrophotometer in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J.; Evans, R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; McConville, G.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of retrieved total column ozone (TCO) amounts between the Pandora #34 spectrometer system and the Dobson #061 spectrophotometer from direct-sun observations was performed on the roof of the Boulder, Colorado, NOAA building. This paper, part of an ongoing study, covers a 1-year period starting on 17 December 2013. Both the standard Dobson and Pandora TCO retrievals required a correction, TCO(sub corr) = TCO (1 + C(T)), using a monthly varying effective ozone temperature, T(sub E), derived from a temperature and ozone profile climatology. The correction is used to remove a seasonal difference caused by using a fixed temperature in each retrieval algorithm. The respective corrections C(T(sub E)) are C(sub Pandora) = 0.00333(T(sub E) - 225) and C(sub Dobson) = -0.0013(T(sub E) - 226.7) per degree K. After the applied corrections removed most of the seasonal retrieval dependence on ozone temperature, TCO agreement between the instruments was within 1% for clear-sky conditions. For clear-sky observations, both co-located instruments tracked the day-to-day variation in total column ozone amounts with a correlation of r(exp 2) = 0.97 and an average offset of 1.1 +/- 5.8 DU. In addition, the Pandora TCO data showed 0.3% annual average agreement with satellite overpass data from AURA/OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and 1% annual average offset with Suomi-NPP/OMPS (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership, the nadir viewing portion of the Ozone Mapper Profiler Suite).

  18. Economic Impacts from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program: Using Property-Assessed Clean Energy Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, M.; Cliburn, J. K.; Coughlin, J.

    2011-04-01

    This report examines the economic impacts (including job creation) from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program (CSLP), an example of Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing. The CSLP was the first test of PACE financing on a multi-jurisdictional level (involving individual cities as well as the county government). It was also the first PACE program to comprehensively address energy efficiency measures and renewable energy, and it was the first funded by a public offering of both taxable and tax-exempt bonds.

  19. 76 FR 14063 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ..., Curator of Anthropology, University of Colorado Museum, in care of Jan Bernstein, NAGPRA Consultant...(c)(1) should contact Steve Lekson, Curator of Anthropology, University of Colorado Museum, in care...

  20. 76 FR 62833 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... 10, 2011. ADDRESSES: Steve Lekson, Curator of Anthropology, University of Colorado Museum, Campus Box... Colorado Museum's curator of anthropology from 1953 to 1988. In November 2009, the human remains (TIN 0290...(c)(1) should contact Steve Lekson, Curator of Anthropology, University of Colorado Museum, Campus...

  1. Collaboration Between Environmental Water Chemistry Students and Hazardous Waste Treatment Specialists on the University of Colorado-Boulder Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Colorado-Boulder is one of a few universities in the country that has a licensed Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility (TSDF) for hazardous waste on campus. This facility, located on the bottom floor of the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) building, allows CU to more economically treat hazardous waste by enabling treatment specialists on staff to safely collect and organize the hazardous waste generated on campus. Hazardous waste is anything that contains a regulated chemical or compound and most chemicals used in engineering labs (e.g., acids, solvents, metal solutions) fall into this category. The EH&S staff is able to treat close almost 33% of the waste from campus and the rest is packed for off-site treatment at various places all over the country for disposal (e.g., Sauget, IL, Port Aurthor, TX). The CU-Boulder campus produced over 50 tons of hazardous waste in 2010 costing over $300,000 in off-campus expenses. The EH&S staff assigns one of over 50 codes to the waste which will determine if the waste can be treated on campus of must be shipped off campus to be disposed of. If the waste can be treated on campus, it will undergo one of three processes: 1) neutralization, 2) UV-ozone oxidation, or 3) ion exchange. If the waste is acidic but contains no heavy metals, the acid is neutralized with sodium hydroxide (a base) and can be disposed "down the drain" to the Boulder Wastewater Treatment Plant. If the waste contains organic compounds and no metals, a UV-ozone oxidation system is used to break down the organic compounds. Silver from photography wastewater can be removed using ion exchange columns. Undergraduate and graduate students worked with the hazardous waste treatment facility at the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) building on the CU-Boulder campus during the fall of 2011 and fall of 2012. Early in the semester, students receive a tour of the three batch treatment processes the facility is equipped with. Later in the

  2. Developing Capacity for Cities to Adapt to a Changing Climate-a Case Study in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, R.; Groves, D. G.; Nason, M.; Pandya, R.

    2016-12-01

    The City of Boulder in Colorado has undertaken many progressive climate-related initiatives, from signing the Kyoto protocol to passing a Climate Action Tax. But as the city prepared to launch its Climate Commitment document and lead a community process, it realized that one critical group that had not been fully engaged in the process was its own staff. It became clear that for organizational change to occur and for the city to meet its goals, city staff needed to develop a deeper understanding of the importance of the climate goals while also learning better how to use these goals to guide their long-term planning. In early 2016, the city launched a year-long "Climate Leaders" initiative which comprised of a series of workshops that brought together over 70 staff members with climate scientists and experts in climate adaptation planning. The first two workshops, billed as Climate 101 and 201, reviewed the best available scientific information about climate threats and potential impacts, and worked with participants to understand how climate changes could affect diverse city functions. These interactive workshops also explored ways to help city staff feel comfortable preparing for a significantly different climate and discussed ways to communicate this information to the public. From there the group split into two tracks. A "mitigation" track focused on the ways in which Boulder could meet its aggressive emissions reduction targets. The "adaptation" track developed integrated scenarios for citywide planning to highlight Boulder's vulnerability to climate change and guide adaptation planning. Bringing these two conversations together is helping city staff to explore critical linkages between mitigation and adaptation, develop common messages to build community support for climate action, and inform comprehensive climate resiliency planning. We will describe how Boulder successfully partnered with scientists and planning experts to program a year of interactive

  3. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, J. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-11-01

    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In this project, the Building America CARB team evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  4. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In NREL's report titled 'Assessing and Improving the Accuracy of Energy Analysis of Residential Buildings,' researchers propose a method for improving the accuracy of residential energy analysis methods. A key step in this process involves the comparisons of predicted versus metered energy use and savings. In support of this research need, CARB evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. In this study, CARB seeks to improve the accuracy of modeling software while assessing retrofit measures to specifically determine which are most effective for large multifamily complexes in the cold climate region. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  5. Boulder Magnetic Observatory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are vector and scalar component values of the Earth's magnetic field for 2004 recorded at the Boulder Magnetic Observatory in Colorado. Vector values are...

  6. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 86-157-1678, Stag Dental Clinic, Boulder, Colorado. [Nitrous oxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    Employees of the Stag Dental Clinic, Boulder, Colorado requested an evaluation of nitrous oxide exposure during dental procedures. Direct reading measurements taken in the dental operatory immediately after nitrous oxide was administered showed levels exceeding 1000 parts per million (ppm) in the breathing zone of the dentist and his assistant. The levels remained high throughout the 1-hour procedure. The level of nitrous oxide in the hallway outside the operatory was 300 ppm and that in the adjacent operatory, 150 ppm (background). General-room air in the operatory in use was 800 ppm nitrous oxide. Levels of nitrous oxide decreased to 50 ppm 1.5 hours after the gas was turned off. The current NIOSH recommended time weighted average is 25 ppm. The author concludes that a health hazard existed at the dental office due to high exposures of nitrous oxide. It was recommended that a scavenging system should be installed. Recommendations also include routine maintenance on anesthetic and suction equipment, a follow-up evaluation after the exhaust systems have been in place, advising all dentists and other personnel in the clinic of the adverse health effects due to nitrous oxide, and use of more dilution ventilation.

  7. Seismic Reflection - Focusing on Muting Jacquelyn Daves University of Colorado - Boulder SAGE 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daves, J.

    2014-12-01

    The SAGE 2014 survey was conducted directly west of the Santo Domingo Pueblo, along Borrego Canyon Road. This survey is a continuation of the SAGE 2010 and 2011 investigations. The survey was aimed to locate a previously mapped fault running orthogonal to the road. The SAGE 2014 seismic line ran 5.6 km long with 20 meter geophone spacing. 8-80 Hz sweeps were utilized with 10 s sweeps and 4 s of listening. Once the data was converted into the proper file type, preprocesses was conducted. After the preprocessing was complete, various processing methods were used to obtain the final Common Midpoint (CMP) stack. Two CMP stacks were created-one containing the muting method and one without. The ideal result would be to interpret stratigraphic structures and potential faults. The Rio Grande Rift is a Cenozoic continental rift zone that extends approximately 1000 km from Leadville, Colorado to west Texas and Chihuahua, Mexico. The Northern most extent of the rift separates the Great Plains from the Colorado Plateau. The rift consists of a series of interconnected grabbens that lie in an asymmetric pattern (Baldridge, 1989). Basins involved with this rifting are a distinct features along with faults that bound one or both sides. SAGE has been investigating these for over a decade to interpolate the complex structures. By examining Borrego Canyon, we were able to add to the investigation. Various geophysical methods were utilized to study Borrego Canyon. AMT, MT, TEM, gravity, seismic reflection and seismic refraction were individually used to understand the subsurface and were subsequently integrated together in order to have a full spectrum of subsurface depths. Each method has unique processing steps and are critical in order to analyze the gathered data. As such, this paper will focus on processing seismic reflection with an emphasis on muting. Each technique used in processing the SAGE 2014 seismic reflection data will be explained. Next, this paper will validate muting

  8. Linkages between denitrification and dissolved organicmatter quality, Boulder Creek watershed, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rebecca T.; Smith, Richard L.; Aiken, George R.

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) fuels the majority of in-stream microbial processes, including the removal of nitrate via denitrification. However, little is known about how the chemical composition of DOM influences denitrification rates. Water and sediment samples were collected across an ecosystem gradient, spanning the alpine to plains, in central Colorado to determine whether the chemical composition of DOM was related to denitrification rates. Laboratory bioassays measured denitrification potentials using the acetylene block technique and carbon mineralization via aerobic bioassays, while organic matter characteristics were evaluated using spectroscopic and fractionation methods. Denitrification potentials under ambient and elevated nitrate concentrations were strongly correlated with aerobic respiration rates and the percent mineralized carbon, suggesting that information about the aerobic metabolism of a system can provide valuable insight regarding the ability of the system to additionally reduce nitrate. Multiple linear regressions (MLR) revealed that under elevated nitrate concentrations denitrification potentials were positively related to the presence of protein-like fluorophores and negatively related to more aromatic and oxidized fractions of the DOM pool. Using MLR, the chemical composition of DOM, carbon, and nitrate concentrations explained 70% and 78% of the observed variability in denitrification potential under elevated and ambient nitrate conditions, respectively. Thus, it seems likely that DOM optical properties could help to improve predictions of nitrate removal in the environment. Finally, fluorescence measurements revealed that bacteria used both protein and humic-like organic molecules during denitrification providing further evidence that larger, more aromatic molecules are not necessarily recalcitrant in the environment.

  9. The effect of variable discharge on the inorganic chemistry downstream of a waste water treatment plant, Boulder Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antweiler, R. C.; Writer, J. H.; Murphy, S. F.

    2012-12-01

    Researchers investigating the effect of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent on streams often assume that the magnitude of this effect is constant over time. However, discharge of WWTP effluent frequently follows a distinctive diel pattern. WWTP effluent discharge into Boulder Creek, Colorado, for example, varies by almost 200% over the course of a day. Due to this variation, downstream concentrations of chloride, boron and gadolinium (commonly used "conservative tracers") exhibit major changes over a 24-hour period. In order to determine how effluent discharge variability affects stream chemistry, we performed an evaluation of discharge and inorganic chemistry of the City of Boulder's WWTP and Boulder Creek upstream and downstream of the WWTP (representing a 5.4-km reach). Sodium bromide and Rhodamine WT were used to confirm that the same parcel of water was sampled as it moved downstream. The behavior of inorganic constituents fell into three distinct categories, showing conservative behavior, in-stream loss, or in-stream gain. Accounting for variable effluent discharge, the following inorganic constituents behaved conservatively: Cl, SO4, HCO3, F, B, Ba, Ca, Gd, K, Mg, Rb, Co, Cu, Mo, NO3, P and PO4, Sb, SiO2, Sr and Zn. Inorganic compounds which showed evidence of in-stream loss were Bi, Cr, Cs, Ga, Ge, Hg, Se, and Sn. For these elements, the typical pattern was an almost immediate loss: by the time the water had traveled to the first downstream sampling site, 2.3-km below the WWTP, in-stream reactions appeared to have ceased, and a constant flux was observed at all subsequent sites. We speculate that the near-immediate rates represent precipitation and/or adsorption caused by the change in pH and temperature of the mixing zone. Inorganic constituents that showed evidence of in-stream gain were: Al, As, Cd, Fe, I, Li, Mn, Nb, Pb, Re, Th, U, V, W, and all the rare-earth elements (except Gd). As with the in-stream loss group, most of the reactions occurred

  10. Spatial patterns of mobile regolith thickness and meteoric 10Be in the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory, Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, N.; Ouimet, W. B.; Dethier, D. P.; Bierman, P. R.; Rood, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BcCZO) aims to understand the history, architecture and evolution of hillslopes found within the diverse topography and climate regimes of the Colorado Front Range. This information is crucial for testing and developing models of hillslope evolution, giving especial consideration to the production and downslope transport of mobile regolith on the hillslopes. Here, we present the results of a systematic study aiming to document spatial patterns of mobile regolith thickness and meteoric Beryllium-10 (10Be) concentrations in the Gordon Gulch basin of the BcCZO. Gordon Gulch lies within the unglaciated portion of the Colorado Front Range and is thought to be an artifact of long-term steady state evolution. The basin is characterized by mixed bedrock-soil mantled hillslopes, with intermittent bedrock outcrops (tors) on ~10% of slopes. It is currently unclear how the hillslopes of Gordon Gulch have evolved given the variable rock type and strength (i.e., fracture spacing), gradients (steep slopes in lower basin compared to gradual in the upper), and hillslope aspects (north versus south facing hillslopes, with varying tree types and soil moisture for frost cracking and heaving) that exist within the basin. Furthermore, climate data suggest that the current climate regime (relatively warm) is representative of only 20% of the last 65 ka. Mobile regolith thickness measurements provide a snapshot of hillslope evolution in the basin given these controls, and meteoric 10Be can used to constrain residence times and trace mobile regolith transport. We measure mobile regolith thickness as the depth to immobile weathered bedrock and/or saprolite. Preliminary analysis of over 200 soil pits reveals a high degree of variability in mobile regolith thickness. In general, the mobile regolith cover is thinner on the south facing slopes than the north facing and a general thickening of mobile regolith occurs on steeper slopes, especially along

  11. How do people perceive, understand, and anticipate responding to flash flood risks and warnings? Results from a public survey in Boulder, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morss, Rebecca E.; Mulder, Kelsey J.; Lazo, Jeffrey K.; Demuth, Julie L.

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates flash flood forecast and warning communication, interpretation, and decision making, using data from a survey of 418 members of the public in Boulder, Colorado, USA. Respondents to the public survey varied in their perceptions and understandings of flash flood risks in Boulder, and some had misconceptions about flash flood risks, such as the safety of crossing fast-flowing water. About 6% of respondents indicated consistent reversals of US watch-warning alert terminology. However, more in-depth analysis illustrates the multi-dimensional, situationally dependent meanings of flash flood alerts, as well as the importance of evaluating interpretation and use of warning information along with alert terminology. Some public respondents estimated low likelihoods of flash flooding given a flash flood warning; these were associated with lower anticipated likelihood of taking protective action given a warning. Protective action intentions were also lower among respondents who had less trust in flash flood warnings, those who had not made prior preparations for flash flooding, and those who believed themselves to be safer from flash flooding. Additional analysis, using open-ended survey questions about responses to warnings, elucidates the complex, contextual nature of protective decision making during flash flood threats. These findings suggest that warnings can play an important role not only by notifying people that there is a threat and helping motivate people to take protective action, but also by helping people evaluate what actions to take given their situation.

  12. Hillslope lowering rates and mobile-regolith residence times from in situ and meteoric 10Be analysis: Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M. A.; Anderson, R. S.; Wyshnytzky, C.; Ouimet, W. B.; Dethier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mobile regolith is produced as weathered saprolite is entrained into the mobile layer. The rate of mobile-regolith production and its residence time on hillslopes shapes the topography and evolution of hillslopes. We calculate the production rate of mobile regolith and the mobile-regolith residence times on active hillslopes in Gordon Gulch, within the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (CZO), Colorado. We find mobile-regolith production rates (average 3.1 cm/ka) and residence times (average 10-20 ka) derived from both in situand meteoric methods agree. Lowering-rates derived from our study are also comparable to basin-averaged denudation rates for small basins in the Colorado Front Range (Dethier and Lazarus, 2006). In this study, we have measured both in situ and meteoric 10Be in saprolite and mobile regolith separately. We find that, on average, two-thirds of in situ 10Be is produced within saprolite, and that at least one-tenth of the meteoric 10Be inventories are stored in saprolite. In the case of in situ 10Be, this simply reflects the exponential fall-off in production rates through a thin mobile-regolith cover. In the case of meteoric 10Be, our calculations suggest that >40% of the meteoric 10Be deposition occurs within the saprolite. Most studies that utilize 10Be report residence times and soil-production rates based on concentrations in either the mobile regolith or saprolite; therefore, our 10Be data highlight the importance of clearly identifying mobile and immobile portions of the regolith, constraining its 10Be inventory, and use of consistent terminology for the mobile-layer.

  13. FLOODPLAIN, BOULDER COUNTY, COLORADO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  14. EXPLOITATION OF GRANITE BOULDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cotman

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of forming, petrography, features, properties and exploitation of granite boulders are described. The directional drilling and black powder blasting is the succesful method in exploitation of granite boulders (boulder technology (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Late pleistocene aggradation and degradation of the lower colorado river: Perspectives from the Cottonwood area and other reconnaissance below Boulder Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, S.C.; Mahan, S.A.; Paces, J.B.; Hudson, M.R.; House, P.K.; Malmon, D.V.; Blair, J.L.; Howard, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Where the lower Colorado River traverses the Basin and Range Province below the Grand Canyon, significant late Pleistocene aggradation and subsequent degrada tion of the river are indicated by luminescence, paleomagnetic, and U-series data and stratigraphy. Aggradational, finely bedded reddish mud, clay, and silt are underlain and overlain by cross-bedded to plane-bedded fine sand and silt. That sequence is commonly disconformably overlain by up to 15 m of coarse sand, rounded exotic gravel, and angular, locally derived gravel. Luminescence dates on the fine sediments range from ca. 40 ka to 70 ka, considering collective uncertainties. A section of fine grained sediments over a vertical range of 15 m shows normal polarity magnetization and little apparent secular variation beyond dispersion that can be explained by com paction. Aggradation on large local tributaries such as Las Vegas Wash appears to have been coeval with that of the Colorado River. The upper limits of erosional rem nants of the sequence define a steeper grade above the historical river, and these late Pleistocene deposits are greater than 100 m above the modern river north of 35??N. Ter race gravels inset below the upper limit of the aggradational sequence yield 230Th dates that range from ca. 32 ka to 60 ka and indicate that degradation of the river system in this area closely followed aggradation. The thick sequence of rhythmically bedded mud and silt possibly indicates set tings that were ponded laterally between valley slopes and levees of the aggrading river. Potential driving mechanisms for such aggradation and degradation include sediment-yield response to climate change, drought, fire, vegetation-ecosystem dynam ics, glaciation, paleofloods, groundwater discharge, and building and destruction of natural dams produced by volcanism and landslides. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  16. Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Rodríguez Quiroz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La conservación de la biodiversidad cuenta, entre sus principales mecanismos de intervención, con las áreas naturales protegidas. En el alto Golfo de California (AGC se ubica la Reser-va de la Biosfera del Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Río Colorado, en la que subsisten especies de alto valor económico, así como especies en peligro de extinción. Este último factor justificó el establecimiento de la reserva. El estudio analiza la efectividad de la Reserva del Alto Golfo como mecanismo de protección de los recursos naturales, en particular de las que están en riesgo de desaparecer, así como de comprobar si los pescadores han mejorado sus condiciones de vida tras la operación de esa área natural. La exploración se llevó a cabo mediante la aplicación de una encuesta a los pescadores. Se sugiere que es indispensable un gran esfuerzo, de autoridades y grupos organizados, para encontrar soluciones al manejo de la Reserva, a fin fijar un programa que permita la recuperación de las especies en peligro de extinción, elevar la calidad de vida de los pescadores y con ello garantizar un equilibrio entre la conservación y la sustentabilidad de la pesca y de los pescadores en el Alto Golfo de California.

  17. Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An early-season snowfall accents the Rocky Mountains through western and central Colorado. This true-color image made from data collected by MODIS on October 26, 2001, highlights the contrast between various irrigated areas and the otherwise dry environment at the foothills of the Rockies. One such example is the city of Denver and its outlying suburbs, which can be seen best in the high-resolution image. In areas that would normally harbor drought-tolerant grasses, shrubs and trees, humans are living, watering their lawns, and farming; those watered, green areas differ substantially from the surrounding hues of brown. Numerous National Parks and Monuments dot the Southwestern U.S. The Great Sand Dunes National Monument is one such park. Running along the western base the Sangre de Cristo Range(just below the image's center), a subsection of the Rockies, the monument possesses some of the highest inland sand dunes in the U.S., with crests reaching over 700 feet.

  18. Probability of Boulders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1997-01-01

    To collect background information for formulating a description of the expected soil properties along the tunnel line, in 1987 Storebælt initiated a statistical investigation of the occurrence and size of boulders in the Great Belt area. The data for the boulder size distribution were obtained by...

  19. 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings, 3-6 August 2008, Vail, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.

    2008-09-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 3-6, 2008. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'New Directions for Rapidly Growing Silicon Technologies.'

  20. Measured and Inferred Bedrock Faults in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (frifaultu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital line representation of measured and inferred bedrock faults in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin, Colorado. This file was created as...

  1. 75 FR 21037 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Non-Competitive (Direct) Sales of Public Lands, Boulder County, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ...: Proposed Non-Competitive (Direct) Sales of Public Lands, Boulder County, CO AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Boulder County, Colorado. The parcels are being considered for direct sale to parties at no less than the... contained in 43 CFR 2711.3- 3 make allowances for direct sales when a competitive sale is inappropriate...

  2. Good Days on the Trail, 1938-1942: Film Footage of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This film documents student hiking trips conducted by the University of Colorado at Boulder in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA during the summers of 1938-1942....

  3. [Traumatic elbow dislocations in bouldering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, G H; Siebenlist, S; Lenich, A; Neumaier, M; Ahrens, P; Kirchhoff, C; Braun, K F; Lucke, M; Biberthaler, P

    2014-03-01

    Bouldering is a new trend sport which has become popular in recent years. From April 2011 to June 2012 a total of 5 patients with elbow dislocations from bouldering were admitted to our level 1 trauma center. The injuries varied from simple elbow dislocations to complex fracture dislocations. Elbow dislocations occurred during falling backwards when patients tried to protect themselves by retroversion of both arms. In all cases the falling height was less than 4 meters. The bouldering injury pattern, the diagnostic and therapeutic management as well as the rehabilitation program are described in detail in this article. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the special danger of bouldering for complex elbow injuries.

  4. Evaluation of Boulder, CO,SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Vijayakumar, G. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE’s Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  5. Evaluation of Boulder, CO, SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Vijayakumar, G.

    2012-04-01

    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE's Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  6. Size-frequency distribution of boulders ≥10 m on comet 103P/Hartley 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Lucchetti, Alice; Bertini, Ivano; Marzari, Francesco; A'Hearn, Michael F.; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Lazzarin, Monica; Naletto, Giampiero; Barbieri, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We derive the size-frequency distribution of boulders on comet 103P/Hartley 2, which are computed from the images taken by the Deep Impact/HRI-V imaging system. We indicate the possible physical processes that lead to these boulder size distributions. Methods: We used images acquired by the High Resolution Imager-Visible CCD camera on 4 November 2010. Boulders ≥10 m were identified and manually extracted from the datasets with the software ArcGIS. We derived the global size-frequency distribution of the illuminated side of the comet (~50%) and identified the power-law indexes characterizing the two lobes of 103P. The three-pixel sampling detection, together with the shadowing of the surface, enables unequivocally detection of boulders scattered all over the illuminated surface. Results: We identify 332 boulders ≥10 m on the imaged surface of the comet, with a global number density of nearly 140/km2 and a cumulative size-frequency distribution represented by a power law with index of -2.7 ± 0.2. The two lobes of 103P show similar indexes, i.e., -2.7 ± 0.2 for the bigger lobe (called L1) and -2.6+ 0.2/-0.5 for the smaller lobe (called L2). The similar power-law indexes and similar maximum boulder sizes derived for the two lobes both point toward a similar fracturing/disintegration phenomena of the boulders as well as similar lifting processes that may occur in L1 and L2. The difference in the number of boulders per km2 between L1 and L2 suggests that the more diffuse H2O sublimation on L1 produce twice the boulders per km2 with respect to those produced on L2 (primary activity CO2 driven). The 103P comet has a lower global power-law index (-2.7 vs. -3.6) with respect to 67P. The global differences between the two comets' activities, coupled with a completely different surface geomorphology, make 103P hardly comparable to 67P. A shape distribution analysis of boulders ≥30 m performed on 103P suggests that the cometary boulders show more elongated shapes

  7. Boulder Valley Schools Teen Parenting Program: An Exemplary Vocational Education Program Serving a Population with Special Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle-Williams, Maureen; Wermuth, Tom

    1990-01-01

    The Boulder Valley (Colorado) Teen Parenting Program is designed to meet the educational and vocational needs of pregnant or parenting adolescents. It focuses on the following goals: (1) decreasing the dropout rate of teen parents; (2) improving the health and well-being of children born to teen parents; (3) decreasing repeat pregnancies of teen…

  8. Boulders Ejected From Small Impact Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Gwendolyn D.; Melosh, H. J.

    2006-09-01

    We investigate the distribution of boulders ejected from lunar craters by analyzing high resolution Lunar Orbiter images. Our previous study (DPS 2004) of four small craters indicated that larger boulders are more frequently found close to the crater rim rather than far away, and that the size of the ejecta drops off as a power law with distance from the crater. Our current study adds more than ten new bouldery craters that range in size from 200 m to several kilometers and are found on a variety of terrain (mare, highlands, and the Copernicus ejecta blanket.) For each crater we plot the boulder diameter as a function of the ejection velocity of the boulder. We compare this size-velocity distribution with the size-velocity distribution of ejecta from large craters (Vickery 1986, 1987) to ascertain the mechanism of fracture of the substrate in the impact. We also make cumulative plots of the boulders, indicating the number of boulders of each size present around the crater. The cumulative plots allow us to compare our boulder distributions with the distributions of secondary craters from large impacts. Material thrown from a several-hundred-meter diameter crater may land intact as boulders, but material thrown from a tens-of-kilometers diameter crater will travel at a significantly higher velocity, and will form a secondary crater when it impacts the surface. Our data helps elucidate whether the upturn, at small diameters, of the cratering curve of the terrestrial planets is due to secondary impacts or to the primary population. This work is funded by NASA PGG grant NNG05GK40G.

  9. Casa de la Esperanza: A Case Study of Service Coordination at Work in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquiz, Maria E.; Hernandez, Carlota Loya

    This chapter describes how a federally funded farmworker housing facility in northern Colorado--Casa de la Esperanza--has changed the lives of migrant students and their families. The history of migrant workers in Colorado is described, as well as the struggle to construct a permanent farmworker housing facility. Casa was built in Boulder County,…

  10. 78 FR 7775 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    .... \\1\\ 75 FR 57912 (September 23, 2010). \\2\\ 133 FERC ] 62,229. The proposed BCP electric service base... in power rate adjustments (10 CFR part 903) were published on September 18, 1985 (50 FR 87835... Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE....

  11. Fifty Years of Space Weather Forecasting from Boulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    The first official space weather forecast was issued by the Space Disturbances Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, in 1965, ushering in an era of operational prediction that continues to this day. Today, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) charters the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) as one of the nine National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to provide the nation's official watches, warnings, and alerts of space weather phenomena. SWPC is now integral to national and international efforts to predict space weather events, from the common and mild, to the rare and extreme, that can impact critical technological infrastructure. In 2012, the Strategic National Risk Assessment included extreme space weather events as low-to-medium probability phenomena that could, unlike any other meteorogical phenomena, have an impact on the government's ability to function. Recognizing this, the White House chartered the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) to produce the first comprehensive national strategy for the prediction, mitigation, and response to an extreme space weather event. The implementation of the National Strategy is ongoing with NOAA, its partners, and stakeholders concentrating on the goal of improving our ability to observe, model, and predict the onset and severity of space weather events. In addition, work continues with the research community to improve our understanding of the physical mechanisms - on the Sun, in the heliosphere, and in the Earth's magnetic field and upper atmosphere - of space weather as well as the effects on critical infrastructure such as electrical power transmission systems. In fifty years, people will hopefully look back at the history of operational space weather prediction and credit our efforts today with solidifying the necessary developments in observational systems, full-physics models of the entire Sun-Earth system, and tools for predicting the impacts to infrastructure to protect

  12. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado, Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R., ed.

    2004-05-12

    OAK-B135 The results and progress of research funded by DOE grant number DOE-FG03-95ER40913 at the University of Colorado at Boulder is described. Includes work performed at the HERMES experiment at DESY to study the quark structure of the nucleon and the hadronization process in nuclei, as well as hadronic reactions studied at LAMPF, KEK, and Fermilab.

  13. Geological Investigations on Boulder-Clay of E. Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzel, van P.; Overweel, C.J.; Veenstra, H.J.

    1959-01-01

    In this article the results of a study on boulder-clay in the neighbourhood of Winschoten (N.E. Netherlands) are communicated (Chapter I). The underlying sediments of the boulder-clay in this area consist of fine preglacial sands and black clay. In the nuclei of the many drumlins a strongly ice-push

  14. Geological Investigations on Boulder-Clay of E. Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzel, van P.; Overweel, C.J.; Veenstra, H.J.

    1959-01-01

    In this article the results of a study on boulder-clay in the neighbourhood of Winschoten (N.E. Netherlands) are communicated (Chapter I). The underlying sediments of the boulder-clay in this area consist of fine preglacial sands and black clay. In the nuclei of the many drumlins a strongly ice-push

  15. WHITE CLOUD-BOULDER ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Frederick S.; Johnson, Fredrick L.

    1984-01-01

    There have been no minerals produced from, and there are no mines located within the White Cloud-Boulder Roadless Area, Idaho; however, based on mineral studies, the southern part of the roadless area has a probable resource potential for tungsten and the northwestern corner a probable resource potential for gold and silver. The conclusions are based on the presence of favorable geologic environments for calc-silicate skarns in the southern part of the roadless area and the presence of gold-bearing quartz-carbonate veins in the northern part. The northern part of the area in the vicinity of Sheep Mountain-Bowery Peak has a probable resource potential for arsenic, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, silver, tin, and zinc, on the basis of geologic and geophysical data that suggest the presence of a buried intrusive body which probably has associated ore deposits. No energy resources were identified in the study.

  16. 77 FR 11573 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ...; they were received through police seizures or private citizens in Arapaho, Boulder, Delta, Dolores..., at minimum, two individuals were transferred to History Colorado by the Dolores County, CO, Sheriff's... Dolores County, CO. The exact origin of the remains is unknown. Osteological analysis determined that...

  17. 43 CFR 431.7 - Administration and management of the Colorado River Dam Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration and management of the..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPLACEMENT AT THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.7 Administration and management of the Colorado River Dam Fund. Reclamation is responsible for the repayment of the Project...

  18. UTLS water vapor trends as observed by the Boulder balloon series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, A.; Mueller, R.; Homonnai, V.; Janosi, I. M.; Rohrer, F.; Spelten, N.; Hurst, D. F.; Forster, P.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years of high resolution balloon-borne measurements over Boulder, Colorado, are used to investigate the water vapor trend in the tropopause region. This analysis extents already existing Boulder sonde trend statistics, usually focusing on altitudes above 16km, to lower altitudes in the UTLS. This is achieved using two new concepts: 1) Trends are presented in a tropopause (TP) referenced coordinate system from -2km below to 10km above the TP. 2) The sonde profiles are characterized according to tropical and midlatitude TP heights, since the sonde location at 40°N is affected by dynamics and seasonality of the local jet stream. A data selection according to branches with z_TP>14km (B1) and z_TPwater vapor reservoirs. An analysis based on these concepts reduces the dynamically-induced water vapor variability at the TP and allows trend studies in the UTLS. The analysis shows that trends in branch B1 have a better significance -2 to 4km around the TP compared with trends in branch B2. At higher altitudes trends are comparable with published trends, suggesting that a TP based trend calculation is not necessary there. Nevertheless, a decrease in water vapor beginning in 2001 is not visible in both branches between -2 to 4km around the TP. At higher altitudes, this decrease is flattened for the two branches compared with a third branch (B3) with TP heights between 12 and 14km. Branch B3 is characterized by a sharp slope of TP heights across the jet stream. We discuss the hypothesis that the decrease in water vapor beginning in 2001 above Boulder may also be linked with dynamics above the jet stream. These results are also revealed by HALOE based analyses. Using radiative transfer calculations based on a fixed dynamical heating assumption we will study the possible impact of observed water vapor trends around the TP on radiative forcing of surface temperatures.

  19. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary enclosures. 3.6 Section 3.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs...

  20. 40 CFR 257.3-6 - Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disease. 257.3-6 Section 257.3-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR... trenching or burial operation.) (2) Septic tank pumpings that are applied to the land surface...

  1. Characterization of Boulders Ejected from Small Impact Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, G. D.; Melosh, H. J.; Strom, R. G.

    2004-11-01

    When an asteroid or comet impacts the surface of a solid body, some of the surface material is often ejected from the crater in the form of blocks. We are characterizing the size and location of such blocks around craters on the Moon and Mars. The lunar craters were observed in Lunar Orbiter III images from P-12 and S-18. The Mars crater was observed in Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) Release No. MOC2-712. The craters range in size from 300 m to 3 km diameter. We measured the diameters of boulders observed around the craters, and also measured the distance between the boulder and the crater center. We then calculate the ejection velocity of each boulder based on how far the block was from the crater. The data indicate that larger boulders are more frequently found close to the crater rim rather than far away. The size of the ejecta drops off as a power law with distance from the crater. Our results are consistent with studies by Vickery (1986, 1987), which indirectly found the distribution of ejecta sizes from large craters by analyzing the size and distribution of their secondary craters. Our work characterizes the other end of the ejecta spectrum --- low velocity boulders ejected from small craters. We have also constructed R-plots of the boulder diameters for each crater. We found that the R-plot for the boulders has a dependence remarkably similar to an R-plot of the diameters of secondary craters. This similarity supports the already accepted idea that the impactors that produce secondaries are blocks ejected from larger craters. It is also consistent with the interpretation that the upturn of the cratering curve at small diameters on the terrestrial planets is due to secondary impacts rather than a primary population as some have proposed.

  2. Boulder Dislodgement by Tsunamis and Storms: Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert

    2016-04-01

    In the past, boulder dislodgement by tsunami and storm waves has been approached with a simple threshold approach in which a boulder was moved if the sum of the acting forces on the boulder is larger than zero. The impulse theory taught us, however, that this criterion is not enough to explain particle dislodgement. We employ an adapted version of the Newton's Second Law of Motion (NSLM) in order to consider the essence of the impulse theory which is that the sum of the forces has to exceed a certain threshold for a certain period of time. Furthermore, a classical assumption is to consider linear waves. However, when waves travel toward the shore, they alter due to non-linear processes. We employ the TRIADS model to quantify that change and how it impacts boulder dislodgement. We present our results of the coupled model (adapted NSLM and TRIADS model). The results project a more complex picture of boulder transport by storms and tsunami. The following question arises: What information do we actually invert, and what does it tell us about the causative event?

  3. 75 FR 45655 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ..., which excavated the site in 1948 (test), 1949, 1952, and 1956, or by Dr. Robinson, Paleontology Curator.... The human remains were found in the Paleontology section of the museum during re-analysis...

  4. 75 FR 52019 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    .... Much of this work occurred either within or close to present-day Dinosaur National Monument. However... property owner. Mantle's private land holdings were later added to Dinosaur National Monument. There is...

  5. Complex Flow: Workshop Report; January 17-18, 2012, University of Colorado, Boulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Wind Program organized a two-day workshop designed to examine complex wind flow into and out of the wind farm environment and the resulting impacts on the mechanical workings of individual wind turbines. An improved understanding of these processes will subsequently drive down the risk involved for wind energy developers, financiers, and owner/operators, thus driving down the cost of energy.

  6. 75 FR 42771 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... removed from 5ME449, Roth Cave site, Mesa County, CO, with the landowner's permission by a field crew under the direction of Lister and Dick. Roth Cave was on property owned by J.D. Roth and located north..., stratigraphy, and the associated funerary object/burial context. Roth Cave site dates archeologically to...

  7. 76 FR 62839 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... staff in consultation with representatives of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians... Hopland Rancheria, California; Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel, California; Inaja Band of Diegueno Mission... of Diegueno Mission Indians of California; Santa Rosa Band of Cahuilla Indians; Santa Rosa...

  8. 75 FR 57290 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Reservation, Nevada and Utah; Crow Tribe of Montana; Death Valley Timbi-Sha Shoshone Band of California... individual human remains at the time of death or later as part of the death rite or ceremony. Lastly... Indian Reservation, Arizona, wrote letters or signed the disposition agreement in support of the...

  9. Topical Meeting on Laser Techniques for Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, 8-10 March 1982, Boulder, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    mainly results from two-photon resonance three photon Ionization In the Na2 molecule. *Centre d’Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Service do Physique ...Conversion Processes In Hydrogen, Y. Gontier and The first observations of non-resonant, anti-Stokes Raman M. Trahin, Service de Physique des Atomes at...Excited States In Molecules, Jacques Lukasik, Stephen C. Wallace* and William R. Greent, Laboratoire d’Optique Quantique du Centre Na- tional de /a

  10. Contractors Meeting in Propulsion Held in Boulder Colorado on June 10- 14, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-02

    6448U 21000 Brookpark Road (202)767-4935 Cleveland OH 44135 AV297-4935 (216)433-2857 Dr Mohammad Samimy Dr G S Samuelsen Ohio State University Department...2521 La Jolla CA 92093 (619) 534-4284 Dr Emil Pfender Dr John Renie Department of Mechanical Engrg Department of Mechanical and I 125 Mechanical

  11. Resistance forces during boulder extraction from an asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchitsky, Anton V.; Johnson, Jerome B.; Reeves, David M.

    2016-10-01

    Planning for NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) requires estimating the forces that appear during extraction of a boulder from the surface of an asteroid with unknown surface regolith properties. These forces are estimated for a vertical constant force or acceleration pull and a rolling, constant force, torque (peel) on a 4-m diameter spherical boulder using both analytic and discrete element method (DEM) models considering the effects of microgravity and regolith cohesion using Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model. Estimates of the bulk asteroid regolith cohesion strength derived from lunar and asteroid regolith studies ranged from 25 Pa to 250 Pa. JKR cohesive forces at particle contacts depend on particle surface energy and effective curvature radius (particle size). DEM particle size dependent cohesion parameters are linked to estimated regolith cohesion strength by simulating shear and tension tests over a range of DEM particle surface energies resulting in the formulation of the dependence of particle surface energy as a function of cohesion strength and particle size. Maximum extraction forces occur for a vertical pull through the boulder center of mass with constant acceleration. Extraction force decreases for a constant force pull to 0.62pc S where S is the boulder surface area embedded in the regolith and pc is the cohesion strength of the regolith. Boulder extraction by peeling produces the smallest forces by up to more than a factor of 2, as the failure across the boulder surface increases progressively rather than being fully engaged as occurs during a vertical pull extraction. Variations between DEM and analytic results differed from 9% to 17% over the range of regolith cohesion values and peel extraction leverage.

  12. Surface Macrofabric of Boulder Dominated Desert Mountain Slopes, California, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donald A. FRIEND

    2005-01-01

    Rhyolite domes formed over a million year continuum in eastern California are used to study boulder dominated slopes. Slopes in this study are steep (~25° to ~35°) and are made of coarse boulder sized blocks. These slopes include well varnished vertically oriented eolluvial deposits that have been likened to relict periglacial stone stripes, or as indicated in this study, are the result of ongoing desert slope processes. The deposits are common throughout the arid southwestern US, but their morphometric character, fabric, and rates of formation have not been assessed systematically.Results indicate that boulder deposits examined here are remnant from the original surface formed during volcanic eruption and that these boulder slope deposits evolve slowly. Grain size, grain shape and grain angularity do not change significantly from genesis to ~0.6 Ma; trends in the data change markedly after that time. Mean eigenvectors indicate a fabric oriented downhill, parallel to the slope,consistent with the visual impression that long thin to plate-like rocks orient themselves similarly; however,fabric is actually randomly dispersed, similar to that at slope genesis, as indicated by the eigenvalue analysis resultants of C and K. Interestingly, grains remain or become more angular over the million-year time scale of the study as they decrease in size,indicating active in situ weathering processes on individual grains; this result is counter to the common assumption that as grains weather they become more rounded over time.

  13. A time motion analysis of bouldering style competitive rock climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dominic J; Olsen, Peter D

    2010-05-01

    Limited research has been performed on competitive bouldering. The aim of this study was to quantify the movement dynamics of elite boulder climbers. Six climbers were filmed during a national competition consisting of 5 novel climbing problems or routes. Two problems were randomly selected and film footage was analyzed using Kandle Swinger Pro software to determine type and duration (seconds) of bouldering movements. All subjects provided consent, and the study had ethical approval. The mean +/- SD were determined for number of attempts per problem, duration of attempt, time on hold, and time to reach between holds. Exercise:recovery ratios were also calculated. On average, climbers attempted a problem 3.0 +/- 0.5 times, with an attempt lasting 28.9 +/- 10.8 seconds and rest periods of 114 +/- 31 seconds between attempts. Average time gripping holds was 7.9 +/- 1.3 seconds, with approximately 0.5 +/- 0.1 seconds recovery between reaching for holds. The exercise-to-recovery ratio was approximately 1:4 for attempting a problem and approximately 13:1 for forearm muscles during climbing. The exercise-to-recovery ratios allow sufficient time for recovery during and after a problem. However, the prolonged contraction of forearm muscles indicates the importance of strength and endurance in these muscles. Video analysis was found to be a useful tool for the quantification of movement characteristics of competitive elite boulders. Data collected could be utilized in the design of sport-specific tests and training programs. Future research could examine a larger number of athletes and problems and help develop performance tests and training interventions for bouldering.

  14. The southern hemisphere of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Analysis of the preperihelion size-frequency distribution of boulders ≥7 m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Lucchetti, Alice; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Oklay, Nilda; El-Maarry, Mohamed R.; Bertini, Ivano; Naletto, Giampiero; Lazzarin, Monica; Massironi, Matteo; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; Keller, Horst U.; Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Barucci, Maria A.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Boudreault, Steve; Cremonese, Gabriele; Da Deppo, Vania; Davidsson, Björn; Debei, Stefano; De Cecco, Mariolino; Deller, Jakob; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulle, Marco; Gicquel, Adeline; Groussin, Olivier; Gutierrez, Pedro J.; Güttler, Carsten; Hofmann, Marc; Höfner, Sebastian; Hviid, Stubbe F.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jorda, Laurent; Knollenberg, Jörg; Kramm, J.-Rainer; Kührt, Ekkehard; Küppers, Michael; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Lara, Luisa M.; Lee, Jui-Chi; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Lopez Moreno, Jose J.; Marzari, Francesco; Michalik, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Thomas, Nicholas; Toth, Imre; Tubiana, Cecilia

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We calculate the size-frequency distribution of the boulders on the southern hemisphere of comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P), which was in shadow before the end of April 2015. We compare the new results with those derived from the northern hemisphere and equatorial regions of 67P, highlighting the possible physical processes that lead to these boulder size distributions. Methods: We used images acquired by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) on 2 May 2015 at a distance of 125 km from the nucleus. The scale of this dataset is 2.3 m/px; the high resolution of the images, coupled with the favorable observation phase angle of 62°, provided the possibility to unambiguously identify boulders ≥7 m on the surface of 67P and to manually extract them with the software ArcGIS. We derived the size-frequency distribution of the illuminated southern hemisphere. Results: We found a power-law index of -3.6 ± 0.2 for the boulders on the southern hemisphere with a diameter range of 7-35 m. The power-law index is equal to the one previously found on northern and equatorial regions of 67P, suggesting that similar boulder formation processes occur in both hemispheres. The power-law index is related to gravitational events triggered by sublimation and/or thermal fracturing causing regressive erosion. In addition, the presence of a larger number of boulders per km2 in the southern hemisphere, which is a factor of 3 higher with respect to the northern hemisphere, suggests that the southernmost terrains of 67P are affected by a stronger thermal fracturing and sublimating activity, hence possibly causing larger regressive erosion and gravitational events.

  15. Dynamics Days US 2013 Conference Held in Denver, Colorado on 3-6 January 2013. Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    financial economics. 16 Observation and Theory of Modulational Instability and Nonlinear Mode Coupling in Saturn’s Rings Glen R. Stewart, University of...0748828 and CMMI-1201236. 21 Limited Imitation Social Contagion as a Model of Fashions Kameron Harris, University of Wasliington Jan. 6, 10:45 AM...11:05 AM We study binary state contagion dynamics on a social network where nodes act in response to the average state of their neighborhood. We

  16. 78 FR 73886 - Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado; Amended Certification... Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado. The Department's notice of determination was published in the Federal... workers at Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado were engaged in activities related to...

  17. 49 CFR 393.136 - What are the rules for securing large boulders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each boulder must be supported on at least two pieces of hard wood blocking at least 10 cm × 10 cm (4..., so that the boulder may roll, it must be placed in a crib made of hardwood timber fixed to the deck of the vehicle so that the boulder rests on both the deck and the timber, with at least three...

  18. NASA’s Asteroid Redirect Mission: The Boulder Capture Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Nuth, Joseph A.; Mazanek, Dan D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Reeves, David M.; Naasz, Bo J.

    2014-11-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar-electric-propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (˜4-10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (˜1-5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (˜100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. This option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well-characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa’s target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA’s OSIRIS REx and JAXA’s Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. The boulder option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting boulder be returned for subsequent sampling. This boulder option for NASA’s ARM can leverage knowledge of previously characterized NEAs from prior robotic missions, which provides more certainty of the target NEA

  19. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder during third EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed standing next to a huge, split boulder during the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site on the Moon. The lunar rover, which transported Schmitt and Eugene A. Cernan, mission commander, to this extravehicular station from their Lunar Module, is seen in the background. Schmitt is the Apollo 17 lunar module pilot. The mosaic is made from two frames from Apollo 17 Hasselblad magaine 140.

  20. Flood geomorphology of Arthurs Rock Gulch, Colorado: paleoflood history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Jarrett, Robert D.

    1994-11-01

    Episodic late Quaternary flooding is recorded by bouldery deposits and slackwater sediments along Arthurs Rock Gulch, an ephemeral stream west of Fort Collins, Colorado. Flood deposits consist of individual granodiorite and pegmatite boulders, boulder bars, and coarse overbank sediment that rest on erosional terrace segments along the channel. We identified evidence for at least five flood in the lower two thirds of the 1.84 km 2 drainage basin. Flood deposits are differentiated by their position above the active channel, weathering characteristics, degree of boulder burial by colluvium, amount of lichen cover, and position with respect to terrace and colluvial deposits. Age estimates for the flood deposits are based on radiocarbon dating, tree-ring analyses, and relative-age criteria from four sites in the basin. At least two floods occurred in the last 300 years; a third flood is at least 5000 years old, but likely younger than 10,000 yr BP; and the two oldest floods occurred at least 40,000 years BP.

