Sample records for boulder colorado 3-6

  1. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Boulder ZED Design Build - Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Boulder, Colorado, that scored HERS 38 without PV and 0 with PV. This 2,504 ft2 custom home has advanced framed walls, superior insulation a ground-source heat pump, ERV, and triple-pane windows.

  2. City of Boulder, Colorado Municipal Tree Resource Analysis (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; P.J. Peper; S.L. Gardner; K.E. Vargas; Q. Xiao


    Boulder is a vibrant city, renowned for its livability and cultural wealth and well known for its Smart Growth policies that protect and restore environmental quality while enhancing economic opportunity. The city maintains trees as an integral component of the urban infrastructure. Research indicates that healthy trees can mitigate impacts associated with the built...

  3. Increasing the Harvest: How the University of Colorado Boulder Replaced Alumni Association Dues with a Student Fee (United States)

    Peglar, Tori


    In 2007 the University of Colorado Boulder Alumni Association moved under the university's umbrella after the alumni members had spent 11 years under the CU Foundation. But there were two major catches. First, the chancellor wanted them to eliminate their membership dues, as he felt they competed with the annual fund. Second, he could only make up…

  4. University of Colorado at Boulder: Energy and Climate Revolving Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series (United States)

    Caine, Rebecca


    The University of Colorado at Boulder's student run Environmental Center leads the campus' sustainability efforts. The Center created the Energy and Climate Revolving Fund (ECRF) in 2007 to finance energy-efficiency upgrades. The ECRF functions as a source of funding for project loans and provides a method of financing projects that seeks to save…

  5. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.


    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z[sup 0] with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs.

  6. Proposed Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Federal Volatility Control Program in the Denver-Boulder-Greeley-Ft. Collins-Loveland, Colorado, 1997 8-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area (United States)

    This notice proposes establishing an applicable standard of 7.8 pounds (psi) Reid vapor pressure under the federal volatility control program, in the Denver-Boulder-Greeley-Ft. Collins-Loveland, Colorado, 1997 8-hour ozone nonattainment area.

  7. Flatiron-Erie 115kV transmission line project, Larimer, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to uprate its existing 115-kV Flatiron-Erie transmission line. The line is located in Larimer, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colorado, and passes through the City of Longmont. The line connects Flatiron Substation and several of the substations supplying Longmont. It is a single circuit 115-kV line, 31.5 miles long, and was built in 1950-51 on a 75-foot wide right-of-way (ROW) using wood H-frame structures. Western proposes to build 27 new structures along the line, to replace or modify 45 of the existing structures and to remote 11 of them. Many of these additions and changes would involve structures that are approximately 5 to 15 feet taller than the existing ones. The existing conductors and ground wires would remain in place. The purpose of these actions would be to allow the power carrying capability of the line to be increased and to replace deteriorating/structural members. Western would be the sole participant in the proposed project. This report gives an analysis of the study area environment and the development of alternative routes. An assessment is presented of the impacts of the primary alternative routes. The environmental consequences of this project are addressed

  8. University of Colorado at Boulder Nuclear Physics Laboratory technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.J.


    This report summarizes experimental work carried out between October 1, 1990, the closing of our Progress Report, and August 14, 1991 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contract DE-FG02-ER40269 with the United States Department of Energy. This contract supports broadly based experimental work in intermediate energy nuclear physics. The program includes pion-nucleon studies at TRIUMF and LAMPF, inelastic pion scattering and charge exchange reactions at LAMPF, and nucleon charge exchange at LAMPF/NTOF. The first results of spin-transfer observables in the isovector (rvec p,rvec n) reaction are included in this report. Our data confirm the tentative result from (rvec p,rvec p') reactions that the nuclear isovector spin response shows neither longitudinal enhancement nor transverse queching. Our program in quasifree scattering of high energy pions shows solid evidence of isoscalar enhancement of the nuclear nonspin response. We include several comparisons of the quasifree scattering of different probes. Results from our efforts in the design of accelerator RF cavities are also included in this report

  9. Comparison of Ozone Retrievals from the Pandora Spectrometer System and Dobson Spectrophotometer in Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    Herman, J.; Evans, R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; McConville, G.


    A comparison of retrieved total column ozone (TCO) amounts between the Pandora #34 spectrometer system and the Dobson #061 spectrophotometer from direct-sun observations was performed on the roof of the Boulder, Colorado, NOAA building. This paper, part of an ongoing study, covers a 1-year period starting on 17 December 2013. Both the standard Dobson and Pandora TCO retrievals required a correction, TCO(sub corr) = TCO (1 + C(T)), using a monthly varying effective ozone temperature, T(sub E), derived from a temperature and ozone profile climatology. The correction is used to remove a seasonal difference caused by using a fixed temperature in each retrieval algorithm. The respective corrections C(T(sub E)) are C(sub Pandora) = 0.00333(T(sub E) - 225) and C(sub Dobson) = -0.0013(T(sub E) - 226.7) per degree K. After the applied corrections removed most of the seasonal retrieval dependence on ozone temperature, TCO agreement between the instruments was within 1% for clear-sky conditions. For clear-sky observations, both co-located instruments tracked the day-to-day variation in total column ozone amounts with a correlation of r(exp 2) = 0.97 and an average offset of 1.1 +/- 5.8 DU. In addition, the Pandora TCO data showed 0.3% annual average agreement with satellite overpass data from AURA/OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and 1% annual average offset with Suomi-NPP/OMPS (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership, the nadir viewing portion of the Ozone Mapper Profiler Suite).

  10. Economic Impacts from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program: Using Property-Assessed Clean Energy Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, M.; Cliburn, J. K.; Coughlin, J.


    This report examines the economic impacts (including job creation) from the Boulder County, Colorado, ClimateSmart Loan Program (CSLP), an example of Property-Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing. The CSLP was the first test of PACE financing on a multi-jurisdictional level (involving individual cities as well as the county government). It was also the first PACE program to comprehensively address energy efficiency measures and renewable energy, and it was the first funded by a public offering of both taxable and tax-exempt bonds.

  11. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning. Volume 3A. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: South Boulder Creek Park Project, Sand and Gravel Operations, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L R; Perry, A O; LaFevers, J R


    This case study details reclamation planning for the Flatiron Companies' South Boulder Creek Park Project in Boulder, Colorado. The site contains a deposit of high-quality sand and gravel considered to be one of the best and largest known deposits of aggregate materials in the Front Range area. The aggregate deposit is located in a highly visible site just off the Denver-Boulder Turnpike at the entrance to the city from Denver, and adjacent to a residential portion of the city. In order to make maximum use of pre-mining planning, as a tool for resolving a conflict over the company's proposed operation, an extensive cooperative planning effort was initiated. This included the preparation of an environmental impact assessment, numerous public hearings, operating and reclamation plan review by city authorities, annexation of the site to the city, and the granting of a scenic easement on the property to the city for the development of a regional recreation park. A suite of contractual agreements was worked out among Flatiron Companies, the City of Boulder, the Colorado Open Lands Foundation, and the Federal Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. The purpose of this case study is to allow the planner to gain insight into the procedures, possibilities, and constraints involved in premining planning in a cooperative situation.

  12. Dynamics Days US 2013 Conference Held in Denver, Colorado on 3-6 January 2013. Abstracts (United States)


    down before population collapse using replicate laboratory populations of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We mapped the bifurcation diagram...agreement with the theory. Furthermore, we connected yeast populations spatially to evaluate warning signals based on spatio-temporal fluctuations...Colorado School of Mines $125 ARO 54 Franson, Andrew U Colorado School of Mines $125 ARO 55 Slater, Michael U Colorado School of Mines $125 ARO 56 Brewer

  13. Developing Capacity for Cities to Adapt to a Changing Climate-a Case Study in Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    Sands, R.; Groves, D. G.; Nason, M.; Pandya, R.


    The City of Boulder in Colorado has undertaken many progressive climate-related initiatives, from signing the Kyoto protocol to passing a Climate Action Tax. But as the city prepared to launch its Climate Commitment document and lead a community process, it realized that one critical group that had not been fully engaged in the process was its own staff. It became clear that for organizational change to occur and for the city to meet its goals, city staff needed to develop a deeper understanding of the importance of the climate goals while also learning better how to use these goals to guide their long-term planning. In early 2016, the city launched a year-long "Climate Leaders" initiative which comprised of a series of workshops that brought together over 70 staff members with climate scientists and experts in climate adaptation planning. The first two workshops, billed as Climate 101 and 201, reviewed the best available scientific information about climate threats and potential impacts, and worked with participants to understand how climate changes could affect diverse city functions. These interactive workshops also explored ways to help city staff feel comfortable preparing for a significantly different climate and discussed ways to communicate this information to the public. From there the group split into two tracks. A "mitigation" track focused on the ways in which Boulder could meet its aggressive emissions reduction targets. The "adaptation" track developed integrated scenarios for citywide planning to highlight Boulder's vulnerability to climate change and guide adaptation planning. Bringing these two conversations together is helping city staff to explore critical linkages between mitigation and adaptation, develop common messages to build community support for climate action, and inform comprehensive climate resiliency planning. We will describe how Boulder successfully partnered with scientists and planning experts to program a year of interactive

  14. Collaboration Between Environmental Water Chemistry Students and Hazardous Waste Treatment Specialists on the University of Colorado-Boulder Campus (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.


    The University of Colorado-Boulder is one of a few universities in the country that has a licensed Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility (TSDF) for hazardous waste on campus. This facility, located on the bottom floor of the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) building, allows CU to more economically treat hazardous waste by enabling treatment specialists on staff to safely collect and organize the hazardous waste generated on campus. Hazardous waste is anything that contains a regulated chemical or compound and most chemicals used in engineering labs (e.g., acids, solvents, metal solutions) fall into this category. The EH&S staff is able to treat close almost 33% of the waste from campus and the rest is packed for off-site treatment at various places all over the country for disposal (e.g., Sauget, IL, Port Aurthor, TX). The CU-Boulder campus produced over 50 tons of hazardous waste in 2010 costing over $300,000 in off-campus expenses. The EH&S staff assigns one of over 50 codes to the waste which will determine if the waste can be treated on campus of must be shipped off campus to be disposed of. If the waste can be treated on campus, it will undergo one of three processes: 1) neutralization, 2) UV-ozone oxidation, or 3) ion exchange. If the waste is acidic but contains no heavy metals, the acid is neutralized with sodium hydroxide (a base) and can be disposed "down the drain" to the Boulder Wastewater Treatment Plant. If the waste contains organic compounds and no metals, a UV-ozone oxidation system is used to break down the organic compounds. Silver from photography wastewater can be removed using ion exchange columns. Undergraduate and graduate students worked with the hazardous waste treatment facility at the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) building on the CU-Boulder campus during the fall of 2011 and fall of 2012. Early in the semester, students receive a tour of the three batch treatment processes the facility is equipped with. Later in the

  15. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, J. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)


    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In this project, the Building America CARB team evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  16. Indoor pollutant levels from the use of unvented natural gas fireplaces in Boulder, Colorado. (United States)

    Dutton, S J; Hannigan, M P; Miller, S L


    High CO and NO2 concentrations have been documented in homes with unvented combustion appliances, such as natural gas fireplaces. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted from incomplete natural gas combustion. The acute health risks of CO and NO2 exposure have been well established for the general population and for certain high-risk groups, including infants, the elderly, and people with heart disease or asthma. Health effects from PAH exposure are less well known, but may include increased risk of cancer. We monitored CO emissions during the operation of unvented natural gas fireplaces in two residences in Boulder, CO, at various times between 1997 and 2000. During 1999, we expanded our tests to include measurements of NO2 and PAH. Results show significant pollutant accumulation indoors when the fireplaces were used for extended periods of time. In one case, CO concentrations greater than 100 ppm accumulated in under 2 hr of operation; a person at rest exposed for 10 hr to this environment would get a mild case of CO poisoning with an estimated 10% carboxyhemoglobin level. Appreciable NO2 concentrations were also detected, with a 4-hr time average reaching 0.36 ppm. Similar time-average total PAH concentrations reached 35 ng/m3. The results of this study provide preliminary insights to potential indoor air quality problems in homes operating unvented natural gas fireplaces in Boulder.

  17. Predicted Versus Actual Savings for a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Williamson, J.


    To determine the most cost-effective methods of improving buildings, accurate analysis and prediction of the energy use of existing buildings is essential. However, multiple studies confirm that analysis methods tend to over-predict energy use in poorly insulated, leaky homes and thus, the savings associated with improving those homes. In NREL's report titled 'Assessing and Improving the Accuracy of Energy Analysis of Residential Buildings,' researchers propose a method for improving the accuracy of residential energy analysis methods. A key step in this process involves the comparisons of predicted versus metered energy use and savings. In support of this research need, CARB evaluated the retrofit of a multifamily building in Boulder, CO. The updated property is a 37 unit, 2 story apartment complex built in 1950, which underwent renovations in early 2009 to bring it into compliance with Boulder, CO's SmartRegs ordinance. Goals of the study were to: 1) evaluate predicted versus actual savings due to the improvements, 2) identify areas where the modeling assumptions may need to be changed, and 3) determine common changes made by renters that would negatively impact energy savings. In this study, CARB seeks to improve the accuracy of modeling software while assessing retrofit measures to specifically determine which are most effective for large multifamily complexes in the cold climate region. Other issues that were investigated include the effects of improving building efficiency on tenant comfort, the impact on tenant turnover rates, and the potential market barriers for this type of community scale project.

  18. From Mountains to Plains: The Hydrogeochemistry of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado during High- and Low-Flow Conditions 2000 (United States)

    Verplanck, P. L.; Murphy, S. F.; McCleskey, R. B.; Barber, L. B.; Roth, D. A.


    A hydrogeochemical study of the Boulder Creek watershed was undertaken to evaluate natural and anthropogenic sources of solutes and the geochemical processes that affect stream chemistry. The Boulder Creek watershed, 1160 km{2}, is in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and can be delineated into five physiographic/land use regions: the headwater region (elev. 4100 to 2600 m, tundra to pine/fir forest, Precambrian and Tertiary gneisses and plutons, sparse habitation), the mountain corridor (elev. 2600 to 1750 m, ponderosa pine, Precambrian and Tertiary gneisses and plutons, small mountain communities), the urban region (elev. 1750 to 1560 m, grassland, Mesozoic sedimentary units, City of Boulder), the wastewater-dominated reach (elev. 1560 to 1540 m, grassland, Mesozoic sedimentary units, sewage treatment plant effluent), and the agriculture region (elev. 1540 to 1480 m, grassland, Mesozoic sedimentary units, mixed urban and agricultural). Potential anthropogenic sources of solutes include: mining (hardrock and aggregate), septic systems, highway runoff, urban wastewater, and agricultural practices. A 70 km reach of Boulder Creek (16 sites) and its major inflows (13 sites) were sampled during high- and low-flow conditions in 2000. At all sites, discharge was measured or estimated, and water samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and organic carbon. At selected sites, analyses also included a suite of pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and wastewater-derived organic compounds and the strontium isotopic composition. Stream water in the headwater region is a dilute Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4- water, and in the mountain corridor a slight increase in solutes was observed. Within the urban reach solute concentrations increased, with the most dramatic increase below the sewage treatment plant. Many constituents continue to increase in concentration through the urban/agriculture region. Similar trends were observed during high- and low-flow conditions with

  19. How do people perceive, understand, and anticipate responding to flash flood risks and warnings? Results from a public survey in Boulder, Colorado, USA (United States)

    Morss, Rebecca E.; Mulder, Kelsey J.; Lazo, Jeffrey K.; Demuth, Julie L.


    This study investigates flash flood forecast and warning communication, interpretation, and decision making, using data from a survey of 418 members of the public in Boulder, Colorado, USA. Respondents to the public survey varied in their perceptions and understandings of flash flood risks in Boulder, and some had misconceptions about flash flood risks, such as the safety of crossing fast-flowing water. About 6% of respondents indicated consistent reversals of US watch-warning alert terminology. However, more in-depth analysis illustrates the multi-dimensional, situationally dependent meanings of flash flood alerts, as well as the importance of evaluating interpretation and use of warning information along with alert terminology. Some public respondents estimated low likelihoods of flash flooding given a flash flood warning; these were associated with lower anticipated likelihood of taking protective action given a warning. Protective action intentions were also lower among respondents who had less trust in flash flood warnings, those who had not made prior preparations for flash flooding, and those who believed themselves to be safer from flash flooding. Additional analysis, using open-ended survey questions about responses to warnings, elucidates the complex, contextual nature of protective decision making during flash flood threats. These findings suggest that warnings can play an important role not only by notifying people that there is a threat and helping motivate people to take protective action, but also by helping people evaluate what actions to take given their situation.

  20. Lagrangian sampling of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2005--Hydrological and chemical data (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Gray, James L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Taylor, Howard E.; Zaugg, Steven D.


    This report presents methods and data for a Lagrangian sampling investigation into chemical loading and in-stream attenuation of inorganic and organic contaminants in two wastewater treatment-plant effluent-dominated streams: Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa. Water-quality sampling was timed to coincide with low-flow conditions when dilution of the wastewater treatment-plant effluent by stream water was at a minimum. Sample-collection times corresponded to estimated travel times (based on tracer tests) to allow the same "parcel" of water to reach downstream sampling locations. The water-quality data are linked directly to stream discharge using flow- and depth-integrated composite sampling protocols. A range of chemical analyses was made for nutrients, carbon, major elements, trace elements, biological components, acidic and neutral organic wastewater compounds, antibiotic compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, steroid and steroidal-hormone compounds, and pesticide compounds. Physical measurements were made for field conditions, stream discharge, and time-of-travel studies. Two Lagrangian water samplings were conducted in each stream, one in the summer of 2003 and the other in the spring of 2005. Water samples were collected from five sites in Boulder Creek: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, and three downstream sites. Fourmile Creek had seven sampling sites: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, four downstream sites, and a tributary. At each site, stream discharge was measured, and equal width-integrated composite water samples were collected and split for subsequent chemical, physical, and biological analyses. During the summer of 2003 sampling, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant consisted of 36 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from the respective wastewater treatment plant was 81 percent effluent. During the spring of 2005

  1. Tracking Boulders (United States)


    13 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of a trough in the Sirenum Fossae region. On the floor and walls of the trough, large -- truck- to house-sized -- boulders are observed at rest. However, there is evidence in this image for the potential for mobility. In the central portion of the south (bottom) wall, a faint line of depressions extends from near the middle of the wall, down to the rippled trough floor, ending very near one of the many boulders in the area. This line of depressions is a boulder track; it indicates the path followed by the boulder as it trundled downslope and eventually came to rest on the trough floor. Because it is on Mars, even when the boulder is sitting still, this once-rolling stone gathers no moss. Location near: 29.4oS, 146.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  2. Water uptake of trees in a montane forest catchment and the geomorphological potential of root growth in Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory, Rocky Mountains, Colorado (United States)

    Skeets, B.; Barnard, H. R.; Byers, A.


    The influence of vegetation on the hydrological cycle and the possible effect of roots in geomorphological processes are poorly understood. Gordon Gulch watershed in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, is a montane climate ecosystem of the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory whose study adds to the database of ecohydrological work in different climates. This work sought to identify the sources of water used by different tree species and to determine how trees growing in rock outcrops may contribute to the fracturing and weathering of rock. Stable isotopes (18O and 2H) were analyzed from water extracted from soil and xylem samples. Pinus ponderosa on the south-facing slope consumes water from deeper depths during dry periods and uses newly rain-saturated soils, after rainfall events. Pinus contorta on the north -facing slope shows a similar, expected response in water consumption, before and after rain. Two trees (Pinus ponderosa) growing within rock outcrops demonstrate water use from cracks replenished by new rains. An underexplored question in geomorphology is whether tree roots growing in rock outcrops contribute to long-term geomorphological processes by physically deteriorating the bedrock. The dominant roots of measured trees contributed approximately 30 - 80% of total water use, seen especially after rainfall events. Preliminary analysis of root growth rings indicates that root growth is capable of expanding rock outcrop fractures at an approximate rate of 0.6 - 1.0 mm per year. These results demonstrate the significant role roots play in tree physiological processes and in bedrock deterioration.

  3. 76 FR 56430 - Boulder Canyon Project (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area... Project (BCP) electric service provided by the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The Rates will... by the Boulder Canyon Project Act (45 Stat. 1057, December 21, 1928), sits on the Colorado River...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cotman


    Full Text Available The processes of forming, petrography, features, properties and exploitation of granite boulders are described. The directional drilling and black powder blasting is the succesful method in exploitation of granite boulders (boulder technology (the paper is published in Croatian.

  5. 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings, 3-6 August 2008, Vail, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.


    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 3-6, 2008. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'New Directions for Rapidly Growing Silicon Technologies.'

  6. Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Rodríguez Quiroz


    Full Text Available La conservación de la biodiversidad cuenta, entre sus principales mecanismos de intervención, con las áreas naturales protegidas. En el alto Golfo de California (AGC se ubica la Reser-va de la Biosfera del Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Río Colorado, en la que subsisten especies de alto valor económico, así como especies en peligro de extinción. Este último factor justificó el establecimiento de la reserva. El estudio analiza la efectividad de la Reserva del Alto Golfo como mecanismo de protección de los recursos naturales, en particular de las que están en riesgo de desaparecer, así como de comprobar si los pescadores han mejorado sus condiciones de vida tras la operación de esa área natural. La exploración se llevó a cabo mediante la aplicación de una encuesta a los pescadores. Se sugiere que es indispensable un gran esfuerzo, de autoridades y grupos organizados, para encontrar soluciones al manejo de la Reserva, a fin fijar un programa que permita la recuperación de las especies en peligro de extinción, elevar la calidad de vida de los pescadores y con ello garantizar un equilibrio entre la conservación y la sustentabilidad de la pesca y de los pescadores en el Alto Golfo de California.

  7. Nutritional Considerations for Bouldering. (United States)

    Smith, Edward J; Storey, Ryan; Ranchordas, Mayur K


    Bouldering competitions are held up to International level and governed by the International Federation of Sport Climbing. Bouldering has been selected to feature at the 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo, however, physiological qualities and nutritional requirements to optimize performance remain inadequately defined due to large gaps in the literature. The primary goals of training include optimizing the capacity of the anaerobic energy systems and developing sport-specific strength, with emphasis on the isometric function of the forearm flexors responsible for grip. Bouldering athletes typically possess a lean physique, similar to the characteristics of sport climbers with reported body fat values of 6-12%. Athletes strive for a low body weight to improve power to weight ratio and limit the load on the extremities. Specialized nutritional support is uncommon and poor nutritional practices such as chronic carbohydrate restriction are prevalent, compromising the health of the athletes. The high intensity nature of bouldering demands a focus on adequate carbohydrate availability. Protein intake and timing should be structured to maximize muscle protein synthesis and recovery, with the literature suggesting 0.25-0.3 g/kg in 3-4 hr intervals. Supplementing with creatine and b-alanine may provide some benefit by augmenting the capacity of the anaerobic systems. Boulderers are encouraged to seek advice from nutrition experts to enhance performance, particularly important when weight loss is the desired outcome. Further research is warranted across all nutritional aspects of bouldering which is summarized in this review.

  8. Lodging in Boulder and Louisville, Colorado | NREL (United States)

    Leadership Community Education Center Economic Impact Environment, Health, & Safety Sustainability Energy : 720-587-3014 Comfort Inn 1196 W. Dillon Road Louisville, CO 80027 Phone: 303-604-0181 Courtyard by Marriott 948 West Dillon Road Louisville, CO 303-604-0007 Hampton Inn 912 W. Dillon Road Louisville, CO

  9. Understanding change: Wildfire in Boulder County, Colorado (United States)

    Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Patricia A. Champ; Amy L. Telligman


    Wildfire activity continues to plague communities in the American West. Three causes are often identified as key contributors to the wildfire problem: accumulated fuels on public lands due to a history of suppressing wildfires; climate change; and an influx of residents into fire prone areas referred to as the wildland-urban interface (WUI). The latter of these...

  10. Probability of Boulders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager


    To collect background information for formulating a description of the expected soil properties along the tunnel line, in 1987 Storebælt initiated a statistical investigation of the occurrence and size of boulders in the Great Belt area. The data for the boulder size distribution were obtained....... The data collection part of the investigation was made on the basis of geological expert advice (Gunnar Larsen, Århus) by the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI).The statistical data analysis combined with stochastic modeling based on geometry and sound wave diffraction theory gave a point estimate...

  11. Good Days on the Trail, 1938-1942: Film Footage of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This film documents student hiking trips conducted by the University of Colorado at Boulder in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA during the summers of 1938-1942....

  12. Lasers Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1985. Proceedings of the Symposium on Optical Materials for High-Power Lasers (17th) Held in Boulder, Colorado on October 28-30, 1985 (United States)


    1985, pp. 1626-1633. [2] S. Dannefaer, B. Hogg, and D. Kerr, "Defect Characterization in Gallium Arsenide by Positron Annihilation ," Thirteenth...23, No. 4, 5, . " J. J.R. ;-!cteil, G.A. Al-Jumaily, K.C. Jungling, and A.C. Barron, "Properties of TiO2 , aridSiO 2 Thin Films Deposited Using ion...Sputter Deposited SiO 2 / TiO2 Coatings J. R. Sites and H. Demiryont Physics Department, Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523 A-ray

  13. Boulder Food Rescue: An Innovative Approach to Reducing Food Waste and Increasing Food Security. (United States)

    Sewald, Craig A; Kuo, Elena S; Dansky, Hana


    Food waste and food insecurity are both significant issues in communities throughout the U.S., including Boulder, Colorado. As much as 40% of the food produced in the U.S. goes uneaten and ends up in landfills. Nearly 13% of people in the Boulder region experience some level of food insecurity. Founded in 2011, Boulder Food Rescue supports community members to create their own food security through a participatory approach to an emergency food system. The organization uses a web-application "robot" to manage a schedule of volunteers. They coordinate with individuals at low-income senior housing sites, individual housing sites, family housing sites, after-school programs, and pre-schools to set up no-cost grocery programs stocked with food from local markets and grocers that would otherwise go to waste. Each site coordinator makes decisions about how, when, and where food delivery and distribution will occur. The program also conducts robust, real-time data collection and analysis. Boulder Food Rescue is a member and manager of the Food Rescue Alliance, and its model has been replicated and adapted by other cities, including Denver, Colorado Springs, Seattle, Jackson Hole, Minneapolis, Binghamton, and in the Philippines. Information for this special article was collected through key informant interviews with current and former Boulder Food Rescue staff and document review of Boulder Food Rescue materials. Boulder Food Rescue's open source software is available to other communities; to date, 40 cities have used the tool to start their own food rescue organizations. Boulder Food Rescue hopes to continue spreading this model to other cities that are considering ways to reduce food waste and increase food security. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is sponsored by Kaiser Permanente, Community Health. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by

  14. Evaluation of Boulder, CO, SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Vijayakumar, G.


    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE's Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  15. Evaluation of Boulder, CO,SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Vijayakumar, G. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)


    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE’s Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  16. 78 FR 7775 - Boulder Canyon Project (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area...), is proposing an adjustment to the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP) electric service base charge and rates... subsequent laws, particularly section 9(c) of the Reclamation Project Act of 1939 (43 U.S.C. 485h(c)); and...

  17. 78 FR 48670 - Boulder Canyon Project (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area... Canyon Project (BCP) electric service provided by the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The... INFORMATION: Hoover Dam, authorized by the Boulder Canyon Project Act (45 Stat. 1057, December 21, 1928), sits...

  18. 77 FR 48151 - Boulder Canyon Project (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area... Canyon Project (BCP) electric service provided by the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The... INFORMATION: Hoover Dam, authorized by the Boulder Canyon Project Act (45 Stat. 1057, December 21, 1928), sits...

  19. 77 FR 2533 - Boulder Canyon Project (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area...), is proposing an adjustment to the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP) electric service base charge and rates...) of the Reclamation Project Act of 1939 (43 U.S.C. 485h(c)); and other acts that specifically apply to...

  20. 76 FR 8359 - Boulder Canyon Project (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area... Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing an adjustment to the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP... Reclamation Project Act of 1939 (43 U.S.C. 485h(c)), and other acts that specifically apply to the project...

  1. Proposed Construction of Boulder Seismic Station Monitoring Sites, Boulder, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment (United States)


    boreholes at the Boulder Seismic Station for research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) as part of the U.S. Nuclear Treaty monitoring...14 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Location of the proposed Boulder Seismic Station, borehole locations and associated buffers...juncture of Spring Creek and Scab Creek Road (Figure 1). Currently, the Boulder Seismic Station has a 13-element array of seismometers on the property

  2. An assessment of 10-year NOAA aircraft-based tropospheric ozone profiling in Colorado (United States)

    Leonard, Mark; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Lin, Meiyun; McClure-Begley, Audra; Johnson, Bryan J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Tarasick, David


    The Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network Aircraft Program at NOAA has sampled ozone and other atmospheric trace constituents in North America for over a decade (2005-present). The method to derive tropospheric ozone climatology from the light aircraft measurements equipped with the 2B Technology instruments is described in this paper. Since ozone instruments at most of aircraft locations are flown once a month, this raises the question of whether the sampling frequency allows for deriving a climatology that can adequately represent ozone seasonal and vertical variability over various locations. Here we interpret the representativeness of the tropospheric ozone climatology derived from these under-sampled observations using hindcast simulations conducted with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory chemistry-climate model (GFDL-AM3). We first focus on ozone measurements from monthly aircraft profiles over the Front Range of Colorado and weekly ozonesondes launched in Boulder, Colorado. The climatology is presented as monthly values separated in 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th percentiles, and averaged at three vertical layers: lower (1.6-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and upper (6-8 km) troposphere. The aircraft-based climatology is compared to the climatology derived from the nearest located ozonesondes launched from Boulder, Colorado, from GFDL-AM3 co-sampled in time with in-situ observations, and from GFDL-AM3 continuous 3-h samples. Based on these analyses, we recommend the sampling frequency to obtain adequate representation of ozone climatology in the free troposphere. The 3-h sampled AM3 model is used as a benchmark reference for the under-sampled time series. We find that the minimal number of soundings required per month for the all altitude bins (1.6-3, 3-6, and 6-8 km) to sufficiently match the 95% confidence level of the fully sampled monthly ozone means vary between 3 and 5 sounding per month, except in August with a minimum of 6 soundings per month. The

  3. Casa de la Esperanza: A Case Study of Service Coordination at Work in Colorado. (United States)

    Franquiz, Maria E.; Hernandez, Carlota Loya

    This chapter describes how a federally funded farmworker housing facility in northern Colorado--Casa de la Esperanza--has changed the lives of migrant students and their families. The history of migrant workers in Colorado is described, as well as the struggle to construct a permanent farmworker housing facility. Casa was built in Boulder County,…

  4. Structuring Disaster Recovery Infrastructure Decisions: Lessons from Boulder County's 2013 Flood Recovery (United States)

    Clavin, C.; Petropoulos, Z.


    Recovery phase decision making processes, as compared to mitigation and response phase decision making processes, require communities make significant financial and capital decisions in the months after a disaster. Collectively, these investments may significantly contribute to the resilience of a community to future hazards. Pre-disaster administrative decisions are well-established within existing planning processes. Post-event recovery requires community decision makers to quickly evaluate technical proposals and manage significant recovery financial resources to ensure their community rebuilds in a manner that will be more resilient to future events. These technical and administrative hurdles in the aftermath of a disaster create a challenging atmosphere to make sound, scientifically-informed decisions leading to resilient recovery. In September 2013, a 1,000-year rain event that resulted in flooding throughout the Front Range of Colorado, significantly impacting Boulder County. While the event is long past, disaster recovery efforts still continue in parts of Boulder County. Boulder County officials formed a county collaborative that adapted the NIST Community Resilience Planning Guide for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems to facilitate a goals-based multi-criteria decision making process. Rather than use hazard-based information to guide infrastructure design, the county's decision process established time-to-recovery goals for infrastructure systems that were used as criteria for project design. This presentation explores the decision-making process employed by Boulder County to specify design standards for resilient rebuilding of infrastructure systems and examine how this infrastructure planning model could be extrapolated to other situations where there is uncertainty regarding future infrastructure design standards.

  5. Geoelectric monitoring at the Boulder magnetic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Blum


    Full Text Available Despite its importance to a range of applied and fundamental studies, and obvious parallels to a robust network of magnetic-field observatories, long-term geoelectric field monitoring is rarely performed. The installation of a new geoelectric monitoring system at the Boulder magnetic observatory of the US Geological Survey is summarized. Data from the system are expected, among other things, to be used for testing and validating algorithms for mapping North American geoelectric fields. An example time series of recorded electric and magnetic fields during a modest magnetic storm is presented. Based on our experience, we additionally present operational aspects of a successful geoelectric field monitoring system.

  6. Wake patterns behind boulders in the rings of Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brattli, A.; Havnes, O.; Melandsoe, F.


    The flow of charged dust around an electrically charged boulder moving through an environment thought to be typical of planatery rings is studied. As the boulder moves through the ring dust it will excite a V-shaped Mach cone pattern of a form and complexity which varies significantly with boulder size, relative velocity between the boulder and the dust, and with dust plasma conditions. Parameters relevant to the Saturnian ring system are used to compute examples which demonstrate the change in Mach cone patterns with the relevant parameters. Shortcomings of the model are discussed and ways to improve the calculations of Mach cone patterns are pointed out

  7. Geological Investigations on Boulder-Clay of E. Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzel, van P.; Overweel, C.J.; Veenstra, H.J.


    In this article the results of a study on boulder-clay in the neighbourhood of Winschoten (N.E. Netherlands) are communicated (Chapter I). The underlying sediments of the boulder-clay in this area consist of fine preglacial sands and black clay. In the nuclei of the many drumlins a strongly

  8. Toward a new paradigm for boulder dislodgement during storms (United States)

    Weiss, Robert; Sheremet, Alex


    Boulders are an important coastal hazard event deposit because they can only be moved by tsunamis and energetic storms effects of storms. Storms and tsunami are competing processes for coastal change along many shorelines. Therefore, distinguishing the boulders that were moved during a storm from those moved by a tsunami is important. In this contribution, we present the results of a parameter study based on the TRIADS model for wave shoaling on mildly sloping beaches, coupled with a boulder-dislodgement model that is based on Newton's Second Law of Motion. The results show how smaller slopes expose the waves longer to the nonlinear processes, thus increasing the energy in the infragravity wave band. More energy in the infragravity wave band means that there are more energy wave lengths that can dislodge larger boulders. At the same time, a steeper slope lowers the threshold for boulder dislodgement (critical angle of dislodgement), making it more likely for larger boulders to be dislodged on a steeper slope. The competition between these two processes govern boulder dislodgement during storms and is investigated inhere.

  9. Boulder Dislodgement by Tsunamis and Storms: Version 2.0 (United States)

    Weiss, Robert


    In the past, boulder dislodgement by tsunami and storm waves has been approached with a simple threshold approach in which a boulder was moved if the sum of the acting forces on the boulder is larger than zero. The impulse theory taught us, however, that this criterion is not enough to explain particle dislodgement. We employ an adapted version of the Newton's Second Law of Motion (NSLM) in order to consider the essence of the impulse theory which is that the sum of the forces has to exceed a certain threshold for a certain period of time. Furthermore, a classical assumption is to consider linear waves. However, when waves travel toward the shore, they alter due to non-linear processes. We employ the TRIADS model to quantify that change and how it impacts boulder dislodgement. We present our results of the coupled model (adapted NSLM and TRIADS model). The results project a more complex picture of boulder transport by storms and tsunami. The following question arises: What information do we actually invert, and what does it tell us about the causative event?

  10. Rich mineralized boulders of the Rirang River, west Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjokrokardono, S.; Sastratenaya, A.S.


    The Rirang River is a small tributary of the Kalan River. It is 1.5 km long and flows in a N60 deg. E direction. To the west it is separated from the Sampurno Valley by an asymmetric pass with a relatively gentle slope on the Rirang side and a very steep slope down to the Sampurno River. The Rirang Valley lacks outcrops because of a high degree of alteration. It is known to contain mineralized boulders, most of which are of centimetric to decimetric size, but some may exceed 1 m. The uranium content in these boulders varies between 0.6 and 6.67%. Two types of mineralized boulders exist: banded and non-banded types. The former usually have a rounded shape due to erosion on their angles. They are composed of dark centimetric fragments of breccia, roughly aligned, giving a banded aspect, and are cemented by lighter coloured materials of monazite. The mineral composition of the fragments is of fine brown monazite, molybdenite, pyrite, rutile and tourmaline. Uranium minerals are located at the edges of the dark components. Most of the non-banded type boulders are of metasiltstone containing mineralized stringers of uraninite, molybdenite, pyrite, and a little monazite and tourmaline. Some investigations have been carried out, but the geological context and the origin of the boulders are, as yet, not fully understood. (author). 2 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Factors controlling streambed coverage of Didymosphenia geminata in two regulated streams in the Colorado Front Range


    Miller, Matthew P.; McKnight, Diane M.; Cullis, James D.; Greene, Alicia; Vietti, Kristin; Liptzin, Daniel


    Didymosphenia geminata is a stalk-forming freshwater diatom which was historically found primarily in oligotrophic lakes and streams, but has recently become a nuisance species in many lotic systems worldwide. In the last 5–8 years, D. geminata has become established in Boulder Creek and South Boulder Creek, two regulated montane streams in the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains. Factors that may influence the growth of D. geminata were monitored during the summer of 2006. D. geminat...

  12. A story about distributions of dimensions and locations of boulders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager


    for making a bored tunnel through the till deposit. Geographical universality was discovered through the statistical analysis of observations of boulder coordinates and dimension measures from wide spread cliff beach locations. One conclusion is that the joint size distribution up to some degree of modeling...... distribution. Moreover, these ratios are independent of the maximal dimension. The random point field structure of the boulder coordinates as isolated points or as clusters of points makes Poisson fields reasonable modeling candidates for the fields of both single points and cluster points. The cluster size...

  13. Cataclysmic Rock Avalanche from El Capitan, Yosemite Valley, circa 3.6 ka (United States)

    Stock, G. M.


    El Capitan in Yosemite Valley is one of the largest and most iconic granite faces in the world. Despite glacially steepened walls exceeding 90 degrees, a historic database shows relatively few rock falls from El Capitan in the past 150 years. However, a massive bouldery deposit beneath the southeast face suggests an earlier rock avalanche of unusually large size. Spatial analysis of airborne LiDAR data indicate that the rock avalanche deposit has a volume of ~2.70 x 106 m3, a maximum thickness of 18 m, and a runout distance of 660 m, roughly twice the horizontal extent of the adjacent talus. The deposit is very coarse on its distal edge, with individual boulder volumes up to 2500 m3. Cosmogenic 10Be exposure dates from boulders distributed across the deposit confirm this interpretation. Four 10Be samples are tightly clustered between 3.5 and 3.8 ka, with a mean age of 3.6 +/- 0.6 ka. A fifth sample gives a much older age of 22.0 ka, but a glacier occupied Yosemite Valley at this time, prohibiting deposition; thus, the older age likely results from exposure on the cliff face prior to failure. The similarity of ages and overall morphology suggest that the entire deposit formed during a single event. The mean exposure age coincides with inferred Holocene rupture of the northern Owens Valley and/or White Mountain fault(s) between 3.3 and 3.8 ka (Lee et al., 2001; Bacon and Pezzopane, 2007). This time coincidence, combined with the fact that historic rupture of the Owens Valley fault in A.D. 1872 generated numerous large rock falls in Yosemite Valley, strongly suggests that the El Capitan rock avalanche was triggered by a seismic event along the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada circa 3.6 ka. As there is not an obvious "scar" on the expansive southeast face, the exact source area of the rock avalanche is not yet known. Detrital apatite U-Th/(He) thermochronometry can determine the elevation(s) from which rock fall boulders originate, but significant inter-sample age

  14. 76 FR 62839 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ...; Bridgeport Paiute Indian Colony of California; Buena Vista Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians of California; Burns... Indians of the Stewarts Point Rancheria, California; Klamath Tribes, Oregon; La Jolla Band of Luiseno Indians, California; La Posta Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the La Posta Indian Reservation...

  15. 76 FR 14063 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... Pueblo of Acoma, New Mexico. History and Description of the Remains In 1962, human remains representing a... Mescalero Reservation, New Mexico; Pueblo of Acoma, New Mexico; Pueblo of Laguna, New Mexico; Pueblo of Zia, New Mexico; San Carlos Apache of the San Carlos Reservation, Arizona; White Mountain Apache Tribe of...

  16. 76 FR 62833 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... have been identified as Jornada Mogollon based on other material culture collected from the same... likely Jornada Mogollon- based on the material culture collected from the same location. No known... collection. The human remains have been identified as Jornada Mogollon based on other material culture...

  17. 76 FR 43715 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... Hoofnagle (1886-1959). No known individual was identified. The associated funerary objects are two bear... presented in support of continuity in the utilization of animal parts, such as bear teeth, in traditional... individual human remains at the time of death or later as part of the death rite or ceremony. Pursuant to 25...

  18. Complex Flow: Workshop Report; January 17-18, 2012, University of Colorado, Boulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Department of Energy's Wind Program organized a two-day workshop designed to examine complex wind flow into and out of the wind farm environment and the resulting impacts on the mechanical workings of individual wind turbines. An improved understanding of these processes will subsequently drive down the risk involved for wind energy developers, financiers, and owner/operators, thus driving down the cost of energy.

  19. 75 FR 42771 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... Oklahoma; Las Vegas Tribe of Paiute Indians of the Las Vegas Indian Colony, Nevada; Lovelock Paiute Tribe of the Lovelock Indian Colony, Nevada; Moapa Band of Paiute Indians of the Moapa River Indian... Indian Colony, Nevada; Lovelock Paiute Tribe of the Lovelock Indian Colony, Nevada; Moapa Band of Paiute...

  20. 75 FR 57290 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... Indian Colony, Nevada; Lovelock Paiute Tribe of the Lovelock Indian Colony, Nevada; Mescalero Apache...; Lovelock Paiute Tribe of the Lovelock Indian Colony, Nevada; Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero...

  1. 75 FR 52019 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO (United States)


    ... Vegas Indian Colony, Nevada; Lovelock Paiute Tribe of the Lovelock Indian Colony, Nevada; Moapa Band of... of Paiute Indians of the Las Vegas Indian Colony, Nevada; Lovelock Paiute Tribe of the Lovelock...

  2. Boulder Dislodgment Reloaded: New insights from boulder transport and dislodgement by tsunamis and storms from three-dimensional numerical simulations with GPUSPH (United States)

    Weiss, R.; Zainali, A.


    Boulders can be found on many coastlines around the globe. They are generally thought to be moved either during coastal storms or tsunamis because they are too heavy to be moved by more common marine or coastal processes. To understand storm and tsunami risk at given coastline, the event histories of both events need to be separated to produce a robust event statistics for quantitative risk analyses. Because boulders are most likely only moved by coastal storms or tsunamis, they are very suitable to produce the data basis for such event statistics. Boulder transport problem has been approached by comparing the driving with resisting forces acting on a boulder. However, we argue that this approach is not sufficient because the comparison of resisting and driving forces only constitutes boulder motion, but not for boulder dislodgment. Boulder motion means that the boulder starts to move out of its pocket. However, this motion does not guarantee that the boulder will reach the critical dislodgment position. Boulder dislodgment is a necessary condition to identify whether or not a boulder has moved. For boulder dislodgement, an equation of motion is needed, and that equation is Newtons Second Law of Motion (NSL). We perform fully coupled three-dimensional numerical simulation of boulders moved by waves where the boulders move according to NSL. Our numerical simulations are the first of their kind applied to tsunami and storm boulder motion. They show how storm and tsunami waves interact with boulders in a more realistic physical setting, and highlight the importance of submergence. Based on our simulations we perform a dimensional analysis that identifies the Froude number as important parameter, which can be considered large only in the front of tsunami waves, but small in the rest of tsunami wave and also generally small in storm waves. From a general point of view, our results indicate that the boulder transport problem is more complex than recently considered, and

  3. EQ3/6: status and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolery, T.J.; Isherwood, D.J.; Jackson, K.J.; Delany, J.M.; Puigdomenech, I.


    EQ3/6 is a set of related computer codes and data files for use in geochemical modeling of aqueous systems. The EQ3/6 package centers around two large computer codes, EQ3NR and EQ6, which are supported by a common thermodynamic data base. EQ3NR is a speciation-solubility code, whose function is to compute a model of the state of an aqueous solution. This code is very flexible in terms of the input that it will accept. EQ6 is a reaction-path code, which calculates models of changes in aqueous systems as they proceed toward a state of overall chemical equilibrium. EQ3/6 prior to FY83 had no capability for modeling brines, because the approximations for calculating the thermodynamic activity of water and the activity coefficients of the solute species were restricted to low ionic strengths ({le} 1.0 molal). An option has been added to use Pitzer`s equations for such calculations. At present, EQ3/6 contains two alternate Pitzer coefficient data bases. Several improvements have been made to the EQ6 code. Prior to FY83, the code could run models of mineral dissolution kinetics, but could not calculate models of precipitation kinetics. This problem has been overcome by additional code development. The speed of non-kinetic EQ6 calculations has recently been enhanced by the creation of two new calculational modes, economy mode and super economy mode. A calculational mode to simulate systems open to large gas reservoirs has also been developed. 34 references.

  4. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor, S.B.; Robins, J.W.


    The Boulder batholith of southwestern Montana is a composite Late Cretaceous intrusive mass, mostly composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite. This study was not restricted to the plutonic rocks; it also includes younger rocks that overlie the batholith, and older rocks that it intrudes. The Boulder batholith area has good overall potential for economic uranium deposits, because its geology is similar to that of areas that contain economic deposits elsewhere in the world, and because at least 35 uranium occurrences of several different types are present. Potential is greatest for the occurrence of small uranium deposits in chalcedony veins and base-metal sulfide veins. Three areas may be favorable for large, low-grade deposits consisting of a number of closely spaced chalcedony veins and enriched wall rock; the Mooney claims, the Boulder area, and the Clancy area. In addition, there is a good possibility of by-product uranium production from phosphatic black shales in the project area. The potential for uranium deposits in breccia masses that cut prebatholith rocks, in manganese-quartz veins near Butte, and in a shear zone that cuts Tertiary rhyolite near Helena cannot be determined on the basis of available information. Low-grade, disseminated, primary uranium concentrations similar to porphyry deposits proposed by Armstrong (1974) may exist in the Boulder batholith, but the primary uranium content of most batholith rocks is low. The geologic environment adjacent to the Boulder batholith is similar in places to that at the Midnite mine in Washington. Some igneous rocks in the project area contain more than 10 ppM U 3 O 8 , and some metasedimentary rocks near the batholith contain reductants such as sulfides and carbonaceous material

  5. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, S.B.; Robins, J.W.


    The Boulder batholith of southwestern Montana is a composite Late Cretaceous intrusive mass, mostly composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite. This study was not restricted to the plutonic rocks; it also includes younger rocks that overlie the batholith, and older rocks that it intrudes. The Boulder batholith area has good overall potential for economic uranium deposits, because its geology is similar to that of areas that contain economic deposits elsewhere in the world, and because at least 35 uranium occurrences of several different types are present. Potential is greatest for the occurrence of small uranium deposits in chalcedony veins and base-metal sulfide veins. Three areas may be favorable for large, low-grade deposits consisting of a number of closely spaced chalcedony veins and enriched wall rock; the Mooney claims, the Boulder area, and the Clancy area. In addition, there is a good possibility of by-product uranium production from phosphatic black shales in the project area. The potential for uranium deposits in breccia masses that cut prebatholith rocks, in manganese-quartz veins near Butte, and in a shear zone that cuts Tertiary rhyolite near Helena cannot be determined on the basis of available information. Low-grade, disseminated, primary uranium concentrations similar to porphyry deposits proposed by Armstrong (1974) may exist in the Boulder batholith, but the primary uranium content of most batholith rocks is low. The geologic environment adjacent to the Boulder batholith is similar in places to that at the Midnite mine in Washington. Some igneous rocks in the project area contain more than 10 ppM U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and some metasedimentary rocks near the batholith contain reductants such as sulfides and carbonaceous material.

  6. Historieportal 3.-6. -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jens Aage

    Portal, der indeholder tekster, video, billeder, interaktive opgaver m.m. til undervisningen i historie i 3.-6. klasse......Portal, der indeholder tekster, video, billeder, interaktive opgaver m.m. til undervisningen i historie i 3.-6. klasse...

  7. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: The Boulder Capture Option (United States)

    Abell, Paul A.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.


    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar-electric-propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (approximately 4-10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (approximately 1-5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (approximately 100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. This option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well-characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. The boulder option is an extremely large sample-return mission with the prospect of bringing back many tons of well-characterized asteroid material to the Earth-Moon system. The candidate boulder from the target NEA can be selected based on inputs from the world-wide science community, ensuring that the most scientifically interesting boulder be returned for subsequent sampling. This boulder option for NASA's ARM can leverage knowledge of previously characterized NEAs from prior robotic missions, which provides more

  8. Multiple severe typhoons in recent history revealed by coral boulders of northwestern Luzon, Philippines (United States)

    Gong, Shou-Yeh; Wu, Tso-Ren; Liu, Sze-Chieh; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Siringan, Fernando; Lin, Han-Wei


    Meter-sized coral boulders occurred on Holocene reef flat at Pasuquin, Ilocos Norte and Cabugao, Ilocos Sur, Philippines. Boulders larger than 3 meters were located and measured by field survey and UAV photogrammetry. Boulders now distributed 45-140 m away from edge of Holocene reef flat, and above highest high tide. The lithology of those boulders is the same as the underlying Holocene coral reef at the sites, hence believed to be broken from reef edge locally. Fossil corals in those boulders mostly appeal not in upward-growing attitude but overturned or tilted. Several tens of photos were taken around selected boulders from different angles, and 3D models were established from the photos. Dimension and volumes were calculated from 3D models. Boulder volumes can be estimated much more accurately this way than simply multiple X, Y, and Z as many previous studies did. The volumes of boulders larger than 3 m in length vary from 10-52.6 m3. Assuming 2.1 g/cm3 for wet density, weights of boulders are estimated to range from 21-110 metric tons. Boulders of such size and weight obviously can't be moved by normal waves, and likely dislodged by Extreme Wave Event (EWE). Small and well-preserved corals were found in depressions on boulder surface and interpreted to represent timing of final displacement. Corals found on seven boulders at Pasuquin were 230Th dated to be 1782, 1904, 1946, 1957, 1978 and 2003 AD respectively. No tsunami was reported in historical records in northern Luzon for those years, but several documented typhoons could be responsible for displacement of each of those boulders. Another Porites boulder at Cabugao was dated to be tilted five times from 673-838 AD, averaging one EWE every 33 years. Such frequent occurrence of EWE is unlikely resulted from tsunami. Therefore, those coral boulders at Pasuquin and Cabugao are interpreted to be displaced by severe typhoons.

  9. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado, Final Progress Report 14 February 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, E.R.


    OAK-B135 The results and progress of research funded by DOE grant number DOE-FG03-95ER40913 at the University of Colorado at Boulder is described. Includes work performed at the HERMES experiment at DESY to study the quark structure of the nucleon and the hadronization process in nuclei, as well as hadronic reactions studied at LAMPF, KEK, and Fermilab

  10. Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission: Robotic Boulder Capture Option Overview (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Belbin, Scott P.; Reeves, David M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Naasz, Bo J.; Abell, Paul A.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying an option for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) that would capture a multi-ton boulder (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (is approximately 100+ meter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cislunar space for subsequent human and robotic exploration. This alternative mission approach, designated the Robotic Boulder Capture Option (Option B), has been investigated to determine the mission feasibility and identify potential differences from the initial ARRM concept of capturing an entire small NEA (4-10 meters in size), which has been designated the Small Asteroid Capture Option (Option A). Compared to the initial ARRM concept, Option B allows for centimeter-level characterization over an entire large NEA, the certainty of target NEA composition type, the ability to select the boulder that is captured, numerous opportunities for mission enhancements to support science objectives, additional experience operating at a low-gravity planetary body including extended surface contact, and the ability to demonstrate future planetary defense strategies on a hazardous-size NEA. Option B can leverage precursor missions and existing Agency capabilities to help ensure mission success by targeting wellcharacterized asteroids and can accommodate uncertain programmatic schedules by tailoring the return mass.

  11. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddeucci, Joe [Dept. of Public Works, Boulder, CO (United States). Utilities Division


    The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project (BCH) was purchased by the City of Boulder, CO (the city) in 2001. Project facilities were originally constructed in 1910 and upgraded in the 1930s and 1940s. By 2009, the two 10 MW turbine/generators had reached or were nearing the end of their useful lives. One generator had grounded out and was beyond repair, reducing plant capacity to 10 MW. The remaining 10 MW unit was expected to fail at any time. When the BCH power plant was originally constructed, a sizeable water supply was available for the sole purpose of hydroelectric power generation. Between 1950 and 2001, that water supply had gradually been converted to municipal water supply by the city. By 2001, the water available for hydroelectric power generation at BCH could not support even one 10 MW unit. Boulder lacked the financial resources to modernize the facilities, and Boulder anticipated that when the single, operational historical unit failed, the project would cease operation. In 2009, the City of Boulder applied for and received a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant for $1.18 million toward a total estimated project cost of $5.155 million to modernize BCH. The federal funding allowed Boulder to move forward with plant modifications that would ensure BCH would continue operation. Federal funding was made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Boulder determined that a single 5 MW turbine/generator would be the most appropriate capacity, given the reduced water supply to the plant. Average annual BCH generation with the old 10 MW unit had been about 8,500 MW-hr, whereas annual generation with a new, efficient turbine could average 11,000 to 12,000 MW-hr. The incremental change in annual generation represents a 30% increase in generation over pre-project conditions. The old turbine/generator was a single nozzle Pelton turbine with a 5-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 82%. The new unit is a

  12. Colorado Water Institute (United States)

    Colorado Water Institute Colorado State University header HomeMission StatementGRAD592NewslettersPublications/ReportsCSU Water ExpertsFunding OpportunitiesScholarshipsSubscribeEmploymentAdvisory BoardStaffContact UsCommentsLinks Water Center Logo Water Resources Archive Office of Engagement Ag Water

  13. An advanced three-phase physical, experimental and numerical method for tsunami induced boulder transport (United States)

    Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brückner, Helmut


    Coasts around the world are affected by high-energy wave events like storm surges or tsunamis depending on their regional climatological and geological settings. By focusing on tsunami impacts, we combine the abilities and experiences of different scientific fields aiming at improved insights of near- and onshore tsunami hydrodynamics. We investigate the transport of coarse clasts - so called boulders - due to tsunami impacts by a multi-methodology approach of numerical modelling, laboratory experiments, and sedimentary field records. Coupled numerical hydrodynamic and boulder transport models (BTM) are widely applied for analysing the impact characteristics of the transport by tsunami, such as wave height and flow velocity. Numerical models able to simulate past tsunami events and the corresponding boulder transport patterns with high accuracy and acceptable computational effort can be utilized as powerful forecasting models predicting the impact of a coast approaching tsunami. We have conducted small-scale physical experiments in the tilting flume with real shaped boulder models. Utilizing the structure from motion technique (Westoby et al., 2012) we reconstructed real boulders from a field study on the Island of Bonaire (Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea, Engel & May, 2012). The obtained three-dimensional boulder meshes are utilized for creating downscaled replica of the real boulder for physical experiments. The results of the irregular shaped boulder are compared to experiments with regular shaped boulder models to achieve a better insight about the shape related influence on transport patterns. The numerical model is based on the general two-phase mass flow model by Pudasaini (2012) enhanced for boulder transport simulations. The boulder is implemented using the immersed boundary technique (Peskin, 2002) and the direct forcing approach. In this method Cartesian grids (fluid and particle phase) and Lagrangian meshes (boulder) are combined. By applying the

  14. Boulder emplacement and remobilisation by cyclone and submarine landslide tsunami waves near Suva City, Fiji (United States)

    Lau, A. Y. Annie; Terry, James P.; Ziegler, Alan; Pratap, Arti; Harris, Daniel


    The characteristics of a reef-top boulder field created by a local submarine landslide tsunami are presented for the first time. Our examination of large reef-derived boulders deposited by the 1953 tsunami near Suva City, Fiji, revealed that shorter-than-normal-period tsunami waves generated by submarine landslides can create a boulder field resembling a storm boulder field due to relatively short boulder transport distances. The boulder-inferred 1953 tsunami flow velocity is estimated at over 9 m s- 1 at the reef edge. Subsequent events, for example Cyclone Kina (1993), appear to have remobilised some large boulders. While prior research has demonstrated headward retreat of Suva Canyon in response to the repeated occurrence of earthquakes over the past few millennia, our results highlight the lingering vulnerability of the Fijian coastlines to high-energy waves generated both in the presence (tsunami) and absence (storm) of submarine failures and/or earthquakes. To explain the age discrepancies of U-Th dated coral comprising the deposited boulders, we introduce a conceptual model showing the role of repeated episodes of tsunamigenic submarine landslides in removing reef front sections through collapse. Subsequent high-energy wave events transport boulders from exposed older sections of the reef front onto the reef where they are deposited as 'new' boulders, alongside freshly detached sections of the living reef. In similar situations where anachronistic deposits complicate the deposition signal, age-dating of the coral boulders should not be used as a proxy for determining the timing of the submarine landslides or the tsunamis that generated them.

  15. Colorado Better Buildings Project. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strife, Susie [Boulder County, Boulder, CO (United States); Yancey, Lea [Boulder County, Boulder, CO (United States)


    The Colorado Better Buildings project intended to bring new and existing energy efficiency model programs to market with regional collaboration and funding partnerships. The goals for Boulder County and its program partners were to advance energy efficiency investments, stimulate economic growth in Colorado and advance the state’s energy independence. Collectively, three counties set out to complete 9,025 energy efficiency upgrades in 2.5 years and they succeeded in doing so. Energy efficiency upgrades have been completed in more than 11,000 homes and businesses in these communities. Boulder County and its partners received a $25 million BetterBuildings grant from the U.S. Department of Energy under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in the summer of 2010. This was also known as the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants program. With this funding, Boulder County, the City and County of Denver, and Garfield County set out to design programs for the residential and commercial sectors to overcome key barriers in the energy upgrade process. Since January 2011, these communities have paired homeowners and business owners with an Energy Advisor – an expert to help move from assessment to upgrade with minimal hassle. Pairing this step-by-step assistance with financing incentives has effectively addressed many key barriers, resulting in energy efficiency improvements and happy customers. An expert energy advisor guides the building owner through every step of the process, coordinating the energy assessment, interpreting results for a customized action plan, providing a list of contractors, and finding and applying for all available rebates and low-interest loans. In addition to the expert advising and financial incentives, the programs also included elements of social marketing, technical assistance, workforce development and contractor trainings, project monitoring and verification, and a cloud-based customer data system to coordinate among field

  16. Boulder Capture System Design Options for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission Alternate Approach Trade Study (United States)

    Belbin, Scott P.; Merrill, Raymond G.


    This paper presents a boulder acquisition and asteroid surface interaction electromechanical concept developed for the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) option to capture a free standing boulder on the surface of a 100 m or larger Near Earth Asteroid (NEA). It details the down select process and ranking of potential boulder capture methods, the evolution of a simple yet elegant articulating spaceframe, and ongoing risk reduction and concept refinement efforts. The capture system configuration leverages the spaceframe, heritage manipulators, and a new microspine technology to enable the ARRM boulder capture. While at the NEA it enables attenuation of terminal descent velocity, ascent to escape velocity, boulder collection and restraint. After departure from the NEA it enables, robotic inspection, sample caching, and crew Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA).

  17. The Role of Porosity in the Formation of Coastal Boulder Deposits - Hurricane Versus Tsunami (United States)

    Spiske, M.; Boeroecz, Z.; Bahlburg, H.


    Coastal boulder deposits are a consequence of high-energy wave impacts, such as storms, hurricanes or tsunami. Distinguishing parameters between storm, hurricane and tsunami origin are distance of a deposit from the coast, boulder weight and inferred wave height. Formulas to calculate minimum wave heights of both storm and tsunami waves depend on accurate determination of boulder dimensions and lithology from the respective deposits. At present however, boulder porosity appears to be commonly neglected, leading to significant errors in determined bulk density, especially when boulders consist of reef or coral limestone. This limits precise calculations of wave heights and hampers a clear distinction between storm, hurricane and tsunami origin. Our study uses Archimedean and optical 3D-profilometry measurements for the determination of porosities and bulk densities of reef and coral limestone boulders from the islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao (ABC Islands, Netherlands Antilles). Due to the high porosities (up to 68 %) of the enclosed coral species, the weights of the reef rock boulders are as low as 20 % of previously calculated values. Hence minimum calculated heights both for tsunami and hurricane waves are smaller than previously proposed. We show that hurricane action appears to be the likely depositional mechanism for boulders on the ABC Islands, since 1) our calculations result in tsunami wave heights which do not permit the overtopping of coastal platforms on the ABC Islands, 2) boulder fields lie on the windward (eastern) sides of the islands, 3) recent hurricanes transported boulders up to 35 m3 and 4) the scarcity of tsunami events affecting the coasts of the ABC Islands compared to frequent impacts of tropical storms and hurricanes.

  18. Assessing the role of coastal characteristics in erosional process of rocky shores by boulder quarrying. (United States)

    Causon Deguara, Joanna; Gauci, Ritienne


    Rocky coasts are considered as relatively stable coastlines, subject to erosional processes that change the landscape over long periods of time. Block quarrying is one such process, occurring when hydraulic pressure from wave impact dislodges boulders from within the outcropping bedrock. These dislodged boulders can be either deposited inland or dragged seaward by further wave action. This process can be evidenced from boulder deposits on the coast, as well as sockets and detachment scarps that are identified at the shoreline and in the backshore. This study seeks to identify the role of attributes such as aspect, geological structure and water depth have on erosion of rocky coasts through boulder quarrying processes. This is being done through observation of coastline morphology and an analysis of boulder accumulations and erosional features identified on a 3km stretch of rocky shore. The study area is situated on the SE coast of the Island of Malta (Central Mediterranean). The coastline being analysed generally trends NW - SE and consists of a series of limestone beds that dip slightly towards the NE. The boulder deposits observed along the site vary in size, quantity and position with respect to the shoreline. Whilst some areas exhibit large boulder accumulations, other areas are distinguished by the complete absence of such deposits. Taking into consideration the wave climate, the variable size, quantity and distribution of boulder accumulations observed along the site may indicate that geological structure and aspect play an important role in boulder dislodgment by wave action. Key words: rock coast, boulder quarrying, erosional process, Malta

  19. Beyond Colorado's Front Range - A new look at Laramide basin subsidence, sedimentation, and deformation in north-central Colorado (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Trexler, James H.; Cashman, Patricia H.; Miller, Ian M.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.


    preserved in the Colorado Headwaters Basin, suggesting this basin may have remained closed throughout the Paleocene and early Eocene. The field trip also addresses middle Eocene(?) folding of the late Laramide basin-fill strata, related to steep reverse faults that offset the Proterozoic crystalline basement. Late Oligocene magmatic activity is indicated by dikes, plugs, and eruptive volcanic rocks in the Rabbit Ears Range and the Never Summer Mountains that span and flank the Colorado Headwaters Basin. These intrusions and eruptions were accompanied by extensional faulting along predominantly northwesterly trends. Erosion accompanied the late Oligocene igneous activity and faulting, leading to deposition of boulder conglomerates and sandstones of the North Park Formation and high-level conglomerates across the landscape that preserve evidence of a paleo-drainage network that drained the volcanic landscape.

  20. Boulder coastal deposits at Favignana Island rocky coast (Sicily, Italy): Litho-structural and hydrodynamic control (United States)

    Pepe, Fabrizio; Corradino, Marta; Parrino, Nicolò; Besio, Giovanni; Presti, Valeria Lo; Renda, Pietro; Calcagnile, Lucio; Quarta, Gianluca; Sulli, Attilio; Antonioli, Fabrizio


    Boulders are frequently dislodged from rock platforms, transported and deposited along coastal zones by high-magnitude storm waves or tsunamis. Their size and shape are often controlled by the thickness of bedding planes as well as by high-angle to bedding fracture network. We investigate these processes along two coastal areas of Favignana Island by integrating geological data for 81 boulders, 49 rupture surfaces (called sockets) and fracture orientation and spacing with four radiocarbon dates, numerical hydrodynamic analysis, and hindcast numerical simulation data. Boulders are scattered along the carbonate platform as isolated blocks or in small groups, which form, as a whole, a discontinuous berm. Underwater surveys also highlight free boulders with sharp edges and sockets carved out in the rock platform. Boulders are composed of ruditic- to arenitic-size clastic carbonates. Their size ranges from 0.6 to 3.7 m, 0.55 to 2.4 m, and 0.2 to 1 m on the major (A), medium (B), and minor (C) axes, respectively. The highest value of mass estimation is 12.5 t. Almost all of boulders and sockets are characterized by a tabular or bladed shape. The comparisons between a) the fractures spacing and the length of A- and B-axes, and b) the frequency peaks of C-axis with the recurrent thickness of beds measured along the coastal zone demonstrate the litho-structural control in the size and shape of joint-bounded boulders. These comparisons, together with the similarity between the shapes of the boulders and those of the sockets as well as between the lithology of boulders and the areas surrounding the sockets, suggest that blocks originate by detachment from the platform edge. Thus, the most common pre-transport setting is the joint-bounded scenario. Hydrodynamic equations estimate that the storm wave heights necessary to initiate the transport of blocks diverge from 2 m to 8 m for joint-bounded boulders and from few tens of centimeters up to 11 m for submerged boulders. The

  1. Distribution and Characteristics of Boulder Halos at High Latitudes on Mars: Ground Ice and Surface Processes Drive Surface Reworking (United States)

    Levy, J. S.; Fassett, C. I.; Rader, L. X.; King, I. R.; Chaffey, P. M.; Wagoner, C. M.; Hanlon, A. E.; Watters, J. L.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Holt, J. W.; Russell, A. T.; Dyar, M. D.


    Boulder halos are circular arrangements of clasts present at Martian middle to high latitudes. Boulder halos are thought to result from impacts into a boulder-poor surficial unit that is rich in ground ice and/or sediments and that is underlain by a competent substrate. In this model, boulders are excavated by impacts and remain at the surface as the crater degrades. To determine the distribution of boulder halos and to evaluate mechanisms for their formation, we searched for boulder halos over 4,188 High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images located between 50-80° north and 50-80° south latitude. We evaluate geological and climatological parameters at halo sites. Boulder halos are about three times more common in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere (19% versus 6% of images) and have size-frequency distributions suggesting recent Amazonian formation (tens to hundreds of millions of years). In the north, boulder halo sites are characterized by abundant shallow subsurface ice and high thermal inertia. Spatial patterns of halo distribution indicate that excavation of boulders from beneath nonboulder-bearing substrates is necessary for the formation of boulder halos, but that alone is not sufficient. Rather, surface processes either promote boulder halo preservation in the north or destroy boulder halos in the south. Notably, boulder halos predate the most recent period of near-surface ice emplacement on Mars and persist at the surface atop mobile regolith. The lifetime of observed boulders at the Martian surface is greater than the lifetime of the craters that excavated them. Finally, larger minimum boulder halo sizes in the north indicate thicker icy soil layers on average throughout climate variations driven by spin/orbit changes during the last tens to hundreds of millions of years.

  2. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios. (United States)


    ... should have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure; excellent control... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE...

  3. A story about estimation of a random field of boulders from incomplete seismic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager


    deposits along the tunnel line. By use of this important distribution information and of the observed homogeneity of the seismic point source field together with the physical properties of diffraction it became possible to make the wanted prediction. During the excavation the found boulders were counted......This paper reports on the statistical interpretation of seismic diffraction measurements of boulder locations. The measurements are made in a corridor along the planned tunnel line for the later realized bored tunnel through the till deposits under the East Channel of the Great Belt in Denmark...... graphical registrations on seismograms do not make a proper interpretation possible without detailed knowledge about the joint distribution of the primary dimensions of the boulders. Therefore separate measurements were made of the dimensions of boulders deposited visibly on the cliff beaches of the Great...

  4. Geological model for Boulder 1 at Station 2, South Massif, Valley of Taurus-Littrow (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.


    A possible geological model for the origin and history of the materials that make up Boulder 1 is proposed on the basis of firm and probable regional, local, and boulder geological constraints. These constraints are described in detail, unresolved questions are considered, and a model is presented which appears to satisfy all the firm constraints and most of the probable constraints. According to this model, the crystallization of plagioclase and other ANT-suite phases now present in the boulder as clasts and matrix materials took place during the melted-shell stage of lunar history; the original rocks were greatly modified during the cratered-highland stage; and the events that determined the major characteristics of the boulder occurred during the large-basin stage.

  5. Colorado Children's Budget 2010 (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010


    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the…

  6. Colorado Children's Budget 2013 (United States)

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin


    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  7. Western Slope Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epis, R.C.; Callender, J.F.


    A conference on the geology and geologic resources of the Western Slope of western Colorado and eastern Utah is presented. Fourteen papers from the conference have been abstracted and indexed for the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base. These papers covered such topics as uranium resources, oil shale deposits, coal resources, oil and gas resources, and geothermal resources of the area

  8. 78 FR 50095 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO (United States)


    ... Mountain Reservation, Colorado, New Mexico & Utah may proceed. History Colorado is responsible for....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. [[Page 50096

  9. Artificial Intelligence in Maintenance: Proceedings of the Joint Services Workshop Held at Boulder, Colorado on 4-6 October 1983. (United States)


    is general. Without reprogramming , the program can discuss with a student an), diagnostic problem that it can solve on its own. Moreover, by...key thought processes, like recognizing people’s faces and reasoning by analogy are still puzzles. These are performed so • subconsciously by people

  10. International Conference on Coordination Chemistry (23rd) Held at Boulder, Colorado on 29 July - 3 August 1984. Abstracts of Paper. (United States)


    orAesa, the IlL bindia’ awvlasery paosiaima. l. batmotion"l Agency for bte~Aud so Cancer (1900), Cbromium 4 t and chrolimo cnmouais. In Veosabs at...and N.?. Mallate, J. Gen. Physiol. 1961, 45, 1. 2. 1. Farber, Adv. Cancer Sea. 1963, 7, 363. j 3. P.?. Swann, A.R. PoŜ, A. Bawks, . Farber and P.M...aslhs.’.~au~Ul~ mAma to prsodoed ti 6 4y t rwe- aeftimm As La the" oases oatel$1e wvi f.11. the Off" An %*I*b "I0 "a ft at* Uf "s Is ll- walyes t "Mu~lm

  11. Micro-Mechanical Voltage Tunable Fabry-Perot Filters Formed in (111) Silicon. Degree awarded by Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States)

    Patterson, James D.


    The MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) technology is quickly evolving as a viable means to combine micro-mechanical and micro-optical elements on the same chip. One MEMS technology that has recently gained attention by the research community is the micro-mechanical Fabry-Perot optical filter. A MEMS based Fabry-Perot consists of a vertically integrated structure composed of two mirrors separated by an air gap. Wavelength tuning is achieved by applying a bias between the two mirrors resulting in an attractive electrostatic force which pulls the mirrors closer. In this work, we present a new micro-mechanical Fabry-Perot structure which is simple to fabricate and is integratable with low cost silicon photodetectors and transistors. The structure consists of a movable gold coated oxide cantilever for the top mirror and a stationary Au/Ni plated silicon bottom mirror. The fabrication process is single mask level, self aligned, and requires only one grown or deposited layer. Undercutting of the oxide cantilever is carried out by a combination of RIE and anisotropic KOH etching of the (111) silicon substrate. Metallization of the mirrors is provided by thermal evaporation and electroplating. The optical and electrical characteristics of the fabricated devices were studied and show promissing results. A wavelength shift of 120nm with 53V applied bias was demonstrated by one device geometry using 6.27 micrometer air gap. The finesse of the structure was 2.4. Modulation bandwidths ranging from 91KHz to greater than 920KHz were also observed. Theoretical calculations show that if mirror reflectivity, smoothness, and parallelism are improved, a finesse of 30 is attainable. The predictions also suggest that a reduction of the air gap to 1 micrometer results in an increased wavelength tuning range of 175 nm with a CMOS compatible 4.75V.

  12. 78 FR 5776 - University of Colorado Boulder, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for Duty... (United States)


    ... optical antennas, plasmonics in metals and semiconductors (including graphene), photonic crystals, and... quantum simulation of ``metasuperconductors,'' and to develop new mechanisms for the transfer of quantum...

  13. 3D Modeling of Glacial Erratic Boulders in the Haizi Shan Region, Eastern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Sheriff, M.; Stevens, J.; Radue, M. J.; Strand, P.; Zhou, W.; Putnam, A. E.


    The focus of our team's research is to study patterns of glacier retreat in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at the end of the last ice age. Our purpose is to search for what caused this great global warming. Such information will improve understanding of how the climate system may respond to the human-induced buildup of fossil carbon dioxide. To reconstruct past glacier behavior, we sample boulders deposited by glaciers to find the rate of ancient recession. Each sample is tested to determine the age of the boulder using 10Be cosmogenic-nuclide dating. My portion of this research focuses on creating 3D models of the sampled boulders. Such high-resolution 3D models afford visual inspection and analysis of each boulder in a virtual reality environment after fieldwork is complete. Such detailed virtual reconstructions will aid post-fieldwork evaluation of sampled boulders. This will help our team interpret 10Be dating results. For example, a high-resolution model can aid post-fieldwork observations, and allow scientists to determine whether the rock has been previously covered, eroded, or moved since it was deposited by the glacier, but before the sample was collected. Also a model can be useful for recognizing patterns between age and boulder morphology. Lastly, the models can be used for those who wish to review the data after publication. To create the 3D models, I will use Hero4 GoPro and Canon PowerShot digital cameras to collect photographs of each boulder from different angles. I will then process the digital imagery using `structure-from-motion' techniques and Agisoft Photoscan software. All boulder photographs will be synthesized to 3D and based on a standardized scale. We will then import these models into an environment that can be accessed using cutting-edge virtual reality technology. By producing a virtual archive of 3D glacial boulder reconstructions, I hope to provide deeper insight into geological processes influencing these boulders during and

  14. 76 FR 17444 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO (United States)


    ... Culture, Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), 1560 Broadway, Suite 400, Denver, CO 80202...: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... control of the Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO. The human remains were removed...

  15. A convenient preparation of 9 H -carbazole-3,6-dicarbonitrile and 9 H -carbazole-3,6-dicarboxylic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Weselinski, Lukasz Jan


    A catalytic, high yielding and scalable procedure for the synthesis of 9H-carbazole-3,6-dicarbonitrile has been developed. Subsequent hydrolysis of the dinitrile in the presence of a catalytic copper species (i.e., CuI) yields 9H-carbazole-3,6-dicarboxylic acid. Both compounds are versatile and fine-tunable organic building blocks and therefore offer potential in material science, medicinal and supramolecular chemistry. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.

  16. The university of Colorado OSO-8 spectrometer experiment. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, E.R.; Bruner, E.C. Jr.


    We discuss the remote operation of two high resolution ultraviolet spectrometers on the OSO-8 satellite; one prepared by the Laboratory for Planetary and Stellar Physics in Paris, France and the other by the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Mission operations, from the Colorado facility, enabled the scientific observers to plan observations based on current solar data, interact with the observing program using real or near real-time data and commands, evaluate quick-look instrument data, and analyze the observations for publication. The scientists were supplied with daily solar images and satellite event timelines to aid in experiment planning. Command generation programs converted these observing plans into time-ordered, error-free commands for control of spacecraft and instrument functions. Real and near real-time data and commands via ground data lines were available for interactive target acquisition and instrument reconfiguration. An on-board computer system provided closed-loop target acquisition and instrument control. A sophisticated ground computer system was used for data line communications, data formatting, interactive scientific data display, and in-depth analysis. (orig.)

  17. Tsunami-induced boulder transport - combining physical experiments and numerical modelling (United States)

    Oetjen, Jan; Engel, Max; May, Simon Matthias; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Brueckner, Helmut; Prasad Pudasaini, Shiva


    Coasts are crucial areas for living, economy, recreation, transportation, and various sectors of industry. Many of them are exposed to high-energy wave events. With regard to the ongoing population growth in low-elevation coastal areas, the urgent need for developing suitable management measures, especially for hazards like tsunamis, becomes obvious. These measures require supporting tools which allow an exact estimation of impact parameters like inundation height, inundation area, and wave energy. Focussing on tsunamis, geological archives can provide essential information on frequency and magnitude on a longer time scale in order to support coastal hazard management. While fine-grained deposits may quickly be altered after deposition, multi-ton coarse clasts (boulders) may represent an information source on past tsunami events with a much higher preservation potential. Applying numerical hydrodynamic coupled boulder transport models (BTM) is a commonly used approach to analyse characteristics (e.g. wave height, flow velocity) of the corresponding tsunami. Correct computations of tsunamis and the induced boulder transport can provide essential event-specific information, including wave heights, runup and direction. Although several valuable numerical models for tsunami-induced boulder transport exist (e. g. Goto et al., 2007; Imamura et al., 2008), some important basic aspects of both tsunami hydrodynamics and corresponding boulder transport have not yet been entirely understood. Therefore, our project aims at these questions in four crucial aspects of boulder transport by a tsunami: (i) influence of sediment load, (ii) influence of complex boulder shapes other than idealized rectangular shapes, (iii) momentum transfers between multiple boulders, and (iv) influence of non-uniform bathymetries and topographies both on tsunami and boulder. The investigation of these aspects in physical experiments and the correct implementation of an advanced model is an urgent need

  18. Geohazard reconnaissance mapping for potential rock boulder fall using low altitude UAV photogrammetry (United States)

    Sharan Kumar, N.; Ashraf Mohamad Ismail, Mohd; Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul; Cheang, William


    This paper discusses potential applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for evaluation of risk immediately with photos and 3-dimensional digital element. Aerial photography using UAV ready to give a powerful technique for potential rock boulder fall recognition. High-resolution outputs from this method give the chance to evaluate the site for potential rock boulder falls spatially. The utilization of UAV to capture the aerial photos is a quick, reliable, and cost-effective technique contrasted with terrestrial laser scanning method. Reconnaissance of potential rock boulder susceptible to fall is very crucial during the geotechnical investigation. This process is essential in the view of the rock fall hazards nearby site before the beginning of any preliminary work. Photogrammetric applications have empowered the automated way to deal with identification of rock boulder susceptible to fall by recognizing the location, size, and position. A developing examination of the utilization of digital photogrammetry gives numerous many benefits for civil engineering application. These advancements have made important contributions to our capabilities to create the geohazard map on potential rock boulder fall.

  19. Interim report on modeling sorption with EQ3/6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viani, B.


    Reversible, equilibrium models of sorption to be incorporated into the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling package are summarized. Empirical sorption models as formulated in linear, Langmuir, and Freundlich isotherms will be developed as options to EQ3/6. This work will be done at LLNL. Options for modeling sorption using surface- complexation constructs (diffuse, constant capacitance, and triple-layer models) will also be developed. Development of the surface-complexation options will require part of the work be done under contract. 27 refs., 1 fig

  20. Global and local re-impact and velocity regime of ballistic ejecta of boulder craters on Ceres (United States)

    Schulzeck, F.; Schröder, S. E.; Schmedemann, N.; Stephan, K.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.


    Imaging by the Dawn-spacecraft reveals that fresh craters on Ceres below 40 km often exhibit numerous boulders. We investigate how the fast rotating, low-gravity regime on Ceres influences their deposition. We analyze size-frequency distributions of ejecta blocks of twelve boulder craters. Global and local landing sites of boulder crater ejecta and boulder velocities are determined by the analytical calculation of elliptic particle trajectories on a rotating body. The cumulative distributions of boulder diameters follow steep-sloped power-laws. We do not find a correlation between boulder size and the distance of a boulder to its primary crater. Due to Ceres' low gravitational acceleration and fast rotation, ejecta of analyzed boulder craters (8-31 km) can be deposited across the entire surface of the dwarf planet. The particle trajectories are strongly influenced by the Coriolis effect as well as the impact geometry. Fast ejecta of high-latitude craters accumulate close to the pole of the opposite hemisphere. Fast ejecta of low-latitude craters wraps around the equator. Rotational effects are also relevant for the low-velocity regime. Boulders are ejected at velocities up to 71 m/s.

  1. Assessing learning outcomes in middle-division classical mechanics: The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument (United States)

    Caballero, Marcos D.; Doughty, Leanne; Turnbull, Anna M.; Pepper, Rachel E.; Pollock, Steven J.


    Reliable and validated assessments of introductory physics have been instrumental in driving curricular and pedagogical reforms that lead to improved student learning. As part of an effort to systematically improve our sophomore-level classical mechanics and math methods course (CM 1) at CU Boulder, we have developed a tool to assess student learning of CM 1 concepts in the upper division. The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument (CCMI) builds on faculty consensus learning goals and systematic observations of student difficulties. The result is a 9-question open-ended post test that probes student learning in the first half of a two-semester classical mechanics and math methods sequence. In this paper, we describe the design and development of this instrument, its validation, and measurements made in classes at CU Boulder and elsewhere.

  2. Assessing learning outcomes in middle-division classical mechanics: The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D. Caballero


    Full Text Available Reliable and validated assessments of introductory physics have been instrumental in driving curricular and pedagogical reforms that lead to improved student learning. As part of an effort to systematically improve our sophomore-level classical mechanics and math methods course (CM 1 at CU Boulder, we have developed a tool to assess student learning of CM 1 concepts in the upper division. The Colorado Classical Mechanics and Math Methods Instrument (CCMI builds on faculty consensus learning goals and systematic observations of student difficulties. The result is a 9-question open-ended post test that probes student learning in the first half of a two-semester classical mechanics and math methods sequence. In this paper, we describe the design and development of this instrument, its validation, and measurements made in classes at CU Boulder and elsewhere.

  3. Source signature of volatile organic compounds from oil and natural gas operations in northeastern Colorado. (United States)

    Gilman, J B; Lerner, B M; Kuster, W C; de Gouw, J A


    An extensive set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was measured at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in winter 2011 in order to investigate the composition and influence of VOC emissions from oil and natural gas (O&NG) operations in northeastern Colorado. BAO is 30 km north of Denver and is in the southwestern section of Wattenberg Field, one of Colorado's most productive O&NG fields. We compare VOC concentrations at BAO to those of other U.S. cities and summertime measurements at two additional sites in northeastern Colorado, as well as the composition of raw natural gas from Wattenberg Field. These comparisons show that (i) the VOC source signature associated with O&NG operations can be clearly differentiated from urban sources dominated by vehicular exhaust, and (ii) VOCs emitted from O&NG operations are evident at all three measurement sites in northeastern Colorado. At BAO, the reactivity of VOCs with the hydroxyl radical (OH) was dominated by C(2)-C(6) alkanes due to their remarkably large abundances (e.g., mean propane = 27.2 ppbv). Through statistical regression analysis, we estimate that on average 55 ± 18% of the VOC-OH reactivity was attributable to emissions from O&NG operations indicating that these emissions are a significant source of ozone precursors.

  4. Landslides in the northern Colorado Front Range caused by rainfall, September 11-13, 2013 (United States)

    Godt, Jonathan W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; Baum, Rex L.; Jones, Eric S.; Harp, Edwin L.; Staley, Dennis M.; Barnhart, William D.


    During the second week of September 2013, nearly continuous rainfall caused widespread landslides and flooding in the northern Colorado Front Range. The combination of landslides and flooding was responsible for eight fatalities and caused extensive damage to buildings, highways, and infrastructure. Three fatalities were attributed to a fast moving type of landslide called debris flow. One fatality occurred in Jamestown, and two occurred in the community of Pinebrook Hills immediately west of the City of Boulder. All major canyon roads in the northern Front Range were periodically closed between September 11 and 13, 2013. Some canyon closures were caused by undercutting of roads by landslides and flooding, and some were caused by debris flows and rock slides that deposited material on road surfaces. Most of the canyon roads, with the exceptions of U.S. Highway 6 (Clear Creek Canyon), State Highway 46/Jefferson Co. Rd. 70 (Golden Gate Canyon), and Sunshine Canyon in Boulder County, remained closed at the end of September 2013. A review of historical records in Colorado indicates that this type of event, with widespread landslides and flooding occurring over a very large region, in such a short period of time, is rare.

  5. Intermediate Term (3-6 Years Post Surgery) Outcome of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-operatively, the 5 eyes had VA ranging from 6/60 to NLP, after a variable follow-up period of 3-6 years. Complications included development of tough vascularized retroprosthetic membrane (4 eyes) and infective endophthalmitis in one eye. Conclusion: The intermediate-term outcome of keratoprosthesis surgery in ...

  6. Classroom Museums: Touchable Tables for Kids Grades 3-6. (United States)

    Marx, Pamela

    This book provides ideas for table exhibits for grades 3-6 in nine different subject areas. These areas are: marine life; nature in the backyard; the history and uses of flags; impressionist painters and art; winter festivals around the world; fibers and fabrics; Native Americans in touch with the land; sugar and chocolate; and keeping the earth,…

  7. The 2014 Greeley, Colorado Earthquakes: Science, Industry, Regulation, and Media (United States)

    Yeck, W. L.; Sheehan, A. F.; Weingarten, M.; Nakai, J.; Ge, S.


    On June 1, 2014 (UTC) a magnitude 3.2 earthquake occurred east of the town of Greeley, Colorado. The earthquake was widely felt, with reports from Boulder and Golden, over 60 miles away from the epicenter. The location of the earthquake in a region long considered aseismic but now the locus of active oil and gas production prompted the question of whether this was a natural or induced earthquake. Several classic induced seismicity cases hail from Colorado, including the Rocky Mountain Arsenal earthquakes in the 1960s and the Paradox Valley earthquakes in western Colorado. In both cases the earthquakes were linked to wastewater injection. The Greeley earthquake epicenter was close to a Class II well that had been injecting waste fluid into the deepest sedimentary formation of the Denver Basin at rates as high as 350,000 barrels/month for less than a year. The closest seismometers to the June 1 event were more than 100 km away, necessitating deployment of a local seismic network for detailed study. IRIS provided six seismometers to the University of Colorado which were deployed starting within 3 days of the mainshock. Telemetry at one site allowed for real time monitoring of the ongoing seismic sequence. Local media interest was extremely high with speculation that the earthquake was linked to the oil and gas industry. The timetable of media demand for information provided some challenges given the time needed for data collection and analysis. We adopted a policy of open data and open communication with all interested parties, and made proactive attempts to provide information to industry and regulators. After 3 weeks of data collection and analysis, the proximity and timing of the mainshock and aftershocks to the C4A injection well, along with a sharp increase in seismicity culminating in an M 2.6 aftershock, led to a decision by the Colorado Oil and Gas Corporation Commission (COGCC) to recommend a temporary halt to injection at the C4A injection well. This was the

  8. Discrete Element Method Simulation of a Boulder Extraction From an Asteroid (United States)

    Kulchitsky, Anton K.; Johnson, Jerome B.; Reeves, David M.; Wilkinson, Allen


    The force required to pull 7t and 40t polyhedral boulders from the surface of an asteroid is simulated using the discrete element method considering the effects of microgravity, regolith cohesion and boulder acceleration. The connection between particle surface energy and regolith cohesion is estimated by simulating a cohesion sample tearing test. An optimal constant acceleration is found where the peak net force from inertia and cohesion is a minimum. Peak pulling forces can be further reduced by using linear and quadratic acceleration functions with up to a 40% reduction in force for quadratic acceleration.

  9. Boulder accumulations related to extreme wave events on the eastern coast of Malta (United States)

    Biolchi, Sara; Furlani, Stefano; Antonioli, Fabrizio; Baldassini, Niccoló; Causon Deguara, Joanna; Devoto, Stefano; Di Stefano, Agata; Evans, Julian; Gambin, Timothy; Gauci, Ritienne; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Monaco, Carmelo; Scicchitano, Giovanni


    The accumulation of large boulders related to waves generated by either tsunamis or extreme storm events have been observed in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Along the eastern low-lying rocky coasts of Malta, five sites with large boulder deposits have been investigated, measured and mapped. These boulders have been detached and moved from the nearshore and the lowest parts of the coast by sea wave action. In the Sicily-Malta channel, heavy storms are common and originate from the NE and NW winds. Conversely, few tsunamis have been recorded in historical documents to have reached the Maltese archipelago. We present a multi-disciplinary study, which aims to define the characteristics of these boulder accumulations, in order to assess the coastal geo-hazard implications triggered by the sheer ability of extreme waves to detach and move large rocky blocks inland. The wave heights required to transport 77 coastal boulders were calculated using various hydrodynamic equations. Particular attention was given to the quantification of the input parameters required in the workings of these equations, such as size, density and distance from the coast. In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages were determined from selected samples of marine organisms encrusted on some of the coastal boulders. The combination of the results obtained both by the hydrodynamic equations, which provided values comparable with those observed and measured during the storms, and radiocarbon dating suggests that the majority of the boulders have been detached and moved by intense storm waves. These boulders testify to the existence of a real hazard for the coasts of Malta, i.e. that of very high storm waves, which, during exceptional storms, are able to detach large blocks of volumes exceeding 10 m3 from the coastal edge and the nearshore bottom, and also to transport them inland. Nevertheless, the occurrence of one or more tsunami events cannot be ruled out, since

  10. Microfossils in the Ordovician erratic boulders from South-western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nõlvak, J.


    Full Text Available Chitinozoans, ostracods and acritarchs found in four glacially transported limestone boulders from the south-western coast of Finland have been studied in order to test the usefulness of these microfossil groups in age determinations. Also rare specimens of conodonts, inarticulated brachiopods and foraminifers were found. Baltic limestone (or Östersjö limestone was the most problematic, because only fossils with calcitic or phosphatic shells are preserved. It is concluded that the boulders identified correlate with the Uhaku and Rakvere stages of the Middle Ordovician.

  11. Americium thermodynamic data for the EQ3/6 database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerrisk, J.F.


    Existing thermodynamic data for aqueous and solid species of americium have been reviewed and collected in a form that can be used with the EQ3/6 database. Data that are important in solubility calculations for americium at a proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository were emphasized. Conflicting data exist for americium complexes with carbonates. Essentially no data are available for americium solids or complexes at temperatures greater than 25 0 C. 17 references, 4 figures

  12. 78 FR 20168 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport... (United States)


    ... To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport, Boulder, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to release airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to... of Section 125 of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR 21...

  13. Restoration of a boulder reef in temperate waters: Strategy, methodology and lessons learnt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Dahl, Karsten; Niemann, Sanne


    Anthropogenic impacts on marine habitats are a global problem, particularly in coastal areas. While boulder reefs in temperate waters hold high biomass and biodiversity, and may be unable to recover from anthropogenic stressors without restoration efforts, little is known about how to restore and...

  14. Giant boulders and Last Interglacial storm intensity in the North Atlantic (United States)

    Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Elisa; Harris, Daniel L.; Lorscheid, Thomas; Nandasena, Napayalage A. K.; Dyer, Blake; Sandstrom, Michael R.; Stocchi, Paolo; D'Andrea, William J.; Raymo, Maureen E.


    As global climate warms and sea level rises, coastal areas will be subject to more frequent extreme flooding and hurricanes. Geologic evidence for extreme coastal storms during past warm periods has the potential to provide fundamental insights into their future intensity. Recent studies argue that during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e, ˜128–116 ka) tropical and extratropical North Atlantic cyclones may have been more intense than at present, and may have produced waves larger than those observed historically. Such strong swells are inferred to have created a number of geologic features that can be observed today along the coastlines of Bermuda and the Bahamas. In this paper, we investigate the most iconic among these features: massive boulders atop a cliff in North Eleuthera, Bahamas. We combine geologic field surveys, wave models, and boulder transport equations to test the hypothesis that such boulders must have been emplaced by storms of greater-than-historical intensity. By contrast, our results suggest that with the higher relative sea level (RSL) estimated for the Bahamas during MIS 5e, boulders of this size could have been transported by waves generated by storms of historical intensity. Thus, while the megaboulders of Eleuthera cannot be used as geologic proof for past “superstorms,” they do show that with rising sea levels, cliffs and coastal barriers will be subject to significantly greater erosional energy, even without changes in storm intensity.

  15. Magnetic Characterization of Sand and Boulder Samples from Citarum River and Their Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Citarum River is a nationally strategic river located near Bandung, the capital city of West Java Province. The feasibility of using magnetic methods for monitoring pollution level is currently being tested in the river. Due to its location in a volcanic area, the sediments from the river are expected to be highly magnetic. In this study, sand and boulder samples from Balekambang, a relatively pristine upstream area of the river, were subjected to magnetic and geochemical characterizations to establish the baseline for unpolluted sediments. Such baseline is important for future magnetic monitoring of sediments in the river. The mass-specific magnetic susceptibility of boulder samples was found to be varied from 819.2 to 2340.5 × 10-8m3 kg-1 while that of sand samples varied from 2293.9 to 3845.3 × 10-8m3 kg-1. These high magnetic susceptibility values infer that river sediments are highly magnetic even before being contaminated by industrial and household wastes. The predominant magnetic mineral in sand samples was multi-domain magnetite while that in boulder samples was single to pseudo-single domain magnetite. These differences were supported by the results from petrographic and XRF analyses, implying that the sand and boulder samples originated from different geological formations.

  16. 78 FR 79436 - Boulder Canyon Project-Post-2017 Resource Pool (United States)


    ... customers of electric utilities. The marketing criteria should include municipal corporations and political... Pool AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of final marketing criteria and... marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), announces the Boulder Canyon Project (BCP) post-2017...

  17. Giant boulders and Last Interglacial storm intensity in the North Atlantic. (United States)

    Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Elisa; Harris, Daniel L; Lorscheid, Thomas; Nandasena, Napayalage A K; Dyer, Blake; Sandstrom, Michael R; Stocchi, Paolo; D'Andrea, William J; Raymo, Maureen E


    As global climate warms and sea level rises, coastal areas will be subject to more frequent extreme flooding and hurricanes. Geologic evidence for extreme coastal storms during past warm periods has the potential to provide fundamental insights into their future intensity. Recent studies argue that during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e, ∼128-116 ka) tropical and extratropical North Atlantic cyclones may have been more intense than at present, and may have produced waves larger than those observed historically. Such strong swells are inferred to have created a number of geologic features that can be observed today along the coastlines of Bermuda and the Bahamas. In this paper, we investigate the most iconic among these features: massive boulders atop a cliff in North Eleuthera, Bahamas. We combine geologic field surveys, wave models, and boulder transport equations to test the hypothesis that such boulders must have been emplaced by storms of greater-than-historical intensity. By contrast, our results suggest that with the higher relative sea level (RSL) estimated for the Bahamas during MIS 5e, boulders of this size could have been transported by waves generated by storms of historical intensity. Thus, while the megaboulders of Eleuthera cannot be used as geologic proof for past "superstorms," they do show that with rising sea levels, cliffs and coastal barriers will be subject to significantly greater erosional energy, even without changes in storm intensity.


    The placement of log and boulder structures in streams is a common and often effective technique for improving juvenile salmonid rearing habitat and increasing fish densities. Less frequently examined has been the use of these structures by adult salmonids. In 2004, spawner densi...

  19. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere. (United States)

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel


    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  20. Colorado State Capitol Geothermal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, Lance [Colorado Department of Personnel and Adminstration, Denver, CO (United States)


    Colorado State Capitol Geothermal Project - Final report is redacted due to space constraints. This project was an innovative large-scale ground-source heat pump (GSHP) project at the Colorado State Capitol in Denver, Colorado. The project employed two large wells on the property. One for pulling water from the aquifer, and another for returning the water to the aquifer, after performing the heat exchange. The two wells can work in either direction. Heat extracted/added to the water via a heat exchanger is used to perform space conditioning in the building.

  1. Navigation Study, Colorado Locks, Colorado River, Matagorda, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCollum, Randy


    A 1:70 physical navigation model was built to replicate the Matagorda Locks, approximately one mile of the GIWW east of the locks, approximately one-half mile of the Colorado River north of the GIWW...

  2. Concentration-discharge relationships during an extreme event: Contrasting behavior of solutes and changes to chemical quality of dissolved organic material in the Boulder Creek Watershed during the September 2013 flood: SOLUTE FLUX IN A FLOOD EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, Garrett P. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Rock, Nathan D. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Gabor, Rachel S. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Pitlick, John [Department of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Tfaily, Malak [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; McKnight, Diane M. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA


    During the week of September 10-17, 2013, close to 20 inches of rain fell across Boulder County, Colorado, USA. This rainfall represented a 1000-year event that caused massive hillslope erosion, landslides, and mobilization of sediments. The resultant stream flows corresponded to a 100-year flood. For the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BC-CZO), this event provided an opportunity to study the effect of extreme rainfall on solute concentration-discharge relationships and biogeochemical catchment processes. We observed base cation and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations at two sites on Boulder Creek following the recession of peak flow. We also isolated three distinct fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) for chemical characterization. At the upper site, which represented the forested mountain catchment, the concentrations of the base cations Ca, Mg and Na were greatest at the peak flood and decreased only slightly, in contrast with DOC and K concentrations, which decreased substantially. At the lower site within urban corridor, all solutes decreased abruptly after the first week of flow recession, with base cation concentrations stabilizing while DOC and K continued to decrease. Additionally, we found significant spatiotemporal trends in the chemical quality of organic matter exported during the flood recession, as measured by fluorescence, 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and FTICR-MS. Similar to the effect of extreme rainfall events in driving landslides and mobilizing sediments, our findings suggest that such events mobilize solutes by the flushing of the deeper layers of the critical zone, and that this flushing regulates terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages during the flow recession.

  3. BLM Colorado Federal Mineral Estate (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This Federal Mineral Estate (Subsurface) dataset is a result of combining data sets that were collected at each BLM Colorado Field Office and using...

  4. BLM Colorado Oil Shale Leases (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ file Format –This data set contains the Oil Shale Leases for the State of Colorado, derived from Legal Land Descriptions (LLD) contained in the US Bureau of Land...

  5. A modified time-temperature relationship for titanomagnetite and its application to igneous erratic boulders in Hachijo Island, Japan (United States)

    Tonosaki, T.; Nakamura, N.; Goto, K.; Sato, T.; Watanabe, M.


    On land along shore line in an island all over the world, there are many huge boulders which seem that they had been broken and transported by errastic events (such as extreme waves). The presence of boulders on land provides geological evidence that the region had been suffered by ancient tsunami or storm waves, establishing the evaluation of risk-management policies for future disasters. In volcanic island of Hachijo, Japan, there are huge (>5000 kg) andesitic boulder (20 m altitude high), and basaltic boulders (4 m altitude high) which seem that they had been broken from an outcrop and emplaced from it. Because radiocarbon dating can not be applied to volcanic rocks, a magnetic viscous dating might be powerful tool to determine the rotation history of rocks. Tyson Smith and Vrosub (1994) succeeded in revealing the age of landslide basaltic rocks by geological evidence, using Pullaiah's time-temperature monogram by Neel's relaxation theory of single domain (SD) particles of magnetite (Pullaiah et al. 1975). However, our application of this monogram to igneous boulders fails to determine the age due to a different magnetic mineralogy including titanomagnetite. Therefore, by introducing a modified monogram for single domain particles of titanomagnetite, we tried to reveal a possible reworked age of the boulders. However, our boulders still fail to identify the reworked age. In this presentation, we will present our current situation of the problem and a working hypothesis to solve it.

  6. Synthesis of petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic data for the Boulder batholith, southwest Montana (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Lund, Karen


    The Late Cretaceous Boulder batholith in southwest Montana consists of the Butte Granite and a group of associated smaller intrusions emplaced into Mesoproterozoic to Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and into the Late Cretaceous Elkhorn Mountains Volcanics. The Boulder batholith is dominated by the voluminous Butte Granite, which is surrounded by as many as a dozen individually named, peripheral intrusions. These granodiorite, monzogranite, and minor syenogranite intrusions contain varying abundances of plagioclase, alkali feldspar, quartz, biotite, hornblende, rare clinopyroxene, and opaque oxide minerals. Mafic, intermediate, and felsic subsets of the Boulder batholith intrusions are defined principally on the basis of color index. Most Boulder batholith plutons have inequigranular to seriate textures although several are porphyritic and some are granophyric (and locally miarolitic). Most of these plutons are medium grained but several of the more felsic and granophyric intrusions are fine grained. Petrographic characteristics, especially relative abundances of constituent minerals, are distinctive and foster reasonably unambiguous identification of individual intrusions. Seventeen samples from plutons of the Boulder batholith were dated by SHRIMP (Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe) zircon U-Pb geochronology. Three samples of the Butte Granite show that this large pluton may be composite, having formed during two episodes of magmatism at about 76.7 ± 0.5 Ma (2 samples) and 74.7 ± 0.6 million years ago (Ma) (1 sample). However, petrographic and chemical data are inconsistent with the Butte Granite consisting of separate, compositionally distinct intrusions. Accordingly, solidification of magma represented by the Butte Granite appears to have spanned about 2 million year (m.y.). The remaining Boulder batholith plutons were emplaced during a 6-10 m.y. span (81.7 ± 1.4 Ma to 73.7 ± 0.6 Ma). The compositional characteristics of these plutons are similar to those

  7. Floods in Colorado (United States)

    Follansbee, Robert; Sawyer, Leon R.


    The first records of floods in Colorado antedated the settlement of the State by about 30 years. These were records of floods on the Arkansas and Republican Rivers in 1826. Other floods noted by traders, hunters and emigrants, some of whom were on their way to the Far West, occurred in 1844 on the Arkansas River, and by inference on the South Platte River. Other early floods were those on the Purgatoire, the Lower Arkansas, and the San Juan Rivers about 1859. The most serious flood since settlement began was that on the Arkansas River during June 1921, which caused the loss of about 100 lives and an estimated property loss of $19,000,000. Many floods of lesser magnitude have occurred, and some of these have caused loss of life and very considerable property damage. Topography is the chief factor in determining the location of storms and resulting floods. These occur most frequently on the eastern slope of the Front Range. In the mountains farther west precipitation is insufficient to cause floods except during periods of melting snow, in June. In the southwestern part of the State, where precipitation during periods of melting snow is insufficient to cause floods, the severest floods yet experienced resulted from heavy rains in September 1909 and October 1911. In the eastern foothills region, usually below an altitude of about 7,500 feet and extending for a distance of about 50 miles east of the mountains, is a zone subject to rainfalls of great intensity known as cloudbursts. These cloudbursts are of short duration and are confined to very small areas. At times the intensity is so great as to make breathing difficult for those exposed to a storm. The areas of intense rainfall are so small that Weather Bureau precipitation stations have not been located in them. Local residents, being cloudburst conscious, frequently measure the rainfall in receptacles in their yards, and such records constitute the only source of information regarding the intensity. A flood

  8. Letter report: status on code maintenance (EQ3/6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolery, T.J.


    EQ3/6 is a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems, such as water/rock or waste/water rock. It is being developed for a variety of applications in geochemical studies for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Version 7.2a was the first version of this software to be certified for use in quality- affecting work (originally issued for use in non-quality-affecting work only on 12/28/93; certified on S/17/94). In the past year, the Version 7 line software has been maintained while the new Version 8 line has been developed. In this period, sixteen defect reports have been logged and resolved. Corrected software is being released as Version 7.2b. Defect reporting and resolution for the Version 7 line will continue until all released versions in this line are retired, perhaps six months to a year after Version 8.0 is released later this year. The Version 7 software is written in Fortran 77, technically speaking, but incorporates many aspects of older Fortran. The Version 8 software is written in a much more modern Fortran, technically somewhere between Fortran 77 and Fortran 90. Future code maintenance activities will include a more complete move to Fortran 90, as well as continued maintaining of defect reporting and resolution

  9. 78 FR 19296 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO (United States)


    ... Reservation, Colorado, New Mexico & Utah agreed to accept disposition of the human remains. In 2006, History....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: History Colorado, formerly...

  10. 78 FR 30737 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato... (United States)


    ... FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...: This final rule reestablishes the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No... Irish potatoes grown in Colorado. This action modifies the Committee membership structure by amending...

  11. Map of mixed prairie grassland vegetation, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, S J.V.; Webber, P J; Komarkova, V; Weber, W A


    A color vegetation map at the scale of 1:12,000 of the area surrounding the Rocky Flats, Rockwell International Plant near Boulder, Colorado, provides a permanent record of baseline data which can be used to monitor changes in both vegetation and environment and thus to contribute to future land management and land-use policies. Sixteen mapping units based on species composition were identified, and characterized by two 10-m/sup 2/ vegetation stands each. These were grouped into prairie, pasture, and valley side on the basis of their species composition. Both the mapping units and these major groups were later confirmed by agglomerative clustering analysis of the 32 vegetation stands on the basis of species composition. A modified Bray and Curtis ordination was used to determine the environmental factor complexes controlling the distribution of vegetation at Rocky flats. Recommendations are made for future policies of environmental management and predictions of the response to environmental change of the present vegetation at the Rocky Flats site.

  12. Use of cosmogenic 35S for comparing ages of water from three alpine-subalpine basins in the Colorado Front Range (United States)

    Sueker, J.K.; Turk, J.T.; Michel, R.L.


    High-elevation basins in Colorado are a major source of water for the central and western United States; however, acidic deposition may affect the quality of this water. Water that is retained in a basin for a longer period of time may be less impacted by acidic deposition. Sulfur-35 (35S), a short-lived isotope of sulfur (t( 1/2 ) = 87 days), is useful for studying short-time scale hydrologic processes in basins where biological influences and water/rock interactions are minimal. When sulfate response in a basin is conservative, the age of water may be assumed to be that of the dissolved sulfate in it. Three alpine-subalpine basins on granitic terrain in Colorado were investigated to determine the influence of basin morphology on the residence time of water in the basins. Fern and Spruce Creek basins are glaciated and accumulate deep snowpacks during the winter. These basins have hydrologic and chemical characteristics typical of systems with rapid hydrologic response times. The age of sulfate leaving these basins, determined from the activity of 35S, averages around 200 days. In contrast, Boulder Brook basin has broad, gentle slopes and an extensive cover of surficial debris. Its area above treeline, about one-half of the basin, is blown free of snow during the winter. Variations in flow and solute concentrations in Boulder Brook are quite small compared to Fern and Spruce Creeks. After peak snowmelt, sulfate in Boulder Brook is about 200 days older than sulfate in Fern and Spruce Creeks. This indicates a substantial source of older sulfate (lacking 35S) that is probably provided from water stored in pore spaces of surficial debris in Boulder Brook basin.

  13. Multi-hole seismic modeling in 3-D space and cross-hole seismic tomography analysis for boulder detection (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Liu, Jiangping; Wang, Jing; Zong, Yuquan; Yu, Mingyu


    A boulder stone, a common geological feature in south China, is referred to the remnant of a granite body which has been unevenly weathered. Undetected boulders could adversely impact the schedule and safety of subway construction when using tunnel boring machine (TBM) method. Therefore, boulder detection has always been a key issue demanded to be solved before the construction. Nowadays, cross-hole seismic tomography is a high resolution technique capable of boulder detection, however, the method can only solve for velocity in a 2-D slice between two wells, and the size and central position of the boulder are generally difficult to be accurately obtained. In this paper, the authors conduct a multi-hole wave field simulation and characteristic analysis of a boulder model based on the 3-D elastic wave staggered-grid finite difference theory, and also a 2-D imaging analysis based on first arrival travel time. The results indicate that (1) full wave field records could be obtained from multi-hole seismic wave simulations. Simulation results describe that the seismic wave propagation pattern in cross-hole high-velocity spherical geological bodies is more detailed and can serve as a basis for the wave field analysis. (2) When a cross-hole seismic section cuts through the boulder, the proposed method provides satisfactory cross-hole tomography results; however, when the section is closely positioned to the boulder, such high-velocity object in the 3-D space would impact on the surrounding wave field. The received diffracted wave interferes with the primary wave and in consequence the picked first arrival travel time is not derived from the profile, which results in a false appearance of high-velocity geology features. Finally, the results of 2-D analysis in 3-D modeling space are comparatively analyzed with the physical model test vis-a-vis the effect of high velocity body on the seismic tomographic measurements.