  1. Untangling boulder dislodgement in storms and tsunamis: Is it possible with simple theories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R.; Diplas, P.

    2015-03-01

    Boulders can move during storms and tsunamis. It is difficult to find a simple method to distinguish boulders moved by tsunami waves from those moved during storms in the field. In this contribution, we explore boulder dislodgement by storm and tsunami waves by solving an adapted version of Newton's Second Law of Motion in polar coordinates and defining a critical position for boulder dislodgement. We find that the boulder dislodgement is not only a function of the causative wave, but also of the roughness in the vicinity of the boulder and the slope angle. We employ the amplitude of storm and tsunami waves to dislodge boulders of given masses to evaluate if boulder dislodgement in storms can be untangled from boulder transport in tsunamis. As the main result of our numerical experiments, we find a significant difference between storm and tsunami waves to dislodge the same boulder for large masses and large roughness values. This allows us to conclude that simple theories are applicable to answer the questions asked in the title, but we argue only if they contain a critical dislodgement condition like the one presented here.

  2. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddeucci, Joe [Dept. of Public Works, Boulder, CO (United States). Utilities Division

    2013-03-29

    The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project (BCH) was purchased by the City of Boulder, CO (the city) in 2001. Project facilities were originally constructed in 1910 and upgraded in the 1930s and 1940s. By 2009, the two 10 MW turbine/generators had reached or were nearing the end of their useful lives. One generator had grounded out and was beyond repair, reducing plant capacity to 10 MW. The remaining 10 MW unit was expected to fail at any time. When the BCH power plant was originally constructed, a sizeable water supply was available for the sole purpose of hydroelectric power generation. Between 1950 and 2001, that water supply had gradually been converted to municipal water supply by the city. By 2001, the water available for hydroelectric power generation at BCH could not support even one 10 MW unit. Boulder lacked the financial resources to modernize the facilities, and Boulder anticipated that when the single, operational historical unit failed, the project would cease operation. In 2009, the City of Boulder applied for and received a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant for $1.18 million toward a total estimated project cost of $5.155 million to modernize BCH. The federal funding allowed Boulder to move forward with plant modifications that would ensure BCH would continue operation. Federal funding was made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Boulder determined that a single 5 MW turbine/generator would be the most appropriate capacity, given the reduced water supply to the plant. Average annual BCH generation with the old 10 MW unit had been about 8,500 MW-hr, whereas annual generation with a new, efficient turbine could average 11,000 to 12,000 MW-hr. The incremental change in annual generation represents a 30% increase in generation over pre-project conditions. The old turbine/generator was a single nozzle Pelton turbine with a 5-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 82%. The new unit is a

  3. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddeucci, Joe [Dept. of Public Works, Boulder, CO (United States). Utilities Division

    2013-03-29

    The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project (BCH) was purchased by the City of Boulder, CO (the city) in 2001. Project facilities were originally constructed in 1910 and upgraded in the 1930s and 1940s. By 2009, the two 10 MW turbine/generators had reached or were nearing the end of their useful lives. One generator had grounded out and was beyond repair, reducing plant capacity to 10 MW. The remaining 10 MW unit was expected to fail at any time. When the BCH power plant was originally constructed, a sizeable water supply was available for the sole purpose of hydroelectric power generation. Between 1950 and 2001, that water supply had gradually been converted to municipal water supply by the city. By 2001, the water available for hydroelectric power generation at BCH could not support even one 10 MW unit. Boulder lacked the financial resources to modernize the facilities, and Boulder anticipated that when the single, operational historical unit failed, the project would cease operation. In 2009, the City of Boulder applied for and received a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant for $1.18 million toward a total estimated project cost of $5.155 million to modernize BCH. The federal funding allowed Boulder to move forward with plant modifications that would ensure BCH would continue operation. Federal funding was made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Boulder determined that a single 5 MW turbine/generator would be the most appropriate capacity, given the reduced water supply to the plant. Average annual BCH generation with the old 10 MW unit had been about 8,500 MW-hr, whereas annual generation with a new, efficient turbine could average 11,000 to 12,000 MW-hr. The incremental change in annual generation represents a 30% increase in generation over pre-project conditions. The old turbine/generator was a single nozzle Pelton turbine with a 5-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 82%. The new unit is a

  4. NASA's asteroid redirect mission: Robotic boulder capture option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.

    2014-07-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar-electric-propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (˜4--10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (˜1--5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (˜100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well-characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU_3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense.

  5. Colorado Better Buildings Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strife, Susie; Yancey, Lea

    2013-12-30

    The Colorado Better Buildings project intended to bring new and existing energy efficiency model programs to market with regional collaboration and funding partnerships. The goals for Boulder County and its program partners were to advance energy efficiency investments, stimulate economic growth in Colorado and advance the state’s energy independence. Collectively, three counties set out to complete 9,025 energy efficiency upgrades in 2.5 years and they succeeded in doing so. Energy efficiency upgrades have been completed in more than 11,000 homes and businesses in these communities. Boulder County and its partners received a $25 million BetterBuildings grant from the U.S. Department of Energy under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in the summer of 2010. This was also known as the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants program. With this funding, Boulder County, the City and County of Denver, and Garfield County set out to design programs for the residential and commercial sectors to overcome key barriers in the energy upgrade process. Since January 2011, these communities have paired homeowners and business owners with an Energy Advisor – an expert to help move from assessment to upgrade with minimal hassle. Pairing this step-by-step assistance with financing incentives has effectively addressed many key barriers, resulting in energy efficiency improvements and happy customers. An expert energy advisor guides the building owner through every step of the process, coordinating the energy assessment, interpreting results for a customized action plan, providing a list of contractors, and finding and applying for all available rebates and low-interest loans. In addition to the expert advising and financial incentives, the programs also included elements of social marketing, technical assistance, workforce development and contractor trainings, project monitoring and verification, and a cloud-based customer data system to coordinate among field

  6. Clast mobility within boulder beaches over two winters in Galicia, northwestern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alberti, Augusto; Trenhaile, Alan S.

    2015-11-01

    A micro-drone was used to make low altitude flights over boulder beaches at Laxe Brava and Oia in Galicia, northwestern Spain. Flights were made in July 2012, May 2013, and spring 2014. High resolution digital terrain models and orthophotographs, combined with GIS mapping, were used to monitor changes in the position of thousands of boulders. Maximum storm wave height was higher in the winter of 2013-2014 than in winter 2012-2013, and this was reflected in an increase in the proportion of the boulders that moved in the two winters, from 17% to almost 48% at Laxe Brava, and from 53% to almost 88% at Oia. The greater mobility of the boulders at Oia can be attributed in part to their generally smaller size, although there was considerable overlap between the size of boulders that moved and those that did not move within and between the two beaches. There were mobile boulders in areas up to several metres above the high tidal level on both beaches, and boulder transport in the shore-normal and alongshore directions triggered some changes in the beach profiles, particularly in the middle to upper parts of the beaches. Estimates of threshold transport conditions, scaled to boulder mass, breaker height, and other variables, suggested that all but the very largest boulders on the two beaches should have been mobile, even during the summer months when the waves were much lower than in winter. Model over-prediction can be attributed to a number of factors, including: constraints on movement imposed by surrounding boulders; differences in boulder size and their effect on pivoting angles and on the degree to which boulders are exposed or sheltered from wave impact; and difficulties in assigning appropriate values to model coefficients.

  7. Maximum Velocity of a Boulder Ejected From an Impact Crater Formed on a Regolith Covered Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, G. D.; Melosh, H. J.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate the effect of regolith depth on boulder ejection velocity. A "boulder" refers to an apparently intact rock or rock fragment lying on a planetary surface, regardless of emplacement mechanism. Boulders appear in planetary images as positive relief features --- bright, sun-facing pixels adjacent to dark, shadowed pixels. We studied 12 lunar craters in high resolution (1~m) photographs from Lunar Orbiter III and V. Local regolith depth was measured using the method of small crater morphology. Ejection velocities of boulders were calculated assuming a ballistic trajectory to the final boulder location. A plot of regolith depth/crater diameter vs. maximum boulder ejection velocity shows that craters formed in deeper regolith (with respect to crater size) eject boulders at lower velocities. When ejection velocity (EjV) is in m/s, and regolith depth (Dr) and crater diameter (Dc) are in meters, the data fit the relation Dr / Dc = 1053 × EjVmax-2.823. To explain the data, we turn to impact cratering theory. An ejected particle will follow a streamline from its place of origin to its ejection point (the Z-model), and then follow a ballistic trajectory. Material ejected along more shallow streamlines is ejected at greater velocities. If shallow regolith covers the surface, the most shallow (greatest velocity) streamlines will travel only through the regolith. Boulders, however, must be ejected from the bedrock below the regolith. Thus, the boulder ejected with the greatest velocity originates just below the regolith, along the most shallow streamline through the bedrock. If the regolith is deeper, the most shallow streamline through the bedrock will be deeper, and the maximum velocity of an ejected boulder will be lower. Hence, the regolith depth and maximum ejection velocity of a boulder are correlated: greater boulder ejection velocities correspond to thinner regolith. We observe this correlation in the data.

  8. Thermally induced stresses in boulders on airless body surfaces, and implications for rock breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaro, J. L.; Byrne, S.; Le, J.-L.

    2017-09-01

    This work investigates the macroscopic thermomechanical behavior of lunar boulders by modeling their response to diurnal thermal forcing. Our results reveal a bimodal, spatiotemporally-complex stress response. During sunrise, stresses occur in the boulders' interiors that are associated with large-scale temperature gradients developed due to overnight cooling. During sunset, stresses occur at the boulders' exteriors due to the cooling and contraction of the surface. Both kinds of stresses are on the order of 10 MPa in 1 m boulders and decrease for smaller diameters, suggesting that larger boulders break down more quickly. Boulders ≤ 30 cm exhibit a weak response to thermal forcing, suggesting a threshold below which crack propagation may not occur. Boulders of any size buried by regolith are shielded from thermal breakdown. As boulders increase in size (>1 m), stresses increase to several 10 s of MPa as the behavior of their surfaces approaches that of an infinite halfspace. As the thermal wave loses contact with the boulder interior, stresses become limited to the near-surface. This suggests that the survival time of a boulder is not only controlled by the amplitude of induced stress, but also by its diameter as compared to the diurnal skin depth. While stresses on the order of 10 MPa are enough to drive crack propagation in terrestrial environments, crack propagation rates in vacuum are not well constrained. We explore the relationship between boulder size, stress, and the direction of crack propagation, and discuss the implications for the relative breakdown rates and estimated lifetimes of boulders on airless body surfaces.

  9. Beyond Colorado's Front Range - A new look at Laramide basin subsidence, sedimentation, and deformation in north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Trexler, James H.; Cashman, Patricia H.; Miller, Ian M.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.

    2010-01-01

    preserved in the Colorado Headwaters Basin, suggesting this basin may have remained closed throughout the Paleocene and early Eocene. The field trip also addresses middle Eocene(?) folding of the late Laramide basin-fill strata, related to steep reverse faults that offset the Proterozoic crystalline basement. Late Oligocene magmatic activity is indicated by dikes, plugs, and eruptive volcanic rocks in the Rabbit Ears Range and the Never Summer Mountains that span and flank the Colorado Headwaters Basin. These intrusions and eruptions were accompanied by extensional faulting along predominantly northwesterly trends. Erosion accompanied the late Oligocene igneous activity and faulting, leading to deposition of boulder conglomerates and sandstones of the North Park Formation and high-level conglomerates across the landscape that preserve evidence of a paleo-drainage network that drained the volcanic landscape.

  10. An advanced three-phase physical, experimental and numerical method for tsunami induced boulder transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Coasts around the world are affected by high-energy wave events like storm surges or tsunamis depending on their regional climatological and geological settings. By focusing on tsunami impacts, we combine the abilities and experiences of different scientific fields aiming at improved insights of near- and onshore tsunami hydrodynamics. We investigate the transport of coarse clasts - so called boulders - due to tsunami impacts by a multi-methodology approach of numerical modelling, laboratory experiments, and sedimentary field records. Coupled numerical hydrodynamic and boulder transport models (BTM) are widely applied for analysing the impact characteristics of the transport by tsunami, such as wave height and flow velocity. Numerical models able to simulate past tsunami events and the corresponding boulder transport patterns with high accuracy and acceptable computational effort can be utilized as powerful forecasting models predicting the impact of a coast approaching tsunami. We have conducted small-scale physical experiments in the tilting flume with real shaped boulder models. Utilizing the structure from motion technique (Westoby et al., 2012) we reconstructed real boulders from a field study on the Island of Bonaire (Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea, Engel & May, 2012). The obtained three-dimensional boulder meshes are utilized for creating downscaled replica of the real boulder for physical experiments. The results of the irregular shaped boulder are compared to experiments with regular shaped boulder models to achieve a better insight about the shape related influence on transport patterns. The numerical model is based on the general two-phase mass flow model by Pudasaini (2012) enhanced for boulder transport simulations. The boulder is implemented using the immersed boundary technique (Peskin, 2002) and the direct forcing approach. In this method Cartesian grids (fluid and particle phase) and Lagrangian meshes (boulder) are combined. By applying the

  11. Boulders on asteroid Toutatis as observed by Chang'e-2

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yun; Huang, Jiangchuan; Marchi, Simone; Li, Yuan; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2015-01-01

    Boulders are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of small rocky bodies in the inner solar system and their spatial and size distributions give insight into the geological evolution and collisional history of the parent bodies. Using images acquired by the Chang'e-2 spacecraft, more than 200 boulders have been identified over the imaged area of the near-Earth asteroid Toutatis. The cumulative boulder size frequency distribution (SFD) shows a steep slope of -4.4 $\\pm$ 0.1, which is indicative of a high degree of fragmentation. Similar to Itokawa, Toutatis probably has a rubble-pile structure, as most boulders on its surface cannot solely be explained by impact cratering. The significantly steeper slope for Toutatis' boulder SFD compared to Itokawa may imply a different preservation state or diverse formation scenarios. In addition, the cumulative crater SFD has been used to estimate a surface crater retention age of approximately 1.6 $\\pm$ 0.3 Gyr.

  12. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.6 Minimum capital ratios. (a) Risk-based capital ratio....

  13. The Geographic Distribution of Boulder Halo Craters at Mid-to-High Latitudes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, L. X.; Fassett, C. I.; Levy, J. S.; King, I. R.; Chaffey, P. M.; Wagoner, C. M.; Hanlon, A. E.; Watters, J. L.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Holt, J. W.; Dyar, M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive evidence exists for ground ice at mid-to-high latitudes on Mars, including results from neutron spectroscopy [1-3], thermal properties [4-5], geomorphology [e.g., 6-9], and the in situ observations of Mars Phoenix [10]. This ground ice has been hypothesized to be emplaced diffusively and fill pores [11], or to have accumulated by ice and dust deposition that draped or mantled the terrain [7, 12]. These two processes are not mutually exclusive; both potentially have occurred on Mars [5]. One of the landforms found in areas where ground ice is common on Mars are boulder halo craters [e.g., 13-15] (Figure 1), which are topographically muted impact craters that are filled by ice-rich regolith. They are outlined by boulders that trace a circular outline of the original crater rim. Boulder halos generally have distinctly higher boulder densities than the surrounding background plains and have few boulders in their interiors. The mechanism of boulder halo crater formation is somewhat uncertain. Our working model is that an impact event occurs with sufficient size to excavate to a depth greater than the boulder-poor, ice-rich soils. Excavated boulders are deposited around the crater's rim and in its proximal ejecta. Quite rapidly [14], the crater becomes infilled by icy soil. Rather than being buried, boulders in the halo remain at the surface, perhaps be-cause they 'float' relative to finer-grained materials [14, 16]. Regardless of the details of this process, the life-time of boulders at the surface is much greater than the timescale needed to remove most of the craters' topography. Physical weathering of rocks must be greatly out-paced by crater infilling (the opposite of what is typical, e.g., on the Moon [17]). The rapidity of this infilling is easiest to understand if icy mantling material is deposited and accumulates, rather than simply being added by pore filling of soils. If this model is correct, boulder halos only form when they excavate rock

  14. Boulders increase resistance to clear-cut logging but not subsequent recolonization rates of boreal bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalholz, Martin; Hylander, Kristoffer

    2011-12-01

    The extent to which a plant assemblage might recolonize a disturbed system is in general related to the availability of propagule sources and sites with appropriate conditions for establishment. Both these factors might be sensitive to aspects of spatial heterogeneity. Microtopographic variation may enhance initial resistance by reducing the impact of the disturbance and facilitating establishment of incoming propagules by providing shaded "safe-sites". This study explores the influence of microtopographic heterogeneity (caused by variation in surface boulder cover) on the recolonization of closed-canopy forest floor bryophytes using a chronosequence of 75 spruce-dominated forests in south-central Sweden (2-163 years after clear-cutting). We found that high boulder cover did increase survival and subsequent persistence in young forests at both investigated scales (i.e. 1,000 and 100 m(2)), although this pattern became less evident on the smaller spatial scale. Species accumulation in boulder-poor subplots was not different when surrounded by boulder-rich compared with boulder-poor subplots suggesting short-distance recolonization from boulder-created refugia to be of little importance during recolonization. To conclude, it seems that boulders increase initial resistance to clear-cutting for this bryophyte guild, but that the subsequent recolonization process is more likely to depend on external propagule sources and factors affecting establishment such as the microclimate in the developing stand.

  15. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  16. Colorado's Singular "No"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedeman, Reeves

    2008-01-01

    Supporters of affirmative action may have finally found a way to defeat state ballot measures that would ban such programs: Latch onto an inspirational presidential candidate with piles of cash and an unprecedented voter-turnout machine. Those activists won a narrow victory in Colorado this month, when 50.7 percent of voters made the state the…

  17. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  18. Game Birds of Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

    This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game birds typical of Colorado. Discussions in English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game birds, individual game bird species, and endangered species of birds related to game birds. (RE)

  19. Students' epistemologies about experimental physics: Validating the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R

    2015-01-01

    Student learning in instructional physics labs represents a growing area of research that includes investigations of students' beliefs and expectations about the nature of experimental physics. To directly probe students' epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts at the University of Colorado Boulder (CU) and elsewhere, we developed the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). Previous work with this assessment has included establishing the accuracy and clarity of the instrument through student interviews and preliminary testing. Several years of data collection at multiple institutions has resulted in a growing national data set of student responses. Here, we report on results of the analysis of these data to investigate the statistical validity and reliability of the E-CLASS as a measure of students' epistemologies for a broad student population. We find that the E-CLASS demonstrates an acceptable level of both validi...

  20. Revealing Differences Between Curricula Using the Colorado Upper-Division Electrostatics Diagnostic

    CERN Document Server

    Zwolak, Justyna P

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado Upper-Division Electrostatics (CUE) Diagnostic is an exam developed as part of the curriculum reform at the University of Colorado, Boulder (CU). It was designed to assess conceptual learning within upper-division electricity and magnetism (E&M). Using the CUE, we have been documenting students' understanding of E&M at Oregon State University (OSU) over a period of 5 years. Our analysis indicates that the CUE identifies concepts that are generally difficult for students, regardless of the curriculum. The overall pattern of OSU students' scores reproduces the pattern reported by Chasteen et al. at CU. There are, however, some important differences that we will address. In particular, our students struggle with the CUE problems involving separation of variables and boundary conditions. We will discuss the possible causes for this, as well as steps that may rectify the situation.

  1. Scaphopods from middle Liassic erratic boulders of northern Germany : with a review on Liassic Scaphopoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engeser, T.; Riedel, F.

    1992-01-01

    Three new scaphopod species, one new genus and one new family (Prodentalium bandeli sp. nov., Baltodentalium weitschati gen. & sp. nov., Progadilina spaethi sp. nov., Baltodentaliidae fam. nov.) are described from erratic boulders ('Ahrensburger Geschiebe') of Hoisdorf, northern Germany. The ammonoi

  2. 77 FR 42695 - Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland; Boulder and Gilpin County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland; Boulder and Gilpin County, CO; Eldora Mountain Resort Ski Area Projects; Correction AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA....

  3. 75 FR 47488 - FM Table of Allotments, Boulder Town, Levan, Mount Pleasant, and Richfield, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments, Boulder Town, Levan, Mount Pleasant, and Richfield, UT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; petition for partial...

  4. Modified Level III Preacquisition Environmental Contaminants Survey for Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Jefferson and Boulder Counties, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is one of several important historical documents associated with remediation activities at the Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge. The Rocky Flats National...

  5. International Conference on Multiphoton Processes (4th) Held in Boulder, Colorado on July 13-17, 1987: Program and Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    P.O. Box 1663, MS E526, Los Alamos, NM 87545 505/667-7649 Anne L*Nuillier, DPHG-PAS, CEN Saclay 91191, Gifsun Yvette France 91191 (1) 69082113 Albert NF...Theory of Double Optical Resonance: Collisional Broadening and Doppler Effects on ac Stark Splitting* Albert M. F. Lau Sandia National Laboratories...Phys. Rev. Lett., 53, 2234 (1984). J. Boulmer, P. Camus , and P. Pillet, JOSA B (to be published, May, 1987). SJ. Bokor, R.R. Freeman, and W.E. Cooke

  6. International Conference on Coordination Chemistry (23rd) Held at Boulder, Colorado on 29 July - 3 August 1984. Abstracts of Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-03

    ALKYNEHEXACARBONYLDICOBALT COMPOUNDS WITH ALKENES. Paola Michelin Lausarot, Lorenza Operti, Gian Angelo Vaglio, Mario Valle e Paolo Volpe Istituto di Chimica Generale ed...Stoin Vania N. No- guetra’, Assi V. Benedetti and Eliss 9. Saitovich. ainstituto do Qutica-UNCAJW, Compinss - SP - Brasil. blustitutdo Qusltica-MSP...ai L b,.. ,vb.? p~ too), W&36-1 SYNTHESES AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OP SOMIE 1,4- BENZOD1AZEPINE COMPLEXES Adriano Benedetti Ca ~rlors and Giuseppe Toot

  7. Artificial Intelligence in Maintenance: Proceedings of the Joint Services Workshop Held at Boulder, Colorado on 4-6 October 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    design and diagnosis are being challenged by the spectre of massively automated involution, building complex systems whose reliability and...functions are conducted with minimum reliance on human intervention." 331 In terms of utopia ATE, the test system should be such where the test

  8. 78 FR 5776 - University of Colorado Boulder, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... measure the electromagnetic near-field of optical antennas, plasmonics in metals and semiconductors... scintillation light and ionization electrons of low energy nuclear recoils of Xenon, as well as to compare the... energy. The scintillation and ionization signals are studied in a detector vessel that lies underneath 5...

  9. Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference (37th) Held at Boulder, Colorado on 9-12 October 1984. Program and Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-12

    and J.M. Wadehra, AFWAL/APL, Wright- Ellena, IREQ,/arennes, Quebec, Canada Patterson AFB A-2 MOBILITY OF POSITIVE IONS IN SF6 B-6 DEVELOPMENT OF A...KINETIC INVESTIGATION OF STREAMER DEVELOPMENT: E.E. Kunhardt, Polytechnic Nea Uited TechnoLgy Inst. of New York, and Y. Tzeng, Auburn L. Newman...and 1.5 inches, respectively and a length of 4 inches. The gas flow was varied between 25 and 200 cm3s-1. The ion mobility evaluated from the current

  10. Libraries in Colorado: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library → Libraries in Colorado URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/colorado.html Libraries in Colorado ... Room 2106C Aurora, CO 80045 303-724-2111 http://hslibrary.ucdenver.edu/ Denver National Jewish Health Library ...

  11. Silverton folio, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Whitman; Howe, Ernest; Ransome, F. L.

    1905-01-01

    The term San Juan region, or simply "the San Juan," used with variable meaning by early explorers, and naturally with indefinite limitation during the period of settlement, is now quite generally applied to a large tract of mountainous country in southwestern Colorado, together with an undefined zone of lower country bordering it on the north, west, and south.  The Continental Divide traverses this area in a great bow.  The principal part of the district is a deeply scored volcanic plateau, more than 3000 square miles in extent, drained on the north by the tributaties of the Gunnison River, on the west by those of the Dolores and San Miguel rivers, on the south by numerous branches of the San Juan, and on the east by the Rio Grande.  ALl but the latter drainage finds its way to the Gulf of California through the Colorado River.

  12. Boulders shifted during Supertyphoon Haiyan (7-9 Nov 2013) - Observations from Eastern Samar (Philippines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; May, S. Matthias; Brill, Dominik; Cuadra, Camille; Lagmay, A. Mahar F.; Santiago, Joy; Suarez, J. Kenneth; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Boulder fields record maximum magnitudes of coastal flooding during strong storms or tsunamis. Such a maximum magnitude tropical cyclone - Supertyphoon Haiyan - made landfall in the Philippines on 8 November 2013. During this typhoon, longshore transport of blocks of up to 180 t and upslope transport of boulders weighing up to 23.5 t to elevations of 10 m above mean lower low water level was documented in a combined analysis of bi-temporal satellite images and field survey at Hernani, Eastern Samar. Boulders were mapped and their volumes were derived from 3D models based on DGPS and structure-from-motion. Initiation-of-motion approaches show that boulders were shifted by flow velocities of 8.9-9.6 m/s, which significantly exceeds depth-averaged flow velocities given by a local coupled hydrodynamic and wave model (Delft3D) of the typhoon with a maximum <1.5 m/s. These results, in combination with recently published phase-resolving wave models and survivor videos from Hernani, support the hypothesis that infragravity waves induced by the typhoon, which are not resolved in phase-averaged storm surge models, were responsible for the exceptional high-velocity flooding in Eastern Samar. Our findings show that tsunamis and hydrodynamic conditions induced by storms may shift boulders of similar size and, therefore, demand a careful re-evaluation of storm-related transport where it, based on the boulder's sheer size, has previously been excluded.

  13. Intertidal boulder pavements in the northeastern Gulf of Alaska and their geological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, C. H.

    1994-01-01

    Striated boulder pavements, consisting of planar concentrations of clasts having striated upper surfaces, are a common feature of glacigenic deposits but their origin is not well understood. Laterally extensive pavements are currently forming in the intertidal zone west of Icy Bay in the Gulf of Alaska. Pavements comprise "armoured" layers of interlocking boulders, one clast thick, that have been eroded from underlying outcrops of Late Cenozoic glaciomarine diamictites; they originate essentially as lag surfaces along a high energy, storm-dominated, mesotidal shoreline. Boulder pavements are either flat or show a "nucleated" plan form where successively smaller boulders have been accreted around a large core boulder. Nucleation imparts a hummocky surface topography to the pavements and suggests that some form of size sorting of clasts has occurred. Packing is promoted by repeated tamping of the clast lag by floating masses of glacier ice which become grounded across the intertidal zone at low tide. Repeated abrasion of the pavement surface by debris contained within ice blocks produces smooth, flattened clast upper surfaces and short, randomly oriented striations. Data from Icy Bay can be used to constrain the origin of laterally extensive boulder pavements exposed in Late Cenozoic glaciomarine sediments on Middleton Island. The significance of such pavements in the geologic record is that they form along erosional unconformities and may identify sequence boundaries.

  14. Geology of the Gore Canyon-Kremmling area, Grand County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, C.S. Venable

    1968-01-01

    The Gore Canyon-Kremmling area is in the southwestern portion of the Kremmling 15-minute quadrangle, Colorado. Precambrian rocks are biotite gneiss, the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, granophyre dikes, and quartz veins. The Boulder Creek intrudes the biotite gneiss, and both of these units are cut by north-northwest-trending granophyre dikes and quartz veins. Biotite gneiss contains structure elements of a northwest and a northeast fold system. Lineations and foliations in the Boulder Creek are generally concordant to the northeast fold system . of the gneiss. Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary formations, in ascending order and with their approximate thicknesses, are the State Bridge Formation, 15 feet; the Chinle and Chugwater Formations undivided, 0-95 feet; the Sundance Formation, 0?-100 feet; the Morrison Formation, 250 feet; the Dakota Sandstone, 225 feet; the Benton Shale, 340 feet; the Niobrara Formation, 600 feet; and the Pierre Shale. Quaternary deposits are terrace, landslide, and modern flood-plain deposits. Laramide rock deformation is related to the Park Range uplift and includes faulting and, in the sediments, some folding. Some of the faults, including the regional Gore fault, are Precambrian structures reactivated in Laramide time.

  15. PW Characteristics during the 2013 Colorado Flood using Ground-Based GPS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsing, H. K.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    During September 9-16, 2013, the Front Range region of Colorado experienced heavy rainfall that resulted in severe flooding. Precipitation totals for the event exceeded 450mm, damages to public and private properties were estimated to be over $2 billion, and 9 lives were lost. This study analyzes the characteristics of precipitable water (PW) surrounding the event using 10-years of high-resolution GPS PW data in Boulder, Colorado, which was located within the region of maximum rainfall. The characteristics examined include the temporal variability and abnormality of PW as well as the sources of moisture for the event. The temporal variability for PW in Boulder is dominated by seasonal variability with an average summertime maximum of 36mm. In 2013, the seasonal PW maximum extended into early September due to the occurrence of the flooding event. A closer examination of the temporal variability of PW surrounding this event showed that PW rapidly increased from 22mm to 32mm over the course of 1 day and values remained around 30mm for the entire event. When examining the abnormality of PW during the event, the atmosphere over Boulder was found to be near to saturation for the duration of the event and the monthly-averaged PW for September of 2013 was 25% higher than the long-term climatology. Also, the frequency distribution of September PW for Boulder is typically Gaussian, or normal, but in 2013 the distribution for September was bimodal, representing a shift in atmospheric conditions from climatology. This shift was the result of large-scale moisture transport into Colorado from the eastern tropical Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico. This moisture transport was the product of a stagnating, cutoff low over the southwestern United States working in conjunction with an anticyclone located over the southeastern United States. A blocking ridge located over the Canadian Rocky Mountains kept both of the synoptic features in place over the course of several days, which helped

  16. Climate Literacy from the Plains to the Peaks: Challenges in Teaching Climate in Colorado Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafich, K. A.; Martens, W.; Fletcher, H.; MacFerrin, B.; Morrison, D.; Stone, J.; Collins, M. C.; Chastain, M.; Hager, C.; Duncan, E.; Gay, C. J.; Kurz, J. D.; Manning, C. B.; Graves, B. J.; Bloomfield, L.

    2015-12-01

    Boulder, Colorado is a central hub of climate research and education resources, yet teachers less than two hours away struggle to find relevant climate curriculum and meaningful connections to climate scientists. Learn More About Climate (LMAC), an initiative of the CU-Boulder Office for Outreach and Engagement was created to provide access to the most up-to-date scientific research in a user-friendly way that raises awareness and inspires an informed dialogue about climate change among Coloradans. LMAC produces classroom ready videos highlighting CU climate scientists, offers classroom visits and Skype sessions with scientists, and serves as a hub for the most recent climate news. LMAC recently formed a Teacher Advisory Board made up of eleven K12 teachers from across Colorado spanning rural, suburban, and urban school districts. Given different locations, demographics, and grade levels, each teacher faces different challenges teaching climate. Here we present our work to identify the primary challenges that our teacher advisors have encountered while teaching climate science in their classrooms. Furthermore, we are working to co-create dynamic solutions with the teachers to address these problems using the LMAC platform.

  17. Landslides in the northern Colorado Front Range caused by rainfall, September 11-13, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, Jonathan W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; Baum, Rex L.; Jones, Eric S.; Harp, Edwin L.; Staley, Dennis M.; Barnhart, William D.

    2014-01-01

    During the second week of September 2013, nearly continuous rainfall caused widespread landslides and flooding in the northern Colorado Front Range. The combination of landslides and flooding was responsible for eight fatalities and caused extensive damage to buildings, highways, and infrastructure. Three fatalities were attributed to a fast moving type of landslide called debris flow. One fatality occurred in Jamestown, and two occurred in the community of Pinebrook Hills immediately west of the City of Boulder. All major canyon roads in the northern Front Range were periodically closed between September 11 and 13, 2013. Some canyon closures were caused by undercutting of roads by landslides and flooding, and some were caused by debris flows and rock slides that deposited material on road surfaces. Most of the canyon roads, with the exceptions of U.S. Highway 6 (Clear Creek Canyon), State Highway 46/Jefferson Co. Rd. 70 (Golden Gate Canyon), and Sunshine Canyon in Boulder County, remained closed at the end of September 2013. A review of historical records in Colorado indicates that this type of event, with widespread landslides and flooding occurring over a very large region, in such a short period of time, is rare.

  18. Assessing Learning Outcomes in Middle-Division Classical Mechanics: The Colorado Classical Mechanics/Math Methods Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, Marcos D; Turnbull, Anna M; Pepper, Rachel E; Pollock, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Reliable and validated assessments of introductory physics have been instrumental in driving curricular and pedagogical reforms that lead to improved student learning. As part of an effort to systematically improve our sophomore-level Classical Mechanics and Math Methods course (CM 1) at CU Boulder, we have developed a tool to assess student learning of CM 1 concepts in the upper-division. The Colorado Classical Mechanics/Math Methods Instrument (CCMI) builds on faculty consensus learning goals and systematic observations of student difficulties. The result is a 9-question open-ended post-test that probes student learning in the first half of a two-semester classical mechanics / math methods sequence. In this paper, we describe the design and development of this instrument, its validation, and measurements made in classes at CU Boulder and elsewhere.

  19. Assessing learning outcomes in middle-division classical mechanics: The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Marcos D.; Doughty, Leanne; Turnbull, Anna M.; Pepper, Rachel E.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2017-06-01

    Reliable and validated assessments of introductory physics have been instrumental in driving curricular and pedagogical reforms that lead to improved student learning. As part of an effort to systematically improve our sophomore-level classical mechanics and math methods course (CM 1) at CU Boulder, we have developed a tool to assess student learning of CM 1 concepts in the upper division. The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument (CCMI) builds on faculty consensus learning goals and systematic observations of student difficulties. The result is a 9-question open-ended post test that probes student learning in the first half of a two-semester classical mechanics and math methods sequence. In this paper, we describe the design and development of this instrument, its validation, and measurements made in classes at CU Boulder and elsewhere.

  20. LARGE BOULDERS ALONG THE RABAT COAST (MOROCCO; POSSIBLE EMPLACEMENT BY THE NOVEMBER, 1st, 1755 A.D. TSUNAMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mhammdi, Fida Medina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The rocky coastline south of Rabat (Morocco shows a large number of boulders lying upon the lithified dune system. The boulders, of 4-100 tons, may be single, in imbricated sets, or forming clusters and ridges. Several of the boulders were lifted and overturned, thus showing pool apertures downwards. Transport distance is generally decametric because of the surface roughness, but it can reach 300 m in flat areas. All boulders have been detached from their initial position at the fractured front of the active cliff. Quantification with the help wave hydrodynamics and rock displacement mechanics shows that dislodgement and transport of these boulders were accomplished rather by tsunami than by storm waves. Although no dating was attempted, post- emplacement bio-erosion by littorinids and the absence of any erosional features below the boulders suggests that they were emplaced during the 1st November 1755 AD Lisbon tsunami.

  1. 77 FR 15798 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs..., Colorado College, Armstrong Hall, Room 201, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903, telephone... as the Taylor Museum and the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center) and the Denver Museum of...

  2. 77 FR 23498 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs..., Colorado College, Armstrong Hall, Room 201, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903, telephone... Fine Arts Center (formerly known as the Taylor Museum and the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center)...

  3. Tsunami-induced boulder transport - combining physical experiments and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; May, Simon Matthias; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brueckner, Helmut; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva

    2016-04-01

    Coasts are crucial areas for living, economy, recreation, transportation, and various sectors of industry. Many of them are exposed to high-energy wave events. With regard to the ongoing population growth in low-elevation coastal areas, the urgent need for developing suitable management measures, especially for hazards like tsunamis, becomes obvious. These measures require supporting tools which allow an exact estimation of impact parameters like inundation height, inundation area, and wave energy. Focussing on tsunamis, geological archives can provide essential information on frequency and magnitude on a longer time scale in order to support coastal hazard management. While fine-grained deposits may quickly be altered after deposition, multi-ton coarse clasts (boulders) may represent an information source on past tsunami events with a much higher preservation potential. Applying numerical hydrodynamic coupled boulder transport models (BTM) is a commonly used approach to analyse characteristics (e.g. wave height, flow velocity) of the corresponding tsunami. Correct computations of tsunamis and the induced boulder transport can provide essential event-specific information, including wave heights, runup and direction. Although several valuable numerical models for tsunami-induced boulder transport exist (e. g. Goto et al., 2007; Imamura et al., 2008), some important basic aspects of both tsunami hydrodynamics and corresponding boulder transport have not yet been entirely understood. Therefore, our project aims at these questions in four crucial aspects of boulder transport by a tsunami: (i) influence of sediment load, (ii) influence of complex boulder shapes other than idealized rectangular shapes, (iii) momentum transfers between multiple boulders, and (iv) influence of non-uniform bathymetries and topographies both on tsunami and boulder. The investigation of these aspects in physical experiments and the correct implementation of an advanced model is an urgent need

  4. A convenient preparation of 9 H -carbazole-3,6-dicarbonitrile and 9 H -carbazole-3,6-dicarboxylic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Weselinski, Lukasz Jan

    2014-01-23

    A catalytic, high yielding and scalable procedure for the synthesis of 9H-carbazole-3,6-dicarbonitrile has been developed. Subsequent hydrolysis of the dinitrile in the presence of a catalytic copper species (i.e., CuI) yields 9H-carbazole-3,6-dicarboxylic acid. Both compounds are versatile and fine-tunable organic building blocks and therefore offer potential in material science, medicinal and supramolecular chemistry. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.

  5. Boulders on asteroid Toutatis as observed by Chang’e-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Ji, Jianghui; Huang, Jiangchuan; Marchi, Simone; Li, Yuan; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2015-11-01

    Boulders are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of small rocky bodies in the inner solar system and their spatial and size distributions give insight into the geological evolution and collisional history of the parent bodies. Using images acquired by the Chang’e-2 spacecraft, more than 200 boulders have been identified over the imaged area of the near-Earth asteroid Toutatis. The cumulative boulder size frequency distribution (SFD) shows a steep slope of -4.4 ± 0.1, which is indicative of a high degree of fragmentation. Similar to Itokawa, Toutatis probably has a rubble-pile structure, as most boulders on its surface cannot solely be explained by impact cratering. The significantly steeper slope for Toutatis’ boulder SFD compared to Itokawa may imply a different preservation state or diverse formation scenarios. In addition, the cumulative crater SFD has been used to estimate a surface crater retention age of approximately 1.6 ± 0.3 Gyr.

  6. Boulders on asteroid Toutatis as observed by Chang’e-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Ji, Jianghui; Huang, Jiangchuan; Marchi, Simone; Li, Yuan; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2015-01-01

    Boulders are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of small rocky bodies in the inner solar system and their spatial and size distributions give insight into the geological evolution and collisional history of the parent bodies. Using images acquired by the Chang’e-2 spacecraft, more than 200 boulders have been identified over the imaged area of the near-Earth asteroid Toutatis. The cumulative boulder size frequency distribution (SFD) shows a steep slope of −4.4 ± 0.1, which is indicative of a high degree of fragmentation. Similar to Itokawa, Toutatis probably has a rubble-pile structure, as most boulders on its surface cannot solely be explained by impact cratering. The significantly steeper slope for Toutatis’ boulder SFD compared to Itokawa may imply a different preservation state or diverse formation scenarios. In addition, the cumulative crater SFD has been used to estimate a surface crater retention age of approximately 1.6 ± 0.3 Gyr. PMID:26522880

  7. The thermal emission from boulders on (25143) Itokawa and general implications for the YORP effect

    CERN Document Server

    Ševeček, P; Čapek, D; Ďurech, J

    2015-01-01

    Infrared radiation emitted from an asteroid surface causes a torque that can significantly affect rotational state of the asteroid. The influence of small topographic features on this phenomenon, called the YORP effect, seems to be of utmost importance. In this work, we show that a lateral heat diffusion in boulders of suitable sizes leads to an emergence of a local YORP effect which magnitude is comparable to the YORP effect due to the global shape. We solve a three-dimensional heat diffusion equation in a boulder and its surroundings by the finite element method, using the FreeFem++ code. The contribution to the total torque is inferred from the computed temperature distribution. Our general approach allows us to compute the torque induced by a realistic irregular boulder. For an idealized boulder, our result is consistent with an existing one-dimensional model. We also estimated (and extrapolated) a size distribution of boulders on (25143) Itokawa from close-up images of its surface. We realized that topog...

  8. The thermal emission from boulders on (25143) Itokawa and general implications for the YORP effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševeček, P.; Brož, M.; Čapek, D.; Ďurech, J.

    2015-06-01

    Infrared radiation emitted from an asteroid surface causes a torque that can significantly affect rotational state of the asteroid. The influence of small topographic features on this phenomenon, called the YORP effect, seems to be of utmost importance. In this work, we show that a lateral heat diffusion in boulders of suitable sizes leads to an emergence of a local YORP effect which magnitude is comparable to the YORP effect due to the global shape. We solve a three-dimensional heat diffusion equation in a boulder and its surroundings by the finite element method, using the FREEFEM++ code. The contribution to the total torque is inferred from the computed temperature distribution. Our general approach allows us to compute the torque induced by a realistic irregular boulder. For an idealized boulder, our result is consistent with an existing one-dimensional model. We also estimated (and extrapolated) a size distribution of boulders on (25143) Itokawa from close-up images of its surface. We realized that topographic features on Itokawa can potentially induce a torque corresponding to a rotational acceleration of the order of 10-7 rad d-2 and can therefore explain the observed phase shift in light curves.

  9. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel

    2009-06-18

    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  10. Prediction of blast boulders in open pit mines via multiple regression and artificial neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghiasi Majid; Askarnejad Nematollah; Dindarloo Saeid R.; Shamsoddini Hamed

    2016-01-01

    The most important objective of blasting in open pit mines is rock fragmentation. Prediction of produced boulders (oversized crushed rocks) is a key parameter in designing blast patterns. In this study, the amount of boulder produced in blasting operations of Golegohar iron ore open pit mine, Iran was pre-dicted via multiple regression method and artificial neural networks. Results of 33 blasts in the mine were collected for modeling. Input variables were: joints spacing, density and uniaxial compressive strength of the intact rock, burden, spacing, stemming, bench height to burden ratio, and specific charge. The dependent variable was ratio of boulder volume to pattern volume. Both techniques were successful in predicting the ratio. In this study, the multiple regression method was superior with coefficient of determination and root mean squared error values of 0.89 and 0.19, respectively.

  11. Colorado State Capitol Geothermal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, Lance [Colorado Department of Personnel and Adminstration, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Colorado State Capitol Geothermal Project - Final report is redacted due to space constraints. This project was an innovative large-scale ground-source heat pump (GSHP) project at the Colorado State Capitol in Denver, Colorado. The project employed two large wells on the property. One for pulling water from the aquifer, and another for returning the water to the aquifer, after performing the heat exchange. The two wells can work in either direction. Heat extracted/added to the water via a heat exchanger is used to perform space conditioning in the building.

  12. Colorado wetlands initiative : 1997-2000 : Protecting Colorado's wetlands resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Colorado Wetlands Initiative is an endeavor to protect wetlands and wetland-dependent wildlife through the use of voluntary, incentive-based mechanisms. It is a...

  13. Measurements of Fluorescent Bioaerosol Particles in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perring, A. E.; Emerson, J. B.; Fierer, N.; Schwarz, J. P.; Fahey, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Bioaerosols are of atmospheric interest due to their potential importance as cloud condensation and heterogeneous ice nuclei and because they represent a sizeable fraction of coarse mode aerosol in some locations. Relatively little data exists, however, regarding diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles of bioaerosols and the meteorological processes that control them. Newly developed real-time instrumentation allows for sensitive, high time resolution detection of fluorescent bioaerosols and is uniquely suited to address key uncertainties in the sources, distributions and behavior of these particles in the atmosphere. Here we present observations of ambient fluorescent biological aerosol made on the Front Range of Colorado using a custom-modified Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS) during the summer and fall of 2013. The summertime measurements were made from the roof of the NOAA ESRL David Skaggs Research Center in Boulder and the fall measurements were made both at the surface and aloft at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory Tall Tower. We examine diurnal variations in loading and size distribution of fluorescent bioaerosol at the two locations. We also investigate the relationship between meteorological events and fluorescent bioaerosol. For example, we observe higher concentrations and markedly different number distributions associated with precipitation events. Simultaneous filter samples were collected for DNA sequencing and flow cytometry. To our knowledge this represents the first such comparison for the WIBS under ambient conditions and the microbial identification accomplished with the filters adds significantly to the analysis. This data set will provide useful insight into the sources, loadings and properties of fluorescent bioaerosol and the local and regional processes that drive them.

  14. Microfossils in the Ordovician erratic boulders from South-western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nõlvak, J.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitinozoans, ostracods and acritarchs found in four glacially transported limestone boulders from the south-western coast of Finland have been studied in order to test the usefulness of these microfossil groups in age determinations. Also rare specimens of conodonts, inarticulated brachiopods and foraminifers were found. Baltic limestone (or Östersjö limestone was the most problematic, because only fossils with calcitic or phosphatic shells are preserved. It is concluded that the boulders identified correlate with the Uhaku and Rakvere stages of the Middle Ordovician.

  15. RTI Strategies That Work in the 3-6 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eli; Karns, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This is a must-have resource for educators committed to meeting the needs of their struggling students in Grades 3-6. Teachers get a whole toolbox filled with research-based, easy to implement RTI interventions that really work! Get strategies in five core areas--plus correlations to the Common Core State Standards and effective scaffolding tips…

  16. Classroom Museums: Touchable Tables for Kids Grades 3-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Pamela

    This book provides ideas for table exhibits for grades 3-6 in nine different subject areas. These areas are: marine life; nature in the backyard; the history and uses of flags; impressionist painters and art; winter festivals around the world; fibers and fabrics; Native Americans in touch with the land; sugar and chocolate; and keeping the earth,…

  17. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, R; DeFries, J C

    1983-04-01

    This report provides an overview of the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), a longitudinal, prospective, multivariate adoption study of behavioral development. Examples of the types of analyses that can be conducted using this design are presented. The examples are based on general cognitive-ability data for adoptive, biological, and control parents; assessments of their home environment; and Bayley Mental Development Index scores for 152 adopted children and 120 matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include examination of genetic and environmental sources of variance, identification of environmental influence devoid of genetic bias, assessment of genotype-environment interaction and correlation, and analyses of the etiology of change and continuity in development.

  18. Pikes Peak, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstein, Craig; Quesenberry, Carol; Davis, John; Jackson, Gene; Scott, Glenn R.; D'Erchia, Terry D.; Swibas, Ed; Carter, Lorna; McKinney, Kevin; Cole, Jim

    2006-01-01

    For 200 years, Pikes Peak has been a symbol of America's Western Frontier--a beacon that drew prospectors during the great 1859-60 Gold Rush to the 'Pikes Peak country,' the scenic destination for hundreds of thousands of visitors each year, and an enduring source of pride for cities in the region, the State of Colorado, and the Nation. November 2006 marks the 200th anniversary of the Zebulon M. Pike expedition's first sighting of what has become one of the world's most famous mountains--Pikes Peak. In the decades following that sighting, Pikes Peak became symbolic of America's Western Frontier, embodying the spirit of Native Americans, early explorers, trappers, and traders who traversed the vast uncharted wilderness of the Western Great Plains and the Southern Rocky Mountains. High-quality printed paper copies of this poster are available at no cost from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey (1-888-ASK-USGS).