  14. Rare gas constraints on the history of Boulder 1, Station 2, Apollo 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leich, D.A.; Kahl, S.B.; Kirschbaum, A.R.; Niemeyer, S.; Phinney, D.


    Rare gas isotopic analyses have been performed on both pile-irradiated and unirradiated samples from Boulder 1, Station 2. Two samples from rock 72255, the Civet Cat clast and a sample of adjacent breccia, have concordant 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages of 3.99 +- 0.03 b.y. and 4.01 +- 0.03 b.y., respectively. Several samples from rock 72275 have complex thermal release patterns with no datable features, but an intermediate temperature plateau from the dark rim material of the Marble Cake clast yields an age of 3.99 +- 0.03 b.y., indistinguishable from the age of rock 72255. We regard these ages as upper limits on the time of the Serenitatis basin-forming event. The absence of fossil solar-wind trapped gases in the breccia samples implies that a prior existence for the boulder as near-surface regolith material can be regarded as extremely unlikely. Instead, the small trapped rare-gas components have isotopic and elemental compositions diagnostic of the terrestrial-type trapped component which has previously been identified in several Apollo 16 breccias and in rock 14321. Excess fission Xe is found in all Boulder 1 samples in approximately 1:1 proportions with Xe from spontaneous fission of 238 U. This excess fission Xe is attributed to spontaneous fission of 244 Pu in situ. Cosmic-ray exposure ages for samples from rocks 72215 and 72255 are concordant with mean 81 Kr-Kr exposure ages of 41.4 +- 1.4 m.y. and 44.1 +- 3.3 m.y., respectively. However, a distinctly different 81 Kr-Kr exposure age of 52.5 +- 1.4 m.y. is obtained for samples from rock 72275. A two-stage exposure model is developed to account for this discordance and for the remaining cosmogenic rare-gas data. The first stage was initiated at least 55 m.y. ago, probably as a result of the excavation of the boulder source-crop. A discrete change in shielding depths approx. 35 m.y. ago probably corresponds to the dislodgement of Boulder 1 from the South Massif and emplacement in its present position

  15. Colorado Academic Library Master Plan, Spring 1982. (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn; And Others

    Based on a need to assess current library strengths and weaknesses and to project potential library roles in supporting higher education, this master plan makes a series of recommendations to Colorado's academic libraries. It is noted that the plan was endorsed by both the Colorado Commission on Higher Education and the Colorado State Department…

  16. The affirmation of the scientist-practitioner. A look back at Boulder. (United States)

    Baker, D B; Benjamin, L T


    In the aftermath of World War II, several influences were paramount in forcing academic psychology to recognize, albeit reluctantly, the coming professionalization of psychology. The federal government, wishing to avoid a repeat of blunders following World War I that led to significant dissatisfaction among veterans, took proactive steps to ensure that mental health needs of the new veterans would be met. The USPHS and the VA were mandated to expand significantly the pool of mental health practitioners, a direction that led not only to the funding of the Boulder conference but also to the development of APA's accreditation program, funded practical and internship arrangements with the VA, and the USPHS grants to academic departments for clinical training. The GI Bill, amended to include payment for graduate education, created tremendous interest in graduate programs in psychology. As a result, psychology programs were inundated with funded applicants, most of whom were interested in the application of psychology to clinical and other applied fields. Graduate psychology departments were mixed in their views of this "blessing." The reality of a separate curriculum for professional training in psychology was a bitter pill for some academic psychologists to swallow. Graduate departments feared that control of their programs would be taken over by external forces and that they would lose their right to determine their own curriculum. Further, they feared the domination of clinical training within their own departments and the effects of such educational emphasis on their traditional experimental programs. The Boulder conference brought together these disparate needs and concerns, although one can argue about how well some points of view were represented with respect to others. It was a time of high anticipation and fear. The conference could easily have ended in failure, with such diverse interests being unable to reach any consensus. There are many letters in the

  17. On Road Study of Colorado Front Range Greenhouse Gases Distribution and Sources (United States)

    Petron, G.; Hirsch, A.; Trainer, M. K.; Karion, A.; Kofler, J.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A.; Kolodzey, W.; Miller, B. R.; Miller, L.; Montzka, S. A.; Kitzis, D. R.; Patrick, L.; Frost, G. J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Robers, J. M.; Tans, P.


    The Global Monitoring Division and Chemical Sciences Division of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory have teamed up over the summer 2008 to experiment with a new measurement strategy to characterize greenhouse gases distribution and sources in the Colorado Front Range. Combining expertise in greenhouse gases measurements and in local to regional scales air quality study intensive campaigns, we have built the 'Hybrid Lab'. A continuous CO2 and CH4 cavity ring down spectroscopic analyzer (Picarro, Inc.), a CO gas-filter correlation instrument (Thermo Environmental, Inc.) and a continuous UV absorption ozone monitor (2B Technologies, Inc., model 202SC) have been installed securely onboard a 2006 Toyota Prius Hybrid vehicle with an inlet bringing in outside air from a few meters above the ground. To better characterize point and distributed sources, air samples were taken with a Portable Flask Package (PFP) for later multiple species analysis in the lab. A GPS unit hooked up to the ozone analyzer and another one installed on the PFP kept track of our location allowing us to map measured concentrations on the driving route using Google Earth. The Hybrid Lab went out for several drives in the vicinity of the NOAA Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tall tower located in Erie, CO and covering areas from Boulder, Denver, Longmont, Fort Collins and Greeley. Enhancements in CO2, CO and destruction of ozone mainly reflect emissions from traffic. Methane enhancements however are clearly correlated with nearby point sources (landfill, feedlot, natural gas compressor ...) or with larger scale air masses advected from the NE Colorado, where oil and gas drilling operations are widespread. The multiple species analysis (hydrocarbons, CFCs, HFCs) of the air samples collected along the way bring insightful information about the methane sources at play. We will present results of the analysis and interpretation of the Hybrid Lab Front Range Study and conclude with perspectives

  18. A Detailed Study of Debris Flow Source Areas in the Northern Colorado Front Range. (United States)

    Arana-Morales, A.; Baum, R. L.; Godt, J.


    Nearly continuous, heavy rainfall occurred during 9-13 September 2013 causing flooding and widespread landslides and debris flows in the northern Colorado Front Range. Whereas many recent studies have identified erosion as the most common process leading to debris flows in the mountains of Colorado, nearly all of the debris flows mapped in this event began as small, shallow landslides. We mapped the boundaries of 415 September 2013 debris flows in the Eldorado Springs and Boulder 7.5-minute quadrangles using 0.5-m-resolution satellite imagery. We characterized the landslide source areas of six debris flows in the field as part of an effort to identify what factors controlled their locations. Four were on a dip slope in sedimentary rocks in the Pinebrook Hills area, near Boulder, and the other two were in granitic rocks near Gross Reservoir. Although we observed no obvious geomorphic differences between the source areas and surrounding non-landslide areas, we noted several characteristics that the source areas all had in common. Slopes of the source areas ranged from 28° to 35° and most occurred on planar or slightly concave slopes that were vegetated with grass, small shrubs, and sparse trees. The source areas were shallow, irregularly shaped, and elongated downslope: widths ranged from 4 to 9 m, lengths from 6 to 40 m and depths ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 m. Colluvium was the source material for all of the debris flows and bedrock was exposed in the basal surface of all of the source areas. We observed no evidence for concentrated surface runoff upslope from the sources. Local curvature and roughness of bedrock and surface topography, and depth distribution and heterogeneity of the colluvium appear to have controlled the specific locations of these shallow debris-flow source areas. The observed distribution and characteristics of the source areas help guide ongoing efforts to model initiation of the debris flows.

  19. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Energy used by Colorado single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.


    Condon, Steven M.; Brown, S. Don


    The Pedra Wilderness Study Area, located approximately 30 mi northeast of Durango, Colorado, was evaluated for its mineral-resource potential. Geochemical and geophysical studies indicate little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in this area. This conclusion is supported by the findings of the earlier study and is suggested by the absence of significant mining activity in the area.

  1. Living with wildfire in Colorado (United States)

    Patricia A. Champ; Nicholas Flores; Hannah Brenkert-Smith


    In this presentation, we describe results of a survey to homeowners living in wildfire-prone areas of two counties along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. The survey was designed to elicit information on homeowners' experience with wildfire, perceptions of wildfire risk on their property and neighboring properties, mitigation efforts undertaken...

  2. Decay of aspen in Colorado (United States)

    Ross W. Davidson; Thomas E. Hinds; Frank G. Hawksworth


    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) stands are extensive in the central Rocky Mountains. The species reaches its maximum development in the mountains and high mesas west of the Continental Divide in Colorado (Baker, 1925). On the better sites aspen yields a greater volume of wood in a shorter period than most of the conifers growing at comparable elevations. The...

  3. The role of porosity in discriminating between tsunami and hurricane emplacement of boulders — A case study from the Lesser Antilles, southern Caribbean (United States)

    Spiske, Michaela; Böröcz, Zoltán; Bahlburg, Heinrich


    Coastal boulder deposits are a consequence of high-energy wave impacts, such as storms, hurricanes or tsunami. Parameters useful for distinguishing between hurricane and tsunami origins include distance of a deposit from the coast, boulder weight and inferred wave height. In order to investigate the role of porosity on boulder transport and elucidate the distinction between tsunami and hurricane impacts, we performed Archimedean and optical 3D-profilometry measurements for the determination of accurate physical parameters for porous reef and coral limestone boulders from the islands of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao (ABC Islands, Netherlands Antilles, Leeward Islands). Subsets of different coral species and lithotypes constituting the boulders were sampled, the physical parameters of boulders were analyzed, and each boulder component was attributed to a certain range of porosity and density. Lowest porosities were observed in calcarenite (5-8%), whereas highest porosities were measured for serpulid reef rock (47-68%). Porous serpulid reef rock (0.8-1.2 g/cm 3) and the coral Diploria sp. (0.6-1.0 g/cm 3) possess the lowest bulk densities, while less porous calcarenite (2.0-2.7 g/cm 3) and the coral Montastrea cavernosa yield the highest bulk density values (1.6-2.7 g/cm 3). The obtained physical parameters were used to calculate boulder weights and both hurricane and tsunami wave heights necessary to initiate transport of these boulders. Boulders are up to 5.6 times lighter than given in previously published data, and hence required minimum hurricane or tsunami waves are lower than hitherto assumed. The calculated wave heights, the high frequency of tropical storms and hurricanes in the southern Caribbean and the occurrence of boulders exclusively on the windward sides of the islands, implicate that for boulders on the ABC Islands a hurricane origin is more likely than a tsunami origin.

  4. Survival Times of Meter-Sized Rock Boulders on the Surface of Airless Bodies (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Horz, F.; Ramsley, K.


    This study considers the survival times of meter-sized rock boulders on the surfaces of several airless bodies. As the starting point, we employ estimates of the survival times of such boulders on the surface of the Moon by[1], then discuss the role of destruction due to day-night temperature cycling, consider the meteorite bombardment environment on the considered bodies in terms of projectile flux and velocities and finally estimate the survival times. Survival times of meter-sized rocks on lunar surface: The survival times of hand specimen-sized rocks exposed to the lunar surface environment were estimated based on experiments modeling the destruction of rocks by meteorite impacts, combined with measurements of the lunar surface meteorite flux, (e.g.,[2]). For estimations of the survival times of meter-sized lunar boulders, [1] suggested a different approach based on analysis of the spatial density of boulders on the rims of small lunar craters of known absolute age. It was found that for a few million years, only a small fraction of the boulders ejected by cratering process are destroyed, for several tens of million years approx.50% are destroyed, and for 200-300 Ma, 90 to 99% are destroyed. Following [2] and other works, [1] considered that the rocks are mostly destroyed by meteorite impacts. Destruction of rocks by thermal-stress. However, high diurnal temperature variations on the surface of the Moon and other airless bodies imply that thermal stresses may also be a cause of surface rock destruction. Delbo et al. [3] interpreted the observed presence of fine debris on the surface of small asteroids as due to thermal surface cycling. They stated that because of the very low gravity on the surface of these bodies, ejecta from meteorite impacts should leave the body, so formation there of fine debris has to be due to thermal cycling. Based on experiments on heating-cooling of cm-scale pieces of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites and theoretical modeling of

  5. Geochemical studies of the White Breccia Boulders at North Ray Crater, Descartes region of the lunar highlands (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Lum, R. K. L.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Philpotts, J. A.; Winzer, S. R.


    The samples of the White Breccia Boulders obtained during the Apollo 16 mission and investigated in the reported study include an anorthositic breccia (67415), a dark matrix breccia (67435), a light matrix breccia (67455), and a large clast of dark matrix breccia (67475) taken from the 67455 boulder. The chemical analyses of bulk samples of the samples are listed in a table. A graph shows the lithophile trace element abundances. Another graph indicates the variation of Sm with Al2O3 content for samples from the White Breccia Boulders. The North Ray Crater breccias are found to be in general slightly more aluminous than breccias from the other stations at the Apollo 16 site. Analyses of eight Apollo 16 breccias cited in the literature range from 25% to 35% Al2O3. However, the North Ray Crater breccias are more clearly distinct from the other Apollo 16 breccias in their contents of lithophile trace elements.

  6. Gunnison, Colorado, subpile study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    To protect human health and the environment, the UMTRA project will remediate the uranium mill tailings site at Gunnison, Colorado. There are explicit requirements (i.e., 40 Part CFR Part 192) for the surface remediation of radiologically contaminated soils on UMTRA sites. The removal of subpile sediment to the depth required by 40 CFR Part 192 will leave in place deeper foundation sediment that is contaminated with hazardous constituents other than radium-226 and thorium-230. The Department of Energy and the Colorado Department of Health have questioned whether this contaminated soil could potentially act as a continuing source of ground water contamination even after surface remediation based on 40 CFR Part 192 is complete. To evaluate the subpile sediments as a potential source of ground water contamination, the Gunnison subpile study was initiated. This report summarizes the results and findings of this study

  7. The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment: A successful student-run scientific spacecraft mission (United States)

    Schiller, Q.; Li, X.; Palo, S. E.; Blum, L. W.; Gerhardt, D.


    The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment is a spacecraft mission developed and operated by students at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The 3U CubeSat was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in September 2012. The massively successful mission far outlived its 4 month estimated lifetime and stopped transmitting data after over two years in orbit in December 2014. CSSWE has contributed to 15 scientific or engineering peer-reviewed journal publications. During the course of the project, over 65 undergraduate and graduate students from CU's Computer Science, Aerospace, and Mechanical Engineering Departments, as well as the Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences Department participated. The students were responsible for the design, development, build, integration, testing, and operations from component- to system-level. The variety of backgrounds on this unique project gave the students valuable experience in their own focus area, but also cross-discipline and system-level involvement. However, though the perseverance of the students brought the mission to fruition, it was only possible through the mentoring and support of professionals in the Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department and CU's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics.

  8. Land resource information needs of county government : a case study in Larimer County, Colorado (United States)

    Alexander, Robert H.


    My two colleagues on the study team, Rex Burns of the Larimer County Planning Department, and Glenn McCarty of the Fort Collins office of the Soil Conservation Service, contributed substantially to this report; many of their written words have found their way directly into the text. Jill O'Gara later replaced Rex Burns as the Larimer County coordinator in the study's final stages. John Rold, Colorado State Geologist, assisted in coordinating our efforts at the beginning of this study. Lou Campbell, State Cartographer, gave valuable advice and assistance throughout the effort. Wallace Hansen and James Blakey of the USGS Geologic and Water Resources Divisions, respectively, read the final manuscript and helped in many other ways. Joanna Trolinger served as research assistant and manuscript typist. Many others in the USGS, SCS, and other organizations helped in supplying information and advice. Tom Bates, then Chairman of the USGS Central Region Earth Science Applications Task Force, was the originator of the study, leader of the USGS participation effort, and guiding inspiration throughout. The study was carried out in association with the Program on Environment and Behavior, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, Boulder.

  9. Assessing enigmatic boulder deposits in NE Aegean Sea: importance of historical sources as tool to support hydrodynamic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vacchi


    Full Text Available Due to their importance in the assessment of coastal hazards, several studies have focused on geomorphological and sedimentological field evidence of catastrophic wave impacts related to historical tsunami events. Among them, many authors used boulder fields as important indicators of past tsunamis, especially in the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanism of deposition of clusters of large boulders, consisting of beachrock slabs, which were found on the southern coasts of Lesvos Island (NE Aegean Sea. Methods to infer the origin of boulder deposits (tsunami vs. storm wave are often based on hydrodynamic models even if different environmental complexities are difficult to be incorporated into numerical models. In this study, hydrodynamic equations did not provide unequivocal indication of the mechanism responsible for boulder deposition in the study area. Further analyses, ranging from geomorphologic to seismotectonic data, indicated a tsunami as the most likely cause of displacement of the boulders but still do not allow to totally exclude the extreme storm origin. Additional historical investigations (based on tsunami catalogues, historical photos and aged inhabitants interviews indicated that the boulders are likely to have been deposited by the tsunami triggered by the 6.7 Ms Chios-Karaburum earthquake of 1949 or, alternatively, by minor effects of the destructive tsunami produced by 1956's Amorgos Island earthquake. Results of this study point out that, at Mediterranean scale, to flank numerical models with the huge amount of the available historical data become a crucial tool in terms of prevention policies related to catastrophic coastal events.

  10. Los 'Colorados': Etnohistoria y Toponimia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Rendón, J.


    Los "colorados" comprendían varios grupos étnicos emparentados etnolingüísticamente que ocupaban el piedemonte andino occidental desde El Carchi hasta Bolívar así como las tierras bajas del Pacífico en los sistemas hidrográficos de los ríos Esmeraldas y Guayas. Aunque la ocupación "colorada" de

  11. Water quality and water rights in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonnell, L.J.


    The report begins with a review of early Colorado water quality law. The present state statutory system of water quality protection is summarized. Special attention is given to those provisions of Colorado's water quality law aimed at protecting water rights. The report then addresses several specific issues which involve the relationship between water quality and water use. Finally, recommendations are made for improving Colorado's approach to integrating quality and quantity concerns

  12. 2011 Kids Count in Colorado! The Impact of the Great Recession on Colorado's Children (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011


    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. "Kids Count in Colorado!" informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as…

  13. 78 FR 72700 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO (United States)


    ... Mexico, were invited to consult but did not participate. History and Description of the Remains In the....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: History Colorado has completed...

  14. 78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato... (United States)


    ... Service 7 CFR Part 948 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-12-0044; FV12-948-2 PR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 AGENCY: Agricultural... membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 (Committee). The Committee locally...

  15. What was the transport mode of large boulders in the Campine Plateau and the lower Meuse valley during the mid-Pleistocene? (United States)

    De Brue, Hanne; Poesen, Jean; Notebaert, Bastiaan


    The Campine Plateau in northeastern Belgium, a remnant of an alluvial fan deposited by the Meuse River during the mid-Pleistocene, is characterised by the presence of boulders with maximum dimensions of up to 2 m, embedded in a gravel matrix. These boulders originated in the Ardennes region and are generally assumed to have been transported by ice-rafting processes. This paper investigates for the first time quantitatively the possibility of purely hydraulic transport of the boulders, taking into account channel and flow characteristics in the boulder provenance area during the mid-Pleistocene. Empirical transport relations that describe incipient motion thresholds in nonuniform river beds as a function of the relative grain size, or the ratio between the grain size of interest and the median grain size of the channel bed, are applied in order to calculate critical water depths for transport of boulders of various sizes. Results indicate that hydraulic transport of boulders with intermediate diameters < 1 m could have occurred within limited reaches of the palaeoriver, more specifically in the palaeo-Amblève tributary; whereas the small slope gradient of the palaeo-Meuse most probably inhibited boulder movement by hydraulic forces only. Although calculations of the ice volume required to lift a boulder to the water surface and comparison of the ice floe's dimensions with palaeochannel morphology do suggest that ice rafting is theoretically possible, several alternative, more probable transport mechanisms for the larger boulders of the Campine Plateau are proposed, requiring much smaller critical ice volumes and water depths than ice-rafting processes or purely hydraulic transport. These hypotheses include decreased bed friction and effective boulder density caused by a limited ice layer attached to the river bed and the boulder, hence lowering hydraulic transport thresholds, as well as the formation of ice jams and dams inducing catastrophic flooding and

  16. Geologic map of the Vail West quadrangle, Eagle County, Colorado (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Lidke, David J.; Grunwald, Daniel J.


    Rio Grande rift system in Colorado. In the southwestern part of the map area, a diapiric(?) exposure of the Eagle Valley Evaporite exists and chaotic faults and folds suggest extensive dissolution and collapse of overlying bedrock, indicating the presence of a geologic hazard. Quaternary landslides are common and indicate that landslide hazards are widespread in the area, particularly where old slide deposits are disturbed by construction. The late Pliocene(?) landslide that consists largely of a smectitic upper Morrison Formation matrix and boulders of Dakota Sandstone is readily reactivated. Debris flows are likely to invade low-standing areas within the towns of Vail and West Vail where tributaries of Gore Creek issue from the mountains on the north side of the valley.

  17. 39 CFR 3.6 - Information furnished to Board-financial and operating reports. (United States)


    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information furnished to Board-financial and operating reports. 3.6 Section 3.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF GOVERNORS (ARTICLE III) § 3.6 Information furnished to Board—financial...

  18. Boulder Deposits on the Southern Spanish Atlantic Coast: Possible Evidence for the 1755 AD Lisbon Tsunami?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Kelletat


    Full Text Available Field evidence of visible tsunami impacts in Europe is scarce. This research focused on an analysis of large littoral debris and accompanying geomorphic features and their rela- tionship to a tsunami event at Cabo de Trafalgar, located on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast. Relative dating of weathering features as well as minor bioconstructive forms in the littoral zone suggest the Lisbon tsunami of 1755 AD as the event responsible for the large deposits described. This tsunami had run up heights of more than 19 m and was generated at the Gorringe Bank, located 500 km west off the Cape. Tsunami deposits at Cabo de Tra- falgar are the first boulder deposits identified on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast and are located approximately 250 km southeast of the Algarve coast (Portugal, where other geo- morphic evidence for the Lisbon tsunami has been reported.

  19. Metal contamination and post-remediation recovery in the Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana (United States)

    Unruh, Daniel M.; Church, Stanley E; Nimick, David A.; Fey, David L.


    The legacy of acid mine drainage and toxic trace metals left in streams by historical mining is being addressed by many important yet costly remediation efforts. Monitoring of environmental conditions frequently is not performed but is essential to evaluate remediation effectiveness, determine whether clean-up goals have been met, and assess which remediation strategies are most effective. Extensive pre- and post-remediation data for water and sediment quality for the Boulder River watershed in southwestern Montana provide an unusual opportunity to demonstrate the importance of monitoring. The most extensive restoration in the watershed occurred at the Comet mine on High Ore Creek and resulted in the most dramatic improvement in aquatic habitat. Removal of contaminated sediment and tailings, and stream-channel reconstruction reduced Cd and Zn concentrations in water such that fish are now present, and reduced metal concentrations in streambed sediment by a factor of c. 10, the largest improvement in the district. Waste removals at the Buckeye/Enterprise and Bullion mine sites produced limited or no improvement in water and sediment quality, and acidic drainage from mine adits continues to degrade stream aquatic habitat. Recontouring of hillslopes that had funnelled runoff into the workings of the Crystal mine substantially reduced metal concentrations in Uncle Sam Gulch, but did not eliminate all of the acidic adit drainage. Lead isotopic evidence suggests that the Crystal mine rather than the Comet mine is now the largest source of metals in streambed sediment of the Boulder River. The completed removal actions prevent additional contaminants from entering the stream, but it may take many years for erosional processes to diminish the effects of contaminated sediment already in streams. Although significant strides have been made, additional efforts to seal draining adits or treat the adit effluent at the Bullion and Crystal mines would need to be completed to

  20. Bouldering: an alternative strategy to long-vertical climbing in root-climbing hortensias. (United States)

    Granados Mendoza, Carolina; Isnard, Sandrine; Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Rowe, Nick P; Van Acker, Joris; Goetghebeur, Paul; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie


    In the Neotropics, the genus Hydrangea of the popular ornamental hortensia family is represented by climbing species that strongly cling to their support surface by means of adhesive roots closely positioned along specialized anchoring stems. These root-climbing hortensia species belong to the nearly exclusive American Hydrangea section Cornidia and generally are long lianescent climbers that mostly flower and fructify high in the host tree canopy. The Mexican species Hydrangea seemannii, however, encompasses not only long lianescent climbers of large vertical rock walls and coniferous trees, but also short 'shrub-like' climbers on small rounded boulders. To investigate growth form plasticity in root-climbing hortensia species, we tested the hypothesis that support variability (e.g. differences in size and shape) promotes plastic responses observable at the mechanical, structural and anatomical level. Stem bending properties, architectural axis categorization, tissue organization and wood density were compared between boulder and long-vertical tree-climbers of H. seemannii. For comparison, the mechanical patterns of a closely related, strictly long-vertical tree-climbing species were investigated. Hydrangea seemannii has fine-tuned morphological, mechanical and anatomical responses to support variability suggesting the presence of two alternative root-climbing strategies that are optimized for their particular environmental conditions. Our results suggest that variation of some stem anatomical traits provides a buffering effect that regulates the mechanical and hydraulic demands of two distinct plant architectures. The adaptive value of observed plastic responses and the importance of considering growth form plasticity in evolutionary and conservation studies are discussed. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term variability of supratidal coastal boulder activation in Brittany (France) (United States)

    Autret, Ronan; Dodet, Guillaume; Suanez, Serge; Roudaut, Gildas; Fichaut, Bernard


    High-energy supratidal coastal boulder deposit (SCBD) dynamics were investigated on Vierge Island and Pors Carn Point, north and south of western Brittany, France, respectively. Morphological changes induced by boulder transport and quarrying were quantified using high-resolution topographic survey data taken between 2012 and 2017. Additional in-situ wave parameters and water levels were also recorded over this period (2014-2017) in order to compute the maximum water levels and assess the relationship between SCBD morphological changes and specific hydrodynamic conditions. During extreme water levels (for maximum water levels exceeding a one in ten year event), SCBDs were broadly reworked (up to 40% of the total volume). During lower intensity events, for which maximum water levels were still very high, morphological changes represented 1% to 5% of the total volume. These morphological and hydrodynamic observations were then used to calibrate a chronology of SCBD activation events based on 70 years of hindcast winter maximum water levels. These long-term time-series showed great interannual variability in SCBD activation but no significant long-term trend. Winter-frequency SCBD activation was better correlated to the WEPA index (r = 0.46) than the NAO index (r = 0.1). Therefore, the WEPA index can be considered to be a more significant climate proxy for assessing storm-related geomorphic changes in the temperate latitudes of the N-E Atlantic basin (36°-52° N), including the Brittany coast. The potential of SCBDs as a morphological storm proxy for macrotidal high-energy rocky coasts is addressed.

  2. Moraine preservation and boulder erosion in the tropical Andes: interpreting old surface exposure ages in glaciated valleys (United States)

    Smith, Jacqueline A.; Finkel, Robert C.; Farber, Daniel L.; Rodbell, Donald T.; Seltzer, Geoffrey O.


    Cosmogenic dating provides a long-awaited means of directly dating glacial deposits that pre-date the last glacial cycle. Although the potential benefits of longer chronologies are obvious, the greater uncertainty associated with older cosmogenic ages may be less readily apparent. We illustrate the challenges of developing and interpreting a long chronology using our data from the Peruvian Andes. We used surface exposure dating with cosmogenic radionuclides (CRNs; 10Be and 26Al) to date 140 boulders on moraines in valleys bordering the Junin Plain (11° S, 76° W) in central Peru. Our chronology spans multiple glacial cycles and includes exposure ages greater than 1 million years, which indicate that long-term rates of boulder erosion have been very low. Interpreting the chronology of moraines for glaciations that predate the last glacial cycle is complicated by the need to consider boulder erosion and exhumation, surface uplift, and inheritance of CRNs from previous exposure intervals. As an example, we recalculate exposure ages using our boulder erosion rates (0.3-0.5 metres per million years) and estimated surface uplift rates to emphasise both the challenges involved in interpreting old surface exposure ages and the value of chronological data, even with large uncertainties, when reconstructing the palaeoclimate of a region.

  3. 75 FR 19966 - Boulder Canyon Project-Post-2017 Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power... (United States)


    ... Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative AGENCY: Western Area... and Management Program (Program) Power Marketing Initiative (PMI) (10 CFR part 905) to the Boulder... Power Administration (Western), Desert Southwest Region, a Federal power marketing agency of the...

  4. 40 CFR 81.406 - Colorado. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Colorado. 81.406 Section 81.406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.406 Colorado. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land...

  5. 2013 Kids Count in Colorado! Community Matters (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2013


    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Children's Campaign, providing state and county level data on child well-being factors including child health, education, and economic status. Since its first release 20 years ago, "Kids Count in Colorado!" has become the most trusted source for data and information on…

  6. 40 CFR 81.306 - Colorado. (United States)


    ... Stage Road to Gold Camp Road; north on Gold Camp Road to High Drive; north on High Drive to Lower Gold Camp Road; north on Lower Gold Camp Road to the Pike National Forest boundary; west along the Forest... (part) West of Kiowa Creek Attainment Boulder County (part) excluding Rocky Mountain National Park...

  7. Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983. Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (15th). Held in Boulder, Colorado on 14-16 November 1983 (United States)


    cross porro resonator and achieved perfor­ mance as high as 45 mJ/pulse output energy in a 20 ns pulse width at a 20 Hz repetition rate without damage 1.064, 0.532 and 0.355 ~m......................... 128 L. D. Merkle, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass Bulk Absorption Measurements Using Prism ...surface and bulk values. A promising technique proposed this year employs a prism -shaped sample (normal incidence at the front or entrant surface

  8. Proceedings of the International Electronic Circuit Packaging Symposium (3rd) on Advances in Electronic Circuit Packaging Held at Boulder, Colorado on 15-17 August 1962. Volume 3, (United States)


    the connector pin, which was then sol - dered at various levels of wire build up. It is proposed, with a slight modification of the connector terminal...sacrificial anode for galvanic protection of other metals. Aluminum Aluminum and its alloys show promise for applications in long-life oceano - graphic...section of a dumet weld lead. Calculations and actual heat measurements on the effects of welding and sol - dering within 0.060 in. of the component

  9. Army Research Office and Air Force Office of Scientific Research Contractors’ Meeting in Chemical Propulsion Held in Boulder, Colorado on June 11-13, 2007 (United States)


    Hanson, "Methyl Concentration Time Histories during iso -Octane and n-Heptane Oxidation," Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 31, 321-328, 2007. T...1000 -700 -400 -100 200 500 800 Temperature(K): 300 700 1100 1500 1900 2300 27000 . A l/ 0.1 0.60.0 OWN 00,o2 a3 0 0 . . . o’.4 0 0.1 02 o0. 0.4 x(m...reproduce extinction and autoignition characteristics of JP-8. A surrogate made up of n-decane (60 %) and iso -octane (40 %) by liquid volume best

  10. Transactions of the Army Conference on Applied Mathematics and Computing (6th) Held in Boulder, Colorado on 31 May - 3 June 1988 (United States)


    Groebner Bases Moss Sweedler ...................................................... 699 Using Macsyma in a Generalized Harmonic Balance Method for a Problem...Doing Mathiematics by Comnputer, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1988. 698 Groebner Bases GROEBNER BASES Moss Sweedler Mathematical Sciences...Institute Cornell University Ithaca NY 14853 ABSTRACT Groebner bases are remarkable sets of polynomials which permit effec- tive manipulation of multivariate

  11. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee...

  12. Colorado's prospectus on uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazle, A.J.; Franz, G.A.; Gamewell, R.


    The first part of this paper will discuss Colorado's control of uranium mill tailings under Titles I and II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Colorado has a legacy of nine inactive mill sites requiring reclamation under Title I, and two presently active plus a number of new mill proposals which must be regulated in accordance with Title II. Past failures in siting and control on the part of federal jurisdictions have left the state with a heavy legacy requiring extensive effort to address impacts to the state's environment and population. The second part of this paper will discuss the remedial action programme authorized under Public Law 92-314 for Mesa Country, where lack of federal control led to the dispersal of several hundred thousand tons of uranium mill tailings on thousands of properties, including hundreds of homes, schools and other structures. Successful completion of the State efforts under both programmes will depend on a high level of funding and on the maintenance of adequate regulatory standards. (author)

  13. Energy Smart Colorado, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitchell, John M. [Program Administrator; Palmer, Adam L. [Program Manager


    Energy Smart Colorado is an energy efficiency program established in 2011 in the central mountain region of Colorado. The program was funded through a grant of $4.9 million, awarded in August 2010 by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Program. As primary grant recipient, Eagle County coordinated program activities, managed the budget, and reported results. Eagle County staff worked closely with local community education and outreach partner Eagle Valley Alliance for Sustainability (now Walking Mountains Science Center) to engage residents in the program. Sub-recipients Pitkin County and Gunnison County assigned local implementation of the program in their regions to their respective community efficiency organizations, Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) in Pitkin County, and Office for Resource Efficiency (ORE) in Gunnison County. Utility partners contributed $166,600 to support Home Energy Assessments for their customers. Program staff opened Energy Resource Centers, engaged a network of qualified contractors, developed a work-flow, an enrollment website, a loan program, and a data management system to track results.

  14. Ground geophysical study of the Buckeye mine tailings, Boulder watershed, Montana (United States)

    McDougal, Robert R.; Smith, Bruce D.


    The Buckeye mine site is located in the Boulder River watershed along Basin Creek, in northern Jefferson County, Montana. This project is part of the Boulder River watershed Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative, and is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and Bureau of Land Management in the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the U.S. Forest Service in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The site includes a large flotation milltailing deposit, which extends to the stream and meadows below the mine. These tailings contain elevated levels of metals, such as silver, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. Metal-rich fluvial tailings containing these metals, are possible sources of ground and surface water contamination. Geophysical methods were used to characterize the sediments at the Buckeye mine site. Ground geophysical surveys, including electromagnetics, DC resistivity, and total field magnetic methods, were used to delineate anomalies that probably correlate with subsurface metal contamination. Subsurface conductivity was mapped using EM-31 and EM-34 terrain conductivity measuring systems. The conductivity maps represent variation of concentration of dissolved solids in the subsurface from a few meters, to an approximate depth of 30 meters. Conductive sulfides several centimeters thick were encountered in a shallow trench, dug in an area of very high conductivity, at a depth of approximately 1 to1.5 meters. Laboratory measurements of samples of the sulfide layers show the conductivity is on the order of 1000 millisiemens. DC resistivity soundings were used to quantify subsurface conductivity variations and to estimate the depth to bedrock. Total field magnetic measurements were used to identify magnetic metals in the subsurface. The EM surveys identified several areas of relatively high conductivity and detected a conductive plume extending to the southwest, toward the stream. This plume correlates well with the potentiometric surface and direction of

  15. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structure of the Floridan aquifer system near "Boulder Zone" deep wells in Miami-Dade County, Florida (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, acquired, processed, and interpreted seismic-reflection data near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields to determine if geologic factors may contribute to the upward migration of injected effluent into that upper part of the Floridan aquifer system designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as an underground source of drinking water. The depth of the Boulder Zone at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields ranges from about 2,750 to 3,300 feet below land surface (ft bls), whereas overlying permeable zones used as alternative drinking water supply range in depth from about 825 to 1,580 ft bls at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structures imaged on seismic-reflection profiles created for the study describe the part of the Floridan aquifer system overlying and within the Boulder Zone. Features of the Floridan aquifer system underlying the Boulder Zone were not studied because seismic-reflection profiles acquired near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields lacked adequate resolution at such depths.

  16. Fast Lemons and Sour Boulders: Testing Crossmodal Correspondences Using an Internet-Based Testing Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods


    Full Text Available According to a popular family of hypotheses, crossmodal matches between distinct features hold because they correspond to the same polarity on several conceptual dimensions (such as active–passive, good–bad, etc. that can be identified using the semantic differential technique. The main problem here resides in turning this hypothesis into testable empirical predictions. In the present study, we outline a series of plausible consequences of the hypothesis and test a variety of well-established and previously untested crossmodal correspondences by means of a novel internet-based testing methodology. The results highlight that the semantic hypothesis cannot easily explain differences in the prevalence of crossmodal associations built on the same semantic pattern (fast lemons, slow prunes, sour boulders, heavy red; furthermore, the semantic hypothesis only minimally predicts what happens when the semantic dimensions and polarities that are supposed to drive such crossmodal associations are made more salient (e.g., by adding emotional cues that ought to make the good/bad dimension more salient; finally, the semantic hypothesis does not explain why reliable matches are no longer observed once intramodal dimensions with congruent connotations are presented (e.g., visually presented shapes and colour do not appear to correspond.

  17. Development and Evaluation of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) Model v3.6 (United States)

    We have developed new canopy emission algorithms and land use data for BEIS v3.6. Simulations with BEIS v3.4 and BEIS v3.6 in CMAQ v5.0.2 are compared these changes to the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and evaluated the simulations against observati...

  18. 29 CFR 3.6 - Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.6 Section 3.6 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS ON....6 Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor. Any contractor or...

  19. Excess of "2"3"6U in the northwest Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamizo, E.; López-Lora, M.; Bressac, M.; Levy, I.; Pham, M.K.


    In this work, we present first "2"3"6U results in the northwestern Mediterranean. "2"3"6U is studied in a seawater column sampled at DYFAMED (Dynamics of Atmospheric Fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea) station (Ligurian Sea, 43°25′N, 07°52′E). The obtained "2"3"6U/"2"3"8U atom ratios in the dissolved phase, ranging from about 2 × 10"−"9 at 100 m depth to about 1.5 × 10"−"9 at 2350 m depth, indicate that anthropogenic "2"3"6U dominates the whole seawater column. The corresponding deep-water column inventory (12.6 ng/m"2 or 32.1 × 10"1"2 atoms/m"2) exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the expected one for global fallout at similar latitudes (5 ng/m"2 or 13 × 10"1"2 atoms/m"2), evidencing the influence of local or regional "2"3"6U sources in the western Mediterranean basin. On the other hand, the input of "2"3"6U associated to Saharan dust outbreaks is evaluated. An additional "2"3"6U annual deposition of about 0.2 pg/m"2 based on the study of atmospheric particles collected in Monaco during different Saharan dust intrusions is estimated. The obtained results in the corresponding suspended solids collected at DYFAMED station indicate that about 64% of that "2"3"6U stays in solution in seawater. Overall, this source accounts for about 0.1% of the "2"3"6U inventory excess observed at DYFAMED station. The influence of the so-called Chernobyl fallout and the radioactive effluents produced by the different nuclear installations allocated to the Mediterranean basin, might explain the inventory gap, however, further studies are necessary to come to a conclusion about its origin. - Highlights: • First "2"3"6U results in the northwest Mediterranean Sea are reported. • Anthropogenic "2"3"6U dominates the whole seawater column at DYFAMED station. • "2"3"6U deep-water column inventory exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the global fallout one. • Saharan dust intrusions are responsible for an annual "2"3"6U flux of 0.02 pg/m"2. • Further studies are necessary to explain the

  20. Surface Chloride Levels in Colorado Structural Concrete (United States)


    This project focused on the chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in structural concrete. The primary goal of this project is to analyze the surface chloride concentration level of the concrete bridge decks throughout Colorado. The study in...

  1. BLM Colorado Oil & Gas Geophysical Permits (Dissolved) (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  2. BLM Colorado Oil and Gas Leases (Dissolved) (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  3. BLM Colorado Oil & Gas Geophysical Permits (Dissolved) (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  4. BLM Colorado Oil and Gas Units (Dissolve) (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  5. BLM Colorado Oil and Gas Leases (Dissolved) (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  6. BLM Colorado Oil and Gas Units (Dissolve) (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  7. Fission track ages on apatite of Bergell rocks from central Alps and Bergell boulders in Oligocene sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, G.A.; Miller, D.S.


    Previous radiometric dating studies indicated that the Bergell region, in contrast to other regions of the Central Alps, experienced an early, rapid uplift, but with decreasing rate. Furthermore, there is also a geological record of the early uplift history of the Bergell granite by the existence of boulders which were derived from this granite and which occur in the Late Oligocene sediments of the Po plain. In this work the uplift history of the Bergell is studied in more detail by fission track dating of additional apatites from the Bergell region. Secondly, by determining apatite fission track ages the granitic boulders of the Po plain can be re-assigned to their original vertical position within the Bergell intrusive before erosion removed them in Late Oligocene time. A rather conservative estimate replaces them 6 km above the present morphology of the Bergell massif. Thus, the thickness of the Bergell granite must have been at least 8 km. Generally, fission track studies on boulders may become an important tool to study the vertical extent of mountain chains during the geological past. (Auth.)

  8. Potential for timing high-energy marine inundation events in the recent geological past through age-dating of reef boulders in Fiji (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Etienne, Samuel


    Transported coastal boulders have increasingly come to represent a valuable element of investigations within the broader framework of multi-proxy approaches applied to coastal hazard studies. Through a case study on Taveuni Island in Fiji, this paper outlines some approaches and hindrances to effective timing of prehistorical high-energy marine inundation events (storms and tsunamis) on tropical coastlines from the evidence of reef-platform carbonate boulders. Various sources of errors are outlined that investigators must consider when attempting to use carbonate boulder ages as a surrogate for timing past events. On Taveuni, uranium : thorium dates with a high level of precision (1-7 years) suggest that major inundation events have a return period of approximately 40-45 years since 1650 AD. Of particular importance, considerably different age dates are provided by coral samples sourced from the top and bottom (i.e. opposite faces) of individual boulders, so highlighting interpretation biases that must be avoided.

  9. Involving International Student Teams in GPS and GRS Surveys to Study Cryospheric Change in Greenland and the Colorado Front Range (United States)

    Herzfeld, U. C.; Mayer, H.


    In the course of research programs to develop a methodology for the study of microtopography of ice and snow surfaces, we placed a strong emphasis on the involvement of students. This project provided the opportunity to engage students in every step from building the instrument through development of the data processing, the actual field measurements, processing of the resultant data, their evaluation and interpretation to the final publication in scientific journals. The development of the Glacier Roughness Sensor (GRS) incorporating Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and the fieldwork on the Greenland Inland Ice were particularly fascinating and instructive for students. In a related snow-hydrological research project on Niwot Ridge in the Colorado Front Range, we involved students in two season-long measurement campaigns in a high alpine environment. Students from the Universität Trier, Germany, and the University of Colorado Boulder participated in this project to learn about the value of international collaboration in science. Funding was provided by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Antarctic and Arctic Program) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (Hydrological Sciences Program). Students participated in preparatory classes and field camps, selected their own research projects and received university credit towards their degrees in geography or environmental sciences. All student participants in the MICROTOP projects have gone on to higher university education and become professionally exceptionally successful. Students setting up camp on the Greenland Ice Sheet during expedition MICROTOP 99.

  10. Colorado School Finance Partnership: Report and Recommendations. Financing Colorado's Future: Assessing Our School Finance System (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2012


    Over the last decade, Colorado has emerged as a national leader in crafting innovative solutions for challenges facing its public school system. From implementing the Colorado Student Assessment Program (CSAP) and No Child Left Behind (NCLB) reforms to more recent legislation including standards and assessments for a preschool-through-college…

  11. 77 FR 23498 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)


    ... Taylor Museum and the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center) and the Denver Museum of Nature & Science... Davis, Chief of Staff, President's Office, Colorado College, Armstrong Hall, Room 201, 14 E. Cache La... objects, as well as other cultural items were removed from Canyon de Chelly, Apache County, AZ, under the...

  12. Recent shallow moonquake and impact-triggered boulder falls on the Moon: New insights from the Schrödinger basin (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, P.; Sruthi, U.; Krishna, N.; Lakshmi, K. J. P.; Menon, Rajeev; Amitabh; Gopala Krishna, B.; Kring, David A.; Head, James W.; Goswami, J. N.; Kiran Kumar, A. S.


    Shallow moonquakes are thought to be of tectonic origin. However, the geologic structures responsible for these moonquakes are unknown. Here we report sites where moonquakes possibly occurred along young lobate scarps in the Schrödinger basin. Our analysis of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Chandrayaan-1 images revealed four lobate scarps in different parts of the Schrödinger basin. The scarps crosscut small fresh impact craters (bounced on nearby slopes. A cluster of a large number of boulder falls near Scarp 1 indicates that the scarp was seismically active recently. A low runout efficiency of the boulders (~2.5) indicates low to moderate levels of ground shaking, which we interpret to be related to low-magnitude moonquakes in the scarp. Boulder falls are also observed in other parts of the basin, where we mapped >1500 boulders associated with trails and bouncing marks. Their origins are largely controlled by recent impact events. Ejecta rays and secondary crater chains from a 14 km diameter impact crater traversed Schrödinger and triggered significant boulder falls about 17 Ma. Therefore, a combination of recent shallow moonquakes and impact events triggered the boulder falls in the Schrödinger basin.

  13. Origins of aerosol chlorine during winter over north central Colorado, USA (United States)

    Jordan, C. E.; Pszenny, A. A. P.; Keene, W. C.; Cooper, O. R.; Deegan, B.; Maben, J.; Routhier, M.; Sander, R.; Young, A. H.


    The Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition, and Halogens on a Tall Tower campaign (February-March 2011) near Boulder, Colorado, investigated nighttime ClNO2 production and processing. Virtually all particulate Cl was in the form of ionic Cl-. The size distributions of Cl- and Na+ were similar, with most of the mass in the supermicrometer size fraction, suggesting primary sources for both. Median Cl- concentrations were about half those of Na+ and Ca2+ for particle diameters centered at 1.4 and 2.5 µm. To investigate potential sources of Na+ and Cl-, four cases were studied that featured the prevalence of Na+ and Cl- and different transport pathways based on FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model (FLEXPART) retroplumes. Estimates of supermicrometer Na+ particle lifetime against deposition indicate that long-range transport of marine aerosols could account for the observed Na+. However, measured molar ratios of Ca2+ to Na+ (0.143-0.588) compared to seawater (0.022) indicate significant contributions from crustal sources to the supermicrometer aerosol composition during these four case studies. Further, low molar ratios of Mg2+ to Na+ (0.007-0.098) relative to seawater (0.114) suggest that some of the Na+, and presumably associated Cl-, originated from non-sea-salt sources. The heterogeneous chemical composition of saline soils throughout the western U.S., along with the nonlinearity of wind-driven soil deflation as a function of various surface soil properties, precludes a quantitative apportionment of soil, marine, and anthropogenic sources to the observed coarse-fraction aerosol. Nonetheless, results suggest that deflation of saline soils was a potentially important source of particulate Cl- that sustained atmospheric ClNO2 production and associated impacts on oxidation processes over northern Colorado.

  14. Effect of methyl substitution on optoelectronic properties of 1,3,6,8-tetraphenyl pyrenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yanling


    Full Text Available Geometric structures of the ground states and excited states,frontier molecular orbitals,ionization potentials,electron affinities,reorganization energies,and absorption and emission spectra of three novel methyl-substituted 1,3,6,8-tetra-phenylpyrenes were studied theoretically by quantum-chemical methods,such as density functional theory (DFT.The results show that the position of methyl substituent on benzene ring has much effect on the optoelectronic properties of methyl-substituted 1,3,6,8-tetra-phenylpyrenes.Interestingly,the geometric structures and optoelectronic properties of the designed compound 1,3,6,8-tetra-p-tolylpyrene (TPPy are similar to those of 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(3,5-dimethylphenylpyrene (TDMPPy,which is worthy of being further researched.

  15. EQ3/6 software test and verification report 9/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, T.


    This document is the Software Test and Verification Report (STVR) for the EQ3/6 suite of codes as stipulated in the Individual Software Plan for Initial Qualification of EQ3/6 (ISP-NF-07, Revision 1, 11/25/92). The software codes, EQPT, EQ3NR, EQ6, and the software library EQLIB constitute the EQ3/6 software package. This software test and verification project for EQ3/6 was started under the requirements of the LLNL Yucca Mountain Project Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP), Revision 0, December 14, 1989, but QP 3.2, Revision 2, June 21, 1994 is now the operative controlling procedure. This is a ''V and V'' report in the language of QP 3.2, Revision 2. Because the author of this report does not have a background in geochemistry, other technical sources were consulted in order to acquire some familiarity with geochemisty, the terminology minology involved, and to review comparable computational methods especially, geochemical aqueous speciation-solubility calculations. The software for the EQ3/6 package consists of approximately 47,000 lines of FORTRAN77 source code and nine on platforms ranging from workstations to supercomputers. The physical control of EQ3/6 software package and documentation is on a SUN SPARC station. Walkthroughs of each principal software packages, EQPT, EQ3NR, and EQ6 were conducted in order to understand the computational procedures involved, to determine any commonality in procedures, and then to establish a plan for the test and verification of EQ3/6. It became evident that all three phases depended upon solving an n x n matrix by the Newton-Raphson Method. Thus, a great deal of emphasis on the test and verification of this procedure was carried out on the first code in the software package EQPT

  16. EQ3/6 software test and verification report 9/94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, T.


    This document is the Software Test and Verification Report (STVR) for the EQ3/6 suite of codes as stipulated in the Individual Software Plan for Initial Qualification of EQ3/6 (ISP-NF-07, Revision 1, 11/25/92). The software codes, EQPT, EQ3NR, EQ6, and the software library EQLIB constitute the EQ3/6 software package. This software test and verification project for EQ3/6 was started under the requirements of the LLNL Yucca Mountain Project Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP), Revision 0, December 14, 1989, but QP 3.2, Revision 2, June 21, 1994 is now the operative controlling procedure. This is a ``V and V`` report in the language of QP 3.2, Revision 2. Because the author of this report does not have a background in geochemistry, other technical sources were consulted in order to acquire some familiarity with geochemisty, the terminology minology involved, and to review comparable computational methods especially, geochemical aqueous speciation-solubility calculations. The software for the EQ3/6 package consists of approximately 47,000 lines of FORTRAN77 source code and nine on platforms ranging from workstations to supercomputers. The physical control of EQ3/6 software package and documentation is on a SUN SPARC station. Walkthroughs of each principal software packages, EQPT, EQ3NR, and EQ6 were conducted in order to understand the computational procedures involved, to determine any commonality in procedures, and then to establish a plan for the test and verification of EQ3/6. It became evident that all three phases depended upon solving an n x n matrix by the Newton-Raphson Method. Thus, a great deal of emphasis on the test and verification of this procedure was carried out on the first code in the software package EQPT.

  17. Geologic map of the Harvard Lakes 7.5' quadrangle, Park and Chaffee Counties, Colorado (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Lee, Keenan; Premo, Wayne R.; Cosca, Michael A.


    The Harvard Lakes 1:24,000-scale quadrangle spans the Arkansas River Valley in central Colorado, and includes the foothills of the Sawatch Range on the west and Mosquito Range on the east. The Arkansas River valley lies in the northern end of the Rio Grande rift and is structurally controlled by Oligocene and younger normal faults mostly along the west side of the valley. Five separate pediment surfaces were mapped, and distinctions were made between terraces formed by the Arkansas River and surfaces that formed from erosion and alluviation that emanated from the Sawatch Range. Three flood deposits containing boulders as long as 15 m were deposited from glacial breakouts just north of the quadrangle. Miocene and Pliocene basin-fill deposits of the Dry Union Formation are exposed beneath terrace or pediment deposits in several places. The southwestern part of the late Eocene Buffalo Peaks volcanic center, mostly andesitic breccias and flows and ash-flow tuffs, occupy the northeastern corner of the map. Dated Tertiary intrusive rocks include Late Cretaceous or early Paleocene hornblende gabbro and hornblende monzonite. Numerous rhyolite and dacite dikes of inferred early Tertiary or Late Cretaceous age also intrude the basement rocks. Basement rocks are predominantly Mesoproterozoic granites, and subordinately Paleoproterozoic biotite gneiss and granitic gneiss.

  18. A geochronologic framework for the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado (United States)

    Mahan, Shannon; Gray, Harrison J.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Wilson, Jim; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Paces, James B.; Blaauw, Maarten


    The Ziegler Reservoir fossil site near Snowmass Village, Colorado, provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct high-altitude paleoenvironmental conditions in the Rocky Mountains during the last interglacial period. We used four different techniques to establish a chronological framework for the site. Radiocarbon dating of lake organics, bone collagen, and shell carbonate, and in situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al ages on a boulder on the crest of a moraine that impounded the lake suggest that the ages of the sediments that hosted the fossils are between ~ 140 ka and > 45 ka. Uranium-series ages of vertebrate remains generally fall within these bounds, but extremely low uranium concentrations and evidence of open-system behavior limit their utility. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages (n = 18) obtained from fine-grained quartz maintain stratigraphic order, were replicable, and provide reliable ages for the lake sediments. Analysis of the equivalent dose (DE) dispersion of the OSL samples showed that the sediments were fully bleached prior to deposition and low scatter suggests that eolian processes were likely the dominant transport mechanism for fine-grained sediments into the lake. The resulting ages show that the fossil-bearing sediments span the latest part of marine isotope stage (MIS) 6, all of MIS 5 and MIS 4, and the earliest part of MIS 3.

  19. Streamflow predictions under climate scenarios in the Boulder Creek Watershed at Orodell (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Williams, M. W.; Livneh, B.