  19. Colorados asutati rohelise ehituse toetusprogramm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    USA Colorado osariigi rohelised arhitektid ja projekteerijad asutasid koos ehitusfirmadega programmi "Ehita rohelist Coloradot", mille raames pakutakse rohelise maja või korteri ehitamise väljaõpet

  20. Colorados asutati rohelise ehituse toetusprogramm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    USA Colorado osariigi rohelised arhitektid ja projekteerijad asutasid koos ehitusfirmadega programmi "Ehita rohelist Coloradot", mille raames pakutakse rohelise maja või korteri ehitamise väljaõpet

  1. 78 FR 20168 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport, Boulder, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to release airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invite public...

  2. 33 CFR 165.T11-281 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 2010 during construction operations. The safety zone will only be enforced during blasting, excavation... Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV. 165.T11-281 Section 165.T11-281 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.T11-281 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction; Lake Mead, Boulder City...

  3. 1,3,6,8-Tetranitrocarbazole (TNC) Synthesis and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Specification MIL-T-13 11 Distribution List 25 FIGURES 1 Carbazole added to sulphuric acid , heated till carbazole becomes sulfonated 1 2 Three-stage...1,3,6,8-TETRANITROCABAZOLE The TNC has traditionally been synthesized with a mixed acid system of sulphuric acid and nitric acid . The carbazole...is added to the sulphuric acid and heated until the carbazole becomes fully sulfonated (fig. 1). Then nitric acid is added to the mixture and

  4. 76 FR 59770 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Boulder County, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... Abandonments to abandon 1.37 miles of rail line extending between milepost 20.80 and milepost 22.17 at Lafayette, in Boulder County, CO (the Line). The Line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 80026 and includes no stations. BNSF has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the Line for...

  5. 77 FR 39987 - Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forests and Pawnee National Grassland; Boulder and Gilpin County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Mountain Facility. Construction and maintenance access for the proposed Jolly Jug Express bottom terminal would utilize an existing road. The existing snowmaking infrastructure would deliver drinking water to..., on-going maintenance and emergency access, a bridge crossing Middle Boulder Creek and two road...

  6. A story about estimation of a random field of boulders from incomplete seismic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2005-01-01

    deposits along the tunnel line. By use of this important distribution information and of the observed homogeneity of the seismic point source field together with the physical properties of diffraction it became possible to make the wanted prediction. During the excavation the found boulders were counted...

  7. Restoration of a boulder reef in temperate waters: Strategy, methodology and lessons learnt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Dahl, Karsten; Niemann, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts on marine habitats are a global problem, particularly in coastal areas. While boulder reefs in temperate waters hold high biomass and biodiversity, and may be unable to recover from anthropogenic stressors without restoration efforts, little is known about how to restore and...

  8. DELIVERING TIMELY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY: THE BOULDER AREA SUSTAINABILITY INFORMATION NETWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Technology Transfer and Support Division of the EPA Office of Research and Development's (ORD's) National Risk Management Laboratory in conjunction with the Boulder Area Sustainability Information Network (BASIN) has developed a "how-to" handbook to allow other community orga...

  9. 77 FR 35671 - Conformed Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for the Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Area Power Administration Conformed Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for the Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Conformance of power marketing criteria in... (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is modifying Part C of...

  10. Aswan site on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Morphology, boulder evolution, and spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Oklay, Nilda; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Giacomini, Lorenza; Massironi, Matteo; Bertini, Ivano; El-Maarry, M. R.; Marzari, Francesco; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Höfner, Sebastian; Lee, Jui-Chi; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Groussin, Olivier; Naletto, Giampiero; Lazzarin, Monica; Barbieri, Cesare; Sierks, Holger; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; Keller, Horst U.; Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Barucci, Maria A.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Cremonese, Gabriele; Da Deppo, Vania; Davidsson, Björn; De Cecco, Mariolino; Debei, Stefano; Ferri, Francesca; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulle, Marco; Güttler, Carsten; Gutierrez, Pedro J.; Hviid, Stubbe F.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jorda, Laurent; Knollenberg, Jörg; Kramm, J.-Rainer; Küppers, Michael; Kürt, Ekkehard; Lara, Luisa M.; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Lopez Moreno, Jose J.; Magrin, Sara; Michalik, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Thomas, Nicholas; Tubiana, Cecilia

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We provide a detailed morphological analysis of the Aswan site on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). We derive the size-frequency distribution of boulders ≥2 m and correlate this distribution with the gravitational slopes for the first time on a comet. We perform the spectral analysis of this region to understand if possible surface variegation is related to thedifferent surface textures observable on the different units. Methods: We used two OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) image data sets acquired on September 19 and 22, 2014, with a scale of 0.5 m/px. Gravitational slopes derived from the 3D shape model of 67P were used to identify and interpret the different units of the site. By means of the high-resolution NAC data sets, boulders ≥2.0 m can be unambiguously identified and extracted using the software ArcGIS. Coregistered and photometrically corrected color cubes were used to perform the spectral analyses, and we retrieved the spectral properties of the Aswan units. Results: The high-resolution morphological map of the Aswan site (0.68 km2) shows that this site is characterized by four different units: fine-particle deposits located on layered terrains, gravitational accumulation deposits, taluses, and the outcropping layered terrain. Multiple lineaments are identified on the Aswan cliff, such as fractures, exposed layered outcrops, niches, and terraces. Close to the terrace margin, several arched features observed in plan view suggest that the margin progressively retreats as a result of erosion. The size-frequency of boulders ≥2 m in the entire study area has a power-law index of -3.9 +0.2/-0.3 (1499 boulders ≥2 m/km2), suggesting that the Aswan site is mainly dominated by gravitational events triggered by sublimation and/or thermal insolation weathering causing regressive erosion. The boulder size-frequency distribution versus gravitational slopes indicates that when higher gravitational slope terrains are considered, only boulders ≤10 m

  11. Differences in forearm strength, endurance, and hemodynamic kinetics between male boulderers and lead rock climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, S; Stone, K J; Sveen, J; Dickson, T; España-Romero, V; Giles, D; Baláš, J; Stoner, L; Draper, N

    2017-07-28

    This study examined differences in the oxygenation kinetics and strength and endurance characteristics of boulderers and lead sport climbers. Using near infrared spectroscopy, 13-boulderers, 10-lead climbers, and 10-controls completed assessments of oxidative capacity index and muscle oxygen consumption (mV˙O2) in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), and extensor digitorum communis (EDC). Additionally, forearm strength (maximal volitional contraction MVC), endurance (force-time integral FTI at 40% MVC), and forearm volume (FAV and ΔFAV) was assessed. MVC was significantly greater in boulderers compared to lead climbers (mean difference = 9.6, 95% CI 5.2-14 kg). FDP and EDC oxidative capacity indexes were significantly greater (p = .041 and .013, respectively) in lead climbers and boulderers compared to controls (mean difference = -1.166, 95% CI (-3.264 to 0.931 s) and mean difference = -1.120, 95% CI (-3.316 to 1.075 s), respectively) with no differences between climbing disciplines. Climbers had a significantly greater FTI compared to controls (mean difference = 2205, 95% CI= 1114-3296 and mean difference = 1716, 95% CI = 553-2880, respectively) but not between disciplines. There were no significant group differences in ΔFAV or mV˙O2. The greater MVC in boulderers may be due to neural adaptation and not hypertrophy. A greater oxidative capacity index in both climbing groups suggests that irrespective of climbing discipline, trainers, coaches, and practitioners should consider forearm specific aerobic training to aid performance.

  12. Concentration-discharge relationships during an extreme event: Contrasting behavior of solutes and changes to chemical quality of dissolved organic material in the Boulder Creek Watershed during the September 2013 flood: SOLUTE FLUX IN A FLOOD EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, Garrett P. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Rock, Nathan D. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Gabor, Rachel S. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Pitlick, John [Department of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Tfaily, Malak [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; McKnight, Diane M. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA

    2017-07-01

    During the week of September 10-17, 2013, close to 20 inches of rain fell across Boulder County, Colorado, USA. This rainfall represented a 1000-year event that caused massive hillslope erosion, landslides, and mobilization of sediments. The resultant stream flows corresponded to a 100-year flood. For the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BC-CZO), this event provided an opportunity to study the effect of extreme rainfall on solute concentration-discharge relationships and biogeochemical catchment processes. We observed base cation and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations at two sites on Boulder Creek following the recession of peak flow. We also isolated three distinct fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) for chemical characterization. At the upper site, which represented the forested mountain catchment, the concentrations of the base cations Ca, Mg and Na were greatest at the peak flood and decreased only slightly, in contrast with DOC and K concentrations, which decreased substantially. At the lower site within urban corridor, all solutes decreased abruptly after the first week of flow recession, with base cation concentrations stabilizing while DOC and K continued to decrease. Additionally, we found significant spatiotemporal trends in the chemical quality of organic matter exported during the flood recession, as measured by fluorescence, 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and FTICR-MS. Similar to the effect of extreme rainfall events in driving landslides and mobilizing sediments, our findings suggest that such events mobilize solutes by the flushing of the deeper layers of the critical zone, and that this flushing regulates terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages during the flow recession.

  13. Geologic map of the Palisade quadrangle, Mesa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2000-01-01

    The Palisade 1:24,000 quadrangle is in Mesa County in western Colorado. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 22 different Quaternary units. Two prominent river terraces are present in the quadrangle containing gravels deposited by the Colorado River. The map area contains many mass movement deposits. Extensive landslide deposits are present along the eastern part of the quadrangle. These massive landslides originate on the flanks of Grand Mesa, in the Green River and Wasatch Formations, and flow west onto the Palisade quadrangle. In addition, large areas of the eastern and southern parts of the map are covered by extensive pediment surfaces. These pediment surfaces are underlain by debris flow deposits also originating from Grand Mesa. Material in these deposits consists of mainly subangular basalt cobbles and boulders and indicate that these debris flow deposits have traveled as much as 10 km from their source area. The pediment surfaces have been divided into 5 age classes based on their height above surrounding drainages. Two common bedrock units in the map area are the Mancos Shale and the Mesaverde Group both of Upper Cretaceous age. The Mancos shale is common in low lying areas near the western map border. The Mesaverde Group forms prominent sandstone cliffs in the north-central map area. The map is accompanied by a separate pamphlet containing unit descriptions, a section on geologic hazards (including landslides, piping, gullying, expansive soils, and flooding), and a section on economic geology (including sand and gravel, and coal). A table indicates what map units are susceptible to a given hazard. Approximately twenty references are cited at the end of the report.

  14. 78 FR 53783 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO..., Chief of Staff, President's Office, Colorado College, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903... Springs, CO, that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This...

  15. 78 FR 19304 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs... College, Armstrong Hall, Room 201, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903, telephone (719) 389... Center (formerly known as the Taylor Museum and the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center) and the...

  16. Survey for bats in Jackson County, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers a targeted bat survey of Jackson County in north-central Colorado to better understand the abundance and distribution of bats in Colorado. The...

  17. Coherent laser radar at 3.6 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Frank; Lasher, Mark

    2002-12-20

    Coherent laser radar systems in the mid-IR wavelength region can have advantages in low-altitude environment because they are less sensitive to scattering, turbulence, and humidity, which can affect shorter- or longer-wavelength system. We describe a coherent laser radar at 3.6 microm based on a single-frequency optical parametric oscillator and demonstrate the system over short ranges outdoors. The system was used to make micro-Doppler measurements from idling trucks that were processed to give surface vibration spectra.

  18. A note of caution on the use of boulders for exposure dating of depositional surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Hetzel, R.; Kuhlmann, J.; Ramos, V. A.

    2010-12-01

    Exposure dating of boulders has been widely applied to determine the age of depositional surfaces under the assumption that the pre-depositional nuclide component in most boulders is negligible (e.g. Bierman et al., 1995; van der Woerd et al., 2006). Here we present a case study on fluvial terraces at the active mountain front of the eastern Andes, where this assumption is clearly invalid, because sandstone boulders (n = 13) at two sites contain a highly variable inherited 10Be component and have apparent 10Be ages that exceed the age of the respective surface by up to 93 ka. Likewise, boulders from active stream channels (n = 5) contain a substantial inherited 10Be component, equivalent to 5-48 ka of exposure. The age of the fluvial terraces is well determined by 10Be depth profiles on sand samples, which allow to correct for the pre-depositional nuclide component. At site 1, three terraces have 10Be ages of 3.20 ± 0.42 ka (T2), 11.11 ± 0.87 ka (T3), and 16.0 ± 1.1 ka (T4). The age of T3 is furthermore confirmed by a calibrated 14C age of 12.61 ± 0.20 ka BP. At site 2, terrace T3 has an age of 13.5 ± 2.1 ka (derived on a 10Be depth profile), while boulders indicate apparent ages from 14 to 31 ka. The average inherited 10Be concentration of sand grains - determined from depth profiles and stream sediments - is small and equivalent to 1-3 ka of exposure, whereas the mean inheritance of the boulders is an order of magnitude higher. This causes great caution by determining erosion rates. The huge contrast is related to the different provenance and transport history of sand and boulders. While the sand is derived from rapidly eroding Miocene sediments exposed near the mountain front, the boulders originate from Triassic sandstones in the internal part of the fold-and-thrust belt. On their way to the mountain front the boulders were temporarily stored and irradiated in alluvial fans that are currently reworked. Sediment deposition in intramontane basins and

  19. A modified time-temperature relationship for titanomagnetite and its application to igneous erratic boulders in Hachijo Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonosaki, T.; Nakamura, N.; Goto, K.; Sato, T.; Watanabe, M.

    2016-12-01

    On land along shore line in an island all over the world, there are many huge boulders which seem that they had been broken and transported by errastic events (such as extreme waves). The presence of boulders on land provides geological evidence that the region had been suffered by ancient tsunami or storm waves, establishing the evaluation of risk-management policies for future disasters. In volcanic island of Hachijo, Japan, there are huge (>5000 kg) andesitic boulder (20 m altitude high), and basaltic boulders (4 m altitude high) which seem that they had been broken from an outcrop and emplaced from it. Because radiocarbon dating can not be applied to volcanic rocks, a magnetic viscous dating might be powerful tool to determine the rotation history of rocks. Tyson Smith and Vrosub (1994) succeeded in revealing the age of landslide basaltic rocks by geological evidence, using Pullaiah's time-temperature monogram by Neel's relaxation theory of single domain (SD) particles of magnetite (Pullaiah et al. 1975). However, our application of this monogram to igneous boulders fails to determine the age due to a different magnetic mineralogy including titanomagnetite. Therefore, by introducing a modified monogram for single domain particles of titanomagnetite, we tried to reveal a possible reworked age of the boulders. However, our boulders still fail to identify the reworked age. In this presentation, we will present our current situation of the problem and a working hypothesis to solve it.

  20. Map of mixed prairie grassland vegetation, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, S J.V.; Webber, P J; Komarkova, V; Weber, W A

    1980-01-01

    A color vegetation map at the scale of 1:12,000 of the area surrounding the Rocky Flats, Rockwell International Plant near Boulder, Colorado, provides a permanent record of baseline data which can be used to monitor changes in both vegetation and environment and thus to contribute to future land management and land-use policies. Sixteen mapping units based on species composition were identified, and characterized by two 10-m/sup 2/ vegetation stands each. These were grouped into prairie, pasture, and valley side on the basis of their species composition. Both the mapping units and these major groups were later confirmed by agglomerative clustering analysis of the 32 vegetation stands on the basis of species composition. A modified Bray and Curtis ordination was used to determine the environmental factor complexes controlling the distribution of vegetation at Rocky flats. Recommendations are made for future policies of environmental management and predictions of the response to environmental change of the present vegetation at the Rocky Flats site.

  1. Spatial heterogeneity of temperature across alpine boulder fields in New South Wales, Australia: multilevel modelling of drivers of microhabitat climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haijing; Paull, David; Rayburg, Scott

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the spatial heterogeneity of temperatures across a region is significant for identification and protection of potential microhabitats for species conservation. However, this task is proving difficult because multiple factors drive the temperatures of microhabitats and their effect differs at different scales. In the Australian alpine region, boulder field habitats have been identified as important refugia for a range of small mammals. Vegetation cover and elevation have been found to drive thermal buffering at the level of single sampling sites within boulder fields, whereas the aspect and inclination of slopes have been found to affect thermal buffering at the level of clusters of boulder fields. But how the rock structure (number of rock layers, rock size and cavity of boulders) influences microclimate of boulder fields remains an open question. We used a multilevel modelling approach to detect the factors driving microhabitat temperatures in different seasons at different spatial scales in an Australian alpine region. We found that significant temperature differences existed within and between clusters of boulder fields in different seasons. Besides elevation and vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size also exerts important influences on extreme temperatures at the site (i.e. single boulder field) scale. Topographical variables such as slope gradient and elevation influenced minimum temperatures at the boulder field cluster scale. Variations in boulder field temperatures were significant at fine scales, with variations in minimum temperatures exceeding those of maximum temperatures. We suggest that variations in slope gradient and elevation, interacting with vegetation cover, the number of rock layers and rock cavity size can lead to fine-grained thermal variability, which potentially provides refugia for species at microsites, even when regional climatic conditions become less suitable for their survival.

  2. What do Meteorite Falls Tell Us about the Strength of Asteroid Boulders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Daniel; Demasi, Michael; Kring, David

    2016-10-01

    One possible source of data on the strength of a boulder on an asteroid's surface is the meteorite collection and the observations of meteorite falls. Since highly fractured boulders should breakup in the atmosphere and arrive as meteorite showers, the relative ratio of boulders to showers can provide insight into boulder strength. Since about 85-95% of the mass of a meteoroid is lost during atmospheric entry, we have chosen to investigate only those falls with a final recovered mass of at least 10 kg. This corresponds to a minimum pre-atmospheric mass of 100-200 kg and roughly 25 centimeter minimum diameter. Using the Catalogue of Meteorites and the Meteoritical Bulletins we compiled a list of observed meteorite falls with a total recovered mass greater than or equal to 10 kg. We found a total of 269 meteorites that met these criteria, of which 263 entries reported or estimated the number of fragments associated with their falls. The overall percentage of observed showers was found to be around 34%. The ratio of "boulders" to showers was determined to be around 1.94:1. Comparing the percentage of showers within the meteorite types shows a trend in strength with irons (showers only 4.3%) very rarely exhibit reported showers, stony-irons (25%), ordinary chondrites (28.5%), achondrites (35.7%), and carbonaceous chondrites (70%) are dominantly showers.The meteorite fall data primarily sample the "boulder" population of meteoroids roughly 0.25 meters to a few meters in their pre-atmospheric diameter because of the 85-95% atmospheric loss. The relative rarity of showers seems to indicate that most meteoroids that survive to produce meteorites in this size range are fairly strong and coherent. Not surprisingly, irons and stony-irons are the strongest class which is consistent with the overwhelmingly high production of Earth's smallest impact craters by iron meteorites. Carbonaceous chondrites are by far the weakest and most fracture-prone meteorite class with 70% of the

  3. 3,6-Diazaoctane-1,8-diaminium diiodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacy Cukrowski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C6H20N42+·2I−, comprises half a 3,6-diazaoctane-1,8-diaminium dication plus an I− anion. The dications are symmetrical and lie across crystallographic centres of inversion. In the crystal, the ions form a network involving mainly weak N—H...I intermolecular interactions: two H atoms of the ammonium group form interactions with two I− anions and the H atom of the secondary amine forms a weak interaction with a third I− cation. The third ammonium H atom is hydrogen bonded to a secondary amine of an adjacent cation. The backbone of the cation does not form a uniformly trans chain, but is `kinked' [C—N—C—C torsion angle = 71.5 (2°], probably to accommodate the direct hydrogen bond between the ammonium group and the secondary amine in an adjacent cation.

  4. Oligo(3,6-phenanthrene ethynylenes): synthesis, characterization, and photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jichao; Hu, Gongfang; Wang, Ningning; Hu, Tao; Wen, Qiaodong; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yanguang

    2013-04-05

    A series of highly fluorescent, oligo(3,6-phenanthrene ethynylenes) (F1-F7) were synthesized, and their photophysical behavior was systematically investigated. They emitted light with highly emissive quantum yields, up to 0.92. Emissive wavelengths of these compounds relied on the number of phenanthrene blocks existing in the oligomers. Red-shifted emissions were observed as the number of phenanthrenes increased. On the basis of theoretical calculations, helical structures could be formed for F4-F7, indicating that the excimer emissions might be observed for F4-F7 due to the intramolecular π-π stackings of phenanthrenes in the helical structures. However, excimer emissions were only observed for F5-F7 in dilute cyclohexane and for F6 and F7 in dilute methylene chloride, respectively. No excimer emission was observed for F4-F7 in dilute tetrahydrofuran due to the degree of solvation.

  5. Body diameters in 3 - 6 years old children from Plovdiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineshev Slavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to analyze the body diameters in 3-6 year old children. The biacromial diameters were taken as well as the two chest diameters, the bicristal and bitrohanterial diameters in 316 children (157 boys and 159 girls 3, 4, 5 and 6 years of age attending kindergarten in Plovdiv. The analysis shows that all diameters, with the exception of the bitrohanterial have higher values in boys. The absolute year's increment of the diameters is greater in girls. The growth velocity of the researched features is greatest at the age of 3-4 and 4-5, decreasing at different rates for the different features at the age of 5-6. The only exception is the sagittal chest diameter in both sexes and the bitrohanterial diameters in girls.

  6. Separating methane emissions from biogenic sources and natural gas by vertical column enhancements of ammonia, ethane, and methane in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, R.; Volkamer, R. M.; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.; Hannigan, J. W.; Kille, N.; Frey, M.; Kumar Sha, M.; Orphal, J.

    2015-12-01

    Methane sources in the Colorado Front Range include biogenic sources from cattle feedlots and natural gas operations. Although numerous studies have measured methane emissions, there remains significant uncertainty regarding the relative contributions of these various methane emission sources. Here we present data from a March 2015 field campaign that deployed two Bruker EM27 Sun Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) and the University of Colorado Solar Occultation Flux (CU-SOF) FTS in Eaton, Colorado; the former were used to measure enhancements in the methane vertical column densities (VCD), while the latter was used to measure ethane and ammonia VCDs. A third EM27 FTS was deployed to a background site in Westminster, Colorado which was far removed from cattle and petroleum operations. Northerly winds make possible the determination of methane VCD column enhancement from Westminster to Eaton. All instruments were compared during several background days at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado. This presentation explores the potential of methane source attribution using ammonia as a tracer for feedlot emissions and ethane as a tracer for petroleum emissions.

  7. Synthesis of petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic data for the Boulder batholith, southwest Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Lund, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous Boulder batholith in southwest Montana consists of the Butte Granite and a group of associated smaller intrusions emplaced into Mesoproterozoic to Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and into the Late Cretaceous Elkhorn Mountains Volcanics. The Boulder batholith is dominated by the voluminous Butte Granite, which is surrounded by as many as a dozen individually named, peripheral intrusions. These granodiorite, monzogranite, and minor syenogranite intrusions contain varying abundances of plagioclase, alkali feldspar, quartz, biotite, hornblende, rare clinopyroxene, and opaque oxide minerals. Mafic, intermediate, and felsic subsets of the Boulder batholith intrusions are defined principally on the basis of color index. Most Boulder batholith plutons have inequigranular to seriate textures although several are porphyritic and some are granophyric (and locally miarolitic). Most of these plutons are medium grained but several of the more felsic and granophyric intrusions are fine grained. Petrographic characteristics, especially relative abundances of constituent minerals, are distinctive and foster reasonably unambiguous identification of individual intrusions. Seventeen samples from plutons of the Boulder batholith were dated by SHRIMP (Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe) zircon U-Pb geochronology. Three samples of the Butte Granite show that this large pluton may be composite, having formed during two episodes of magmatism at about 76.7 ± 0.5 Ma (2 samples) and 74.7 ± 0.6 million years ago (Ma) (1 sample). However, petrographic and chemical data are inconsistent with the Butte Granite consisting of separate, compositionally distinct intrusions. Accordingly, solidification of magma represented by the Butte Granite appears to have spanned about 2 million year (m.y.). The remaining Boulder batholith plutons were emplaced during a 6-10 m.y. span (81.7 ± 1.4 Ma to 73.7 ± 0.6 Ma). The compositional characteristics of these plutons are similar to those

  8. Movement demands of elite female and male athletes in competitive bouldering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prosper J Medernach; H Kleinöder; Hermann H H Lötzerich

    2016-01-01

    ...: The aim of this study was to investigate the movement demands of elite female (24.2 ± 1.9 yrs; 160.6 ± 5.1 cm; 52.7 ± 4.8 kg) and male athletes (25.1 ± 3.5 yrs; 175.7 ± 7.6 cm; 63.6 ± 6.8 kg) in competitive bouldering...

  9. Manual Hydraulic Boulder Removal Machine%手动液压巨石移除机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁圆; 韩娜; 陈超

    2013-01-01

    在断电和没有大型工程机械的情况下,为了清除阻挡道路的巨石,利用液压缸推力大的原理,提出一种手动多自由度液压巨石移除机。该机器有多个自由度,利用其前后加长杆,方便推移距山体1~5m的巨石,该机器可广泛应用于地震等自然灾害的破障救援中。%In the cases of power failure and no large-scale construction machinery,a manual multi-DOF hydraulic boulder remov-al machine was envisioned to clear the boulders blocking road,applying the theory that hydraulic cylinder had a large thrust. Since the machine has more than one DOF,its front and rear extension rods can be used to remove boulders away from mountain 1~5 m. The machine can be widely used in barrier-breaking rescue in earthquakes and other natural disasters.

  10. First evidence of accumulation of mega boulders on the Mediterranean rocky coast of Provence (southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vella

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An accumulation of boulders was recently discovered along the rocky coast of the Gulf of Fos located in Provence, in an area exposed to a south-westerly wave regime. The coast around this locality forms the western extremity of the calcareous Nerthe range between Marseille and the Rhône Delta. Several mega blocks are scattered to a distance of 30 m behind the coast line. The largest block (33.5 tonnes has been transported about 39 m inland, up to about 2 m a.s.l. On the Mediterranean coast, the origin of such blocks is often attributed to tsunami-generated waves, but in the case examined here, although the origin is unclear, the differences in surface state between boulders indicates several events generated by south-westerly storms. Radiocarbon dating on several different shells collected from seven different boulders yields a wide dispersion of ages ranging from 4000 BP to the Modern Period. The differences in surface appearance, as well as the differences of fauna conservation and surface coloration, in some cases in a very fresh state, along with the dispersion of radiocarbon ages, suggest that historic storm events have affected these megablocks.

  11. First evidence of accumulation of mega boulders on the Mediterranean rocky coast of Provence (southern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, C.; Demory, F.; Canut, V.; Dussouillez, P.; Fleury, T. J.

    2011-03-01

    An accumulation of boulders was recently discovered along the rocky coast of the Gulf of Fos located in Provence, in an area exposed to a south-westerly wave regime. The coast around this locality forms the western extremity of the calcareous Nerthe range between Marseille and the Rhône Delta. Several mega blocks are scattered to a distance of 30 m behind the coast line. The largest block (33.5 tonnes) has been transported about 39 m inland, up to about 2 m a.s.l. On the Mediterranean coast, the origin of such blocks is often attributed to tsunami-generated waves, but in the case examined here, although the origin is unclear, the differences in surface state between boulders indicates several events generated by south-westerly storms. Radiocarbon dating on several different shells collected from seven different boulders yields a wide dispersion of ages ranging from 4000 BP to the Modern Period. The differences in surface appearance, as well as the differences of fauna conservation and surface coloration, in some cases in a very fresh state, along with the dispersion of radiocarbon ages, suggest that historic storm events have affected these megablocks.

  12. On Road Study of Colorado Front Range Greenhouse Gases Distribution and Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petron, G.; Hirsch, A.; Trainer, M. K.; Karion, A.; Kofler, J.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A.; Kolodzey, W.; Miller, B. R.; Miller, L.; Montzka, S. A.; Kitzis, D. R.; Patrick, L.; Frost, G. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Robers, J. M.; Tans, P.

    2008-12-01

    The Global Monitoring Division and Chemical Sciences Division of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory have teamed up over the summer 2008 to experiment with a new measurement strategy to characterize greenhouse gases distribution and sources in the Colorado Front Range. Combining expertise in greenhouse gases measurements and in local to regional scales air quality study intensive campaigns, we have built the 'Hybrid Lab'. A continuous CO2 and CH4 cavity ring down spectroscopic analyzer (Picarro, Inc.), a CO gas-filter correlation instrument (Thermo Environmental, Inc.) and a continuous UV absorption ozone monitor (2B Technologies, Inc., model 202SC) have been installed securely onboard a 2006 Toyota Prius Hybrid vehicle with an inlet bringing in outside air from a few meters above the ground. To better characterize point and distributed sources, air samples were taken with a Portable Flask Package (PFP) for later multiple species analysis in the lab. A GPS unit hooked up to the ozone analyzer and another one installed on the PFP kept track of our location allowing us to map measured concentrations on the driving route using Google Earth. The Hybrid Lab went out for several drives in the vicinity of the NOAA Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tall tower located in Erie, CO and covering areas from Boulder, Denver, Longmont, Fort Collins and Greeley. Enhancements in CO2, CO and destruction of ozone mainly reflect emissions from traffic. Methane enhancements however are clearly correlated with nearby point sources (landfill, feedlot, natural gas compressor ...) or with larger scale air masses advected from the NE Colorado, where oil and gas drilling operations are widespread. The multiple species analysis (hydrocarbons, CFCs, HFCs) of the air samples collected along the way bring insightful information about the methane sources at play. We will present results of the analysis and interpretation of the Hybrid Lab Front Range Study and conclude with perspectives

  13. A Detailed Study of Debris Flow Source Areas in the Northern Colorado Front Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana-Morales, A.; Baum, R. L.; Godt, J.

    2014-12-01

    Nearly continuous, heavy rainfall occurred during 9-13 September 2013 causing flooding and widespread landslides and debris flows in the northern Colorado Front Range. Whereas many recent studies have identified erosion as the most common process leading to debris flows in the mountains of Colorado, nearly all of the debris flows mapped in this event began as small, shallow landslides. We mapped the boundaries of 415 September 2013 debris flows in the Eldorado Springs and Boulder 7.5-minute quadrangles using 0.5-m-resolution satellite imagery. We characterized the landslide source areas of six debris flows in the field as part of an effort to identify what factors controlled their locations. Four were on a dip slope in sedimentary rocks in the Pinebrook Hills area, near Boulder, and the other two were in granitic rocks near Gross Reservoir. Although we observed no obvious geomorphic differences between the source areas and surrounding non-landslide areas, we noted several characteristics that the source areas all had in common. Slopes of the source areas ranged from 28° to 35° and most occurred on planar or slightly concave slopes that were vegetated with grass, small shrubs, and sparse trees. The source areas were shallow, irregularly shaped, and elongated downslope: widths ranged from 4 to 9 m, lengths from 6 to 40 m and depths ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 m. Colluvium was the source material for all of the debris flows and bedrock was exposed in the basal surface of all of the source areas. We observed no evidence for concentrated surface runoff upslope from the sources. Local curvature and roughness of bedrock and surface topography, and depth distribution and heterogeneity of the colluvium appear to have controlled the specific locations of these shallow debris-flow source areas. The observed distribution and characteristics of the source areas help guide ongoing efforts to model initiation of the debris flows.

  14. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  15. Documentation of dislocated boulders and monitoring of coastal sites in western Greece by terrestrial laser scanning and dense image matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Curdt, Constanze; Röbke, Björn; Vött, Andreas; Bareth, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Dislocated boulders are one evidence of high-energy coastal inundation by tsunamis and storms. The accurate determination of the mass and the lateral areas of these boulders are important input parameters for wave transport equations, which calculate the necessary wave height and velocity for dislocation. Several studies have revealed that these boulder parameters are not easy to estimate by simply measuring the axes of a boulder, as their morphology is mostly complex. In addition, there is an ongoing debate, how tsunami and storm impacts are distinguishable by wave transport equations. Therefore, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as dense image matching from the ground and by an unmanned aerial system (UAS) have been used to accurately document dislocated boulders. In addition, several different coastal sites in western Greece were monitored since 2009 in order to distinguish gradual changes. This specific region is characterized by a high seismic and tsunami hazard risk, due to the nearby plate boundaries. In addition, severe storms during winter time can considerably alter the coasts. The 3D data, gathered by the different methods, was used to derive 3D models of the boulders and enabled the calculation of the volume of each boulder and the corresponding lateral areas as well. The mass of the boulders was achieved by the incorporation of density values. Likewise, the accurate position, orientation and distance to the sea were measured. High-resolution digital elevation models (2.5D) of each site were compared to each other in order to determine changes. For all measurements, marked base points were used for RTK-GPS and tachymetric measurements. Thus, all data is georeferenced and comparable over the observed years. The results of the field campaigns show that the dislocated boulders can be accurately documented and monitored. Their volume and the lateral areas are considerably smaller than estimations by axes measurements. The new data shows reduced wave

  16. Multi-hole seismic modeling in 3-D space and cross-hole seismic tomography analysis for boulder detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Liu, Jiangping; Wang, Jing; Zong, Yuquan; Yu, Mingyu

    2016-11-01

    A boulder stone, a common geological feature in south China, is referred to the remnant of a granite body which has been unevenly weathered. Undetected boulders could adversely impact the schedule and safety of subway construction when using tunnel boring machine (TBM) method. Therefore, boulder detection has always been a key issue demanded to be solved before the construction. Nowadays, cross-hole seismic tomography is a high resolution technique capable of boulder detection, however, the method can only solve for velocity in a 2-D slice between two wells, and the size and central position of the boulder are generally difficult to be accurately obtained. In this paper, the authors conduct a multi-hole wave field simulation and characteristic analysis of a boulder model based on the 3-D elastic wave staggered-grid finite difference theory, and also a 2-D imaging analysis based on first arrival travel time. The results indicate that (1) full wave field records could be obtained from multi-hole seismic wave simulations. Simulation results describe that the seismic wave propagation pattern in cross-hole high-velocity spherical geological bodies is more detailed and can serve as a basis for the wave field analysis. (2) When a cross-hole seismic section cuts through the boulder, the proposed method provides satisfactory cross-hole tomography results; however, when the section is closely positioned to the boulder, such high-velocity object in the 3-D space would impact on the surrounding wave field. The received diffracted wave interferes with the primary wave and in consequence the picked first arrival travel time is not derived from the profile, which results in a false appearance of high-velocity geology features. Finally, the results of 2-D analysis in 3-D modeling space are comparatively analyzed with the physical model test vis-a-vis the effect of high velocity body on the seismic tomographic measurements.

  17. Effect of latent heating on mesoscale vortex development during extreme precipitation: Colorado, September 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Annareli

    From 9-16 September 2013, a slow-moving cut-off low in the southwestern U.S. funneled unseasonal amounts of moisture to the Colorado Front Range, resulting in extreme precipitation and flooding. The heaviest precipitation during the September 2013 event occurred over the northern Colorado Front Range, producing a 7-day total of over 380 mm of rain. The flash flooding caused over $3 billion in damage to property and infrastructure and resulted in eight fatalities. This study will focus on the precipitation and mesoscale features during 11-12 September 2013 in Boulder, CO. During the evening of 11 September, Boulder experienced flash flooding as a result of high rain rates accumulating over 180 mm of rain in 6 hours. From 0400-0700 UTC 12 September, a mesoscale vortex (mesovortex) was observed to travel northwestward towards Boulder. This circulation enhanced upslope flow and was associated with localized deep convection. The mesovortex originated in an area common for the development of a lee vortex known as the Denver Cyclone. We hypothesize that this mesoscale vortex is not associated with lee vortex formation, such as the Denver Cyclone, but developed through the release of latent heat from microphysical process. The Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecast (ARW) model was used to 1) produce a control simulation that properly represented the evolution and processes of interest during the event and 2) test the importance of latent heating to the development and evolution of the mesovortex. The results from various latent heating experiments suggested that the mesovortex did not develop through lee vortex formation and the latent heat released just before and during the mesovortex event was important to its development. Results also showed latent heating affected the flow field, resulting in a positive feedback between the circulation, associated low-level jet, and convection leading to further upslope flow and precipitation development. Further experiments

  18. Los 'Colorados': Etnohistoria y Toponimia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Rendón, J.

    2015-01-01

    Los "colorados" comprendían varios grupos étnicos emparentados etnolingüísticamente que ocupaban el piedemonte andino occidental desde El Carchi hasta Bolívar así como las tierras bajas del Pacífico en los sistemas hidrográficos de los ríos Esmeraldas y Guayas. Aunque la ocupación "colorada" de

  19. Los 'Colorados': Etnohistoria y Toponimia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Rendón, J.

    2015-01-01

    Los "colorados" comprendían varios grupos étnicos emparentados etnolingüísticamente que ocupaban el piedemonte andino occidental desde El Carchi hasta Bolívar así como las tierras bajas del Pacífico en los sistemas hidrográficos de los ríos Esmeraldas y Guayas. Aunque la ocupación "colorada" de esta

  20. 75 FR 58426 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO... College, Colorado Springs, CO. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from...

  1. The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment: A successful student-run scientific spacecraft mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Q.; Li, X.; Palo, S. E.; Blum, L. W.; Gerhardt, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment is a spacecraft mission developed and operated by students at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The 3U CubeSat was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in September 2012. The massively successful mission far outlived its 4 month estimated lifetime and stopped transmitting data after over two years in orbit in December 2014. CSSWE has contributed to 15 scientific or engineering peer-reviewed journal publications. During the course of the project, over 65 undergraduate and graduate students from CU's Computer Science, Aerospace, and Mechanical Engineering Departments, as well as the Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences Department participated. The students were responsible for the design, development, build, integration, testing, and operations from component- to system-level. The variety of backgrounds on this unique project gave the students valuable experience in their own focus area, but also cross-discipline and system-level involvement. However, though the perseverance of the students brought the mission to fruition, it was only possible through the mentoring and support of professionals in the Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department and CU's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics.

  2. Abundance and distribution of sessile invertebrates under intertidal boulders (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Moreira da Rocha

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The encrusting communities under two boulder fields (Praia Grande and Ponta do Baleeiro were monitored monthly during 1990 and 1991, in São Sebastião, on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Two sizes of boulders were chosen: small (20-30 cm² underside area and larger ones (160-220 cm² located on the middle and lower levels of the intertidal. The community's components were mainly sessile animals either compound ones such as Bryozoa, Ascidiacea, Porifera and Cnidaria, in this order of abundance, or simple ones such as Polychaeta and Bivalvia, also in this order of abundance. All groups, except by serpulids (Polychaeta, had higher percent cover in the low intertidal region and under large boulders. Diversity was higher at Ponta do Baleeiro, and in the low intertidal region and on large boulders for both shores.Em São Sebastião, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, foram monitorados mensalmente dois ambientes de matacões em costões rochosos. Praia Grande e Ponta do Baleeiro, ao longo de 1990 e 1991. As condições ambientais avaliadas foram: temperatura e salinidade da água, hidrodinâmica, capacidade de abrasão da areia acumulada, heterogeneidade ambiental e porosidade das pedras. Foi estudada a comunidade incrustante na superfície inferior de pedras pequenas (20-30 cm² de área na face inferior e maiores (160-220 cm² dispostas nos estratos médio e inferior da zona entremarés. Esta comunidade era constituída principalmente por organismos sésseis coloniais (Bryozoa, Ascidiacea, Porifera e Cnidaria, nesta ordem de abundância ou solitários (Polychaeta e Bivalvia, nesta ordem de abundância. Todos os grupos, com exceção dos ser pulid cos (Polychaeta, apresentaram maior porcentagem de cobertura nos estratos inferiores e nas pedras grandes. A composição específica foi similar nos dois costões estudados, mas várias espécies ocorreram exclusivamente em um determinado nível de maré, ou tamanho de pedra

  3. OSL surface exposure dating of wave-emplaced coastal boulders - Research concept and first results from the Rabat coast, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Dominik; May, Simon Matthias; Mhammdi, Nadia; King, Georgina; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Fields of wave-emplaced blocks and boulders represent impressive evidence of cyclone and tsunami flooding over Holocene time scales. Unfortunately, their use for coastal hazard assessment is in many cases impeded by the absence of appropriate dating approaches, which are needed to generate robust chronologies. The commonly applied AMS-14C, U/Th or ESR dating of coral-reef rocks and marine organisms attached to the clasts depends on a - mostly hypothetical - coincidence between the organisms' death and boulder displacement, and inferred event chronologies may be biased by the marine 14C-reservoir effect and reworked organisms. Here we discuss the potential of the recently developed optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) surface exposure dating technique to directly date the relocation process of wave-emplaced boulders. By measuring the depth-dependent resetting of luminescence signals in exposed rock surfaces and comparing it to the signal-depth profiles of known-age samples, OSL surface exposure dating may be capable to model direct depositional ages for boulder transport. Thereby, it promises to overcome the limitations of existing dating techniques, and to decipher complex transport histories of clasts that underwent multiple phases of exposure and burial. The concept and some first results of OSL surface exposure dating shall be presented for coastal boulders from the Rabat coast, Morocco, where the preconditions for successful dating are promising: (i) Several coastal boulders show clear indication of overturning during wave transport in the form of downward-facing bio-eroded surfaces; (ii) the boulders are composed of different types of sandstone that contain quartz and feldspar, the required dosimeters for OSL dating; (iii) all boulders are of Holocene age and, therefore, in the dating range of OSL surface exposure dating. The main challenges for a successful application are the intensive bio-erosion and weathering of some surfaces exposed after transport

  4. Quantitative Morphologic Analysis of Boulder Shape and Surface Texture to Infer Environmental History: A Case Study of Rock Breakdown at the Ephrata Fan, Channeled Scabland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Viles, Heather A.; Bourke, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Boulder morphology reflects both lithology and climate and is dictated by the combined effects of erosion, transport, and weathering. At present, morphologic information at the boulder scale is underutilized as a recorder of environmental processes, partly because of the lack of a systematic quantitative parameter set for reporting and comparing data sets. We develop such a parameter set, incorporating a range of measures of boulder form and surface texture. We use standard shape metrics measured in the field and fractal and morphometric classification methods borrowed from landscape analysis and applied to laser-scanned molds. The parameter set was pilot tested on three populations of basalt boulders with distinct breakdown histories in the Channeled Scabland, Washington: (1) basalt outcrop talus; (2) flood-transported boulders recently excavated from a quarry; and (3) flood-transported boulders, extensively weathered in situ on the Ephrata Fan surface. Size and shape data were found to distinguish between flood-transported and untransported boulders. Size and edge angles (approximately 120 degrees) of flood-transported boulders suggest removal by preferential fracturing along preexisting columnar joints, and curvature data indicate rounding relative to outcrop boulders. Surface textural data show that boulders which have been exposed at the surface are significantly rougher than those buried by fan sediments. Past signatures diagnostic of flood transport still persist on surface boulders, despite ongoing overprinting by processes in the present breakdown environment through roughening and fracturing in situ. Further use of this quantitative boulder parameter set at other terrestrial and planetary sites will aid in cataloging and understanding morphologic signatures of environmental processes.

  5. Quantitative Morphologic Analysis of Boulder Shape and Surface Texture to Infer Environmental History: A Case Study of Rock Breakdown at the Ephrata Fan, Channeled Scabland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Viles, Heather A.; Bourke, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Boulder morphology reflects both lithology and climate and is dictated by the combined effects of erosion, transport, and weathering. At present, morphologic information at the boulder scale is underutilized as a recorder of environmental processes, partly because of the lack of a systematic quantitative parameter set for reporting and comparing data sets. We develop such a parameter set, incorporating a range of measures of boulder form and surface texture. We use standard shape metrics measured in the field and fractal and morphometric classification methods borrowed from landscape analysis and applied to laser-scanned molds. The parameter set was pilot tested on three populations of basalt boulders with distinct breakdown histories in the Channeled Scabland, Washington: (1) basalt outcrop talus; (2) flood-transported boulders recently excavated from a quarry; and (3) flood-transported boulders, extensively weathered in situ on the Ephrata Fan surface. Size and shape data were found to distinguish between flood-transported and untransported boulders. Size and edge angles (approximately 120 degrees) of flood-transported boulders suggest removal by preferential fracturing along preexisting columnar joints, and curvature data indicate rounding relative to outcrop boulders. Surface textural data show that boulders which have been exposed at the surface are significantly rougher than those buried by fan sediments. Past signatures diagnostic of flood transport still persist on surface boulders, despite ongoing overprinting by processes in the present breakdown environment through roughening and fracturing in situ. Further use of this quantitative boulder parameter set at other terrestrial and planetary sites will aid in cataloging and understanding morphologic signatures of environmental processes.

  6. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, G.V. [United States Geological Survey , Anchorage, AK (United States); Mann, D.H. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Institute of Arctic Biology; Short, J.W. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Fisheries Laboratory

    2006-09-15

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by 'oil mousse', which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulder. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. (author)

  7. Geologic map of the Vail West quadrangle, Eagle County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Lidke, David J.; Grunwald, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    Rio Grande rift system in Colorado. In the southwestern part of the map area, a diapiric(?) exposure of the Eagle Valley Evaporite exists and chaotic faults and folds suggest extensive dissolution and collapse of overlying bedrock, indicating the presence of a geologic hazard. Quaternary landslides are common and indicate that landslide hazards are widespread in the area, particularly where old slide deposits are disturbed by construction. The late Pliocene(?) landslide that consists largely of a smectitic upper Morrison Formation matrix and boulders of Dakota Sandstone is readily reactivated. Debris flows are likely to invade low-standing areas within the towns of Vail and West Vail where tributaries of Gore Creek issue from the mountains on the north side of the valley.

  8. Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hetch Hetchy Pump Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, L; Kato, T; Van Hattem, M

    2007-06-28

    The purpose of this biological assessment is to review the proposed Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project in sufficient detail to determine to what extent the proposed action may affect any of the threatened, endangered, proposed, or sensitive species and designated or proposed critical habitats listed below. In addition, the following information is provided to comply with statutory requirements to use the best scientific and commercial information available when assessing the risks posed to listed and/or proposed species and designated and/or proposed critical habitat by proposed federal actions. This biological assessment is prepared in accordance with legal requirements set forth under regulations implementing Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (50 CFR 402; 16 U.S.C 1536 (c)). It is our desire for the Arroyo Mocho Boulder Removal Project to receive incidental take coverage for listed species and critical habitat within the greater project area by means of amending the previous formal Section 7 consultation (1-1-04-F-0086) conducted a few hundred meters downstream by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 2002. All conservation measures, terms and conditions, and reporting requirements from the previous Biological Opinion (1-1-04-F-0086) have been adopted for this Biological Assessment and/or amendment.

  9. Survival Times of Meter-Sized Rock Boulders on the Surface of Airless Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Horz, F.; Ramsley, K.