    Mountainous areas have complex geological features and climatic variability, which limit our ability to simulate and predict hydrologic processes, especially in face to a changing climate. Hydrologic models can improve our understanding of land surface water and energy budgets in these regions. In this study, a distributed physically-based hydrologic model is applied to the Boulder Creek Watershed, USA to study streamflow conditions under future climatic scenarios. Model parameters were adjusted using observed streamflow data at 1/16th degree resolution, with a NSE value of 0.69. The results from CMIP5 models can give a general range of streamflow conditions under different climatic scenarios. Two scenarios are being applied, including the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. RCP 8.5 has higher emission concentrations than RCP 4.5, but not very significant in the period of study. Using pair t-test and Mann-Whitney test at specific grid cells to compare modeled and observed climate data, four CMIP5 models were chosen to predict streamflow from 2010 to 2025. Of the four models, two models predicted increased precipitation, while the other two models predicted decreased precipitation, and the four models predicted increased minimum and maximum temperature in RCP 4.5. Average streamflow decreased by 2% 14%, while maximum SWE varies from -7% to +210% from 2010 to 2025, relative to 2006 to 2010. In RCP 8.5, three models predicted increased precipitation, while the other one model predicted decreased precipitation, and the four models predicted increased maximum and minimum temperature. Besides one model, the other three models predicted increased average streamflow by 3.5% 32%, which results from the higher increasing magnitude in precipitation. Maximum SWE varies by 6% 55% higher than that from 2006 to 2010. This study shows that average daily maximum and minimum temperature will increase toward 2025 from different climate models, while average streamflow will decrease in RCP 4

  20. Boulders, biology and buildings: Why weathering is vital to geomorphology (Ralph Alger Bagnold Medal Lecture) (United States)

    Viles, Heather A.


    Weathering is vital to geomorphology in three main senses. First, it is vital in the sense of being a fundamental and near-ubiquitous earth surface process without which landscapes would not develop, and which also provides a key link between geomorphology and the broader Earth system. Second, weathering is vital in the sense that, as it is heavily influenced by biotic processes, it demonstrates the importance of life to geomorphology and vice versa. In particular, weathering illustrates the many cross-linkages between microbial ecosystems and geomorphology. Finally, it is vital in the sense that weathering provides an important practical application of geomorphological knowledge. Geomorphologists in recent years have contributed much in terms of improving understanding the deterioration of rocks, stone and other materials in heritage sites and the built environment. This knowledge has also had direct implications for heritage conservation. This lecture reviews recent research on each of these three themes and on their linkages, and sets an integrated research agenda for the future. Weathering as a key process underpinning geomorphology and Earth system science has been the subject of much recent conceptual and empirical research. In particular, conceptual research advances have involved improving conceptualisation of scale issues and process synergies, and understanding weathering in terms of non-linear dynamical systems. Empirical advances have included the development of larger datasets on weathering rates, and the application of a wide range of non-destructive and remote sensing techniques to quantify weathering morphologies on boulder and rock surfaces. In recent years, understanding of the complex linkages between ecology and geomorphology (sometimes called biogeomorphology) has advanced particularly strongly in terms of weathering. For example, the influences of disturbance on biota and weathering have been conceptualised and investigated empirically in a

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas (United States)

    Fueling Stations Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on

  2. Enhanced antioxidant activity of gold nanoparticle embedded 3,6-dihydroxyflavone: a combinational study (United States)

    Medhe, Sharad; Bansal, Prachi; Srivastava, Man Mohan


    The antioxidative effect of selected dietary compounds (3,6-dihydroxyflavone, lutein and selenium methyl selenocysteine) was determined in single and combination using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl), OH (hydroxyl), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and NO (nitric oxide) radical scavenging assays. Radical scavenging effect of the dietary phytochemicals individually are found to be in the order: ascorbic acid (standard) > lutein > 3,6-dihydroxyflavone > selenium methyl selenocysteine, at concentration 100 μg/ml, confirmed by all the four bioassays (p nanotech enforcement of dietary phytochemicals shows the utility in the architecture of nanoparticle embedded phytoproducts having a wide range of applications in medical science.

  3. Developing science policy capacity at the state government level: Planning a science and technology policy fellowship program for Colorado and beyond (United States)

    Druckenmiller, M. L.


    There is growing recognition of the potential to advance science policy capacity within state legislatures, where there is most often a shortage of professional backgrounds in the natural sciences, technology, engineering, and medicine. Developing such capacity at the state level should be considered a vital component of any comprehensive national scale strategy to strengthen science informed governance. Toward this goal, the Center for Science and Technology Policy Research at the University of Colorado Boulder is leading a strategic planning process for a Science and Technology Policy Fellowship Program within the Colorado state legislature and executive branch agencies. The intended program will place PhD-level scientists and engineers in one-year placements with decision-makers to provide an in-house resource for targeted policy-relevant research. Fellows will learn the intricacies of the state policymaking process, be exposed to opportunities for science to inform decisions, and develop a deeper understanding of key science and technology topics in Colorado, including water resources, wildfire management, and energy. The program's ultimate goals are to help foster a decision-making arena informed by evidence-based information, to develop new leaders adept at bridging science and policymaking realms, and to foster governance that champions the role of science in society. Parallel to efforts in Colorado, groups from nine other states are preparing similar plans, providing opportunities to share approaches across states and to set the stage for increased science and technology input to state legislative agendas nationwide. Importantly, highly successful and sustainable models exist; the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has implemented a federally based fellowship program for over 43 years and the California Council for Science and Technology (CCST) has directed a fellowship program for their state's legislature since 2009. AAAS and CCST

  4. Cosmic Ray Helium Isotopes From 0.2 to 3.6 GeV/nucleon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, O.; Hof, M.; Menn, W.


    mass by means of the velocity vs. magnetic rigidity technique. A model of the instrument response was developed in order to unfold the species and rigidity-dependent effects. Measurements and astrophysical interpretation of the ^3He/^4He isotope ratio from 0.2 to 3.6 GeV/nucleon will be presented...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikarashi, Soh; Ivison, R. J.; Caputi, Karina I.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David H.; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.


    We report the source size distribution, as measured by ALMA millimetric continuum imaging, of a sample of 13 AzTEC-selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z(phot) similar to 3-6. Their infrared luminosities and star formation rates (SFRs) are L-IR similar to, 2-6 x 10(12) L-circle dot and similar


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: Schiff base, N,N′-dipyridoxyl(1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctane), DFT, B3LYP. INTRODUCTION. Schiff bases due to structural varieties and unique characteristics are the most versatile studied ligands in coordination chemistry [1, 2] and their metal complexes play an important role in the development of inorganic ...

  7. N,N′-Dipyridoxyl(1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctane) Schiff-base

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The N,N′-dipyridoxyl(1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctane) (=H2L) Schiff-base has been synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. Its optimized geometry and theoretical vibrational frequencies have been computed using density functional theory (DFT) method via the B3LYP ...

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3,6-dialkylsubstituted-[1,2,4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Feb 16, 2018 ... A series of 3,6-dialkyl-[1,2,4] triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole (10) analogues were ... Cytotoxicity data revealed that most of the tested compounds revealed cytotoxic ...... jary B 2003 Synthesis characterization and anticancer.

  9. Superstorms at the end of the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e)? Modeling paleo waves and the transport of giant boulders. (United States)

    Rovere, Alessio; Harris, Daniel; Casella, Elisa; Lorscheid, Thomas; Stocchi, Paolo; Nandasena, Napayalage; Sandstrom, Michael; D'Andrea, William; Dyer, Blake; Raymo, Maureen


    We present the results of high-resolution field surveys and wave models along the cliffs of the northern part of the Island of Eleuthera, Bahamas. Previous studies have proposed that cliff top mega-boulders were emplaced at the end of the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e, 128-116 ka) by giant swells caused by super-storms that find no counterpart in the Holocene (including historical times). Our results suggest that these boulders could have instead been transported from the cliff face to the top of the cliff by a storm analogous to the 1991 'Perfect Storm', if sea level during MIS 5e sea was more than 4 meters higher than today. We remark that the data-model approach used here is essential to interpreting the geologic evidence of extreme storms during past warm periods, which in turn, is an important tool for predicting the intensity of extreme storm events in future climates. Our results indicate that even without an increase in storm intensity, cliffs and hard coastal barriers might be subject to significant increases wave-generated stresses under conditions of sea levels modestly higher than present.

  10. The Chapter 1 Challenge: Colorado's Contribution 1993. (United States)

    Petro, Janice Rose; And Others

    An overview is provided of Colorado's participation in Chapter 1, the largest federally funded program designed to provide services to elementary and secondary students. Chapter 1 provides financial assistance to state and local education agencies to meet the special needs of educationally deprived children who reside in areas with high…

  11. Insects associated with ponderosa pine in Colorado (United States)

    Robert E. Stevens; J. Wayne Brewer; David A. Leatherman


    Ponderosa pine serves as a host for a wide variety of insects. Many of these, including all the particularly destructive ones in Colorado, are discussed in this report. Included are a key to the major insect groups, an annotated list of the major groups, a glossary, and a list of references.

  12. Bats of the Colorado oil shale region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, R.B. Jr.; Caire, W.; Wilhelm, D.E.


    New records for Myotis californicus, M. evotis, M. leibii, M. lucifugus, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasiurus cinereus, Plecotus townsendii, and Antrozous pallidus and their habitat occurrence in northwestern Colorado are reported. Mortality of 27 bats of six species trapped in an oil sludge pit is described. 7 references.

  13. 76 FR 76109 - Colorado Regulatory Program (United States)


    ... its program to improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the... the amendment during regular business hours at the following locations: Kenneth Walker, Chief, Denver... available for you to read at the locations listed above under ADDRESSES. Specifically, Colorado proposes...

  14. Feeding stimulants for the colorado beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, F.J.


    Potato leaf extract was fractionated and the fractions obtained were tested for their activity as feeding stimulants for Colorado beetle larvae. Also leaves and leaf extracts of different kinds of plants, as well as a number of known pure compounds and mixtures of them, were tested for this

  15. Behavioural changes of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) after marine boulder reef restoration: Implications for coastal habitat management and Natura 2000 areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Stenberg, Claus


    While marine reefs are degraded globally, the responses of fish to marine reef restoration remain uncertain, particularly in temperate waters. This study measured the effect of marine boulder reef restoration on the behaviour of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., in a Natura 2000 area using acoustic...... telemetry. Cod were tagged and released in the study area before and after the restoration and tracked continuously for six months. A larger fraction of the released fish remained in the study area after restoration (94%) than before (53%). Moreover, throughout the study period, cod spent significantly more...... hours per day and prolonged their residence time in the study area after the restoration. The study indicates that marine reefs subjected to boulder extraction can be restored and function as favourable cod habitats. Temperate marine boulder reef restoration represents a valuable management tool...

  16. Understanding uncertainties in future Colorado River streamflow (United States)

    Julie A. Vano,; Bradley Udall,; Cayan, Daniel; Jonathan T Overpeck,; Brekke, Levi D.; Das, Tapash; Hartmann, Holly C.; Hidalgo, Hugo G.; Hoerling, Martin P; McCabe, Gregory J.; Morino, Kiyomi; Webb, Robert S.; Werner, Kevin; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.


    The Colorado River is the primary water source for more than 30 million people in the United States and Mexico. Recent studies that project streamf low changes in the Colorado River all project annual declines, but the magnitude of the projected decreases range from less than 10% to 45% by the mid-twenty-first century. To understand these differences, we address the questions the management community has raised: Why is there such a wide range of projections of impacts of future climate change on Colorado River streamflow, and how should this uncertainty be interpreted? We identify four major sources of disparities among studies that arise from both methodological and model differences. In order of importance, these are differences in 1) the global climate models (GCMs) and emission scenarios used; 2) the ability of land surface and atmospheric models to simulate properly the high-elevation runoff source areas; 3) the sensitivities of land surface hydrology models to precipitation and temperature changes; and 4) the methods used to statistically downscale GCM scenarios. In accounting for these differences, there is substantial evidence across studies that future Colorado River streamflow will be reduced under the current trajectories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions because of a combination of strong temperature-induced runoff curtailment and reduced annual precipitation. Reconstructions of preinstrumental streamflows provide additional insights; the greatest risk to Colorado River streamf lows is a multidecadal drought, like that observed in paleoreconstructions, exacerbated by a steady reduction in flows due to climate change. This could result in decades of sustained streamflows much lower than have been observed in the ~100 years of instrumental record.

  17. Distribution of effluent injected into the Boulder Zone of the Floridan aquifer system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, southeastern Florida, 1997–2011 (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.; Decker, Jeremy D.


    Nonhazardous, secondarily treated, domestic wastewater (effluent) has been injected about 1 kilometer below land surface into the Boulder Zone of the Floridan aquifer system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant in southeastern Florida. The Boulder Zone contains saline, nonpotable water. Effluent transport out of the injection zone is a risk of underground effluent injection. At the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, injected effluent was detected outside the Boulder Zone. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, investigated effluent transport from the Boulder Zone to overlying permeable zones in the Floridan aquifer system.One conceptual model is presented to explain the presence of effluent outside of the injection zone in which effluent injected into the Boulder Zone was transported to the Avon Park permeable zone, forced by buoyancy and injection pressure. In this conceptual model, effluent injected primarily into the Boulder Zone reaches a naturally occurring feature (a karst-collapse structure) near an injection well, through which the effluent is transported vertically upward to the uppermost major permeable zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer. The effluent is then transported laterally through the uppermost major permeable zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer to another naturally occurring feature northwest of the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, through which it is then transported vertically upward into the Avon Park permeable zone. In addition, a leak within a monitoring well, between monitoring zones, allowed interflow between the Avon Park permeable zone and the Upper Floridan aquifer. A groundwater flow and effluent transport simulation of the hydrogeologic system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, based on the hypothesized and non-unique conceptualization of the subsurface hydrogeology and flow system, generally replicated measured effluent constituent

  18. 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope Project: Completion and first results (United States)

    Kumar, Brijesh; Omar, Amitesh; Maheswar, Gopinathan; Pandey, Anil Kumar; Sagar, Ram; Uddin, Wahab; Sanwal, Basant Ballabh; Bangia, Tarun; Kumar, Tripurari Satyanarayana; Yadav, Shobhit; Sahu, Sanjit; Pant, Jayshreekar; Reddy, Bheemireddy Krishna; Gupta, Alok Chandra; Chand, Hum; Pandey, Jeewan Chandra; Joshi, Mohit Kumar; Jaiswar, Mukeshkuma; Nanjappa, Nandish; Purushottam; Yadav, Rama Kant Singh; Sharma, Saurabh; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Joshi, Santosh; Joshi, Yogesh Chandra; Lata, Sneh; Mehdi, Biman Jyoti; Misra, Kuntal; Singh, Mahendra


    We present an update on the 3.6-m aperture optical telescope, which has been installed at Devasthal in the year 2016. In this paper, a brief overview of installation activities at site and first results are presented. The 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope project was initiated in 2007 by the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES; Nainital, India) in partnership with Belgium. The telescope has Ritchey-Chretien optics, an alt-azimuth mount, an active control of the primary and a corrected science field of view of 30' at the Cassegrain focus. The construction of the telescope enclosure building was completed in June 2014 and after successful installation of the telescope. The first engineering light was obtained on 22 March 2015. The on-sky performance of the telescope was carried out till February 2016.

  19. The EQ3/6 software package for geochemical modeling: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worlery, T.J.; Jackson, K.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Bruton, C.J.; Viani, B.E.; Knauss, K.G.; Delany, J.M.


    EQ3/6 is a software package for modeling chemical and mineralogic interactions in aqueous geochemical systems. The major components of the package are EQ3NR (a speciation-solubility code), EQ6 (a reaction path code), EQLIB (a supporting library), and a supporting thermodynamic data base. EQ3NR calculates aqueous speciation and saturation indices from analytical data. It can also be used to calculate compositions of buffer solutions for use in laboratory experiments. EQ6 computes reaction path models of both equilibrium step processes and kinetic reaction processes. These models can be computed for closed systems and relatively simple open systems. EQ3/6 is useful in making purely theoretical calculations, in designing, interpreting, and extrapolating laboratory experiments, and in testing and developing submodels and supporting data used in these codes. The thermodynamic data base supports calculations over the range 0-300 degree C. 60 refs., 2 figs

  20. The EQ3/6 software package for geochemical modeling: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolery, T.J.; Jackson, K.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Bruton, C.J.; Viani, B.E.; Knauss, K.G.; Delany, J.M.


    EQ3/6 is a software package for modeling chemical and mineralogic interactions in aqueous geochemical systems. The major components of the package are EQ3NR (a speciation-solubility code), EQ6 (a reaction path code), EQLIB (a supporting library), and a supporting thermodynamic data base. EQ3NR calculates aqueous speciation and saturation indices from analytical data. It can also be used to calculate compositions of buffer solutions for use in laboratory experiments. EQ6 computes reaction path models of both equilibrium step processes and kinetic reaction processes. These models can be computed for closed systems and relatively simple open systems. EQ3/6 is useful in making purely theoretical calculations, in designing, interpreting, and extrapolating laboratory experiments, and in testing and developing submodels and supporting data used in these codes. The thermodynamic data base supports calculations over the range 0-300{degree}C. 60 refs., 2 figs.

  1. 3,6-Dithiaoctane-1,8-dicarboxylic acid and its metal complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellaart, A.C.; Verbeek, J.L.


    A soln. contg. 1.5 g 3,6-dithiaoctane-1,8-dicarboxylic acid (HL) in 20 ml H2O was treated with 1.8 g Ag2O for 20 min on a boiling water bath to give H[AgL2], m.p. 115-16 Deg (uncor.). A structure is proposed on the basis of ir spectral studies and elec. cond. measurements. H[CuL2] was similarly

  2. The new 157Tm isotope, Tsub(1/2)=(3.6+-0.3) min

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latuszynski, A.; Mikulski, J.; Potempa, A.W.; Zielinski, A.; Zuber, K.; Penev, I.; Zuber, J.


    The new isotope 157 Tm was discovered, and its half-life Tsub(1/2) (3.6+-0.3)min was measured. On the basis of the balance of energies and intensities of γ-transitions occurring in the 157 Tm decay a number of excited states of the 157 Er nucleus with energies of 110.2; 241.3; 357.3 and 457.1 keV were found. (author)

  3. Islet autoantibodies and residual beta cell function in type 1 diabetes children followed for 3-6 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sand; Vaziri-Sani, Fariba; Maziarz, M


    To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D.......To test if islet autoantibodies at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and after 3-6 years with T1D predict residual beta-cell function (RBF) after 3-6 years with T1D....

  4. Construction of 3.6m ARIES telescope enclosure with eccentric pier at Devasthal, Nainital (United States)

    Bangia, Tarun

    Space optimized enclosure with eccentric pier for 3.6m ARIES telescope presents construction challenges at the unique observing site of Devasthal, Nainital, India. Enclosure comprises of about 16.5m diameter and 14m high insulated steel framed cylindrical dome rotating on a 14m high stationery dome supporting structure and a 24m × 12m extension structure building for accommodating aluminizing plant and ventilation system etc. Great deal of manual and mechanical excavation was carried out at the rocky site using rock breaking and JCB machines. Foundation bolts for columns of dome supporting structure and extension structure building were grouted after alignment with total station. A 7m diameter hollow cylindrical pier isolated from other structures and 1.85m eccentric with dome center designed due to space limitation at site is being casted for mounting 150 MT mass of the largest 3.6m telescope in the country. A 7m diameter template was fabricated for 3.6m pier top. Most of enclosure components are manufactured and tested in works before assembly/erection at site. Dome drive was tested with dummy loads using VVVF drive with 6 drive and 12 idler wheel assemblies at works to simulate dome weight and smooth operation before erection at site. A 4.2m wide motorized windscreen is being manufactured with a special grade synthetic fabric to withstand wind speed up to 15m/s.

  5. Control of Precambrian basement deformation zones on emplacement of the Laramide Boulder batholith and Butte mining district, Montana, United States (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; O'Neill, J. Michael


    What are the roles of deep Precambrian basement deformation zones in the localization of subsequent shallow-crustal deformation zones and magmas? The Paleoproterozoic Great Falls tectonic zone and its included Boulder batholith (Montana, United States) provide an opportunity to examine the importance of inherited deformation fabrics in batholith emplacement and the localization of magmatic-hydrothermal mineral deposits. Northeast-trending deformation fabrics predominate in the Great Falls tectonic zone, which formed during the suturing of Paleoproterozoic and Archean cratonic masses approximately 1,800 mega-annum (Ma). Subsequent Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic deformation fabrics trend northwest. Following Paleozoic through Early Cretaceous sedimentation, a Late Cretaceous fold-and-thrust belt with associated strike-slip faulting developed across the region, wherein some Proterozoic faults localized thrust faulting, while others were reactivated as strike-slip faults. The 81- to 76-Ma Boulder batholith was emplaced along the reactivated central Paleoproterozoic suture in the Great Falls tectonic zone. Early-stage Boulder batholith plutons were emplaced concurrent with east-directed thrust faulting and localized primarily by northwest-trending strike-slip and related faults. The late-stage Butte Quartz Monzonite pluton was localized in a northeast-trending pull-apart structure that formed behind the active thrust front and is axially symmetric across the underlying northeast-striking Paleoproterozoic fault zone, interpreted as a crustal suture. The modeling of potential-field geophysical data indicates that pull-apart?stage magmas fed into the structure through two funnel-shaped zones beneath the batholith. Renewed magmatic activity in the southern feeder from 66 to 64 Ma led to the formation of two small porphyry-style copper-molybdenum deposits and ensuing world-class polymetallic copper- and silver-bearing veins in the Butte mining district. Vein orientations

  6. Acid-neutralizing potential of minerals in intrusive rocks of the Boulder batholith in northern Jefferson County, Montana (United States)

    Desborough, George A.; Briggs, Paul H.; Mazza, Nilah; Driscoll, Rhonda


    Experimental studies show that fresh granitic rocks of the Boulder batholith in the Boulder River headwaters near Basin, Montana have significant acid-neutralizing potential and are capable of neutralizing acidic water derived from metal-mining related wastes or mine workings. Laboratory studies show that in addition to the acidneutralizing potential (ANP) of minor amounts of calcite in these rocks, biotite, tremolite, and feldspars will contribute significantly to long-term ANP. We produced 0.45 micrometer-filtered acidic (pH = 2.95) leachate for use in these ANP experiments by exposing metal-mining related wastes to deionized water in a waste:leachate ratio of 1:20. We then exposed these leachates to finely-ground and sized fractions of batholith rocks, and some of their mineral fractions for extended and repeated periods, for which results are reported here. The intent was to understand what reactions of metal-rich acidic water and fresh igneous rocks would produce. The reactions between the acidic leachates and the bulk rocks and mineral fractions are complex. Factors such as precipitation of phases like Fe-hydroxides and Alhydroxides and the balance between dissolved cations and anions that are sulfate dominated complicate analysis of the results. Research by others of acid neutralization by biotite and tremolite attributed a rise in pH to proton (H+) adsorption in sites vacated by K, Mg, and Ca. Destruction of the silicate framework and liberation of associated structural hydroxyl ions may contribute to ANP. Studies by others have indicated that the conversion of biotite to a vermiculite-type structure by removal of K at a pH of 4 consumes about six protons for every mole of biotite, but at a pH of 3 there is pronounced dissolution of the tetrahedral lattice. The ANP of fresh granitic rocks is much higher than anticipated. The three bulk Boulder igneous rock samples studied have minimum ANP equivalent to about 10-14 weight percent calcite. This ANP is in

  7. Synthesis and characterization of novel substituted 3,6-bis(2-pyridyl)pyridazine metal-coordinating ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, R.; Kickelbick, G.; Schubert, U.S.


    The synthesis of novel functionalized 3,6-di(2-pyridyl)pyridazines via an inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction between the corresponding 3,6-di(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine and various alkynes is reported. The resulting 3,6-di(2-pyridyl)pyridazines were investigated using X-ray

  8. Exerting Power in a Landscape Management Controversy: A case study of the proposed Penguin Parade at Boulder Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Foster


    Full Text Available Managing the future of places that are esteemed for both their cultural and natural heritage values is becoming increasingly contentious. This paper examines the spatialised strategies of two groups attempting to influence planning decisions over the fate of ten vernacular buildings in Boulder Bay, Christchurch, and their possible replacement by an eco-tourism proposal. Both groups' strategies include deploying global policy initiatives such as the IUCN Red List and the ICOMOS Charter, however, they diverge significantly over how the local landscape is portrayed. Those looking to preserve the baches, unsurprisingly emphasise local memory and the historical character of the place, while those proposing tourism development downplay many of the impacts of the proposal.

  9. Methodical comparison of neutron depth probes and long-term soil moisture measurements on loess, sandy loess, and boulder clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neue, H.U.


    Three measuring instruments were tested: 0.05 mCi Cf-252, 100 mCi Am-241/Be, 500 mCi Am-241/Be. The advantages - measurement in undisturbed soil profiles, large depths of measurement, reproducibility of measurements in the same place over several years - and the disadvantages - radiation protection, resolution, variations of measured volume in dependence of moisture, background influences etc. - have been critically checked by experiment. In addition, annual soil moisture curves have been measured over two years by parallel use of the free probes on a loess, sandy loess, and boulder clay site. The results were compared and discussed with a view to the soil water dynamics of these sites. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Gunnison, Colorado subpile study report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    To protect human health and the environment, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project will remediate the uranium mill tailings site at Gunnison Colorado. There are explicit requirements (i.e., 40 CFR Part 192) for the surface remediation of radiologically contaminated soils on UMTRA sites. The removal of subpile sediment to the depth required by 40 CFR Part 192 will leave in place deeper foundation sediment that is contaminated with hazardous constituents other than radium-226 and thorium-230. The Department of Energy and the Colorado Department of Health have questioned whether this contaminated soil could potentially act as a continuing source of ground water contamination even after surface remediation based on 40 CFR Part 192 is complete. To evaluate the subpile sediments as a potential source of ground water contamination, the Gunnison Subpile study was initiated. This report summarizes the results and findings of this study

  11. Mineral exploration with ERTS imagery. [Colorado (United States)

    Nicolais, S. M.


    Ten potential target areas for metallic mineral exploration were selected on the basis of a photo-lineament interpretation of the ERTS image 1172-17141 in central Colorado. An evaluation of bias indicated that prior geologic knowledge of the region had little, if any, effect on target selection. In addition, a contoured plot of the frequency of photo-lineament intersections was made to determine what relationships exist between the photo-lineaments and mineral districts. Comparison of this plot with a plot of the mineral districts indicates that areas with a high frequency of intersections commonly coincide with known mineral districts. The results of this experiment suggest that photo-lineaments are fractures or fracture-controlled features, and their distribution may be a guide to metallic mineral deposits in Colorado, and probably other areas as well.

  12. Green pricing: A Colorado case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, E.; Udall, J.R.


    A model program for green pricing targeted primarily at large customers is proposed in this paper. The program would create a partnership between a local community group, a renewables advocacy group, and several Colorado utilities. The first part of the paper summarizes pertinent background issues, including utility experience with green pricing programs. The rest of the paper outlines the program proposal, focusing primarily on organizational structure.

  13. C3-6 laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy maintains satisfactory long-term surgical outcomes. (United States)

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yoshikawa, Hideki


    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Objective To clarify long-term surgical outcomes of C3-6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Twenty patients who underwent C3-6 open-door laminoplasty for CSM and who were followed for 8 to 10 years were included in this study. Myelopathic symptoms were assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Axial neck pain was graded as severe, moderate, or mild. C2-7 angle was measured using lateral radiographs of the cervical spine before surgery and at final follow-up. Results Mean JOA score before surgery (11.7) was significantly improved to 15.2 at the time of maximum recovery (1 year after surgery), declining slightly to 14.9 by the latest follow-up. Late deterioration of JOA score developed in eight patients, but was unrelated to the cervical spine lesions in each case. No patient suffered from prolonged postoperative axial neck pain at final follow-up. The mean C2-7 angle before surgery (13.8 degrees) significantly increased to 19.2 degrees at final follow-up. Conclusions C3-6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with CSM maintained satisfactory long-term neurologic improvement with significantly reduced frequencies of prolonged postoperative axial neck pain and loss of C2-7 angle after surgery.

  14. Complexes of 3.6 kDa Maltodextrin with Some Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Schilling


    Full Text Available Preparation of magnesium, lanthanum, and bismuth(III complexes of 3.6 kDa maltodextrin and some properties of the resulting materials are presented. The metal derivatives contain metals bound to the oxygen atoms of the hydroxyl groups of maltodextrin. Additionally, the metal atoms are coordinated to the hydroxyl groups of the D-glucose units of the macroligand. Such coordination stabilized the metal – oxygen bond against hydrolysis, even in boiling water. The presence of magnesium and lanthanum atoms increased the thermal stability of maltodextrin, whereas bismuth atoms decreased it.

  15. 3,6-Dibromo-9-(4-tert-butylbenzyl-9H-carbazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan-Lin Cao


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C23H21Br2N, which was synthesized by the N-alkylation of 1-tert-butyl-4-(chloromethylbenzene with 3,6-dibromo-9H-carbazole, the asymmetric unit contains two unique molecules. Each carbazole ring system is essentially planar, with mean deviations of 0.0077 and 0.0089 Å for the two molecules. The carbazole planes make dihedral angles of 78.9 (2 and 81.8 (2° with the planes of the respective benzene rings.

  16. Order-disorder phase transition in ZrV2Dsub(3.6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didisheim, J.-J.; Yvon, K.; Tissot, P.


    The deuterated C15-type Laves phase ZrV 2 Dsub(3.6) undergoes a structural phase transition near room temperature (T of the order of 325 K). In the cubic high-temperature phase the deuterium atoms are disordered over two types of tetrahedral interstices, the centres of which are 1.3 A apart. In the tetragonal low-temperature phase the D atoms are ordered and occupy only the energetically more favourable interstices. The tetragonal structure is isotypic with the low-temperature phase of HfV 2 D 4 . The shortest D-D distance is 2.1 A. (author)

  17. Water data: bad TPC pads, 3.6 µs and 100 ns problems

    CERN Document Server

    Dydak, F; Nefedov, Y; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A


    Out of the 3972 pads of the HARP TPC, about 9% are 'bad' and not useful for the correct reconstruction of clusters. Bad pads comprise dead pads, noisy pads, and pads with low or undefined amplification. Pads may be bad at one time, but not at another. This memo discusses the sources of information which were used to declare a pad 'bad', and gives the list of bad pads for the water data (runs 19146 to 19301). Also, the 3.6 µs and 100 ns problems of the TPC readout are discussed, including the corrective measures which have been taken.

  18. Constraints for anomalous dimensions of local light-cone operators in [φ3]6 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.


    Using the MS scheme, we derive in [φ 3 ] 6 theory the collinear conformal Ward identity for the Green's functions of local light-cone operators of leading twist. The Ward identity for special collinear conformal transformations and renormalization group invariance give constraints for the off-diagonal part of the anomalous dimension matrix for the general case of β≠0. We compute the anomaly of special conformal tranformation in lowest loop order and obtain from the constraints the off-diagonal part of the anomalous dimension in 2-loop order. (orig.)

  19. Guide to data preparation for EQ3/6 (Wolery) modified for the IBM 3033

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noy, D.J.


    The ability to predict mineral-fluid equilibria is an important aspect of geochemical research into radioactive waste disposal. The interaction of ground waters and waste leachates with the host rock of a disposal site, either at elevated or ambient temperatures, will influence the performance of the disposal system. The EQ3/6 package (Wolery, 1979) provides a technique for the prediction of such interactions using available thermodynamic data, and for extrapolating laboratory experimental data on rock-fluid equilibria. This report describes the modifications performed on this package to allow operation on an IBM machine, and is intended as a guide to data preparation for the programmes. (author)

  20. Colorado family physicians' attitudes toward medical marijuana. (United States)

    Kondrad, Elin; Reid, Alfred


    Over the last decade, the use of medical marijuana has expanded dramatically; it is now permitted in 16 states and the District of Columbia. Our study of family physicians in Colorado is the first to gather information about physician attitudes toward this evolving practice. We distributed an anonymous web-based electronic survey to the 1727 members of the Colorado Academy of Family Physicians' listserv. Items included individual and practice characteristics as well as experience with and attitudes toward medical marijuana. Five hundred twenty family physicians responded (30% response rate). Of these, 46% did not support physicians recommending medical marijuana; only 19% thought that physicians should recommend it. A minority thought that marijuana conferred significant benefits to physical (27%) and mental (15%) health. Most agreed that marijuana poses serious mental (64%) and physical (61%) health risks. Eighty-one percent agreed that physicians should have formal training before recommending medical marijuana, and 92% agreed that continuing medical education about medical marijuana should be available to family physicians. Despite a high prevalence of use in Colorado, most family physicians are not convinced of marijuana's health benefits and believe its use carries risks. Nearly all agreed on the need for further medical education about medical marijuana.

  1. Radiocarbon and cation-radio ages for rock varnish on Tioga and Tahoe marainal boulders of Pine Creek, eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and their paleoclimatic implications (United States)

    Dorn, R.I.; Turrin, B.D.; Jull, A.J.T.; Linick, T.W.; Donahue, D.J.


    Accelerator mass spectrometry 14C analyses of organic matter extracted from rock varnishes on morainal boulders yield limiting minimum ages for three crests of the Tioga glaciation. At Pine Creek in the eastern Sierra Nevada, varnish started to form on boulders of the outermost Tioga moraine before 19,000 yr B.P., and varnish originated on the innermost Tioga moraine before 13,200 yr B.P. Comparisons with lake-level, paleohydrological, paleoecological, colluvial, and rock varnish micromorphological data indicate that central-eastern California and western Nevada experienced a moisture-effective period during the late Pleistocene but after the Tioga maximum, and perhaps as Tioga glaciers receded from the mouth of Pine Creek canyon. Varnishes on Tahoeage morainal boulders at Pine Creek have cation-ratio ages of about 143,000-156,000 yr B.P., suggesting that the Tahoe glaciation should not be correlated with oxygen-isotope stage 4 in the early Wisconsin, but rather with stage 6. Varnishes on morainal boulders of an older glaciation at Pine Creek are dated by cation ratio at about 182,000-187,000 yr B.P. ?? 1987.

  2. Paleoclimate Reconstruction during the 17th to 18th Century Using Fossil Coral Tsunami Boulders from Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyus, Japan (United States)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Seki, A.; Kawakubo, Y.; Araoka, D.; Suzuki, A.


    Little Ice Age (LIA) which lasted during approximately 1450 to 1850 (e.g. Grove, 1988) is known as naturally occurring climate fluctuation, so knowing LIA in detail is necessary to improve climate models. Instrumental records can only extend back to about 100 years in many areas, thus paleoclimate records are reconstructed using proxies in tree rings, sediments and so force. However there are differences in reconstructed timings and magnitudes of LIA occurred in each area (Overpack et al., 1997), and most of the records are based mainly on terrestrial proxies such as tree ring records, whereas only limited numbers of marine records are available (Mann et al., 2008). Coral skeletal climatology is a useful tool to reconstruct marine paleoclimate records in tropics and subtropics. Hermatypic corals, Porites spp. have aragonite skeletons and they have annual bands, which are suitable to reconstruct high-resolution paleoclimate in seasonal scale by measuring chemical compositions. Skeletal Sr/Ca ratio in Porites spp. has been widely used as a reliable proxy of SST (Sea Surface Temperature). However, corals grow for approximately several decades to 200 years, hence it is difficult to reconstruct LIA paleoclimate using living corals. Cobb et al. (2003) used fossil corals casted on shore by storms to reconstruct millennial scale paleoclimate. There are fossil coral boulders in the eastern coast of Ishigaki Island, Ryukyus, Japan. These fossil coral boulders were casted on shore by paleo Tsunami events, thus they are called "Tsunami boulders" (Araoka et al., 2010). Fossil corals used by Cobb et al. have 30-90-year records while some large Tsunami boulders have multi-centennial continuous records. In this study, we reconstruct paleo SST using the Tsunami boulder from Ishigaki Island. The boulder has 185 years of annual banding. U-series dating shows the boulder was moved on shore at Meiwa earthquake in 1771. We measure Sr/Ca ratio using LA-HR-ICPMS (Laser Ablation High

  3. Influence of oil and gas emissions on ambient atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons in residential areas of Northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea R. Thompson


    Full Text Available Abstract The Northern Front Range (NFR region of Colorado has experienced rapid expansion of oil and gas extraction from shale and tight sands reservoirs in recent years due to advances in hydraulic fracturing technology, with over 25,000 wells currently in operation. This region has also been designated as a federal ozone non-attainment area by the U.S. EPA. High ozone levels are a significant health concern, as are potential health impacts from chronic exposure to primary emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC for residents living near wells. From measurements of ambient atmospheric NMHC present in residential areas located in close proximity to wells in Erie, Colorado, we find that mean mole fractions of the C2–C5 alkanes are enhanced by a factor of 18–77 relative to the regional background, and present at higher levels than typically found in large urban centers. When combined with NMHC observations from downtown Denver and Platteville, it is apparent that these compounds are elevated across the NFR, with highest levels within the Greater Wattenberg Gas Field. This represents a large area source for ozone precursors in the NFR. The BTEX aromatic compounds in Erie were comparable to (e.g., benzene or lower than (e.g., toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene in large urban centers, however, benzene was significantly higher in Platteville, and within the range of chronic health-based exposure levels. An initial look at comparisons with data sets from previous years reveal that ambient levels for oil and gas-related NMHC in Erie, as well as further downwind in Boulder, have not decreased, but appear to have been increasing, despite tightening of emissions standards for the oil and gas industries in 2008.

  4. University of Colorado CubeSat Student Projects as Successful Model for Teaching Students about Engineering Practices (United States)

    Palo, S. E.; Li, X.; Woods, T. N.; Kohnert, R.


    There is a long history of cooperation between students at the University of Colorado, Boulder and professional engineers and scientists at LASP, which has led to many successful space missions with direct student involvement. The recent student-led missions include the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE, 1998 - 2002), the Student Dust Counter (SDC) on New Horizons (2006 - present), the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE), being a very successful NSF CubeSat that launched in September 2012, and the NASA Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat (launch will be in early 2015). Students are involved in all aspects of the design, and they experience the full scope of the mission process from concept, to fabrication and test, and mission operations. A significant part of the student involvement in the CubeSat projects is gained by using the CubeSat development as a focal point for an existing two-semester course sequence in CU's Aerospace Engineering Sciences (AES) Department: the Space Hardware Design section of Graduate Projects I & II (ASEN 5018 & ASEN 6028). The goal of these courses is to teach graduate students how to design and build systems using a requirement-based approach and fundamental systems engineering practices. The two-semester sequence takes teams of about 15 students from requirements definition and preliminary design through manufacturing, integration, and testing. In addition to the design process, students learn key professional skills such as working effectively in groups, finding solutions to open-ended problems, and actually building a system to their own set of specifications. The partnership between AES and LASP allows us to include engineering professionals in the mix, thus more effectively training science and engineering students for future roles in the civilian or commercial space industry. The mentoring process with LASP engineers helps to mitigate risk of the inexperience of the students and ensures consistent

  5. EQ3/6 geochemical modeling task plan for Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.; Wolery, T.


    This task plan outlines work needed to upgrade the EQ3/6 geochemical code and expand the supporting data bases to allow the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) to model chemical processes important to the storage of nuclear waste in a tuff repository in the unsaturated zone. The plan covers the fiscal years 1984 to 1988. The scope of work includes the development of sub-models in the EQ3/6 code package for studying the effects of sorption, precipitation kinetics, redox disequilibrium, and radiolysis on radionuclide speciation and solubility. The work also includes a glass/water interactions model and a geochemical flow model which will allow us to study waste form leaching and reactions involving the waste package. A special emphasis is placed on verification of new capabilities as they are developed and code documentation to meet NRC requirements. Data base expansion includes the addition of elements and associated aqueous species and solid phases that are specific to nuclear waste (e.g., actinides and fission products) and the upgrading and documentation of the thermodynamic data for other species of interest.

  6. Extension of the EQ3/6 computer codes to geochemical modeling of brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.J.; Wolery, T.J.


    Recent modifications to the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling software package provide for the use of Pitzer's equations to calculate the activity coefficients of aqueous species and the activity of water. These changes extend the range of solute concentrations over which the codes can be used to dependably calculate equilibria in geochemical systems, and permit the inclusion of ion pairs, complexes, and undissociated acids and bases as explicit component species in the Pitzer model. Comparisons of calculations made by the EQ3NR and EQ6 compuer codes with experimental data confirm that the modifications not only allow the codes to accurately evaluate activity coefficients in concentrated solutions, but also permit prediction of solubility limits of evaporite minerals in brines at 25/sup 0/C and elevated temperatures. Calculations for a few salts can be made at temperatures up to approx. 300/sup 0/C, but the temperature range for most electrolytes is constrained by the availability of requisite data to values less than or equal to 100/sup 0/C. The implementation of Pitzer's equations in EQ3/6 allows application of these codes to problems involving calculation of geochemical equilibria in brines; such as evaluation of the chemical environment which might be anticipated for nuclear waste canisters located in a salt repository. 26 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  7. Siemens Wind Power 3.6 MW wind turbines for large offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Nygaard Nielsen, Joergen; Thisted, Jan; Groendahl, Erik; Egedal, Per; Noertoft Frydensbjerg, Michael; Jensen, Kim Hoej [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark)


    Siemens Wind power A/S is the key player on the offshore wind power market. The Siemens Wind Power 3.6 MW variable-speed wind turbine is among the word's largest, most advanced and competitive wind turbines with a solid portfolio of large offshore wind farms. Transmission system operators and developers require dynamic wind turbine models for evaluation of fault-ride-through capability and investigations of power system stability. The even larger size of the on- and offshore wind farms has entailed that the grid impact of the voltage and frequency control capability of the wind farm can be appropriated modelled and evaluated. Siemens Wind Power has developed a dynamic model of the 3.6 MW variable-speed wind turbine with the fault-ride-through sequences and models of the voltage and frequency controllers to be applied for large offshore wind farms. The dynamic models have been implemented in the commercially available simulation tools such as DIgSILENT PowerFactory and Siemens PTI PSS/E and successfully validated from measurements. (orig.)

  8. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1995 (1 July 1994 through 30 June 1995). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock, Colorado. Economic data were requested from the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE). The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized

  9. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1993 (July 1, 1992, through June 30, 1993). To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized

  10. Geologic Map of the Estes Park 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North-Central Colorado (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Braddock, William A.


    The rocks and landforms of the Estes Park 30 x 60 minute quadrangle display an exceptionally complete record of geologic history in the northern Front Range of Colorado. The Proterozoic basement rocks exposed in the core of the range preserve evidence of Paleoproterozoic marine sedimentation, volcanism, and regional soft-sediment deformation, followed by regional folding and gradational metamorphism. The metasedimentary rocks of the Estes Park quadrangle are distinct within northern Colorado for preserving the complete metamorphic zonation from low-grade chlorite-muscovite phyllites, through middle greenschist-grade rocks with sequential aluminous porphyroblasts, to partially melted gneisses that contain high-grade cordierite and garnet in the non-melted residues. Regional and textural evidence shows that the widespread metamorphism was essentially concurrent with intrusion of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite and related magmas and with the peak of deformation in the partially melted high-grade rocks. The metamorphic thermal pulse arrived later following the peak of deformation in the physically higher, cooler, low-grade terrane. Mesoproterozoic time was marked by intrusion of biotite granite in the Longs Peak-St Vrain batholith, a complex, irregular body that occupies nearly half of the core of the Front Range in this quadrangle. The magma was dry and viscous as it invaded the metamorphic rocks and caused wholesale plastic folding of the wall rock structure. Steep metamorphic foliation that resulted from the Paleoproterozoic deformations was bowed upward and re-oriented into flat-lying attitudes as the crystal-rich magma rose buoyantly and spread out in the middle crust. Magma invaded the schists and gneisses along weak foliation planes and produced a characteristic sill-upon-sill intrusive fabric, particularly in the higher parts of the batholith. Broad, open arches and swales that are defined by the flow-aligned feldspar foliation of the granite, as well as by

  11. Geomorphic changes resulting from floods in reconfigured gravel-bed river channels in Colorado, USA (United States)

    Elliott, J.G.; Capesius, J.P.


    Geomorphic changes in reconfi gured reaches of three Colorado rivers in response to floods in 2005 provide a benchmark for "restoration" assessment. Sedimententrainment potential is expressed as the ratio of the shear stress from the 2 yr, 5 yr, 10 yr, and 2005 floods to the critical shear stress for sediment. Some observed response was explained by the excess of flood shear stress relative to the resisting force of the sediment. Bed-load entrainment in the Uncompahgre River and the North Fork Gunnison River, during 4 and 6 yr floods respectively, resulted in streambed scour, streambed deposition, lateral-bar accretion, and channel migration at various locations. Some constructed boulder and log structures failed because of high rates of bank erosion or bed-material deposition. The Lake Fork showed little or no net change after the 2005 flood; however, this channel had not conveyed floods greater than the 2.5 yr flood since reconfi guration. Channel slope and the 2 yr flood, a surrogate for bankfull discharge, from all three reconfi gured reaches plotted above the Leopold and Wolman channel-pattern threshold in the "braided channel" region, indicating that braiding, rather than a single-thread meandering channel, and midchannel bar formation may be the natural tendency of these gravel-bed reaches. When plotted against a total stream-power and median-sediment-size threshold for the 2 yr flood, however, the Lake Fork plotted in the "single-thread channel" region, the North Fork Gunnison plotted in the " multiplethread" region, and the Uncompahgre River plotted on the threshold. All three rivers plotted in the multiple-thread region for floods of 5 yr recurrence or greater. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  12. An FPGA Implementation of (3,6-Regular Low-Density Parity-Check Code Decoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang


    Full Text Available Because of their excellent error-correcting performance, low-density parity-check (LDPC codes have recently attracted a lot of attention. In this paper, we are interested in the practical LDPC code decoder hardware implementations. The direct fully parallel decoder implementation usually incurs too high hardware complexity for many real applications, thus partly parallel decoder design approaches that can achieve appropriate trade-offs between hardware complexity and decoding throughput are highly desirable. Applying a joint code and decoder design methodology, we develop a high-speed (3,k-regular LDPC code partly parallel decoder architecture based on which we implement a 9216-bit, rate-1/2(3,6-regular LDPC code decoder on Xilinx FPGA device. This partly parallel decoder supports a maximum symbol throughput of 54 Mbps and achieves BER 10−6 at 2 dB over AWGN channel while performing maximum 18 decoding iterations.

  13. Acid-catalyzed reductive amination of aldoses with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate. (United States)

    Evangelista, R A; Guttman, A; Chen, F T


    The reductive amination of monosaccharides with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (APTS) in seven different organic acids including the commonly used acetic acid was investigated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. The correlation between the yields of the saccharide-APTS adducts and pKa of the organic acid catalyst is consistent with general acid catalysis of the rate-determining step of the reductive amination reaction. Derivatization in the presence of organic acids of higher strength than acetic acid produced substantially higher yields of APTS-sugar adducts, an effect which is more pronounced for N-acetylamino sugars. Optimum yields were obtained using citric acid as a catalyst. Conversion of a few nanomoles of neutral saccharides to the APTS derivatives is achieved at 75 degrees C in less than 60 min.

  14. Uranium favorability of precambrian rocks in the Badger Flats - Elkhorn Thrust Area, Park and Teller Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, G.L.


    The area is approximately 1,800 square miles and extends from Cripple Creek northward to Fairplay and Bailey. The Precambrian rocks include the metamorphic sequences of the Idaho Springs Formation and the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, Silver Plume Granite, Pikes Peak Granite, and Redskin Granite. The known uranium deposits in the area include six vein deposits, three pegmatite occurrences, and one zone of probable secondary enrichment; they have not yielded any significant production. The vein deposits are probably the result of downward percolation of ground water. The zone of secondary uranium enrichment may have formed above a volcanic pipe, vein, or tuffaceous lake bed. Favorability in the area is considered good for both vein and large, disseminated, low-grade uranium deposits. On the bases of known uranium occurrences, favorable structures and host rocks, and a water-sampling program, recommendations are given for exploration. The occurrences in the area have substantial similarities with the Rossing deposit in South-West Africa and the Wheeler Basin uranium occurrence in Grand County, Colorado. 6 figures, 9 tables

  15. Simulation of electrical discharge in a 3.6 Joule miniature plasma focus device using SIMULINK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, H.; Habibi, M.


    A novel technique has been developed and studied in this paper to simulate the electrical discharge circuit of a 3.6 J miniature plasma focus device (PFD) and investigate the effect of inductance variation on voltage spike and current dip. The technique is based on a correlation between the electrical discharge circuit and plasma dynamics in a very small PFD that operates at the energy of 3.6 J. The simulation inputs include the charging voltage, capacitor bank capacitance, current limiter resistance, bypass resistance as well as the time-dependent inductance and resistance of the plasma sheath which are calculated by assuming the plasma dynamics as transit times in going from one phase to the next. The variations of the most important elements in the circuit (i.e. the constant and breakdown inductances) and their effects on the current dip are studied in PFDs with low and high constant inductance. The model demonstrated for achieving a good pinch in the PFD, although the total inductance of the system should be low; however there is always an optimum inductance which causes an appropriate pinch. Furthermore, the electrical power produced by the pulsed power supply, the mechanical energy as well as the magnetic energy which are transferred into the plasma tube were obtained from simulation. The graph of electrical power demonstrated a high instantaneous increment in the power transferred into the plasma as one of the greatest advantages of the pulsed power supply. The simulation was performed using software tools within the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation environment. The PFD, generating neutrons in the range of 10 6 to 10 10 neutrons per pulse will have substantial use in the physics and engineering applications. (authors)

  16. Colorado Fathers' Resource Guide = Guia de Recursos para los Padres en Colorado. (United States)

    Colorado Foundation for Families and Children, Denver.

    Developed through the Colorado Fatherhood Connection, this guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions and resources for fathers as well as tips on discipline, communication, and activities fathers can do with their children. Topics addressed in the guide include characteristics of responsible fatherhood, characteristics…

  17. 75 FR 58426 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO; Correction (United States)


    ... Counsel, The Colorado College c/o Jan Bernstein, President, Bernstein & Associates - NAGPRA Consultants... responsible for notifying the Hopi Tribe of Arizona; Navajo Nation, Arizona, New Mexico & Utah; Ohkay Owingeh, New Mexico; Pueblo of Acoma, New Mexico; Pueblo of Cochiti, New Mexico; Pueblo of Isleta, New Mexico...

  18. Centauri High School Teacher Honored as Colorado Outstanding Biology (United States)

    Teacher Centauri High School Teacher Honored as Colorado Outstanding Biology Teacher For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., May 2, 1997 -- Tracy Swedlund, biology teacher at Centauri High School in LaJara, was selected as Colorado's 1997 Outstanding Biology Teacher and will be

  19. Extensive Green Roof Research Program at Colorado State University (United States)

    In the high elevation, semi-arid climate of Colorado, green roofs have not been scientifically tested. This research examined alternative plant species, media blends, and plant interactions on an existing modular extensive green roof in Denver, Colorado. Six plant species were ev...

  20. Colorado River cutthroat trout: a technical conservation assessment (United States)

    Michael K. Young


    The Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus) was once distributed throughout the colder waters of the Colorado River basin above the Grand Canyon. About 8 percent of its historical range is occupied by unhybridized or ecologically significant populations. It has been petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act...

  1. 77 FR 21803 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado (United States)


    ..., COC-70615] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... described below in Gunnison County, Colorado, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will be...

  2. 77 FR 40630 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado (United States)


    ..., COC-74219] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... in the Wadge Seam described below in Routt County, Colorado, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The...

  3. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.


    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  4. Cancer incidence study in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouimette, D.R.; Ferguson, S.W.; Zoglo, D.; Murphy, S.; Alley, S.; Bahler, S.


    In November of 1982 the Colorado Department of Health completed an epidemiologic investigation of leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas and colon in Mesa County, Colorado for the years 1970 to 1979. This investigation was performed in response to a concern that the presence of uranium mill tailings in some Mesa County homes presents a potential cancer hazard. The results of the investigation show that the incidence of multiple myeloma, colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer are not above expected rates. The incidence of leukemia is not above expected rates for the entire study period, 1970 to 1979. The incidence of lung cancer appears elevated when compared to the The Third National Cancer Survey data for Colorado but lower than expected when compared to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. To further examine the leukemia and lung cancer incidence findings, a case/control study was conducted. The controls consisted of colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer cases. The results of the leukemia case/control analysis show no association with the radiation exposure variables: occupational radiation exposure; uranium mining exposure; having ever lived in a type A home (uranium tailings home); and radiation therapy. The lung cancer case/control analysis shows a significant association with only the radiation exposure variable, uranium mining history, indicating cases were more likely to have been uranium miners than were controls. As with leukemia, the study found no association between lung cancer and living in a uranium mill tailings home. The relatively low radiation exposures typical of type A homes and the small number of persons exposed make it very difficult to establish, by epidemiologic methods, that a risk exists

  5. Mount Zirkel Wilderness and vicinity, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, G.L.; Patten, L.L.


    Several areas of metallic and nonmetallic mineralization have been identified from surface occurrences within the Mount Zirkel Wilderness and vicinity, Colorado. Three areas of probable copper-lead-zinc-silver-gold resource potential, two areas of probable chrome-platinum resource potential, four areas of probable uranium-thorium resource potential, two areas of probable molybdenum resource potential, and one area of probable fluorspar potential were identified by studies in 1965-1973 by the USGS and USBM. No potential for fossil fuel or geothermal resources was identified

  6. Implications of Zn/Fe ratios for the sources of Colorado Plateau basalts (United States)

    Rudzitis, S.; Reid, M. R.