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the survival times of meter-sized rock boulders on the surfaces of several airless bodies. As the starting point, we employ estimates of the survival times of such boulders on the surface of the Moon by[1], then discuss the role of destruction due to day-night temperature cycling, consider the meteorite bombardment environment on the considered bodies in terms of projectile flux and velocities and finally estimate the survival times. Survival times of meter-sized rocks on lunar surface: The survival times of hand specimen-sized rocks exposed to the lunar surface environment were estimated based on experiments modeling the destruction of rocks by meteorite impacts, combined with measurements of the lunar surface meteorite flux, (e.g.,[2]). For estimations of the survival times of meter-sized lunar boulders, [1] suggested a different approach based on analysis of the spatial density of boulders on the rims of small lunar craters of known absolute age. It was found that for a few million years, only a small fraction of the boulders ejected by cratering process are destroyed, for several tens of million years approx.50% are destroyed, and for 200-300 Ma, 90 to 99% are destroyed. Following [2] and other works, [1] considered that the rocks are mostly destroyed by meteorite impacts. Destruction of rocks by thermal-stress. However, high diurnal temperature variations on the surface of the Moon and other airless bodies imply that thermal stresses may also be a cause of surface rock destruction. Delbo et al. [3] interpreted the observed presence of fine debris on the surface of small asteroids as due to thermal surface cycling. They stated that because of the very low gravity on the surface of these bodies, ejecta from meteorite impacts should leave the body, so formation there of fine debris has to be due to thermal cycling. Based on experiments on heating-cooling of cm-scale pieces of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites and theoretical modeling of

  10. Colorado economic impact study on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-12

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1993. To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are: Direct employment was estimated at 894 workers; An estimated 89 percent of all direct employment was local; Secondary employment resulting from remedial action at the active Colorado UMTRA Project sites and the Grand Junction vicinity property program is estimated at 546 workers. Total employment (direct and secondary) is estimated at 1440 workers for the period of study (July 1, 1992, to June 30, 1993). An estimated $24.1 million was paid in wages to UMTRA workers in Colorado during FY1993; Direct and secondary wage earnings were estimated at $39.9 million; Income tax payments to the state of Colorado were estimated at $843,400 during FY1993; The gross economic impact of UMTRA Project activities in the state of Colorado is estimated at $70 million during the 1-year study period; and the net economic benefit to the state of Colorado was estimated at $57.5 million, or $5.90 per dollar of funding provided by Colorado. This figure includes both direct and secondary benefits but does not include the impact of alternative uses of the state funding.

  11. 78 FR 52600 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Colorado dated 08/14/2013. Incident: Black Forest Fire. Incident Period: 06/11/2013 through 06/21/2013. Effective Date:...

  12. 75 FR 60151 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00033

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of COLORADO dated 09/23/2010. Incident: Fourmile Canyon Fire. Incident Period: 09/06/2010 through 09/18/2010. Effective...

  13. Geochemical studies of the White Breccia Boulders at North Ray Crater, Descartes region of the lunar highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Lum, R. K. L.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Philpotts, J. A.; Winzer, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    The samples of the White Breccia Boulders obtained during the Apollo 16 mission and investigated in the reported study include an anorthositic breccia (67415), a dark matrix breccia (67435), a light matrix breccia (67455), and a large clast of dark matrix breccia (67475) taken from the 67455 boulder. The chemical analyses of bulk samples of the samples are listed in a table. A graph shows the lithophile trace element abundances. Another graph indicates the variation of Sm with Al2O3 content for samples from the White Breccia Boulders. The North Ray Crater breccias are found to be in general slightly more aluminous than breccias from the other stations at the Apollo 16 site. Analyses of eight Apollo 16 breccias cited in the literature range from 25% to 35% Al2O3. However, the North Ray Crater breccias are more clearly distinct from the other Apollo 16 breccias in their contents of lithophile trace elements.

  14. Assessing enigmatic boulder deposits in NE Aegean Sea: importance of historical sources as tool to support hydrodynamic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vacchi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to their importance in the assessment of coastal hazards, several studies have focused on geomorphological and sedimentological field evidence of catastrophic wave impacts related to historical tsunami events. Among them, many authors used boulder fields as important indicators of past tsunamis, especially in the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanism of deposition of clusters of large boulders, consisting of beachrock slabs, which were found on the southern coasts of Lesvos Island (NE Aegean Sea. Methods to infer the origin of boulder deposits (tsunami vs. storm wave are often based on hydrodynamic models even if different environmental complexities are difficult to be incorporated into numerical models. In this study, hydrodynamic equations did not provide unequivocal indication of the mechanism responsible for boulder deposition in the study area. Further analyses, ranging from geomorphologic to seismotectonic data, indicated a tsunami as the most likely cause of displacement of the boulders but still do not allow to totally exclude the extreme storm origin. Additional historical investigations (based on tsunami catalogues, historical photos and aged inhabitants interviews indicated that the boulders are likely to have been deposited by the tsunami triggered by the 6.7 Ms Chios-Karaburum earthquake of 1949 or, alternatively, by minor effects of the destructive tsunami produced by 1956's Amorgos Island earthquake. Results of this study point out that, at Mediterranean scale, to flank numerical models with the huge amount of the available historical data become a crucial tool in terms of prevention policies related to catastrophic coastal events.

  15. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of microbial mud mound derived boulders from gravity-flow polymictic megabreccias (Visean, SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, M.; Moreno-González, I.; Mas, R.; Reitner, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Upper Visean outcrops from the Guadiato Valley (Córdoba, SW Spain) provide a well-preserved record of the mud mound factory, which was developed in a mainly siliciclastic synorogenic foreland basin during the oblique sinistral collision of two terranes (Ossa Morena and Central Iberian blocks). The first onset of mud mound development has been recorded as microbial mud mound-derived boulders in polymictic megabreccias as result of strong tectonic activity. The Upper Visean record from the Mississippian central band at Guadiato Valley starts with lower heterolithic units (up to 180 m thick) and shows two major tectonically-controlled cycles: a fining upwards interval (FU) followed by a coarsening upwards interval (CU). These cycles are linked to two active margins with gravelly fan delta development and different source areas. Mud mound-derived boulders occur in the CU interval and are formed by peloidal primary and secondary (reworked) automicrites and allomicrites, showing a diverse faunal and floral assemblage, although never as the main skeletal framebuilders. However, the observed coeval richness in sponges (lyssacinose hexactinellids and non-lithistid demosponges) and the diverse calcareous algae assemblage in mud mound derived boulders are not common in other Visean buildups. The growth cavities display changes in the geopetal relationships between fillings and the secondary cavities containing sand to gravel fillings reflecting a complex pre-boulder and mud mound derived boulder history. Detailed mapping, sampling, stratigraphic and microfacial analyses have allowed the reconstruction of the mud mounds sedimentary environment prior to the collapse, transport and emplacement as boulders with polymictic gravels.

  16. Assessment of the Effect of Blast Hole Diameter on the Number of Oversize Boulders Using ANN Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhekne, Prakash; Pradhan, Manoj; Jade, Ravi Krishnarao

    2016-04-01

    Now-a-days, blasts are planned using large diameter blast holes. The loading density (kg/m) and subsequently the energy available for the breakage of the rockmass increase with the diameter. The in-hole velocity of detonation (VoD) of non-ideal explosive also boosts up with the increase in diameter till the optimum diameter is reached. The increase in the energy content and in-hole VoD cause a sizable effect on the rock fragmentation. The effect can be assessed by counting the number of oversize boulders. This paper explains as to how the technique of artificial neural network modeling was used to predict the number of oversize boulders resulting from ANFO and SME blasts with blast holes of different diameters. The results from ANFO blasts indicated that there was no significant variation in the number of oversize boulders with the diameter whereas a perceptible variation was noticed in case of SME blasts with the change in the diameter. The change in the number of oversize boulders in ANFO blasts was negligible because mean energy factor remained almost same even when the diameter of the blast holes was altered. The decrease in the number of oversize boulders in SME blasts was on account of increase in mean energy factor when the blast hole diameter was increased. The increase in the in-hole VoD due to increase in the diameter of the hole was not found to have an effect on the generation of oversize boulders as this increase was not substantial both in SME and ANFO blasts.

  17. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado: II. Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Holley, K.M.; Buhl, K.J.; Bullard, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Effects on hatching and development of fertilized eggs in adult razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) exposed to selenium in flooded bottomland sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, were determined. After 9 months exposure, fish were collected and induced to spawn and eggs collected for inorganic element analyses. A 9-day egg study was conducted with five spawns from Horsethief ponds, six spawns from Adobe Creek channel, and four spawns from North Pond using a reference water and site waters. Selenium concentrations in eggs were 6.5 ??g/g from Horsethief, 46 ??g/g from Adobe Creek, 38 ??g/g from North Pond, and 6.0 ??g/g from brood stock. Eggs from young adults had a smaller diameter and higher moisture content than brood stock. There were no differences among the four sources in viability, survival, hatch, hatchability, or mortality of deformed embryos or larvae. Adobe Creek larvae had more deformed embryos in eggs held in site water than held in reference water. There were significant negative correlations between selenium concentrations in adult muscle plugs and percent hatch, egg diameter, and deformities in embryos. Results from this study suggest that selenium contamination in parts of the upper basin of the Colorado River should be a major concern to recovery efforts for endangered fish.

  18. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado II. Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Steven J; Holley, Kathy M; Buhl, Kevin J; Bullard, Fern A

    2005-05-01

    Effects on hatching and development of fertilized eggs in adult razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) exposed to selenium in flooded bottomland sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, were determined. After 9 months exposure, fish were collected and induced to spawn and eggs collected for inorganic element analyses. A 9-day egg study was conducted with five spawns from Horsethief ponds, six spawns from Adobe Creek channel, and four spawns from North Pond using a reference water and site waters. Selenium concentrations in eggs were 6.5 microg/g from Horsethief, 46 microg/g from Adobe Creek, 38 microg/g from North Pond, and 6.0 microg/g from brood stock. Eggs from young adults had a smaller diameter and higher moisture content than brood stock. There were no differences among the four sources in viability, survival, hatch, hatchability, or mortality of deformed embryos or larvae. Adobe Creek larvae had more deformed embryos in eggs held in site water than held in reference water. There were significant negative correlations between selenium concentrations in adult muscle plugs and percent hatch, egg diameter, and deformities in embryos. Results from this study suggest that selenium contamination in parts of the upper basin of the Colorado River should be a major concern to recovery efforts for endangered fish.

  19. Survival times of meter-sized rock boulders on the surface of airless bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Horz, F.; Ramsley, K.

    2015-11-01

    Rock boulders are typical features of the surfaces of many airless bodies, so the possibility of estimating their potential survival times may provide insights into the rates of surface-modification processes. As an opening point of this study we employ estimates of the survival times of meter-sized boulders on the surface of the Moon based on analysis of the spatial density of boulders on the rims of small lunar craters of known absolute age (Basilevsky et al., 2013), and apply them, with necessary corrections, to boulders on other bodies. In this approach the major factor of rock destruction is considered to be impacts of meteorites. However another factor of the rock destruction, thermal fatigue due to day-night cycling, does exist and it was claimed by Delbo et al. (2014) as being more important than meteorite impacts. They concluded this on the basis of known presence of fine material on the surface of small asteroids, claiming that due to extremely low gravity on those bodies, the products of meteorite bombardment should leave these bodies, and thus their presence indicates that the process of thermal fatigue should be much more effective there. Delbo et al. (2014) made laboratory experiments on heating-cooling centimeter-sized samples of chondrites and, applying some assumptions and theoretical modeling concluded that, for example, at 1 AU distance from the Sun, the lifetime of 10 cm rock fragments on asteroids with period of rotation from 2.2 to 6 h should be only ~103 to 104 years (that is ~3.5×106 to 1.5×107 thermal cycles) and the larger the rock, the faster it should be destroyed. In response to those conclusions we assessed the results of earlier laboratory experiments, which show that only a part of comminuted material produced by high-velocity impacts into solid rocks is ejected from the crater while another part is not ejected but stays exposed on the target surface and is present in its subsurface. This means that the presence of

  20. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  1. Energy Smart Colorado, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitchell, John M. [Program Administrator; Palmer, Adam L. [Program Manager

    2014-03-31

    Energy Smart Colorado is an energy efficiency program established in 2011 in the central mountain region of Colorado. The program was funded through a grant of $4.9 million, awarded in August 2010 by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Program. As primary grant recipient, Eagle County coordinated program activities, managed the budget, and reported results. Eagle County staff worked closely with local community education and outreach partner Eagle Valley Alliance for Sustainability (now Walking Mountains Science Center) to engage residents in the program. Sub-recipients Pitkin County and Gunnison County assigned local implementation of the program in their regions to their respective community efficiency organizations, Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) in Pitkin County, and Office for Resource Efficiency (ORE) in Gunnison County. Utility partners contributed $166,600 to support Home Energy Assessments for their customers. Program staff opened Energy Resource Centers, engaged a network of qualified contractors, developed a work-flow, an enrollment website, a loan program, and a data management system to track results.

  2. Measurements of hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides in an urban basin in Colorado: Implications for Emission Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldan, P. D.; Trainer, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Parrish, D. D.; Carpenter, J.; Roberts, J. M.; Yee, J. E.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    1995-11-01

    Concentrations of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the C3 to C10 range, CO, NOy (total reactive oxidized nitrogen), SO2, and meteorological parameters were measured concurrently at a site on the western perimeter of Boulder, Colorado, during February 1991. The measurement site, located some 150 m above the Boulder urban basin, receives air masses typifying averaged local sources. The highest hydrocarbon concentrations observed showed little effects of photochemical loss processes and reflect the pattern of the local emission sources. The observed ratios of CO and the VOCs to NOy are compared to those predicted by the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) inventory.These comparisons indicate (1) good agreement for CO/NOY, (2) significant overpredictions by the NAPAP inventory for many of the hydrocarbon to NOY ratios, (3) much more benzene from mobile sources (and less from area sources) than predicted by the NAPAP inventory, and (4) large underpredictions of the light alcohols and carbonyls by the NAPAP inventory. These first two results are in marked contrast to the conclusions of the recent tunnel study reported by Ingalls in 1989. Source profile reconciliation implies substantial input from both a local propane source and gasoline headspace venting.

  3. Boulder Deposits on the Southern Spanish Atlantic Coast: Possible Evidence for the 1755 AD Lisbon Tsunami?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Kelletat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Field evidence of visible tsunami impacts in Europe is scarce. This research focused on an analysis of large littoral debris and accompanying geomorphic features and their rela- tionship to a tsunami event at Cabo de Trafalgar, located on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast. Relative dating of weathering features as well as minor bioconstructive forms in the littoral zone suggest the Lisbon tsunami of 1755 AD as the event responsible for the large deposits described. This tsunami had run up heights of more than 19 m and was generated at the Gorringe Bank, located 500 km west off the Cape. Tsunami deposits at Cabo de Tra- falgar are the first boulder deposits identified on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast and are located approximately 250 km southeast of the Algarve coast (Portugal, where other geo- morphic evidence for the Lisbon tsunami has been reported.

  4. Ozone Diurnal Variation in the PBL at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory During Summer 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newchurch, M.; Alvarez, R. J. _II, II; Brewer, A.; Brown, S. S.; Carrion, W.; Delgado, R.; De Young, R.; Huang, G.; Johnson, B.; Kuang, S.; Langford, A. O.; Lundquist, J. K.; McGee, T. J.; Pliutau, D.; Senff, C. J.; Sullivan, J. T.; Sumnicht, G. K.; Twigg, L.; Wang, L.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the diurnal variation of PBL ozone at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in July 2014 using multiple observations, including three ozone DIALs, several wind Doppler lidars, free-launched and tethered ozonesondes, and in-situ measurements on the BAO tower. Three mobile lidars from the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar NETwork (TOLNET) provide high spatial and temporal ozone profiles from near surface to the top of the troposphere. The combination of multiple observations will provide detailed structure of the diurnal variation of ozone. This ozone information will help the satellite and modeling communities to study the character of lower tropospheric ozone for the improvements of satellite retrieval and air-quality models. In addition, a Large-Eddy Simulation model will calculate ozone in the mixed layer to explain the processes responsible for the observations.

  5. Using lunar boulders to distinguish primary from distant secondary impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Gwendolyn D.; Melosh, H. J.

    2007-04-01

    A high-resolution study of 18 lunar craters, including both primary and distant secondary craters, shows that the secondary craters produce larger ejecta fragments at a given crater size than do the primary craters. The maximum boulder diameter (B) increases with crater size (D) according to the power law B = KD 2/3; for primary craters, when B and D are in meters, K is 0.29, whereas for secondary craters, we find that K is 0.46 (60% larger). Next we show that impact fracture theory predicts that secondary craters, because of their lower impact velocity, will produce larger ejecta fragments than primary craters. This result provides an opportunity for distinguishing between primary and secondary craters in high resolution planetary images. The ability to identify distant secondary craters will help constrain primary production rates of small craters and improve surface age determination of small areas based on small crater counts.

  6. Metal contamination and post-remediation recovery in the Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Daniel M.; Church, Stanley E; Nimick, David A.; Fey, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The legacy of acid mine drainage and toxic trace metals left in streams by historical mining is being addressed by many important yet costly remediation efforts. Monitoring of environmental conditions frequently is not performed but is essential to evaluate remediation effectiveness, determine whether clean-up goals have been met, and assess which remediation strategies are most effective. Extensive pre- and post-remediation data for water and sediment quality for the Boulder River watershed in southwestern Montana provide an unusual opportunity to demonstrate the importance of monitoring. The most extensive restoration in the watershed occurred at the Comet mine on High Ore Creek and resulted in the most dramatic improvement in aquatic habitat. Removal of contaminated sediment and tailings, and stream-channel reconstruction reduced Cd and Zn concentrations in water such that fish are now present, and reduced metal concentrations in streambed sediment by a factor of c. 10, the largest improvement in the district. Waste removals at the Buckeye/Enterprise and Bullion mine sites produced limited or no improvement in water and sediment quality, and acidic drainage from mine adits continues to degrade stream aquatic habitat. Recontouring of hillslopes that had funnelled runoff into the workings of the Crystal mine substantially reduced metal concentrations in Uncle Sam Gulch, but did not eliminate all of the acidic adit drainage. Lead isotopic evidence suggests that the Crystal mine rather than the Comet mine is now the largest source of metals in streambed sediment of the Boulder River. The completed removal actions prevent additional contaminants from entering the stream, but it may take many years for erosional processes to diminish the effects of contaminated sediment already in streams. Although significant strides have been made, additional efforts to seal draining adits or treat the adit effluent at the Bullion and Crystal mines would need to be completed to

  7. Risk factors for injury in sport climbing and bouldering: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollings, Kaikanani Y; McKay, Carly D; Emery, Carolyn A

    2015-09-01

    Rock climbing is an increasingly popular sport worldwide, as a recreational activity and a competitive sport. Several disciplines including sport climbing and bouldering have developed, each employing specific movements and techniques, leading to specific injuries. To examine risk factors and prevention measures for injury in sport climbing and bouldering, and to assess the methodological quality of existing studies. 12 electronic databases and several other sources were searched systematically using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eligible articles were peer-reviewed, based on primary research using original data; outcome measures included injury, morbidity or mortality in rock climbing, and included one or more potential risk factor or injury prevention strategy. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodology of research in each study using the Downs and Black Quality Index. The data extracted is summarised, and appraisals of the articles are presented with respect to the quality of evidence presented. 19 studies met the inclusion criteria, and introduced 35 possible risk factors or injury prevention measures in climbing. Age, increasing years of climbing experience, highest climbing grade achieved (skill level), high climbing intensity score (CIS) and participating in lead climbing are potential risk factors. Results regarding injury prevention measures remain inconclusive. This field is relatively new and, as such, the data are not as robust as for more established sports with a larger research foundation. The key need is establishing modifiable risk factors using prospective studies and high quality methodology, such that injury prevention strategies can be developed. The CIS may be a useful measure in this field of research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Bouldering: an alternative strategy to long-vertical climbing in root-climbing hortensias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados Mendoza, Carolina; Isnard, Sandrine; Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Rowe, Nick P; Van Acker, Joris; Goetghebeur, Paul; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2014-10-06

    In the Neotropics, the genus Hydrangea of the popular ornamental hortensia family is represented by climbing species that strongly cling to their support surface by means of adhesive roots closely positioned along specialized anchoring stems. These root-climbing hortensia species belong to the nearly exclusive American Hydrangea section Cornidia and generally are long lianescent climbers that mostly flower and fructify high in the host tree canopy. The Mexican species Hydrangea seemannii, however, encompasses not only long lianescent climbers of large vertical rock walls and coniferous trees, but also short 'shrub-like' climbers on small rounded boulders. To investigate growth form plasticity in root-climbing hortensia species, we tested the hypothesis that support variability (e.g. differences in size and shape) promotes plastic responses observable at the mechanical, structural and anatomical level. Stem bending properties, architectural axis categorization, tissue organization and wood density were compared between boulder and long-vertical tree-climbers of H. seemannii. For comparison, the mechanical patterns of a closely related, strictly long-vertical tree-climbing species were investigated. Hydrangea seemannii has fine-tuned morphological, mechanical and anatomical responses to support variability suggesting the presence of two alternative root-climbing strategies that are optimized for their particular environmental conditions. Our results suggest that variation of some stem anatomical traits provides a buffering effect that regulates the mechanical and hydraulic demands of two distinct plant architectures. The adaptive value of observed plastic responses and the importance of considering growth form plasticity in evolutionary and conservation studies are discussed.

  9. Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1981. Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (13th). Held in Boulder, Colorado on 17-18 November 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    L6J. Musal also modeled the pulse fluence, F ’ at which the plastic yield threshold (slip) is reached asy _ 5 (2/Z)3/2 nY,( KPC )Y,tY, Fy -Ř -3- 2(1...1 v E X 10- 6 , psi Y x 10 3 , psi ( KPC ?" w-s’> cm 2 °K R,b @492 nm LITy’ oK C T m, oK Al Ag Au 23.1 19.2 14.2 0.34 0.37 0.42...nonequil i bri urn ca rri er gene rat ion predomi nates, we determined the dependence of their concentration on the input intensity. Figure 3 shows

  10. Transactions of the Army Conference on Applied Mathematics and Computing (6th) Held in Boulder, Colorado on 31 May - 3 June 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    This latter information is important for many real- world applications; for example, temporal reasoning with two-dimensional maps. Therefore, although...of density and temperature can be obtained experimentally from high pressure measurements on earth materials such as olivine and gabbro . Alternatively...Irreversible and Statistical Thermophysics, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1982. 9. Zee, A., Unity of Forces in the Universe, Vols. I and 2, World

  11. Army Research Office and Air Force Office of Scientific Research Contractors’ Meeting in Chemical Propulsion Held in Boulder, Colorado on June 11-13, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    cnstntsforchemcaly ativtedC 2CCOH+ A overall ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ,CCH’O thra dcmoito fMMIwt aalbe ytmat1a experimetal data 46C00-HOO E..41 2 LcA TTll...James Smith Dr. Rodney Tabacyznski Department of Chemical Engineering Director, Power Train Research Lab University of Alabama in Huntsville Ford Motor ...Chemical Engineering Director, Power Train Research Lab University of Alabama in Huntsville Ford Motor Research Laboratory Huntsville AL 35899 3623

  12. ETL/EPA Workshop on Open Burning/Open Detonation (OB/OD) (Broker Inn, Boulder, Colorado 15-16 February 1995)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    the Front Range. 4DDA reduced errors in the predicted 3-D mesoscale flow fields. 4.1.2 Diffusion scheme "The Gaussian Puff Model SCIPUFF ," Dr. R. Ian...Closure Integrated Puff ( SCIPUFF ) model uses turbulence closure theory to represent diffusion, and a generalized moment tensor to describe wind-shear...Advantages of the SCIPUFF algorithm are that it is relatively fast, especially when compared with Lagrangian particle type schemes, and highly accurate

  13. Proceedings of the International Electronic Circuit Packaging Symposium (3rd) on Advances in Electronic Circuit Packaging Held at Boulder, Colorado on 15-17 August 1962. Volume 3,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Charles Mason, Raytheon Co., Bedford, Mass.) How did the value engineer optimize the electrical circuit diagram? A. On our staff at Martin-Baltimore...Electronics 351 8. J. Holahan and B. Kovit, "Electronic Components," Space Aeronautics, December 1960. 9. "Microminiature Components and Packaging Techniques

  14. Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983. Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (15th). Held in Boulder, Colorado on 14-16 November 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    plastic deformation, the apparent elastic limit or the yield strength is a suitable strength parameter. It is to be noted that yield strength is a...conservative approximation of the apparent elastic limit . Other material strength parameters that one may use are the modulus of rupture or flexural

  15. 75 FR 19966 - Boulder Canyon Project-Post-2017 Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... comment period regarding the application of the Energy Planning and Management Program (Program) Power... Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project--Post-2017 Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice...

  16. A Case Study on Environmental Perspectives of Boulderers and Access Issues at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeremy; Davidson, Justin; Hutson, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there are concerns about access restrictions to bouldering, a form of rock climbing, and other outdoor activities practiced at the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve located near Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. The Niagara Parks Commission is currently in the process of exploring ways to balance protection of the natural area with sustainable…

  17. USGS Colorado Water Science Center bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-12-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey Colorado Water Science Center conducts its water-resources activities primarily in Colorado in cooperation with more than 125 different entities. These activities include extensive data-collection efforts and studies of streamflow, water quality, and groundwater to address many specific issues of concern to Colorado water-management entities and citizens. The collected data are provided in the National Water Information System, and study results are documented in reports and information served on the Internet.

  18. Colorado geology then and now: following the route of the Colorado Scientific Society's 1901 trip through central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Beth

    2013-01-01

    In 1901, Charles Van Hise asked Samuel Emmons and Whitman Cross to organize a grand excursion across Colorado as part of the combined meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, GSA, and the Colorado Scientific Society (CSS). This trip replays part of that 10-day excursion across Colorado. Shortened to three days, this trip takes in some of the same sites as the 1901 trip, plus adds others of interest along the route where CSS members are reinventing geological interpretations. The trip will follow the precedent set in 1901; CSS members will serve as “site or stop hosts” in addition to the trip leader and drivers. While walking in the steps of the most famous of our profession we will also see some of the most magnificent scenery of Colorado.

  19. The global size-frequency distribution of boulders > 7 m on Comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Baptiste Vincent, Jean; Lee, Jui-Chi; Ip, Wing-Huen; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Bertini, Ivano; Massironi, Matteo; Simioni, Emanuele; Barbieri, Cesare; Cremonese, Gabriele; Marzari, Francesco; Naletto, Giampiero; Giacomini, Lorenza; Jorda, Laurent; Thomas, Nicholas; Pommerol, Antoine; Kueppers, Michael; Moissl, Richard; Besse, Sebastien; Sierks, Holger

    2015-04-01

    After a ten years journey through the Solar System, the ESA Rosetta spacecraft reached on 6 August 2014 its primary target, the Jupiter family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, hereafter 67P. During the approaching phase, several images of the nucleus of comet 67P, captured by the OSIRIS scientific imaging camera, have been taken to study its structure, activity and the surface morphology. The close distance between spacecraft and comet, and the high resolution of our images, provided a unique opportunity to study features which could not have been detected before on other comets, but yet hold key parameters to derive the physical properties of the surface. We made use of the images acquired by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera, NAC, on 5 and 6 August 2014 in order to study the statistical size-frequency distribution and the morphological properties of both clustered and isolated roundish structures ("boulders") scattered all over the currently illuminated side of the comet (70% of the total surface). Such dataset has been taken at a distance ranging between 131.45 and 109.76 km far from the comet center and the scale of these images (2.44 - 2.03 m/px) is such that boulders ≥ 7 m can be unequivocally identified and extracted. These images are the last ones where the entire comet is 2048 x 2048 pixels full frame and they cover a complete comet rotation (12.4 h), hence providing the possibility to derive a global size-frequency distribution statistics of the presently illuminated surface of 67P. A total amount of 3526 boulders has been identified on the surface of the comet: i) 2218 belonging to the big lobe, body, ii) 1115 boulders are located on the small lobe, head, while iii) 213 boulders belong to the transition region between the two lobes, called the neck. Here, global cumulative size-frequency distributions of boulders per square km are presented, together with specific and localized areas distributions. Moreover we indicate the different formation processes

  20. Dating of Pliocene Colorado River sediments: Implications for cosmogenic burial dating and the evolution of the lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Keith A.; Matmon, Ari; Stock, Greg M.; Granger, Darryl E.

    2017-01-01

    We applied cosmogenic 26Al/10Be burial dating to sedimentary deposits of the ancestral Colorado River. We compared cosmogenic burial ages of sediments to the age of an independently well-dated overlying basalt flow at one site, and also applied cosmogenic burial dating to sediments with less precise independent age constraints. All dated gravels yielded old ages that suggest several episodes of sediment burial over the past ∼5.3 m.y. Comparison of burial ages to the overlying 4.4 Ma basalt yielded good agreement and suggests that under the most favorable conditions, cosmogenic burial dating can extend back 4–5 m.y. In contrast, results from other sites with more broadly independent age constraints highlight the complexities inherent in burial dating; these complexities arise from unknown and complicated burial histories, insufficient shielding, postburial production of cosmogenic isotopes by muons, and unknown initial 26Al/10Be ratios. Nevertheless, and in spite of the large range of burial ages and large uncertainties, we identify samples that provide reasonable burial age constraints on the depositional history of sediment along the lower ancestral Colorado River. These samples suggest possible sediment deposition and burial at ca. 5.3, 4.7, and 3.6 Ma.Our calculated basinwide erosion rate for sediment transported by the modern Colorado River (∼187 mm k.y.−1) is higher than the modern erosion rates inferred from the historic sediment load (80–100 mm k.y.−1). In contrast, basinwide paleo-erosion rates calculated from Pliocene sediments are all under 40 mm k.y.−1 The comparatively lower denudation rates calculated for the Pliocene sediment samples are surprising given that the sampled time intervals include significant Pliocene aggradation and may include much incision of the Grand Canyon and its tributaries. This conflict may arise from extensive storage of sediment along the route of the Colorado River, slower paleobedrock erosion, or the

  1. Dating of Pliocene Colorado River sediments: implications for cosmogenic burial dating and the evolution of the lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matmon, Ari; Stock, Greg M.; Granger, Darryl E.; Howard, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    We applied cosmogenic 26Al/10Be burial dating to sedimentary deposits of the ancestral Colorado River. We compared cosmogenic burial ages of sediments to the age of an independently well-dated overlying basalt flow at one site, and also applied cosmogenic burial dating to sediments with less precise independent age constraints. All dated gravels yielded old ages that suggest several episodes of sediment burial over the past ∼5.3 m.y. Comparison of burial ages to the overlying 4.4 Ma basalt yielded good agreement and suggests that under the most favorable conditions, cosmogenic burial dating can extend back 4–5 m.y. In contrast, results from other sites with more broadly independent age constraints highlight the complexities inherent in burial dating; these complexities arise from unknown and complicated burial histories, insufficient shielding, postburial production of cosmogenic isotopes by muons, and unknown initial 26Al/10Be ratios. Nevertheless, and in spite of the large range of burial ages and large uncertainties, we identify samples that provide reasonable burial age constraints on the depositional history of sediment along the lower ancestral Colorado River. These samples suggest possible sediment deposition and burial at ca. 5.3, 4.7, and 3.6 Ma. Our calculated basinwide erosion rate for sediment transported by the modern Colorado River (∼187 mm k.y.−1) is higher than the modern erosion rates inferred from the historic sediment load (80–100 mm k.y.−1). In contrast, basinwide paleo-erosion rates calculated from Pliocene sediments are all under 40 mm k.y.−1 The comparatively lower denudation rates calculated for the Pliocene sediment samples are surprising given that the sampled time intervals include significant Pliocene aggradation and may include much incision of the Grand Canyon and its tributaries. This conflict may arise from extensive storage of sediment along the route of the Colorado River, slower paleobedrock erosion, or the inclusion

  2. Nanoscale Compositional Relations in Lunar Rock Patina: Deciphering Sources for Patina Components on an Apollo 17 Station 6 Boulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering on the Moon and other airless bodies modifies the surfaces of regolith grains as well as the space-exposed surfaces of larger rocks and boulders. As space weathering witness plates, rocks and boulders are distinguished from regolith grains based on their ability to persist as physically intact substrates over longer time scales before being disaggregated by impact processes. Because lunar surfaces, including exposed rocks, quickly develop an optically thick layer of patina, it is important to understand the compositional relationship between patinas and their underlying rock substrates, particularly to support remote-sensing of rocky lunar terrains. Based on analytical TEM techniques, supported by focused ion beam (FIB) cross-sectioning, we have begun to systematize the multi-layer microstructural complexity of patinas on rock samples with a range of space exposure histories. Our on-going work has particularly focused on lunar rock 76015, both because it has a long (approx. 22 my) exposure history, and because its surface was exposed to patina development approximately 1 m off the regolith surface on a boulder in the Apollo 17 Station 6 boulder field. Potential sources for the 76015 patina therefore include impact-melted and vaporized material derived from the local rock substrate, as well as from the mix of large boulders and regolith in the Station 6 area. While similar, there are differences in the mineralogy and chemistry of the rocks and regolith at Station 6. We were interested to see if these, or other sources, could be distinguished in the average composition, as well as the compositional nanostratigraphy of the 76015 patina. To date we have acquired a total of 9 TEM FIB cross-sections from the 76015 patina, giving us reasonable confidence of being able to arrive at an integrated average for the patina major element composition based on analytical TEM methods.

  3. Professional Orientation of Colorado PR Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimore, Dan L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Findings indicate that a majority of public relations practitioners are highly educated, have professional media backgrounds as part of their professional experience, and are paid better than newspaper personnel in Colorado. (RB)

  4. Notes and comments on Colorado Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of actual management actions, and plant community responses on Colorado refuges during 1992. It is part of the moist-soil expert system...

  5. Colorado River Mile System, Tenths of Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains points representing tenth of miles in the GCMRC river mile system. The points fall along the centerline of the Colorado River from Glen Canyon...

  6. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Data Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Datasets used in the analysis of the Colorado Plateau (COP) Rapid Ecoregion Assessment (REA).They can be downloaded via a layer package (lpk, similar to a zip file...

  7. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structure of the Floridan aquifer system near "Boulder Zone" deep wells in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, acquired, processed, and interpreted seismic-reflection data near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields to determine if geologic factors may contribute to the upward migration of injected effluent into that upper part of the Floridan aquifer system designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as an underground source of drinking water. The depth of the Boulder Zone at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields ranges from about 2,750 to 3,300 feet below land surface (ft bls), whereas overlying permeable zones used as alternative drinking water supply range in depth from about 825 to 1,580 ft bls at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structures imaged on seismic-reflection profiles created for the study describe the part of the Floridan aquifer system overlying and within the Boulder Zone. Features of the Floridan aquifer system underlying the Boulder Zone were not studied because seismic-reflection profiles acquired near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields lacked adequate resolution at such depths.

  8. Erratic boulder trains and cosmogenic exposure dating of former glacial limits: A case-study from Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvill, Christopher; Stokes, Chris; Bentley, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Erratic Boulder Trains (EBTs) are a spectacular yet poorly-understood glacial geomorphological feature. These linear clusters of glacial erratic boulders help to illustrate the flow-lines of former glaciers by pin-pointing the parent rock from which they have originated and are often used as targets for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating. Consequently, there is a need to understand their geomorphological significance to improve ice-sheet reconstructions and provide important contextual information for dating studies. The EBTs in Tierra del Fuego are some of the finest examples of this feature in the world, and this paper presents the first comprehensive mapping and physical assessment of four boulder trains. Unlike most other examples, they were deposited laterally rather than medially and are tightly clustered, presenting linear features only a few kilometres long that contain hundreds to thousands of huge boulders (often >8 m in diameter). The size and angularity of the boulders strongly supports the hypothesis that they were deposited as a supraglacial rock avalanche. The boulders have been the subject of previous cosmogenic dating, which have yielded anomalously young ages from deposits thought to be hundreds of thousands of years old. Analysis of weathering proxies shows little difference between boulder trains thought to be of radically different ages, with important implications for the timing of glaciations and potentially contradicting previous age constraints on glacial limits in the region.

  9. Ground geophysical study of the Buckeye mine tailings, Boulder watershed, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, Robert R.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2000-01-01

    The Buckeye mine site is located in the Boulder River watershed along Basin Creek, in northern Jefferson County, Montana. This project is part of the Boulder River watershed Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative, and is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and Bureau of Land Management in the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the U.S. Forest Service in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The site includes a large flotation milltailing deposit, which extends to the stream and meadows below the mine. These tailings contain elevated levels of metals, such as silver, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. Metal-rich fluvial tailings containing these metals, are possible sources of ground and surface water contamination. Geophysical methods were used to characterize the sediments at the Buckeye mine site. Ground geophysical surveys, including electromagnetics, DC resistivity, and total field magnetic methods, were used to delineate anomalies that probably correlate with subsurface metal contamination. Subsurface conductivity was mapped using EM-31 and EM-34 terrain conductivity measuring systems. The conductivity maps represent variation of concentration of dissolved solids in the subsurface from a few meters, to an approximate depth of 30 meters. Conductive sulfides several centimeters thick were encountered in a shallow trench, dug in an area of very high conductivity, at a depth of approximately 1 to1.5 meters. Laboratory measurements of samples of the sulfide layers show the conductivity is on the order of 1000 millisiemens. DC resistivity soundings were used to quantify subsurface conductivity variations and to estimate the depth to bedrock. Total field magnetic measurements were used to identify magnetic metals in the subsurface. The EM surveys identified several areas of relatively high conductivity and detected a conductive plume extending to the southwest, toward the stream. This plume correlates well with the potentiometric surface and direction of

  10. New thallium iodates—Synthesis, characterization, and calculations of Tl(IO 3) 3 and Tl 4(IO 3) 6, [Tl +3Tl 3+(IO 3) 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Jeongho; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Halasyamani, P. Shiv

    2009-12-01

    Two new thallium iodates have been synthesized, Tl(IO 3) 3 and Tl 4(IO 3) 6 [Tl +3Tl 3+(IO 3) 6], and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both materials were synthesized as phase-pure compounds through hydrothermal techniques using Tl 2CO 3 and HIO 3 as reagents. The materials crystallize in space groups R-3 (Tl(IO 3) 3) and P-1 (Tl 4(IO 3) 6). Although lone-pairs are observed for both I 5+ and Tl +, electronic structure calculations indicate the lone-pair on I 5+ is stereo-active, whereas the lone-pair on Tl + is inert.

  11. Unsteady late Pleistocene incision of streams bounding the Colorado Front Range from measurements of meteoric and in situ 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dühnforth, Miriam; Anderson, Robert S.; Ward, Dylan J.; Blum, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Dating of gravel-capped strath terraces in basins adjacent to western U.S. Laramide Ranges is one approach to document the history of late Cenozoic fluvial exhumation. We use in situ 10Be measurements to date the broad surfaces adjacent to the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, and compare these calculated ages with results from meteoric 10Be measurements. We analyze three sites near Boulder, Colorado (Gunbarrel Hill, Table Mountain, and Pioneer) that have been mapped as the oldest terrace surfaces with suggested ages ranging from 640 ka to the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Our in situ 10Be results reveal abandonment ages of 95 ± 129 ka at Table Mountain, 175 ± 27 ka at Pioneer, and ages of 251 ± 10 ka and 307 ± 15 ka at Gunbarrel Hill. All are far younger than previously thought. Inventories of meteoric 10Be support this interpretation, yielding ages that are comparable to Table Mountain and ˜20% lower than Pioneer in situ ages. We argue that lateral beveling by rivers dominated during protracted times of even moderate glacial climate, and that vertical incision rates of several mm/yr likely occurred during times of very low sediment supply during the few interglacials that were characterized by particularly warm climate conditions. In contrast to the traditional age chronology in the area, our ages suggest that the deep exhumation of the western edge the High Plains occurred relatively recently and at an unsteady pace.

  12. Synthesis Conditions Investigation of 3,6-Dichlorosalicylic Acid%3,6-二氯水杨酸合成工艺条件的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文浩; 宋高占

    2015-01-01

    With 2,5-dichlorophenol as raw material, 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid was synthesized by the dehydration, Kolbe-Schmitt carboxylation and acidificationreaction. The better process conditions of industrial production were explored.%以2,5-二氯苯酚为原料,经与碱试剂反应脱水成盐,Kolbe-Schmitt羧基化,酸化,合成高效除草剂麦草畏的关键中间产物3,6-二氯水杨酸。探索了工业化生产的较佳的工艺条件。

  13. Fast Lemons and Sour Boulders: Testing Crossmodal Correspondences Using an Internet-Based Testing Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to a popular family of hypotheses, crossmodal matches between distinct features hold because they correspond to the same polarity on several conceptual dimensions (such as active–passive, good–bad, etc. that can be identified using the semantic differential technique. The main problem here resides in turning this hypothesis into testable empirical predictions. In the present study, we outline a series of plausible consequences of the hypothesis and test a variety of well-established and previously untested crossmodal correspondences by means of a novel internet-based testing methodology. The results highlight that the semantic hypothesis cannot easily explain differences in the prevalence of crossmodal associations built on the same semantic pattern (fast lemons, slow prunes, sour boulders, heavy red; furthermore, the semantic hypothesis only minimally predicts what happens when the semantic dimensions and polarities that are supposed to drive such crossmodal associations are made more salient (e.g., by adding emotional cues that ought to make the good/bad dimension more salient; finally, the semantic hypothesis does not explain why reliable matches are no longer observed once intramodal dimensions with congruent connotations are presented (e.g., visually presented shapes and colour do not appear to correspond.

  14. Corrosion investigations, Tracy Red Bluff, California, and Boulder City, Nevada, ehv direct current tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backstrom, T.E.

    1965-01-01

    Evaluation of corrosion on buried metalwork, by the introduction of large direct currents into the ground, was studied during ehv dc transmission investigations in the Tracy-Red Bluff, California and the Boulder City, Nevada areas. Tests made on two types of electrodes showed that ehv dc ground return at test current levels would: (1) promote serious corrosion of buried metalwork within approximately 1/2-mile radius of the electrode with a ground mat electrode and mild corrosion with a deep-well electrode; (2) promote negligible-to-serious corrosion of buried pipelines within 1/2 to 3 mile radius of either a ground mat or deep-well electrode, depending on (a) distance of the pipelines from the electrode, (b) geometry of the two electrode-pipeline systems, and (c) horizontal extent of the pipelines; (3) impress negligible-to-mild corrosion of buried pipelines beyond a 3-mile radius of the electrode depending upon geometry of the electrode-pipeline system. Results show normal corrosion prevention techniques will be adequate to prevent corrosion of buried metalwork, if electrode is properly located. Use of ground return for only 8 to 24 hours per year on the ehv intertie, although with currents 2 to 3 times higher than test currents, will cause stray current damage of only a fraction of that expected with continuous operations.

  15. Observations on Ventifacts and Wind-Polished Boulders in Pleistocene Coversands, Ice-Marginal New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitroff, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of New Jersey Pine Barrens' paleoenvironment biome has been problematic. The region's Pleistocene environment has been interpreted as cool and moist, with boreal forest. A competing interpretation envisioned cold, dry, semidesert conditions. Pebble- to boulder-sized ventifacts with a wide suite of erosional forms provide evidence for strong Pleistocene wind action, which occurred when the land was sparsely vegetated allowing an abundance of abradants to be easily entrained and transported. Although commonplace, ventifact presence and utility in paleoenvironmental reconstruction is ignored. Most ventifacts occur on upland surfaces and attest to stability in this part of the region's otherwise low-relief landscape, and their subsequent disarrangement provides clues to geomorphic processes and landscape evolution. Ventifacts progressed downslope along upper valley-side slopes largely by gravitational mass movement, particularly under periglacial conditions. Development of eolian features such as pavement einkante, scallops, and weathering pit modification can evolve only where sustained wind velocities are very high and sand sources are abundant. Pine Barrens ventifacts provide evidence that desert-like conditions prevailed. Some ventifact surfaces are covered with a silica glaze or an iron-enriched metal film, or both, indicating multiple episodes of wind abrasion. Coating study holds much promise for future dating and climate reconstruction investigations.

  16. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall impacted by an experimental boulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D.; Qian, H.

    2016-02-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of damaged elements due to debris flow events in China. Therefore, it is difficult to quantitatively estimate the vulnerable elements suffered by debris flows. This paper is devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete walls impacted by debris flows. An experimental boulder (an iron sphere) was applied to be the substitute of debris flow since it can produce similar shape impulse load on elements as debris flow. Several walls made of brick and concrete were constructed in prototype dimensions to physically simulate the damaged structures in debris flows. The maximum impact force was measured, and the damage conditions of the elements (including cracks and displacements) were collected, described and compared. The failure criterion of brick and concrete wall was proposed with reference to the structure characteristics as well as the damage pattern caused by debris flows. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete wall was finally established based on fuzzy mathematics and the proposed failure criterion. Momentum, maximum impact force and maximum impact bending moment were compared to be the best candidate for disaster intensity index. The results show that the maximum impact bending moment seems to be most suitable for the disaster intensity index in establishing vulnerability curve and formula.

  17. Rehabilitation and flood management planning in a steep, boulder-bedded stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Brian S; Downs, Peter W

    2007-08-01

    This study demonstrates the integration of rehabilitation and flood management planning in a steep, boulder-bedded stream in a coastal urban catchment on the South Island of New Zealand. The Water of Leith, the primary stream flowing through the city of Dunedin, is used as a case study. The catchment is steep, with a short time of concentration and rapid hydrologic response, and the lower stream reaches are highly channelized with floodplain encroachment, a high potential for debris flows, significant flood risks, and severely degraded aquatic habitat. Because the objectives for rehabilitation and flood management in urban catchments are often conflicting, a number of types of analyses at both the catchment and the reach scales and careful planning with stakeholder consultation were needed for successful rehabilitation efforts. This included modeling and analysis of catchment hydrology, fluvial geomorphologic assessment, analysis of water quality and aquatic ecology, hydraulic modeling and flood risk evaluation, detailed feasibility studies, and preliminary design to optimize multiple rehabilitation and flood management objectives. The study showed that all of these analyses were needed for integrated rehabilitation and flood management and that some incremental improvements in stream ecological health, aesthetics, and public recreational opportunities could be achieved in this challenging environment. These methods should be considered in a range of types of stream rehabilitation projects.

  18. Hydrogeologic Data of the Denver Basin, Colorado. Colorado Water Conservation Board Basic Data Report Number 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    sand: Overburden . 60 60 Sand and sandy snale 1 241 Topsoil and sand. . . 10 - 0 Dawson Formation (lower part): Shale. hard, blue. . . 245 ruviers ...upper part): Clay . 25 .50 Louviers Alluviums Shale. brown ,.... 17 55 ruviers Alluviums Boulders. sand, and Sandstone v-ater-bearinqj 21 𔄀 Gravel

  19. 41 CFR 60-3.6 - Use of selection procedures which have not been validated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use of selection procedures which have not been validated. 60-3.6 Section 60-3.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE OF FEDERAL CONTRACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS,...

  20. Regiospecific synthesis of 2-substituted 4-methyl-3,6-dihydro-2h-pyrans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazaryan, P.I.; Avakyan, O.V.; Avakyan, S.V.; Gevorkyan, A.A.

    1986-03-01

    The chloroalkylation of 3-halo-2-methyl-1-buten-4-ols was used to synthesize 4,5-dihalo-4-methyl-2-substituted tetrahydropyrans, which were converted regio-specifically to 3,6-dihydropyrans by reaction with magnesium. A similar reaction with zinc dust gave mixtures of 3,6- and 5,6-dihydropyrans.

  1. The effect of diurnal variations of ionospheric parameters on Doppler frequency shift on the Boulder-Havana path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso, B.; Potapova, N. I.; Freizon, I. A.; Shapiro, B. S.

    1981-08-01

    An analysis of vertical-sounding and Doppler-shift data at 10 and 15 MHz obtained for the Boulder-Havana path indicates that the influence of critical frequencies is primarily manifested in variations of propagation modes and associated variations of Doppler shift. Variations of layer height are shown to have a considerable effect on the morning peak and to primarily determine the magnitude of Doppler shift during disturbed nighttime periods.

  2. Boulder Wind Power Advanced Gearless Drivetrain: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-00463

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrell, J.

    2013-04-01

    The Boulder Wind Power (BWP) Advanced Gearless Drivetrain Project explored the application of BWP's innovative, axial-gap, air-core, permanent-magnet direct-drive generator in offshore wind turbines. The objective of this CRADA is to assess the benefits that result from reduced towerhead mass of BWP's technology when used in 6 MW offshore turbines installed on a monopile or a floating spar foundation.

  3. 77 FR 11524 - Town of Walden, Colorado; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Town of Walden, Colorado; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 1, 2012, Town of Walden, Colorado (Walden) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... area within which Walden may, without further Commission authorization, provide natural...

  4. Ecological Integrity Assessment for Colorado Wetlands, Field Manual

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A quick reviewed survey protocol framework developed by the Colorado Natural Heritage program on performing an Ecological Integrity Assessment (EIA) for Colorado...

  5. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: A Robotic Boulder Capture Option for Science, Human Exploration, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar electric propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (4 - 10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (1 - 5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well- characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense. Science: The RBC option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting

  6. Late Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation in the Crestone Peaks area, Colorado Sangre de Cristo Mountains, USA - chronology and paleoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Eric M.; Laabs, Benjamin J. C.; Plummer, Mitchell A.; Kroner, Ryan K.; Brugger, Keith A.; Spiess, Vivian M.; Refsnider, Kurt A.; Xia, Yidong; Caffee, Marc W.

    2017-02-01

    Cosmogenic 10Be surface-exposure dating and numerical glacier modeling are used to reconstruct glacial chronology and climate in the Colorado Sangre de Cristo Mountains during the local last glacial maximum (LLGM) and the subsequent deglaciation. Twenty-two surface-exposure ages on moraine boulders and polished-bedrock outcrops in the Willow Creek valley and ten in two adjacent valleys indicate that glaciers were at or near their maxima from ∼21 ka until 17-16 ka, and then retreated rapidly, nearly deglaciating the Willow Creek valley entirely by ∼14 ka. Coupled energy/mass-balance and flow modeling of two of the glaciers indicates that, if changing ice extent was driven only by temperature and insolation changes, temperature depressions of 5.0 and 5.1 °C from modern conditions, with an uncertainty of approximately + 1.5 / - 1.0 °C, would have sustained the glaciers in mass-balance equilibrium at their LLGM extents. Doubling or halving of modern precipitation during the LLGM would have been associated with 2.7-3.0 °C and 6.9-7.0 °C temperature depression respectively. Approximately half of the subsequent LLGM-to-modern climate change was accomplished by ∼14 ka. If the rapid main phase of deglaciation between about 16 ka and 14 ka was driven solely by temperature and insolation changes, it would have been associated with a temperature rise of about 2.5 °C, at a mean rate of approximately 1.1 °C/ky. This new chronology of the last glaciation is generally consistent with others developed recently in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The numerical modeling, however, suggests a lesser LLGM temperature depression from modern conditions than have most previous studies in Colorado.

  7. Barriers to Enrollment in Health Coverage in Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Laurie T.; Bharmal, Nazleen; Blanchard, Janice C.; Harvey, Melody; Williams, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    As part of the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, Colorado has expanded Medicaid and also now operates its own health insurance exchange for individuals (called Connect for Health Colorado). As of early 2014, more than 300,000 Coloradans have newly enrolled in Medicaid or health insurance through Connect for Health Colorado, but there also continues to be a diverse mix of individuals in Colorado who remain eligible for but not enrolled in either private insurance or Medicaid. The Colo...

  8. North American Regional Security: A Trilateral Framework. By Richard J. Kilroy, Jr., Abelardo Rodriquez Sumano, and Todd S. Hataley, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Stewart-Ingersoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available North American Regional Security: A Trilateral Framework. By Richard J. Kilroy, Jr., Abelardo Rodriquez Sumano, and Todd S. Hataley, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press, 2013. ISBN 978-1-58826-854-9.

  9. 75 FR 52935 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... notice that on August 12, 2010, Colorado Interstate Gas Company (CIG), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs... appurtenant facilities located in Douglas County, Colorado. Specifically, CIG states that it proposes: (1) To... adjacent to CIG's existing Spruce Hill Meter Station. CIG estimates the cost of the facilities will be $15...

  10. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  11. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control ] Act of 1974...

  12. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ....20350010.REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  13. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  14. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  15. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  16. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: kjacobson@usbr.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin...

  17. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  18. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974...

  19. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  20. A geochronologic framework for the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Shannon; Gray, Harrison J.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Wilson, Jim; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Paces, James B.; Blaauw, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    The Ziegler Reservoir fossil site near Snowmass Village, Colorado, provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct high-altitude paleoenvironmental conditions in the Rocky Mountains during the last interglacial period. We used four different techniques to establish a chronological framework for the site. Radiocarbon dating of lake organics, bone collagen, and shell carbonate, and in situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al ages on a boulder on the crest of a moraine that impounded the lake suggest that the ages of the sediments that hosted the fossils are between ~ 140 ka and > 45 ka. Uranium-series ages of vertebrate remains generally fall within these bounds, but extremely low uranium concentrations and evidence of open-system behavior limit their utility. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages (n = 18) obtained from fine-grained quartz maintain stratigraphic order, were replicable, and provide reliable ages for the lake sediments. Analysis of the equivalent dose (DE) dispersion of the OSL samples showed that the sediments were fully bleached prior to deposition and low scatter suggests that eolian processes were likely the dominant transport mechanism for fine-grained sediments into the lake. The resulting ages show that the fossil-bearing sediments span the latest part of marine isotope stage (MIS) 6, all of MIS 5 and MIS 4, and the earliest part of MIS 3.

  1. Geologic map of the Harvard Lakes 7.5' quadrangle, Park and Chaffee Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Lee, Keenan; Premo, Wayne R.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The Harvard Lakes 1:24,000-scale quadrangle spans the Arkansas River Valley in central Colorado, and includes the foothills of the Sawatch Range on the west and Mosquito Range on the east. The Arkansas River valley lies in the northern end of the Rio Grande rift and is structurally controlled by Oligocene and younger normal faults mostly along the west side of the valley. Five separate pediment surfaces were mapped, and distinctions were made between terraces formed by the Arkansas River and surfaces that formed from erosion and alluviation that emanated from the Sawatch Range. Three flood deposits containing boulders as long as 15 m were deposited from glacial breakouts just north of the quadrangle. Miocene and Pliocene basin-fill deposits of the Dry Union Formation are exposed beneath terrace or pediment deposits in several places. The southwestern part of the late Eocene Buffalo Peaks volcanic center, mostly andesitic breccias and flows and ash-flow tuffs, occupy the northeastern corner of the map. Dated Tertiary intrusive rocks include Late Cretaceous or early Paleocene hornblende gabbro and hornblende monzonite. Numerous rhyolite and dacite dikes of inferred early Tertiary or Late Cretaceous age also intrude the basement rocks. Basement rocks are predominantly Mesoproterozoic granites, and subordinately Paleoproterozoic biotite gneiss and granitic gneiss.

  2. Characteristics and hydrodynamic interpretation of storm-emplaced cliff-top boulder ridges on Inishmore, Aran Islands, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentner, D. B.; Cox, R.

    2008-12-01

    Dramatic boulder ridges are widespread on cliff-top platforms of Ireland's Aran Islands, emplaced by storm waves at elevations up to 50 m. In places the ridges have overridden 19th-century field walls, and recent movement of large blocks is attested to by modern debris--including nylon ropes, aerosol cans, and plastic bottles--pinned under megaclasts of up to 40 tons. Large waves are common off Ireland's west coast, as revealed by the short records available from recently-deployed buoy systems. The Irish Marine Weather Buoy Network measured wave heights (≥10 m on 29 days between 2001 and 2007, and waves up to 18 m high were recorded in December 2007. Blocks quarried by such waves from the upper few m of the cliffs are transported inland to form semi-continuous boulder ridges parallel to the coastline, which therefore offer a record of hydrodynamics during high-energy wave events. On Inishmore, boulder ridges occur at elevations up to 28 m, separated from the cliff edge by wave-scoured platforms 1-70 m wide. The ridges consist of imbricated, highly angular slabs, ranging from small gravel to 5 m megaclasts. They are 1-4.6 m high, 10-48 m wide (Ripple Index 5-17), and strongly asymmetric, with steep narrow stoss faces (10- 35°), and long gentle lee slopes (<14°). With increasing cliff height, ridges are smaller, narrower, made of smaller blocks, and sit closer to the edge; but ridges 20 m wide and 2 m high, with half-ton clasts, occur as high as 28 m OD. The deposits are moderately to well sorted, predominantly unimodal, and fine skewed. Median clast size ranges from fine to coarse boulders (0.5-2 m). Clasts show strong seaward imbrication on both stoss and lee sides (dipping up to 85° with average 25°). "Blowout" features on the lee sides, with boulders imbricated radially around central depressions of 1-2 m diameter, suggest turbulent flow separation, as does the common occurrence of 1-3 smaller secondary ridges landward of the main crest. The uniformity of

  3. Spectral structure of 5 year time series of horizontal wind speed at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Song-Lak; Won, Hoonill

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the spectral structures of 5 year, 1 min time series of horizontal wind speeds at 100 and 10 m heights at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory tower located in the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, USA. In the full-scale spectra, the diurnal spectral peak, which is usually insignificant at a coastal or offshore site, is the most significant at both heights. The spectrum is enhanced on the low-frequency side of the diurnal peak during winter, but on the high-frequency side during summer, which indicates frequent synoptic weather events during winter supplanted by mesoscale events during summer. In terms of the spectral density in the spectral gap of Van der Hoven (1957), separating boundary layer turbulence from the synoptic-scale fluctuations, at a frequency between 10-4 and 10-3 Hz, we rank the daily time series at 100 m height and sample the summer top and winter bottom 10 percentile cases. The winter cases of the reduced spectral density in the gap region present the f-3 spectrum (f is frequency) and negatively skewed velocity increment distributions, which are the signatures of enstrophy (the integral of squared vorticity) cascade of turbulent two-dimensional (2-D) flows. In contrast, the summer cases of the enhanced spectral density present the f-5/3 spectrum and positively skewed velocity increment distributions, which are the signatures of upscale energy cascade of 2-D flows. In these mesoscale events that fill up the gap, the turbulence intensity-wind speed relationship is very sensitive to the choice of the averaging period.

  4. Modelling boulder impacts on deformable layers: role of rolling and toppling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattola, Giuseppe; Crosta, Giovanni; di Prisco, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls are apparently simple processes where few or no blocks interactions occur. Nevertheless, the extreme variability in the type of interactions between falling block and ground surface or material make the modelling of this phenomenon extremely complicated. To model the trajectories followed by a block falling along a slope it is crucial the adoption of laws capable of simulating the changes in block energy content due to impacts. The numerical simulation of impacts is thus fundamental for modelling block trajectories, assessing the risk associated with rockfall events and for designing sheltering structures. In this work, an extension of the hybrid model BIMPAM (di Prisco and Vecchiotti, 2006) in which block rotation is taken into account by adding another degree of freedom, is illustrated. The rheological model is developed assuming a lumped mass method. The additional kinematics variable enables the model not only to follow a more realistic trajectory but also to take into account additional dissipative mechanisms, which, in absence of the rotation, are absolutely neglected. These mechanisms are the block toppling and rolling. In this contribution, these mechanisms are modelled by the macro-element concept, and the delayed plasticity theory introducing two plastic sliders whose behaviors are described via two elasto-plastic constitutive laws. In order to illustrate the potentiality of this new version of the model a numerical parametric analysis, concerning in-clined trajectories on horizontal strata, is illustrated. The numerical results demonstrate that, in this new model version, the dissipated energy is increased and that during the impact a boulder spin originates, even in case the initial motion of the block is purely translational. This is opening a new set of possibilities and applications for rock fall modelling.

  5. Depth to Coal Mining in the Colorado Front Range (frimndpthu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the depth to (overburden above) abandoned underground coal mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  6. The instrumental climate history of southwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doesken, N.J.; McKee, T.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Instrumental observations of the climate of southwestern Colorado date back to about 1880. Climatic conditions since the late 19th century will be described with emphasis on temperatures, temperature ranges and observed precipitation. Typical seasonal patterns of temperature and precipitation will be shown, and variations and apparent trends over time will be discussed. Drought characteristics will be described based on a standardized precipitation index developed for Colorado. Finally, brief comments on the challenge of collecting accurate and consistent long-term data will be given.

  7. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    , discharges ranged from 82 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) at Black Gore Creek near Minturn (U.S. Geological Survey station number 09066000) to 724 ft3/s at Gore Creek at mouth near Minturn (U.S. Geological Survey station number 09066510), whereas during the September traveltime measurements, discharges ranged from 3.6 ft3/s at Black Gore Creek near Minturn to 62 ft3/s at Gore Creek at mouth near Minturn. Cumulative traveltimes for the peak dye concentration during the May traveltime measurements ranged from 3.45 hours (site 1 to site 3) in Black Gore Creek to 2.50 hours (site 8 to site 12) in Gore Creek, whereas cumulative traveltimes for the peak dye concentration during the September traveltime measurements ranged from 15.33 hours (site 1 to site 3) in Black Gore Creek to 8.65 hours (site 8 to site 12) in Gore Creek. During the September dye injections, beaver dams on Black Gore Creek, between site 1 and the confluence with Gore Creek, substantially delayed movement of the rhodamine WT. Estimated traveltimes were developed using relations established from linear-regression methods of relating measured peak traveltime to discharge during those measurements, which were obtained at Black Gore Creek near Minturn and Gore Creek at mouth near Minturn. Resulting estimated peak traveltimes for Black Gore Creek (sites 1 to 5) ranged from 5.4 to 0.4 hour for 20 to 200 ft3/s and for Gore Creek (sites 5 to 12), 5.5 to 0.3 hour for 20 to 800 ft3/s. Longitudinal-dispersion coefficients that were calculated for selected stream reaches ranged from 17.2 square feet per second at 4 ft3/s between sites 2 and 3 to 650 square feet per second at 144 ft3/s between sites 7 and 8. Longitudinal-dispersion coefficients are necessary variables for future stream-contaminant modeling in the Gore Creek watershed.

  8. Crystal structures of 2,3,6,7,10,11-oxytriphenylenes. Implications for columnar discotic mesophases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, T.L.; Krebs, Frederik C; Thorup, Niels;

    2000-01-01

    in the aim that a detailed structural knowledge of the discotic premesogens could be used to infer detailed structural knowledge with respect to known liquid crystal mesogens where little detailed structural knowledge is available. It was found that the crystal structures of the discotic premesogens were......The structures of the oxysubstituted triphenylene premesogens, 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexahydroxy-triphenylene (4), 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexamethoxytriphenylene (5), 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaethoxytriphenylene (6), and 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexapropoxytriphenylene (7) were determined, and the structural results were investigated...... very different from the structures expected for discotic columnar behavior. These differences allowed us to shed some light on the structural forces that gives rise to the mesophasic behavior observed in such systems as being not due to stacking of the planar aromatic core as inferred hitherto...

  9. The Colorado Lightning Mapping Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Thomas, R. J.; Rodeheffer, D.; Fuchs, B.

    2012-12-01

    A fifteen station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) was installed in northern Colorado in the spring of 2012. While the driving force for the array was to produce 3-dimensional lightning data to support the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) Experiment (Barth, this conference), data from the array are being used for several other projects. These include: electrification studies in conjunction with the CSU CHILL radar (Lang et al, this conference); observations of the parent lightning discharges of sprites (Lyons et al, this conference); trying to detect upward discharges triggered by wind turbines, characterizing conditions in which aircraft flying through clouds produce discharges which can be detected by the LMA, and other opportunities, such as observations of lightning in pyrocumulus clouds produced by the High Park Fire west of Fort Collins, CO. All the COLMA stations are solar-powered, and use broadband cellular modems for data communications. This makes the stations completely self-contained and autonomous, allowing a station to be installed anywhere a cellular signal is available. Because most of the stations were installed well away from anthropogenic noise sources, the COLMA is very sensitive. This is evidenced by the numerous plane tracks detected in its the vicinity. The diameter, D, of the COLMA is about 100 km, significantly larger than other LMAs. Because the error in the radial distance r is proportional to (r/D)2, and the error in the altitude z is proportional to (z/D)2, the larger array diameter greatly expands the usable range of the COLMA. The COLMA is able to detect and characterize lighting flashes to a distance of about 350 km from the array center. In addition to a web-based display (lightning.nmt.edu/colma), geo-referenced images are produced and updated at one-minute intervals. These geo-referenced images can be used to overlay the real-time lightning data on Google Earth and other mapping software. These displays were used by the DC3

  10. 78 FR 47815 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00060

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00060 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  11. Effectiveness of the AHEC Concept in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Richard D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Colorado's area health education program, the SEARCH program, designed to alleviate the maldistribution of health manpower, is described. It recruits new professionals to underserved areas through student/resident rotations and retains those professionals already there by providing accessible continuing education. (Author/MLW)

  12. Colorado's forest resources, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson; Joseph A. Duda; Larry T. DeBlander; John D. Shaw; Chris Witt; Todd A. Morgan; Michael C. Amacher

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the most recent inventory information for Colorado's forest lands. The report includes descriptive highlights and tables of area, number of trees, biomass, volume, growth, mortality, and removals. Most of the tables are organized by forest type, species, diameter class, or owner group. The report also describes inventory design,...

  13. Is Colorado's Voucher System Worth Vouching for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 Colorado passed legislation enacting the nation's first voucher-based approach to financing higher education, known as the College Opportunity Fund (COF). The work of an unusual coalition that included higher education leaders, generally conservative policymakers, and others, COF completely replaced the traditional approach of subsidizing…

  14. Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive…

  15. 76 FR 36039 - Colorado Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations on non- Federal and non-Indian lands within its... for the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations in accordance with the... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 906 Colorado Regulatory Program AGENCY...

  16. Besnoitiosis in rodents from Colorado. [Parasitic infestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, G E; Winsor, T F; Adee, R R

    1976-01-01

    Parasitic cysts of Besnoitia jellisoni (coccidia) were found in rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus and Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) trapped in Eastern Colorado. The parasite was associated with a granulomatous inflammatory reaction in the lungs of each rodent and was disseminated in several organs from one Peromyscus. The ultrastructural appearance of the merozoites and the cyst wall formed by the host cell were studied.

  17. EQ3/6 software test and verification report 9/94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, T.

    1996-02-01

    This document is the Software Test and Verification Report (STVR) for the EQ3/6 suite of codes as stipulated in the Individual Software Plan for Initial Qualification of EQ3/6 (ISP-NF-07, Revision 1, 11/25/92). The software codes, EQPT, EQ3NR, EQ6, and the software library EQLIB constitute the EQ3/6 software package. This software test and verification project for EQ3/6 was started under the requirements of the LLNL Yucca Mountain Project Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP), Revision 0, December 14, 1989, but QP 3.2, Revision 2, June 21, 1994 is now the operative controlling procedure. This is a ``V and V`` report in the language of QP 3.2, Revision 2. Because the author of this report does not have a background in geochemistry, other technical sources were consulted in order to acquire some familiarity with geochemisty, the terminology minology involved, and to review comparable computational methods especially, geochemical aqueous speciation-solubility calculations. The software for the EQ3/6 package consists of approximately 47,000 lines of FORTRAN77 source code and nine on platforms ranging from workstations to supercomputers. The physical control of EQ3/6 software package and documentation is on a SUN SPARC station. Walkthroughs of each principal software packages, EQPT, EQ3NR, and EQ6 were conducted in order to understand the computational procedures involved, to determine any commonality in procedures, and then to establish a plan for the test and verification of EQ3/6. It became evident that all three phases depended upon solving an n x n matrix by the Newton-Raphson Method. Thus, a great deal of emphasis on the test and verification of this procedure was carried out on the first code in the software package EQPT.

  18. Multicomponent Synthesis of 3,6-Dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. J. de Kanter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-fused 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones constitute a so far rather unexplored class of compounds, with the latest report dating back more than two decades. Thiazine-2-thiones contain an endocyclic dithiocarbamate group, which is often found in pesticides, in substrates for radical chemistry and in synthetic intermediates towards thioureas and amidines. We now report the multicomponent reaction (MCR of in situ-generated 1-azadienes with carbon disulfide. With this reaction, a one-step protocol towards the potentially interesting 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones was established and a small library was synthesized.

  19. Multicomponent synthesis of 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruithof, Art; Ploeger, Marten L; Janssen, Elwin; Helliwell, Madeleine; de Kanter, Frans J J; Ruijter, Eelco; Orru, Romano V A

    2012-02-08

    Non-fused 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones constitute a so far rather unexplored class of compounds, with the latest report dating back more than two decades. Thiazine-2-thiones contain an endocyclic dithiocarbamate group, which is often found in pesticides, in substrates for radical chemistry and in synthetic intermediates towards thioureas and amidines. We now report the multicomponent reaction (MCR) of in situ-generated 1-azadienes with carbon disulfide. With this reaction, a one-step protocol towards the potentially interesting 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones was established and a small library was synthesized.

  20. Investigation of the influence of transport from oil and natural gas regions on elevated ozone levels in the northern Colorado front range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jason M; Helmig, Detlev

    2017-02-01

    The Northern Colorado Front Range (NCFR) has been in exceedance of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) since 2004, which has led to much debate over the sources of ozone precursors to the region, as this area is home to both the Denver, CO, metropolitan area and the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which has experienced rapid growth of oil and natural gas (O&NG) operations and associated emissions. Several recent studies have reported elevated levels of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as a result of O&NG emissions and the potential for significant ozone production from these emissions, despite implementation of stricter O&NG VOC emissions regulations in 2008. Approximately 88% of 1-hr elevated ozone events (>75 ppbv) occur during June-August, indicating that elevated ozone levels are driven by regional photochemistry. Analyses of surface ozone and wind observations from two sites, namely, South Boulder and the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, both near Boulder, CO, show a preponderance of elevated ozone events associated with east-to-west airflow from regions with O&NG operations in the N-ESE, and a relatively minor contribution of transport from the Denver Metropolitan area to the SE-S. Transport from upwind areas associated with abundant O&NG operations accounts for on the order of 65% (mean for both sites) of 1-hr averaged elevated ozone levels, while the Denver urban corridor accounts for 9%. These correlations contribute to mounting evidence that air transport from areas with O&NG operation has a significant impact on ozone and air quality in the NCFR. This article builds on several previous pieces of research that implied significant contributions from oil and natural gas emissions on ozone production in the Northern Colorado Front Range. By correlating increased ozone events with transport analyses we show that there is a high abundance of transport events with elevated ozone originating from the Denver-Julesburg oil and natural gas

  1. Molecular structure, vibrational spectra, natural bond orbital and thermodynamic analysis of 3,6-dichloro-4-methylpyridazine and 3,6-dichloropyridazine-4-carboxylic acid by dft approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabavathi, N; Senthil Nayaki, N; Venkatram Reddy, B

    2015-02-05

    Vibrational spectral analysis of the molecules 3,6-dichloro-4-methylpyridazine (DMP) and 3,6-dichloropyridazine-4-carboxylic acid (DPC) was carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques. The molecular structure and vibrational spectra of DMP and DPC were obtained by the density functional theory (DFT) method, using B3LYP functional, with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. A detailed interpretation of the Infrared and Raman spectra of the two molecules were reported based on potential energy distribution (PED). The theoretically predicted FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of the titled molecules have been simulated and were compared with the experimental spectra. Determination of electric dipole moment (μ) and hyperpolarizability β0 helps to study the non-linear optical (NLO) behavior of DMP and DPC. Stability of the molecules arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. (13)C and (1)H NMR spectra were recorded and (13)C and (1)H NMR chemical shifts of the molecules were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. UV-visible spectrum of the compounds was also recorded in the region 200-1100 nm and electronic properties, HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbitals) and LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbitals) energies were measured by time-dependent TD-DFT approach. Charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecule have been studied by mapping electron density isosurface with molecular electrostatic potential (MESP). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 75 FR 23288 - Notice of Public Meeting, Southwest Colorado Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... will be held on June 4, 2010, in Dolores, Colorado; August 13, 2010, in Gunnison, Colorado; and October... 184, Dolores, Colorado 81323; August 13, 2010, at the Holiday Inn Express at 910 E. Tomichi,...

  3. Compact starbursts in z~3-6 submillimeter galaxies revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Ikarashi, Soh; Caputi, Karina I; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, DavidH; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Lagos, ClaudiaD P; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Koichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, GrantG; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S

    2014-01-01

    We report the source size distribution, as measured by ALMA millimetric continuum imaging, of a sample of 13 AzTEC-selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) believed to lie at z_photo ~ 3-6. Their infrared luminosities and star-formation rates (SFR) are L_IR ~ 2-6 x 10^12 L_sun and ~ 200-500 M_sun yr-1, respectively. The size of z ~ 3-6 SMGs ranges from 0''.10 to 0''.38 with a median of 0''.22 (FWHM), corresponding to a median effective radius (Re) of ~ 0.8 kpc, comparable to the typical size of the stellar component measured in compact quiescent galaxies at z ~ 2 (cQGs) --- R ~ 1 kpc. The surface SFR density of our z ~ 3-6 SMGs is 160+610-82 M_sun yr-1 kpc-2, comparable to that seen in local merger-driven (U)LIRGs, which implies that these SMGs are also likely to be merger-driven. The discovery of compact starbursts in z >~ 3 SMGs strongly supports a massive galaxy formation scenario wherein z ~ 3-6 SMGs evolve into the compact stellar components of z ~ 2 cQGs. These cQGs are then thought to evolve into the mos...

  4. Cosmic Ray Helium Isotopes From 0.2 to 3.6 GeV/nucleon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, O.; Hof, M.; Menn, W.

    1996-01-01

    mass by means of the velocity vs. magnetic rigidity technique. A model of the instrument response was developed in order to unfold the species and rigidity-dependent effects. Measurements and astrophysical interpretation of the ^3He/^4He isotope ratio from 0.2 to 3.6 GeV/nucleon will be presented...

  5. The Renaissance Culture and the Arts. Grades 3-6, The Time Traveler Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pofahl, Jane

    This resource guide encourages grade 3-6 students to explore the social structure, government, culture and art forms, scientific discoveries, and historic personalities of the European Renaissance. The work is organized into 10 topics: (1) The Renaissance; (2) Art; (3) Leonardo da Vinci; (4) The Medicis; (5) Michelangelo; (6) Printing; (7) Music;…

  6. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of 2-(Aminoacid ester)-3-(6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2008-11-06

    Nov 6, 2008 ... ... of 2-(Aminoacid ester)-3-(6-methyl-2-pyridyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3,285- ... aDepartment of Chemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502, India. bDepartment of Plant .... RESEARCH ARTICLE. M.A. Kumar, K.S. ...

  7. Green pricing: A Colorado case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, E.; Udall, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    A model program for green pricing targeted primarily at large customers is proposed in this paper. The program would create a partnership between a local community group, a renewables advocacy group, and several Colorado utilities. The first part of the paper summarizes pertinent background issues, including utility experience with green pricing programs. The rest of the paper outlines the program proposal, focusing primarily on organizational structure.

  8. PRE-FILTRATION IN BOULDER AND SLOW SAND FILTRATION WITH NON-WOVEN SYNTHETIC LAYERS AND GRANULATED VEGETAL COAL TO IMPROVE QUALITY IN WASTEWATER TREATED BY CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Paterniani, JES; da Silva, MJM; Ribeiro, TAP; Barbosa, M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was the comparison between two filtration systems, being one composed of a boulder pre-filter followed by a slow filter with sand as filtration media and a non-woven synthetic fabric in the upper part, and the other one composed of a boulder pre-filter followed by a slow filter with sand as filtration media and granular activated charcoal and a non-woven synthetic fabric in the upper part, for the purification of household effluents treated in cultivated beds, to b...

  9. Storm Surge of Supertyphoon Haiyan (7-9 Nov 2013) on Samar (Philippines) Moved the Largest Boulder Ever Documented for a Recent Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M.; May, S. M.; Brill, D.; Reyes, M.; Brückner, H.

    2014-12-01

    Supertyphoon Haiyan (local name: Yolanda) struck the Philippines on 7-9 Nov 2013. It constantly reached category 5 (SSH scale) during its crossing of the archipelago. Storm surge heights of more than 7 m, wave heights of up to 5 m, and extensive flooding along the coast are reported. The death toll surpassed 6,000 individuals, and more than 16 M people were affected in total. The massive storm surge, which surprised many residents in particular on Samar and Leyte, also initiated the dislocation of large boulders at the coastline of SE Samar. Since such deposits may indicate maximum flooding distances and flow velocities of extreme wave events over timescales exceeding the era of historical documentation, they have increasingly been explored as a source for coastal hazard assessment. However, there is no clear consensus on differences in transport capacities and boulder field patterns created by storms and tsunamis. Thus, records from recent events provide a pivotal reference for process-related interpretation of other coastal boulder fields. We conducted a geomorphological and sedimentological survey after Haiyan on Leyte, Samar, Negros, and Bantayan. In SE Samar, the largest boulder (~75 m³; 9.0 x 4.5 x 3.5 m³; ~180 t) was shifted for 45 m on an inclined upper intertidal platform behind a Holocene reef by longshore sliding. A clast of ~70 t was moved by saltation and/or rolling for the same distance. A boulder of ~23.5 t was quarried at 2 m a.s.l. (above mean sea level) from the cliff edge of the Pleistocene carbonate platform and transported to a position of 6 m a.s.l. Boulders of up to ~17 t were moved from 6.5 to 10 m a.s.l., 2 m below the highest flood marks. Volumes of the limestone boulders were calculated using DGPS-derived point clouds transferred to ArcGIS. Densities were estimated to be around 2.3 g cm-3 using rock samples and the Archimedean principle. Downward-facing rock pools, grass patches, living barnacles, roots and soil staining on exposed

  10. University of Colorado CubeSat Student Projects as Successful Model for Teaching Students about Engineering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo, S. E.; Li, X.; Woods, T. N.; Kohnert, R.

    2014-12-01

    There is a long history of cooperation between students at the University of Colorado, Boulder and professional engineers and scientists at LASP, which has led to many successful space missions with direct student involvement. The recent student-led missions include the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE, 1998 - 2002), the Student Dust Counter (SDC) on New Horizons (2006 - present), the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE), being a very successful NSF CubeSat that launched in September 2012, and the NASA Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat (launch will be in early 2015). Students are involved in all aspects of the design, and they experience the full scope of the mission process from concept, to fabrication and test, and mission operations. A significant part of the student involvement in the CubeSat projects is gained by using the CubeSat development as a focal point for an existing two-semester course sequence in CU's Aerospace Engineering Sciences (AES) Department: the Space Hardware Design section of Graduate Projects I & II (ASEN 5018 & ASEN 6028). The goal of these courses is to teach graduate students how to design and build systems using a requirement-based approach and fundamental systems engineering practices. The two-semester sequence takes teams of about 15 students from requirements definition and preliminary design through manufacturing, integration, and testing. In addition to the design process, students learn key professional skills such as working effectively in groups, finding solutions to open-ended problems, and actually building a system to their own set of specifications. The partnership between AES and LASP allows us to include engineering professionals in the mix, thus more effectively training science and engineering students for future roles in the civilian or commercial space industry. The mentoring process with LASP engineers helps to mitigate risk of the inexperience of the students and ensures consistent

  11. Influence of oil and gas emissions on ambient atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons in residential areas of Northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea R. Thompson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Northern Front Range (NFR region of Colorado has experienced rapid expansion of oil and gas extraction from shale and tight sands reservoirs in recent years due to advances in hydraulic fracturing technology, with over 25,000 wells currently in operation. This region has also been designated as a federal ozone non-attainment area by the U.S. EPA. High ozone levels are a significant health concern, as are potential health impacts from chronic exposure to primary emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC for residents living near wells. From measurements of ambient atmospheric NMHC present in residential areas located in close proximity to wells in Erie, Colorado, we find that mean mole fractions of the C2–C5 alkanes are enhanced by a factor of 18–77 relative to the regional background, and present at higher levels than typically found in large urban centers. When combined with NMHC observations from downtown Denver and Platteville, it is apparent that these compounds are elevated across the NFR, with highest levels within the Greater Wattenberg Gas Field. This represents a large area source for ozone precursors in the NFR. The BTEX aromatic compounds in Erie were comparable to (e.g., benzene or lower than (e.g., toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene in large urban centers, however, benzene was significantly higher in Platteville, and within the range of chronic health-based exposure levels. An initial look at comparisons with data sets from previous years reveal that ambient levels for oil and gas-related NMHC in Erie, as well as further downwind in Boulder, have not decreased, but appear to have been increasing, despite tightening of emissions standards for the oil and gas industries in 2008.

  12. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1995 (1 July 1994 through 30 June 1995). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock, Colorado. Economic data were requested from the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE). The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized.

  13. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1993 (July 1, 1992, through June 30, 1993). To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized.

  14. Pegmatites of the Crystal Mountain district, Larimer County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, William R.

    1952-01-01

    The Front Range of Colorado is composed chiefly of schists of the pre-Cambrian Idaho Springs formation which have been intruded by a variety of granitic batholiths. In the Crystal Mountain district the Mount Olympus granite, a satellite of the Longs Peak batholith, forms sills and essentially concordant multiple intrusions in quartz-mica schist that dips southward at moderate to steep angles. A great number of pegmatites accompanied and followed the intrusion of the sills, and formed concordant and discordant bodies in schist and granite. Over 1,300 pegmatites in the Hyatt area north of the Big Thompson River are mapped and individually described. There are 27 pegmatites in the area that are made up of a wall zone and a core, and one, the pegmatite at the Hyatt mine, is composed of five zones. The largest pegmatites in the area are discordant in schist and occupy zones that are interpreted to be tear faults and tension fractures produced by the successive intrusions of granite that formed multiple sills. The majority of pegmatites in the large multiple sills were emplaced along the foliation and fractures. The composition of 96 percent of the pegmatites is granitic, 3.5 percent are quartz-rich pegmatites, and a few are tourmaline-rich. The pegmatites were intruded over a period of time and probably were derived from a granitic magma at different stages during differentiation. Solutions escaping from many of the pegmatites tournalinized and silicified the wall rocks for a few inches to two feet, but chemical and spectrographic analyses fail to show the transport of any other constituents. Perthite, plagioclase, and quartz are the essential minerals of the pegmatites, and muscovite is a minor but widespread constituent. Tourmaline, garnet, beryl, and apatite are common accessory minerals, and lithiophillitite-triphylite, bismuthinite, uraninite, columbite-tantalite, and chrysoberyl are rare constituents. Beryl is found in 250 or 27 percent of the pegmatites and makes

  15. Control of Precambrian basement deformation zones on emplacement of the Laramide Boulder batholith and Butte mining district, Montana, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; O'Neill, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    What are the roles of deep Precambrian basement deformation zones in the localization of subsequent shallow-crustal deformation zones and magmas? The Paleoproterozoic Great Falls tectonic zone and its included Boulder batholith (Montana, United States) provide an opportunity to examine the importance of inherited deformation fabrics in batholith emplacement and the localization of magmatic-hydrothermal mineral deposits. Northeast-trending deformation fabrics predominate in the Great Falls tectonic zone, which formed during the suturing of Paleoproterozoic and Archean cratonic masses approximately 1,800 mega-annum (Ma). Subsequent Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic deformation fabrics trend northwest. Following Paleozoic through Early Cretaceous sedimentation, a Late Cretaceous fold-and-thrust belt with associated strike-slip faulting developed across the region, wherein some Proterozoic faults localized thrust faulting, while others were reactivated as strike-slip faults. The 81- to 76-Ma Boulder batholith was emplaced along the reactivated central Paleoproterozoic suture in the Great Falls tectonic zone. Early-stage Boulder batholith plutons were emplaced concurrent with east-directed thrust faulting and localized primarily by northwest-trending strike-slip and related faults. The late-stage Butte Quartz Monzonite pluton was localized in a northeast-trending pull-apart structure that formed behind the active thrust front and is axially symmetric across the underlying northeast-striking Paleoproterozoic fault zone, interpreted as a crustal suture. The modeling of potential-field geophysical data indicates that pull-apart?stage magmas fed into the structure through two funnel-shaped zones beneath the batholith. Renewed magmatic activity in the southern feeder from 66 to 64 Ma led to the formation of two small porphyry-style copper-molybdenum deposits and ensuing world-class polymetallic copper- and silver-bearing veins in the Butte mining district. Vein orientations

  16. Islet autoantibodies and residual beta cell function in type 1 diabetes children followed for 3-6 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sand; Vaziri-Sani, Fariba; Maziarz, M

    2012-01-01

    To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D.......To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D....

  17. Perception of neon color spreading in 3-6-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2009-12-01

    Although lots of studies about neon color spreading have been reported, few of these studies have focused on the perceptual development of it in human infants. Therefore, this study explores the perceptual development of neon color spreading in infants. In experiment 1, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in static conditions. In experiment 2, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in moving conditions. Our results suggest that while only 5-6-month-old infants show a preference for neon color spreading in the static condition, 3-4-month-old infants also prefer neon color spreading if motion information is available.

  18. Mitochondria Targeted Peptides Protect Against 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine Neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Lichuan; Zhao, Kesheng; Noel Y Calingasan; Luo, Guoxiong; Szeto, Hazel H; Beal, M. Flint

    2009-01-01

    A large body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). A number of antioxidants have been effective in animal models of PD. We have developed a family of mitochondria-targeted peptides that can protect against mitochondrial swelling and apoptosis (SS peptides). In this study, we examined the ability of two peptides, SS-31 and SS-20, to protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)...

  19. Reactivity of 4-tert-Butyldimethylsiloxy-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridines with Hydrazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Medarde

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of 6-(nitrophenyl or trimethoxyphenyl-4-tert-butyldimethyl- siloxy-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine derivatives with hydrazines under acid conditions is described. The structure of the products isolated − hydrazones, pyrazolines or pyridazinones − depended on the conditions used. In addition, a systematic study of the reaction outcomes was carried out by introducing variations on the substituents of the tetrahydropyridine ring.

  20. Modeling precipitation from concentrated solutions with the EQ3/6 chemical speciation codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.F.; Ebinger, M.H.

    1995-01-13

    One of the more important uncertainties of using chemical speciation codes to study dissolution and precipitation of compounds is the results of modeling which depends on the particular thermodynamic database being used. The authors goal is to investigate the effects of different thermodynamic databases on modeling precipitation from concentrated solutions. They used the EQ3/6 codes and the supplied databases to model precipitation in this paper. One aspect of this goal is to compare predictions of precipitation from ideal solutions to similar predictions from nonideal solutions. The largest thermodynamic databases available for use by EQ3/6 assume that solutions behave ideally. However, two databases exist that allow modeling nonideal solutions. The two databases are much less extensive than the ideal solution data, and they investigated the comparability of modeling ideal solutions and nonideal solutions. They defined four fundamental problems to test the EQ3/6 codes in concentrated solutions. Two problems precipitate Ca(OH){sub 2} from solutions concentrated in Ca{sup ++}. One problem tests the precipitation of Ca(OH){sub 2} from high ionic strength (high concentration) solutions that are low in the concentrations of precipitating species (Ca{sup ++} in this case). The fourth problem evaporates the supernatant of the problem with low concentrations of precipitating species. The specific problems are discussed.

  1. Spectral Parameters of Nd3+∶Sr6YSc(BO3)6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林州斌; 胡祖树; 王国富

    2003-01-01

    The crystal Nd3+∶Sr6YSc(BO3)6 was grown by the top-seeded solution growth method from a Li6B4O9 flux. The spectral properties of Nd3+∶Sr6YSc(BO3)6 crystal were investigated. Using Judd-Ofelt theory to analyze the optical strength measured in absorption spectrum, the following spectral parameters were obtained: parameters of oscillator strengths Ωλ are Ω2=1.194×10-20 cm2, Ω4=4.186×10-20 cm2 and Ω6=3.351×10-20 cm2. The radiative lifetime is 322 μs, and the fluorescence branch ratios were calculated: β1=0.465, β2=0.453, β3=0.079 and β4=0.004. The results indicate that Nd3+∶Sr6YSc(BO3)6 crystal seems to be a potential high-efficient laser material.

  2. Evidence of emissions from oil and gas drilling operations in northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petron, G.; Montzka, S. A.; Karion, A.; Miller, B. R.; Frost, G. J.; Hirsch, A.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Hall, B. D.; Trainer, M.; Welsh, D. C.; Wolfe, D. E.; Tans, P. P.

    2010-12-01

    Since 2007, air samples collected regularly at NOAA tall towers and from aircraft across the US have been analyzed for over sixty different species, including greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6), CO, several hydrocarbons (propane, n-butane, pentanes, benzene, acetylene), and ozone-depleting substances. The Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) is a 300-m tall tower located 35 km north of the Denver metropolitan area in the northern Colorado Front Range. The BAO sits on the southwestern edge of the Denver-Julesburg Basin (DJB), home to over 15,000 oil and gas wells. Using in-situ meteorological data, we analyze the air composition of the BAO samples for three different wind sectors: the North and East sector (with strong contributions from oil and gas production operations and cattle feedlots), the South sector (dominated by the Denver urban area), and the West sector (containing the foothills of the Rocky Mountains and a few oil and gas wells). Air samples from the BAO North and East sector exhibit enhanced levels of alkanes that are strongly correlated with each other. To put these BAO samples in a regional context, we drove a mobile laboratory around BAO during the summer of 2008. A continuous methane analyzer was used to detect regional enhancements in methane and local plumes from point sources (including a natural gas processing plant, feedlot, and waste water treatment plant). Targeted air samples within and outside of plumes were collected and later analyzed in the NOAA lab. Samples collected over the DJB show very similar molar ratios of alkanes as the BAO samples from the North and East sector. These alkane ratios compare very well with the ratios measured in over 70 natural gas samples collected at various wells in the DJB in 2006.

  3. Vertical Profiles of Ammonia in the Colorado Front Range: Impacts of Source Region and Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevlin, A.; Kaushik, A.; Noone, D. C.; Ortega, J. V.; Smith, J. N.; Brophy, P.; Kirkland, J.; Link, M. F.; Farmer, D. K.; Wolfe, D. E.; Dube, W. P.; McDuffie, E. E.; Brown, S. S.; Zaragoza, J.; Fischer, E. V.; Murphy, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric ammonia plays an important role in aerosol particle formation and growth, as well as in nitrogen deposition to sensitive ecosystems. However, significant uncertainties are associated with the distribution and strength of emission sources, and many of the processes that control its atmospheric fate are not fully understood. The high density of agricultural and urban sources located in close proximity to more pristine mountainous areas to the west make the Colorado Front Range a unique area for studying atmospheric ammonia. The meteorology of the region, where heavy monsoon rains can be followed by rapid evaporation, can also impact surface-atmosphere partitioning of ammonia. As part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ), vertical profiles of ammonia were measured throughout the boundary layer aboard a moveable platform on the 300 m Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tower. Changes in ammonia concentration and its vertical structure were driven not only by changes in wind direction and estimated source region, but also by fluctuations in surface and atmosphere water content. For example, large increases in atmospheric ammonia mixing ratios were observed following rain events. This may be explained by surface-atmosphere exchange of wet-deposited ammonia associated with rapid evaporation following the event, and likely impacts particle formation. This may also play a role in transport from ammonia-rich agricultural areas towards the mountainous regions to the west during periods of upslope flow. The vertical ammonia concentration gradients observed throughout the structured early morning boundary layer also provide insight into the possible causes of early morning spikes in ammonia - a phenomenon that has been well-documented in many other locations. A box model was used to assess the relative importance of surface emissions due to the evaporation of morning dew versus entrainment of ammonia-rich air from above the

  4. Geomorphic changes resulting from floods in reconfigured gravel-bed river channels in Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.G.; Capesius, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Geomorphic changes in reconfi gured reaches of three Colorado rivers in response to floods in 2005 provide a benchmark for "restoration" assessment. Sedimententrainment potential is expressed as the ratio of the shear stress from the 2 yr, 5 yr, 10 yr, and 2005 floods to the critical shear stress for sediment. Some observed response was explained by the excess of flood shear stress relative to the resisting force of the sediment. Bed-load entrainment in the Uncompahgre River and the North Fork Gunnison River, during 4 and 6 yr floods respectively, resulted in streambed scour, streambed deposition, lateral-bar accretion, and channel migration at various locations. Some constructed boulder and log structures failed because of high rates of bank erosion or bed-material deposition. The Lake Fork showed little or no net change after the 2005 flood; however, this channel had not conveyed floods greater than the 2.5 yr flood since reconfi guration. Channel slope and the 2 yr flood, a surrogate for bankfull discharge, from all three reconfi gured reaches plotted above the Leopold and Wolman channel-pattern threshold in the "braided channel" region, indicating that braiding, rather than a single-thread meandering channel, and midchannel bar formation may be the natural tendency of these gravel-bed reaches. When plotted against a total stream-power and median-sediment-size threshold for the 2 yr flood, however, the Lake Fork plotted in the "single-thread channel" region, the North Fork Gunnison plotted in the " multiplethread" region, and the Uncompahgre River plotted on the threshold. All three rivers plotted in the multiple-thread region for floods of 5 yr recurrence or greater. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  5. Upland Processes and Controls on September 2013 Debris Flows, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, A. I.; Rathburn, S. L.; Bilderback, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    The extreme rainstorms that occurred in Colorado in September 2013 initiated numerous debris flows in the northern Front Range. These flows delivered sediment to upland streams, impacted buildings and infrastructure in and near Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), and underscored the importance of ongoing hazards in mountainous areas. Slope failures occurred primarily at elevations above 2600 m on south facing slopes >40 degrees. The 2013 failures provide a valuable opportunity to better understand site-specific geomorphic variables that control slope failure in the interior United States and the frequency of debris flows in steep terrain. Slope characteristics including soil depth, vegetation type and prevalence, contributing area, slope convexity/concavity and soil texture were compared between 11 debris flow sites and 30 control sites that did not fail in RMNP. This analysis indicates that slope morphology is the primary controlling factor: 45% of the debris flow sites initiated in or below a colluvial hollow and 36% of the failed sites initiated in other areas of convergent hillslope topography. Only one of the 30 control sites (3%) was located within a colluvial hollow and only two control sites (6%) were located in other areas of convergent topography. Difference in the average maximum soil thickness between debris flow sites (0.9 m) and control sites (0.7 m) is not significant but may reflect the difficulty of using a soil probe in glacially derived soils. Additional research includes field mapping and geochronologic study at one 2013 debris deposit with evidence of multiple mass movements. Preliminary results from the mapping indicate that up to six debris flows have occurred at this site. Radiocarbon analysis of organic material and 10Be analysis of quartz from boulders in old debris levees indicate the timing of past events in this area. Future land management in RMNP will utilize this understanding of controls on slope failure and event frequency.

  6. Exerting Power in a Landscape Management Controversy: A case study of the proposed Penguin Parade at Boulder Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Foster

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing the future of places that are esteemed for both their cultural and natural heritage values is becoming increasingly contentious. This paper examines the spatialised strategies of two groups attempting to influence planning decisions over the fate of ten vernacular buildings in Boulder Bay, Christchurch, and their possible replacement by an eco-tourism proposal. Both groups' strategies include deploying global policy initiatives such as the IUCN Red List and the ICOMOS Charter, however, they diverge significantly over how the local landscape is portrayed. Those looking to preserve the baches, unsurprisingly emphasise local memory and the historical character of the place, while those proposing tourism development downplay many of the impacts of the proposal.

  7. Colorado Fathers' Resource Guide = Guia de Recursos para los Padres en Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Foundation for Families and Children, Denver.

    Developed through the Colorado Fatherhood Connection, this guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions and resources for fathers as well as tips on discipline, communication, and activities fathers can do with their children. Topics addressed in the guide include characteristics of responsible fatherhood, characteristics…

  8. Soil moisture ground truth: Steamboat Springs, Colorado, site and Walden, Colorado, site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-truth data taken at Steamboat Springs and Walden, Colorado in support of the NASA missions in these areas during the period March 8, 1976 through March 11, 1976 was presented. This includes the following information: snow course data for Steamboat Springs and Walden, snow pit and snow quality data for Steamboat Springs, and soil moisture report.