    Early Miocene to recent mafic magmatism migrated across the Arizona Transition Zone towards the center of the stable Colorado Plateau at a rate of ~ 3-6 km/Myr (Roy et al., 2009). Present-day volcanic centers are close to a stepwise change in the thickness of the lithosphere between the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range. Accordingly, volcanic migration might track progressive thinning of the lithosphere towards the center of the Colorado Plateau. This project aims to determine the conditions of melt generation across the transition zone in order to investigate the temporal/spatial correlation between volcanism and thinning of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere. Pressure and temperature estimates for Colorado Plateau basalts can be obtained from the Mg and Si contents of melts (Lee et al, 2009) but require melting of a peridotitic source. Eclogite and pyroxenite xenoliths reported in Colorado Plateau basalts show that melt sources could be olivine-poor. Zn/Fe ratios in melts can help to distinguish contributions from olivine-poor sources because they are sensitive to differences in bulk chemistry and to mineralogy (Le Roux et al., 2010). Specifically, Zn/Fe is not fractionated between melt, olivine, and orthopyroxene, but is highly fractionated when clinopyroxene and garnet are present. Our work to date has focused on laser ablation-IC-PMS analysis of individual olivine grains from high-Mg basalts (>8.0 wt. %) from the San Francisco and Mormon Mountain volcanic fields. Preliminary values of Zn/Fe ratios that represent the averages of multiple analyses of several grains in individual samples range from 7.9 to 9.3 (x10000). Variations of up to 1.7 (x10000) in the ratios exist between individual grains within samples and could be the result of co-crystallization of clinopyroxene with olivine. The lowest values in each sample should approach the Zn/Fe ratios of parental melts, and are, in turn, similar to MORB values and predicted peridotite melts. The results suggest

  7. Source Signature of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas operations in Utah and Colorado (United States)

    Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Warneke, C.; Holloway, J. S.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Young, C. J.; Edwards, P.; Brown, S. S.; Wolfe, D. E.; Williams, E. J.; De Gouw, J. A.


    The U.S. Energy Information Administration has reported a sharp increase in domestic oil and natural gas production from "unconventional" reserves (e.g., shale and tight sands) between 2005 and 2012. The recent growth in drilling and fossil fuel production has led to environmental concerns regarding local air quality. Severe wintertime ozone events (greater than 100 ppb ozone) have been observed in Utah's Uintah Basin and Wyoming's Upper Green River Basin, both of which contain large natural gas fields. Raw natural gas is a mixture of approximately 60-95 mole percent methane while the remaining fraction is composed of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other non-hydrocarbon gases. We measured an extensive set of VOCs and other trace gases near two highly active areas of oil and natural gas production in Utah's Uintah Basin and Colorado's Denver-Julesburg Basin in order to characterize primary emissions of VOCs associated with these industrial operations and identify the key VOCs that are precursors for potential ozone formation. UBWOS (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study) was conducted in Uintah County located in northeastern Utah in January-February 2012. Two Colorado studies were conducted at NOAA's Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Weld County in northeastern Colorado in February-March 2011 and July-August 2012 as part of the NACHTT (Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition, and Halogens on a Tall Tower) and SONNE (Summer Ozone Near Natural gas Emissions) field experiments, respectively. The C2-C6 hydrocarbons were greatly enhanced for all of these studies. For example, the average propane mixing ratio observed during the Utah study was 58 ppb (median = 35 ppb, minimum = 0.8, maximum = 520 ppb propane) compared to urban averages which range between 0.3 and 6.0 ppb propane. We compare the ambient air composition from these studies to urban measurements in order to show that the VOC source signature from oil and natural gas operations is distinct and can be clearly

  8. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Bacteria from an anaerobic enrichment reductively removed chlorine from the ortho- position of 2,3,6-trichlorobenzoic acid (2,3,6-TBA) producing 2,5-dichlorobenzoate (2,5-DBA). The strictly aerobic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa JB2 subsequently used 2,5-DBA as a growth substrate in the presence

  10. TIFR Near Infrared Imaging Camera-II on the 3.6 m Devasthal Optical Telescope (United States)

    Baug, T.; Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Sharma, S.; Pandey, A. K.; Kumar, Brijesh; Ghosh, Arpan; Ninan, J. P.; Naik, M. B.; D’Costa, S. L. A.; Poojary, S. S.; Sandimani, P. R.; Shah, H.; Krishna Reddy, B.; Pandey, S. B.; Chand, H.

    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) Near Infrared Imaging Camera-II (TIRCAM2) is a closed-cycle Helium cryo-cooled imaging camera equipped with a Raytheon 512×512 pixels InSb Aladdin III Quadrant focal plane array (FPA) having sensitivity to photons in the 1-5μm wavelength band. In this paper, we present the performance of the camera on the newly installed 3.6m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT) based on the calibration observations carried out during 2017 May 11-14 and 2017 October 7-31. After the preliminary characterization, the camera has been released to the Indian and Belgian astronomical community for science observations since 2017 May. The camera offers a field-of-view (FoV) of ˜86.5‧‧×86.5‧‧ on the DOT with a pixel scale of 0.169‧‧. The seeing at the telescope site in the near-infrared (NIR) bands is typically sub-arcsecond with the best seeing of ˜0.45‧‧ realized in the NIR K-band on 2017 October 16. The camera is found to be capable of deep observations in the J, H and K bands comparable to other 4m class telescopes available world-wide. Another highlight of this camera is the observational capability for sources up to Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) W1-band (3.4μm) magnitudes of 9.2 in the narrow L-band (nbL; λcen˜ 3.59μm). Hence, the camera could be a good complementary instrument to observe the bright nbL-band sources that are saturated in the Spitzer-Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) ([3.6] ≲ 7.92 mag) and the WISE W1-band ([3.4] ≲ 8.1 mag). Sources with strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission at 3.3μm are also detected. Details of the observations and estimated parameters are presented in this paper.

  11. Terse messaging and public health in the midst of natural disasters: the case of the Boulder floods. (United States)

    Sutton, Jeannette; League, Cedar; Sellnow, Timothy L; Sellnow, Deanna D


    Social media are quickly becoming the channel of choice for disseminating emergency warning messages. However, relatively little data-driven research exists to inform effective message design when using these media. The present study addresses that void by examining terse health-related warning messages sent by public safety agencies over Twitter during the 2013 Boulder, CO, floods. An examination of 5,100 tweets from 52 Twitter accounts over the course of the 5-day flood period yielded several key conclusions and implications. First, public health messages posted by local emergency management leaders are most frequently retweeted by organizations in our study. Second, emergency public health messages focus primarily on drinking water in this event. Third, terse messages can be designed in ways that include imperative/instructional and declarative/explanatory styles of content, both of which are essential for promoting public health during crises. These findings demonstrate that even terse messages delivered via Twitter ought to provide information about the hazard event, its impact, and actionable instructions for self-protection.

  12. Distribution and stability of potential salmonid spawning gravels in steep boulder-bed streams of the eastern Sierra Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondolf, G.M.; Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J.; Felando, T.


    Interest in small hydroelectric development (< 5 MW) has recently focused attention on steep streams and the resident trout populations they contain. High-gradient boulder-bed streams have been the sites of relatively few studies of salmonid spawning habitat, although they have geomorphic and hydraulic characteristics - and therefore gravel distributions - that are quite different from the more commonly described lower-gradient channels. The authors documented gravel distribution in seven high-gradient stream reaches in the eastern Sierra Nevada. Gravels occurred only in locations characterized by relatively low shear stress; they formed small pockets in sites of low divergence and larger deposits upstream of natural hydraulic controls. In 1986 (a wet year), all tracer gravels placed in gravel pockets at nine sites on four streams were completely swept away, and substantial scour, fill, and other channel changes occurred at many sites. In 1987 (a dry year), tracer gravels and the channel cross sections were generally stable. Periodic mobility of gravel may explain why brown trout Salmo trutta are more abundant than rainbow trout Oncorhychus mykiss in the study reaches, where high flows occur every May and June during snowmelt. Brown trout are fall spawners, and their fry emerge long before the high snowmelt flows, whereas rainbow trout are spring spawners whose eggs are in the gravel, and thus vulnerable to scour, during snowmelt flows

  13. Extending water vapor trend observations over Boulder into the tropopause region: Trend uncertainties and resulting radiative forcing (United States)

    Kunz, A.; Müller, R.; Homonnai, V.; Jánosi, I. M.; Hurst, D.; Rap, A.; Forster, P. M.; Rohrer, F.; Spelten, N.; Riese, M.


    Thirty years of balloon-borne measurements over Boulder (40°N,105°W) are used to investigate the water vapor trend in the tropopause region. This analysis extends previously published trends, usually focusing on altitudes greater than 16 km, to lower altitudes. Two new concepts are applied: (1) Trends are presented in a thermal tropopause (TP) relative coordinate system from -2 km below to 10 km above the TP, and (2) sonde profiles are selected according to TP height. Tropical (TPz>14km), extratropical (TPzconcepts reduces the dynamically induced water vapor variability at the TP and principally favors refined water vapor trend studies in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Nonetheless, this study shows how uncertain trends are at altitudes -2 to +4 km around the TP. This uncertainty in turn has an influence on the uncertainty and interpretation of water vapor radiative effects at the TP, which are locally estimated for the 30 year period to be of uncertain sign. The much discussed decrease in water vapor at the beginning of 2001 is not detectable between -2 and 2 km around the TP. On lower stratospheric isentropes, the water vapor change at the beginning of 2001 is more intense for extratropical than for tropical air mass types. This suggests a possible link with changing dynamics above the jet stream such as changes in the shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation.

  14. Nutritional intervention on malnutrition in 3-6 years old rural children in Qazvin Province, Iran. (United States)

    Zavoshy, R; Noroozi, M; Jahanihashemi, H; Kiamiri, D


    Malnutrition is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in children. Not only include acute effects on children's health, but also it has long-term effects on their cognitive development and economic growth in the society. Wasting (weight for height with Zmalnutrition indices in children. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a cooked meal for 175 days on the anthropometric indices of weight, height and weight for height (wasting) of 3-6 years old children in all the rural nursery of Qazvin province, in Iran. In this interventional study, 2385 children (48.8% female and 51.2% male) were recruited. Data were collected by a census in 2010. The children were received a cooked meal based on 360 +/- 20 kcal energy, 17% protein, 53% carbohydrate and 30% fat per day for 175 days at lunch time. The anthropometric indices were collected before and after the intervention. The results were analyzed using paired t-test by SPSS V.16 software. Prevalence of wasting (mild and moderate) and (sever malnutrition) after intervention reduced from 14.2 and 0.95-12.6 and 0.5%, respectively (p children (p children.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinati Adrin


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the difference of oral hygiene and teeth caries in children with asthma bronchiale, age 3-6 years with several levels of frequency of asthma attack. Fifty children with asthma bronchiale were chosen from Pulmonology Clinic University of Indonesia RSCM. This study used Green and Vermilion to assess the oral hygiene and def-t index for measured caries. The frequency of asthma attack was amount of attack of children using drugs per year. The sample was divided into 3 groups. The first group consists of children with asthma 2-6 attacks per year. Second group with 7-12 attacks per year, and the third group more than 12 times per year. One way ANOVA test showed that the oral hygiene and def-t had significant differences between the three groups (p>0.001. Tukey test showed that oral hygiene had significant differences between the group I-II, I-III, II-III respectively (p>0.001. There was a strong correlation between oral hygiene and frequency of asthma attack (r=0.68, def-t and frequency of asthma attacks (r-0.75, and oral hygiene and caries (r-0.85.

  16. Nuclear budget for FY1991 up 3.6% to 409.7 billion yen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    A total of yen409.7 billion was approved for the Governmental nuclear energy draft budget for fiscal 1991 on December 28, as the Cabinet gave its approval. The total, the highest ever, was divided into yen182.6 billion for the general account and yen227.1 billion for the special account for power resources development, representing a 3.6% increase over the ongoing fiscal year's level of yen395.5 billion. The draft budget will be examined for approval of the Diet session by the end of March. The nuclear energy budget devoted to research and development projects governed by the Science and Technology Agency amounts yen306.4 billion, up 3.5% exceeding yen300 billion for the first time. The nuclear budget for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry is yen98.1 billion, up 3.5%. For the other ministries, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, yen5.1 billion was allotted to nuclear energy-related projects. The Government had decided to raise the unit cost of the power plant siting promotion subsidies in the special account for power resources development by 25% --- from yen600/kw to yen750/kw --- in order to support the siting of plants. Consequently, the power resources siting account of the special accounts for both STA and MITI showed high levels of growth rates: 6.3% and 7.5%, respectively. (N.K.)

  17. Nonperturbative approach to infrared behavior for (phi3)6 theory and a mechanism of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.; Yao, Y.


    We consider the inclusive probability for a timelike virtual scalar gluon in massless (phi 3 ) 6 theory (an asymptotically free theory) to dissociate into an arbitrary number of gluons. This quantity is also the imaginary part of the gluon propagator. Our approach is nonperturbative and the results bound the tree approximation from below. Among other things, we find that (1) the leading-ln-sum method yields a result similar to its counterpart in non-Abelian gauge theory but is in fact erroneous and uninteresting for deducing infrared behavior, (2) the origin of the coupling-constant plane is singular, and (3) the true infrared behavior is such that, as the cutoff is removed, the quantity calculated diverges faster than any power. It is further noted that in the strong-coupling limit the soft gluons due to cascading consume all the original energy. This is a strong indication that hard gluons cannot be dynamically excited, which in turn may be a mechanism for hard-gluon confinement

  18. Mitochondria targeted peptides protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine neurotoxicity. (United States)

    Yang, Lichuan; Zhao, Kesheng; Calingasan, Noel Y; Luo, Guoxiong; Szeto, Hazel H; Beal, M Flint


    A large body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). A number of antioxidants have been effective in animal models of PD. We have developed a family of mitochondria-targeted peptides that can protect against mitochondrial swelling and apoptosis (SS peptides). In this study, we examined the ability of two peptides, SS-31 and SS-20, to protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity in mice. SS-31 produced dose-dependent complete protection against loss of dopamine and its metabolites in striatum, as well as loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta. SS-20, which does not possess intrinsic ability in scavenging reactive oxygen species, also demonstrated significant neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons of MPTP-treated mice. Both SS-31 and SS-20 were very potent (nM) in preventing MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium)-induced cell death in cultured dopamine cells (SN4741). Studies with isolated mitochondria showed that both SS-31 and SS-20 prevented MPP+-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption and ATP production, and mitochondrial swelling. These findings provide strong evidence that these neuroprotective peptides, which target both mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage, are a promising approach for the treatment of PD.

  19. Solar system astronomy with the 3.6-m DOT and the 4-m ILMT (United States)

    Ganesh, Shashikiran; Venkataramani, Kumar; Baliyan, Kiran Singh; Joshi, Umesh Chandra


    Solar system astronomy would be an important field of study with the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT) and the 4-m International Liquid Mirror Telescope (ILMT). In this contribution, we highlight the work that could be done in reaching a better understanding of the Solar system and its constituents - particularly the minor bodies and other smaller objects. There may be a large number of very faint objects in the vicinity of the Earth orbit. In fact only recently a 'second moon' of the Earth has been found and has been designated 2016 H03. This is a quasi-satellite with the same period of revolution around Earth and Sun. There could be many such objects and it is important to have a full characterization and understanding of these potentially hazardous objects. They are generally fainter than 18th magnitude and one would need a lot of telescope time to fully characterize these objects using techniques of spectropolarimetry. In a similar fashion, a deep census of the Kuiper Belt Objects and the TNOs is needed. In this census, the concept of pencil beam surveys could be extended to cylindrical transit imaging technique available with the 4-m ILMT.

  20. Inactivation of acetylcholinesterase by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride. (United States)

    Zang, Lun-Yi; Misra, Hara P


    The neurotoxicant 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) has been shown to reversibly inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The inactivation of the enzyme was detected by monitoring the accumulation of yellow color produced from the reaction between thiocholine and dithiobisnitrobenzoate ion. The kinetic parameter, Km for the substrate (acetylthiocholine), was found to be 0.216 mM and Ki for MPTP inactivation of acetylcholinesterase was found to be 2.14 mM. The inactivation of enzyme by MPTP was found to be dose-dependent. It was found that MPTP is neither a substrate of AChE nor the time-dependent inactivator. The studies of reaction kinetics indicate the inactivation of AChE to be a linear mixed-type inhibition. The dilution assays indicate that MPTP is a reversible inhibitor for AChE. These data suggest that once MPTP enters the basal ganglia of the brain, it can inactivate the acetylcholinesterase enzyme and thereby increase the acetylcholine level in the basal ganglia of brain, leading to potential cell dysfunction. It appears that the nigrostriatal toxicity by MPTP leading to Parkinson's disease-like syndrome may, in part, be mediated via the acetylcholinesterase inactivation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Haryadi


    Full Text Available The extraction of fat from snail has been carried out by Soxhlet extractor with petroleum ether solvent. Fatty product from extraction was transesterificated in BF3/methanol solvent for an hour by reflux procedure, then extracted by n-hexane to produce methyl ester fatty acid. Free water fatty acid methyl ester was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometer (GC-MS. Fatty acid ester was separated from its fractions use column chromatography in n-hexane, n-hexane:dietil eter (2:1 v/v, dietil eter, aseton, ethanol and methanol. This fractions wer also analized by GC-MS. From GC-MS data sheet can be obtained 5 fractions which details are; fraction 1 contains omega 3: 27.54 %, omega 6: 15.40 % and omega 9: 6.77 %. Fraction 2 contains omega 3: 3.08 %, omega 6: 15.62 % and omega 9: 10.72 %. Fraction 3 contains omega 6: 3.57 %, omega 9: 7.02 % and none omega 3 inside it. Omega 3, 6 and 9 can't be identification in fraction 4 and 5.   Keywords: extraction, transesterification, column chromatography, GC-MS

  2. Production and partial purification of tannase from Aspergillus ficuum Gim 3.6. (United States)

    Ma, Wan-liang; Zhao, Fen-fen; Ye, Qin; Hu, Zhen-xing; Yan, Dong; Hou, Jie; Yang, Yang


    A novel fungal strain, Aspergillus ficuum Gim 3.6, was evaluated for its tannase-producing capability in a wheat bran-based solid-state fermentation. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis revealed that the strain was able to degrade tannic acid to gallic acid and pyrogallol during the fermentation process. Quantitation of enzyme activity demonstrated that this strain was capable of producing a relatively high yield of extracellular tannase. Single-factor optimization of process parameters resulted in high yield of tannase after 60 hr of incubation at a pH of 5.0 at 30°C, 1 mL of inoculum size, and 1:1 solid-liquid ratio in the presence of 2.0% (w/v) tannic acid as inducer. The potential of aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) for the purification of tannase was investigated. Influence of various parameters such as phase-forming salt, molecular weight of polyethylene glycol (PEG), pH, and stability ratio on tannase partition and purification was studied. In all the systems, the target enzyme was observed to preferentially partition to the PEG-rich top phase, and the best result of purification (2.74-fold) with an enzyme activity recovery of 77.17% was obtained in the system containing 17% (w/w) sodium citrate and 18.18% (w/w) PEG1000, at pH 7.0.

  3. Apoptosis induced by 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone in Hepatocellular carcinoma and proteomic analysis. (United States)

    Fu, Wei-ming; Zhang, Jin-fang; Wang, Hua; Tan, Hong-sheng; Wang, Wei-mao; Chen, Shih-Chi; Zhu, Xiao; Chan, Tak-ming; Tse, Ching-man; Leung, Kwong-sak; Lu, Gang; Xu, Hong-xi; Kung, Hsiang-fu


    Gamboge is a traditional Chinese medicine and our previous study showed that gambogic acid and gambogenic acid suppress the proliferation of HCC cells. In the present study, another active component, 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (TTA), was identified to effectively suppress HCC cell growth. In addition, our Hoechst-PI staining and flow cytometry analyses indicated that TTA induced apoptosis in HCC cells. In order to identify the targets of TTA in HCC cells, a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed, and proteins in different expressions were identified by MALDA-TOF MS and MS/MS analyses. In summary, eighteen proteins with different expressions were identified in which twelve were up-regulated and six were down-regulated. Among them, the four most distinctively expressed proteins were further studied and validated by western blotting. The β-tubulin and translationally controlled tumor protein were decreased while the 14-3-3σ and P16 protein expressions were up-regulated. In addition, TTA suppressed tumorigenesis partially through P16-pRb signaling. 14-3-3σ silence reversed the suppressive effect of cell growth and apoptosis induced by introducing TTA. In conclusion, TTA effectively suppressed cell growth through, at least partially, up-regulation of P16 and 14-3-3σ.

  4. Entry of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine into the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riachi, N.J.; LaManna, J.C.; Harik, S.I.


    We studied blood-to-brain entry of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and butanol in anesthetized rats using the indicator-fractionation method with right atrial bolus injection. Minimal amounts of MPP+, which has low octanol/water partition coefficient, crossed the blood-brain barrier. MPTP and butanol, both of which have high octanol/water partition coefficients, were almost completely extracted by all regions of the brain on the first pass. The main difference between the MPTP and butanol tracers is that butanol rapidly left the brain with an exponential rate constant of 1.24 min-1, whereas MPTP was avidly retained by the brain with a washout rate constant of 0.10 min-1 (mean values for the four brain regions that we studied). Early retention of MPTP by the brain was not due to its rapid metabolism by monoamine oxidase because pargyline pretreatment did not affect this rate constant. However, 30 min after [ 3 H]MPTP injection, brain retention of the 3H tracer was reduced significantly by pargyline treatment, and the ratio of brain MPTP/MPP+ was increased markedly

  5. Deletion of amelotin exons 3-6 is associated with amelogenesis imperfecta. (United States)

    Smith, Claire E L; Murillo, Gina; Brookes, Steven J; Poulter, James A; Silva, Sandra; Kirkham, Jennifer; Inglehearn, Chris F; Mighell, Alan J


    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogeneous group of genetic conditions that result in defective dental enamel formation. Amelotin (AMTN) is a secreted protein thought to act as a promoter of matrix mineralization in the final stage of enamel development, and is strongly expressed, almost exclusively, in maturation stage ameloblasts. Amtn overexpression and Amtn knockout mouse models have defective enamel with no other associated phenotypes, highlighting AMTN as an excellent candidate gene for human AI. However, no AMTN mutations have yet been associated with human AI. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified an 8,678 bp heterozygous genomic deletion encompassing exons 3-6 of AMTN in a Costa Rican family segregating dominant hypomineralised AI. The deletion corresponds to an in-frame deletion of 92 amino acids, shortening the protein from 209 to 117 residues. Exfoliated primary teeth from an affected family member had enamel that was of a lower mineral density compared to control enamel and exhibited structural defects at least some of which appeared to be associated with organic material as evidenced using elemental analysis. This study demonstrates for the first time that AMTN mutations cause non-syndromic human AI and explores the human phenotype, comparing it with that of mice with disrupted Amtn function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Radioactive mineral occurences of Colorado and bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson-Moore, J.L.; Collins, D.B.; Hornbaker, A.L.


    This two-part report provides an essentially complete listing of radioactive occurrences in Colorado, with a comprehensive bibliography and bibliographic cross-indexes. Part 1 lists approximately 3000 known radioactive occurrences with their locations and brief accounts of the geology, mineralogy, radioactivity, host rock, production data, and source of data for each. The occurrences are classified by host rock and plotted on U.S. Geological Survey 1 0 x 2 0 topographic quadrangle maps with a special 1 : 100,000-scale base map for the Uravan mineral belt. Part 2 contains the bibliography of approximately 2500 citations on radioactive mineral occurrences in the state, with cross-indexes by county, host rock, and the special categories of ''Front Range,'' ''Colorado Plateau,'' and ''thorium.'' The term ''occurrence'' as used in this report is defined as any site where the concentration of uranium or thorium is at least 0.01% or where the range of radioactivity is greater than twice the background radioactivity. All citations and occurrence data are stored on computer diskettes for easy retrieval, correction, and updating

  7. National uranium resource evaluation, Montrose Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodknight, C.S.; Ludlam, J.R.


    The Montrose Quadrangle in west-central Colorado was evaluated to identify and delineate areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits according to National Uranium Resource Evaluation program criteria. General surface reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were conducted in all geologic environments in the quadrangle. Preliminary data from aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance were analyzed and brief followup studies were performed. Twelve favorable areas were delineated in the quadrangle. Five favorable areas contain environments for magmatic-hydrothermal uranium deposits along fault zones in the Colorado mineral belt. Five areas in parts of the Harding and Entrada Sandstones and Wasatch and Ohio Creek Formations are favorable environments for sandstone-type uranium deposits. The area of late-stage rhyolite bodies related to the Lake City caldera is a favorable environment for hydroauthigenic uranium deposits. One small area is favorable for uranium deposits of uncertain genesis. All near-surface Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks are unfavorable for uranium deposits, except parts of four formations. All near-surface plutonic igneous rocks are unfavorable for uranium deposits, except five areas of vein-type deposits along Tertiary fault zones. All near-surface volcanic rocks, except one area of rhyolite bodies and several unevaluated areas, are unfavorable for uranium. All near-surface Precambrian metamorphic rocks are unfavorable for uranium deposits. Parts of two wilderness areas, two primitive areas, and most of the subsurface environment are unevaluated

  8. Epidemiologic characterization of Colorado backyard bird flocks. (United States)

    Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L


    Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had meat or egg) production for the family (86.44%) or as pet or hobby birds (42.27%). The backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds.

  9. PREFACE: International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design, Hiroshima, Japan, 3 6 December 2006 (United States)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Oguchi, Tamio


    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter comprises selected papers from the 1st International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design (QSD2006) held in Hiroshima, Japan, 3-6 December 2006. This conference was organized under the auspices of the Development of New Quantum Simulators and Quantum Design Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT), and Hiroshima University Quantum design is a computational approach to the development of new materials with specified properties and functionalities. The basic ingredient is the use of quantum simulations to design a material that meets a given specification of properties and functionalities. For this to be successful, the quantum simulation should be highly reliable and be applicable to systems of realistic size. A central interest is, therefore, the development of new methods of quantum simulation and quantum design. This includes methods beyond the local density approximation of density functional theory (LDA), order-N methods, methods dealing with excitations and reactions, and so on, as well as the application of these methods to the design of new materials and devices. The field of quantum design has developed rapidly in the past few years and this conference provides an international forum for experimental and theoretical researchers to exchange ideas. A total of 183 delegates from 8 countries participated in the conference. There were 18 invited talks, 16 oral presentations and 100 posters. There were many new ideas and we foresee dramatic progress in the coming years. The 2nd International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design will be held in Tokyo, Japan, 31 May-3 June 2008.

  10. Assessing Intraseasonal Variability Produced by Several Deep Convection Schemes in the NCAR CCM3.6 (United States)

    Maloney, E. D.


    The Hack, Zhang/McFarlane, and McRAS convection schemes produce very different simulations of intraseasonal variability in the NCAR CCM3.6. A robust analysis of simulation performance requires an expanded set of diagnostics. The use of only one criterion to analyze model Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) variability, such as equatorial zonal wind variability, may give a misleading impression of model performance. Schemes that produce strong variability in zonal winds may sometimes lack a corresponding coherent signal in precipitation, suggesting that model convection and the large-scale circulation are not as strongly coupled as observed. The McRAS scheme, which includes a parametrization of unsaturated convective downdrafts, produces the best simulation of intraseasonal variability of the three schemes used. Downdrafts in McRAS create a moister equatorial troposphere, which increases equatorial convection. Composite analysis indicates a strong dependence of model intraseasonal variability on the frictional convergence mechanism, which may also be important in nature. The McRAS simulation has limitations, however. Indian Ocean variability is weak, and anomalous convection extends too far east across the Pacific. The dependence of convection on surface friction is too strong, and causes enhanced MJO convection to be associated with low-level easterly wind perturbations, unlike observed MJO convection. Anomalous vertical advection associated with surface convergence influences model convection by moistening the lower troposphere. Based on the work of Hendon (2000), coupling to an interactive ocean is unlikely to change the performance of the CCM3 with McRAS, due to the phase relationship between anomalous convection and zonal winds. Use of the analysis tools presented here indicates areas for improvement in the parametrization of deep convection by atmospheric GCMs.

  11. Geochemical modeling (EQ3/6) plan: Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, W.F.; Wolery, T.J.; Delany, J.M.; Silva, R.J.; Jackson, K.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Emerson, D.O.


    This plan replaces an earlier plan for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. It includes activities for all repository projects in the Office of Geologic Repositories: NNWSI, the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, the Salt Repository Project, and the Crystalline Project. Each of these projects is part of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. The scope of work for fiscal years 1986 to 1992 includes the work required to upgrade the geochemical codes and supporting data bases, to permit modeling of chemical processes associated with nuclear waste repositories in four geological environments: tuff, salt, basalt, and crystalline rock. Planned tasks include theoretical studies and code development to take account of the effects of precipitation kinetics, sorption, solid solutions, glass/water interactions, variable gas fugacities, and simple mass transport. Recent progress has been made in the ability of the codes to account for precipitation kinetics, highly-saline solutions, and solid solutions. Transition state theory was re-examined resulting in new insights that will provide the foundation for further improvements necessary to model chemical kinetics. Currently there is an increased effort that is concentrated on the supporting data base. For aqueous species and solid phases, specific to nuclear waste, requisite thermodynamic values reported in the literature are being evaluated and for cases where essential data is lacking, laboratory measurements will be carried out. Significant modifications and expansions have been made to the data base. During FY86, the total number of species in the data base has almost doubled and many improvements have been made with regard to consistency, organization, user applications, and documentation. Two Ridge computers using a RISC implementation of UNIX were installed; they are completely dedicated EQ3/6 machines

  12. Dental erosion among children aged 3-6 years and its associated indicators. (United States)

    Tao, Dan-Ying; Hao, Gu; Lu, Hai-Xia; Tian, Yu; Feng, Xi-Ping


    To analyze the status quo of dental erosion in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai. A stratified, cluster, multistage random sampling methods was applied to 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai in 2012. Both questionnaire and clinical oral examination were performed in the survey. The questionnaire included general information, such as age, gender, parental education, dietary habit, oral health behavior, general medical health, and socioeconomic status. The clinical examination focused on the eroded tooth surface and dental erosion extent. SPSS v19.0 software package was utilized for statistical analysis. A total of 1,837 children aged 3-6 years were randomly selected in Shanghai. The overall dental erosion prevalence was 15.1 percent. Among different age groups, a relatively high prevalence of 17.1 percent was found in the 4-year-old group, and a relatively low prevalence of 12.0 percent was observed in the 3-year-old group. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference among the four age groups. The occurrence of dental erosion was influenced by habits of vinegar/coffee/tea consumption, mother's educational background, birthplace, and regurgitation (P dental erosion prevalence in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai appears to be close to that of other Chinese provinces as well as that observed in most of surveys carried out in different parts of the world. Efforts should be made to raise public awareness about the disease. Moreover, further studies targeted to explore the relationship between dental erosion and risk factors are needed. It is also necessary to establish a unified diagnostic standard for future epidemiological investigations. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  13. Geochemical modeling (EQ3/6) plan: Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, W.F.; Wolery, T.J.; Delany, J.M.; Silva, R.J.; Jackson, K.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Emerson, D.O.


    This plan replaces an earlier plan for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. It includes activities for all repository projects in the Office of Geologic Repositories: NNWSI, the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, the Salt Repository Project, and the Crystalline Project. Each of these projects is part of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. The scope of work for fiscal years 1986 to 1992 includes the work required to upgrade the geochemical codes and supporting data bases, to permit modeling of chemical processes associated with nuclear waste repositories in four geological environments: tuff, salt, basalt, and crystalline rock. Planned tasks include theoretical studies and code development to take account of the effects of precipitation kinetics, sorption, solid solutions, glass/water interactions, variable gas fugacities, and simple mass transport. Recent progress has been made in the ability of the codes to account for precipitation kinetics, highly-saline solutions, and solid solutions. Transition state theory was re-examined resulting in new insights that will provide the foundation for further improvements necessary to model chemical kinetics. Currently there is an increased effort that is concentrated on the supporting data base. For aqueous species and solid phases, specific to nuclear waste, requisite thermodynamic values reported in the literature are being evaluated and for cases where essential data is lacking, laboratory measurements will be carried out. Significant modifications and expansions have been made to the data base. During FY86, the total number of species in the data base has almost doubled and many improvements have been made with regard to consistency, organization, user applications, and documentation. Two Ridge computers using a RISC implementation of UNIX were installed; they are completely dedicated EQ3/6 machines.

  14. Limit on the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of "3"6Ar from GERDA Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, M.; Balata, M.; D'Andrea, V.; Di Vacri, A.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Allardt, M.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Schneider, B.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Zuber, K.; Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V.; Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Doroshkevich, E.; Fedorova, O.; Gurentsov, V.; Kazalov, V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Moseev, P.; Selivanenko, O.; Veresnikova, A.; Yanovich, E.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Kish, A.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Walter, M.; Bauer, C.; Hakenmueller, J.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stepaniuk, M.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Sada, C.; Sturm, K. von; Bode, T.; Csathy, J.J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S.; Wiesinger, C.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D.; Caldwell, A.; Gooch, C.; Kneissl, R.; Liao, H.Y.; Majorovits, B.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L.; Cattadori, C.; Salamida, F.; Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A.; Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schuetz, A.K.; Frodyma, N.; Misiaszek, M.; Panas, K.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G.; Gangapshev, A.; Gusev, K.; Hemmer, S.; Lippi, I.; Stanco, L.; Hult, M.; Lutter, G.; Inzhechik, L.V.; Klimenko, A.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Macolino, C.; Pandola, L.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Shirchenko, M.


    Neutrinoless double electron capture is a process that, if detected, would give evidence of lepton number violation and the Majorana nature of neutrinos. A search for neutrinoless double electron capture of "3"6Ar has been performed with germanium detectors installed in liquid argon using data from Phase I of the GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of INFN, Italy. No signal was observed and an experimental lower limit on the half-life of the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of "3"6Ar was established: T_1_/_2 > 3.6 x 10"2"1 years at 90% CI. (orig.)

  15. Environmental Setting and Implications on Water Quality, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado and Utah (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.; Driver, Nancy E.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Spahr, Norman E.


    The Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado and Utah is 1 of 60 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, which began full implementation in 1991. Understanding the environmental setting of the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit is important in evaluating water-quality issues in the basin. Natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basin are presented, including an overview of the physiography, climatic conditions, general geology and soils, ecoregions, population, land use, water management and use, hydrologic characteristics, and to the extent possible aquatic biology. These factors have substantial implications on water-quality conditions in the basin. For example, high concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium are present in the natural background water conditions of surface and ground water in parts ofthe basin. In addition, mining, urban, and agricultural land and water uses result in the presence of certain constituents in the surface and ground water of the basin that can detrimentally affect water quality. The environmental setting of the study unit provides a framework of the basin characteristics, which is important in the design of integrated studies of surface water, ground water, and biology.

  16. Experimental modelling of wave amplification over irregular bathymetry for investigations of boulder transport by extreme wave events. (United States)

    O'Boyle, Louise; Whittaker, Trevor; Cox, Ronadh; Elsäßer, Björn


    During the winter of 2013-2014 the west coast of Ireland was exposed to 6 storms over a period of 8 weeks with wind speeds equating to hurricane categories 3 and 4. During this period, the largest significant wave height recorded at the Marine Institute M6 wave buoy, approximately 300km from the site, was 13.6m (on 26th January 2014). However, this may not be the largest sea state of that winter, because the buoy stopped logging on 30th January and therefore failed to capture the full winter period. During the February 12th 2014 "Darwin" storm, the Kinsale Energy Gas Platform off Ireland's south coast measured a wave height of 25 m, which remains the highest wave measured off Ireland's coasts[1]. Following these storms, significant dislocation and transportation of boulders and megagravel was observed on the Aran Islands, Co. Galway at elevations of up to 25m above the high water mark and distances up to 220 m inland including numerous clasts with masses >50t, and at least one megagravel block weighing >500t [2]. Clast movements of this magnitude would not have been predicted from the measured wave heights. This highlights a significant gap in our understanding of the relationships between storms and the coastal environment: how are storm waves amplified and modified by interactions with bathymetry? To gain further understanding of wave amplification, especially over steep and irregular bathymetry, we have designed Froude-scaled wave tank experiments using the 3D coastal wave basin facility at Queen's University Belfast. The basin is 18m long by 16m wide with wave generation by means of a 12m wide bank of 24 top hinged, force feedback, sector carrier wave paddles at one end. The basin is equipped with gravel beaches to dissipate wave energy on the remaining three sides, capable of absorbing up to 99% of the incident wave energy, to prevent unwanted reflections. Representative bathymetry for the Aran Islands is modelled in the basin based on a high resolution

  17. Letter Report: Progress in developing EQ3/6 for modeling boiling processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolery, T. J., LLNL


    EQ3/6 is a software package for geochemical modeling of aqueous systems, such as water/rock or waste/water rock. It is being developed for a variety of applications in geochemical studies for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The present focus is on development of capabilities to be used in studies of geochemical processes which will take place in the near-field environment and the altered zone of the potential repository. We have completed the first year of a planned two-year effort to develop capabilities for modeling boiling processes. These capabilities will interface with other existing and future modeling capabilities to provide a means of integrating the effects of various kinds of geochemical processes in complex systems. This year, the software has been modified to allow the formation of a generalized gas phase in a closed system for which the temperature and pressure are known (but not necessarily constant). The gas phase forms when its formation is thermodynamically favored; that is, when the system pressure is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the gas species as computed from their equilibrium fugacities. It disappears when this sum falls below that pressure. `Boiling` is the special case in which the gas phase which forms consists mostly of water vapor. The reverse process is then `condensation.` To support calculations of boiling and condensation, we have added a capability to calculate the fugacity coefficients of gas species in the system H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2},-Awe{sub 2}-N{sub 2},-H{sub 2}S-NH3. This capability at present is accurate only at relatively low pressures, but is adequate for all likely repository boiling conditions. We have also modified the software to calculate changes in enthalpy (heat) and volume functions. Next year we will be extending the boiling capability to calculate the pressure or the temperature at known enthalpy. We will also add an option for open system boiling.

  18. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 6.25 km 89 GHz Brightness Temperature (Tb) Polar Grids V002 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 6.25 km daily sea ice product includes 89.0 GHz brightness temperature averages (daily, ascending, and descending) on a 6.25 km polar...

  19. Trends and variability of midlatitude stratospheric water vapour deduced from the re-evaluated Boulder balloon series and HALOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scherer


    Full Text Available This paper presents an updated trend analysis of water vapour in the lower midlatitude stratosphere from the Boulder balloon-borne NOAA frostpoint hygrometer measurements and from the Halogen Occulation Experiment (HALOE. Two corrections for instrumental bias are applied to homogenise the frostpoint data series, and a quality assessment of all soundings after 1991 is presented. Linear trend estimates based on the corrected data for the period 1980–2000 are up to 40% lower than previously reported. Vertically resolved trends and variability are calculated with a multi regression analysis including the quasi-biennal oscillation and equivalent latitude as explanatory variables. In the range of 380 to 640 K potential temperature (≈14 to 25 km, the frostpoint data from 1981 to 2006 show positive linear trends between 0.3±0.3 and 0.7±0.1%/yr. The same dataset shows trends between −0.2±0.3 and 1.0±0.3%/yr for the period 1992 to 2005. HALOE data over the same time period suggest negative trends ranging from −1.1±0.2 to −0.1±0.1%/yr. In the lower stratosphere, a rapid drop of water vapour is observed in 2000/2001 with little change since. At higher altitudes, the transition is more gradual, with slowly decreasing concentrations between 2001 and 2007. This pattern is consistent with a change induced by a drop of water concentrations at entry into the stratosphere. Previously noted differences in trends and variability between frostpoint and HALOE remain for the homogenised data. Due to uncertainties in reanalysis temperatures and stratospheric transport combined with uncertainties in observations, no quantitative inference about changes of water entering the stratosphere in the tropics could be made with the mid latitude measurements analysed here.

  20. Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the development of the Ponnequin Wind Energy Project in Colorado. This EA and public comments received on it will be used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the project. This document provides a detailed description of the proposed project and an assessment of potential impacts associated with its construction and operations. Resources and conditions considered in the analysis include streams; wetlands; floodplains; water quality; soils; vegetation; air quality; socioeconomic conditions; energy resources; noise; transportation; cultural resources; visual and land use resources; public health and safety; wildlife; threatened, endangered, and candidate species; and cumulative impacts. The analysis found that the project would have minimal impacts on these resources and conditions, and would not create impacts that exceed the significance criteria defined in this document. 90 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Uranium indicator plants of the Colorado plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massingill, G.L.


    Two methods of botanical prospecting for uranium deposits have been applied on the Colorado Plateau. The first, based on a chemical analysis of deep-rooted plants that absorb uranium from ore bodies, detects small but measurable amounts of the element in plants rooted in ore. A second method involves mapping the distribution of indicator plants because these plants are dependent--either directly or indirectly--upon the presence of abnormally high levels of elements in the parent soil or rock. Botanical prospecting studies made in ten districts have been productive. In the Thompson district, Grand County, Utah, five ore bodies were found solely on the basis of indicator plant data. 15 refs

  2. Upper Colorado River Basin Climate Effects Network (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Campbell, Donald; Kershner, Jeff


    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) Climate Effects Network (CEN) is a science team established to provide information to assist land managers in future decision making processes by providing a better understanding of how future climate change, land use, invasive species, altered fire cycles, human systems, and the interactions among these factors will affect ecosystems and the services they provide to human communities. The goals of this group are to (1) identify science needs and provide tools to assist land managers in addressing these needs, (2) provide a Web site where users can access information pertinent to this region, and (3) provide managers technical assistance when needed. Answers to the team's working science questions are intended to address how interactions among climate change, land use, and management practices may affect key aspects of water availability, ecosystem changes, and societal needs within the UCRB.


    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.


    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  4. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, R.H.


    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  5. BLM Colorado Oil and Gas Communitization Agreements (Dissolve) (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  6. BLM Colorado Oil and Gas Storage Agreements (Dissolve) (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  7. Evaluation of guardrail embedded lighting system in Trinidad, Colorado. (United States)


    This report provides information on the design considerations of the embedded highway lighting : design on Interstate-25 in Trinidad, Colorado, in terms of visibility. The information is based on : visibility characterizations of small targets using ...

  8. BLM Colorado Oil and Gas Storage Agreements (Dissolve) (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  9. Effect of food factor on microevolution of Colorado beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. А. Ryabchenko


    Full Text Available Many-sided research of interaction of Colorado beetle and fodder plant (potato, nightshade sweetly-bitter defines the role of the plants as guiding factor of microevolutional processes in pest population.

  10. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  11. BLM Colorado Oil and Gas Communitization Agreements (Dissolve) (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –This data is one feature type that is a part of a set consisting of six shapefiles pertaining to energy development and production in Colorado. The...

  12. University of Colorado Students Join Pros in Covering Columbine Incident. (United States)

    Litherland, Chip


    Describes the experiences and feelings of a university photojournalist as he covered the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado. Notes the onslaught of the media presence and the overwhelming emotion he witnessed. (RS)

  13. Barriers to Enrollment in Health Coverage in Colorado. (United States)

    Martin, Laurie T; Bharmal, Nazleen; Blanchard, Janice C; Harvey, Melody; Williams, Malcolm


    As part of the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, Colorado has expanded Medicaid and also now operates its own health insurance exchange for individuals (called Connect for Health Colorado). As of early 2014, more than 300,000 Coloradans have newly enrolled in Medicaid or health insurance through Connect for Health Colorado, but there also continues to be a diverse mix of individuals in Colorado who remain eligible for but not enrolled in either private insurance or Medicaid. The Colorado Health Foundation commissioned the RAND Corporation to conduct a study to better understand why these individuals are not enrolled in health insurance coverage and to develop recommendations for how Colorado can strengthen its outreach and enrollment efforts during the next open enrollment period, which starts in November 2014. RAND conducted focus groups with uninsured and newly insured individuals across the state and interviews with local stakeholders responsible for enrollment efforts in their regions. The authors identified 11 commonly cited barriers, as well as several that were specific to certain regions or populations (such as young adults and seasonal workers). Collectively, these barriers point to a set of four priority recommendations that stakeholders in Colorado may wish to consider: (1) Support and expand localized outreach and tailored messaging; (2) Strengthen marketing and messaging to be clear, focused on health benefits of insurance (rather than politics and mandates), and actionable; (3) Improve the clarity and transparency of insurance and health care costs and enrollment procedures; and (4) Revisit the two-stage enrollment process and improve Connect for Health Colorado website navigation and technical support.

  14. Tracking Water-Use in Colorado's Energy Exploration and Development (United States)

    Halamka, T. A.; Ge, S.


    By the year 2050 Colorado's population is projected to nearly double, posing many important questions about the stresses that Colorado's water resources will experience. Growing in tandem with Colorado's population is the state's energy exploration and development industry. As water demands increase across the state, the energy exploration and development industry must adapt to and prepare for future difficulties surrounding the legal acquisition of water. The goal of this study is to map out the potential sources of water within the state of Colorado that are being purchased, or will be eligible for purchase, for unconventional subsurface energy extraction. The background of this study includes an overview of the intertwined relationship between water, the energy industry, and the Colorado economy. The project also aims to determine the original purpose of legally appropriated water that is used in Colorado's energy exploration and development. Is the water primarily being purchased or leased from the agricultural sector? Is the water mostly surface water or groundwater? In order to answer these questions, we accessed data from numerous water reporting agencies and examined legal methods of acquisition of water for use in the energy industry. Using these data, we assess the future water quantity available to the energy industry. Knowledge and foresight on the origins of the water used by the energy industry will allow for better and strategic planning of water resources and how the industry will respond to statewide water-related stresses.

  15. AGI's Boulder Operation (United States)

    Romey, William D.


    Environmental Studies for Urban Youth (ES) for first grade through college and the primary concerns of the Earth Science Teacher Preparation Project (ESTPP), both developed by the AGI's Earth Science Education Program, are considered. (PR)

  16. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado State fiscal year 1994. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994 (1 July 1993 through 30 June 1994). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. Information on wages, taxes, and subcontract expenditures in combination with estimates and economic multipliers is used to estimate the dollar economic benefits to Colorado during the state fiscal year. Finally, the fiscal year 1994 estimates are compared to fiscal year 1993 employment and economic information

  17. Associations between damage location and five main body region injuries of MAIS 3-6 injured occupants. (United States)

    Tang, Youming; Cao, Libo; Kan, Steven


    To examine the damage location distribution of five main body region injuries of maximum abbreviated injury score (MAIS) 3-6 injured occupants for nearside struck vehicle in front-to-side impact crashes. MAIS 3-6 injured occupants information was extracted from the US-National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System in the year 2007; it included the head/face/neck, chest, pelvis, upper extremity and lower extremity. Struck vehicle collision damage was classified in a three-dimensional system according to the J224 Collision Deformation Classification of SAE Surface Vehicle Standard. Nearside occupants seated directly adjacent to the struck side of the vehicle with MAIS 3-6 injured, in light truck vehicles-passenger cars (LTV-PC) side impact crashes. Distribution of MAIS 3-6 injured occupants by body regions and specific location of damage (lateral direction, horizontal direction and vertical direction) were examined. Injury risk ratio was also assessed. The lateral crush zone contributed to MAIS 3-6 injured occupants (n=705) and 50th centile injury risks when extended into zone 3. When the crush extended to zone 4, the injury risk ratio of MAIS 3-6 injured occupants approached 81%. The horizontal crush zones contributing to the highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3-6 occupants were zones 'D' and 'Y', and the injury risk ratios were 25.4% and 36.9%, respectively. In contrast, the lowest injury risk ratio was 5.67% caused by zone 'B'. The vertical crush zone which contributed to the highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3-6 occupants was zone 'E', whose injury risk ratio was 58%. In contrast, the lowest injury risk ratio was 0.14% caused by zone 'G+M'. The highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3-6 injured occupants caused by crush intrusion between 40 and 60 cm in LTV-PC nearside impact collisions and the damage region of the struck vehicle was in the zones 'E' and 'Y'.

  18. Colorado air quality impacted by long-range-transported aerosol: a set of case studies during the 2015 Pacific Northwest fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Creamean


    Full Text Available Biomass burning plumes containing aerosols from forest fires can be transported long distances, which can ultimately impact climate and air quality in regions far from the source. Interestingly, these fires can inject aerosols other than smoke into the atmosphere, which very few studies have evidenced. Here, we demonstrate a set of case studies of long-range transport of mineral dust aerosols in addition to smoke from numerous fires (including predominantly forest fires and a few grass/shrub fires in the Pacific Northwest to Colorado, US. These aerosols were detected in Boulder, Colorado, along the Front Range using beta-ray attenuation and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and corroborated with satellite-borne lidar observations of smoke and dust. Further, we examined the transport pathways of these aerosols using air mass trajectory analysis and regional- and synoptic-scale meteorological dynamics. Three separate events with poor air quality and increased mass concentrations of metals from biomass burning (S and K and minerals (Al, Si, Ca, Fe, and Ti occurred due to the introduction of smoke and dust from regional- and synoptic-scale winds. Cleaner time periods with good air quality and lesser concentrations of biomass burning and mineral metals between the haze events were due to the advection of smoke and dust away from the region. Dust and smoke present in biomass burning haze can have diverse impacts on visibility, health, cloud formation, and surface radiation. Thus, it is important to understand how aerosol populations can be influenced by long-range-transported aerosols, particularly those emitted from large source contributors such as wildfires.

  19. Puente Río Colorado - Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulka, F.


    Full Text Available The Colorado River bridge is located in a 95 m deep canyon, with a 122 m span. To choose the type of bridge, it has been endeavoured to use the largest possible number of national building materials which, together with the difficulty of reaching the site, meant that a series of classical solutions had to be rejected. That of an arch bridge was adopted, with a reversed support on prestressed cables, on which the road passes. The system is based on the hanging bridge principle, but with the rolling track resting on the cables, instead of hanging from them. There is a first cover, made up of prefabricated components, on the cables, which strengthens the bridge's stability. This cover supports three portal-columns, the pillars of the final roadway. The cables were prestressed from the heads of the two sloping pillars. The two side spans were designed with prefabricated T girders.El puente Río Colorado está situado en un cañón de 95 m de profundidad, salvando una luz de 122 m. Para la elección del tipo de puente se ha procurado emplear el mayor número posible de materiales de construcción nacionales, lo que, unido a la dificultad de acceso a la obra, hizo que se rechazaran una serie de soluciones clásicas. Se adoptó la de un puente-arco con un soporte invertido sobre cables pretensados, encima del cual descansa la calzada. El sistema está basado en los principios del puente colgante, pero apoyando el camino de rodadura en los cables, en lugar de colgarlo de ellos. Sobre los cables existe una primera cubierta, integrada por elementos prefabricados, que refuerza la estabilidad del puente. Esta cubierta soporta tres pórticos-columna, pilares de la calzada definitiva. El pretensado de los cables se realizó desde las cabezas de dos pilares inclinados. Los dos vanos laterales se proyectaron con vigas en T prefabricadas.

  20. Colorado River basin sensitivity to disturbance impacts (United States)

    Bennett, K. E.; Urrego-Blanco, J. R.; Jonko, A. K.; Vano, J. A.; Newman, A. J.; Bohn, T. J.; Middleton, R. S.


    The Colorado River basin is an important river for the food-energy-water nexus in the United States and is projected to change under future scenarios of increased CO2emissions and warming. Streamflow estimates to consider climate impacts occurring as a result of this warming are often provided using modeling tools which rely on uncertain inputs—to fully understand impacts on streamflow sensitivity analysis can help determine how models respond under changing disturbances such as climate and vegetation. In this study, we conduct a global sensitivity analysis with a space-filling Latin Hypercube sampling of the model parameter space and statistical emulation of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model to relate changes in runoff, evapotranspiration, snow water equivalent and soil moisture to model parameters in VIC. Additionally, we examine sensitivities of basin-wide model simulations using an approach that incorporates changes in temperature, precipitation and vegetation to consider impact responses for snow-dominated headwater catchments, low elevation arid basins, and for the upper and lower river basins. We find that for the Colorado River basin, snow-dominated regions are more sensitive to uncertainties. New parameter sensitivities identified include runoff/evapotranspiration sensitivity to albedo, while changes in snow water equivalent are sensitive to canopy fraction and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Basin-wide streamflow sensitivities to precipitation, temperature and vegetation are variable seasonally and also between sub-basins; with the largest sensitivities for smaller, snow-driven headwater systems where forests are dense. For a major headwater basin, a 1ºC of warming equaled a 30% loss of forest cover, while a 10% precipitation loss equaled a 90% forest cover decline. Scenarios utilizing multiple disturbances led to unexpected results where changes could either magnify or diminish extremes, such as low and peak flows and streamflow timing

  1. Approaches to local climate action in Colorado (United States)

    Huang, Y. D.


    Though climate change is a global problem, the impacts are felt on the local scale; it follows that the solutions must come at the local level. Fortunately, many cities and municipalities are implementing climate mitigation (or climate action) policies and programs. However, they face many procedural and institutional barriers to their efforts, such of lack of expertise or data, limited human and financial resources, and lack of community engagement (Krause 2011). To address the first obstacle, thirteen in-depth case studies were done of successful model practices ("best practices") of climate action programs carried out by various cities, counties, and organizations in Colorado, and one outside Colorado, and developed into "how-to guides" for other municipalities to use. Research was conducted by reading documents (e.g. annual reports, community guides, city websites), email correspondence with program managers and city officials, and via phone interviews. The information gathered was then compiled into a series of reports containing a narrative description of the initiative; an overview of the plan elements (target audience and goals); implementation strategies and any indicators of success to date (e.g. GHG emissions reductions, cost savings); and the adoption or approval process, as well as community engagement efforts and marketing or messaging strategies. The types of programs covered were energy action plans, energy efficiency programs, renewable energy programs, and transportation and land use programs. Between the thirteen case studies, there was a range of approaches to implementing local climate action programs, examined along two dimensions: focus on climate change (whether it was direct/explicit or indirect/implicit) and extent of government authority. This benchmarking exercise affirmed the conventional wisdom propounded by Pitt (2010), that peer pressure (that is, the presence of neighboring jurisdictions with climate initiatives), the level of

  2. A coordinated study of 1 h mesoscale gravity waves propagating from Logan to Boulder with CRRL Na Doppler lidars and temperature mapper (United States)

    Lu, Xian; Chen, Cao; Huang, Wentao; Smith, John A.; Chu, Xinzhao; Yuan, Tao; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Taylor, Mike J.; Gong, Jie; Cullens, Chihoko Y.