  9. 78 FR 19296 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that there is no cultural affiliation between the human remains...: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it has a cultural affiliation with the human remains should... of History Colorado, Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Suncor Energy USA Pipeline...

  10. 76 FR 17444 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... (History Colorado), Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Howiri Ruin (LA 71), Taos County, NM...), Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance... Ana, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico; Pueblo of Taos, New Mexico; Pueblo of Tesuque,...

  11. 76 FR 28071 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...), Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance... (History Colorado), Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Canyon de Chelly, AZ. This notice is... Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Ana, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico; Pueblo of Taos, New...

  12. 78 FR 72700 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... 1973, he brought the human remains to the Department of Anthropology at the University of Southern Colorado. In 2000, when the University closed its anthropology lab, the remains were taken into custody by.... 3001(9), the human remains described in this notice represent the physical remains of one individual of...

  13. Coastal vulnerability to typhoon inundation in the Bay of Bangkok, Thailand? Evidence from carbonate boulder deposits on Ko Larn island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Jankaew, Kruawun; Dunne, Kieran

    2015-11-01

    At the head of the Gulf of Thailand, the subsiding Chao Phraya delta and adjacent low-lying coastlines surrounding the Bay of Bangkok are at risk of coastal flooding. Although a significant marine inundation event has not been experienced in historical times, this work identifies coastal depositional evidence for high-energy waves in the past. On Ko Larn island in eastern Bay of Bangkok, numerous coastal carbonate boulders (CCBs) were discovered at elevations up to 4+ m above sea level, the largest weighing over 1.3 tonnes. For the majority of CCBs, their karstified appearance bears testimony to long periods of immobility since original deposition, whilst their geomorphic settings on coastal slopes of coarse blocky talus is helpful in recognising lifting (saltation) as the probable mode of wave transport. In the absence of local tsunamigenic potential, these CCBs are considered to be prehistoric typhoon deposits, presumably sourced from fringing coral reefs by high-energy wave action. Application of existing hydrodynamic flow transport equations reveals that 4.7 m/s and 7.1 m/s are the minimum flow velocities required to transport 50% and 100% of the measured CCBs, respectively. Such values are consistent with cyclone-impacted coastlines studied elsewhere in the tropical Asia-Pacific region. Overall, the evidence of elevated carbonate boulder deposits on Ko Larn implies that typhoons before the modern record may have entered the Bay of Bangkok. The recurrence of a similar event in future would have the potential to cause damaging marine inundation on surrounding low-lying coastlines.

  14. Colorado Hispanics: A Report of Selected Social Concerns, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Georgia, Ed.; Guajardo, Maria, Ed.

    This publication offers a compilation of 12 reports on selected social concerns pertaining to the Hispanic community in Colorado and provides a comprehensive overview of demographic information and information on health, education, and social welfare issues. The first report looks at Colorado's multicultural population through a demographic…

  15. Colorado River Basin Hover Dam - Review of Flood Control Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Percichthyidae Striped bass 1ile sxiiis Pocilldae Mosquito fish Cainbusia affnus Sailfin mollie Poecilia latipin a Mexican mollie Poecila mexicana Salmonidae...Colorado River Basin Progress Report No. 8, 195 pp. Vitt, L.J. and R.D. Ohmart, 1978. Herpetofauna of the Lower Colorado River: Davis Dam to the

  16. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  17. Extensive Green Roof Research Program at Colorado State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the high elevation, semi-arid climate of Colorado, green roofs have not been scientifically tested. This research examined alternative plant species, media blends, and plant interactions on an existing modular extensive green roof in Denver, Colorado. Six plant species were ev...

  18. 77 FR 21803 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Creek East Tract described below in Gunnison County, Colorado, will be offered for competitive lease by... lease sale will be held at 10 a.m., May 15, 2012. The sealed bid must be submitted on or before 10...

  19. Captive propagation, reproductive biology, and early life history of Etheostoma wapiti (Boulder Darter), E. vulneratum (Wounded Darter), and E. maculatum (Spotted Darter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Crystal L.; Rakes, Patrick L.; Shute, John R.; Welsh, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive biology and early life-history data are important for understanding the ecology of fishes. In 2008, we conducted captive propagation studies on 3 species of darters of the subgenus Nothonotus: Etheostoma wapiti (Boulder Darter), E. vulneratum (Wounded Darter), and E. maculatum (Spotted Darter). The length of spawning period and associated range of water temperatures for the Wounded Darter exceeded that of the Spotted Darter and Boulder Darter. The mean number of eggs produced per female was lowest for Boulder Darter and highest in the Wounded Darter. The Boulder Darter had the highest percent of eggs hatched, the lowest percent larval to juvenile stage survivorship, and the lowest mean number of juveniles produced per female. Egg diameters at deposition and prior to hatch were smallest for the Spotted Darter. If reproductive biology and early lifehistory information from captive fishes represent that of wild populations, then the data obtained during this study are relevant to development and implementation of conservation and management plans for these closely related darter species.

  20. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  1. Colorado Front Range Surface Ozone Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure-Begley, A.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kofler, J.; Petron, G.; Cothrel, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Colorado Front Range is a unique geographical region for air quality studies, including research of surface level ozone. Not only does surface ozone play a critical role in regulating the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, but is a primary contributor to local smog and leads to public health complications and altered ecosystem functioning. The high frequency of sunny days, increasing population and pollution, and Mountain/Valley air dynamics of this region provide atmospheric conditions suitable for production and accumulation of ozone at the surface. This region of Colorado is currently in an ozone non-attainment status due to an assortment of contributing factors. Precursor emissions from pollution, wild-fires, and gas and oil production; along with stratosphere-troposphere exchange, can all result in high ozone episodes over the Colorado Front Range. To understand the dynamics of ozone accumulation in this region, Thermo-Scientific ozone monitors have been continuously sampling ozone from 4 different altitudes since the early 2000s. Analysis of ozone data in relation to Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Methane (CH4), Carbon Monoxide (CO), wind-conditions and back-trajectory air mass origins help to address local ozone precursor emissions and resulting high ozone episodes. Increased ozone episodes are scrutinized with regards to dominant wind direction to determine main precursor emission sources. Analysis of this data reveals a strong influence of precursor emissions from the North-East wind sector, with roughly 50% of ozone exceedances originating from winds prevailing from this direction. Further, correlation with methane is enhanced when prevailing winds are from the North-East; indicative of influence from natural gas processes and feedlot activity. Similar analysis is completed for the North-West wind sector exceedances, with strong correlation to carbon monoxide; likely related to emissions from biomass burning events and forest fires. In depth analysis of

  2. Rawhide Energy Station, Fort Collins, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2008-10-15

    The staff of Platte River Power Authority's Rawhide Energy Station have been racking up operating stats and an environmental performance record that is the envy of other plant managers. In the past decade Rawhide has enjoyed an equivalent availability factor in the mid to high 90s and an average capacity factor approaching 90%. Still not content with this performance, Rawhide invested in new technology and equipment upgrades to further optimise performance, reduce emissions, and keep cost competitive. The Energy Station includes four GE France 7EA natural gas-fired turbines totalling 260 MW and a 274 MW coal-fired unit located in northeastern Colorado. 7 figs.

  3. Time scale of the thermal multifragmentation in p(3.6 GeV) + Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeyev, S P; Oeschler, H; Rodionov, V K; Simonenko, A V; Kirakosyan, V V; Rukoyatkin, P A; Budzanowski, A; Karcz, W; Skwirczynska, I; Czech, B; Kuzmin, E A; Chulkov, L V; Norbeck, E; Botvina, A S

    2006-01-01

    The relative angle correlation of intermediate mass fragments has been studied for p+Au collisions at 3.6 GeV. Strong suppression at small angles is observed caused by IMF-IMF Coulomb repulsion. Experimental correlation function is compared to that obtained by the multi-body Coulomb trajectory calculations with the various decay time of fragmenting system. The combined model including the empirically modified intranuclear cascade followed by statistical multifragmentation was used to generate starting conditions for these calculations. The model dependence of the results obtained has been carefully checked. The mean decay time of fragmenting system is found to be 85 +- 50 fm/c.

  4. Poly[μ-aqua-μ5-[2-(2,3,6-trichlorophenylacetato]-caesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title complex, [Cs(C8H4Cl3O2(H2O]n, the caesium salt of the commercial herbicide fenac [(2,3,6-trichlorophenylacetic acid], the irregular eight-coordination about Cs+ comprises a bidentate O:Cl-chelate interaction involving a carboxylate-O atom and an ortho-related ring-substituted Cl atom, which is also bridging, a triple-bridging carboxylate-O atom and a bridging water molecule. A two-dimensional polymer is generated, lying parallel to (100, within which there are water–carboxylate O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  5. Complexes of 3.6 kDa Maltodextrin with Some Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling, Christopher H.; Anderegg, James W.; Piotr Tomasik

    2004-01-01

    Preparation of magnesium, lanthanum, and bismuth(III) complexes of 3.6 kDa maltodextrin and some properties of the resulting materials are presented. The metal derivatives contain metals bound to the oxygen atoms of the hydroxyl groups of maltodextrin. Additionally, the metal atoms are coordinated to the hydroxyl groups of the D-glucose units of the macroligand. Such coordination stabilized the metal – oxygen bond against hydrolysis, even in boiling water. The presence of magnesium and l...

  6. Complexes of 3.6 kDa Maltodextrin with Some Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Schilling

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of magnesium, lanthanum, and bismuth(III complexes of 3.6 kDa maltodextrin and some properties of the resulting materials are presented. The metal derivatives contain metals bound to the oxygen atoms of the hydroxyl groups of maltodextrin. Additionally, the metal atoms are coordinated to the hydroxyl groups of the D-glucose units of the macroligand. Such coordination stabilized the metal – oxygen bond against hydrolysis, even in boiling water. The presence of magnesium and lanthanum atoms increased the thermal stability of maltodextrin, whereas bismuth atoms decreased it.

  7. 解析加拿大海关备忘录D13-3-6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Smith; 唐兵

    2007-01-01

    @@ 出于所得税目的而制定的进出口货物转让价格,能否同时用作向海关申报的完税价格,一直是困扰税务机构、海关部门和进出口企业的问题.2006年10月18日,加拿大海关针对这一问题发表了备忘录D13-3-6.

  8. 解析加拿大海关备忘录D13-3-6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Smith; 唐兵

    2007-01-01

      出于所得税目的而制定的进出口货物转让价格,能否同时用作向海关申报的完税价格,一直是困扰税务机构、海关部门和进出口企业的问题.2006年10月18日,加拿大海关针对这一问题发表了备忘录D13-3-6.……

  9. Cosmic Ray Helium Isotopes From 0.2 to 3.6 GeV/nucleon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, O.; Hof, M.; Menn, W.

    1996-01-01

    The abundances of cosmic ray helium isotopes were measured by the IMAX balloon-borne magnet spectrometer during a flight in July, 1992. A high-resolution time-of-flight system and two silica aerogel Cherenkov counters were used in conjunction with a drift-chamber/MWPC-tracking system to determine...... mass by means of the velocity vs. magnetic rigidity technique. A model of the instrument response was developed in order to unfold the species and rigidity-dependent effects. Measurements and astrophysical interpretation of the ^3He/^4He isotope ratio from 0.2 to 3.6 GeV/nucleon will be presented...

  10. Study of new optical transients using 3.6m DOT at Devasthal Nainital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    Longitudinal advantage of Indian sub-continent makes the recently installed 3.6m telescope as a novel facility for astronomical observations, specially, to study time critical events, i.g. transients. This telescope along with the first generation back-end instruments could be efficiently used to study new transients discovered using a global network of robotic survey telescopes. Study of new transients as a part of time domain astronomy will play a key role in near future along with the upcoming multi-wavelength facilities to explore the underlying physics behind these sources.

  11. Photometry of Scattered Disk Objects at 3.6 and 4.5 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Chad A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Mommert, Michael; Lejoly, Cassandra; Trilling, David E.

    2016-10-01

    Scattered disk objects (SDO) are some of the most intriguing of the estimated 100,000 icy bodies located in the outer Solar System. SDOs have been gravitationally disturbed and scattered by the orbital migration of Neptune. The surface compositions of these objects provide a window into formation conditions and dynamics of the outer Solar System. Characterization of volatiles and organic materials, in particular, provide important constraints on formation conditions and subsequent surface processing of these objects. We measured fluxes of 38 SDOs at 3.6 and 4.5 μm using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) aboard the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope in order to characterize volatiles, silicates, and complex organics on their surfaces. Albedos calculated from these fluxes are combined with broadband albedos from ground-based observations at shorter wavelengths (spanning 0.55 - 2.22 μm) to provide spectrophotometry from 0.5 to 4.5 μm. Much of those ground-based data are from previously published literature. However, we have also conducted new ground-based Y, J, H, K observations of several of the targets. Sizes and visible geometric albedos, which are required to convert IRAC fluxes to geometric albedos, were extracted from published literature when available and computed from absolute magnitudes otherwise. Data were available to construct complete 0.55 to 4.5 μm spectrophotometric curves for 14 SDOs and partial curves for the remaining 24 SDOs. The resulting spectrophotometry of these 38 SDOs indicates a wide range of surface compositions. Several of the SDOs we observed show red visible and near-infrared spectral slopes and strong absorptions at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. These absorption features suggest the presence of complex organics. Other SDOs appear red as well, but show only moderate absorptions at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Moderate absorption features at these wavelengths may indicate a mixture of H2O ice and refractory material on the surface. Finally, some objects show no

  12. Multicomponent Synthesis of 3,6-Dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones

    OpenAIRE

    Frans J. J. de Kanter; Eelco Ruijter; Orru, Romano V A; Madeleine Helliwell; Elwin Janssen; Marten L. Ploeger; Art Kruithof

    2012-01-01

    Non-fused 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones constitute a so far rather unexplored class of compounds, with the latest report dating back more than two decades. Thiazine-2-thiones contain an endocyclic dithiocarbamate group, which is often found in pesticides, in substrates for radical chemistry and in synthetic intermediates towards thioureas and amidines. We now report the multicomponent reaction (MCR) of in situ-generated 1-azadienes with carbon disulfide. With this reaction, a one-step...

  13. A Lateglacial to late Holocene glacial chronology for the Cairngorm Mountains (Scotland): effects of boulder inheritance and snow shielding on age distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkbride, Martin; Everest, Jez; Benn, Doug

    2014-05-01

    It is thought that British glaciers disappeared after the Younger Dryas Stadial (YDS, 12.9 - 11.7 k yr). We present cosmogenic 10Be ages of cirque moraines in the Cairngorm Mountains which include two Lateglacial advances, a speculative early Holocene advance, and a late Holocene moraine probably deposited by a Little Ice Age glacier ( 17th - 18th century AD). One cirque (CLE) contains evidence of a YDS advance peaking at c. 12.3 k yr, and a probable Little Ice Age (LIA) advance dated to cirque (CLW) has an outer moraine dated to between 15.3 and 12.0 k yr. An inner moraine, conventionally regarded as YDS in age, yields 10Be ages of 11.5 to 8.3 k yr (Lal/Stone time-dependent production model). The putative YDS moraines are well dated in cirque CLE, but appear too "young" in CLW. We consider how snow-shielding and boulder recycling may have affected age distributions. If these ages are minima from a YDS moraine, snow-shielding and delayed deposition from debris-covered ice may explain low 10Be concentrations, but this does not explain why similar adjustments are not needed in the neighbouring cirque. Alternatively, ages may be maxima from an early Holocene moraine which incorporated existing boulders. The LIA moraine in CLE contains a high proportion of inherited boulders, but the YDS moraine here contains few. Therefore the proportion of inherited boulders is estimated to be a function of the ratio of debris production during the glacial period and debris production during the preceding paraglacial period. The ratio describes the likelihood of sampling an inherited boulder if the geomorphological history is understood. By this reasoning, an alternative interpretation of the "YDS" moraine in CLW is that an early Holocene glacier (speculatively, the 8.2 k event?) incorporated post-YDS paraglacial rock fall debris.

  14. 77 FR 9840 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY... airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black... controlled airspace at Colorado Springs, CO (76 FR 70920). Interested parties were invited to participate...

  15. Self-assessment of drinking on the Internet--3-, 6- and 12-month follow-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski-Jännes, Anja; Cunningham, John; Tolonen, Kari

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to report on the results of a pilot study of a web-based self-assessment service (DHT) for Finnish drinkers (www.paihdelinkki.fi/testaa/juomatapatesti). During the 7-month recruitment period in 2004 altogether 22,536 anonymous self-assessments were recorded in the database of this service. The study sample was recruited from the 1598 service users who also participated to a survey evaluating the DHT. Those who consented by providing required baseline data and their e-mail address (n = 343) were sent a message asking them to fill in the follow-up questions 3, 6 and 12 months later. Their self-reported use of alcohol and drinking-related problems served as the main outcome variables in this single-group follow-up study. At 3, 6 and 12 months, 78%, 69% and 61% of the study participants, respectively, responded to the follow-up. The intention-to-treat (ITT) results revealed significant reductions (P < 0.001) in all the outcome measures. The reductions occurred during the first 3 months, after which the changes were non-significant. The results are in line with previous studies with mostly shorter follow-up periods suggesting that Internet-based self-assessment services can be useful tools in reducing excessive drinking. A randomized controlled trial would, however, increase our certainty about the causes of the observed changes.

  16. Thermally stable 3,6-dinitropyrazolo[4,3-c]pyrazole-based energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaheng; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-10-01

    3,6-Dinitropyrazolo[4,3-c]pyrazole was prepared using an efficient modified process. With selected cations, ten nitrogen-rich energetic salts and three metal salts were synthesized in high yield based on the 3,6-dinitropyrazolo[4,3-c]pyrazolate anion. These compounds were fully characterized by IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopies, as well as elemental analyses. The structures of the neutral compounds 4 and its salt 16 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction showing extensive hydrogen-bonding interactions. The neutral pyrazole precursor and its salts are remarkably thermally stable. Based on the calculated heats of formation and measured densities, detonation pressures (22.5-35.4 GPa) and velocities (7948-9005 m s(-1)) were determined, and they compare favorably with those of TNT and RDX. Their impact and friction sensitivities range from 12 to >40 J and 80 to 360 N, respectively. These properties make them competitive as insensitive and thermally stable high-energy density materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Converting From 3.6 and 4.5 Micron Fluxes to Stellar Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Eskew, Michael R; Meidt, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    We use high spatial resolution maps of stellar mass and infrared flux of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to calibrate a conversion between 3.6 and 4.5 micron fluxes and stellar mass, M_* = 10^{5.65} * F_{3.6}^{2.85} * F_{4.5}^{-1.85} * (D/0.05)^2 M_solar, where fluxes are in Jy and D is the luminosity distance to the source in Mpc, and to provide an approximate empirical estimate of the fractional internal uncertainty in M_* of 0.3*sqrt{N/10^6}, where N is the number of stars in the region. We find evidence that young stars and hot dust contaminate the measurements, but attempts to remove this contamination using data that is far superior than what is generally available for unresolved galaxies resulted in marginal gains in accuracy. The scatter among mass estimates for regions in the LMC is comparable to that found by previous investigators when modeling composite populations, and so we conclude that our simple conversion is as precise as possible for the data and models currently available. Our results all...

  18. Exploring High-Velocity NH_3(6,6) Emission at the Center of our Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, J L; Ho, P T P; Donovan, Jennifer L.; Herrnstein, Robeson M.; Ho, Paul T.P.

    2006-01-01

    Using the NH\\3 (6,6) transition, which samples dense ($\\sim 10^{5}$) molecular gas with an energy above ground of 412 K, we find hot gas at high velocities (--142 to --210 km s$^{-1}$) associated with the central 2 pc of the Galactic center. This material may be either infalling gas due to shocks or tidal stripping, or possibly gas swept from the nuclear region. We identify two high-velocity features, which we call the Southern Runner and the Cap, and correlate these features with others detected in various molecular observations of the Galactic center. The characteristic linewidths of the Southern Runner and Cap, 10 -- 15 \\kms, are similar to those of other hot Galactic center clouds. The estimated H$_{2}$ masses of these clouds are 4$\\times 10^{3}$ M$\\sol$ and 2$\\times 10^{3}$ M$\\sol$, consistent with the masses of the western streamer and northern ridge, NH\\3 (6,6) emission features detected within the central 10 pc at lower velocities. Three possible explanations for this emission are discussed assuming t...

  19. Elevated Temperature Creep Deformation in Solid Solution NiAL-3.6Ti Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Noebe, Ronald D.; Darolia, Ram

    2003-01-01

    The 1100 to 1500 K slow plastic strain rate compressive properties of oriented NiAl-3.6Ti single crystals have been measured, and the results suggests that two deformation processes exist. While the intermediate temperature/faster strain rate mechanism is uncertain, plastic flow at elevated temperature/slower strain rates in NiAl-3.6Ti appears to be controlled by solute drag as described by the Cottrell-Jaswon solute drag model for gliding b = a(sub 0) dislocations. While the calculated activation energy of deformation is much higher (approximately 480 kJ/mol) than the activation energy for diffusion (approximately 290 kJ/mol) used in the Cottrell-Jaswon creep model, a forced temperature compensated - power law fit using the activation energy for diffusion was able to adequately (greater than 90%) predict the observed creep properties. Thus we conclude that the rejection of a diffusion controlled mechanism can not be simply based on a large numerical difference between the activation energies for deformation and diffusion.

  20. Epidemiologic characterization of Colorado backyard bird flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2012-06-01

    Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds.

  1. Health hazard evaluation determination report No. 78-128-549, Nixon Power Plant, Colorado Springs, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, B.J.

    1978-12-01

    Asbestos (CAS 1332-21-4) concentrations during sanding and buffing operations were measured at the Nixon Power facility (SIC-4911) in Colorado Springs, Colorado on September 29, 1978. The evaluation was requested by the vice president of the Watkin Construction Company on behalf of plumbers engaged in sanding asbestos joints and connections. Breathing zone asbestos concentrations of fibers greater than five microns in length ranged from 0.02 to 0.187 fibers per cubic centimeter. The OSHA asbestos standard of 2 fibers per cubic centimeter was not exceeded, however, the author concludes that a potential asbestos hazard does exist. He recommends that respirators be used by workers until exhaust ventilation is provided.

  2. UV spectra of iron-doped carbon clusters FeC_n n = 3-6

    CERN Document Server

    Steglich, Mathias; Johnson, Anatoly; Maier, John P

    2015-01-01

    Electronic transitions of jet-cooled FeC$_n$ clusters ($n = 3 - 6$) were measured between 230 and 300 nm by a mass-resolved 1+1 resonant two-photon ionization technique. Rotational profiles were simulated based on previous calculations of ground state geometries and compared to experimental observations. Reasonable agreement is found for the planar fan-like structure of FeC$_3$. The FeC$_4$ data indicate a shorter distance between the Fe atom and the bent C$_4$ unit of the fan. The transitions are suggested to be $^{3}$A$_{2} \\leftarrow ^{3}$B$_{1}$ for FeC$_3$ and $^{5}$A$_{1} \\leftarrow ^{5}$A$_{1}$ for FeC$_4$. In contrast to the predicted C$_{\\infty \\text{v}}$ geometry, non-linear FeC$_5$ is apparently observed. Line width broadening prevents analysis of the FeC$_6$ spectrum.

  3. An FPGA Implementation of (3,6-Regular Low-Density Parity-Check Code Decoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of their excellent error-correcting performance, low-density parity-check (LDPC codes have recently attracted a lot of attention. In this paper, we are interested in the practical LDPC code decoder hardware implementations. The direct fully parallel decoder implementation usually incurs too high hardware complexity for many real applications, thus partly parallel decoder design approaches that can achieve appropriate trade-offs between hardware complexity and decoding throughput are highly desirable. Applying a joint code and decoder design methodology, we develop a high-speed (3,k-regular LDPC code partly parallel decoder architecture based on which we implement a 9216-bit, rate-1/2(3,6-regular LDPC code decoder on Xilinx FPGA device. This partly parallel decoder supports a maximum symbol throughput of 54 Mbps and achieves BER 10−6 at 2 dB over AWGN channel while performing maximum 18 decoding iterations.

  4. Construction and Test of 3.6 m Nb3Sn Racetrack Coils for LARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderer, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D. W.; Cozzolino, J.; Dietderich, D.R.; Escallier, J.; Feher, S.; Ferracin, P.; Ganetis, G.; Ghosh, A. K.; Gupta, R. C.; Hafalia,, A. R.; Hannaford, C. R.; Joshi, P.; Kovach, P.; Lietzke, A. F.; Lizarazo, J.; Louie, W.; Marone, A.; McInturff, A.D.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Sabbi, G.; Schmalzle, J.; Thomas, R.; Turrioni, D.

    2008-06-01

    Development of high-performance Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles is one of the major goals of the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). As part of this program, long racetrack magnets were made in order to check the fabrication steps for long Nb{sub 3}Sn coils, that the changes in coil length that take place during reaction and cooldown are correctly accounted for in the quadrupole design, and the use of a long aluminum shell for the support structure. This paper reports the construction of the first long Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet with racetrack coils 3.6 m long. The magnet reached a nominal 'plateau' at 9596 A after five quenches. This is about 90% of the estimated conductor limit. The peak field in the coils at this current was 11 T.

  5. Monosilicate adsorption by ferrihydrite and goethite at pH 3-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Raben-Lange, B.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    1994-01-01

    The constant capacitance model and the Elovich equation were combined in the following mathematical expression enabling calculation of the amount of silicic acid adsorbed by iron oxides as a function of the Si concentration, pH, soil:solution ratio, and reaction time: [GRAPHICS] K(a1......) is the protolytic surface constant and K(Si) is the stability constant for the Fe oxide-silicate surface complex; -logK(a1) = 6.40-0.54(8-pH) and logK(Si) = 3.85 for ferrihydrite and goethite. Good agreement was found between calculated Si adsorption and the amount actually found to be adsorbed by synthetic...... ferrihydrite and goethite at different pH (3-6), Si concentration (1-600 muM), solid:solution ratio (1:300, 1:1200) and reaction time (1-480h)....

  6. Study on the Deformation Behavior of Mg-3.6%Er Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The deformation behaviour of a casting Mg-3.6%Er magnesium alloy after T6 treatment was studied in tensile tests from room temperature to 450 ℃ under different strain rates ranging from 1.0×10-4 to 6.0×10-3 s-1.Obtained local plateau in the temperature dependence of the ultimate strength (σ b) and yield strength (σ 0.2) under constant strain rate indicated the presence of dynamic strain ageing (DSA).Serrated flow was observed at the temperature of 200, 250, and 300 ℃.The observed negative strain rate sensitivity suggested that the serrated flow behavior arose from DSA.The temperature and strain rate dependence of the critical strain for the onset of serrated flow was analyzed using a phenomenological DSA equation, and the apparent activation energy Q for the serrated flow was obtained by calculation.

  7. Simulation of electrical discharge in a 3.6 Joule miniature plasma focus device using SIMULINK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Hossein; Habibi, Morteza

    2014-08-01

    A novel technique has been developed and studied in this paper to simulate the electrical discharge circuit of a 3.6 J miniature plasma focus device (PFD) and investigate the effect of inductance variation on voltage spike and current dip. The technique is based on a correlation between the electrical discharge circuit and plasma dynamics in a very small PFD that operates at the energy of 3.6 J. The simulation inputs include the charging voltage, capacitor bank capacitance, current limiter resistance, by-pass resistance as well as the time-dependent inductance and resistance of the plasma sheath which are calculated by assuming the plasma dynamics as transit times in going from one phase to the next. The variations of the most important elements in the circuit (i.e. the constant and breakdown inductances) and their effects on the current dip are studied in PFDs with low and high constant inductance. The model demonstrated for achieving a good pinch in the PFD, although the total inductance of the system should be low; however there is always an optimum inductance which causes an appropriate pinch. Furthermore, the electrical power produced by the pulsed power supply, the mechanical energy as well as the magnetic energy which are transferred into the plasma tube were obtained from simulation. The graph of electrical power demonstrated a high instantaneous increment in the power transferred into the plasma as one of the greatest advantages of the pulsed power supply. The simulation was performed using software tools within the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation environment.

  8. High Spatial Resolution 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology of Impact Melt Breccias from Apollo 17 Boulders at Stations 2, 6, and 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, C. M.; Hodges, K. V.; Jolliff, B. L.; Van Soest, M. C.; Wartho, J. A.; Weirich, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Several boulders located at the bases of the North and South Massifs were among the primary field targets of the Apollo 17 mission to the Taurus-Littrow Valley on the Moon [1]. Some boulders are polylithologic, including Boulder 1 at Station 2 and the boulders at Stations 6 and 7. These boulders were the subjects of consortium studies [2, 3] that included 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to determine the ages of distinct lithologies within each boulder [e.g., 4-6]. We report new 40Ar/39Ar data for the impact melt breccias 72255, 76315, 77075, and 77135 obtained using the UV laser ablation microprobe (UVLAMP) methods of [7]. For 72255, we obtained a preliminary isochron date ca. 3814 Ma from 22 melt analyses, which is younger than published plateau dates (e.g., 3951-3835 Ma [4, 8]). Fifteen melt analyses of 76315 yield a preliminary isochron date ca. 3850 Ma, younger than the 3900 ± 16 Ma date reported by [8]. Melt analyses of 77075 yield preliminary dates between ca. 3797-3584 Ma, possibly reflecting partial loss of 40Ar. In this case, the oldest date may provide a minimum age for the formation of melt in 77075. Finally, the UVLAMP dates for the 77135 melt range from 3810-3361 Ma and corresponding Ca/K ratios range from ca. 100-6. Electron microprobe analyses of small (ca. 10s of microns wide) pockets of K-rich materials show that both K-rich glass and K-feldspar are present. The UVLAMP dates for 77135 likely reflect spatially variable 40Ar loss, consistent with published step heating results [e.g., 6]. References: [1] Schmitt (1973) Science, 182, 681-690. [2] Ryder (1993). Catalog of Apollo 17 Rocks: Volume 1 - Stations 2 and 3 (South Massif). LPI. [3] Ryder (1993). Catalog of Apollo 17 Rocks: Volume 4 - North Massif. LPI. [4] Leich et al. (1975) The Moon, 14, 407-444. [5] Cadogan & Turner (1976). LPSC, 7, 2267-2285. [6] Stettler et al. (1978). LPSC, 9, 1113-1115. [7] Mercer et al. (2015) Sci. Adv., 1, e1400050. [8] Dalrymple & Ryder (1996). JGR, 101, 26069-26084.

  9. Conifer health classification for Colorado, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Curry, Stacy E.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Colorado has undergone substantial changes in forests due to urbanization, wildfires, insect-caused tree mortality, and other human and environmental factors. The U.S. Geological Survey Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center evaluated and developed a methodology for applying remotely-sensed imagery for assessing conifer health in Colorado. Two classes were identified for the purposes of this study: healthy and unhealthy (for example, an area the size of a 30- x 30-m pixel with 20 percent or greater visibly dead trees was defined as ?unhealthy?). Medium-resolution Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper imagery were collected. The normalized, reflectance-converted, cloud-filled Landsat scenes were merged to form a statewide image mosaic, and a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Renormalized Difference Infrared Index (RDII) were derived. A supervised maximum likelihood classification was done using the Landsat multispectral bands, the NDVI, the RDII, and 30-m U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset (NED). The classification was constrained to pixels identified in the updated landcover dataset as coniferous or mixed coniferous/deciduous vegetation. The statewide results were merged with a separate health assessment of Grand County, Colo., produced in late 2008. Sampling and validation was done by collecting field data and high-resolution imagery. The 86 percent overall classification accuracy attained in this study suggests that the data and methods used successfully characterized conifer conditions within Colorado. Although forest conditions for Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) are easily characterized, classification uncertainty exists between healthy/unhealthy Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa), Pi?on (Pinus edulis), and Juniper (Juniperus sp.) vegetation. Some underestimation of conifer mortality in Summit County is likely, where recent (2008) cloud-free imagery was unavailable. These classification uncertainties are primarily due to the spatial and

  10. Environmental Setting and Implications on Water Quality, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.; Driver, Nancy E.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado and Utah is 1 of 60 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, which began full implementation in 1991. Understanding the environmental setting of the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit is important in evaluating water-quality issues in the basin. Natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basin are presented, including an overview of the physiography, climatic conditions, general geology and soils, ecoregions, population, land use, water management and use, hydrologic characteristics, and to the extent possible aquatic biology. These factors have substantial implications on water-quality conditions in the basin. For example, high concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium are present in the natural background water conditions of surface and ground water in parts ofthe basin. In addition, mining, urban, and agricultural land and water uses result in the presence of certain constituents in the surface and ground water of the basin that can detrimentally affect water quality. The environmental setting of the study unit provides a framework of the basin characteristics, which is important in the design of integrated studies of surface water, ground water, and biology.

  11. Quality of life on the Colorado Plateau: a report to the respondents in southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponds, Phadrea

    2001-01-01

    During the fall of 1998, scientists from the Midcontinent Ecological Science Center (MESC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) a?? sent a survey by mail to residents in southwest Colorado and northwest New Mexico to better understand quality of life issues in this area of the Colorado Plateau. Collaborators in this study included the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service offices located in Durango, Colorado. The information was collected to determine: *what elements of the community and surrounding landscapes contribute to the quality of like among resident populations, and *what critical areas, elements, and special places are essential to retain quality of life.

  12. High elaeophorosis prevalence among harvested Colorado moose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVan, Ivy K; Fox, Karen A; Miller, Michael W

    2013-07-01

    Infection with Elaeophora schneideri, a filarial parasite, occurs commonly in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), but seemingly less so in moose (Alces alces). Of 109 carotid artery samples from moose harvested throughout Colorado, USA, in 2007, 14 (13%; 95% binomial confidence interval [bCI]=7-21%) showed gross and 91 (83%; 95% bCI=75-90%) showed histologic evidence of elaeophorosis. Although neither blindness nor other clinical signs associated with elaeophorosis were reported among the harvested moose we examined, the pervasiveness of this parasite may motivate further study of the potential effects of elaeophorosis on moose survival and population performance in the southern Rocky Mountains. Our data suggest histopathology may be more sensitive than gross examination in detecting elaeophorosis in harvested moose.

  13. SANGRE DE CRISTO WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce R.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys were undertaken of a wilderness study area which includes most of the Sangre de Cristo Range of south-central Colorado. Four areas of probable mineral-resource potential for gold, silver, and base metals lie along a northwest structural trend which follows the western margin of the range north of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument and crosses the range south of the monument. An area of probable mineral-resource potential for similar minerals plus tungsten has been identified east of Blanca Peak at the extreme southern end of the study area. Another area of probable mineral-resource potential includes molybdenum mineralization associated with the Rito Alto stock. A small area of probable geothermal resource potential exists on the west side of the area around the Valley View Hot Springs. There is little promise for the occurrence of oil and gas resources.

  14. US hydropower resource assessment for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE, menu-driven software application. HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Colorado.

  15. Ecosystem trends in the Colorado Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T. J.; Baron, J. S.; Kittel, T. G. F.; Binkley, D.

    1995-01-01

    Biological conservation is increasingly moving toward an ecosystem and landscape approach, recognizing the prohibitive cost and difficulty of a species-by-species approach (LaRoe 1993). Also, statewide (e.g., Gap Analysis Program) and national surveys (e.g., Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program or EMAP) are conducted at a scale and level of resolution that do not meet the needs of most small land-management units that require detailed information at the ecosystem and landscape scale (Stohlgren 1994). The Colorado Rockies are an ideal outdoor laboratory for ecosystem science and management. The escalating environmental threats described in this article compelled us to design a landscape-scale assessment of the status and trends of biotic resources.

  16. Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the development of the Ponnequin Wind Energy Project in Colorado. This EA and public comments received on it will be used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the project. This document provides a detailed description of the proposed project and an assessment of potential impacts associated with its construction and operations. Resources and conditions considered in the analysis include streams; wetlands; floodplains; water quality; soils; vegetation; air quality; socioeconomic conditions; energy resources; noise; transportation; cultural resources; visual and land use resources; public health and safety; wildlife; threatened, endangered, and candidate species; and cumulative impacts. The analysis found that the project would have minimal impacts on these resources and conditions, and would not create impacts that exceed the significance criteria defined in this document. 90 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Geology of the area adjacent to the Free Enterprise uranium-silver Mine, Boulder District, Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W.A.; Gude, A.J.

    1952-01-01

    Uranium minerals.occur in pods associated with cryptocrystalline silica, silver minerals, and scattered sulfide mineral grains in a hydrothermal vein that cuts quartz monzonite and alaskite at the Free Enterprise mine, 2 miles west of Boulder, Mont. The Free Enterprise vein is one of many silicified reef-like structures in this area, most of which trend about N. 60° E. The cryptocrystalline silica zones of the area are lenticular and are bordered by an altered zone where quartz monzonite is the wall rock. No alteration was noticed where alaskite is adjacent to silica zones. No uranium minerals were observed at the surface, but radioactivity anomalies were noted at 57 outcrops. Underground mining has shown that leaching by downward percolating waters has removed most of the uranium from the near-surface part of the Free Enterprise vein and probably has enriched slightly, parts of the vein and the adjacent wall rock from the bottom of the leached zone to the ground-water level. It is possible that other veins that show low to moderate radioactivity at the surface may contain significant concentrations of uranium minerals at relatively shallow depth. The quartz monzonite appears to be a more favorable host rock for the cryptocrystalline silica and associated uranium minerals than the alaskite. The alaskite occurs as vertical_dikes plug-like masses, and as irregularly shaped, gently dipping masses that are believed to have been intruded into open fractures formed during the cooling of the quartz monzonite.

  18. Terse messaging and public health in the midst of natural disasters: the case of the Boulder floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jeannette; League, Cedar; Sellnow, Timothy L; Sellnow, Deanna D

    2015-01-01

    Social media are quickly becoming the channel of choice for disseminating emergency warning messages. However, relatively little data-driven research exists to inform effective message design when using these media. The present study addresses that void by examining terse health-related warning messages sent by public safety agencies over Twitter during the 2013 Boulder, CO, floods. An examination of 5,100 tweets from 52 Twitter accounts over the course of the 5-day flood period yielded several key conclusions and implications. First, public health messages posted by local emergency management leaders are most frequently retweeted by organizations in our study. Second, emergency public health messages focus primarily on drinking water in this event. Third, terse messages can be designed in ways that include imperative/instructional and declarative/explanatory styles of content, both of which are essential for promoting public health during crises. These findings demonstrate that even terse messages delivered via Twitter ought to provide information about the hazard event, its impact, and actionable instructions for self-protection.

  19. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: Colorado Roadless Rule

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www that depicts the boundaries of Roadless Areas designated by the Colorado Roadless Rule of 2012 and managed by the US Forest...

  20. Final Critical Habitat for the Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata) occur based on the description provided...

  1. The Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area, 2000 (cpstdyg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area. The study area outline was drawn on the county lines that most closely outline the...

  2. Colorado cultural resource survey: Management data form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Lewis children graves (site # 5JA1478) on...

  3. Photographs of historical mining operations in Colorado and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A collection of photographs of mine sites, mining operations, and tailings taken prior to 1980 at a variety of sites throughout Colorado and Utah. A database of...

  4. Mahogany Ledge Digital Line Outcrop of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mahogany ledge outcrop was needed to limit resource calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil Shale Assessment.

  5. Final Critical Habitat for the Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) occur based on the description provided...

  6. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  7. Vomiting Disorder on Rise in Weed-Friendly Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162895.html Vomiting Disorder on Rise in Weed-Friendly Colorado Doctors say problem may become more ... Jan. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Long-term heavy marijuana use can cause chronic vomiting and abdominal pain ...

  8. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  9. Mean-annual erosion potential for Colorado and New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Data Series provides raster data representing an estimate of the mean-annual erosion potential of a 30-meter raster cell in Colorado and...

  10. Colorado cultural resource survey: Management data form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Allard Ranch (site # 5JA784, temporary #...

  11. Final Critical Habitat for the Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) occur based on the description provided...

  12. Final Critical Habitat for the Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata) occur based on the description provided...

  13. Corbiculae fluminea as a bioindicator on the Lower Colorado River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tissue samples from Asiatic clam (Corbimla fluminea) from the lower Colorado River were analyzed for trace element concentrations. Selenium and arsenic were elevated...

  14. Strath terraces on the western High Plains indicate climatically-driven variations in sediment supply from source basins in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M. A.; Dühnforth, M.; Anderson, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Large strath terraces adjacent to the Colorado Front Range record the local history of fluvial planation and incision into the erodible rocks of the Denver basin over the last 2 million years. Terrace surfaces have been correlated into ~6 alluvial units using elevation and soil development; each alluvial unit was thought to represent a fairly consistent elevation of the Denver basin during various stages of exhumation, driven by base-level fall of the South Platte River. Here we show instead that (1) strath terraces in the western High Plains cannot be correlated based on elevation alone and (2) exhumation of the Denver basin is likely spatially and temporally variable due to climatically-driven variations in sediment supply from the source basins. We collected samples for cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) profiles (10Be and 26Al) and a soil chronosequence from three strath terraces adjacent to Lefthand Creek near Boulder, CO. 10Be profile data on the upper- and middle-elevation terraces yield dates of 95 ka and 91 ka; these dates are much younger than the correlative alluvial units to the south of Boulder, which date to 1.5 Ma and 250 ka, respectively. Soils on the upper and middle terraces are similar in soil development and clast weathering, consistent with the narrow time window obtained from CRN dating of the two units. 10Be-derived rates for catchment-wide paleo-denudation are ~8.0 cm/ka from the flat and broad upper-terrace gravels and ~3.5 cm/ka from the steeper and narrower middle-terrace gravels. Young terraces at Lefthand Canyon are more consistent with a model of fluvial incision and aggradation driven by climate-controlled variations in sediment production from source basins in the Front Range. High catchment-wide denudation rates generate a high sediment supply, leading to aggradation and lateral planation. Terrace sediments are likely deposited and eroded multiple times during periods of lateral planation; the most recent occupation is preserved in the

  15. Widespread Plains Volcanism on Mercury Ended by 3.6 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, P. K.; Ostrach, L. R.; Fassett, C.; Chapman, C. R.; Evans, A. J.; Klimczak, C.; Banks, M. E.; Head, J. W., III; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The largest volcanic plains deposits on Mercury are situated in its northern hemisphere and include the extensive northern smooth plains and the Caloris interior plains. Crater size-frequency analyses have shown that both deposits were emplaced around 3.8 Ga, for any of the published model production function (MPF) chronologies for impact crater formation on Mercury. The largest volcanic deposit in the southern hemisphere, the Rembrandt interior plains, has a model age of ~3.7 Ga. To test the hypothesis that all major volcanic smooth plains on Mercury were emplaced at about the same time, we determined crater size-frequency distributions for nine additional deposits (see Table 1). The diameters of craters that superpose the smooth plains at each site were measured with CraterTools, yielding crater areal densities in terms of N(10), the number of craters ≥10 km in diameter per 106 km2 area (Table 1). Our crater density measurements span N(10) values of 29-146, a range that encompasses corresponding values for the larger areas of smooth plains. With CraterStats, we fit our data (for craters ≥4 km in diameter) to the MPF chronologies of Le Feuvre and Wieczorek. For porous scaling, the model ages of all nine sites span a narrow window (Table 1). Non-porous scaling fails to match the crater size-frequency distributions. We show that widespread plains volcanism, likely the primary process by which Mercury's crust developed, had ended by 3.6 Ga. Younger volcanic deposits have been identified on the planet, but only within impact structures and at volumes much less than the smallest deposit considered here. Superposition relations between shortening landforms and craters on Mercury indicate that global contraction in response to interior cooling was underway by ~3.6 Ga. The cessation of widespread plains volcanism on Mercury may therefore reflect the onset of a stress state within the planet's lithosphere that inhibited magma ascent. Conversely, mantle thermochemical

  16. Activation of caspases-3, -6, and -9 during finasteride treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozec, Aline; Ruffion, Alain; Decaussin, Myriam; Andre, Jean; Devonec, Marian; Benahmed, Mohamed; Mauduit, Claire

    2005-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) results from an increase in both epithelial and stromal compartments of the human prostate. Although inhibitors of 5alpha-reductase such as finasteride have been shown to reduce the size of BPH tissues by inducing apoptosis, their mechanisms of action still remain unknown. The present study supports that such a process triggered by finasteride is caspase dependent with a possible involvement of two effector caspases (caspase-3 and 6) and two initiator caspases (caspase-8 and 9). Indeed, by using tissues from patients affected by BPH and treated by finasteride (5 mg/d) for 2-3, 6-8, or 27-32 d, we observed that the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor induced apoptosis in epithelial cells (evaluated through cell number positive for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling) as early as 2-3 d of treatment, with a maximal activity (250-fold increase, P 8 d of treatment. However, after 27-32 d of treatment, the number of apoptotic cells was reduced and was close to control. Caspases-3, -6, -8, and -9 were immunolocalized to (basal and secretory) epithelial cells and to a lesser extent to stromal cells. Activated caspase-3 immunoexpression was restricted to epithelial secretory cells, and its immunostaining intensity appeared to be higher in BPH tissues from patients treated for 2-3 or 6-8 d. Consistently, in Western blotting analyses, activated caspases-3 and -6 were detected as early as 2-3 d of treatment in BPH tissues, and their levels were increased after 6-8 d of treatment. In real time quantitative PCR experiments, caspase-3 and -6 mRNA levels were found to be unchanged after finasteride treatment. Activated caspase-8 was not detected in the different conditions tested, whereas activated caspase-9 protein levels were maximally enhanced after 2-3 d of finasteride treatment. In conclusion, we report here that finasteride treatment of BPH tissues induced a caspase-dependent apoptotic process

  17. Water-quality trends for selected sites in the Boulder River and Tenmile Creek watersheds, Montana, based on data collected during water years 1997-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Clark, Melanie L.; Cleasby, Thomas E.; Barnhart, Elliott P.

    2015-01-01

    In the Boulder River and Tenmile Creek watersheds in southwestern Montana, there was intensive mining during a 40-year period after the discovery of gold in the early 1860s. Potential effects from the historic mining activities include acid-mine drainage and elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements from mining remnants such as waste rock and tailing piles. In support of remediation efforts, water-quality monitoring by the U.S. Geological Survey began in 1997 in the Boulder River and Tenmile Creek watersheds and has continued to present (2014). The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, investigated temporal trends in water quality at 13 sites, including 2 adit (or mine entrance) sites and 11 stream sites. The primary purpose of this report is to present results of trend analysis of specific conductance, selected trace-elements (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, and arsenic), and suspended sediment for the 13 sites.

  18. Raton basin coalbed methane production picking up in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemborg, H. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Coalbed methane production in the Raton basin of south-central Colorado and northeast New Mexico has gone over pilot testing and entered the development stage which is expected to last several years. The development work is restricted to roughly a 25 mile by 15 mile wide `fairway' centered about 20 miles west of Trinidad, Colorado. At last count, 85 wells were producing nearly 17.5 MMcfd of coalbed methane from the basin's Raton and Vermejo formation coals.

  19. The Colorado Plateau II : Biophysical, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Research

    OpenAIRE

    Van Riper, Charles; Mattson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract from GoogleBooks: The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by again focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through graz...