    We present the first coordinated study using two lidars at two separate locations to characterize a 1 h mesoscale gravity wave event in the mesopause region. The simultaneous observations were made with the Student Training and Atmospheric Research (STAR) Na Doppler lidar at Boulder, CO, and the Utah State University Na Doppler lidar and temperature mapper at Logan, UT, on 27 November 2013. The high precision possessed by the STAR lidar enabled these waves to be detected in vertical wind. The mean wave amplitudes are ~0.44 m/s in vertical wind and ~1% in relative temperature at altitudes of 82-107 km. Those in the zonal and meridional winds are 6.1 and 5.2 m/s averaged from 84 to 99 km. The horizontal and vertical wavelengths inferred from the mapper and lidars are ~219 ± 4 and 16.0 ± 0.3 km, respectively. The intrinsic period is ~1.3 h for the airglow layer, Doppler shifted by a mean wind of ~17 m/s. The wave packet propagates from Logan to Boulder with an azimuth angle of ~135° clockwise from north and an elevation angle of ~ 3° from the horizon. The observed phase difference between the two locations can be explained by the traveling time of the 1 h wave from Logan to Boulder, which is about ~2.4 h. The wave polarization relations are examined through the simultaneous quantifications of the three wind components and temperature. This study has developed a systematic methodology for fully characterizing mesoscale gravity waves, inspecting their intrinsic properties and validating the derivation of horizontal wave structures by applying multiple instruments from coordinated stations.

  3. A Review of Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at the 200-PW-1/3/6 Operable Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.


    This report begins with a brief summary of the history and current status of 200-PW-1/3/6 OUs in section 2.0. This is followed by a description of our concentual model of Pu/Am migration at the 200-PW-1/3/6 OUs, during both past artificial recharge conditions and current natural recharge condictions (section 3.0). Section 4.0 discusses data gaps and information needs. The final section (section 5.0) provides recommendations for futher work to address the data gaps and information needs identified in section 4.0.

  4. Process for manufacturing bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene (United States)

    Rasmussen, Paul George; Lawton, Richard Graham


    A process to manufacture substituted tetracyano-hexaazatricyclics with the substitutions occurring at the 9 and 10 hydrogens. The process begins with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanopyrazine, which is reacted to form the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different process embodiments enable different reaction paths to the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic embodiments include bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene and bis(2-methoxyethoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracen- e.

  5. A Review of Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at the 200-PW-1/3/6 Operable Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.


    This report begins with a brief summary of the history and current status of 200-PW-1/3/6 OUs in section 2.0. This is followed by a description of our conceptual model of Pu/Am migration at the 200-PW-1/3/6 OUs, during both past artificial recharge conditions and current natural recharge conditions (section 3.0). Section 4.0 discusses data gaps and information needs. The final section (section 5.0) provides recommendations for further work to address the data gaps and information needs identified in section 4.0

  6. The duty to inform the public about the Rocky Flats plutonium processing plant and impact on public awareness and the real-estate market in the Denver/Boulder area (Colorado, U.S.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stagl, R.


    The study deals with the impact of information about technological hazards on the local population's state of knowledge, risk awareness, and attitude towards the Rocky Flats plant, a plutonium processing plant for the fabrication of nuclear missile war-heads, and with the question of whether the 'disclosure' of the hazardous nature of the installation really entailed economic disadvantages for the real-estate market in the area, as was presumed. The results concluded by the author are that two information brochures distributed in 1979 and 1982 did not have an impact on the local population's behaviour but could not win them over to a positive attitude towards the installation. The presumed negative effects on the housing and real-estate market in the area could not be verified. Price structures within and without the 10 mile zone around the Rocky Flat plant developed in response to usual market conditions. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. Ferroelectrics Volume 121 Numbers 1-4, 1991. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals (3rd) Held in Boulder, Colorado on 23-28 June 1991. Part 1 (United States)


    Ind.). The former is widely utilized for aligning FLCs and the latter is also popular for aligning nematic LCs with a high pretilt angle. We to thank the Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia of Spain for financial support. REFERENCES Previous papers in the series include: a) D. M. Walba

  8. Book Review of "Being Brown in Dixie: Race, Ethnicity, and Latino Immigration in the New South" 2011. Boulder, Colorado: FirstForumPress, by Cameron D. Lippard and Charles A. Gallagher, eds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Madsen


    Full Text Available Moving with the prospect of employment in the US, there has been an influx of migrants from Latin America since the 1990s that has introduced many populations in the South to unfamiliar neighbors. Consequently, a dimension has been added to the long-existing racial turmoil between whites and blacks in these southern states: a "brown" dimension.

  9. Deposition Velocities of C1 - C5 Alkyl Nitrates at a Northern Colorado Site (United States)

    Abeleira, A.; Sive, B. C.; Farmer, D.; Swarthout, B.


    Organic nitrates (RONO2) are ubiquitous in the troposphere and are part of gas-phase oxidized nitrogen (NOy = NOx + HNO3 + HONO + N2O5 + HO2NO2 + PAN + NO3 + RONO2). RONO2 can act as both sinks and sources of HOx (RO + RO2 + OH) and NOx (NO + NO2), contributing to the nonlinearity of ozone (O3) formation. It is thus potentially important to understand sinks of RONO2, and how they change seasonally, in order to predict O3 on local, regional and global scales. We focus here on speciated C1 - C5 monofunctional alkyl nitrates (C1 - C5 ANs). In polluted continental regions the dominant source of C1 - C5 ANs is the OH-initiated oxidation of parent alkanes in the presence of NO, and thus changes seasonally with OH mixing ratios. Direct emissions of C1 - C2 ANs include oceanic sources and biomass burning. The sinks of C1 - C5 ANs include OH oxidation and photolysis, both of which release O3 precursors. Chemical transport models tend to overestimate the mixing ratios of small ANs indicating that a missing sink is not included. Wet deposition of C1 - C5 ANs is typically ignored due to the very low Henry's Law constants of these species. However, dry deposition of total organic nitrogen has been observed to be substantial. The dry deposition velocity of methyl nitrate has previously been estimated from summer observations at a rural New England site with a value of 0.13 cm s-1. Here we report deposition velocities for C1 - C5 ANs from surface observations at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in Erie, Colorado during winter 2011 and spring 2015. We calculate deposition velocities from the observed decay in C1 - C5 ANs at night during periods with a stable nocturnal boundary layer height of 100 - 200 meters. Ideal meteorological conditions were observed for 5 nights during the 2011 NACHTT campaign (February - March 2011), and for 5 nights during the 2015 SONGNEX campaign (March - May 2015). Deposition velocities increased with alkyl nitrate size, ranging from 0.15 cm

  10. Identification of discontinuous sand pulses on the bed of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon (United States)

    Mueller, E. R.; Grams, P. E.; Buscombe, D.; Topping, D. J.


    Decades of research on alluvial sandbars and sand transport on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon has contributed to in-depth understanding of the sand budget and lead to management actions designed to rebuild eroded sandbars. However, some basic, but difficult to address, questions about the processes and rates of sand movement through the system still limit our ability to predict geomorphic responses. The coarse fraction of the bed is heterogeneous and varies among boulders, cobble, gravel, and bedrock. Sand covers these substrates in patches of variable size and thickness, fills interstices to varying degrees, and forms mixed sand/coarse bed configurations such as linear stripes. Understanding the locations of sand accumulation, the quantities of sand contained in those locations, and the processes by which sand is exchanged among depositional locations is needed to predict the morphological response of sandbars to management actions, such as the controlled flood releases, and to predict whether sandbars are likely to increase or decrease in size over long (i.e. decadal) time periods. Here, we present evidence for the downstream translation of the sand component of tributary sediment inputs as discontinuous sand pulses. The silt and clay (mud) fraction of sediment introduced episodically by seasonal floods from tributary streams is transported entirely in suspension and moves through the 400 km series of canyons in a few days. The sand fraction of this sediment, which is transported on the bed and in suspension, moves downstream in sand pulses that we estimate range in length from a few km to tens of km. Owing to the complex geomorphic organization, the sand pulses are not detectable as coherent bed features; each individual sand pulse is comprised of many isolated storage locations, separated by rapids and riffles where sand cover is sparse. The presence of the sand pulses is inferred by the existence of alternating segments of sand accumulation and depletion

  11. Lagrangian sampling for emerging contaminants through an urban stream corridor in Colorado (United States)

    Brown, J.B.; Battaglin, W.A.; Zuellig, R.E.


    Recent national concerns regarding the environmental occurrence of emerging contaminants (ECs) have catalyzed a series of recent studies. Many ECs are released into the environment through discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and other sources. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey and the City of Longmont initiated an investigation of selected ECs in a 13.8-km reach of St. Vrain Creek, Colorado. Seven sites were sampled for ECs following a Lagrangian design; sites were located upstream, downstream, and in the outfall of the Longmont WWTP, and at the mouths of two tributaries, Left Hand Creek and Boulder Creek (which is influenced by multiple WWTP outfalls). Samples for 61 ECs in 16 chemical use categories were analyzed and 36 were detected in one or more samples. Of these, 16 have known or suspected endocrine-disrupting potential. At and downstream from the WWTP outfall, detergent metabolites, fire retardants, and steroids were detected at the highest concentrations, which commonly exceeded 1 ??g/l in 2005 and 2 ??g/l in 2006. Most individual ECs were measured at concentrations less than 2 ??g/l. The results indicate that outfalls from WWTPs are the largest but may not be the sole source of ECs in St. Vrain Creek. In 2005, high discharge was associated with fewer EC detections, lower total EC concentrations, and smaller EC loads in St. Vrain Creek and its tributaries as compared with 2006. EC behavior differed by individual compound, and some differences between sites could be attributed to analytical variability or to other factors such as physical or chemical characteristics or distance from contributing sources. Loads of some ECs, such as diethoxynonylphenol, accumulated or attenuated depending on location, discharge, and distance downstream from the WWTP, whereas others, such as bisphenol A, were largely conservative. The extent to which ECs in St. Vrain Creek affect native fish species and macroinvertebrate communities is unknown, but recent

  12. Preliminary Site Characterization Report, Rulsion Site, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report is a summary of environmental information gathered during a review of the documents pertaining to Project Rulison and interviews with personnel who worked on the project. Project Rulison was part of Operation Plowshare (a program designed to explore peaceful uses for nuclear devices). The project consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device on September 10, 1969, in western Colorado to stimulate natural gas production. Following the detonation, a reentry well was drilled and several gas production tests were conducted. The reentry well was shut-in after the last gas production test and was held in standby condition until the general cleanup was undertaken in 1972. A final cleanup was conducted after the emplacement and testing wells were plugged in 1976. However, some surface radiologic contamination resulted from decontamination of the drilling equipment and fallout from the gas flaring during drilling operations. With the exception of the drilling effluent pond, all surface contamination at the Rulison Site was removed during the cleanup operations. All mudpits and other excavations were backfilled, and both upper and lower drilling pads were leveled and dressed. This report provides information regarding known or suspected areas of contamination, previous cleanup activities, analytical results, a review of the regulatory status, the site`s physical environment, and future recommendations for Project Ruhson. Based on this research, several potential areas of contamination have been identified. These include the drilling effluent pond and mudpits used during drilling operations. In addition, contamination could migrate in the gas horizon.

  13. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Durango Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, N.J.; Madson, M.E.; Rosenlund, G.C.; Reinhart, W.R.; Gardner, H.A.


    The Durango Quadrangle (2 0 ), Colorado, was evaluated using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria to determine environments favorable for uranium deposits. General reconnaissance, geologic and radiometric investigations, was augmented by detailed surface examination and radiometric and geochemical studies in selected areas. Eight areas favorable for uranium deposits were delineated. Favorable geologic environments include roscoelite-type vanadium-uranium deposits in the Placerville and Barlow Creek-Hermosa Creek districts, sandstone uranium deposits along Hermosa Creek, and vein uranium deposits in the Precambrian rocks of the Needle Mountains area and in the Paleozoic rocks of the Tuckerville and Piedra River Canyon areas. The major portions of the San Juan volcanic field, the San Juan Basin, and the San Luis Basin within the quadrangle were judged unfavorable. Due to lack of information, the roscoelite belt below 1000 ft (300 m), the Eolus Granite below 0.5 mi (0.8 km), and the Lake City caldera are unevaluated. The Precambrian Y melasyenite of Ute Creek and the Animas Formation within the Southern Ute Indian Reservation are unevaluated due to lack of access

  14. Modeling Aspect Controlled Formation of Seasonally Frozen Ground on Montane Hillslopes: a Case Study from Gordon Gulch, Colorado (United States)

    Rush, M.; Rajaram, H.; Anderson, R. S.; Anderson, S. P.


    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013) warns that high-elevation ecosystems are extremely vulnerable to climate change due to short growing seasons, thin soils, sparse vegetation, melting glaciers, and thawing permafrost. Many permafrost-free regions experience seasonally frozen ground. The spatial distribution of frozen soil exerts a strong control on subsurface flow and transport processes by reducing soil permeability and impeding infiltration. Accordingly, evolution of the extent and duration of frozen ground may alter streamflow seasonality, groundwater flow paths, and subsurface storage, presenting a need for coupled thermal-hydrologic models to project hydrologic responses to climate warming in high-elevation regions. To be useful as predictive tools, such models should incorporate the heterogeneity of solar insolation, vegetation, and snowpack dynamics. We present a coupled thermal-hydrologic modeling study against the backdrop of field observations from Gordon Gulch, a seasonally snow-covered montane catchment in the Colorado Front Range in the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory. The field site features two instrumented hillslopes with opposing aspects: the snowpack on the north-facing slope persists throughout much of the winter season, while the snowpack on the south-facing slope is highly ephemeral. We implemented a surface energy balance and snowpack accumulation and ablation model that is coupled to the subsurface flow and transport code PFLOTRAN-ICE to predict the hydrologic consequences of aspect-controlled frozen soil formation during water years 2013-2016. Preliminary model results demonstrate the occurrence of seasonally-frozen ground on the north-facing slope that directs snowmelt to the stream by way of shallow subsurface flow paths. The absence of persistently frozen ground on the south-facing slope allows deeper infiltration of snowmelt recharge. The differences in subsurface flow paths also suggest strong aspect

  15. Attracting Students Into Science: Insights From a Summer Research Internship Program for Community College Students in Colorado (United States)

    Anderson, S. P.; Smith, L. K.; Gold, A. U.; Batchelor, R. L.; Monday, B.


    Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) programs commonly serve students already committed to careers in science. To spark student interest in the sciences early in their college career, the CIRES diversity initiative teamed with the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory to build an REU for Colorado community college students. A group of 7 students was selected from consideration of diversity, prior training, and personal statements. Each student was paired with a research science mentor. Field excursions and team-building exercises filled the first week of the 8-week program. Students received weekly training in science communication, responsible conduct of research, use of spreadsheet and graphing software, and statistical analysis. Each student presented their research in a poster session, an oral presentation, and a written report. Several aspects of this pilot program worked well. The students formed a very supportive cohort, despite the fact that they were not in residence. Cohesion grew out of the immersion in field trips, and was reinforced with weekly check-ins. The trainings were essential for seeing projects through to written and oral presentations. Teaming students for fieldwork was an effective strategy to build support, and reduce mentor fatigue. Each student produced useful data. In the future, we would include a workshop on personal finances to address a clear need. Transportation support will be provided. A residential program might attract some but could preclude participation of students with families or other life-issues. Personal tutoring tailored to research projects would address low math skills. All 7 students completed the program; several elected to submit to the undergraduate virtual poster session at Fall AGU. Students all reported enormous personal and academic growth. Some are discussing transfer and graduate school opportunities with their mentors. The enthusiasm and appreciation of the students was unparalleled.

  16. Generation of nanopores during desorption of NH3 from Mg(NH3)6Cl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink; Kostova, M.Y.


    It is shown that nanopores are formed during desorption of NH3 from Mg(NH3)6Cl2, which has been proposed as a hydrogen storage material. The system of nanopores facilitates the transport of desorbed ammonia away from the interior of large volumes of compacted storage material. DFT calculations sh...

  17. Influence of 1,3,6 naphthalene trisulfonic acid on microstructure & hardness in electrodeposited Ni-layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Møller, Per; Somers, Marcel A. J.


    The influence of the additive 1,3,6 naphthalene trisulfonic acid on the microstructure and hardness of electrodeposited nickel layers was investigated. The microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy; the Vickers hardness was measured in cross sections. The additive wa...

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Colorado. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Colorado.

  19. Substitution and Redox Chemistry of [Bu(4)N](2)[Ta(6)Cl(12)(OSO(2)CF(3))(6)]. (United States)

    Prokopuk, Nicholas; Kennedy, Vance O.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Shriver, Duward F.


    Two sequential electrochemical reductions occur for the cluster anion [Ta(6)Cl(12)(OSO(2)CF(3))(6)](2)(-) at 0.89 and 0.29 V vs Ag/AgCl, with the generation [Ta(6)Cl(12)(OSO(2)CF(3))(6)](3)(-) and [Ta(6)Cl(12)(OSO(2)CF(3))(6)](4)(-). Chemical reduction of [Ta(6)Cl(12)(OSO(2)CF(3))(6)](2)(-) by ferrocene produces [Ta(6)Cl(12)(OSO(2)CF(3))(6)](3)(-) with the concomitant shift of the nu(SO(2)) stretch from 1002 to 1018 cm(-)(1). Reaction of [Bu(4)N](2)[Ta(6)Cl(12)(OSO(2)CF(3))(6)] (1) with [Bu(4)N]X (X = Cl, Br, I, NCS) occurs by reduction and substitution, yielding [Bu(4)N](3)[Ta(6)Cl(12)X(6)], where the clusters with X = Br, I, and NCS are new. Spectroscopic (IR and UV-vis) evidence indicates that the reduced cluster core {Ta(6)Cl(12)}(2+) is produced in reaction mixtures of 1 with the halide and pseudohalide ions. Concomitant substitution of the triflate ligands of 1 by X(-) occurs and the rates for the overall reduction and substitution increase in the order X(-) = Cl(-) < Br(-) < NCS(-) < I(-) < CN(-). Reduction of 1 with ferrocene followed by addition of [Bu(4)N]O(2)CCH(3) produces the new cluster [Ta(6)Cl(12)(O(2)CCH(3))(6)](3)(-) isolated as the tetrabutylammonium salt. Cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis spectroscopy on the new clusters [Bu(4)N](3)[Ta(6)Cl(12)X(6)] (X = Br, I, NCS, and O(2)CCH(3)) are reported. Crystal data for [Bu(4)N](3)[Ta(6)Cl(12)(NCS)(6)].CH(2)Cl(2): monoclinic, space group, P2(1)/c (No. 14); a = 25.855(6) Å, b = 21.843(6) Å, c = 16.423(3) Å; beta = 100.03(2) degrees; V = 9133(3) Å(3); Z = 4.

  20. Colorado Disciplinary Practices, 2008-2010: Disciplinary Actions, Student Behaviors, Race, and Gender (United States)

    Pfleger, Ryan; Wiley, Kathryn


    The Colorado legislature has recently taken school discipline policies under review, pursuant to SB 11-133. To inform the discussion in Colorado as well as a national discussion about discipline, this report presents an analysis of the most complete set of Colorado discipline data. It adds to and reinforces existing studies, documenting some…

  1. 77 FR 42510 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)


    ... associated funerary objects may contact History Colorado. Disposition of the human remains and associated... human remains and associated funerary objects under the control of History Colorado, Denver, CO. One set... detailed assessment of the human remains and associated funerary objects was made by History Colorado...

  2. 77 FR 51792 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application (United States)


    ... Interstate Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 7, 2012, Colorado Interstate Gas Company, L.L.C. (CIG), Post Office Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944, filed in the above captioned docket an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) for a certificate of...

  3. Latinos in Colorado: A Profile of Culture, Changes, and Challenges. Volume V. (United States)

    Pappas, Georgia, Ed.; Guajardo, Maria, Ed.

    It is projected that the population of Colorado will increase by 25% between 1990 and 2000. The Latino community will experience a slight increase in the proportion of Colorado's population, and will remain the largest ethnic group over the next 30 years. The chapters in this profile describe the Latino population of Colorado. The following essays…

  4. 30 CFR 906.25 - Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 906.25 Section 906.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE COLORADO § 906.25 Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

  5. Land and federal mineral ownership coverage for northwestern Colorado (United States)

    Biewick, L.H.; Mercier, T.J.; Levitt, Pam; Deikman, Doug; Vlahos, Bob


    This Arc/Info coverage contains land status and Federal mineral ownership for approximately 26,800 square miles in northwestern Colorado. The polygon coverage (which is also provided here as a shapefile) contains two attributes of ownership information for each polygon. One attribute indicates where the surface is State owned, privately owned, or, if Federally owned, which Federal agency manages the land surface. The other attribute indicates which minerals, if any, are owned by the Federal govenment. This coverage is based on land status and Federal mineral ownership data compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and three Colorado State Bureau of Land Management (BLM) former district offices at a scale of 1:24,000. This coverage was compiled primarily to serve the USGS National Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Project in the Uinta-Piceance Basin Province and the USGS National Coal Resource Assessment Project in the Colorado Plateau.

  6. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE's deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program

  7. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  8. Uranium deposits: northern Denver Julesburg basin, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reade, H.L.


    The Fox Hills Sandstone and the Laramie Formation (Upper Cretaceous) are the host rocks for uranium deposits in Weld County, northern Denver Julesburg basin, Colorado. The uranium deposits discovered in the Grover and Sand Creek areas occur in well-defined north--south trending channel sandstones of the Laramie Formation whereas the sandstone channel in the upper part of the Fox Hills Sandstone trends east--west. Mineralization was localized where the lithology was favorable for uranium accumulation. Exploration was guided by log interpretation methods similar to those proposed by Bruce Rubin for the Powder River basin, Wyoming, because alteration could not be readily identified in drilling samples. The uranium host rocks consist of medium- to fine-grained carbonaceous, feldspathic fluvial channel sandstones. The uranium deposits consist of simple to stacked roll fronts. Reserve estimates for the deposits are: (1) Grover 1,007,000 lbs with an average grade of 0.14 percent eU 3 O 8 ,2) Sand Creek 154,000 lbs with an average grade of 0.08 percent eU 3 O 8 , and 3) The Pawnee deposit 1,060,000 lbs with an average grade of 0.07 percent eU 3 O 8 . The configuration of the geochemical cells in the Grover and Sand Creek sandstones indicate that uraniferous fluids moved northward whereas in the Pawnee sandstone of the Fox Hills uraniferous fluids moved southward. Precipitation of uranium in the frontal zone probably was caused by downdip migration of oxygcnated groundwater high in uranium content moving through a favorable highly carbonaceous and pyritic host sandstone

  9. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles


    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  10. Groundwater quality in the Colorado River basins, California (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth


    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Colorado River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Colorado River study area is approximately 884 square miles (2,290 square kilometers) and includes the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, Palo Verde Valley, and Yuma groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Colorado River study area has an arid climate and is part of the Sonoran Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 3 inches (8 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 47 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 47% agricultural, and 6% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban area is the city of Blythe (2010 population of 21,000). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay deposited by the Colorado River or derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Colorado River study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Colorado River basins are completed to depths between 230 and 460 feet (70 to 140 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 of 390 feet (39 to 119 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. The main source of recharge to the groundwater systems in the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, and Palo Verde Valley basins is the Colorado River; in the Yuma basin, the main source of recharge is from

  11. Small Wind Turbine Applications: Current Practice in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Jim


    Numerous small wind turbines are being used by homeowners in Colorado. Some of these installations are quite recent while others date back to the federal tax-credit era of the early 1980s. Through visits with small wind turbine owners in Colorado, I have developed case studies of six small wind energy applications focusing on the wind turbine technology, wind turbine siting, the power systems and electric loads, regulatory issues, and motivations about wind energy. These case studies offer a glimpse into the current state-of-the-art of small-scale wind energy and provide some insight into issues affecting development of a wider market

  12. Application of RELAP5/MOD3.1 code to the LOFT test L3-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pylev, S.S.; Roginskaja, V.L.


    A calculation of LOFT Experiment L3-6, a small break equivalent to a 4-in diameter rupture in the cold leg of a four-loop commercial pressurized water reactor, has been performed to help validate RELAP5/MOD3.1 for this application. The version of the code to be used is SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1.8d0. Three calculations were carried out in order to study the sensitivity to change break nozzle superheated discharge coefficient. Conducted comparative analysis of the LOFT L3-6 experiment shows on the whole a reasonable agreement between calculated data. Some discrepancies in the system pressure do not distort a picture of the transient. 6 refs

  13. Application of RELAP5/MOD3.1 code to the LOFT test L3-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pylev, S.S.; Roginskaja, V.L.


    A calculation of LOFT Experiment L3-6, a small break equivalent to a 4-in diameter rupture in the cold leg of a four-loop commercial pressurized water reactor, has been performed to help validate RELAP5/MOD3.1 for this application. The version of the code to be used is SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1.8d0. Three calculations were carried out in order to study the sensitivity to change break nozzle superheated discharge coefficient. Conducted comparative analysis of the LOFT L3-6 experiment shows on the whole a reasonable agreement between calculated data. Some discrepancies in the system pressure do not distort a picture of the transient. 6 refs.

  14. Dipropyl 3,6-diphenyl-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4,5-tetrazine-1,2-dicarboxylate. (United States)

    Rao, Guo-Wu; Hu, Wei-Xiao


    The title compound, C(22)H(24)N(4)O(4), was prepared from propyl chloroformate and 3,6-diphenyl-1,2-dihydro-s-tetrazine. This reaction yields the title compound rather than dipropyl 3,6-diphenyl-1,4-dihydro-s-tetrazine-1,4-dicarboxylate. The 2,3-diazabutadiene group in the central six-membered ring is not planar; the C=N double-bond length is 1.285 (2) A, and the average N-N single-bond length is 1.401 (3) A, indicating a lack of conjugation. The ring has a twist conformation, in which adjacent N atoms lie +/- 0.3268 (17) A from the plane of the ring. The molecule has twofold crystallographic symmetry.

  15. Do Omega-3/6 Fatty Acids Have a Therapeutic Role in Children and Young People with ADHD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Derbyshire


    Full Text Available Background. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a debilitating behavioural disorder affecting daily ability to function, learn, and interact with peers. This publication assesses the role of omega-3/6 fatty acids in the treatment and management of ADHD. Methods. A systematic review of 16 randomised controlled trials was undertaken. Trials included a total of 1,514 children and young people with ADHD who were allocated to take an omega-3/6 intervention, or a placebo. Results. Of the studies identified, 13 reported favourable benefits on ADHD symptoms including improvements in hyperactivity, impulsivity, attention, visual learning, word reading, and working/short-term memory. Four studies used supplements containing a 9 : 3 : 1 ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid : docosahexaenoic acid : gamma linolenic acid which appeared effective at improving erythrocyte levels. Supplementation with this ratio of fatty acids also showed promise as an adjunctive therapy to traditional medications, lowering the dose and improving the compliance with medications such as methylphenidate. Conclusion. ADHD is a frequent and debilitating childhood condition. Given disparaging feelings towards psychostimulant medications, omega-3/6 fatty acids offer great promise as a suitable adjunctive therapy for ADHD.

  16. Hepatic metabolism affects the atropselective disposition of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) in mice. (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Barnhart, Christopher; Lein, Pamela J; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim


    To understand the role of hepatic vs extrahepatic metabolism in the disposition of chiral PCBs, we studied the disposition of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) and its hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) in mice with defective hepatic metabolism due to the liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (KO mice). Female KO and congenic wild type (WT) mice were treated with racemic PCB 136, and levels and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and HO-PCBs were determined in tissues and excreta 3 days after PCB administration. PCB 136 tissue levels were higher in KO compared to WT mice. Feces was a major route of PCB metabolite excretion, with 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol being the major metabolite recovered from feces. (+)-PCB 136, the second eluting PCB 136 atropisomers, was enriched in all tissues and excreta. The second eluting atropisomers of the HO-PCBs metabolites were enriched in blood and liver; 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol in blood was an exception and displayed an enrichment of the first eluting atropisomers. Fecal HO-PCB levels and chiral signatures changed with time and differed between KO and WT mice, with larger HO-PCB enantiomeric fractions in WT compared to KO mice. Our results demonstrate that hepatic and, possibly, extrahepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes play a role in the disposition of PCBs.

  17. 75 FR 3333 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2 (United States)


    ... FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2 AGENCY... requirement under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2. The marketing order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado, and is administered locally by the Colorado Potato...

  18. Assessment of surface-water quantity and quality, Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007 (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Richards, Rodney J.


    From the early mining days to the current tourism-based economy, the Eagle River watershed (ERW) in central Colorado has undergone a sequence of land-use changes that has affected the hydrology, habitat, and water quality of the area. In 2000, the USGS, in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities, and Denver Water, initiated a retrospective analysis of surface-water quantity and quality in the ERW.

  19. Radiogenic 3He/4He Estimates and Their Effect on Calculating Plio-Pleistocene Cosmogenic 3He Ages of Alluvial-Fan Terraces in the Lower Colorado River Basin, USA (United States)

    Fenton, C.; Pelletier, J.


    Several alluvial-fan terraces near Topock, AZ were created by successive entrenchment of Pliocene and Pleistocene alluvial-fan gravels shed from the adjacent Black Mountains along the lower Colorado River corridor below Hoover Dam. These fans interfinger with and overlie main-stem Colorado River sands and gravels and grade to terrace levels that correspond with pre-existing elevations of the Colorado River. Absolute dates for the ages of Quaternary deposits on the lower Colorado River are rare and cosmogenic 3He age estimates of these surfaces would help constrain the timing of aggradation and incision in the lower Colorado River corridor. We analyzed individual basalt boulders from several terrace surfaces for total 3He/4He concentrations to calculate cosmogenic 3He ages of each fan terrace; 3He/4He values, expressed as R/Ra where Ra is the 3He/4He of air, range from 0.29 to 590. Black Mountain volcanic rocks have reported K-Ar ages between 15 and 30 Ma and basalt samples from adjacent alluvial fans contain 0.42 to 47× 1012 at/g of 4He, which has likely accumulated due to nuclear processes. The amount of radiogenic 3He/4He can be significant in old rocks with young exposure ages and can complicate determination of cosmogenic 3 He content. Alpha-decay of U, Th, and their daughter isotopes produces large amounts of 4He, whereas significant amounts of radiogenic 3He are only produced through the neutron bombardment of Li and subsequent beta-decay of tritium. We measured Li, U, Th, major and rare-earth element concentrations in whole-rock basalts and mineral separates. These concentrations are used to estimate the ratio of radiogenic helium contributed to the total helium system in our samples. Li concentrations typically range from 6 to 17 ppm, with one outlier of 62 ppm. U contents range from calculations predict that the average radiogenic helium (R/Ra) contributed to the total helium in Black Mountain basalt samples is 0.011. Other noble gas studies have shown

  20. Cohesive stresses and size effect in quasi-brittle materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. V E Saouma1 D Natekar2. Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 803090427, USA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 803090427, USA ...

  1. Long history of "3"6Cl assessment of graphite waste by EDF engineering and the latest suggested developments. "3"6Cl assessment of EDF graphite waste and the latest suggested developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncet, B.


    About 17.000 tons of irradiated graphite waste will be produced from the decommissioning of the six gas-cooled nuclear reactors operated by Electricite De France (EDF) company. Determining the radionuclide content of this waste is an important legal commitment for both safety reasons and best suited management strategy. As evidenced by numerous studies nuclear graphite is a very complex material that cannot be considered on an analytical viewpoint as any usual homogeneous material. Radionuclide measurements in irradiated graphite exhibit very high discrepancies especially when corresponding to precursors at trace level. This huge discrepancy cannot be avoided and can be easily explained by Pierre Gy's theory of sampling applied to finely divided materials. The assessment of a radionuclide inventory only based on a few number of radiochemical measurements leads in most cases to a gross over- or under-estimation that can be detrimental to graphite waste management. Prior to 2005, the EDF initial version for the radiological inventory of graphite was based on the maximum values of the measures, namely a very pessimistic way. In 2008, a scientific method was developed by EDF to evaluate the inventory by reverse activation calculation, in order to limit the overestimation. The radiological inventory computation principles can be compared to those of all engineering studies. First, the calculation is simplified by taking margins, and if the results are not satisfactory enough, some simplifications are suppressed to reduce these margins even if computation becomes more complicated. On EDF piles, the gain obtained in 2008 represented a factor 50 relative to the initial version of "3"6Cl, even with a very penalizing multiplicative factor for uncertainty. Today, the accurate calculation of the uncertainty no longer justifies such a factor. A gain of about 150 now occurs compared to the initial version of "3"6Cl. It is more than 2 orders of magnitude, which is already enough

  2. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003 (United States)

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.


    In 1974, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act was passed into law. This law was enacted to address concerns regarding the salinity content of the Colorado River. The law authorized various construction projects in selected areas or 'units' of the Colorado River Basin intended to reduce the salinity load in the Colorado River. One such area was the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit in western Colorado. The U. S. Geological Survey has done extensive studies and research in the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit that provide information to aid the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Resources Conservation Service in determining where salinity-control work may provide the best results, and to what extent salinity-control work was effective in reducing salinity concentrations and loads in the Colorado River. Previous studies have indicated that salinity concentrations and loads have been decreasing downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, and that the decreases are likely the result of salinity control work in these areas. Several of these reports; however, also document decreasing salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. This finding was important because only a small amount of salinity-control work was being done in areas upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit at the time the findings were reported (late 1990?s). As a result of those previous findings, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate salinity trends in selected areas bracketing the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit and regions upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. The results of the study indicate that salinity loads were decreasing upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit from 1986 through 2003, but the rates of decrease have slowed during the last 10 years. The average rate of decrease in salinity load upstream from the Grand Valley

  3. Being PREPaREd for Crisis in Northern Colorado (United States)

    Hancock, Kathy; Malvey, Michelle; Rastatter, Dennis


    The Thompson School District recognized after the Columbine incident in the spring of 1999 that it was lacking an adequate plan for crisis response. Colorado legislation led to a mandate for having a crisis response plan so the district purchased a "canned" crisis response plan that served the needs of response in a very immediate but…

  4. Examining the Spatial Distribution of Marijuana Establishments in Colorado (United States)

    Kerski, Joseph


    In this 22-question activity, high school students investigate the spatial distribution of marijuana stores in Colorado using an interactive web map containing stores, centers, highways, population, and other data at several scales. After completing this lesson, students will know and be able to: (1) Use interactive maps, layers, and tools in…

  5. Agricultural water conservation programs in the lower Colorado River Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, J.


    Rice irrigation is the largest user of water within the area served by the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), accounting for approximately 75 percent of total annual surface and ground water demands. In an average year, about 30 percent of surface water supplied to rice irrigation is satisfied with water released from the storage in the Highland Lakes located at the upstream reaches of the Lower Colorado River and its tributaries. During a severe drought, the demand for stored water could be as much as 70 percent of annual rice irrigation demand. LCRA owns and operates two irrigation canal systems which together supply water to irrigate 60,000 acres of rice each year. These irrigation systems are the Lakeside and Gulf Coast Irrigation Divisions. The Lakeside system is located in Colorado and Wharton Counties and the Gulf Coast system is located in Wharton and Matagorda Counties. In the 1987 and 1989, the Lower Colorado River Authority Board of Directors authorized implementation and funding for Canal Rehabilitation Project and Irrigation Water Measurement Project respectively. These two projects are key initiatives to agricultural water conservation goals established in the LCRA Water Management Plan and Water Conservation Policy. In addition LCRA participated actively in agricultural water conservation research projects and technology transfer activities

  6. Radiation balance in a deep Colorado valley: ASCOT 84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Fritschen, L.J.; Simpson, J.R.; Orgill, M.M.


    Five surface energy budget stations were installed at four sites in a deep, narrow valley in western Colorado as part of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) Study. Radiation balance data are presented from these stations for the clear day September 29, 1984. 3 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  7. Colorado State University (CSU) accelerator and FEL facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milton, S.; Biedron, S.; Harris, J.; Martinez, J.; D'Audney, A.; Edelen, J.; Einstein, J.; Hall, C.; Horovitz, K.; Morin, A.; Sipahi, N.; Sipahi, T.; Williams, J.; Carrico, C.; Van Der Slot, P. J M


    The Colorado State University (CSU) Accelerator Facility will include a 6-MeV L-Band (1.3 GHz) electron linear accelerator (linac) with a free-electron laser (FEL) system capable of producing Terahertz (THz) radiation, a laser laboratory, a microwave test laboratory, and a magnetic test laboratory.

  8. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpaia, S.


    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type

  9. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Colorado (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff


    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Colorado. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  10. Discovery of cryptic Armillaria solidipes genotypes within the Colorado Plateau (United States)

    J. W. Hanna; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; S. M. Ashiglar; A. L. Ross-Davis; G. I. McDonald


    Armillaria solidipes (= A. ostoyae) is a root-disease pathogen that causes severe losses in growth and productivity of forest trees throughout the Northern Hemisphere. This species is genetically diverse with variable disease activities across different regions of the world. In North America, A. solidipes in the Colorado Plateau exists in drier habitats and causes more...

  11. Construction of calibration pads facility, Walker Field, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.L.


    A gamma-ray spectrometer facility was completed at Walker Field Airport, Grand Junction, Colorado, in November 1976. This report describes spectrometers and their calibration, the construction of the spectrometer facility, the radioelement concentrations, procedures for using the facilites, and environmental considerations

  12. The Colorado Gambling Boom: An Experiment in Rural Community Development. (United States)

    Stokowski, Patricia A.


    Three small Colorado towns that faced a declining economy as the mining resource ran out used gambling-based tourism as a strategy for community development. Although economic benefits to the towns have far exceeded expectations, negative social, environmental, and political changes, such as crime alcoholism, traffic problems, and conflicts…

  13. Colorado's Alternative School Calendar Program and the Four Day Week. (United States)

    Brubacher, Roy G.; Stiverson, C. L.

    Taking advantage of legislation permitting modified school calendars, the four-day work week has been implemented by 23 small, rural Colorado school districts representing 5,200 children. Thirteen districts implemented the four-day program in the 1980-81 school year. Ten additional districts applied as first year pilot programs in the 1981-82…

  14. Colorado Handbook for State-Funded Student Assistance Programs. Revised. (United States)

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, Denver.

    Policies and procedures established by the Colorado Commission on Higher Education for the use of state-funded student assistance are presented. Annual budget ranges, sample forms, and instructions are included. In addition to providing definitions and general policy information, the guidelines cover fund application and allocation; accounting,…

  15. Radon from coal ash in Colorado. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, J.G.


    An attempt was made to develop a radiation profile of Colorado, based on available measured radon data. Data reported indicate that the release of radon to the atmosphere during uranium milling and mining is not a significant health hazard or air pollutant, when compared with radon in soils. 1 figure, 2 tables

  16. A Theoretical investigation of a potential high energy density compound 3,6,7,8-tetranitro-3,6,7,8-tetraaza-tricyclo[,4]octane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Zhao


    Full Text Available The B3LYP/6-31G (d density functional theory (DFT method was used to study molecular geometry, electronic structure, infrared spectrum (IR and thermodynamic properties. Heat of formation (HOF and calculated density were estimated to evaluate detonation properties using Kamlet-Jacobs equations. Thermal stability of 3,6,7,8-tetranitro-3,6,7,8-tetraaza-tricyclo [,4]octane (TTTO was investigated by calculating bond dissociation energy (BDE at the unrestricted B3LYP/6-31G(d level. Results showed the N-NO2 bond is a trigger bond during the thermolysis initiation process. The crystal structure obtained by molecular mechanics (MM methods belongs to P2(1/C space group, with cell parameters a = 8.239 Å, b = 8.079 Å, c = 16.860 Å, Z = 4 and r = 1.922 g cm-3. Both detonation velocity of 9.79 km s-1 and detonation pressure of 44.22 GPa performed similarly to CL-20. According to the quantitative standards of energetics and stability, TTTO essentially satisfies this requirement as a high energy density compound (HEDC.

  17. Probing the central engine and environment of AGN using ARIES 1.3-m and 3.6-m telescopes (United States)

    Chand, Hum; Rakshit, Suvendu; Jalan, Priyanka; Ojha, Vineet; Srianand, Raghunathan; Vivek, Mariappan; Mishra, Sapna; Omar, Amitesh; Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, Ravi; Gopal-Krishna; Kumar, Rathna


    We discuss three long term observational programmes to probe the central engine and environment of active galactic nuclei (AGN) using the recently installed ARIES 1.3-m and 3.6-m telescopes. The first programme is on the photometric reverberation mapping of low luminosity AGN by mainly using the ARIES 1.3-m telescope. The major impact of this programme other than to estimate the black hole mass will be to extend the broad line region (BLR) radius-luminosity (RBLR-LAGN) relation to the unexplored low luminosity regime, and to constrain the AGN broad line region geometry. The second programme is to use long slit spectroscopy on the ARIES 3.6-m telescope to discover new high redshift quasar pairs with angular separation less than 1-arcmin. Here, the background QSOs sight-line will be used to probe the environment of the foreground QSOs at kpc-Mpc scales. The major impact of this programme will be on the discovery of new pairs which have been missed in the SDSS survey due to fiber collision below 1-arcmin separation, and use them to understand about any excess overdensity around the QSO, any anisotropic emission of QSOs, and/or any episodic activity of QSOs. The third programme is related to spectral variability studies of the C IV broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs, based on low resolution spectroscopy using the ARIES 3.6-m telescope. Here, those most interesting cases will be monitored, where the BAL flow emerges afresh or disappears completely in the C IV trough of BAL QSOs sample as seen in SDSS multi-epoch observations. Continuous monitoring of such a sample will be important for our understanding of the nature and origin of the flow, along with their stability and dynamical evolution.

  18. First-light instrument for the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope: 4Kx4K CCD Imager (United States)

    Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Yadav, Rama Kant Singh; Nanjappa, Nandish; Yadav, Shobhit; Reddy, Bheemireddy Krishna; Sahu, Sanjit; Srinivasan, Ramaiyengar


    As a part of in-house instrument developmental activity at ARIES, the 4Kx4K CCD Imager is designed and developed as a first-light instrument for the axial port of the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT). The f/9 beam of the telescope having a plate-scale of 6.4"/mm is utilized to conduct deeper photom-etry within the central 10' field of view. The pixel size of the blue-enhanced liquid nitrogen cooled STA4150 4Kx4K CCD chip is 15 μm, with options to select gain and speed values to utilize the dynamic range. Using the Imager, it is planned to image the central 6.5'x6.5' field of view of the telescope for various science goals by getting deeper images in several broad-band filters for point sources and objects with low surface brightness. The fully assembled Imager along with automated filter wheels having Bessel UBV RI and SDSS ugriz filters was tested in late 2015 at the axial port of the 3.6-m DOT. This instrument was finally mounted at the axial port of the 3.6-m DOT on 30 March 2016 when the telescope was technically activated jointly by the Prime Ministers of India and Belgium. It is expected to serve as a general purpose multi-band deep imaging instrument for a variety of science goals including studies of cosmic transients, active galaxies, star clusters and optical monitoring of X-ray sources discovered by the newly launched Indian space-mission called ASTROSAT, and follow-up of radio bright objects discovered by the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope.

  19. Heat flow in the north-central Colorado Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodell, J.M.; Chapman, D.S.


    We report new heat flow measurements at 25 evenly distributed sites in the north-central Colorado Plateau. Heat flow values computed for these new sites and one previously published site range from 43 to 116 mW m -2 but fall into the following district subsets related to physiographic and tectonic elements within the Plateau: (1) heat flow of 51 mW m -2 (12 sites; s.d. 6) in the San Rafael Swell and Green River Desert which constitute the core of the Colorado Plateau at this latitude, (2) heat flows of 69 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 10) in successive parallel north-south bands approaching the Wasatch Plateau to the west but still 80 km east of the Basin and Range physiographic boundary, (3) heat flow of 64 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 2) along the Salt Anticline trend which strikes northwest in the region of Moab, Utah. Heat flow results for the entire Colorado Plateau have been reexamined in view of our new results, and the overall pattern supports the concept of a low heat flow 'thermal interior' for the plateau surrounded by a periphery some 100 km wide having substantially higher heat flow. Average heat flow in the thermal interior is about 60 mW m -2 compared to 80--90 mW m -2 in the periphery. This regional heat flow pattern supports a model of tertiary lithospheric thinning under the Colorado Plateau whereby the plateau is still in transient thermal response and a 15--20 m.y. lag between uplift and corresponding surface heat flow anomaly is to be expected. The position of the heat flow transition between our interior and peripheral regions in the northwest plateau is roughly consistent with lateral warming and weakening of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere initiated at the Basin and Range boundary some 20 m.y. ago

  20. N,N′-Dipyridoxyl(1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctane Schiff-base: Synthesis, experimental and theoretical identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Khoshkholgh


    Full Text Available The N,N′-dipyridoxyl(1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctane (=H2L Schiff-base has been synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. Its optimized geometry and theoretical vibrational frequencies have been computed using density functional theory (DFT method via the B3LYP functional. Also, its 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts have been calculated at the same computational level. In optimized geometry of the H2L, the two pyridine rings are perpendicular to each other. The phenolic hydrogens are engaged in intramolecular-hydrogen bonds with the azomethine nitrogens.

  1. Solubility of unirradiated UO2 fuel in aqueous solutions. Comparison between experimental and calculated (EQ3/6) data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.


    The solubility behaviour of unirradiated UO 2 pellets was studied under oxic (air-saturated) and anoxic (N 2 ) conditions in deionized water, in sodium bicarbonate solutions with varying bicarbonate content (60 - 600 ppm), in Allard groundwater simulating granitic fresh groundwater conditions, and in bentonite water simulating the effects of bentonite on granitic fresh groundwater (25 deg C). The release of uranium was measured during static batch dissolution experiments of long duration (2-6 years). A comparison was made with the theoretical solubility data calculated with the geochemical code EQ3/6 in order to evaluate solubility (steady state) limiting factors. (orig.) (26 refs., 32 figs., 13 tabs.)

  2. Renormalon chains contributions to the non-singlet evolution kernels in [φ3]6 and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, S.V.


    The contributions to non-singlet evolution kernels P (z) for the DGLAP equation and V (x,y) for the Brodsky-Lepage evolution equation are calculated for certain classes of diagrams which include the renormalon chains. Closed expressions are obtained for the sums of contributions associated with these diagram classes. Calculations are performed in the [φ 3 ] 6 model and QCD in the M bar S bar scheme. The contribution for one of the classes of diagrams dominates for a number of flavors N f >>1. For the latter case, a simple solution to the Brodsky-Lepage evolution equation is obtained

  3. Brief communication: ikaite (CaCO3*6H2O) discovered in Arctic sea ice (United States)

    Dieckmann, G. S.; Nehrke, G.; Uhlig, C.; Göttlicher, J.; Gerland, S.; Granskog, M. A.; Thomas, D. N.


    We report for the first time on the discovery of calcium carbonate crystals as ikaite (CaCO3*6H2O) in sea ice from the Arctic (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard). This finding demonstrates that the precipitation of calcium carbonate during the freezing of sea ice is not restricted to the Antarctic, where it was observed for the first time in 2008. This finding is an important step in the quest to quantify its impact on the sea ice driven carbon cycle and should in the future enable improvement parametrization sea ice carbon models.

  4. DFT and experimental studies on structure and spectroscopic parameters of 3,6-diiodo-9-ethyl-9H-carbazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radula-Janik, Klaudia; Kupka, Teobald; Ejsmont, Krzysztof


    The first report on crystal and molecular structure of 3,6-diiodo-9-ethyl-9H-carbazole is presented. Experimental room-temperature X-ray and 13C chemical shift studies were supported by advanced theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT). The 13C nuclear magnetic shieldings were...... predicted at the non-relativistic and relativistic level of theory using the zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA). Theoretical relativistic calculations of chemical shifts of carbons C3 and C6, directly bonded to iodine atoms, produced a reasonable agreement with experiment (initial deviation from...

  5. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994. To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized. This study assesses benefits associated with the Grand Junction, Gunnison, Naturita, and Rifle UMTRA Projects sites for the 1-year period under study. Work at the Naturita site was initiated in April 1994 and involved demolition of buildings at the processing site. Actual start-up of remediation of Naturita is planned to begin in the spring of 1995. Work at the Slick Rock and Maybell sites is expected to begin in 1995. The only current economic benefits associated with these sites are related to UMTRA Project support work

  6. Remote sensing characterization of the Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado, by AVIRIS imaging spectroscopy (United States)

    Dalton, J.B.; Bove, D.J.; Mladinich, C.S.


    Visible-wavelength and near-infrared image cubes of the Animas River watershed in southwestern Colorado have been acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Airborne Visible and InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) instrument and processed using the U.S. Geological Survey Tetracorder v3.6a2 implementation. The Tetracorder expert system utilizes a spectral reference library containing more than 400 laboratory and field spectra of end-member minerals, mineral mixtures, vegetation, manmade materials, atmospheric gases, and additional substances to generate maps of mineralogy, vegetation, snow, and other material distributions. Major iron-bearing, clay, mica, carbonate, sulfate, and other minerals were identified, among which are several minerals associated with acid rock drainage, including pyrite, jarosite, alunite, and goethite. Distributions of minerals such as calcite and chlorite indicate a relationship between acid-neutralizing assemblages and stream geochemistry within the watershed. Images denoting material distributions throughout the watershed have been orthorectified against digital terrain models to produce georeferenced image files suitable for inclusion in Geographic Information System databases. Results of this study are of use to land managers, stakeholders, and researchers interested in understanding a number of characteristics of the Animas River watershed.

  7. 78 FR 52984 - Stone Age Interiors, Inc.; d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite Including On-Site Leased... (United States)


    ....; d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment... Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, Colorado Springs, Colorado (hereafter collectively referred to as..., Inc., d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, including on-site leased workers from Express...

  8. Customized overhead cranes for installation of India's largest 3.6m optical telescope at Devasthal, Nainital, India (United States)

    Bangia, Tarun; Yadava, Shobhit; Kumar, Brijesh; Ghanti, A. S.; Hardikar, P. M.


    India's largest 3.6 m aperture optical telescope facility has been recently established at Devasthal site by Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observation Sciences (ARIES), an autonomous Institute under Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. The telescope is equipped with active optics and it is designed to be used for seeinglimited observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. A steel building with rotating cylindrical steel Dome was erected to house 3.6m telescope and its accessories at hilltop of Devasthal site. Customized cranes were essentially required inside the building as there were space constraints around the telescope building for operating big external heavy duty cranes from outside, transportation constraints in route for bringing heavy weight cranes, altitude of observatory, and sharp bends etc. to site. To meet the challenge of telescope installation from inside the telescope building by lifting components through its hatch, two Single Girder cranes and two Under Slung cranes of 10 MT capacity each were specifically designed and developed. All the four overhead cranes were custom built to achieve the goal of handling telescope mirror and its various components during installation and assembly. Overhead cranes were installed in limited available space inside the building and tested as per IS 3177. Cranes were equipped with many features like VVVFD compatibility, provision for tandem operation, digital load display, anti-collision mechanism, electrical interlocks, radio remote, low hook height and compact carriage etc. for telescope integration at site.

  9. Construction of two novel indium phosphites with (3,6)- and (3,5)-connected frameworks: Synthesis, structure and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huiduan; Zhang Lirong; Huo Qisheng; Liu Yunling


    Two novel anionic indium phosphites, formulated as [H 3 O][In(HPO 3 ) 2 ] (1) and [C 4 H 12 N 2 ][In 2 (HPO 3 ) 3 (C 2 O 4 )] (2), were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by using piperazine (PIP) as a structure-directing agent (SDA). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the hexagonal space group P6 3 mc (No. 186) and orthorhombic space group Cmcm (No. 63), respectively. Compound 1, constructed from InO 6 octahedra and HPO 3 pseudo-pyramids, exhibits a rare (3,6)-connected layer structure with kgd (Kagome dual) topology. Compound 2, on the other hand, features a 3D phosphite-oxalate hybrid structure with intersecting 8- and 12-MRs channels. From a topological perspective 2 can be regarded as a (3, 5)-connected binodal net with the Schläfli symbol (4 2 .6)(4 2 .6 5 .8 3 ). Highlights: ► Two novel indium phosphite and indium phosphite-oxalate hybrid compounds are synthesized. ► (3, 6)-connected layer structure with kgd topology. ► (3,5)-connected binodal net with the Schläfli symbol (4 2 .6)(4 2 .6 5 .8 3 ).

  10. Physicochemical characterization of 3,6-diHydroxyflavone binding BSA immobilized on PEG-coated silver nanoparticles (United States)

    Voicescu, Mariana; Ionescu, Sorana; Calderon-Moreno, Jose M.; Nistor, Cristina L.


    Studies based on silver nanoparticles (SNPs) and polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are mainly in the pharmaceutical field, with PEG as good "vehicle" to transport protein-based drugs. In this work, physicochemical characteristics of 3,6-diHydroxyflavone (3,6-diHF) binding bovine serum albumin (BSA) on PEG (Tween20, L64, and Myrj52)-coated SNPs have been investigated by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. These interactions give rise to the formation of intermolecular and intramolecular H bonds. As a subject of interest, the effect of temperature (30-60 °C) on the H bonds was studied by steady-state fluorescence. The size distribution and zeta potential of SNPs were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed the spherical nature of particles with average diameter 40-80 nm. The structure, stability, dynamics, and conformational changes in adsorbed BSA protein on the PEG-coated SNPs surface have been also investigated by steady-state/lifetime fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results have relevance in the oxidative stress and drug delivery processes.