  20. Barriers to Enrollment in Health Coverage in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laurie T; Bharmal, Nazleen; Blanchard, Janice C; Harvey, Melody; Williams, Malcolm

    2015-03-20

    As part of the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, Colorado has expanded Medicaid and also now operates its own health insurance exchange for individuals (called Connect for Health Colorado). As of early 2014, more than 300,000 Coloradans have newly enrolled in Medicaid or health insurance through Connect for Health Colorado, but there also continues to be a diverse mix of individuals in Colorado who remain eligible for but not enrolled in either private insurance or Medicaid. The Colorado Health Foundation commissioned the RAND Corporation to conduct a study to better understand why these individuals are not enrolled in health insurance coverage and to develop recommendations for how Colorado can strengthen its outreach and enrollment efforts during the next open enrollment period, which starts in November 2014. RAND conducted focus groups with uninsured and newly insured individuals across the state and interviews with local stakeholders responsible for enrollment efforts in their regions. The authors identified 11 commonly cited barriers, as well as several that were specific to certain regions or populations (such as young adults and seasonal workers). Collectively, these barriers point to a set of four priority recommendations that stakeholders in Colorado may wish to consider: (1) Support and expand localized outreach and tailored messaging; (2) Strengthen marketing and messaging to be clear, focused on health benefits of insurance (rather than politics and mandates), and actionable; (3) Improve the clarity and transparency of insurance and health care costs and enrollment procedures; and (4) Revisit the two-stage enrollment process and improve Connect for Health Colorado website navigation and technical support.

  1. The Colorado Plateau II : Biophysical, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Research

    OpenAIRE

    Van Riper, Charles; Mattson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract from GoogleBooks: The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by again focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through graz...

  2. Mitochondria targeted peptides protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lichuan; Zhao, Kesheng; Calingasan, Noel Y; Luo, Guoxiong; Szeto, Hazel H; Beal, M Flint

    2009-09-01

    A large body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). A number of antioxidants have been effective in animal models of PD. We have developed a family of mitochondria-targeted peptides that can protect against mitochondrial swelling and apoptosis (SS peptides). In this study, we examined the ability of two peptides, SS-31 and SS-20, to protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity in mice. SS-31 produced dose-dependent complete protection against loss of dopamine and its metabolites in striatum, as well as loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta. SS-20, which does not possess intrinsic ability in scavenging reactive oxygen species, also demonstrated significant neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons of MPTP-treated mice. Both SS-31 and SS-20 were very potent (nM) in preventing MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium)-induced cell death in cultured dopamine cells (SN4741). Studies with isolated mitochondria showed that both SS-31 and SS-20 prevented MPP+-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption and ATP production, and mitochondrial swelling. These findings provide strong evidence that these neuroprotective peptides, which target both mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage, are a promising approach for the treatment of PD.

  3. Characterization of friction in the 3.6m Devasthal optical telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, T. S.; Bastin, Christian; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present the work on characterization of friction in the 3.6 m Devasthal optical telescope axes. The telescope azimuth axis is supported on a hydrostatic bearing while the altitude and rotator axes are supported on hydrodynamic bearings. Both altitude and azimuth axes are driven directly by high power BLDC motors and the rotator is driven by BLDC motor via a gearbox. This system is designed by AMOS, Belgium and tuned to achieve a tracking accuracy better than 0.1 arcsec RMS. Friction poses control related problems at such low speeds hence it is important to periodically characterize the behaviour at each axes. Compensation is necessary if the friction behaviour changes over the time and starts dominating the overall system response. For identifying friction each axis of telescope is rotated at different constant speeds and speed versus torque maps are generated. The LuGre model for friction is employed and nonlinear optimization is performed to identify the four static parameters of friction. The behaviour of friction for each axis is presented and the results are discussed.

  4. 6th Dysferlin Conference, 3-6 April 2013, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Douglas E; Rufibach, Laura E; Williams, Bradley A; Lee, Elaine R; Windish, Hillarie P; Hwang, Esther Y; Shira, Sarah R; Mittal, Plavi

    2014-03-01

    The 2013 Dysferlin Conference, sponsored and organized by the Jain Foundation, was held from April 3-6, 2013 in Arlington, VA. Participants included 34 researcher speakers, 5 dysferlinopathy patients and all 8 members of the Jain Foundation team. Dysferlinopathy is a rare disease that typically robs patients of mobility during their second or third decade of life. The goals of these Dysferlin Conferences are to bring experts in the field together so that they will collaborate with one another, to quicken the pace of understanding the biology of the disease and to build effective platforms to ameliorate disease. This is important because the function of dysferlin and how to compensate for its absence is still not well understood, in spite of the fact that the dysferlin gene was identified more than a decade ago. The objective of this conference, therefore, was to share and discuss the newest unpublished research defining the role of dysferlin in skeletal muscle, why its absence causes muscular dystrophy and possible therapies for dysferlin-deficient muscular dystrophy patients.

  5. 3,6-bis(3-alkylguanidino)acridines as DNA-intercalating antitumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plsikova, Jana; Janovec, Ladislav; Koval, Jan; Ungvarsky, Jan; Mikes, Jaromir; Jendzelovsky, Rastislav; Fedorocko, Peter; Imrich, Jan; Kristian, Pavol; Kasparkova, Jana; Brabec, Viktor; Kozurkova, Maria

    2012-11-01

    A series of 3,6-bis(3-alkylguanidino) acridines was prepared and the interaction of these novel compounds with calf thymus DNA was investigated with UV-vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy, in addition to DNA melting techniques. The binding constants K were estimated to range from 1.25 to 5.26 × 10(5) M(-1), and the percentage of hypochromism was found to be 17-42% (from spectral titration). UV-vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements indicated that the compounds act as effective DNA-intercalating agents. Electrophoretic separation proved that ligands 6a-e relaxed topoisomerase I at a concentration of 60 μM, although only those with longer alkyl chains were able to penetrate cell membranes and suppress cell proliferation effectively. The biological activity of novel compounds was assessed using different techniques (cell cycle distribution, phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase-3 activation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential) and demonstrated mostly transient cytostatic action of the ethyl 6c and pentyl 6d derivatives. The hexyl derivative 6e proved to be the most cytotoxic. Different patterns of cell penetration were also observed for individual derivatives. Principles of molecular dynamics were applied to explore DNA-ligand interactions at the molecular level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Crystal structure of monomeric photosystem II from Thermosynechococcus elongatus at 3.6-a resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broser, Matthias; Gabdulkhakov, Azat; Kern, Jan; Guskov, Albert; Müh, Frank; Saenger, Wolfram; Zouni, Athina

    2010-08-20

    The membrane-embedded photosystem II core complex (PSIIcc) uses light energy to oxidize water in photosynthesis. Information about the spatial structure of PSIIcc obtained from x-ray crystallography was so far derived from homodimeric PSIIcc of thermophilic cyanobacteria. Here, we report the first crystallization and structural analysis of the monomeric form of PSIIcc with high oxygen evolution capacity, isolated from Thermosynechococcus elongatus. The crystals belong to the space group C222(1), contain one monomer per asymmetric unit, and diffract to a resolution of 3.6 A. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the PSIIcc-monomer crystals exhibit less anisotropy (dependence of resolution on crystal orientation) compared with crystals of dimeric PSIIcc, and the packing of the molecules within the unit cell is different. In the monomer, 19 protein subunits, 35 chlorophylls, two pheophytins, the non-heme iron, the primary plastoquinone Q(A), two heme groups, 11 beta-carotenes, 22 lipids, seven detergent molecules, and the Mn(4)Ca cluster of the water oxidizing complex could be assigned analogous to the dimer. Based on the new structural information, the roles of lipids and protein subunits in dimer formation of PSIIcc are discussed. Due to the lack of non-crystallographic symmetry and the orientation of the membrane normal of PSIIcc perpendicular ( approximately 87 degrees ) to the crystallographic b-axis, further information about the structure of the Mn(4)Ca cluster is expected to become available from orientation-dependent spectroscopy on this new crystal form.

  7. A Heterobimetallic Anionic 3,6-Connected 2D Coordination Polymer Based on Nitranilate as Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Benmansour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to synthesize new coordination polymers with original architectures and interesting magnetic properties, we used the nitranilate ligand (C6O4(NO222− = C6N2O82−, derived from the dianionic ligand dhbq2− (2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone = H2C6O42−. The use of this bis-bidentate bridging ligand led to [(DAMS2{FeNa(C6N2O83}·CH3CN]n (1 (DAMS+ = C16H17N2+ = 4-[4-(dimethylamino-α-styryl]-1-methylpyridinium, a 2D heterometallic coordination polymer presenting an unprecedented structure for any anilato-based compound. This structural type is a 3,6-connected 2D coordination polymer derived from the well-known honeycomb hexagonal structure, where Fe(III ions alternate with Na+ dimers (as Na2O12 units in the vertices of the hexagons and with an additional [Fe(C6N2O83]3− anion located in the center of the hexagons connecting the three Na+ dimers. The magnetic properties of compound 1 show the presence of paramagnetic isolated high spin Fe(III complexes with a zero field splitting, |D| = 8.5 cm−1.

  8. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado State fiscal year 1994. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994 (1 July 1993 through 30 June 1994). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. Information on wages, taxes, and subcontract expenditures in combination with estimates and economic multipliers is used to estimate the dollar economic benefits to Colorado during the state fiscal year. Finally, the fiscal year 1994 estimates are compared to fiscal year 1993 employment and economic information.

  9. Geomorphology and weathering characteristics of erratic boulder trains on Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America: Implications for dating of glacial deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvill, Christopher M.; Bentley, Michael J.; Stokes, Chris R.

    2015-01-01

    Erratic boulder trains (EBTs) are a useful glacial geomorphological feature because they reveal former ice flow trajectories and can be targeted for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating. However, understanding how they are transported and deposited is important because this has implications for palaeoglaciological reconstructions and the pre-exposure and/or erosion of the boulders. In this study, we review previous work on EBTs, which indicates that they may form subglacially or supraglacially but that large angular boulders transported long distances generally reflect supraglacial transport. We then report detailed observations of EBTs from Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America, where their characteristics provide a useful framework for the interpretation of previously published cosmogenic nuclide exposure dates. We present the first comprehensive map of the EBTs and analyse their spatial distribution, size, and physical appearance. Results suggest that they were produced by one or more supraglacial rock avalanches in the Cordillera Darwin and were then transported supraglacially for 100 s of kilometres before being deposited. Rock surface weathering analysis shows no significant difference in the weathering characteristics of a sequence of EBTs, previously hypothesized to be of significantly different age (i.e., different glacial cycles). We interpret this to indicate that the EBTs are much closer in age than previous work has implied. This emphasises the importance of understanding EBT formation when using them for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating.

  10. International conference on quantum simulators and design, hiroshima, Japan, 3-6 december 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Oguchi, Tamio

    2007-09-12

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter comprises selected papers from the 1st International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design (QSD2006) held in Hiroshima, Japan, 3-6 December 2006. This conference was organized under the auspices of the Development of New Quantum Simulators and Quantum Design Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT), and Hiroshima University Quantum design is a computational approach to the development of new materials with specified properties and functionalities. The basic ingredient is the use of quantum simulations to design a material that meets a given specification of properties and functionalities. For this to be successful, the quantum simulation should be highly reliable and be applicable to systems of realistic size. A central interest is, therefore, the development of new methods of quantum simulation and quantum design. This includes methods beyond the local density approximation of density functional theory (LDA), order-N methods, methods dealing with excitations and reactions, and so on, as well as the application of these methods to the design of new materials and devices. The field of quantum design has developed rapidly in the past few years and this conference provides an international forum for experimental and theoretical researchers to exchange ideas. A total of 183 delegates from 8 countries participated in the conference. There were 18 invited talks, 16 oral presentations and 100 posters. There were many new ideas and we foresee dramatic progress in the coming years. The 2nd International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design will be held in Tokyo, Japan, 31 May-3 June 2008.

  11. Neurotoxic mechanism of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetradropyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiulan Yang; Jingzhong Zhang; Qunyuan Xu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To summarize the metabolic pathway of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetradropyridine (MPTP)and its mechanism in inducing Parkinson disease.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of Medline database was undertaken to identify articles about the metabolic pathway of MPTP and its mechanism in inducing Parkinson disease published in English between January 1996 and August 2004, the keywords were "MPTP, Parkinson disease". Meanwhile, Chinese relevant articles published between January 2000 and August 2004 were searched in Wanfang database with the keywords of "MPTP, Parkinson disease".STUDY SELECTION: More than 300 relevant literatures were retrieved, and the full-texts were further searched, those about the establishment of animal models, molecular mechanism of MPTP neurotoxicity and the metabolism were selected, and the obviously repetitive ones, case report and reviews were excluded, finally 18 of them were selected for summarization.DATA EXTRACTION: The 18 literatures were categorized according to MPTP induced animal models of Parkinson disease, mechanism of MPTP in inducing apoptosis in models of Parkinson disease, role of dopamine in the neurotoxic mechanism of MPTP, the role of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in the neurotoxicity of MPTP.DATA SYNTHESTS: Animal models of Parkinson disease induced by MPTP can not only produce the clinical characters of Parkinson disease, also duplicate the main biochemical and pathological changes of Parkinson disease. The metabolic pathway of MPTP and its mechanism in inducing Parkinson disease included producing free oxygen and nitric oxide, damaging mitochondrial respiratory chain, and inducing apoptosis, etc. Which could all lead to the degeneration and loss of dopaminergic neurons.CONCLUSTON: Although some aspects of the models of Parkinson disease are different from that in human beings, we can still know the neurodegeneration of Parkinson disease through studying the molecular mechanism of MPTP.

  12. Comparing sea ice, hydrography and circulation between NEMO3.6 LIM3 and LIM2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uotila, Petteri; Iovino, Doroteaciro; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Lensu, Mikko; Rousset, Clement

    2017-03-01

    A set of hindcast simulations with the new version 3.6 of the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) ocean-ice model in the ORCA1 configuration and forced by the DRAKKAR Forcing Set version 5.2 (DFS5.2) atmospheric data was performed from 1958 to 2012. Simulations differed in their sea-ice component: the old standard version Louvain-la-Neuve Sea Ice Model (LIM2) and its successor LIM3. Main differences between these sea-ice models are the parameterisations of sub-grid-scale sea-ice thickness distribution, ice deformation, thermodynamic processes, and sea-ice salinity. Our main objective was to analyse the response of the ocean-ice system sensitivity to the change in sea-ice physics. Additional sensitivity simulations were carried out for the attribution of observed differences between the two main simulations.In the Arctic, NEMO-LIM3 compares better with observations by realistically reproducing the sea-ice extent decline during the last few decades due to its multi-category sea-ice thickness. In the Antarctic, NEMO-LIM3 more realistically simulates the seasonal evolution of sea-ice extent than NEMO-LIM2. In terms of oceanic properties, improvements are not as evident, although NEMO-LIM3 reproduces a more realistic hydrography in the Labrador Sea and in the Arctic Ocean, including a reduced cold temperature bias of the Arctic Intermediate Water at 250 m. In the extra-polar regions, the oceanographic conditions of the two NEMO-LIM versions remain relatively similar, although they slowly drift apart over decades. This drift is probably due to a stronger deep water formation around Antarctica in LIM3.

  13. Dental erosion among children aged 3-6 years and its associated indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dan-Ying; Hao, Gu; Lu, Hai-Xia; Tian, Yu; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the status quo of dental erosion in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai. A stratified, cluster, multistage random sampling methods was applied to 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai in 2012. Both questionnaire and clinical oral examination were performed in the survey. The questionnaire included general information, such as age, gender, parental education, dietary habit, oral health behavior, general medical health, and socioeconomic status. The clinical examination focused on the eroded tooth surface and dental erosion extent. SPSS v19.0 software package was utilized for statistical analysis. A total of 1,837 children aged 3-6 years were randomly selected in Shanghai. The overall dental erosion prevalence was 15.1 percent. Among different age groups, a relatively high prevalence of 17.1 percent was found in the 4-year-old group, and a relatively low prevalence of 12.0 percent was observed in the 3-year-old group. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference among the four age groups. The occurrence of dental erosion was influenced by habits of vinegar/coffee/tea consumption, mother's educational background, birthplace, and regurgitation (P erosion prevalence in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai appears to be close to that of other Chinese provinces as well as that observed in most of surveys carried out in different parts of the world. Efforts should be made to raise public awareness about the disease. Moreover, further studies targeted to explore the relationship between dental erosion and risk factors are needed. It is also necessary to establish a unified diagnostic standard for future epidemiological investigations. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  14. A Systematic Survey of Protoclusters at z ~ 3-6 in the CFHTLS Deep Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshikawa, Jun; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Overzier, Roderik; Malkan, Matthew A.; Furusawa, Hisanori; Ishikawa, Shogo; Onoue, Masafusa; Ota, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Niino, Yuu; Uchiyama, Hisakazu

    2016-08-01

    We present the discovery of three protoclusters at z ˜ 3-4 with spectroscopic confirmation in the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Deep Fields. In these fields, we investigate the large-scale projected sky distribution of z ˜ 3-6 Lyman-break galaxies and identify 21 protocluster candidates from regions that are overdense at more than 4σ overdensity significance. Based on cosmological simulations, it is expected that more than 76% of these candidates will evolve into a galaxy cluster of at least a halo mass of 1014 M ⊙ at z = 0. We perform follow-up spectroscopy for eight of the candidates using Subaru/FOCAS, Keck II/DEIMOS, and Gemini-N/GMOS. In total we target 462 dropout candidates and obtain 138 spectroscopic redshifts. We confirm three real protoclusters at z = 3-4 with more than five members spectroscopically identified and find one to be an incidental overdense region by mere chance alignment. The other four candidate regions at z ˜ 5-6 require more spectroscopic follow-up in order to be conclusive. A z = 3.67 protocluster, which has 11 spectroscopically confirmed members, shows a remarkable core-like structure composed of a central small region (<0.5 physical Mpc) and an outskirts region (˜1.0 physical Mpc). The Lyα equivalent widths of members of the protocluster are significantly smaller than those of field galaxies at the same redshift, while there is no difference in the UV luminosity distributions. These results imply that some environmental effects start operating as early as at z ˜ 4 along with the growth of the protocluster structure. This study provides an important benchmark for our analysis of protoclusters in the upcoming Subaru/HSC imaging survey and its spectroscopic follow-up with the Subaru/PFS that will detect thousands of protoclusters up to z ˜ 6.

  15. Geologic map of Colorado National Monument and adjacent areas, Mesa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.; Hood, William C.; Cole, Rex D.; Livaccari, Richard F.; Johnson, James B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Colorado National Monument Quadrangle and adjacent areas, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of and data for the stratigraphy, structure, geologic hazards in the area from the Colorado River in Grand Valley onto the Uncompahgre Plateau. The plateau drops abruptly along northwest-trending structures toward the northeast 800 m to the Redlands area and the Colorado River in Grand Valley. In addition to common alluvial and colluvial deposits, surficial deposits include Holocene and late Pleistocene charcoal-bearing valley-fill deposits, late to middle Pleistocene river-gravel terrace deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene younger, intermediate, and old fan-alluvium deposits, late to middle Pleistocene local gravel deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene rock-fall deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene young and old landslide deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene sheetwash deposits and eolian deposits, and Holocene Cienga-type deposits. Only the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale is exposed in the map area near the Colorado River. The Upper and Lower? Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation form resistant dipslopes in the Grand Valley and a prominent ridge on the plateau. Less resistant strata of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation consisting of the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members form slopes on the plateau and low areas below the mountain front of the plateau. The Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation nomenclature replaces the previously used Summerville Formation. Because an upper part of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Formation is not obviously correlated with strata found elsewhere, it is therefore not formally named; however, the lower rounded cliff former Slickrock Member is clearly present. The Lower Jurassic silica-cemented Kayenta Formation forms the cap rock for the Lower

  16. Trends and variability of midlatitude stratospheric water vapour deduced from the re-evaluated Boulder balloon series and HALOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scherer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an updated trend analysis of water vapour in the lower midlatitude stratosphere from the Boulder balloon-borne NOAA frostpoint hygrometer measurements and from the Halogen Occulation Experiment (HALOE. Two corrections for instrumental bias are applied to homogenise the frostpoint data series, and a quality assessment of all soundings after 1991 is presented. Linear trend estimates based on the corrected data for the period 1980–2000 are up to 40% lower than previously reported. Vertically resolved trends and variability are calculated with a multi regression analysis including the quasi-biennal oscillation and equivalent latitude as explanatory variables. In the range of 380 to 640 K potential temperature (≈14 to 25 km, the frostpoint data from 1981 to 2006 show positive linear trends between 0.3±0.3 and 0.7±0.1%/yr. The same dataset shows trends between −0.2±0.3 and 1.0±0.3%/yr for the period 1992 to 2005. HALOE data over the same time period suggest negative trends ranging from −1.1±0.2 to −0.1±0.1%/yr. In the lower stratosphere, a rapid drop of water vapour is observed in 2000/2001 with little change since. At higher altitudes, the transition is more gradual, with slowly decreasing concentrations between 2001 and 2007. This pattern is consistent with a change induced by a drop of water concentrations at entry into the stratosphere. Previously noted differences in trends and variability between frostpoint and HALOE remain for the homogenised data. Due to uncertainties in reanalysis temperatures and stratospheric transport combined with uncertainties in observations, no quantitative inference about changes of water entering the stratosphere in the tropics could be made with the mid latitude measurements analysed here.

  17. Integrating Infrastructure-Relevant Climate Projections into City Planning: Learning from Boulder CO, Austin TX and Washington DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, A. M. K.; Hayhoe, K.

    2015-12-01

    Over the coming century, climate change has the potential to impact infrastructure in many different ways, particularly in population-dense areas that depend on transportation and built environments. Many of these impacts may occur via changes in the frequency and magnitude of extremes: high and low temperature, heat waves, precipitation, coastal flooding, and storm events. Having a better idea of how the climate might change locally, both within the near future as well as toward the end of the century, can give city planners and engineers guidance when designing new structures and when repairing and fortifying existing components of buildings, bridges, highways, sewers, ports, etc. However, the type of event and the amount of damages that may be incurred are often highly specific to a given location. Over the last 10 years, we have worked with a broad range of cities, states, non-profit organizations, and federal agencies to integrate climate projections into ongoing resiliency, sustainability, and management processes. Drawing on that experience, we describe the broad steps in assimilating climate information into existing decision-making frameworks relevant to most applications, as well as highlighting many of the unique aspects of these analyses using examples from our most recent work with three very different cities - Austin TX, Boulder CO and Washington DC. From initial conversations with local experts to identify relevant thresholds to final integration of projected changes into the planning processes of these cities, these case studies highlight the utility of including future climate projections into infrastructure planning, the challenges to doing so, and the over-arching importance of communication and interaction between infrastructure experts, engineers, and scientists.

  18. Approaches to local climate action in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. D.

    2011-12-01

    Though climate change is a global problem, the impacts are felt on the local scale; it follows that the solutions must come at the local level. Fortunately, many cities and municipalities are implementing climate mitigation (or climate action) policies and programs. However, they face many procedural and institutional barriers to their efforts, such of lack of expertise or data, limited human and financial resources, and lack of community engagement (Krause 2011). To address the first obstacle, thirteen in-depth case studies were done of successful model practices ("best practices") of climate action programs carried out by various cities, counties, and organizations in Colorado, and one outside Colorado, and developed into "how-to guides" for other municipalities to use. Research was conducted by reading documents (e.g. annual reports, community guides, city websites), email correspondence with program managers and city officials, and via phone interviews. The information gathered was then compiled into a series of reports containing a narrative description of the initiative; an overview of the plan elements (target audience and goals); implementation strategies and any indicators of success to date (e.g. GHG emissions reductions, cost savings); and the adoption or approval process, as well as community engagement efforts and marketing or messaging strategies. The types of programs covered were energy action plans, energy efficiency programs, renewable energy programs, and transportation and land use programs. Between the thirteen case studies, there was a range of approaches to implementing local climate action programs, examined along two dimensions: focus on climate change (whether it was direct/explicit or indirect/implicit) and extent of government authority. This benchmarking exercise affirmed the conventional wisdom propounded by Pitt (2010), that peer pressure (that is, the presence of neighboring jurisdictions with climate initiatives), the level of

  19. Puente Río Colorado - Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulka, F.

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado River bridge is located in a 95 m deep canyon, with a 122 m span. To choose the type of bridge, it has been endeavoured to use the largest possible number of national building materials which, together with the difficulty of reaching the site, meant that a series of classical solutions had to be rejected. That of an arch bridge was adopted, with a reversed support on prestressed cables, on which the road passes. The system is based on the hanging bridge principle, but with the rolling track resting on the cables, instead of hanging from them. There is a first cover, made up of prefabricated components, on the cables, which strengthens the bridge's stability. This cover supports three portal-columns, the pillars of the final roadway. The cables were prestressed from the heads of the two sloping pillars. The two side spans were designed with prefabricated T girders.El puente Río Colorado está situado en un cañón de 95 m de profundidad, salvando una luz de 122 m. Para la elección del tipo de puente se ha procurado emplear el mayor número posible de materiales de construcción nacionales, lo que, unido a la dificultad de acceso a la obra, hizo que se rechazaran una serie de soluciones clásicas. Se adoptó la de un puente-arco con un soporte invertido sobre cables pretensados, encima del cual descansa la calzada. El sistema está basado en los principios del puente colgante, pero apoyando el camino de rodadura en los cables, en lugar de colgarlo de ellos. Sobre los cables existe una primera cubierta, integrada por elementos prefabricados, que refuerza la estabilidad del puente. Esta cubierta soporta tres pórticos-columna, pilares de la calzada definitiva. El pretensado de los cables se realizó desde las cabezas de dos pilares inclinados. Los dos vanos laterales se proyectaron con vigas en T prefabricadas.

  20. Loss of the six3/6 controlling pathways might have resulted in pinhole-eye evolution in Nautilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsushi; Yoshida, Masa-aki; Moritaki, Takeya; Okuda, Yuki; Sese, Jun; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Sousounis, Konstantinos; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2013-01-01

    Coleoid cephalopods have an elaborate camera eye whereas nautiloids have primitive pinhole eye without lens and cornea. The Nautilus pinhole eye provides a unique example to explore the module of lens formation and its evolutionary mechanism. Here, we conducted an RNA-seq study of developing eyes of Nautilus and pygmy squid. First, we found that evolutionary distances from the common ancestor to Nautilus or squid are almost the same. Although most upstream eye development controlling genes were expressed in both species, six3/6 that are required for lens formation in vertebrates was not expressed in Nautilus. Furthermore, many downstream target genes of six3/6 including crystallin genes and other lens protein related genes were not expressed in Nautilus. As six3/6 and its controlling pathways are widely conserved among molluscs other than Nautilus, the present data suggest that deregulation of the six3/6 pathway led to the pinhole eye evolution in Nautilus.

  1. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 6.25 km 89 GHz Brightness Temperature (Tb) Polar Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 6.25 km daily sea ice product includes 89.0 GHz brightness temperature averages (daily, ascending, and descending) on a 6.25 km polar...

  2. Colorado air quality impacted by long-range-transported aerosol: a set of case studies during the 2015 Pacific Northwest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, Jessie M.; Neiman, Paul J.; Coleman, Timothy; Senff, Christoph J.; Kirgis, Guillaume; Alvarez, Raul J.; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Biomass burning plumes containing aerosols from forest fires can be transported long distances, which can ultimately impact climate and air quality in regions far from the source. Interestingly, these fires can inject aerosols other than smoke into the atmosphere, which very few studies have evidenced. Here, we demonstrate a set of case studies of long-range transport of mineral dust aerosols in addition to smoke from numerous fires (including predominantly forest fires and a few grass/shrub fires) in the Pacific Northwest to Colorado, US. These aerosols were detected in Boulder, Colorado, along the Front Range using beta-ray attenuation and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and corroborated with satellite-borne lidar observations of smoke and dust. Further, we examined the transport pathways of these aerosols using air mass trajectory analysis and regional- and synoptic-scale meteorological dynamics. Three separate events with poor air quality and increased mass concentrations of metals from biomass burning (S and K) and minerals (Al, Si, Ca, Fe, and Ti) occurred due to the introduction of smoke and dust from regional- and synoptic-scale winds. Cleaner time periods with good air quality and lesser concentrations of biomass burning and mineral metals between the haze events were due to the advection of smoke and dust away from the region. Dust and smoke present in biomass burning haze can have diverse impacts on visibility, health, cloud formation, and surface radiation. Thus, it is important to understand how aerosol populations can be influenced by long-range-transported aerosols, particularly those emitted from large source contributors such as wildfires.

  3. Interdependency of CEACAM-1, -3, -6, and -8 induced human neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skubitz Amy PN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family (CEACAMs are widely expressed, and, depending on the tissue, capable of regulating diverse functions including tumor promotion, tumor suppression, angiogenesis, and neutrophil activation. Four members of this family, CEACAM1, CEACAM8, CEACAM6, and CEACAM3 (recognized by CD66a, CD66b, CD66c, and CD66d mAbs, respectively, are expressed on human neutrophils. CD66a, CD66b, CD66c, and CD66d antibodies each increase neutrophil adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers. This increase in neutrophil adhesion caused by CD66 antibodies is blocked by CD18 mAbs and is associated with upregulation of CD11/CD18 on the neutrophil surface. To examine potential interactions of CEACAMs in neutrophil signaling, the effects on neutrophil adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells of a set of CD66 mAbs was tested following desensitization to stimulation by various combinations of these mAbs. Addition of a CD66 mAb in the absence of calcium results in desensitization of neutrophils to stimulation by that CD66 mAb. The current data show that desensitization of neutrophils to any two CEACAMs results in selective desensitization to those two CEACAMs, while the cells remain responsive to the other two neutrophil CEACAMs. In addition, cells desensitized to CEACAM-3, -6, and -8 were still responsive to stimulation of CEACAM1 by CD66a mAbs. In contrast, desensitization of cells to CEACAM1 and any two of the other CEACAMs left the cells unresponsive to all CD66 mAbs. Cells desensitized to any combination of CEACAMs remained responsive to the unrelated control protein CD63. Thus, while there is significant independence of the four neutrophil CEACAMs in signaling, CEACAM1 appears to play a unique role among the neutrophil CEACAMs. A model in which CEACAMs dimerize to form signaling complexes could accommodate the observations. Similar interactions may occur in other cells expressing CEACAMs.

  4. Reaction of iodomethyltin(IV compounds with (2s-2,5-dihydro-3,6-dimethoxy-2-isopropylpyrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dölling Karin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the Schöllkopf methodology the reaction of (2S-2,5- dihydro-3,6-dimethoxy-2-isopropylpyrazine 1 with iodomethyl trimethylstannane gives (2S,5S-2,5-dihydro-3,6-dimethoxy-5-trimethylstannylmethyl-2- isopropylpyrazine 2 in good yields. The obtained compound was characterized with elemental analysis and multinuclear (1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR spectroscopy.

  5. Multiplex PCR that can distinguish between immunologically cross-reactive serovar 3, 6, and 8 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, L.; Jones, S.C.P.; Angen, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    We describe a highly sensitive and specific multiplex PCR, based on capsular loci and the species specific apxIV gene, that unequivocally differentiates serovar 3, 6, and 8 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains that are cross-reactive in conventional immunological tests.......We describe a highly sensitive and specific multiplex PCR, based on capsular loci and the species specific apxIV gene, that unequivocally differentiates serovar 3, 6, and 8 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains that are cross-reactive in conventional immunological tests....

  6. Preliminary Site Characterization Report, Rulsion Site, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report is a summary of environmental information gathered during a review of the documents pertaining to Project Rulison and interviews with personnel who worked on the project. Project Rulison was part of Operation Plowshare (a program designed to explore peaceful uses for nuclear devices). The project consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device on September 10, 1969, in western Colorado to stimulate natural gas production. Following the detonation, a reentry well was drilled and several gas production tests were conducted. The reentry well was shut-in after the last gas production test and was held in standby condition until the general cleanup was undertaken in 1972. A final cleanup was conducted after the emplacement and testing wells were plugged in 1976. However, some surface radiologic contamination resulted from decontamination of the drilling equipment and fallout from the gas flaring during drilling operations. With the exception of the drilling effluent pond, all surface contamination at the Rulison Site was removed during the cleanup operations. All mudpits and other excavations were backfilled, and both upper and lower drilling pads were leveled and dressed. This report provides information regarding known or suspected areas of contamination, previous cleanup activities, analytical results, a review of the regulatory status, the site`s physical environment, and future recommendations for Project Ruhson. Based on this research, several potential areas of contamination have been identified. These include the drilling effluent pond and mudpits used during drilling operations. In addition, contamination could migrate in the gas horizon.

  7. Birth outcomes in Colorado's undocumented immigrant population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battaglia Catherine

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The birth outcomes of undocumented women have not been systematically studied on a large scale. The growing number of undocumented women giving birth in the United States has important implications for clinical care and public health policy. The objective of this study was to describe birth outcomes of undocumented immigrants in Colorado. Methods Retrospective descriptive study of singleton births to 5961 undocumented women using birth certificate data for 1998–1999. Results Undocumented mothers were younger, less educated, and more likely to be single. They had higher rates of anemia, were less likely to gain enough weight, and less likely to receive early prenatal care. They were much less likely to use alcohol or tobacco. Undocumented women had a lower rate of low birth weight (5.3% v 6.5%, P Conclusion Undocumented women have lower rates of preterm delivery and low birth weight infants, but higher rates of pregnancy related risk factors. Higher prevalence of some risk factors which are amenable to medical intervention reveals the need for improved prenatal care in this group.

  8. Geology of the Gypsum Gap quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Gypsum Gap quadrangle is one eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comparative study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through a arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The core consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  9. Geology of the Davis Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Bryner, Leonid

    1953-01-01

    The Davis Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by hih-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as "Uruvan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  10. Geology of the Anderson Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Withington, C.F.

    1953-01-01

    The Anderson Mesa quadrangle is one of the eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of the southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteenth quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quarternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-tending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive slat and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists of largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  11. Geology of the Hamm Canyon quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Hamm Canyon quadrangle is on eof eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  12. Geology of the Naturita NW quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Vogel, J.D.

    1953-01-01

    The Naturita NW quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles were mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear ro be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  13. US Army hangar, Fort Carson, Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollick, J. [Solar Wall International Ltd., Downsview (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The US Army's first solar-ventilated hangar is located at Fort Carson, Colorado. Fumes from the fuel tanks of up to 30 helicopters stored in the building are displaced with solar-warmed fresh air. A conventional gas-heated ventilation system had been specified, but a value engineering analysis done for the Corps of Engineers showed that a solar-heated ventilation system would be comparable in cost to what was specified, so the design was changed. The fans were installed with the original building in 1992, but the solar cladding system was installed later, in 1995. The panels had to be supplied later as a retrofit project because of scheduling concerns at the time of construction. The solar-transpired collectors cover 725 m{sup 2} of the south wall above the hangar doors and heat 107,000 m{sup 3}/h of ventilation air. Cost savings have been calculated at US $14,000 (ECU 12,600) a year based on energy savings of 974,000 kWh a year. (author)

  14. Dendroclimatic reconstructions for the southern Colorado plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.S.; Funkhouser, G.S. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A geographical network of climate sensitive tree-ring chronologies consisting of 25 archaeological sequences and two bristlecone pine series provides the basis for high resolution reconstructions of low and high frequency climatic variability on the southern Colorado Plateau over the last 1,500 years. Qualitative and quantitative dendroclimatic analyses of these data produce annual retrodictions of yearly and seasonal precipitation and summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices for each station and reconstructions of regional scale patterns in climatic variability. These reconstructions provide detailed information on climatic fluctuations that affected biotic and human populations as well as long-term baseline data for evaluating present-day climate and estimating future climatic trends. When integrated with other measures of past environmental variability, these reconstructions specify periods of favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions that would have affected past human populations of the region. The severest degradation, which occurred between A.D. 1250 and 1450, probably was causally related to numerous cultural changes that occurred at the end of the l3th century including the Anasazi abandonment of the Four Comers area. Projecting environmental patterns that characterized the last two millennia into the future indicates potential hazards to long term uranium mill waste disposal and containment and the potential and limitations of environmental restoration.

  15. Magnetotelluric Data, Southern San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The population of the San Luis Valley region is growing rapidly. The shallow unconfined and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin is the main sources of municipal water for the region. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey, called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifer systems. The primary goal of the MT survey is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock type. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers in the region. This report does not include any interpretation of the data. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at the 22 stations shown in figure 1.

  16. Magnetotelluric Data, San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2008-01-01

    The San Luis Valley region population is growing. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region?s ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The shallow unconfined aquifer and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin are the main sources of municipal water for the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey (called magnetotellurics, or MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. The MT survey primary goal is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock types. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers. This report does not include any data interpretation. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at 24 stations. Two of the stations were collected near Santa Fe, New Mexico, near deep wildcat wells. Well logs from those wells will help tie future interpretations of this data with geologic units from the Santa Fe Group sediments to Precambrian basement.

  17. Unexpected Delivery of Meteoric 10Be to Critical Zone Soils, Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, W. B.; Dethier, D. P.; Bierman, P. R.; Wyshnytsky, C.; Rood, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Using meteoric 10Be in geomorphic studies requires knowing its long-term delivery rate to the earth surface. Delivery rates vary by latitude due to the influence of geomagnetic field intensity and solar activity and locally due to differences in precipitation and rates of dustfall accumulation, which are responsible for depositing primary and recycled meteoric 10Be to geomorphic surfaces, respectively. Because influences on delivery rate vary in space and time, recent studies emphasize the use of inventory sites where the total concentration of meteoric 10Be is measured on stable landforms of known age to determine site-specific, long-term delivery rates. To date, measured long-term delivery rates typically have fallen within the range of expected rates for the site's latitude and modern annual rate of precipitation, including minor contributions of dust to the total inventory of meteoric 10Be. Here, we present the results of a meteoric 10Be inventory measured on a Pinedale (~15 ka) moraine within the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory, Front Range, Colorado. We report a long-term delivery rate of meteoric 10Be for this site of 4.2 to 4.6 × 106 atoms/cm2/yr, significantly higher than the expected delivery rate (1 to 1.3 × 106 atoms/cm2/yr) for it's latitude (40 degrees) and annual precipitation rate (85-95 cm/yr). A detailed analysis of soils in the Front Range (of various age) indicate that long-term dust accumulation rates are less than ~0.1 grams/cm2/kyr and therefore do not significantly influence the total amount of meteoric 10Be delivered to geomorphic surfaces. When applied to measured concentrations of meteoric 10Be in soils within the Gordon Gulch CZO catchment, our high, inventory-based delivery rate suggests that hillslopes are 10 to 40 ka younger (all post-LGM) than suggested by published precipitation based delivery rates. Furthermore, this result, combined with a long-term delivery rate calibrated nearby on the High Plains (1200 m lower in

  18. Lagrangian sampling for emerging contaminants through an urban stream corridor in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J.B.; Battaglin, W.A.; Zuellig, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent national concerns regarding the environmental occurrence of emerging contaminants (ECs) have catalyzed a series of recent studies. Many ECs are released into the environment through discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and other sources. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey and the City of Longmont initiated an investigation of selected ECs in a 13.8-km reach of St. Vrain Creek, Colorado. Seven sites were sampled for ECs following a Lagrangian design; sites were located upstream, downstream, and in the outfall of the Longmont WWTP, and at the mouths of two tributaries, Left Hand Creek and Boulder Creek (which is influenced by multiple WWTP outfalls). Samples for 61 ECs in 16 chemical use categories were analyzed and 36 were detected in one or more samples. Of these, 16 have known or suspected endocrine-disrupting potential. At and downstream from the WWTP outfall, detergent metabolites, fire retardants, and steroids were detected at the highest concentrations, which commonly exceeded 1 ??g/l in 2005 and 2 ??g/l in 2006. Most individual ECs were measured at concentrations less than 2 ??g/l. The results indicate that outfalls from WWTPs are the largest but may not be the sole source of ECs in St. Vrain Creek. In 2005, high discharge was associated with fewer EC detections, lower total EC concentrations, and smaller EC loads in St. Vrain Creek and its tributaries as compared with 2006. EC behavior differed by individual compound, and some differences between sites could be attributed to analytical variability or to other factors such as physical or chemical characteristics or distance from contributing sources. Loads of some ECs, such as diethoxynonylphenol, accumulated or attenuated depending on location, discharge, and distance downstream from the WWTP, whereas others, such as bisphenol A, were largely conservative. The extent to which ECs in St. Vrain Creek affect native fish species and macroinvertebrate communities is unknown, but recent

  19. Temporal and spatial variability of ammonia in urban and agricultural regions of northern Colorado, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Thompson, Tammy M.; Van Damme, Martin; Chen, Xi; Benedict, Katherine B.; Shao, Yixing; Day, Derek; Boris, Alexandra; Sullivan, Amy P.; Ham, Jay; Whitburn, Simon; Clarisse, Lieven; Coheur, Pierre-François; Collett, Jeffrey L., Jr.

    2017-05-01

    Concentrated agricultural activities and animal feeding operations in the northeastern plains of Colorado represent an important source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3). The NH3 from these sources contributes to regional fine particle formation and to nitrogen deposition to sensitive ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), located ˜ 80 km to the west. In order to better understand temporal and spatial differences in NH3 concentrations in this source region, weekly concentrations of NH3 were measured at 14 locations during the summers of 2010 to 2015 using Radiello passive NH3 samplers. Weekly (biweekly in 2015) average NH3 concentrations ranged from 2.66 to 42.7 µg m-3, with the highest concentrations near large concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The annual summertime mean NH3 concentrations were stable in this region from 2010 to 2015, providing a baseline against which concentration changes associated with future changes in regional NH3 emissions can be assessed. Vertical profiles of NH3 were also measured on the 300 m Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tower throughout 2012. The highest NH3 concentration along the vertical profile was always observed at the 10 m height (annual average concentration of 4.63 µg m-3), decreasing toward the surface (4.35 µg m-3) and toward higher altitudes (1.93 µg m-3). The NH3 spatial distributions measured using the passive samplers are compared with NH3 columns retrieved by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite and concentrations simulated by the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). The satellite comparison adds to a growing body of evidence that IASI column retrievals of NH3 provide very useful insight into regional variability in atmospheric NH3, in this case even in a region with strong local sources and sharp spatial gradients. The CAMx comparison indicates that the model does a reasonable job simulating NH3 concentrations near sources but tends to

  20. 76 FR 22686 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... notice that on April 8, 2011, Colorado Interstate Gas Company (CIG), Post Office Box 1087 Colorado..., comprising of Unit Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 at CIG's Lakin Compressor Station (collectively referred to as...

  1. 78 FR 62657 - Notice of Public Meeting, Southwest Colorado Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... November 15, 2013, in Dolores, Colorado. ADDRESSES: The Southwest Colorado RAC meeting will be held November 15, 2013, at the Dolores Public Lands Center, 29211 Highway 184, Dolores, CO 81323. The...

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Colorado. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Colorado.

  3. 77 FR 12580 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado AGENCY: Environmental... the state of Colorado has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program by...

  4. Salinization of the Upper Colorado River - Fingerprinting Geologic Salt Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Salt in the upper Colorado River is of concern for a number of political and socioeconomic reasons. Salinity limits in the 1974 U.S. agreement with Mexico require the United States to deliver Colorado River water of a particular quality to the border. Irrigation of crops, protection of wildlife habitat, and treatment for municipal water along the course of the river also place restrictions on the river's salt content. Most of the salt in the upper Colorado River at Cisco, Utah, comes from interactions of water with rock formations, their derived soil, and alluvium. Half of the salt comes from the Mancos Shale and the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Anthropogenic activities in the river basin (for example, mining, farming, petroleum exploration, and urban development) can greatly accelerate the release of constituents from these geologic materials, thus increasing the salt load of nearby streams and rivers. Evaporative concentration further concentrates these salts in several watersheds where agricultural land is extensively irrigated. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate show the greatest promise for fingerprinting the geologic sources of salts to the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries and estimating the relative contribution from each geologic formation. Knowing the salt source, its contribution, and whether the salt is released during natural weathering or during anthropogenic activities, such as irrigation and urban development, will facilitate efforts to lower the salt content of the upper Colorado River.

  5. It's Not Just About Snowmelt: Ecosystem Fates of N Deposition During Experimental Rainfall in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, E. L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate is changing in the Colorado Front Range, leading to declines in snowpack below 2500 m and a greater proportion of total annual precipitation falling as rain. Several decades of research in alpine ecosystems have demonstrated the links among climate, hydrologic response, and the fate of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition - another driver of ecosystem change. A greater proportion of precipitation that falls as rain will likely affect the patterns and persistence of soil moisture, as well as the fate, availability, and transport of N. To explore these interactions, we conducted tracer experiments in July using 15N-nitrate (NO3-) and lithium bromide (LiBr) during experimental rainfall events (intensity and storm duration with a recurrence interval of 2-5 years) in a high montane catchment within the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory. For four weeks following the application of rainfall and tracers, we measured soil water concentrations of Br-, 15NO3-, and N species daily, followed by recoveries of 15N species in bulk soils and microbial biomass (collections in August and October). We found that hillslope aspect (north- versus south-facing) and position were significant determinants of soil 15N-NO3- recoveries, while soil depth and time since rain event were significant determinants of 15N recovery in the microbial pool. Dry conditions during the growing season led to little movement of tracers in soil solution. Overall, microbial uptake and hydrologic transport of N was greater on the north- than the south-facing slopes. Our results point to the importance of soil properties (e.g., presence/absence of organic horizon, degree of macroporosity), which differ greatly by hillslope aspect, in controlling ecosystem N retention. These findings present an important piece in the story of atmospheric N's fate along the elevation gradient from the plains to the alpine, and highlight that soil organic matter is a significant component of ecosystem N storage in high

  6. The Effects of Climate Change on the Hydrology and Water Resources of the Colorado River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, N.S.; Wood, A.W.; Voisin, N.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Palmer, R.N. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 164 Wilcox Hall, P.O. Box 352700, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2700 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The potential effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Colorado River basin are assessed by comparing simulated hydrologic and water resources scenarios derived from downscaled climate simulations of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Center for Atmospheric Research Parallel Climate Model (PCM) to scenarios driven by observed historical (1950-1999) climate. PCM climate scenarios include an ensemble of three 105-year future climate simulations based on projected 'business-as-usual' (BAU) greenhouse gas emissions and a control climate simulation based on static 1995 greenhouse gas concentrations. Downscaled transient temperature and precipitation sequences were extracted from PCM simulations, and were used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model to produce corresponding streamflow sequences. Results for the BAU scenarios were summarized into Periods 1, 2, and 3 (2010-2039, 2040-2069, 2070-2098). Average annual temperature changes for the Colorado River basin were 0.5C warmer for control climate, and 1.0, 1.7, and 2.4C warmer for Periods 1-3, respectively, relative to the historical climate. Basin-average annual precipitation for the control climate was slightly (1%) less than for observed historical climate, and 3, 6, and 3% less for future Periods 1-3, respectively. Annual runoff in the control run was about 10% lower than for simulated historical conditions, and 14, 18, and 17% less for Periods 1-3, respectively. Analysis of water management operations using a water management model driven by simulated streamflows showed that streamflows associated with control and future BAU climates would significantly degrade the performance of the water resources system relative to historical conditions, with average total basin storage reduced by 7% for the control climate and 36, 32 and 40% for Periods 1-3, respectively. Releases from Glen Canyon Dam to the Lower Basin (mandated by the Colorado

  7. Latinos in Colorado: A Profile of Culture, Changes, and Challenges. Volume V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Georgia, Ed.; Guajardo, Maria, Ed.