  11. Physicochemical characterization of 3,6-diHydroxyflavone binding BSA immobilized on PEG-coated silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voicescu, Mariana, E-mail: [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy (Romania); Ionescu, Sorana [University of Bucharest, Department of Physical Chemistry (Romania); Calderon-Moreno, Jose M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy (Romania); Nistor, Cristina L. [National R& D Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry ICECHIM, Polymer Department (Romania)


    Studies based on silver nanoparticles (SNPs) and polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are mainly in the pharmaceutical field, with PEG as good “vehicle” to transport protein-based drugs. In this work, physicochemical characteristics of 3,6-diHydroxyflavone (3,6-diHF) binding bovine serum albumin (BSA) on PEG (Tween20, L64, and Myrj52)-coated SNPs have been investigated by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. These interactions give rise to the formation of intermolecular and intramolecular H bonds. As a subject of interest, the effect of temperature (30–60 °C) on the H bonds was studied by steady-state fluorescence. The size distribution and zeta potential of SNPs were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed the spherical nature of particles with average diameter ~40–80 nm. The structure, stability, dynamics, and conformational changes in adsorbed BSA protein on the PEG-coated SNPs surface have been also investigated by steady-state/lifetime fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results have relevance in the oxidative stress and drug delivery processes.

  12. Plan for integrated testing for NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] non EQ3/6 data base portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.


    The purposes of the Integrated Testing Task are to develop laboratory data on thermodynamic properties for actinide and fission product elements for use in the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling code; to determine the transport properties of radionuclides in the near-field environment; and develop and validate a model to describe the rate of release of radionuclides from the near-field environment. Activities to achieve the firs item have been described in the Scientific Investigation Plan for EQ3/6, where quality assurance levels were assigned to the acitivities. This Scientific Investigation Plan describes activities to achieve the second and third purposes. The information gathered in these activities will be used to assess compliance with the performance objective for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) to control the rate of release of radionuclides if the repository license application includes part of the host rock; to provide a source term for release of radionuclides from the waste package near-field environment to the system performance assessment task for use in showing compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency requirements; and to provide a source term for release of radionculides from the waste package near-field environment to the system performance assessment task for use in doing calculations of cumulative releases of radionuclides from the repository over 100,000 years as required by the site evaluation process. 5 refs

  13. Phase transitions and molecular motions in [Ni(ND3)6](ClO4)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal-Mikuli, Anna; Mikuli, Edward; Gorska, Natalia; Kowalska, Aneta; Ulanski, Jacek


    [Ni(ND 3 ) 6 ](ClO 4 ) 2 has three solid phases between 100 and 300 K. The phase transitions temperatures at heating (T C1 h =164.1 K and T C2 h =145.1 K) are shifted, as compared to the non-deuterated compound, towards the lower temperature of ca. 8 and 5 K, respectively. The ClO 4 - anions perform fast, picosecond, isotropic reorientation with the activation energy of 6.6 kJ mol -1 , which abruptly slow down at T C1 c phase transition, during sample cooling. The ND 3 ligands perform fast uniaxial reorientation around the Ni-N bond in all three detected phases, with the effective activation energy of 2.9 kJ mol -1 . The reorientational motion of ND 3 is only slightly distorted at the T C1 phase transition due to the dynamical orientational order-disorder process of anions. The low value of the activation energy for the ND 3 reorientation suggests that this reorientation undergoes the translation-rotation coupling, which makes the barrier to the rotation of the ammonia ligands not constant but fluctuating. The phase polymorphism and the dynamics of the molecular reorientations of the title compound are similar but not quite identical with these of the [Ni(NH 3 ) 6 ](ClO 4 ) 2

  14. Modelling uranium solubilities in aqueous solutions: Validation of a thermodynamic data base for the EQ3/6 geochemical codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdomenech, I.; Bruno, J.


    Experimental solubilities of U 4+ and UO 2 2+ that are reported in the literature have been collected. Data on oxides, hydroxides and carbonates have been selected for this work. They include results both at 25 degrees C and at higher temperatures. The literature data have been compared with calculated uranium solubilities obtained with the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling programs and an uranium thermodynamic data base selected for the Swedish nuclear waste management program. This verification/validiation exercise has shown that more experimental data is needed to determine the chemical composition of anionic uranyl hydroxo complexes as well as their equilibrium constants of formation. There is also a need for more solubility data on well characterised alkaline or alkaline-earth uranates. For the uranyl carbonate system, the calculated results agree reasonably well with the experimental literature values, which span over a wide range of pH, (CO 3 2- ) T , CO 2 (g)-pressure, and T. The experimental solubility of UO 2 (s) agrees also well with the EQ3/6 calculations for pH greater than 6. However, in more acidic solutions the experimental solubilities are higher than the calculated values. This is due to the formation of polynuclear hydroxo complexes of uranium, which are not well characterised, and are not included in the thermodynamic data base used in this study. (authors)

  15. Estimates of peak flood discharge for 21 sites in the Front Range in Colorado in response to extreme rainfall in September 2013 (United States)

    Moody, John A.


    Extreme rainfall in September 2013 caused destructive floods in part of the Front Range in Boulder County, Colorado. Erosion from these floods cut roads and isolated mountain communities for several weeks, and large volumes of eroded sediment were deposited downstream, which caused further damage of property and infrastructures. Estimates of peak discharge for these floods and the associated rainfall characteristics will aid land and emergency managers in the future. Several methods (an ensemble) were used to estimate peak discharge at 21 measurement sites, and the ensemble average and standard deviation provided a final estimate of peak discharge and its uncertainty. Because of the substantial erosion and deposition of sediment, an additional estimate of peak discharge was made based on the flow resistance caused by sediment transport effects.Although the synoptic-scale rainfall was extreme (annual exceedance probability greater than 1,000 years, about 450 millimeters in 7 days) for these mountains, the resulting peak discharges were not. Ensemble average peak discharges per unit drainage area (unit peak discharge, [Qu]) for the floods were 1–2 orders of magnitude less than those for the maximum worldwide floods with similar drainage areas and had a wide range of values (0.21–16.2 cubic meters per second per square kilometer [m3 s-1 km-2]). One possible explanation for these differences was that the band of high-accumulation, high-intensity rainfall was narrow (about 50 kilometers wide), oriented nearly perpendicular to the predominant drainage pattern of the mountains, and therefore entire drainage areas were not subjected to the same range of extreme rainfall. A linear relation (coefficient of determination [R2]=0.69) between Qu and the rainfall intensity (ITc, computed for a time interval equal to the time-of-concentration for the drainage area upstream from each site), had the form: Qu=0.26(ITc-8.6), where the coefficient 0.26 can be considered to be an

  16. Carbon Sequestration in Colorado's Lands: A Spatial and Policy Analysis (United States)

    Brandt, N.; Brazeau, A.; Browning, K.; Meier, R.


    Managing landscapes to enhance terrestrial carbon sequestration has significant potential to mitigate climate change. While a previous carbon baseline assessment in Colorado has been published (Conant et al, 2007), our study pulls from the existing literature to conduct an updated baseline assessment of carbon stocks and a unique review of carbon policies in Colorado. Through a multi-level spatial analysis based in GIS and informed by a literature review, we established a carbon stock baseline and ran four land use and carbon stock projection scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. We identified 11 key policy recommendations for improving Colorado's carbon stocks, and evaluated each using Bardach's policy matrix approach (Bardach, 2012). We utilized a series of case studies to support our policy recommendations. We found that Colorado's lands have a carbon stock of 3,334 MMT CO2eq, with Forests and Woodlands holding the largest stocks, at 1,490 and 774 MMT CO2eq respectively. Avoided conversion of all Grasslands, Forests, and Wetlands in Colorado projected over 40 years would increase carbon stocks by 32 MMT CO2eq, 1,053 MMT CO2eq, and 36 MMT CO2eq, respectively. Over the 40-year study period, Forests and Woodlands areas are projected to shrink while Shrublands and Developed areas are projected to grow. Those projections suggest sizable increases in area of future wildfires and development in Colorado. We found that numerous policy opportunities to sequester carbon exist at different jurisdictional levels and across land cover types. The largest opportunities were found in state-level policies and policies impacting Forests, Grasslands, and Wetlands. The passage of statewide emission reduction legislation has the highest potential to impact carbon sequestration, although political and administrative feasibility of this option are relatively low. This study contributes to the broader field of carbon sequestration literature by examining the nexus of carbon stocks

  17. 2,2',3,3',6,6'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) is Enantioselectively Oxidized to Hydroxylated Metabolites by Rat Liver Microsomes (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Pramanik, Ananya; Duffel, Michael W.; Hrycay, Eugene G.; Bandiera, Stelvio M.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela


    Developmental exposure to multiple-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in laboratory animals and humans by mechanisms involving the sensitization of Ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In the case of PCB 136, the sensitization of RyR is enantiospecific, with only (-)-PCB 136 being active. However, the role of enantioselective metabolism in the developmental neurotoxicity of PCB 136 is poorly understood. The present study employed hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital (PB-), dexamethasone (DEX-) and corn oil (VEH-)treated male Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers are enantioselectively metabolized by P450 enzymes to potentially neurotoxic, hydroxylated PCB 136 metabolites. The results demonstrated the time- and isoform-dependent formation of three metabolites, with 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) being the major metabolite. The formation of 5-OH-PCB 136 increased with the activity of P450 2B enzymes in the microsomal preparation, which is consistent with PCB 136 metabolism by rat P450 2B1. The minor metabolite 4-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-4-ol) was produced by a currently unidentified P450 enzymes. An enantiomeric enrichment of (-)-PCB 136 was observed in microsomal incubations due to the preferential metabolism of (+)-PCB 136 to the corresponding 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) atropisomer. 4-OH-PCB 136 displayed an enrichment of the atropisomer formed from (-)-PCB 136; however, the enrichment of this metabolite atropisomer didn't affect the enantiomeric enrichment of the parent PCB because 4-OH-PCB 136 is only a minor metabolite. Although the formation of 5- and 4-OH-PCB 136 atropisomers increased with time, the enantioselective formation of the OH-PCB metabolites resulted in constant enantiomeric enrichment, especially at later incubation times. These observations not only demonstrate that the chiral signatures of

  18. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study (United States)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.


    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at

  19. Thermal studies of Se85-xTe15Inx (x = 3,6,9,12) glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushama, D.; George, Achamma; Asokan, S.


    Bulk glasses of compositions Se 85-x Te 15 In x (x = 3,6,9,12) are prepared by melt quenching technique and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is employed to study the thermal stability, crystallization mechanism as well as specific heat of these glasses. It is found that the addition of indium increases the glass transition temperature. From the heating rate dependence of the glass transition temperature the activation energy of glass transition is determined using Kissinger's equation for non-isothermal crystallization of materials. An attempt has been made to explain the variation in the value of T c , T p and ΔC p for the composition Se 73 Te 15 In 12 using rigidity percolation threshold (RPT). From the values of (T c -T g ) the stable glass system is determined.

  20. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine inhibits proton motive force in energized liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Y.; Bhatnagar, R.; Sidhu, G.S.; Batra, J.K.; Krishna, G.


    It is known that 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which induces Parkinson's-like disease in primates and humans, depletes hepatocytes of ATP and subsequently causes cell death. Incubation of rat liver mitochondria with MPTP and 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium ion (MPP+) significantly inhibited incorporation of 32 Pi into ATP. MPTP and MPP+ inhibited the development of membrane potential and pH gradient in energized rat liver mitochondria, suggesting that reduction of the proton motive force may have reduced ATP synthesis. Since deprenyl, an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase, prevented the formation of MPP+ and inhibited the decrease in membrane potential caused by MPTP, but not that caused by MPP+, these effects of MPTP, as well as cell death, probably were mediated by MPP+. This mechanism may play a role in the specific loss of dopaminergic neurons resulting in MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease

  1. Higher-order corrections in the cut vertex theory and the reciprocity relation in (PHI3)6 field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, T.


    Higher-order corrections to deep inelastic and inclusive annihilation processes in the asymptotically free (PHI 3 ) 6 theory are calculated by using the method of cut vertices proposed by Mueller. Renormalization of the cut vertices is carried out up the two-loop level and it is found that, in the minimal subtraction scheme, the equality between the anomalous dimension of the space-like cut vertex and that of the corresponding time-like cut vertex does not hold beyond the leading order. Corrections to the coefficient functions are also calculated to study the Q 2 dependence of the moment up to the next-to-leading order. It is shown that the reciprocity relation suggested by Gribov and Lipatov on the basis of the leading-order calculation does not hold in the higher order. (orig.)

  2. Bibliography of theses and dissertations on Colorado, 1968-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This thesis bibliography for Colorado is the sixth (of 14) state bibliographies to be published in The Mountain Geologist by the R.M.A.G. Titles Committee. In an effort to update existing thesis publications and publicize more current work in the western United States, this R.M.A.G. thesis study covers only the last decade's theses and dissertations, specifically the period from 1968-1980. A total of 440 (Colorado) masters theses and dissertations have been compiled in this R.M.A.G. study for this period. Of these, 104 cover general or regional topics. In these cases, the titles are designated in the listings with asterisks (*) and have not been plotted on the accompanying location maps

  3. Uranium guidebook for the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Various data concerning uranium production and reserves of the Paradox Basin are compiled herein. Current production from 2 Utah mills and 1 Colorado mill is estimated at 5.4 million pounds of U 3 O 8 . An overview of uranium mining, geology, tectonics, and types of ore deposits is presented. Detailed description of the 11 mining districts and 21 mining areas are included. Detailed maps and exploration guides are included as assistance to evaluating and seeking new uranium deposits

  4. Multicriteria GIS modeling of wind and solar farms in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Jason R. [Metropolitan State College of Denver, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, CB 22 P.O. Box 173362-22, Denver, CO 80217-3362 (United States)


    The majority of electricity and heat in Colorado comes from coal and natural gas; however, renewable energy sources will play an integral role in the state's energy future. Colorado is the 11th windiest state and has more than 250 sunny days per year. The objectives of this research are to: 1) determine which landcover classes are affiliated with high wind and solar potential; and 2) identify areas that are suitable for wind and solar farms using multicriteria GIS modelling techniques. Renewable potential (NREL wind speed measurements at 50 m above the ground and NREL annual insolation data), landcover, population density, federal lands, and distance to roads, transmission lines, and cities were reclassified according to their suitability. Each was assigned weights based on their relative importance to one another. Superb wind classes are located in high alpine areas. Unfortunately, these areas are not suitable for large-scale wind farm development due to their inaccessibility and location within a sensitive ecosystem. Federal lands have low wind potential. According to the GIS model, ideal areas for wind farm development are located in northeastern Colorado. About 41 850 km{sup 2} of the state has model scores that are in the 90-100% range. Although annual solar radiation varies slightly, inter-mountain areas receive the most insolation. As far as federal lands, Indian reservations have the greatest solar input. The GIS model indicates that ideal areas for solar development are located in northwestern Colorado and east of Denver. Only 191 km{sup 2} of the state had model scores that were in the 90-100% range. These results suggest that the variables used in this analysis have more of an effect at eliminating non-suitable areas for large-scale solar farms; a greater area exists for suitable wind farms. However, given the statewide high insolation values with minimal variance, solar projects may be better suited for small-scale residential or commercial

  5. Estimated Colorado Golf Course Irrigation Water Use, 2005 (United States)

    Ivahnenko, Tamara


    Golf course irrigation water-use data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Program's 2005 compilation to provide baseline information, as no golf course irrigation water-use data (separate from crop irrigation) have been reported in previous compilations. A Web-based survey, designed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rocky Mountain Golf Course Superintendents Association (RMGCSA), was electronically distributed by the association to the 237 members in Colorado. Forty-three percent of the members returned the survey, and additional source water information was collected by telephone for all but 20 of the 245 association member and non-member Colorado golf courses. For golf courses where no data were collected at all, an average 'per hole' coefficient, based on returned surveys from that same county, were applied. In counties where no data were collected at all, a State average 'per hole' value of 13.2 acre-feet was used as the coefficient. In 2005, Colorado had 243 turf golf courses (there are 2 sand courses in the State) that had an estimated 2.27 acre-feet per irrigated course acre, and 65 percent of the source water for these courses was surface water. Ground water, potable water (public supply), and reclaimed wastewater, either partially or wholly, were source waters for the remaining courses. Fifty-three of the 64 counties in Colorado have at least one golf course, with the greatest number of courses in Jefferson (23 courses), Arapahoe (22 courses), and El Paso Counties (20 courses). In 2005, an estimated 5,647.8 acre-feet in Jefferson County, 5,402 acre-feet in Arapahoe County, and 4,473.3 acre-feet in El Paso County were used to irrigate the turf grass.

  6. The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in Colorado (United States)

    Braun, Clait E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Nehring, Jennifer A.; Commons, Michelle L.; Young, Jessica R.; Potter, Kim M.


    The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) in Colorado is described based on published literature, observations, museum specimens, and the known distribution of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.). Historically, Gunnison Sage-Grouse were widely but patchily distributed in up to 22 counties in south-central and southwestern Colorado. The historical distribution of this species was south of the Colorado-Eagle river drainages primarily west of the Continental Divide. Potential contact areas with Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus) were along the Colorado-Eagle river system in Mesa, Garfield, and Eagle counties, west of the Continental Divide. Gunnison Sage-Grouse historically occupied habitats that were naturally highly fragmented by forested mountains and plateaus/mesas, intermountain basins without robust species of sagebrush, and river systems. This species adapted to use areas with more deciduous shrubs (i.e., Quercus spp., Amelanchier spp., Prunus spp.) in conjunction with sagebrush. Most areas historically occupied were small, linear, and patchily distributed within the overall landscape matrix. The exception was the large intermountain basin in Gunnison, Hinsdale, and Saguache counties. The documented distribution east of the Continental Divide within the large expanse of the San Luis Valley (Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties) was minimal and mostly on the eastern, northern, and southern fringes. Many formerly occupied habitat patches were vacant by the mid 1940s with extirpations continuing to the late 1990s. Counties from which populations were recently extirpated include Archuleta and Pitkin (1960s), and Eagle, Garfield, Montezuma, and Ouray (1990s).

  7. Foraging Behavior of Odontomachus bauri on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Ehmer


    Full Text Available Foraging behavior and partitioning of foraging areas of Odonomachus bauri were investigated on Barro Colorado Island in Panama. The activity of the ants did not show any daily pattern; foragers were active day and night. The type of prey captured by O. bauri supports the idea that in higher Odontomachus and Anochetus species, the high speed of mandible closure serves more for generating power than capturing elusive prey. Polydomous nests may enable O. bauri colonies to enlarge their foraging areas.

  8. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P


    Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.

  9. Uranium exploration of the Colorado Plateau: interim staff report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report is an issue of the original draft copy of the Interim Staff Report on Uranium Exploration on the Colorado Plateau, dated June 1951. The original draft copy was only recently located and is being published at this time because of the interest in the contained historical content. The table of contents of this report lists: history of uranium mining; geology; proposed program for the geologic investigations section; general activities of industry and government; and future exploration of sedimentary uranium deposits and anticipated results. Under the proposed program section are: future of the copper-uranium deposits as a source of uranium; uraniferous asphaltite deposits; and commission exploration and future possibilities. The section on general activities of industry and government includes: exploratory and development drilling; field investigations and mapping; early geologic investigations and investigations by the US geological survey; and geophysical exploration. Tables are also presented on: uranium production by districts; US Geological survey drilling statistics; Colorado Exploration Branch drilling statistics; summary of drilling projects; and comparative yearly core-drill statistics on the Colorado Plateau

  10. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.


    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  11. Climate Projections and Drought: Verification for the Colorado River Basin (United States)

    Santos, N. I.; Piechota, T. C.; Miller, W. P.; Ahmad, S.


    The Colorado River Basin has experienced the driest 17 year period (2000-2016) in over 100 years of historical record keeping. While the Colorado River reservoir system began the current drought at near 100% capacity, reservoir storage has fallen to just above 50% during the drought. Even though federal and state water agencies have worked together to mitigate the impact of the drought and have collaboratively sponsored conservation programs and drought contingency plans, the 17-years of observed data beg the question as to whether the most recent climate projections would have been able to project the current drought's severity. The objective of this study is to analyze observations and ensemble projections (e.g. temperature, precipitation, streamflow) from the CMIP3 and CMIP5 archive in the Colorado River Basin and compare metrics related to skill scores, the Palmer Drought Severity Index, and water supply sustainability index. Furthermore, a sub-ensemble of CMIP3/CMIP5 projections, developed using a teleconnection replication verification technique developed by the author, will also be compared to the observed record to assist in further validating the technique as a usable process to increase skill in climatological projections. In the end, this study will assist to better inform water resource managers about the ability of climate ensembles to project hydroclimatic variability and the appearance of decadal drought periods.

  12. Denver Radium Boom and the Colorado School of Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, S.S.


    The November 7, 1985, Rocky Mountain News, proclaimed Radiation hot spot detected at Mines. This hot spot discovery was the result of investigative reports by a local television station, with follow-up radiation monitoring by the Colorado Department of Health. Not an isolated occurrence of alpha and gamma radiation contamination, the School of Mines discovery is only the latest in a five-year series of discoveries of radioactive waste disposal sites in the Denver metropolitan area. These discoveries have involved not only the Colorado Department of Health, but also the Environmental Protection Agency, at least five consulting firms, and numerous businessmen and homeowners. In 1982, the sites were combined into a single project called the Denver Radium Site and selected for clean-up under the Federal Superfund program. This paper reviews the historical aspects of these hot spots by describing the history of radium processing in Denver; early work of the Colorado School of Mines, National Radium Institute, the Golden Experiment Station, and other institutional research; and the commercial production of radium. 20 references

  13. Bed-material entrainment potential, Roaring Fork River at Basalt, Colorado (United States)

    Elliott, John G.


    The Roaring Fork River at Basalt, Colorado, has a frequently mobile streambed composed of gravel, cobbles, and boulders. Recent urban and highway development on the flood plain, earlier attempts to realign and confine the channel, and flow obstructions such as bridge openings and piers have altered the hydrology, hydraulics, sediment transport, and sediment deposition areas of the Roaring Fork. Entrainment and deposition of coarse sediment on the streambed and in large alluvial bars have reduced the flood-conveying capacity of the river. Previous engineering studies have identified flood-prone areas and hazards related to inundation and high streamflow velocity, but those studies have not evaluated the potential response of the channel to discharges that entrain the coarse streambed. This study builds upon the results of earlier flood studies and identifies some potential areas of concern associated with bed-material entrainment. Cross-section surveys and simulated water-surface elevations from a previously run HEC?RAS model were used to calculate the boundary shear stress on the mean streambed, in the thalweg, and on the tops of adjacent alluvial bars for four reference streamflows. Sediment-size characteristics were determined for surficial material on the streambed, on large alluvial bars, and on a streambank. The median particle size (d50) for the streambed samples was 165 millimeters and for the alluvial bars and bank samples was 107 millimeters. Shear stresses generated by the 10-, 50-, and 100-year floods, and by a more common flow that just inundated most of the alluvial bars in the study reach were calculated at 14 of the cross sections used in the Roaring Fork River HEC?RAS model. The Shields equation was used with a Shields parameter of 0.030 to estimate the critical shear stress for entrainment of the median sediment particle size on the mean streambed, in the thalweg, and on adjacent alluvial bar surfaces at the 14 cross sections. Sediment

  14. Geologic map of the upper Arkansas River valley region, north-central Colorado (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Bohannon, Robert G.; McIntosh, William C.; Premo, Wayne R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Moscati, Richard J.; Brandt, Theodore R.


    This 1:50,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey geologic map represents a compilation of the most recent geologic studies of the upper Arkansas River valley between Leadville and Salida, Colorado. The valley is structurally controlled by an extensional fault system that forms part of the prominent northern Rio Grande rift, an intra-continental region of crustal extension. This report also incorporates new detailed geologic mapping of previously poorly understood areas within the map area and reinterprets previously studied areas. The mapped region extends into the Proterozoic metamorphic and intrusive rocks in the Sawatch Range west of the valley and the Mosquito Range to the east. Paleozoic rocks are preserved along the crest of the Mosquito Range, but most of them have been eroded from the Sawatch Range. Numerous new isotopic ages better constrain the timing of both Proterozoic intrusive events, Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary intrusive events, and Eocene and Miocene volcanic episodes, including widespread ignimbrite eruptions. The uranium-lead ages document extensive about 1,440-million years (Ma) granitic plutonism mostly north of Buena Vista that produced batholiths that intruded an older suite of about 1,760-Ma metamorphic rocks and about 1,700-Ma plutonic rocks. As a result of extension during the Neogene and possibly latest Paleogene, the graben underlying the valley is filled with thick basin-fill deposits (Dry Union Formation and older sediments), which occupy two sub-basins separated by a bedrock high near the town of Granite. The Dry Union Formation has undergone deep erosion since the late Miocene or early Pliocene. During the Pleistocene, ongoing steam incision by the Arkansas River and its major tributaries has been interrupted by periodic aggradation. From Leadville south to Salida as many as seven mapped alluvial depositional units, which range in age from early to late Pleistocene, record periodic aggradational events along these streams that are

  15. Water quality and quantity of selected springs and seeps along the Colorado River corridor, Utah and Arizona: Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park, 1997-98 (United States)

    Taylor, Howard E.; Spence, John R.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Berghoff, Kevin; Plowman, Terry I.; Peart, Dale B.; Roth, David A.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service conducted an intensive assessment of selected springs along the Colorado River Corridor in Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park in 1997 and 1998, for the purpose of measuring and evaluating the water quality and quantity of the resource. This study was conducted to establish baseline data for the future evaluation of possible effects from recreational use and climate change. Selected springs and seeps were visited over a study period from 1997 to 1998, during which, discharge and on-site chemical measurements were made at selected springs and seeps, and samples were collected for subsequent chemical laboratory analysis. This interdisciplinary study also includes simultaneous studies of flora and fauna, measured and sampled coincidently at the same sites. Samples collected during this study were transported to U.S. Geological Survey laboratories in Boulder, Colorado, where analyses were performed using state-of-the-art laboratory technology. The location of the selected springs and seeps, elevation, geology, aspect, and onsite measurements including temperature, discharge, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance, were recorded. Laboratory analyses include determinations for alkalinity, aluminum, ammonium (nitrogen), antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, bromide, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chloride, chromium, cobalt, copper, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, dysprosium, erbium, europium, fluoride, gadolinium, holmium, iodine, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, nitrate (nitrogen), nitrite (nitrogen), phosphate, phosphorus, potassium, praseodymium, rhenium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, silica, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfate, tellurium, terbium, thallium, thorium, thulium, tin, titanium, tungsten

  16. The Search for Braddock's Caldera-Guidebook for Colorado Scientific Society Fall 2008 Field Trip, Never Summer Mountains, Colorado (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Larson, Ed; Farmer, Lang; Kellogg, Karl S.


    The report contains the illustrated guidebook that was used for the fall field trip of the Colorado Scientific Society on September 6-7, 2008. It summarizes new information about the Tertiary geologic history of the northern Front Range and the Never Summer Mountains, particularly the late Oligocene volcanic and intrusive rocks designated the Braddock Peak complex. Minor modifications were made in response to technical reviews by D.J. Lidke and C.A. Ruleman (U.S. Geological Survey) regarding clarity and consistency, and text editing by M.A. Kidd. However, the text remains essentially similar to the guidebook that was circulated to the participants on the Colorado Scientific Society 2008 field trip. Several notes were added following the trip (as indicated) to address developments since the guidebook was written.

  17. [Impact factors analysis on child neglect of children aged 3-6 year-old in rural areas of China]. (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Pan, Jianping; Zhang, Songjie; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Weiqing; Tao, Fangbiao; Qin, Rui; Gu, Guixiong; Shi, Shuhua; Zhang, Jing; Du, Qiyun; Zhong, Zhaohui; Jiao, Feng; Wang, Huishan; Xu, Tao; Wang, Guixiang; Xi, Weiping; Pang, Songtao; Wang, Xin; Cao, Chunhong; Li, Min; Yang, Xiaomei


    To investigate the major influence factors of child neglect among rural areas children aged 3-6 years in China. According to multi-stage stratified cluster sampling, distribution characteristics and the level of economic development, we randomly sampled 10 provinces, 26 cities (8 capital cities, 16 prefecture-level cities and 2 municipalities) using lottery method. Depending on the different level of economic and cultural, we sampled one medium county from each city (municipalities sampled two counties), a total of 28 counties. All towns were divided into high, medium and low three levels in accordance with economic and cultural, each level sampled one town, each conty sampled three towns, a total of 84 towns were sampled. Each town sampled 40 children, including 20 boys and 20 girls (including each 10 children aged 3 to 6, half and half boys and girls). 4 096 rural children aged 3-6 years old were sampled and surveyed of China. Based on "the Neglect Norms for Children Aged 3 to 6 Years Old in Rural Areas of China" explored the risk factors of child neglect. SPSS 18. 0 for windows was employed for statistics analysis. Multifactorial analysis was conducted through multivariate Logistic Regression. The total neglected rate of the rural children aged 3 to 6 was 53.7% (2,047/3,810), and the total neglected degree was 44.42±7.57. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, neglected risk of the boys was higher than the girls (OR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.13-1.49), neglected risk of children were higher, when their mothers were migrant workers (OR=2.18, 95% CI: 1.59-3.00); the lower educational level of mothers, the higher neglected risk of children, the children in families that mothers only received primary education or was uneducated were most likely to be neglected (OR=2.92, 95% CI: 1.91-4.47), the second was the families that mothers received primary education (OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.29-2.69); the lower the household income, the easier to be neglected the children

  18. Effect of support on hydro-metathesis of propene: A comparative study of W(CH 3 ) 6 anchored to silica vs. silica-alumina

    KAUST Repository

    Tretiakov, Mykyta; Samantaray, Manoja; Saidi, Aya; Basset, Jean-Marie


    Hydro-metathesis of propene was carried out by using well-defined W(CH3)6 supported on silica and silica-alumina. It was observed that W(CH3)6 supported silica-alumina catalyst is much better (TON 4577) than the silica supported catalyst (TON 2104

  19. Knowledge, Norms and Preferences for Tamarisk Management in the Green and Colorado River Corridors of the Colorado Plateau


    Allred, E. Clay


    Extensive research exists regarding invasive alien plant species including impacts to native ecosystems and efficacy of control methods on public lands and river corridors. Many studies have identified the need for more research regarding the social implications of invasive alien species management. More specifically, additional research is needed regarding the impacts of invasive alien plant management on the Colorado Plateau to river-based recreation experiences. It is important for public ...

  20. What is the Emerging Knowledge of the Early Earth from the Oldest (>3.6 Ga) Rocks? (United States)

    Bennett, V. C.; Nutman, A. P.


    Eoarchean to Hadean rocks are direct samples of early Earth chemistry and conditions and provide the ground-truth for models of early Earth formation, environments and evolution. Intensive investigations by many groups reveal rocks of this age comprise only one millionth of Earth's surface and are found in 9 areas of varying extent distributed worldwide. This record is of variable fidelity however, owing to metamorphic overprinting. The majority of the oldest rocks are high grade gneisses with protoliths from mid-crustal levels; the more rare supracrustal assemblages reflect early Earth's surface conditions and processes. First-order observations from supracrustal sequences at several localities and from 3.6 Ga to ≥3.9 Ga in age provide abundant evidence of liquid water at the Earth's surface with pillow basalts and chemical sedimentary rocks in the form of cherts, banded Fe formations and carbonates. Trace element patterns of these sedimentary rocks strongly resemble modern seawater compositions, except for the absence of redox sensitive Ce anomalies. Evidence for early life remains controversial and is mainly in the form of stable isotopic signatures of C and Fe. Our recent work from newly-discovered, exceptionally well-preserved 3.7 Ga sedimentary rocks and the deformed unconformity they rest on has provided the first evidence of Eoarchean intense weathering and shallow water sedimentary processes. Whilst the major and trace element compositions of Eoarchean gneisses have analogs in younger rocks in accord with a continuum of crust formation processes, radiogenic isotopic signatures from both long and short half-life decay schemes record an image of the Earth in transition from early differentiation processes, likely associated with planetary accretion and formation, to more modern styles. Most Eoarchean rocks possess extinct nuclide anomalies in the form of 142Nd and 182W isotopic signatures that are absent in modern terrestrial samples, and developed from

  1. Cloud condensation nuclei in Western Colorado: Observations and model predictions (United States)

    Ward, Daniel Stewart

    Variations in the warm cloud-active portion of atmospheric aerosols, or cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), have been shown to impact cloud droplet number concentration and subsequently cloud and precipitation processes. This issue carries special significance in western Colorado where a significant portion of the region's water resources is supplied by precipitation from winter season, orographic clouds, which are particularly sensitive to variations in CCN. Temporal and spatial variations in CCN in western Colorado were investigated using a combination of observations and a new method for modeling CCN. As part of the Inhibition of Snowfall by Pollution Aerosols (ISPA-III) field campaign, total particle and CCN number concentration were measured for a 24-day period in Mesa Verde National Park, climatologically upwind of the San Juan Mountains. These data were combined with CCN observations from Storm Peak Lab (SPL) in northwestern Colorado and from the King Air platform, flying north to south along the Western Slope. Altogether, the sampled aerosols were characteristic of a rural continental environment and the cloud-active portion varied slowly in time, and little in space. Estimates of the is hygroscopicity parameter indicated consistently low aerosol hygroscopicity typical of organic aerosol species. The modeling approach included the addition of prognostic CCN to the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The RAMS droplet activation scheme was altered using parcel model simulations to include variations in aerosol hygroscopicity, represented by K. Analysis of the parcel model output and a supplemental sensitivity study showed that model CCN will be sensitive to changes in aerosol hygroscopicity, but only for conditions of low supersaturation or small particle sizes. Aerosol number, size distribution median radius, and hygroscopicity (represented by the K parameter) in RAMS were constrained by nudging to forecasts of these quantities from the Weather

  2. Unintentional Pediatric Exposures to Marijuana in Colorado, 2009-2015. (United States)

    Wang, George Sam; Le Lait, Marie-Claire; Deakyne, Sara J; Bronstein, Alvin C; Bajaj, Lalit; Roosevelt, Genie


    As of 2015, almost half of US states allow medical marijuana, and 4 states allow recreational marijuana. To our knowledge, the effect of recreational marijuana on the pediatric population has not been evaluated. To compare the incidence of pediatric marijuana exposures evaluated at a children's hospital and regional poison center (RPC) in Colorado before and after recreational marijuana legalization and to compare population rate trends of RPC cases for marijuana exposures with the rest of the United States. Retrospective cohort study of hospital admissions and RPC cases between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015, at Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, a tertiary care children's hospital. Participants included patients 0 to 9 years of age evaluated at the hospital's emergency department, urgent care centers, or inpatient unit and RPC cases from Colorado for single-substance marijuana exposures. Marijuana. Marijuana exposure visits and RPC cases, marijuana source and type, clinical effects, scenarios, disposition, and length of stay. Eighty-one patients were evaluated at the children's hospital, and Colorado's RPC received 163 marijuana exposure cases between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015, for children younger than 10 years of age. The median age of children's hospital visits was 2.4 years (IQR, 1.4-3.4); 25 were girls (40%) . The median age of RPC marijuana exposures was 2 years (IQR, 1.3-4.0), and 85 patients were girls (52%). The mean rate of marijuana-related visits to the children's hospital increased from 1.2 per 100 000 population 2 years prior to legalization to 2.3 per 100,000 population 2 years after legalization (P = .02). Known marijuana products involved in the exposure included 30 infused edibles (48%). Median length of stay was 11 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 6-19) and 26 hours (IQR, 19-38) for admitted patients. Annual RPC pediatric marijuana cases increased more than 5-fold from 2009 (9) to 2015 (47). Colorado had an

  3. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    As required by the Romer-Twining Agreement of 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this annual economic impact study for the state of Colorado. This report assesses the economic impacts related to the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project in Colorado during the state fiscal year (FY) between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1995. To estimate net economic benefit, employment, salaries and wages, and other related economic benefits are discussed, quantified, and then compared to the state's 10 percent share of the remedial action costs. Actual data obtained from sites currently undergoing remedial action were used as the basis for analyses. If data were not available, estimates were used to derive economic indicators. This study describes the types of employment associated with the UMTRA Project and estimates of the numbers of people employed by UMTRA Project subcontractors in Colorado during state FY 1995. Employment totals are reported in estimated average annual jobs; however, the actual number of workers at the site fluctuates depending on weather and on the status of remedial action activities. In addition, the actual number of people employed on the Project during the year may be higher than the average annual employment reported due to the temporary nature of some of the jobs

  4. Sources of acid and metals from the weathering of the Dinero waste pile, Lake Fork watershed, Leadville, Colorado (United States)

    Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, Phil L.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Herron, J.T.; Desborough, G.A.


    Two trenches were dug into the south Dinero mine-waste pile near Leadville, Colorado, to study the weathering of rock fragments and the mineralogic sources of metal contaminants in the surrounding wetland and Lake Fork Watershed. Water seeping from the base of the south Dinero waste-rock pile was pH 2.9, whereas leachate from a composite sample of the rock waste was pH 3.3. The waste pile was mostly devoid of vegetation, open to infiltration of precipitation, and saturated at the base because of placement in the wetland. The south mine-waste pile is composed of poorly sorted material, ranging from boulder-size to fine-grained rock fragments. The trenches showed both matrix-supported and clast-supported zones, with faint horizontal color banding, suggesting zonation of Fe oxides. Secondary minerals such as jarosite and gypsum occurred throughout the depth of the trenches. Infiltration of water and transport of dissolved material through the pile is evidenced by optically continuous secondary mineral deposits that fill or line voids. Iron-sulfate material exhibits microlaminations with shrinkage cracking and preferential dissolution of microlayers that evidence drying and wetting events. In addition to fluids, submicron-sized to very fine-grained particles such as jarosite are transported through channel ways in the pile. Rock fragments are coated with a mixture of clay, jarosite, and manganese oxides. Dissolution of minerals is a primary source of metals. Skeletal remnants of grains, outlined by Fe-oxide minerals, are common. Potassium jarosite is the most abundant jarosite phase, but Pb-and Ag-bearing jarosite are common. Grain-sized clusters of jarosite suggest that entire sulfide grains were replaced by very fine-grained jarosite crystals. The waste piles were removed from the wetland and reclaimed upslope in 2003. This was an opportunity to test methods to identify sources of acid and metals and metal transport processes within a waste pile. A series of

  5. Co-occurring motor, language and emotional-behavioral problems in children 3-6 years of age. (United States)

    King-Dowling, Sara; Missiuna, Cheryl; Rodriguez, M Christine; Greenway, Matt; Cairney, John


    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) has been shown to co-occur with behavioral and language problems in school-aged children, but little is known as to when these problems begin to emerge, or if they are inherent in children with DCD. The purpose of this study was to determine if deficits in language and emotional-behavioral problems are apparent in preschool-aged children with movement difficulties. Two hundred and fourteen children (mean age 4years 11months, SD 9.8months, 103 male) performed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2nd Edition (MABC-2). Children falling at or below the 16th percentile were classified as being at risk for movement difficulties (MD risk). Auditory comprehension and expressive communication were examined using the Preschool Language Scales 4th Edition (PLS-4). Parent-reported emotional and behavioral problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Preschool children with diminished motor coordination (n=37) were found to have lower language scores, higher externalizing behaviors in the form of increased aggression, as well as increased withdrawn and other behavior symptoms compared with their typically developing peers. Motor coordination, language and emotional-behavioral difficulties tend to co-occur in young children aged 3-6years. These results highlight the need for early intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The aqueous solubility and speciation analysis for uranium, neptunium and selenium by the geochemical code(EQ3/6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Seiji; Shima, Shigeki; Kimura, Hideo; Matsuzuru, Hideo


    The geochemical condition of a geologic disposal system of HLW controls the solubility and physicochemical forms of dominant aqueous species for elements, which are one of essential information required for safety assessment. Based on the measured compositions of groundwater, the compositions of groundwater in the disposal system were calculated. The solubility and speciation analyses for the polyvalent elements, uranium, neptunium, and selenium, were performed by the geochemical code EQ3/6. The results obtained were compared with the data appeared in the literatures on the solubilities and speciations. The geochemical behaviors of the elements with respect to the solubility and speciation could quantitatively be elucidated for the compositions of the interstitial waters in an engineered barrier and ground water in a natural barrier. In the pH range of neutral to alkali, the solubilities of U and Np tend to increase with an increase of the carbonate concentration in groundwater. This carbonate concentration dependence of the solubility was also estimated. In the engineered barrier the predominant aqueous species were specified, and in the natural barrier the change of aqueous species was also predicted while the chemical compositions changed from the reducing to oxidizing conditions. The dominant aqueous species for the elements, which migrate in and through the disposal system, were determined by the speciation analysis. (author)

  7. Adjusting to new realities. IAEO meeting on fuel cycle and reactor strategies, June 3-6, 1997 in Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek-Fink, P.


    The IAEA, in co-operation with the European Commission, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD and the Uranium Institute, organized an international symposium to discuss the 'new realities' in the nuclear fuel cycle with special emphasis on plutonium management. The symposium covered all aspects of the fuel cycle in six sessions: Global Energy Outlook; Present Status and Immediate Prospects of Plutonium Management; Future Fuel Cycle and Reactor Strategies; Safety, Health and Environmental Implications of the Different Fuel Cycles; Non-Proliferation and Safeguards Aspects; and International Co-operation. The Symposium took place in Vienna, 3-6 June 1997. About 300 participants from 41 countries and 4 international organizations attended. The Symposium gave a comprehensive overview on the present situation of the fuel cycle and the expected developments up to 2050. During this period nuclear energy will continue to be dominated by Thermal Reactors; Fast Reactors will be introduced slowly after 2030. In general, an evolutionary and not a revolutionary process is expected. (orig.) [de

  8. Structuring effects of [Ln6O(OH)8(NO3)6(H2O)12]2+ entities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, O.; Daiguebonne, C.; Calvez, G.; Le Dret, F.; Car, P.-E.


    In order to obtain highly porous lanthanide-based coordination polymers we are currently investigating reactions between [Ln 6 O(OH) 8 (NO 3 ) 6 (H 2 O) 12 ] 2+ di-cationic hexanuclear entities and sodium salts of benzene-poly-carboxylic acids. Two new coordination polymers obtained during this study are reported here. In both cases, the hexanuclear entity has been destroyed during the reaction. However the resulting compounds are original thanks to a structuring effect of the poly-metallic complex. The first compound of chemical formula [Y 2 (C 8 H 4 O 4 ) 3 (DMF)(H 2 O)],2DMF crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P121/n (n o 14) with a = 16.0975(3) A, b = 14.4605(3) A, c = 17.7197(4) A, β = 92.8504(9) o and Z = 4. The second compound of chemical formula Y 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (C 10 H 2 O 8 )(DMF) 4 crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P-1 (n o 2) with a = 7.5312(3) A, b = 9.0288(3) A, c = 13.1144(6) A, α = 92.6008(14) o , β = 94.9180(14) o , γ = 112.1824(16) o and Z = 2. Both crystal structures are 2D. Both crystal structures are described and the original structural features are highlighted and related to a potential structuring effect of the hexanuclear precursor

  9. Singlet Fission via an Excimer-Like Intermediate in 3,6-Bis(thiophen-2-yl)diketopyrrolopyrrole Derivatives. (United States)

    Mauck, Catherine M; Hartnett, Patrick E; Margulies, Eric A; Ma, Lin; Miller, Claire E; Schatz, George C; Marks, Tobin J; Wasielewski, Michael R


    Singlet fission (SF) in polycrystalline thin films of four 3,6-bis(thiophen-2-yl)diketopyrrolopyrrole (TDPP) chromophores with methyl (Me), n-hexyl (C6), triethylene glycol (TEG), and 2-ethylhexyl (EH) substituents at the 2,5-positions is found to involve an intermediate excimer-like state. The four different substituents yield four distinct intermolecular packing geometries, resulting in variable intermolecular charge transfer (CT) interactions in the solid. SF from the excimer state of Me, C6, TEG, and EH takes place in τSF = 22, 336, 195, and 1200 ps, respectively, to give triplet yields of 200%, 110%, 110%, and 70%, respectively. The transient spectra of the excimer-like state and its energetic proximity to the lowest excited singlet state in these derivatives suggests that this state may be the multiexciton (1)(T1T1) state that precedes formation of the uncorrelated triplet excitons. The excimer decay rates correlate well with the SF efficiencies and the degree of intermolecular donor-acceptor interactions resulting from π-stacking of the thiophene donor of one molecule with the DPP core acceptor in another molecule as observed in the crystal structures. Such interactions are found to also increase with the SF coupling energies, as calculated for each derivative. These structural and spectroscopic studies afford a better understanding of the electronic interactions that enhance SF in chromophores having strong intra- and intermolecular CT character.

  10. Refined energetic ordering for sulphate-water (n = 3-6) clusters using high-level electronic structure calculations (United States)

    Lambrecht, Daniel S.; McCaslin, Laura; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Head-Gordon, Martin


    This work reports refinements of the energetic ordering of the known low-energy structures of sulphate-water clusters ? (n = 3-6) using high-level electronic structure methods. Coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) is used in combination with an estimate of basis set effects up to the complete basis set limit using second-order Møller-Plesset theory. Harmonic zero-point energy (ZPE), included at the B3LYP/6-311 + + G(3df,3pd) level, was found to have a significant effect on the energetic ordering. In fact, we show that the energetic ordering is a result of a delicate balance between the electronic and vibrational energies. Limitations of the ZPE calculations, both due to electronic structure errors, and use of the harmonic approximation, probably constitute the largest remaining errors. Due to the often small energy differences between cluster isomers, and the significant role of ZPE, deuteration can alter the relative energies of low-lying structures, and, when it is applied in conjunction with calculated harmonic ZPEs, even alters the global minimum for n = 5. Experiments on deuterated clusters, as well as more sophisticated vibrational calculations, may therefore be quite interesting.

  11. 3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose, a rare sugar from agar, a new anticariogenic sugar to replace xylitol. (United States)

    Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Ah Reum; Kim, Jung Hyun; Cho, Kyung Mun; Kim, Kyoung Heon


    The significance for anticariogenic sugar substitutes is growing due to increasing demands for dietary sugars and rising concerns of dental caries. Xylitol is widely used as an anticariogenic sugar substitute, but the inhibitory effects of xylitol on Streptococcus mutans, the main cause of tooth decay, are exhibited only at high concentrations. Here, the inhibitory effects of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (AHG), a rare sugar from red macroalgae, were evaluated on S. mutans, in comparison with those of xylitol. In the presence of 5g/l of AHG, the growth of S. mutans was retarded. At 10g/l of AHG, the growth and acid production by S. mutans were completely inhibited. However, in the presence of xylitol, at a much higher concentration (i.e., 40g/l), the growth of S. mutans still occurred. These results suggest that AHG can be used as a new anticariogenic sugar substitute for preventing dental caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical features, neurogenetics and neuropathology of the polyglutamine spinocerebellar ataxias type 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7. (United States)

    Rüb, Udo; Schöls, Ludger; Paulson, Henry; Auburger, Georg; Kermer, Pawel; Jen, Joanna C; Seidel, Kay; Korf, Horst-Werner; Deller, Thomas


    The spinocerebellar ataxias type 1 (SCA1), 2 (SCA2), 3 (SCA3), 6 (SCA6) and 7 (SCA7) are genetically defined autosomal dominantly inherited progressive cerebellar ataxias (ADCAs). They belong to the group of CAG-repeat or polyglutamine diseases and share pathologically expanded and meiotically unstable glutamine-encoding CAG-repeats at distinct gene loci encoding elongated polyglutamine stretches in the disease proteins. In recent years, progress has been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis of these currently incurable diseases: Identification of underlying genetic mechanisms made it possible to classify the different ADCAs and to define their clinical and pathological features. Furthermore, advances in molecular biology yielded new insights into the physiological and pathophysiological role of the gene products of SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6 and SCA7 (i.e. ataxin-1, ataxin-2, ataxin-3, α-1A subunit of the P/Q type voltage-dependent calcium channel, ataxin-7). In the present review we summarize our current knowledge about the polyglutamine ataxias SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6 and SCA7 and compare their clinical and electrophysiological features, genetic and molecular biological background, as well as their brain pathologies. Furthermore, we provide an overview of the structure, interactions and functions of the different disease proteins. On the basis of these comprehensive data, similarities, differences and possible disease mechanisms are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Scandium interaction with diantipyrylmethane homologues and 2-(n-sulphophenylazo)-1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-3,6 sodium disulphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganago, L I; Alinovskaya, L A [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk. Inst. Fiziki Tverdogo Tela i Poluprovodnikov


    The reactions of scandium with homologs of diantipyrilmethane (DAM)-propyldiantipyrilmethane (PDAM) and phenyldiantipyrilmethane (PhDAM) - are studied. The relationship of components in the complexes formed is found, and chemism of their formation is established. The complexes Sc-SPADNE (sodium salt 2-(n-sulphophenylazo)-1,8-dioxynaphthalene-3,6-disulphonic acid) are shown to form within a wide pH range. The maximum yield of complexes is observed at 6.0-7.5 pH. By the ion-exchange method the anion character of heteroligand scandium complexes is established. The complex Sc-SPADNE-PDAM is faster as compared with the complexes Sc-SPADNE-DAM and Sc-SPADNE-PhDAM. The decrease in amine excess and increase in the sensitivity of heteroligand formation of the complexes of scandium with SPADNE and PDAM make them better suited for analysis. The technique is developed for the determination of Sc/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in perovskites using the complete differential spectrophotometry method.

  14. Different Levels of Skin Whitening Activity among 3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose, Agarooligosaccharides, and Neoagarooligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Kim


    Full Text Available 3,6-Anhydro-l-galactose (AHG, a major monomeric constituent of red macroalgae (Rhodophyta, was recently reported to possess skin whitening activity. Moreover, AHG-containing oligosaccharides, such as agarooligosaccharides (AOSs and neoagarooligosaccharides (NAOSs, have various physiological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and skin moisturizing effects. In this study, AHG and NAOSs were produced from agarose by enzymatic reactions catalyzed by an endo-type β-agarase, an exo-type β-agarase, and a neoagarobiose hydrolase. In a cell proliferation assay, AHG, AOSs, and NAOSs at 12.5, 25, and 50 μg/mL concentrations did not exhibit cytotoxicity toward murine B16 melanoma cells or human epidermal melanocytes. In an in vitro skin whitening activity assay of AHG, AOSs, and NAOSs at 50 μg/mL, AHG showed the highest skin whitening activity in both murine B16 melanoma cells and human epidermal melanocytes; this activity was mediated by the inhibition of melanogenesis. Neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose also exhibited in vitro skin whitening activity, whereas neoagarobiose and AOSs with degrees of polymerization of 3 (agarotriose, 5 (agaropentaose, and 7 (agaroheptaose did not. Therefore, AHG is responsible for the skin whitening activity of agar-derived sugars, and the structural differences among the AHG-containing oligosaccharides may be responsible for their different skin whitening activities.

  15. Evaluation of Hand Stereognosis Level in 3-6 years Old Children with Spastic Hemiplegia and Diplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minou Kalantari


    Full Text Available Objective: One of the most prevalent sensory problems in cerebral palsy is Astereognosis which has special importance in daily manual functions. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of hand stereognosis using common objects and geometric shapes in children with spastic hemiplegia and diplegia. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study, 20 children with cerebral palsy between 3-6 years old (9 males, 11 females with mean age (hemiplegya: 55months, diplegya: 57months were selected through nonrandomized convinience sampling referd to Occupational Therapy centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Stereognosis was evaluated using geometric shapes (square, circle, rectangular, triangle and common objects (pencil, key, coin, nail, teaspoon and screw and test special board. The data were analyzed by Mixed Analysis of Variance and Regression statistical tests. Results: There was no significant regression between common objects stereognosis score and age in hemiplegic childrenbut this regression was significant for stereognosis score of geometric shapes (P=0.027. There was no significant regression between stereognosis score of common objects and geometric shapes in diplegic children. The Main effects of gender was not significant in stereognosis of children with spastic hemiplegia and diplegia, also main effects of hand were not significant in two groups. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between stereognosis of affected and unaffected hand in hemiplegic childrenand between right and left hands in diplegic children. Also There was no significant regression between age and stereognosis score of geometric shapes in diplegic children .

  16. Participation in everyday life and life satisfaction in persons with stroke and their caregivers 3-6 months after onset. (United States)

    Bergström, Aileen L; von Koch, Lena; Andersson, Magnus; Tham, Kerstin; Eriksson, Gunilla


    To explore and describe persons with stroke and their caregivers' restrictions in participation in everyday occupations, i.e. occupational gaps, 3-6 months post-stroke, in relation to life satisfaction, combined life satisfaction, care-giver burden, perceived impact of stroke, and activities of daily living. Cross-sectional study. Persons with stroke and their caregivers (105 dyads). The Occupational Gaps Questionnaire, Life Satisfaction Checklist, Caregiver Burden Scale, Stroke Impact Scale and Barthel Index were used. Correlations were analysed with Spearman's rank, and regression analyses used life satisfaction as the dependent variable. At least one person in 86% of the dyads perceived restrictions in participation, with the most common gap in travelling for pleasure. Correlations were low between the numbers of occupational gaps and life satisfaction (R = -0.33, R = -0.31); however, life satisfaction accounted for occupational gaps both for persons with stroke and for caregivers. A greater number of occupational gaps were perceived in the dyads with combined low levels of life satisfaction compared with those with combined high levels of life satisfaction. Participation in everyday occupations is related to life satisfaction even for caregivers of persons with stroke. The results of this study add to our knowledge about the stroke-caregiver dyad and will help to inform family-centred approaches within stroke rehabilitation.

  17. Relation Between Percent Body Fat and Fundamental Motor Skills in Pre-School Children age 3-6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Musalek


    Full Text Available It is quite well known that excessive body fat in children is interpreted as a marker of inhibited physical activity and motor performance. This study aimed to establish whether severe impairment of fundamental motor skills (defined as performance under 5th centile of norms will be significantly more frequently identified in pre-schoolers age 3-6 years with amount of body fat higher than 85th centile of norms. Research sample consisted of 496 (females=241, males=255 pre-schoolers selected from specific district of Prague, Czech Republic. The MABC-2 was used for the assesment fundamental motor skills. Equations for body fat estimation in children identified 35.8% children with body fat˃85th centile of norms, 61.7% within 15th–85th centile, and 2.5% of children˂15th centile of norms. Results revealed that children whose body fat was higher than 85th centile of norms or lower than 15th centile had double the frequency of severe motor problems. Interestingely on the other hand we found no signficant differences in the frequency of high above average performances˃90th centile in MABC-2 between fat 8.4% and non fat children 10.7%. We suggest that amount of body fat is not a clear predictor for the degree of fundamental motor skills.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: z~3-6 protoclusters in the CFHTLS deep fields (Toshikawa+, 2016) (United States)

    Toshikawa, J.; Kashikawa, N.; Overzier, R.; Malkan, M. A.; Furusawa, H.; Ishikawa, S.; Onoue, M.; Ota, K.; Tanaka, M.; Niino, Y.; Uchiyama, H.


    We made use of publicly available data from the CFHTLS (T0007: Gwyn 2012AJ....143...38G; Hudelot et al. 2012, Cat. II/317), which was obtained with MegaCam mounted at the prime focus of the CFHT. The Deep Fields of the CFHTLS were used in this study, which consist of four independent fields of about 1 deg2 area each (~4 deg2 area in total) observed in the u*, g', r', i', and z' bands. We selected z~3-6 galaxy candidates using the Lyman-break technique (u-, g-, r-, and i-dropout galaxies). We carried out spectroscopic observations using Subaru/FOCAS (Kashikawa et al. 2002PASJ...54..819K), Keck II/DEIMOS (Faber et al. 2003SPIE.4841.1657F), and Gemini-N/GMOS (Hook et al. 2004PASP..116..425H). In these observations, eight protocluster candidates from z~3 to z~6 were observed in total (two at each redshift). All these observations were conducted with Multi-Object Spectroscopy (MOS) mode. (2 data files).

  19. e-Cadherin in 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-Induced Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuela Cataldi


    Full Text Available Today a large number of studies are focused on clarifying the complexity and diversity of the pathogenetic mechanisms inducing Parkinson disease. We used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, a neurotoxin that induces Parkinson disease, to evaluate the change of midbrain structure and the behavior of the anti-inflammatory factor e-cadherin, interleukin-6, tyrosine hydroxylase, phosphatase and tensin homolog, and caveolin-1. The results showed a strong expression of e-cadherin, variation of length and thickness of the heavy neurofilaments, increase of interleukin-6, and reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase known to be expression of dopamine cell loss, reduction of phosphatase and tensin homolog described to impair responses to dopamine, and reduction of caveolin-1 known to be expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis. The possibility that the overexpression of the e-cadherin might be implicated in the anti-inflammatory reaction to MPTP treatment by influencing the behavior of the other analyzed molecules is discussed.

  20. The isotopic composition of ore lead of the Creede mining district and vicinity, San Juan Mountains, Colorado: Text of a talk presented at the San Juan Mountains symposium to honor Thomas A. Steven; Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, May 2, 1987, Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    Foley, N.K.; Barton, P.B.; Bethke, P.M.; Doe, B.R.


    Galenas from the major Creede veins and their northern extensions are remarkably homogeneous in Pb-isotopic composition and are too radiogenic to have been derived from any magma comparable in composition to the principal volcanic rocks. This pattern was identified by Doe et al. in 1979 who proposed that the lead was derived from the Precambrian basement. The homogeneity of the ore leads, however, requires a uniform reservoir; an unlikely prospect for lead from the Precambrian basement. We report on 16 new analyses of geographically and paragenetically dispersed galenas from the Creede district and other areas as far as 11 km to the north. The lead values range from 18.972 to 19.060 for 206Pb/204Pb, from 15.591 to 15.671 for 207Pb/204Pb, and from 37.781 to 37.921 for 208Pb/204Pb. These ranges overlap those previously reported for the main ore zone.

  1. Determining water sources in the boundary layer from tall tower profiles of water vapor and surface water isotope ratios after a snowstorm in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Noone


    Full Text Available The D/H isotope ratio is used to attribute boundary layer humidity changes to the set of contributing fluxes for a case following a snowstorm in which a snow pack of about 10 cm vanished. Profiles of H2O and CO2 mixing ratio, D/H isotope ratio, and several thermodynamic properties were measured from the surface to 300 m every 15 min during four winter days near Boulder, Colorado. Coeval analysis of the D/H ratios and CO2 concentrations find these two variables to be complementary with the former being sensitive to daytime surface fluxes and the latter particularly indicative of nocturnal surface sources. Together they capture evidence for strong vertical mixing during the day, weaker mixing by turbulent bursts and low level jets within the nocturnal stable boundary layer during the night, and frost formation in the morning. The profiles are generally not well described with a gradient mixing line analysis because D/H ratios of the end members (i.e., surface fluxes and the free troposphere evolve throughout the day which leads to large uncertainties in the estimate of the D/H ratio of surface water flux. A mass balance model is constructed for the snow pack, and constrained with observations to provide an optimal estimate of the partitioning of the surface water flux into contributions from sublimation, evaporation of melt water in the snow and evaporation from ponds. Results show that while vapor measurements are important in constraining surface fluxes, measurements of the source reservoirs (soil water, snow pack and standing liquid offer stronger constraint on the surface water balance. Measurements of surface water are therefore essential in developing observational programs that seek to use isotopic data for flux attribution.

  2. Factors affecting the partitioning of Cu, Zn and Pb in boulder coatings and stream sediments in the vicinity of a polymetallic sulfide deposit (United States)

    Filipek, L.H.; Chao, T.T.; Carpenter, R.H.


    A sequential extraction scheme is utilized to determine the geochemical partitioning of Cu, Zn and Pb among hydrous Mn- and Fe-oxides, organics and residual crystalline silicates and oxides in the minus-80-mesh ( Fe-oxides > Mn-oxides; Zn, Mn-oxides {reversed tilde equals} organics > Fe-oxides; Pb, Fe-oxides > organics > Mn-oxides. In the sediments, organics are the most efficient scavengers of all three ore metals. These results emphasize the importance of organics as sinks for the ore metals, even in environments with high concentrations of Mn- and Fe-oxides. Of the ore metals, Zn appears to be the most mobile, and is partitioned most strongly into the coatings. However, anomaly contrast for hydromorphic Zn, normalized to the MnFe-oxide or organic content, is similar in sediments and coatings. Cu shows the highest anomaly on the boulder coatings, probably due to precipitation of a secondary Cu mineral. In contrast, detrital Pb in the pan concentrates shows a better anomaly than any hydromorphic Pb component. ?? 1981.

  3. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of F3:6 Nebraska Winter Wheat Genotypes Using Genotyping-By-Sequencing. (United States)

    Eltaher, Shamseldeen; Sallam, Ahmed; Belamkar, Vikas; Emara, Hamdy A; Nower, Ahmed A; Salem, Khaled F M; Poland, Jesse; Baenziger, Peter S


    The availability of information on the genetic diversity and population structure in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) breeding lines will help wheat breeders to better use their genetic resources and manage genetic variation in their breeding program. The recent advances in sequencing technology provide the opportunity to identify tens or hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in large genome species (e.g., wheat). These SNPs can be utilized for understanding genetic diversity and performing genome wide association studies (GWAS) for complex traits. In this study, the genetic diversity and population structure were investigated in a set of 230 genotypes (F 3:6 ) derived from various crosses as a prerequisite for GWAS and genomic selection. Genotyping-by-sequencing provided 25,566 high-quality SNPs. The polymorphism information content (PIC) across chromosomes ranged from 0.09 to 0.37 with an average of 0.23. The distribution of SNPs markers on the 21 chromosomes ranged from 319 on chromosome 3D to 2,370 on chromosome 3B. The analysis of population structure revealed three subpopulations (G1, G2, and G3). Analysis of molecular variance identified 8% variance among and 92% within subpopulations. Of the three subpopulations, G2 had the highest level of genetic diversity based on three genetic diversity indices: Shannon's information index ( I ) = 0.494, diversity index ( h ) = 0.328 and unbiased diversity index (uh) = 0.331, while G3 had lowest level of genetic diversity ( I = 0.348, h = 0.226 and uh = 0.236). This high genetic diversity identified among the subpopulations can be used to develop new wheat cultivars.

  4. Properties of z ~ 3-6 Lyman break galaxies. II. Impact of nebular emission at high redshift (United States)

    de Barros, S.; Schaerer, D.; Stark, D. P.


    Context. To gain insight on the mass assembly and place constraints on the star formation history (SFH) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), it is important to accurately determine their properties. Aims: We estimate how nebular emission and different SFHs affect parameter estimation of LBGs. Methods: We present a homogeneous, detailed analysis of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of ~1700 LBGs from the GOODS-MUSIC catalogue with deep multi-wavelength photometry from the U band to 8 μm to determine stellar mass, age, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. Using our SED fitting tool, which takes into account nebular emission, we explore a wide parameter space. We also explore a set of different star formation histories. Results: Nebular emission is found to significantly affect the determination of the physical parameters for the majority of z ~ 3-6 LBGs. We identify two populations of galaxies by determining the importance of the contribution of emission lines to broadband fluxes. We find that ~65% of LBGs show detectable signs of emission lines, whereas ~35% show weak or no emission lines. This distribution is found over the entire redshift range. We interpret these groups as actively star-forming and more quiescent LBGs, respectively. We find that it is necessary to considerer SED fits with very young ages (mass, higher dust attenuation, higher star formation rate, and a large scatter in the SFR-M⋆ relation. Our analysis yields a trend of increasing specific star formation rate with redshift, as predicted by recent galaxy evolution models. Conclusions: The physical parameters of approximately two thirds of high redshift galaxies are significantly modified when we account for nebular emission. The SED models, which include nebular emission shed new light on the properties of LBGs with numerous important implications. Appendix A is available in electronic form at

  5. Refractive errors in 3-6 year-old Chinese children: a very low prevalence of myopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhong Lan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of refractive errors in children aged 3-6 years in China. METHODS: Children were recruited for a trial of a home-based amblyopia screening kit in Guangzhou preschools, during which cycloplegic refractions were measured in both eyes of 2480 children. Cycloplegic refraction (from 3 to 4 drops of 1% cyclopentolate to ensure abolition of the light reflex was measured by both autorefraction and retinoscopy. Refractive errors were defined as followed: myopia (at least -0.50 D in the worse eye, hyperopia (at least +2.00 D in the worse eye and astigmatism (at least 1.50 D in the worse eye. Different definitions, as specified in the text, were also used to facilitate comparison with other studies. RESULTS: The mean spherical equivalent refractive error was at least +1.22 D for all ages and both genders. The prevalence of myopia for any definition at any age was at most 2.5%, and lower in most cases. In contrast, the prevalence of hyperopia was generally over 20%, and declined slightly with age. The prevalence of astigmatism was between 6% and 11%. There was very little change in refractive error with age over this age range. CONCLUSIONS: Previous reports of less hyperopic mean spherical equivalent refractive error, and more myopia and less hyperopia in children of this age may be due to problems with achieving adequate cycloplegia in children with dark irises. Using up to 4 drops of 1% cyclopentolate may be necessary to accurately measure refractive error in paediatric studies of such children. Our results suggest that children from all ethnic groups may follow a similar pattern of early refractive development, with little myopia and a hyperopic mean spherical equivalent over +1.00 D up to the age of 5-6 years in most conditions.

  6. Application of the ruthenium and technetium thermodynamic data bases used in the EQ3/6 geochemical codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.


    Based on a critical review of the available thermodynamic data, computerized data bases for technetium and ruthenium were created for use with the EQ3/6 geochemical computer codes. The technetium data base contains thermodynamic data for 8 aqueous species and 15 solids; 26 aqueous species and 9 solids were included in the ruthenium data base. The EQ3NR code was used to calculate solubility limits for ruthenium (8 x 10 -16 M) in ground water from Yucca Mountain, a potential nuclear waste repository site near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The code confirmed the essentially unlimited solubility of technetium in oxidizing conditions, such as those that are believed to exist in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain and the Cambric Nuclear event site at the NTS. Ruthenium migration observed from the Cambric site was evaluated. The solubility limit for ruthenium (as the aqueous species RuO 4 - ) when constrained by RuO 2 is approximately equal to the concentration of ruthenium found in the cavity ground water (i.e., 2.1 x 10 -11 vs 4.5 x 10 -11 M). Differences in ruthenium solubility limits between Yucca Mountain and Cambric are primarily due to differences in ground-water pH. Technetium solubility (3 x 10 -8 M) for moderately reducing conditions (Eh = -0.1 V) using the metastable oxide, TcO 2 .2H 2 O, as the solubility constraint is within the range of experimental values recently published in a study of technetium sorption on basalt. Previously published technetium solubilities of 10 -12 to 10 -16 M were apparently based on a technetium data base that did not include aqueous species other than TcO 4 - . When TcO(OH) 2 0 is included in the data base, the calculated values are much closer to the experimental results. Eh-pH diagrams were also generated for a variety of conditions using the SOLUPLOT code

  7. Cytotoxic Activity of 3,6-Dihydroxyflavone in Human Cervical Cancer Cells and Its Therapeutic Effect on c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjung Lee


    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that 3,6-dihydroxyflavone (3,6-DHF is a potent agonist of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (hPPAR with cytotoxic effects on human cervical cancer cells. To date, the mechanisms by which 3,6-DHF exerts its antitumor effects on cervical cells have not been clearly defined. Here, we demonstrated that 3,6-DHF exhibits a novel antitumor activity against HeLa cells with IC50 values of 25 μM and 9.8 μM after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. We also showed that the anticancer effects of 3,6-DHF are mediated via the toll-like receptor (TLR 4/CD14, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, Jun-N terminal kinase (JNK, extracellular-signaling regulated kinase (ERK, and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. We found that 3,6-DHF showed a similar IC50 (113 nM value to that of the JNK inhibitor, SP600125 (IC50 = 118 nM in a JNK1 kinase assay. Binding studies revealed that 3,6-DHF had a strong binding affinity to JNK1 (1.996 × 105 M−1 and that the 6-OH and the carbonyl oxygen of the C ring of 3,6-DHF participated in hydrogen bonding interactions with the carbonyl oxygen and the amide proton of Met111, respectively. Therefore, 3,6-DHF may be a candidate inhibitor of JNKs, with potent anticancer effects.

  8. A high-density ammonia storage/delivery system based on Mg(NH3)6Cl2 for SCR-DeNOx in vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmøe, Tobias Dokkedal; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink; Quaade, Ulrich


    ammonia density of up to 93% of that of liquid ammonia. This provides a long lasting ammonia storage (approximate to 20000 km of driving per 6.2 L Mg(NH(3))(6)Cl(2) for an average medium-sized vehicle). The controlled thermal decomposition of Mg(NH(3))(6)Cl(2) was demonstrated. A small reactor......(NE(3))(6)Cl(2) ideal for use as an ammonia storage compound in both diesel and lean-burn gasoline-driven automobiles. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. The Colorado Front Range Ecosystem Management Research Project: Accomplishments to date (United States)

    Brian Kent; Wayne D. Shepperd; Deborah J. Shields


    This article briefly describes the goals and objectives for the Colorado Front Range Ecosystem Management Project (FREM). Research under this project has addressed both biophysical and human dimensions problems relating to ecosystem management in the Colorado Front Range. Results of completed work are described, and the status of the ongoing demonstration project at...

  10. 76 FR 5432 - United Western Bank Denver, Colorado; Notice of Appointment of Receiver (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision United Western Bank Denver, Colorado... section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for United Western Bank, Denver, Colorado, (OTS No...

  11. A Collaborative Approach to Diabetes Management: The Choice Made for Colorado Schools (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Wyckoff, Leah; Patrick, Kathleen; White, Cathy; Glass, Sue; Carlson, Jessie Parker; Perreault, Christine


    Students with diabetes deserve a school nurse who can effectively manage the disease. Tensions between the school and families sometimes emerge when a child with diabetes goes to school. To resolve these tensions in Colorado, stakeholders collaborated to implement a statewide program to meet the needs of students with diabetes. Colorado school…

  12. 77 FR 13629 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)


    ... Fort Hall Reservation of Idaho; and the Zuni Tribe of the Zuni Reservation, New Mexico. History and...: History Colorado, Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: History... human remains may contact History Colorado. Disposition of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated...

  13. Literacy in a Bag: Colorado School for the Deaf Sends Reading Home (United States)

    Branch, Deborah


    To assist parents with deaf or hard of hearing children who may need help supporting their child's learning, the Colorado School for the Deaf and the Blind developed Family Literacy Packs. These literacy packs, available to families within the state of Colorado, provide fun, interactive activities that help parents support their children's…

  14. Community-based restoration of desert wetlands: the case of the Colorado River delta (United States)

    Osvel Hinojosa-Huerta; Mark Briggs; Yamilett Carrillo-Guerroro; Edward P. Glenn; Miriam Lara-Flores; Martha Roman-Rodriguez


    Wetland areas have been drastically reduced through the Pacific Flyway and the Sonoran Desert, with severe consequences for avian populations. In the Colorado River delta, wetlands have been reduced by 80 percent due to water management practices in the Colorado River basin. However, excess flows and agricultural drainage water has restored some areas, providing...

  15. 77 FR 21451 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Procedural Rules... (United States)


    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Procedural Rules; Conflicts of Interest AGENCY... potential conflicts of interest. We are also approving the remaining portion of Colorado's January 7, 2008... or more Indian tribes, on the relationship between the Federal Government and Indian tribes, or on...

  16. Metadata, Cataloging, Digitization and Retrieval--Who's Doing What to Whom: The Colorado Digitization Project Experience. (United States)

    Bishoff, Liz; Garrison, William A.

    This paper describes the experiences of the Colorado Digitization Project (CDP) related to accessing a diverse set of primary resources held by many different cultural heritage institutions. The CDP is a collaborative initiative involving Colorado's archives, historical societies, libraries, and museums. The CDP's goal is to create a virtual…

  17. 76 FR 70170 - Proposed Alternative Soils Standards for the Uravan, Colorado Uranium Mill (United States)


    ..., Colorado Uranium Mill AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Uranium milling alternative standards... Agreements to regulate uranium mill tailings (11e.(2) byproduct material). Six Agreement States have this... in Colorado are acceptable. Discussion The Uravan site began operations in 1912 as a radium mill and...

  18. 77 FR 21760 - Atmos Energy Colorado/Kansas Division; Notice of Baseline Filing (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR12-19-000] Atmos Energy Colorado/Kansas Division; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on March 30, 2012, Atmos Energy Colorado/Kansas Division (Atmos) submitted a baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for...

  19. 77 FR 23244 - Atmos Energy Colorado/Kansas Division; Notice of Revised Baseline Filing (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR12-22-000] Atmos Energy Colorado/Kansas Division; Notice of Revised Baseline Filing Take notice that on April 10, 2012, Atmos Energy Colorado/Kansas Division (Atmos) filed a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating...

  20. Colorado Multicultural Resources for Arts Education: Dance, Music, Theatre, Visual Arts, and Folk Arts. Second Edition. (United States)

    Kitzelman, Jacquie, Ed.

    This resource guide recognizes that the arts provide a natural arena for teaching multicultural perspectives to students of all ages. The guide features the four most prevalent ethnic minorities in Colorado, African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, and Native American, plus a section prepared by Colorado's state folklorists. The…

  1. Colorado Multicultural Resources for Arts Education: Dance, Music, Theatre, and Visual Art. (United States)

    Cassio, Charles J., Ed.

    This Colorado resource guide is based on the premise that the arts (dance, music, theatre, and visual art) provide a natural arena for teaching multiculturalism to students of all ages. The guide provides information to Colorado schools about printed, disc, video, and audio tape visual prints, as well as about individuals and organizations that…

  2. Advancing the "Colorado Graduates" Agenda: Understanding the Dropout Problem and Mobilizing to Meet the Graduation Challenge (United States)

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Balfanz, Robert; Byrnes, Vaughan


    The ambitious goal set by Colorado's governor to address the state's dropout problem is a model for the nation. Helping thousands of young people to receive their high school diplomas instead of leaving school without them is a crucial step in improving the quality of life for all Colorado residents. Accomplishing this goal will require focused…

  3. Guia del Proceso del IFSP de Colorado: Conexiones para la Ninez Temprana, Iniciativa Infantil de Colorado Parte C del Acta de Educacion para Individuos con Desabilidades (Colorado Guidelines for the IFSP Process: Early Childhood Connections, Colorado's Infant/Toddler Initiative for Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act). (United States)

    Miller, Jerri; Petersen, Sandy

    This booklet for Spanish-speaking parents of young children with disabilities describes Colorado's Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) process. It explains guidelines, shares family stories and reflections for families and care providers, and the describes the values that drive the IFSP process in Colorado. Information is provided on…

  4. 30 CFR 906.15 - Approval of Colorado regulatory program amendments. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Colorado regulatory program amendments. 906.15 Section 906.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE COLORADO...

  5. 78 FR 44186 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00058 Declaration of Economic Injury (United States)


    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13662] Colorado Disaster CO-00058 Declaration... notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the State of Colorado, dated 07/15/2013... areas have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Hinsdale, Mineral...

  6. 76 FR 53693 - Notice of Invitation To Participate; Coal Exploration License Application COC-74911, Colorado (United States)


    ...] Notice of Invitation To Participate; Coal Exploration License Application COC-74911, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920... America in lands located in Delta County, Colorado. DATES: This notice of invitation was published in the...

  7. 30 CFR 906.20 - Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 906.20 Section 906.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE COLORADO...

  8. 78 FR 50088 - Notice of Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management... (United States)


    ... Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage- Grouse Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Draft... Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management.../or mailings. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments related to the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse...

  9. 75 FR 17034 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Relaxation of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 3 (United States)


    ...; FV09-948-2 IFR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Relaxation of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 3...: This rule relaxes the size requirement prescribed under the Colorado potato marketing order. The marketing order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado, and is administered locally by...

  10. 78 FR 3 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2 (United States)


    ...; FV12-948-1 IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the Handling Regulation for Area No. 2...: This rule modifies the grade requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado and is...

  11. 78 FR 35743 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and Handling Regulation for... (United States)


    ... IR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Modification of the General Cull and Handling Regulation for.... SUMMARY: This interim rule modifies the size requirements for potatoes handled under the Colorado potato marketing order, Area No. 2 (order). The order regulates the handling of Irish potatoes grown in Colorado...

  12. 2014 Kids Count in Colorado! The Big Picture: Taking the Whole Child Approach to Child Well-Being (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2014


    "Kids Count in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. "Kids Count in Colorado!" informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as…

  13. 78 FR 77397 - Flood Control Regulations, Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas (United States)


    ... Regulations, Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps... Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas. In 1997, the Lower Colorado River... regulations to reflect changes in ownership and responsibilities of flood control management of Marshall Ford...

  14. Colorado Basin Structure and Rifting, Argentine passive margin (United States)

    Autin, Julia; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Loegering, Markus; Anka, Zahie; Vallejo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Jorge; Marchal, Denis; Reichert, Christian; di Primio, Rolando


    The Argentine margin presents a strong segmentation with considerable strike-slip movements along the fracture zones. We focus on the volcanic segment (between the Salado and Colorado transfer zones), which is characterized by seaward dipping reflectors (SDR) all along the ocean-continent transition [e.g. Franke et al., 2006; Gladczenko et al., 1997; Hinz et al., 1999]. The segment is structured by E-W trending basins, which differs from the South African margin basins and cannot be explained by classical models of rifting. Thus the study of the relationship between the basins and the Argentine margin itself will allow the understanding of their contemporary development. Moreover the comparison of the conjugate margins suggests a particular evolution of rifting and break-up. We firstly focus on the Colorado Basin, which is thought to be the conjugate of the well studied Orange Basin [Hirsch et al., 2009] at the South African margin [e.g. Franke et al., 2006]. This work presents results of a combined approach using seismic interpretation and structural, isostatic and thermal modelling highlighting the structure of the crust. The seismic interpretation shows two rift-related discordances: one intra syn-rift and the break-up unconformity. The overlying sediments of the sag phase are less deformed (no sedimentary wedges) and accumulated before the generation of oceanic crust. The axis of the Colorado Basin trends E-W in the western part, where the deepest pre-rift series are preserved. In contrast, the basin axis turns to a NW-SE direction in its eastern part, where mainly post-rift sediments accumulated. The most distal part reaches the margin slope and opens into the oceanic basin. The general basin direction is almost orthogonal to the present-day margin trend. The most frequent hypothesis explaining this geometry is that the Colorado Basin is an aborted rift resulting from a previous RRR triple junction [e.g. Franke et al., 2002]. The structural interpretation

  15. Geologic map of the Frisco quadrangle, Summit County, Colorado (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Bartos, Paul J.; Williams, Cindy L.


    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping along the Interstate-70 urban corridor in western Colorado, in support of the USGS Central Region State/USGS Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, is contributing to a more complete understanding of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonic evolution, and hazard potential of this rapidly developing region. The 1:24,000-scale Frisco quadrangle is near the headwaters of the Blue River and straddles features of the Blue River graben (Kellogg, K.S., 1999, Neogene basins of the northern Rio Grande rift?partitioning and asymmetry inherited from Laramide and older uplifts: Tectonophysics, v. 305, p. 141-152.), part of the northernmost reaches of the Rio Grande rift, a major late Oligocene to recent zone of extension that extends from Colorado to Mexico. The Williams Range thrust fault, the western structural margin of the Colorado Front Range, cuts the northeastern corner of the quadrangle. The oldest rocks in the quadrangle underlie the Tenmile Range and include biotite-sillimanite schist and gneiss, amphibolite, and migmatite that are intruded by granite inferred to be part of the 1,667-1,750 Ma Routt Plutonic Suite (Tweto, Ogden, 1987, Rock units of the Precambrian- basement in Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1321-A, 54 p.). The oldest sedimentary unit is the Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation, a sequence of red sandstone, conglomerate, and interbedded shale. The thickest sequence of sedimentary rocks is Cretaceous in age and includes at least 500 m of the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The sedimentary rocks are intruded by sills and dikes of dacite porphyry sills of Swan Mountain, dated at 44 Ma (Marvin, R.F., Mehnert, H.H., Naeser, C.W., and Zartman, R.E., 1989, U.S. Geological Survey radiometric ages, compilation ?C??Part five?Colorado, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming: Isochron/West, no. 53, p. 14-19. Simmons, E.C., and Hedge, C.E., 1978, Minor-element and Sr-isotope geochemistry of Tertiary stocks, Colorado mineral belt

  16. Hydrology of area 59, northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado and Wyoming (United States)

    Gaggiani, Neville G.; Britton, Linda J.; Minges, Donald R.; Kilpatrick, F.A.; Parker, Randolph S.; Kircher, James E.


    drainage from previous metalmining areas, as indicated by greater trace-element concentrations and smaller pH values. However, the large trace-element concentrations decrease rapidly downstream from the metal-mining areas. Because the climate is semiarid in most of the area, the soils are not adequately leached; therefore, flows in ephemeral streams usually have larger concentrations of dissolved solids than flows in perennial streams.Ground water is available throughout the area; yields range from less than 0.1 gallons per minute in the fractured granite aquifer in the mountains to more than 2,000 gallons per minute in the alluvial aquifer of the South Platte River valley. Major bedrock aquifers in order of decreasing age are the Laramie-Fox Hills, Arapahoe, Denver, and Dawson; these aquifers are used for municipal, domestic, and livestock supplies. Alluvial aquifers supply the high-yield irrigation wells.The best quality ground water is found at the center of the major bedrock aquifers, where dissolved-solids concentrations are less than 200 milligrams per liter. The poorest-quality water is usually found near the edges of these aquifers. Water in the coal-bearing Laramie and Denver Formations is locally affected by coal deposits, causing dissolved-solids concentrations to be relatively large.Only one coal mine is now operating in Area 59, the Coors Energy Company surface coal mine, which produced 100,000 short tons of subbituminous coal from the Upper Cretaceous Laramie Formation in 1982. Past coal-mining operations removed more than 130 million tons of coal and lignite from Area 59,99 percent of which came from underground mines. The largest coal production was in Weld and Boulder Counties, Colorado.Hydrologic problems related to surface mining are erosion, sedimentation, decline in water levels, disruption of aquifers, and degradation of water quality. Because the semiarid mine areas have very little runoff, and the major streams have large buffer and dilution

  17. Meeting instream flow needs of lower Colorado River in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Q.W.


    The Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), an agency of the State of Texas, manages the surface waters of the lower Colorado River in Texas. The major water supply source in the lower basin is the Highland Lakes chain of reservoirs in Central Texas. The use of water from these lakes for environmental protection and enhancement has received increasing attention in recent years. The LCRA recently completed major revisions to its comprehensive Water Management Plan (WMP) for the Highland Lakes. These revisions included changes to incorporate the results of a three year study of instream flow needs in the lower Colorado River. The instream flow needs were determined to consist of two flow regimes: critical and target. The critical flows are considered to be the daily minimum flows needed to maintain minimum viable aquatic conditions for important fish species. The target flow needs are those daily flows which maximize the available habitat for a variety of fish. After evaluating numerous policy options, LCRA revised to WMP to allow the release of water from the Highland Lakes to maintain the daily river flows at no less than the critical flows in all years. Further, in those years when drought-induced irrigation water supply curtailments do not occur, LCRA will release water from the lakes, to the extent of daily inflows, to maintain daily river flows at no less than the target levels. To fully honor this pledge, LCRA committed an average of 28,700 acre-feet annually, during any ten consecutive years, from the dependable supply of the Highland Lakes

  18. Geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.


    This report is the result of a geochemical investigation of the former uranium mill and tailings site at Grand Junction, Colorado. The objectives of the investigation are to characterize the geochemistry, to determine the contaminant distribution resulting from the former milling activities and tailings, and to infer chemical pathways and transport mechanisms from the contaminant distribution. The results should be used to model contaminant migration and to develop criteria for long-term containment media, such as a cover system which is impermeable to contaminant migration. This report assumes a familiarity with the hydrologic conditions of the site and the geochemical concepts underlying the investigation. The results reported are based on a sampling of waters in two seasons and solid material from the background, the area adjacent to the site, and the site. The solid samples were water extracted to remove easily soluble salts and acid extracted to remove carbonates and hydroxides. The water extracts and solid samples were analyzed for the major and trace elements. A limited number of samples were analyzed for radiological components. The report includes the methods of sampling, sample processing, analysis, and data interpretation. Four major conclusions are: (1) trace element concentrations in shallow subsurface waters adjacent to the tailings temporally vary up to an order of magnitude; (2) the riverbank soils and borehole waters are contaminated with uranium, radium, and trace elements from discharge of tailings solids and solutions during the active time of the mill; however, the movement of contaminants toward the Colorado River does not appear to be significant; (3) the Colorado River adjacent to the tailings is not contaminated; and (4) trace metals have accumulated at both the tailings/cover and tailings/soil interface because of precipitation reactions caused by chemical differences between the two materials

  19. Floodplain lakes and alluviation cycles of the lower Colorado River (United States)

    Malmon, D.; Felger, T. J.; Howard, K. A.


    The broad valleys along the lower Colorado River contain numerous bodies of still water that provide critical habitat for bird, fish, and other species. This chain of floodplain lakes is an important part of the Pacific Flyway - the major north-south route of travel for migratory birds in the western Hemisphere - and is also used by many resident bird species. In addition, isolated floodplain lakes may provide the only viable habitat for endangered native fish such as the razorback sucker, vulnerable to predation by introduced species in the main stem of the Colorado River. Floodplain lakes typically occupy former channel courses of the river and formed as a result of river meandering or avulsion. Persistent fluvial sediment deposition (aggradation) creates conditions that favor rapid formation and destruction of floodplain lakes, while long term river downcutting (degradation) inhibits their formation and evolution. New radiocarbon dates from wood recovered from drill cores near Topock, AZ indicate that the river aggraded an average of 3 mm/yr in the middle and late Holocene. Aggradational conditions before Hoover Dam was built were associated with rapid channel shifting and frequent lake formation. Lakes had short life spans due to rapid infilling with fine-grained sediment during turbid floods on the unregulated Colorado River. The building of dams and of armored banks had a major impact on floodplain lakes, not only by drowning large portions of the valley beneath reservoirs, but by preventing new lake formation in some areas and accelerating it in others. GIS analyses of three sets of historical maps show that both the number and total area of isolated (i.e., not linked to the main channel by a surface water connection) lakes in the lower Colorado River valley increased between 1902 and the 1950s, and then decreased though the 1970s. River bed degradation below dams inhibits channel shifting and floodplain lake formation, and the capture of fines behind the

  20. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Colt Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado (United States)


    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at Pueblo, Colorado; Yosemite, California; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Fort Worth, Texas; and Washington, D.C. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  1. Mineralogy and geochemistry of vanadium in the Colorado Plateau (United States)

    Weeks, A.D.


    The chief domestic source of vanadium is uraniferous sandstone in the Colorado Plateau. Vanadium is 3-, 4-, or 5-valent in nature and, as oxides or combined with other elements, it forms more than 40 minerals in the Plateau ores. These ores have been studied with regard to the relative amounts of vanadium silicates and oxide-vanadates, uranium-vanadium ratios, the progressive oxidation of black low-valent ores to high-valent carnotite-type ores, and theories of origin. ?? 1961.

  2. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide: Colorado Supplement (United States)


    Nest c. Flattops d. Great Sand Dunes e. La Garita f. Maroon Bells -- Snowmass g. Mount Zirkel h. Rawah i. Weminuche j. West Elk B. All...of Sections XIII.D., XIII.E., or XIII.F.: 1. National Monuments a. Florissant Fossil Beds b. Colorado c. Dinosaur d. Great Sand Dunes (those...that the minimum distance between tanks and toe of interior dike walls is 5 ft (1.5 m). Verify that drains for diked area are controlled in a manner so

  3. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2011 (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Fancher, Tammy; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne Marie


    This dataset represents an update to U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 597. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009 (available at This updated Colorado wind turbine Data Series provides geospatial data for all 1,204 wind turbines established within the State of Colorado as of September 2011, an increase of 297 wind turbines from 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, county, and development status of the wind turbine. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, and year the facility went online. The locations of turbines are derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters. Locations of turbines constructed during or prior to August 2009 are based on August 2009 NAIP imagery and turbine locations constructed after August 2009 were based on September 2011 NAIP imagery. The location of turbines under construction during September 2011 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas developed by the U.S. Geological Survey ( The Energy Atlas synthesizes data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and includes additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools also are included in the Energy Atlas. The format of

  4. Origin of the late quaternary dune fields of northeastern Colorado (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Stafford, T.W.; Cowherd, S.D.; Mahan, S.A.; Kihl, R.; Maat, P.B.; Bush, C.A.; Nehring, J.


    Stabilized eolian deposits, mostly parabolic dunes and sand sheets, cover much of the landscape of northeastern Colorado and adjacent parts of southwestern Nebraska in four geographically distinct dune fields. Stratigraphic and soil-geomorphic relations and accelerator radiocarbon dating indicate that at least three episodes of eolian sand movement occurred between 27 ka and 11 ka, possibly between 11 ka and 4 ka, and within the past 1.5 ka. Thus, eolian sand deposition took place under both glacial and interglacial climatic conditions. In the youngest episodes of eolian sand movement, Holocene parabolic dunes partially buried Pleistocene sand sheet deposits. Late Holocene sands in the Fort Morgan and Wray dune fields, to the south of the South Platte River, have trace element ratios that are indistinguishable from modern South Platte River sands, but different from Ogallala Formation bedrock, which has previously been cited as the main source of dune sand on the Great Plains. Sands in the Greeley dune field, to the north of the South Platte River, have trace element concentrations that indicate a probable Laramie Formation source. Measurements of parabolic dunes indicate paleowinds from the northwest in all dune fields, in good agreement with resultant drift directions calculated for nearby weather stations. Thus, paleowinds were probably not significantly different from present-day winds, and are consistent with a South Platte River source for the Fort Morgan and Wray dune fields, and a Laramie Formation source for the Greeley dune field. Sand accumulated downwind of the South Platte River to form the Fort Morgan dune field. In addition, sand was also transported farther downwind over the upland formed by the calcrete caprock of the Ogallala Formation, and deposited in die lee of the upland on the southeast side. Because of high wind energy, the upland itself served as a zone of sand transport, but little or no sand accumulation took place on this surface. These

  5. Geospatial database for regional environmental assessment of central Colorado. (United States)

    Church, Stan E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Klein, Terry L.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Adams, Monique G.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Todorov, Todor I.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McEachron, Luke; Anthony, Michael W.


    In conjunction with the future planning needs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed environmental assessment of the effects of historical mining on Forest Service lands in central Colorado. Stream sediment, macroinvertebrate, and various filtered and unfiltered water quality samples were collected during low-flow over a four-year period from 2004–2007. This report summarizes the sampling strategy, data collection, and analyses performed on these samples. The data are presented in Geographic Information System, Microsoft Excel, and comma-delimited formats. Reports on data interpretation are being prepared separately.

  6. A Literature Review of Cultural Resources in Morgan County, Colorado, (United States)


    MILES APPRCXI: %TE LOCATIONS OF SURVEY AREAS 1. NARROWS DAM SURVEY 2. WILDCAT CREEK SURVEY 3. BRUS { FLOOD CO’IOL PROJECT L B3I B LI 0 RAP H Y...Kenneth L. 1975 Edible plants available to aboriginal occupants of the Narrows area. IN Morris, Elizabeth Ann, Bruce J. Lutz, N. Ted Ohr, Timothy J...Reservoi - , Morgan County. Prepared for -1e Riverside IrrigaLion District and Public Service Company of Colorado. Morris, Elizabeth Ann, Bruce J. Lutz, N

  7. Environmental Assessment Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. DOE completed an environmental assessment of the original proposed project in August 1997. Since then, the geographic scope and the design of the project changed, necessitating additional review of the project under the National Environmental Policy Act. The project now calls for the possible construction of up to 48 wind turbines on State and private lands. PSCo and its partners have initiated construction of the project on private land in Weld County, Colorado. A substation, access road and some wind turbines have been installed. However, to date, DOE has not provided any funding for these activities. DOE, through its Commercialization Ventures Program, has solicited applications for financial assistance from state energy offices, in a teaming arrangement with private-sector organizations, for projects that will accelerate the commercialization of emerging renewable energy technologies. The Commercialization Ventures Program was established by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness Act of 1989 (P.L. 101-218) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486). The Program seeks to assist entry into the marketplace of newly emerging renewable energy technologies, or of innovative applications of existing technologies. In short, an emerging renewable energy technology is one which has already proven viable but which has had little or no operational experience. The Program is managed by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The

  8. Subsidence monitoring program at Cyprus Coal's Colorado operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.L.; Shoemaker, J.E.


    Published subsidence data for the western United States is limited in comparison with data for the east. This paper summarizes the results of a subsidence monitoring program above two longwall panels at the Foidel Creek Mine located in northwest Colorado. The monitoring area is characterized by overburden ranging from 1000 ft to 1100 ft in thickness. the surface slope parallels the dip of the bedding at approximately 5 deg. Average mining height is 9 ft. Smax averaged 3.4 ft. Draw angles averaged 15 deg for up-dip ribsides and 19 deg for down-dip ribsides. A site-specific profile function is developed from the data

  9. Gimnasio Sebastiani. Holy trinity high school - Trinidad, Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Toll, Henry


    Full Text Available Para completar las instalaciones y facilidades de que se ha dotado el Instituto Católico de Segunda Enseñanza de Trinidad, Colorado (Estados Unidos, se proyectó un gimnasio cubierto que podría ser utilizado como campo de deportes para baloncesto, representaciones, audiciones y actos públicos. El proyecto fue redactado por Toll & Milan, arquitectos, entidad disuelta actualmente y de la que el autor formaba parte como proyectista. En la formación de este proyecto se utilizaron las recomendaciones de un buen número de gabinetes de estudio y consulta.

  10. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Surface remedial action has been completed at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Durango, Colorado. Contaminated soil and debris have been removed from the former processing site and placed in the Bodo Canyon disposal cell. Ground water at the former uranium mill/tailings site and raffinate pond area has been contaminated by the former milling operations. The ground water at the disposal site was not impacted by the former milling operations at the time of the cell's construction. Activities for fiscal 1994 involve ground water sampling and site characterization of the disposal site

  11. X-ray Lβ215 emission spectrum of Ru in Ru(NH3)6Cl3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, R.C.C.; Barth, J.; LaVilla, R.E.; Nordling, C.


    One of the broader applications of synchrotron radiation has been to EXAFS studies for material structure determination, i.e., for an analysis of x-ray absorption over an extended energy region beyond a core ionization limit. Studies of the near edge structure (XANES) give a different type of information, characteristic of the local symmetry and electronic configuration of the absorbing atom. This type of information is reflected also in the x-ray emission spectra, in particular for transitions involving the valence levels. Examination of the near edge absorption or the emission spectrum does not require an instrument capable of scanning a wide energy range with high counting statistics, as does EXAFS; the needs are rather for good resolution and a reliable calibration of the energy scale. Some of the problems of near edge spectra were particularly evident in our investigation of Ru-Lβ 2 15 emission from Ru(NH 3 ) 6 Cl 3 . The Ru-Lβ 2 15 emission was measured with a laboratory Rowland circle x-ray spectrometer with a curved quartz (1010) crystal (radius = 22 inches) in a fixed position appropriate to the energy range, and a position sensitive detector which can be positioned along the Rowland circle. The Ru spectrum was excited mainly by Sn-L/sub α/ primary radiation from a Sn anode in a demountable x-ray tube operating at 13 kV and 120 mA. The resolution of the instrument in this region is 1.5 eV. An accurate calibration of the energy scale was conveniently obtained by measuring a reference x-ray emission line in the same instrumental configuration. In the present case the Pd-L/sub α/ emission line at 2838 eV was used to establish the energy scale. The energy dispersion of the instrument was determined from the Cl-K/sub β/ emission spectrum of CH 3 Cl between 2810 eV and 2830 eV and Pd-Lα 1 2 and extrapolated to the energy region of the recorded emission spectrum. 6 references, 1 figure

  12. Synthesis and application of photolithographically patternable deep blue emitting poly(3,6-dimethoxy-9,9-dialkylsilafluorene)s. (United States)

    McDowell, Jeffrey J; Maier-Flaig, Florian; Wolf, Thomas J A; Unterreiner, Andreas-Neil; Lemmer, Uli; Ozin, Geoffrey


    Poly(silafluorene)s (PSFs) are promising light-emitting materials with brilliant solid-state blue luminescence, high quantum efficiency, excellent solubility, and improved thermal and chemical stability. PSFs are reported to have high electron affinity and conductivity originating from σ*-π* conjugation between the σ*-antibonding orbital of the exocyclic Si-C bond and the π* antibonding orbital of the butadiene fragment, a promising characteristic for improved charge carrier balance in OLEDs. In this paper, we present a protocol for photopatterning derivatives of poly(3,6-dimethoxy-9,9-dialkylsilafluorenes) with resolutions exceeding 10 μm. The procedure begins by converting polymers (Mn = 50-55 kg/mol, PDI = 1.8) with cyclohexenyl and norbornenyl containing side chains to their respective epoxides using the Prilezhaev reaction and m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (m-CPBA). Using the I-line (365 nm) of a Karl Suss MA6 mask aligner, a 1 s UV light exposure of the photoacid generator (PAG) bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)iodonium hexafluoro-phosphate (DtBPI-PF6) generates sufficient protons to catalyze epoxide ring-opening and form a bridging network of covalent C-O bonds which renders the material insoluble in developing solvents such as toluene or THF. The resultant cross-linked material possess characteristic blue photoluminescence with solid state quantum yields >80%. Polymer films have excellent transparency (with a measured Eg ≈ 3.0 eV). Energy levels determined using cyclic voltammetry were -5.7 and -2.7 eV for HOMO and LUMO, respectively. Additionally, several device applications are demonstrated which incorporate cross-linked films. These include examples of solid state lasing in the region of 420-450 nm from cross-linked films on second order corrugated silica substrates (Λ = 200 nm). OLEDs were also prepared with a cross-linked emitting layer as part of a trilayer device which we report to have a maximum external quantum efficiency of 3.2% at 33 mA/cm(2) and a

  13. Application of the ruthenium and technetium thermodynamic data bases used in the EQ3/6 geochemical codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.


    Based on a critical review of the available thermodynamic data, computerized data bases for technetium and ruthenium were created for use with the EQ3/6 geochemical computer codes. The technetium data base contains thermodynamic data for 8 aqueous species and 15 solids; 26 aqueous species and 9 solids were included in the ruthenium data base. The EQ3NR code was used to calculate solubility limits for ruthenium (8 x 10{sup -16} M) in ground water from Yucca Mountain, a potential nuclear waste repository site near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The code confirmed the essentially unlimited solubility of technetium in oxidizing conditions, such as those that are believed to exist in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain and the Cambric Nuclear event site at the NTS. Ruthenium migration observed from the Cambric site was evaluated. The solubility limit for ruthenium (as the aqueous species RuO{sub 4}{sup -}) when constrained by RuO{sub 2} is approximately equal to the concentration of ruthenium found in the cavity ground water (i.e., 2.1 x 10{sup -11} vs 4.5 x 10{sup -11} M). Differences in ruthenium solubility limits between Yucca Mountain and Cambric are primarily due to differences in ground-water pH. Technetium solubility (3 x 10{sup -8} M) for moderately reducing conditions (Eh = -0.1 V) using the metastable oxide, TcO{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O, as the solubility constraint is within the range of experimental values recently published in a study of technetium sorption on basalt. Previously published technetium solubilities of 10{sup -12} to 10{sup -16} M were apparently based on a technetium data base that did not include aqueous species other than TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. When TcO(OH){sub 2}{sup 0} is included in the data base, the calculated values are much closer to the experimental results. Eh-pH diagrams were also generated for a variety of conditions using the SOLUPLOT code.

  14. Summary of severe accident assessment for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant using RELAP5/SCDAPSIM Mod3.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonelli, Analia; Mazzantini, Oscar; Siefken, Larry; Allison, Chris


    A severe accident assessment was performed for the Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant in Argentina. Atucha 2 is a PHWR, cooled and moderated by heavy water, presently in commissioning process. Its 451 fuel assemblies are 6.03m high and each composed of 37 Zircaloy clad fuel rods. Each assembly is placed inside an individual Zircaloy coolant channel. Heavy water coolant flows inside the channels which are all immersed inside the moderator tank. The RPV lower plenum is occupied by a massive steel structure called 'filling body' that was designed to minimize heavy water inventory. Due to some unique design characteristics, severe accident progression in Atucha 2 is expected to be somewhat different from that predicted for regular PWRs. Therefore, a very detailed assessment was performed, focused on the different accident stages and expected phenomena by the use of different input models and nodalizations. When possible, linking to available experimental data was performed. RELAP/SCDAPSIM Mod 3.6 was the computer code selected to perform this task. The modeling of Atucha 2's unique characteristics required several extensions to the code. For the severe accident assessment of Atucha 2, three different input models were developed that were key instruments for the debugging and evaluation process. A Single Channel Model was used to evaluate the first stages of core heatup (including the boiloff of the channels and moderator tank), an RPV standalone model was used to assess the interaction between components in the complete core and for the evaluation of late in-core melting and relocation. Then, a Lower Plenum standalone model was developed to assess the behavior of the melted and slumped core material on top of the filling body and to analyze ex-vessel cooling as a possible severe accident management action. For each of the cases, highlights of key results are shown and general conclusions are drawn. In the case of a severe accident with significant meltdown of

  15. Reaction of Topopah Spring tuff with J-13 water: a geochemical modeling approach using the EQ3/6 reaction path code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delany, J.M.


    EQ3/6 geochemical modeling code package was used to investigate the interaction of the Topopah Spring Tuff and J-13 water at high temperatures. EQ3/6 input parameters were obtained from the results of laboratory experiments using USW G-1 core and J-13 water. Laboratory experiments were run at 150 and 250{sup 0}C for 66 days using both wafer-size and crushed tuff. EQ3/6 modeling reproduced results of the 150{sup 0}C experiments except for a small increase in the concentration of potassium that occurs in the first few days of the experiments. At 250{sup 0}C, the EQ3/6 modeling reproduced the major water/rock reactions except for a small increase in potassium, similar to that noted above, and an overall increase in aluminum. The increase in potassium concentration cannot be explained at this time, but the increase in A1 concentration is believed to be caused by the lack of thermodynamic data in the EQ3/6 data base for dachiardite, a zeolite observed as a run product at 250{sup 0}C. The ability to reproduce the majority of the experimental rock/water interactions at 150{sup 0}C validates the use of EQ3/6 as a geochemical modeling tool that can be used to theoretically investigate physical/chemical environments in support of the Waste Package Task of NNWSI.

  16. Reaction of Topopah Spring tuff with J-13 water: a geochemical modeling approach using the EQ3/6 reaction path code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delany, J.M.


    EQ3/6 geochemical modeling code package was used to investigate the interaction of the Topopah Spring Tuff and J-13 water at high temperatures. EQ3/6 input parameters were obtained from the results of laboratory experiments using USW G-1 core and J-13 water. Laboratory experiments were run at 150 and 250 0 C for 66 days using both wafer-size and crushed tuff. EQ3/6 modeling reproduced results of the 150 0 C experiments except for a small increase in the concentration of potassium that occurs in the first few days of the experiments. At 250 0 C, the EQ3/6 modeling reproduced the major water/rock reactions except for a small increase in potassium, similar to that noted above, and an overall increase in aluminum. The increase in potassium concentration cannot be explained at this time, but the increase in A1 concentration is believed to be caused by the lack of thermodynamic data in the EQ3/6 data base for dachiardite, a zeolite observed as a run product at 250 0 C. The ability to reproduce the majority of the experimental rock/water interactions at 150 0 C validates the use of EQ3/6 as a geochemical modeling tool that can be used to theoretically investigate physical/chemical environments in support of the Waste Package Task of NNWSI

  17. Lightning Mapping Observations During DC3 in Northern Colorado (United States)

    Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.


    The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3) was conducted in three regions covered by Lightning Mapping Arrays (LMAs): Oklahoma and west Texas, northern Alabama, and northern Colorado. In this and a companion presentation, we discuss results obtained from the newly-deployed North Colorado LMA. The CO LMA revealed a surprising variety of lightning-inferred electrical structures, ranging from classic tripolar, normal polarity storms to several variations of anomalously electrified systems. Storms were often characterized by a pronounced lack or deficit of cloud-to-ground discharges (negative or positive), both in relative and absolute terms compared to the large amount of intracloud activity revealed by the LMA. Anomalous electrification was observed in small, localized storms as well as in large, deeply convective and severe storms. Another surprising observation was the frequent occurrence of embedded convection in the downwind anvil/outflow region of large storm systems. Observations of discharges in low flash rate situations over or near the network are sufficiently detailed to enable branching algorithms to estimate total channel lengths for modeling NOx production. However, this will not be possible in large or distant storm systems where the lightning was essentially continuous and structurally complex, or spatially noisy. Rather, a simple empirical metric for characterizing the lightning activity can be developed based on the number of located VHF radiation sources, weighted for example by the peak source power, source altitude, and temporal duration.

  18. Behavior of Colorado Plateau uranium minerals during oxidation (United States)

    Garrels, Robert Minard; Christ, C.L.


    Uranium occurs as U(VI) and U(IV) in minerals of the Colorado Plateau ores. The number of species containing U(VI) is large, but only two U(IV) minerals are known from the Plateau: uraninite, and oxide, and coffinite, a hydroxy-silicate. These oxidize to yield U(VI) before reacting significantly with other mineral constituents. Crystal-structure analysis has shown that U(VI) invariable occurs as uranyl ion, UO2+2. Uranyl ion may form complex carbonate or sulfate ions with resulting soluble compounds, but only in the absence of quinquevalent vanadium, arsenic, or phosphorous. In the presence of these elements in the +5 valence state, the uranyl ion is fixed in insoluble layer compounds formed by union of uranyl ion with orthovanadate, orthophosphate, or orthoarsenate. Under favorable conditions UO2+2 may react to form the relatively insoluble rutherfordine, UO2CO3, or hydrated uranyl hydroxides. These are rarely found on the Colorado Plateau as opposed to their excellent development in other uraniferous areas, a condition which is apparently related to the semiarid climate and low water table of the Plateau. Uranium may also be fixed as uranyl silicate, but little is known about minerals of this kind. In the present study emphasis has been placed on a detailing of the chemical and crystal structural changes which occur in the oxidation paragenetic sequence.

  19. Epizootic vesicular stomatitis in Colorado, 1982: epidemiologic and entomologic studies. (United States)

    Walton, T E; Webb, P A; Kramer, W L; Smith, G C; Davis, T; Holbrook, F R; Moore, C G; Schiefer, T J; Jones, R H; Janney, G C


    An epizootic of vesicular stomatitis (VS) caused by the New Jersey serotype of VS virus affected livestock and humans in 14 western states in 1982-1983. Epidemiological observations were made on at least 10% of the cattle in 4 dairy herds that were located in the vicinity of Grand Junction, Colorado. High rates of neutralizing antibody to the New Jersey serotype were seen in all cattle regardless of whether livestock in the dairy had clinical VS or a decrease in mild production. Antibody titers remained high in these cattle for as long as 2 years after the epizootic. No virus isolations were made from 32 humans with clinical signs compatible with viral disease. Entomological information was obtained during the epizootic from 23 premises in northwestern Colorado. Insect collections yielded 4 isolates from Culicoides spp. midges, 2 from C. variipennis, and 1 each from C. stellifer and C. (Selfia) spp. This is the first report of VS virus isolations from field-collected Culicoides.

  20. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009 (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fancher, Tammy S.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne-Marie; Turner, Christine


    The Colorado wind-turbine data series provides geospatial data for all wind turbines established within the State as of August 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, and county. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, year the facility went online, and development status of wind facility. Turbine locations were derived from August 2009 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of about + or - 5 meters. The location of turbines under construction during August 2009 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas currently (2011) in development by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Energy Atlas will synthesize data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and will include additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools will be included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy Atlas will facilitate the integration of information about energy with key terrestrial and aquatic resources for evaluating resource values and minimizing risks from energy development.