    It is projected that the population of Colorado will increase by 25% between 1990 and 2000. The Latino community will experience a slight increase in the proportion of Colorado's population, and will remain the largest ethnic group over the next 30 years. The chapters in this profile describe the Latino population of Colorado. The following essays…

  8. 76 FR 77549 - Colorado River Indian Tribes-Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Colorado River Indian Tribes--Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2... amendment to the Colorado River Tribal Health and Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor, Section 2-403(12). The... liquor ordinances for the purpose of regulating liquor transactions in Indian country. The Colorado...

  9. 77 FR 35617 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies the Colorado Springs, CO, Class C...) information for the City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport. The operating requirements remain the...

  10. 77 FR 32393 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation... date for the amendment of Class E airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO, until September 20, 2012. The FAA is taking this action to allow additional time...

  11. 76 FR 70920 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black Forest Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN) has...

  12. Wood use in Colorado at the turn of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis L. Lynch; Kurt Mackes

    2001-01-01

    This study estimates the kinds, uses, amount, and retail value of wood products consumed annually in Colorado from 1997 to 2000. Colorado uses tremendous amounts of wood products, but it imports most of it from other states and countries despite the abundant forests in Colorado that are capable of providing many types of wood products.

  13. Lasers Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1985. Proceedings of the Symposium on Optical Materials for High-Power Lasers (17th) Held in Boulder, Colorado on October 28-30, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    for governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation hereon. References [1) Smith, W.L.; DeGroot , A.J.; Weber, M.J. Silicon Vidicon...08540. 󈧭 Recognition Concepts, Inc., 924 Incline Way, P.O. Box 8510, Incline Village, NV 89450. K. Fleming, G.R.; Morris , J.M.; Robinson, G.W...Jenssen, R.C. Morris , and E.W. O’Dell, "Tunable Alexandrite Lasers," IEEE J. of Quantum Electron., QE-Ib, 1302, (1980). 2. Report to Allied Corporation

  14. Ferroelectrics Volume 122 Numbers 1-4 1991. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals (3rd) Held in Boulder, Colorado on 23-28 June, 1991, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    another could not be made ready in time for inclusion in these volumes. Such papers will be published in future issues of Ferroelectrics either as...Fot6nica - ETSI Telecomunicaci6n Ciudad Universitaria , 28040 Madrid Spain ABSTRACT An accurate description of spectral and angular optical

  15. Book Review of "Being Brown in Dixie: Race, Ethnicity, and Latino Immigration in the New South" 2011. Boulder, Colorado: FirstForumPress, by Cameron D. Lippard and Charles A. Gallagher, eds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Madsen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Moving with the prospect of employment in the US, there has been an influx of migrants from Latin America since the 1990s that has introduced many populations in the South to unfamiliar neighbors. Consequently, a dimension has been added to the long-existing racial turmoil between whites and blacks in these southern states: a "brown" dimension.

  16. Ferroelectrics Volume 121 Numbers 1-4, 1991. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals (3rd) Held in Boulder, Colorado on 23-28 June 1991. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    discussed. The design of molecules having a zig-zag shape for superior chiral dopants are suggested. INTRODUCTION With increasing interest in the electro...like to thank the Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia of Spain for financial support. REFERENCES Previous papers in the series include: a) D. M. Walba...American institute of Physics and similar manuals. Metric units are preferred. Reffrencee and Notes are indicated in the text by superior numbers: the

  17. Associations between damage location and five main body region injuries of MAIS 3-6 injured occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Youming; Cao, Libo; Kan, Steven

    2014-05-08

    To examine the damage location distribution of five main body region injuries of maximum abbreviated injury score (MAIS) 3-6 injured occupants for nearside struck vehicle in front-to-side impact crashes. MAIS 3-6 injured occupants information was extracted from the US-National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System in the year 2007; it included the head/face/neck, chest, pelvis, upper extremity and lower extremity. Struck vehicle collision damage was classified in a three-dimensional system according to the J224 Collision Deformation Classification of SAE Surface Vehicle Standard. Nearside occupants seated directly adjacent to the struck side of the vehicle with MAIS 3-6 injured, in light truck vehicles-passenger cars (LTV-PC) side impact crashes. Distribution of MAIS 3-6 injured occupants by body regions and specific location of damage (lateral direction, horizontal direction and vertical direction) were examined. Injury risk ratio was also assessed. The lateral crush zone contributed to MAIS 3-6 injured occupants (n=705) and 50th centile injury risks when extended into zone 3. When the crush extended to zone 4, the injury risk ratio of MAIS 3-6 injured occupants approached 81%. The horizontal crush zones contributing to the highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3-6 occupants were zones 'D' and 'Y', and the injury risk ratios were 25.4% and 36.9%, respectively. In contrast, the lowest injury risk ratio was 5.67% caused by zone 'B'. The vertical crush zone which contributed to the highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3-6 occupants was zone 'E', whose injury risk ratio was 58%. In contrast, the lowest injury risk ratio was 0.14% caused by zone 'G+M'. The highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3-6 injured occupants caused by crush intrusion between 40 and 60 cm in LTV-PC nearside impact collisions and the damage region of the struck vehicle was in the zones 'E' and 'Y'.

  18. Oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an in-place assessment of the oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado. The Piceance Basin is one of three large structural and sedimentary basins that contain vast amounts of oil shale resources in the Green River Formation of Eocene age. The other two basins, the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and westernmost Colorado, and the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah also contain large resources of oil shale in the Green River Formation, and these two basins will be assessed separately. Estimated in-place oil is about 1.5 trillion barrels, based on Fischer a ssay results from boreholes drilled to evaluate oil shale, making it the largest oil shale deposit in the world. The estimated in-place nahcolite resource is about 43.3 billion short tons.

  19. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  20. Investigation and analysis of oral bad habits in childrenaged 3 ~ 6 years in Tongling%铜陵市3~6岁儿童口腔不良习惯调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈尚徽; 高红琼; 张娜; 方红英; 陈京栋; 汤银霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence rate of oral bad habits in children of 3 ~ 6 years old. Methods With cluster sampling method,3243 urbanpre school children aged 3 ~ 6 years were randomly chosen asstudy objects,and using self-designed question-naire,their oral bad habits were investigated through a survey of the parents. Results 2147 of 3243 urban childrenaged 3 ~ 6 years had oral bad habits,with incidence rate 66. 2% ;andamong them,121 children had 3 or more oral bad habits,with incidence rate 3. 73%. In each item, the bruxism children added up to 872 cases,accounting for 26. 88% ;secondly,childrenbiting nails,pencil and so on reached 814 cases,ac-counting for 25. 10%. Conclusion Most children of 3 ~ 6 years old in the city of Tongling have oral bad habits,and with the growth of age, the incidence of oral bad habits also increase. It is necessary to strengthen education and intervention of children health care to help children develop good oral habits.%目的:了解铜陵市3~6岁儿童口腔不良习惯的发生情况。方法采用整群抽样法,随机抽取铜陵市城区3243名3~6岁在园儿童,利用自行设计的调查问卷,对儿童家长进行口腔不良习惯的调查。结果3243名3~6岁儿童中,有口腔不良习惯的儿童2147人,发生率66.2%;具有3项或3项以上口腔不良习惯121人,发生率3.73%。在各个分项中,以夜间磨牙的儿童872人最多,占26.88%;其次咬物(指甲、铅笔等)的儿童814人,占25.10%。结论铜陵市3~6岁儿童多数有口腔不良习惯,且随着年龄的增长口腔不良习惯发生率增高。应加强儿童卫生健康教育及干预,帮助孩子养成良好的口腔习惯。

  1. Intracaldera volcanism and sedimentation - Creede Caldera, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Krier, D.; Snow, M.G. [and others

    1997-06-01

    Within the Creede caldera, Colorado, many of the answers to its postcaldera volcanic and sedimentary history lie within the sequence of tuffaceous elastic sedimentary rocks and tuffs known as the Creede Formation. The Creede Formation and its interbedded ash deposits were sampled by research coreholes Creede 1 and 2, drilled during the fall of 1991. In an earlier study of the Creede Formation, based on surface outcrops and shallow mining company coreholes, Heiken and Krier concluded that the process of caldera structural resurgence was rapid and that a caldera lake had developed in an annulus ({open_quotes}moat{close_quotes}) located between the resurgent dome and caldera wall. So far we have a picture of intracaldera activity consisting of intermittent hydrovolcanic eruptions within a caldera lake for the lower third of the Creede Formation, and both magmatic and hydrovolcanic ash eruptions throughout the top two-thirds. Most of the ash deposits interbedded with the moat sedimentary rocks are extremely fine-grained. Ash fallout into the moat lake and unconsolidated ash eroded from caldera walls and the slopes of the resurgent dome were deposited over stream delta distributaries within relatively shallow water in the northwestern moat, and in deeper waters of the northern moat, where the caldera was intersected by a graben. Interbedded with ash beds and tuffaceous siltstones are coarse-grained turbidites from adjacent steep slopes and travertine from fissure ridges adjacent to the moat. Sedimentation rates and provenance for elastic sediments are linked to the frequent volcanic activity in and near the caldera; nearly all of the Creede Formation sedimentary rocks are tuffaceous.

  2. Denitrification in marine shales in northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Bruce, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    Parts of the South Platte River alluvial aquifer in northeastern Colorado are underlain by the Pierre Shale, a marine deposit of Late Cretaceous age that is water in the aquifer is contaminated with NO3/-, and the shale contains abundant potential electron donors for denitrification in the forms of organic carbon and sulfide minerals. Nested piezometers were sampled, pore water was squeezed from cores of shale, and an injection test was conducted to determine if denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3/- and to measure denitrification rates in the shale. Measured values of NO3/-, N2, NH4/+, ??15[NO3/-], ??15N[N2], and ??15N[NH4/+] in the alluvial and shale pore water indicated that denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3/-. Chemical gradients, reaction rate constants, and hydraulic head data indicated that denitrification in the shale was limited by the slow rate of NO3/- transport (possibly by diffusion) into the shale. The apparent in situ first-order rate constant for denitrification in the shale based on diffusion calculations was of the order of 0.04-0.4 yr-1, whereas the potential rate constant in the shale based on injection tests was of the order of 60 yr-1. Chemical data and mass balance calculations indicate that organic carbon was the primary electron donor for denitrification in the shale during the injection test, and ferrous iron was a minor electron donor in the process. Flux calculations for the conditions encountered at the site indicate that denitrification in the shale could remove only a small fraction of the annual agricultural NO3/- input to the alluvial aquifer. However, the relatively large potential first-order rate constant for denitrification in the shale indicated that the percentage of NO3/- uptake by the shale could be considerably larger in areas where NO3/- is transported more rapidly into the shale by advection.

  3. Pattern and mortality in Colorado Desert plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S J; Howe, H F

    1987-10-01

    We tested for intraspecific interference among Colorado Desert shrubs using an integrated analysis of spatial pattern and juvenile mortality. The data set included 7,000 woody perennials of 24 species in a mapped hectare of Joshua Tree National Monument, California. The site is dominated by Ambrosia dumosa (62.0% of the stems), with Larre tridentata a conspicuous secondary species (2.3% of the stems). Analyses of static pattern for common species showed: (1) aggregated adults and juveniles for Ambrosia dumosa, Erigonum fasciculatum, Mirabilis bigelovii, and Sphaeralcea ambigua, with more aggregation among juveniles than adults; (2) randomly distributed adults and juveniles for Krameria grayi, Opuntia rasmosissima, Simondsia chinensis, and Yucca schidigera. The summed volumes and distances between nearest conspecific neighbors were positively correlated for Ambrosia dumosa and Larrea tridentata, but not significantly correlated for eight remaining species with ≥100 individuals. Static pattern suggests only weak evidence for negative interactions in Ambrosia and Larrea, and little evidence for other species. Alternative mechanisms other than negative interaction that could give rise to these static patterns are discussed. Juvenile mortality was documented for four common species (Ambrosia dumosa, Eriogonum fasciculatum, Mirabilis bigelovii, and Sphaeralcea ambigua) that experienced substantial mortality. Analyses show: (1) the proportion of individuals that died was independent of the initial density of conspecifics; (2) distance to conspecific adults did not differ for juveniles that died versus those that survived; and (3) death was no more likely for juveniles that contacted other plants than for those that were isolated. The exception was a vine, Mirabilis bigelovii, whose juveniles survived better in contact with other plants. In sum, neither spatial pattern nor patterns of mortality showed clear evidence of negative intraspecific interference.

  4. Hydrogen Peroxide in Groundwater at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X.; Nico, P. S.; Williams, K. H.; Hobson, C.; Davis, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as a reactive transient presenting ubiquitously in natural surface waters, can react with a large suite of biologically important and redox-sensitive trace elements. The dominant source of H2O2 in natural waters has long been thought to be photo-oxidation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by molecular oxygen to produce superoxide radical, which then proceeds via dismutation to generate H2O2. However, recent studies have indicated that dark production of H2O2 in deep seawater, principally by biological production, is potentially on par with photochemical generation. Here, we present evidence for abiotic dark generation of H2O2 in groundwater in an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO. Background H2O2 concentrations were determined in situ using a sensitive chemiluminescence-based method. Our results suggest H2O2 concentrations ranged from lower than the detection limit (1 nM) to 54 nM in different monitoring wells at the site, and the concentrations exhibited close correlations with profiles of dissolved oxygen and iron concentrations in the wells, indicating a possible metal redox cycling mechanism. In addition, dissolved natural organic matter, which could potentially coordinate the interconversion of ferric and ferrous species, might also play an important role in H2O2 formation. While biologically mediated activities have been recognized as the major sink of H2O2, the detected H2O2 pattern in groundwater suggests the existence of a balance between H2O2 source and decay, which potentially involves a cascade of biogeochemically significant processes, including the interconversion of ferrous/ferric species, the generation of more reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radical, the depletion of dissolved oxygen and further transformation of natural organic matter and other chemical pollutants.

  5. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  6. A coordinated study of 1-h gravity wave propagating from Logan to Boulder using two Na Doppler lidars and a temperature mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X.; Chen, C.; Zhao, J.; Huang, W.; Chu, X.; Cullens, C. Y.; Yuan, T.; Pautet, P. D.; Zhao, Y.; Taylor, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Vertical winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere can be obtained with good accuracy and precision with the STAR sodium (Na) lidar system at Boulder (40.1°N, 105.2°W), CO, after its receiving efficiency has been substantially improved by an order of magnitude. A remarkable gravity wave signature with a period of ˜1h is the most prominent feature shown in the vertical wind on Nov 27, 2013 at Boulder. Similar wave signatures are also present in the temperature and Na density variations. From the USU lidar and the temperature mapper, the gravity wave oscillation with a period of ˜1h is also observed in the temperature and horizontal winds at Logan (41.7°N, 111.8°W), Utah. By combining the observations from these two stations, we determine the vertical wavelength is about 25 km and horizontal wavelength is about 327 km. This wave is propagating from Logan to Boulder with an elevation angle of 4.4° and an azimuth angle of 133°. The wave amplitudes in vertical wind, horizontal winds and temperature are provided and their ratios are in good agreement with the gravity wave polarization relation. This coordinated study has uniquely provided 3-D information and magnitude of the 1-h gravity wave, which has a great potential to be the seed of TIDs, affecting the ionospheric variabilities. Using the ray-tracing model, we find that the wave source is above 10 km. It is likely generated by the geostrophic adjustment of the jet stream, whose orientation is consistent with the horizontal propagation direction of the wave.

  7. A coordinated study of 1 h mesoscale gravity waves propagating from Logan to Boulder with CRRL Na Doppler lidars and temperature mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xian; Chen, Cao; Huang, Wentao; Smith, John A.; Chu, Xinzhao; Yuan, Tao; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Taylor, Mike J.; Gong, Jie; Cullens, Chihoko Y.

    2015-10-01

    We present the first coordinated study using two lidars at two separate locations to characterize a 1 h mesoscale gravity wave event in the mesopause region. The simultaneous observations were made with the Student Training and Atmospheric Research (STAR) Na Doppler lidar at Boulder, CO, and the Utah State University Na Doppler lidar and temperature mapper at Logan, UT, on 27 November 2013. The high precision possessed by the STAR lidar enabled these waves to be detected in vertical wind. The mean wave amplitudes are ~0.44 m/s in vertical wind and ~1% in relative temperature at altitudes of 82-107 km. Those in the zonal and meridional winds are 6.1 and 5.2 m/s averaged from 84 to 99 km. The horizontal and vertical wavelengths inferred from the mapper and lidars are ~219 ± 4 and 16.0 ± 0.3 km, respectively. The intrinsic period is ~1.3 h for the airglow layer, Doppler shifted by a mean wind of ~17 m/s. The wave packet propagates from Logan to Boulder with an azimuth angle of ~135° clockwise from north and an elevation angle of ~ 3° from the horizon. The observed phase difference between the two locations can be explained by the traveling time of the 1 h wave from Logan to Boulder, which is about ~2.4 h. The wave polarization relations are examined through the simultaneous quantifications of the three wind components and temperature. This study has developed a systematic methodology for fully characterizing mesoscale gravity waves, inspecting their intrinsic properties and validating the derivation of horizontal wave structures by applying multiple instruments from coordinated stations.

  8. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type gene originally obtained from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berl.Eggplant cultivations are constantly attacked by a number of serious pests (e.g. the fruit and shoot borer, the Colorado potato beetle, soil-borne fungi)...

  9. Synthesis and molecular structure of indium complexes based on 3,6-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone. Looking for indium(I) o-semiquinolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Alexandr V; Maleeva, Aryna V; Fukin, Georgii K; Baranov, Evgenii V; Bogomyakov, Artem S; Cherkasov, Vladimir K; Abakumov, Gleb A

    2011-01-21

    The interaction of 3,6-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone (3,6-Q) with indium in toluene leads to the tris-o-semiquinolate derivative (3,6-SQ)(3)In (3,6-SQ - radical-anion of 3,6-Q). According to single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, this complex has a trigonal prismatic structure. Magnetic measurements revealed that the exchange interactions between odd electrons of the paramagnetic ligands in (3,6-SQ)(3)In are antiferromagnetic in character. The treatment of (3,6-SQ)(3)In with 2,2'-dipyridyl (Dipy) causes the displacement of one o-quinone ligand and the formation of the (3,6-SQ)In(Dipy)(3,6-Cat) (3,6-Cat - dianion of 3,6-Q) derivative containing mixed charged o-quinoid ligands. The reaction of InI with (3,6-SQ)K in THF solution is accompanied by a redox process and the potassium-indium(iii) catecholate derivative was obtained as a result. The oxidation of InI with 3,6-Q in THF produces the dimeric In(iii) iodo-catecholate complex [(3,6-Cat)(2)In·2THF]InI(2). The same derivative can be synthesized by the interaction of indium metal with a mixture of I(2) and 3,6-Q.

  10. Generation of nanopores during desorption of NH3 from Mg(NH3)6Cl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink; Kostova, M.Y.;

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that nanopores are formed during desorption of NH3 from Mg(NH3)6Cl2, which has been proposed as a hydrogen storage material. The system of nanopores facilitates the transport of desorbed ammonia away from the interior of large volumes of compacted storage material. DFT calculations show...... that there exists a continuous path from the initial Mg(NH3)6Cl2 material to MgCl2 that does not involve large-scale material transport. Accordingly, ammonia desorption from this system is facile....

  11. Process for manufacturing bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Paul George; Lawton, Richard Graham

    2014-06-03

    A process to manufacture substituted tetracyano-hexaazatricyclics with the substitutions occurring at the 9 and 10 hydrogens. The process begins with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanopyrazine, which is reacted to form the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different process embodiments enable different reaction paths to the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic embodiments include bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene and bis(2-methoxyethoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracen- e.

  12. A Review of Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at the 200-PW-1/3/6 Operable Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.

    2008-01-31

    This report begins with a brief summary of the history and current status of 200-PW-1/3/6 OUs in section 2.0. This is followed by a description of our concentual model of Pu/Am migration at the 200-PW-1/3/6 OUs, during both past artificial recharge conditions and current natural recharge condictions (section 3.0). Section 4.0 discusses data gaps and information needs. The final section (section 5.0) provides recommendations for futher work to address the data gaps and information needs identified in section 4.0.

  13. 75 FR 45654 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Taylor Museum of the Colorado Springs Fine Arts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Taylor Museum of the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, Colorado Springs, CO, that meets the definition of object...

  14. 76 FR 34711 - Notice of Hearing; Reconsideration of Disapproval of Colorado State Plan Amendments (SPA) 10-034

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Disapproval of Colorado State Plan Amendments (SPA) 10-034 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services..., Suite 700, Denver, Colorado 80202-4367 to reconsider CMS' decision to disapprove Colorado SPA 10-034...: This notice announces an administrative hearing to reconsider CMS' decision to disapprove Colorado SPA...

  15. Assessment of surface-water quantity and quality, Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Richards, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    From the early mining days to the current tourism-based economy, the Eagle River watershed (ERW) in central Colorado has undergone a sequence of land-use changes that has affected the hydrology, habitat, and water quality of the area. In 2000, the USGS, in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities, and Denver Water, initiated a retrospective analysis of surface-water quantity and quality in the ERW.

  16. Synthesis, Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry, and PCR Amplification of 3'-5' and 3'-6' Disulfide-linked Oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dennis Jul; Manuguerra, Ilenia; Kjelstrup, Michael Brøndum;

    2014-01-01

    Disulfide dithymidines linked 3'-5' or 3'-6' were synthesized and incorporated into oligonucleotides through a combined phosphotriester and phosphoramidite solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis approach. The disulfide links are cleaved and formed reversibly in the presence of thiols and oligonucl...

  17. Celecoxib and LLW-3-6 Reduce Survival of Human Glioma Cells Independently and Synergistically with Sulfasalazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerokun, Tokunbo; Winfield, Leyte L

    2015-12-01

    Gliomas are among the most commonly diagnosed central nervous system tumors. Celecoxib has been utilized with success in the treatment of several types of cancer, including gliomas. The present study examined the antiproliferative effects of celecoxib and its benzimidazole-based analog, LLW-3-6, when used as co-treatment with sulfasalazine against human glioma LN18 cells. At 48-h treatment, the glioma cells maintained 60% viability in the presence of celecoxib or LLW-3-6 at the maximum concentration tested (40 μM). Co-treatment of glioma cells under a non-lethal dose (50 μM) of sulfasalazine and either celecoxib or LLW-3-6 (administered at different concentrations) resulted in improved inhibition of cell viability. The concentration of the molecules required to reduce cell growth in the combined treatment was significantly less than that needed when either molecule was administered independently. Based on computational values, LLW-3-6 has physiochemical characteristics that should allow for improved bioavailability in comparison to that of celecoxib.

  18. DFT and experimental studies on structure and spectroscopic parameters of 3,6-diiodo-9-ethyl-9H-carbazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radula-Janik, Klaudia; Kupka, Teobald; Ejsmont, Krzysztof;

    2016-01-01

    The first report on crystal and molecular structure of 3,6-diiodo-9-ethyl-9H-carbazole is presented. Experimental room-temperature X-ray and 13C chemical shift studies were supported by advanced theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT). The 13C nuclear magnetic shieldings we...

  19. Influence of 1,3,6 naphthalene trisulfonic acid on microstructure & hardness in electrodeposited Ni-layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Møller, Per; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the additive 1,3,6 naphthalene trisulfonic acid on the microstructure and hardness of electrodeposited nickel layers was investigated. The microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy; the Vickers hardness was measured in cross sections. The additive wa...

  20. Capillary Column Coated With Heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-octyl)-β-cyclodextrin Using Sol-gel Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Xia GE; Ruo Nong FU; Rong Ji DAI; Li Wen LIU; Mei Ling QI

    2004-01-01

    Heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-octyl)-β-cyclodextrin was coated onto the fused silica capillary by sol-gel technology.Column efficiency and column selectivity were studied. The results indicated that high ability of separation was acquired. Positional isomers of aromatic compounds were well separated.

  1. Transit spectrophotometry of the exoplanet HD189733b. II. New Spitzer observations at 3.6 microns

    CERN Document Server

    Desert, J -M; Vidal-Madjar, A; Hebrard, G; Ehrenreich, D; Etangs, A Lecavelier des; Parmentier, V; Ferlet, R; Henry, G W

    2010-01-01

    We present a new primary transit observation of the hot-jupiter HD189733b, obtained at 3.6 microns with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. Previous measurements at 3.6 microns suffered from strong systematics and conclusions could hardly be obtained with confidence on the water detection by comparison of the 3.6 and 5.8 microns observations. We use a high S/N Spitzer photometric transit light curve to improve the precision of the near infrared radius of the planet at 3.6 microns. The observation has been performed using high-cadence time series integrated in the subarray mode. We are able to derive accurate system parameters, including planet-to-star radius ratio, impact parameter, scale of the system, and central time of the transit from the fits of the transit light curve. We compare the results with transmission spectroscopic models and with results from previous observations at the same wavelength. We obtained the following system parameters: R_p/R_\\star=0.15566+0.00011-...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). 721.7020 Section 721.7020 Protection of...), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and...), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (PMN P-89-676) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. Evaluation of Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, K. A.; Yale, M. S.; Bennett, D. E.; Haugan, M. P.; Bryan, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) is a widely used instrument designed to measure student attitudes toward physics and learning physics. Previous research revealed a fairly complex factor structure. In this study, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on data from an undergraduate introductory…

  4. The Colorado Gambling Boom: An Experiment in Rural Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowski, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    Three small Colorado towns that faced a declining economy as the mining resource ran out used gambling-based tourism as a strategy for community development. Although economic benefits to the towns have far exceeded expectations, negative social, environmental, and political changes, such as crime alcoholism, traffic problems, and conflicts…

  5. Discovery of cryptic Armillaria solidipes genotypes within the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Hanna; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; S. M. Ashiglar; A. L. Ross-Davis; G. I. McDonald

    2012-01-01

    Armillaria solidipes (= A. ostoyae) is a root-disease pathogen that causes severe losses in growth and productivity of forest trees throughout the Northern Hemisphere. This species is genetically diverse with variable disease activities across different regions of the world. In North America, A. solidipes in the Colorado Plateau exists in drier habitats and causes more...

  6. Construction of calibration pads facility, Walker Field, Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.L.

    1978-08-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer facility was completed at Walker Field Airport, Grand Junction, Colorado, in November 1976. This report describes spectrometers and their calibration, the construction of the spectrometer facility, the radioelement concentrations, procedures for using the facilites, and environmental considerations. (LK)

  7. Colorado's Millennial Generation: Youth Perceptions and Experiences of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses survey and focus group methods to explore attitudes toward and experiences of nature among millennial-aged students in northern Colorado. First, results confirm that young people possess a strong interest in the outdoors yet time, transportation, and new technologies hamper their ability to visit public lands and outdoor spaces.…

  8. Ray D. Nixon plant built below budget. [Colorado Springs, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlasson, W.J.

    1980-12-01

    The Ray D. Nixon plant was built in Colorado Springs at about $250,000 below the $100 million budgeted. Permit and operating deadlines provided important incentives to maintain the construction schedule, requiring intensive management efforts to keep cooperation and productivity high. The plant is also a model for environmental and wildlife protection. (DCK)

  9. Public School-Public Library Cooperation in Sheridan, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelver, Ann E.

    The Arapahoe Regional Library District and the Sheridan School District, in Colorado, cooperated in developing a library to serve both high school students and the general community. Initially funded by a Library Services and Construction Act grant, this cooperative venture succeeded because of the intense preplanning done by school and library…

  10. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpaia, S.

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type gene originally obtained from the

  11. An Evaluation of Colorado's College Opportunity Fund and Related Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    During the spring of 2004, the State of Colorado enacted legislation that fundamentally changed the mechanisms through which it financed its public higher education system, beginning with the 2005-06 academic year. Rather than appropriating funds directly to institutions, the legislation created the College Opportunity Fund (COF), the principal…

  12. Colorado's Millennial Generation: Youth Perceptions and Experiences of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses survey and focus group methods to explore attitudes toward and experiences of nature among millennial-aged students in northern Colorado. First, results confirm that young people possess a strong interest in the outdoors yet time, transportation, and new technologies hamper their ability to visit public lands and outdoor spaces.…

  13. 78 FR 60008 - Colorado Disaster Number CO-00065

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster Number CO-00065 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing And Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road.... Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington, DC 20416....

  14. 77 FR 40630 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that... competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920,...

  15. 75 FR 52649 - Radio Broadcasting Services; DeBeque, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 . Radio Broadcasting Services; DeBeque, Colorado AGENCY: Federal Communications... Congressional Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 As stated in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission amends 47 CFR part 73...

  16. 78 FR 37474 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Dove Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Dove Creek, Colorado AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Chief, Audio... amends 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for...

  17. Ammonia sources, transport, and deposition in northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, J. L., Jr.; Benedict, K. B.; Li, Y.; Shao, Y.; Wentworth, G.; Sullivan, A.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Bangs, E.; Murphy, J. G.; Schichtel, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Expanded measurements of ammonia in northern Colorado are providing new insight into ammonia sources in the region, their spatial variability, and their contributions to reactive nitrogen deposition in sensitive regions such as Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP). Regional ammonia concentrations have been examined through a combination of a passive ammonia monitoring network, through mobile measurements, and through an east-west transect of real-time ammonia monitors stretching from the agricultural source region of NE Colorado through the Rocky Mountain foothills west of the Front Range urban corridor, to Rocky Mountain National Park. Several years of ammonia observations in NE Colorado reveal considerable concentration variability, with the highest concentrations observed near animal feeding observations. Multi-year concentration increases have been observed at some locations and significant decreases at other locations, but most sites exhibit no significant long-term trends. Ammonia concentrations in RMNP are strongly influenced by episodic transport from ammonia-rich NE Colorado, but an imprtant influence is also observed from wildfire emissions. Local recylcing of boundary layer ammonia through formation and evaporation of dew also exerts a strong influence on local concentrations, a phenomenon that has received little prior attention.

  18. USDA-ARS Colorado maize water productivity data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service conducted a water productivity field trial for irrigated maize in northeastern Colorado in 2008 through 2011. The dataset, which is available online from the USDA National Agricultural Library, includes measurements of irrigation, precipitation, soil water sto...

  19. Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, C.A.; Gray, S.T.; Meko, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October-September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The reconstructions explain 72-81% of the variance in the gauge records, and results are robust across several reconstruction approaches. Time series plots as well as results of cross-spectral analysis indicate strong spatial coherence in runoff variations across the subbasins. The Lees Ferry reconstruction suggests a higher long-term mean than previous reconstructions but strongly supports earlier findings that Colorado River allocations were based on one of the wettest periods in the past 5 centuries and that droughts more severe than any 20th to 21st century event occurred in the past. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. The Colorado Plateau IV: shaping conservation through science and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, Brian F.; Sisk, Thomas D.; van Riper, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers some 130,000 square miles of sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, canyons, arches, and cliffs in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. With elevations ranging from 3,000 to 14,000 feet, the natural systems found within the plateau are dramatically varied, from desert to alpine conditions. This book focuses on the integration of science and resource management issues in this unique and highly varied environment. Broken into three subsections, this volume addresses conservation biology, biophysical resources, and inventory and monitoring concerns. The chapters range in content, addressing conservation issues–past, present, and future–on the Colorado Plateau, measurement of human impacts on resources, grazing and wildland-urban interfaces, and tools and methods for monitoring habitats and species. An informative read for people interested in the conservation and natural history of the region, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for those people engaged in the management of cultural and biological resources of the Colorado Plateau, as well as scientists interested in methods and tools for land and resource management throughout the West.

  1. The Social Work Research Center at Colorado State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, Marc A.; Valentine, Deborah P.; Drendel, James M.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Work Research Center is an innovative university-community partnership within the School of Social Work in the College of Applied Human Sciences at Colorado State University. The center is focused on working with county and state child welfare agencies to generate applied research that translates into evidence-based practice for serving…

  2. Colorado Model Content Standards for Theatre: Suggested Grade Level Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This booklet lists six model content standards in theater arts for elementary and secondary school students in the state of Colorado. The six standards cited in the booklet are: (1) Students develop interpersonal skills and problem-solving capabilities through group interaction and artistic collaboration; (2) Students understand and apply the…

  3. Aspects of host-plant relationship of the Colorado beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, W.

    1970-01-01

    Host plant choice, suitability of and conditioning to the host in Leptinotarsa decemlineata SAY were studied under controlled conditions.

    The literature on historical and geographical distribution of the Colorado beetle has been reviewed and an extensive survey is given of the

  4. The Colorado Gambling Boom: An Experiment in Rural Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowski, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    Three small Colorado towns that faced a declining economy as the mining resource ran out used gambling-based tourism as a strategy for community development. Although economic benefits to the towns have far exceeded expectations, negative social, environmental, and political changes, such as crime alcoholism, traffic problems, and conflicts…

  5. Telehealth: Families Finding Ways to Connect in Rural Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    JFK Partners, at the University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, is currently implementing a study on the use of telehealth (receiving treatment or services using videoconferencing technology, such as Skype) and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anxiety. The study is an exploratory grant from Health Resources and Services…

  6. Two Cases of Translocation t(3;6)(p14;p22): A Non Random Chromosomal Abnormality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, M; Flandrin, G; Valensi, F; Gluckman, E

    1991-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the short arm of chromosome 6 is a likely site to be involved in chromosomal rearrangements of MDS/ANLL following radio/chemotherapy. We report here two cases of t(3;6)(p14;p22). One patient is a 55 years old male with a previous history of occupational exposure who developed, an acute megakaryoblastic leukemia after a preleukemic phase. Chromosome analysis showed a t(3;6)(p14;p22), associated with del (5)(q14q31), -7, with variations and a trend to hypoploidy. The second patient is a 33 years old man, with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with Hydroxyurea (HU), HU + $aL-IFN and $aL-IFN alone. The first cytogenetic study before treatment, showed a t(9;22)(q34;q11). In the following months the patient had simultaneously t(9;22)(q34;q11) + t(3;6)(p14;p22) in a minority and thereafter in all the mitoses, with progressive deterioration, megakaryocyte abnormalities, but no blast crisis. Our patients are compared with the only 5 other published cases with t(3;6)(p14;p22), who shared some common features, namely a past history of chemo/radiotherapy or exposure to chemical mutagens and an association with other, so-called "secondary" chromosome aberrations, on segments 3p, 5q, 7q, 12p and 17p. We suggest that this uncommon translocation t(3;6) is nonrandom. It is worth noting that band 6p21 is the site of pim 1 oncogen, and that a fragile site is located on band 3p14.

  7. 2,3,6 Trioxypentafulrene, 5(1): reactivity to primary-amines, nucleophilic substitution and ring expansion; 2,3,6 trioxipentafulvenos, 5(1): reactividad frente a aminas primarias: sustitucion nucleofilica y expansion de anillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victory, P.; Alvarez-Larena, A.; Pinilla, J.F.; Germain, G.; Solar, E.; Munoz, M. [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Instituto Quimico de Sarria, Barcelona (Spain)

    1995-11-01

    The reaction between dimethyl 2,3,6-trihydroxypenta-fulvene-1,4-dicarboxylate and primary alkyl or cycloalkylamines (methylamine, butylamine, cyclooactylamine, cyclohexylamine) affords the corresponding 6-aminopentafulvenes (nucleophilic substitution of the C6 hydroxyl group by the amine) or dimethyl 5-amino-2,3-dihydroxyterephthalates (ring expansion) depending on the reaction conditions. For the two kinds of compounds both a spectroscopic study and a single crystal X-ray analysis have been carried out. Different hydrogen bondings have been observed. Only the substitution products are obtained in the reaction between dimethyl 2,3,6-trihydroxypentafulvene-1,4-dicarboxylate and primary aromatic amines (aniline, 4-sec-butylaniline, p-anisidine). When p-nitroaniline or p-aminobenzonitrile are used the reaction does not progress. 26 refs.

  8. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994. To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized. This study assesses benefits associated with the Grand Junction, Gunnison, Naturita, and Rifle UMTRA Projects sites for the 1-year period under study. Work at the Naturita site was initiated in April 1994 and involved demolition of buildings at the processing site. Actual start-up of remediation of Naturita is planned to begin in the spring of 1995. Work at the Slick Rock and Maybell sites is expected to begin in 1995. The only current economic benefits associated with these sites are related to UMTRA Project support work.

  9. Public Library Trustees of Colorado: Responsibilities and Opportunities. A Manual for the Trustees of Colorado Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Library Association, Denver.

    This basic reference on the responsibilities and opportunities of library trustees provides information on the public libraries of Colorado and how they are established, operated, and funded, as well as clues to needed information--i.e., some philosophy, many facts, opinions, recommended practices, and suggestions. Chapters focus on the types of…

  10. Nearshore thermal gradients of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Rob; Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically impacted the flow of the Colorado River through Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. Extremes in both streamflow and water temperature have been suppressed by controlled releases from the dam. Trapping of sediment in Lake Powell, the reservoir formed by Glen Canyon Dam, has also dramatically reduced the supply of suspended sediment entering the system. These changes have altered the riverine ecosystem and the habitat of native species, including fish such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Most native fish are adapted to seasonally warm water, and the continuous relatively cold water released by the dam is one of the factors that is believed to limit humpback chub growth and survival. While average mainstem temperatures in the Colorado River are well documented, there is limited understanding of temperatures in the nearshore environments that fish typically occupy. Four nearshore geomorphic unit types were studied between the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and Lava Canyon in the summer and fall of 2010, for study periods of 10 to 27 days. Five to seven sites were studied during each interval. Persistent thermal gradients greater than the 0.2 °C accuracy of the instruments were not observed in any of the sampled shoreline environments. Temperature gradients between the shoreline and mainstem on the order of 4 °C, believed to be important to the habitat-seeking behavior of native or nonnative fishes, were not detected.

  11. The nitration pattern of energetic 3,6-diamino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine derivatives containing azole functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizikovich, A; Shlomovich, A; Cohen, A; Gozin, M

    2015-08-21

    One of the successful strategies for the design of promising new energetic materials is the incorporation of both fuel and oxidizer moieties into the same molecule. Therefore, during recent years, synthesis of various nitro-azole derivatives, as compounds with a more balanced oxygen content, has become very popular. In the framework of this effort, we studied nitration of N(3),N(6)-bis(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine-3,6-diamine (BTATz; ) and its alkylated derivative N(3),N(6)-bis(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine-3,6-diamine , using a (15)N-labeled nitration agent and monitoring and analyzing products of these reactions by (15)N NMR. It was seen that the nitration of both compounds takes place only on the exocyclic ("bridging") secondary amine groups. Possible tetranitro derivative isomers N,N'-(1,2,4,5-tetrazine-3,6-diyl)bis(N-(1-nitro-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-nitramide) and N,N'-(1,2,4,5-tetrazine-3,6-diyl)bis(N-(2-nitro-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)nitramide) , both of which have OB = 0% and calculated VODs of 9790 and 9903 m s(-1), respectively, could not be observed in the reaction mixtures, during the in situ(15)N NMR monitoring of nitration of , using (15)N-labeled nitrating agents. Following a similar strategy, a new analog of BTATz - N(3),N(6)-Bis(1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine-3,6-diamine was obtained and its nitration was studied. The reaction of with a HNO3-Ac2O nitration mixture resulted in the formation of a new N(3),N(6)-bis(3-nitro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine-3,6-diamine derivative in a moderate yield. Structures and properties of (in the form of its perchlorate salt, ) and were measured by FTIR, multinuclear NMR, MS, DSC and X-ray crystallography. It is important to note that compound exhibits exothermic decomposition at 302 °C (DSC) and >353 N (sensitivity to friction), making it a highly-promising thermally-insensitive energetic material for further development.

  12. A novel and facile synthesis of 3-(2-benzofuroyl- and 3,6-bis(2-benzofuroylcarbazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Gao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A facile synthesis of hitherto unreported 3-(2-benzofuroylcarbazoles 3a–k, 3,6-bis(2-benzofuroylcarbazoles 5a–k, and naphtho[2,1-b]furoylcarbazoles 3l and 5l is described. The synthesis mainly relies on the ultrasound-assisted Rap–Stoermer reaction of 3-chloroacetyl- (1 or 3,6-dichloroacetyl-9-ethyl-9H-carbazole (4 with various salicylaldehydes 2a–k as well as 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde (2l in CH3CN with the presence of PEG-400 as catalyst. The procedure offers easy access to benzofuroylcarbazoles in short reaction times and the products are obtained in moderate to good yields.

  13. 3,6-Dinitropyrazolo[4,3-c]pyrazole-Based Multipurpose Energetic Materials through Versatile N-Functionalization Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Zhang, Jiaheng; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2016-10-04

    A family of 3,6-dinitropyrazolo[4,3-c]pyrazole-based energetic compounds was synthesized by using versatile N-functionalization strategies. Subsequently, nine ionic derivatives of the N,N'-(3,6-dinitropyrazolo[4,3-c]pyrazole-1,4-diyl)dinitramidate anion were prepared by acid-base reactions and fully characterized by infrared, multinuclear NMR spectra, and elemental analysis. The structures of four of these compounds were further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Based on their different physical and detonation properties, these compounds exhibit promising potential as modern energetic materials and can be variously classified as green primary explosives, high-performance secondary explosives, fuel-rich propellants, and propellant oxidizers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Spitzer Phase Curve Constraints for WASP-43b at 3.6 and 4.5 microns

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Kevin B; Bean, Jacob L; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan J; Showman, Adam P; Kataria, Tiffany; Kreidberg, Laura; Feng, Y Katherina

    2016-01-01

    Previous measurements of heat redistribution efficiency (the ability to transport energy from a planet's highly-irradiated dayside to its eternally-dark nightside) show considerable variation between exoplanets. Theoretical models predict a correlation between heat redistribution efficiency and temperature for tidally-locked planets; however, recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WASP-43b spectroscopic phase curve results are inconsistent with current predictions. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we obtained a total of three phase curve observations of WASP-43b at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. The first 3.6 micron visit exhibits spurious nightside emission that requires invoking unphysical conditions in our atmospheric retrievals. The two other visits exhibit strong day-night contrasts that are consistent with the HST data. To reconcile the departure from theoretical predictions, WASP-43b would need to have a high-altitude, nightside cloud/haze layer blocking its thermal emission. Clouds/hazes could be produced within...

  15. ILs-3, 6 and 11 increase, but ILs-10 and 24 decrease stemness of human prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dandan; Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoran; Li, Yaqing; Li, Xiaoli; Cao, Jing; Fan, Huijie; Yuan, Yuan; Ji, Zhenyu; Qiao, Baoping; Wen, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Mingzhi; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2015-12-15

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are associated with cancer recurrence and metastasis. Prostate cancer cells often metastasize to the bone with a complex microenvironment of cytokines favoring cell survival. In this study, the cell stemness influence of a group of interleukins including IL-3, 6, 10, 11 and 24 on human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 was explored in vitro. Sulforhodamine B(SRB) and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assays were applied to examine the effect on cell proliferation, and wound healing and transwell assays were used for migration and invasion studies, in addition to colony formation, Western blotting and flowcytometry for the expression of stemness factors and chemotherapy sensitivity. We observed that ILs-3, 6 and 11 stimulated while ILs-10 and 24 inhibited the growth, invasion and migration of both cell lines. Interestingly, ILs-3, 6 and 11 significantly promoted colony formation and increased the expression of SOX2, CD44 and ABCG2 in both prostate cancer cell lines. However, ILs-10 and 24 showed the opposite effect on the expression of these factors. In line with the above findings, treatment with either IL-3 or IL-6 or IL-11 decreased the chemosensitivity to docetaxel while treatment with either IL-10 or IL-24 increased the sensitivity of docetaxel chemotherapy. In conclusion, our results suggest that ILs-3, 6 and 11 function as tumor promoters while ILs-10 and 24 function as tumor suppressors in the prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP in vitro, and such differences may attribute to their different effect on the stemness of PCa cells.

  16. Cr6Te8(PEt3)6 and a Molecule-Based Synthesis of Cr3Te4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessen, B.; Siegrist, T.; Palstra, T.; Tanzler, S.M.; Steigerwald, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The molecular cluster compound Cr6Te8(PEt3)6 (1) is formed by the reaction of TePEt3 with either (Et3P)2Cr(allyl)2 or Cr(2,4-dimethylpentadienyl)2. This compound can be converted to the extended inorganic solid state compound Cr3Te4 by simple thermolysis. We have determined the structure of the

  17. Magnetization measurements on the Reentrant Superconductor ERxY1-xRh1.1Sn3.6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, D.H.A.; Flokstra, J.

    1987-01-01

    We performed magnetization measurements on the reentrant magnetic superconductor ErxY1-xRh1.1Sn3.6 (x = 0.8, 0.9, 1) using a SQUID magnetometer in a 3He-4 He dilution refrigerator. The temperature was varied between 50 mK and 2 K and different background fields were used. The experiments were concen

  18. Stereoselective synthesis of (all-Z)-hentriaconta-3,6,9,12,15,19,22,25,28-nonaene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippova, Liudmila; Aarum, Ida; Ringdal, Martine; Dahl, Martin Kirkhus; Hansen, Trond Vidar; Stenstrøm, Yngve

    2015-04-28

    Several microorganisms produce small quantities of polyunsaturated hydrocarbons and such natural products are of interest. Starting from the ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid, the total synthesis of the natural product (all-Z)-hentriaconta-3,6,9,12,15,19,22,25,28-nonaene has been achieved in eight steps and 15% overall yield. The synthesis is based on a stereoselective Wittig reaction and confirms the all-Z-configuration of the nine double bonds in this highly unsaturated natural product.

  19. Primary Transit of the Planet HD 189733b at 3.6 and 5.8 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, J. P.; Carey, S.; Ribas, I.; Tinetti, G.

    2008-04-01

    The hot Jupiter HD 189733b was observed during its primary transit using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The transit depths were measured simultaneously at 3.6 and 5.8 μm. Our analysis yields values of 2.356% +/- 0.019% and 2.436% +/- 0.020% at 3.6 and 5.8 μm, respectively, for a uniform source. We estimated the contribution of the limb-darkening and starspot effects on the final results. We concluded that although the limb darkening increases by ~0.02%-0.03% the transit depths, the differential effects between the two IRAC bands is even smaller, 0.01%. Furthermore, the host star is known to be an active spotted K star with observed photometric modulation. If we adopt an extreme model of 20% coverage with spots 1000 K cooler of the star surface, it will make the observed transits shallower by 0.19% and 0.18%. The difference between the two bands will be only of 0.01%, in the opposite direction to the limb-darkening correction. If the transit depth is affected by limb darkening and spots, the differential effects between the 3.6 and 5.8 μm bands are very small. The differential transit depths at 3.6 and 5.8 μm and the recent one published by Knutson and coworkers) at 8 μm are in agreement with the presence of water vapor in the upper atmosphere of the planet. This is the companion paper to Tinetti et al., where the detailed atmosphere models are presented.

  20. Hepatic metabolism affects the atropselective disposition of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Barnhart, Christopher; Lein, Pamela J; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-06

    To understand the role of hepatic vs extrahepatic metabolism in the disposition of chiral PCBs, we studied the disposition of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) and its hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) in mice with defective hepatic metabolism due to the liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (KO mice). Female KO and congenic wild type (WT) mice were treated with racemic PCB 136, and levels and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and HO-PCBs were determined in tissues and excreta 3 days after PCB administration. PCB 136 tissue levels were higher in KO compared to WT mice. Feces was a major route of PCB metabolite excretion, with 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol being the major metabolite recovered from feces. (+)-PCB 136, the second eluting PCB 136 atropisomers, was enriched in all tissues and excreta. The second eluting atropisomers of the HO-PCBs metabolites were enriched in blood and liver; 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol in blood was an exception and displayed an enrichment of the first eluting atropisomers. Fecal HO-PCB levels and chiral signatures changed with time and differed between KO and WT mice, with larger HO-PCB enantiomeric fractions in WT compared to KO mice. Our results demonstrate that hepatic and, possibly, extrahepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes play a role in the disposition of PCBs.